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Sample records for petroleum production facilities

  1. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  2. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  3. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  4. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  5. Chelsea River Bulk Petroleum Storage Facilities NPDES ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    On September 24, 2014, EPA Region 1 (EPA) and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MassDEP) reissued final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for seven bulk petroleum storage facilities located along Chelsea River in Chelsea, Revere and East Boston, Massachusetts to meet the requirements of the Clean Water Act.

  6. Chelsea River Bulk Petroleum Storage Facilities NPDES ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    On September 24, 2014, EPA Region 1 (EPA) and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MassDEP) reissued final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for seven bulk petroleum storage facilities located along Chelsea River in Chelsea, Revere and East Boston, Massachusetts to meet the requirements of the Clean Water Act.

  7. 31 CFR 542.314 - Petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum or petroleum products of... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 542.314 Petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. The term petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin means petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

  8. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type jet...

  9. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  10. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  11. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710 Petroleum...

  12. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710 Petroleum...

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710 Petroleum...

  14. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710 Petroleum...

  15. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710 Petroleum...

  16. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products...

  17. 31 CFR 542.412 - Transactions relating to Syrian petroleum or petroleum products from third countries...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum or petroleum products from third countries; transshipments. 542.412 Section 542.412 Money and... Syrian petroleum or petroleum products from third countries; transshipments. (a) Transactions relating to goods containing petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin are not prohibited by § 542.208...

  18. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  19. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  20. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  1. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  2. Petroleum fingerprinting: Effective identification of petroleum products at contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Uhler, A.D.

    1997-07-01

    A critical issue in many environmental liability cases is the successful identification of the parties responsible for petroleum products that contaminate sites or properties. Identification of these parties is critical for owners of petroleum contaminated sites who are seeking to spread liability by identifying previous owners or operators of nearby properties who may be the source of, and thus be responsible for, the petroleum contamination at these sites. This issue is also critical for these potential defendants who will seek to demonstrate that the petroleum products associated with their activities could not be the source of the contamination in question. Finally, the issue is critical in situations where multiple responsible parties seek to equitably allocate among themselves shares of contamination and associated clean-up costs.

  3. Design of petroleum products terminal wastewater systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klock, B.

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum products terminals, used in conjunction with transportation operations to accomplish the flow of products from their source in refineries down to the consumers, are relatively simple facilities comprising product storage, the means for connecting storage to transportation operations, and other operations to support those functions. Although wastewater generation at terminals is relatively minor, increasingly strict regulation of wastewater from even minor sources is making it more critical that terminal wastewater handling, treatment, and disposal be understood and optimized to ensure that effective wastewater treatment is accomplished at reasonable cost. Anticipating the increased demands on terminal wastewater handling, the API Marketing Terminal Effluent Task Force has sponsored a number of studies to characterize wastewater at terminals and to develop practical means for treating the water. In addition, the Task Force sponsored Texaco`s writing of the report on which this paper is based, API 4602, Minimization, Handling, Treatment, and Disposal of Petroleum Products Terminal Wastewaters. This paper highlights some of the key recommendations in the report, which are: (1) begin characterizing the terminal`s tank bottoms water flow and quality as soon as possible; (2) determine the optimum wastewater disposal option; (3) for most situations, segregate stormwater from contaminated water; (4) if wastewater is treated, use a collection tank to equalize the flow and concentration of tank bottoms water; (5) if wastewater is hauled off to a disposal company, consider removing benzene first; and (6) minimize the use of detergents in the terminal.

  4. Determination of Trace Water Content in Petroleum and Petroleum Products.

    PubMed

    Frink, Lillian A; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2016-08-16

    Measurement of water in petroleum and petroleum-based products is of industrial and economic importance; however, the varied and complex matrixes make the analyses difficult. These samples tend to have low amounts of water and contain many compounds which react with iodine, causing Karl Fischer titration (KFT) to give inaccurate, typically higher, results. A simple, rapid, automated headspace gas chromatography (HSGC) method which requires modified instrumentation and ionic liquid stationary phases was developed. Measurement of water in 12 petroleum products along with 3 National Institute of Standards and Technology reference materials was performed with the developed method. The range of water found in these samples was ∼12-3300 ppm. This approach appeared to be unaffected by complicated matrixes. The solvent-free nature of the HSGC method also negates the solubility limitations which are common with KFT.

  5. Petroleum resins and their production

    SciTech Connect

    Luvinh, Q.

    1989-04-25

    A process is described for the production of petroleum resins compatible with base polymers in hot melt formulations and having a softening point of from about 60/sup 0/C. to about 120/sup 0/C. and Gardner color of about 4 or less, comprising copolymerizing using a Friedel-Crafts catalyst. The mixture is substantially free form cyclopentadiene and dicyclopentadiene. This patent also describes a resin consisting essentially of a copolymer containing from 5 to 80 wt. % of units derived from an olefinically unsaturated aromatic compound form 5 to 80 wt. % of units derived from C/sub 5/ olefines or diolefines or C/sub 6/ olefines diolefines or a mixture of C/sub 5/ and C/sub 6/ olefines or diolefines and from 7 to 45 wt. % of units derived from a terpene.

  6. Test plan for the soils facility demonstration: A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lombard, K.H.

    1994-08-01

    The objectives of this test plan are to show the value added by using bioremediation as an effective and environmentally sound method to remediate petroleum contaminated soils (PCS) by: demonstrating bioremediation as a permanent method for remediating soils contaminated with petroleum products; establishing the best operating conditions for maximizing bioremediation and minimizing volatilization for SRS PCS during different seasons; determining the minimum set of analyses and sampling frequency to allow efficient and cost-effective operation; determining best use of existing site equipment and personnel to optimize facility operations and conserve SRS resources; and as an ancillary objective, demonstrating and optimizing new and innovative analytical techniques that will lower cost, decrease time, and decrease secondary waste streams for required PCS assays.

  7. Petroleum Production for the Nontechnical Person

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, F.

    1986-01-01

    Petroleum Production for the Nontechnical Person is written for those whose jobs touch the production field but who still want to know more about the basics of production - without going back to school and without getting bogged down in a lengthy discourse on fluid dynamics. Contents include: Overview of the petroleum industry; Majors and independents; Productive formations; Field development; Drilling equipment and methods; Formation evaluation; Completion methods; Casing and cementing; Production concepts; Production methods; Production problems and special cases; Stimulation methods; Waterflooding; Enhanced oil recovery; Natural gas processing and cogeneration; Glossary; Index.

  8. A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lombard, K.; Hazen, T.

    1994-06-01

    The amount of petroleum contaminated soil (PCS) at the Savannah River site (SRS) that has been identified, excavated and is currently in storage has increased several fold during the last few years. Several factors have contributed to this problem: (1) South Carolina Department of Health ad Environmental control (SCDHEC) lowered the sanitary landfill maximum concentration for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the soil from 500 to 100 parts per million (ppm), (2) removal and replacement of underground storage tanks at several sites, (3) most recently SCDHEC disallowed aeration for treatment of contaminated soil, and (4) discovery of several very large contaminated areas of soil associated with leaking underground storage tanks (LUST), leaking pipes, disposal areas, and spills. Thus, SRS has an urgent need to remediate large quantities of contaminated soil that are currently stockpiled and the anticipated contaminated soils to be generated from accidental spills. As long as we utilize petroleum based compounds at the site, we will continue to generate contaminated soil that will require remediation.

  9. 31 CFR 542.529 - Policy on activities related to petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit of the National Coalition of Syrian... activities related to petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit of the National... the purchase, trade, export, import, or production of petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

  10. Geology for petroleum exploration, drilling and production

    SciTech Connect

    Hyne, N.J.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides a non-technical introduction to the subject of oil. The author guides the readers in logical sequence: How oil and gas form and accumulate; how to explore for oil; and how to drill and complete a well and produce the petroleum. The contents are: The earth's crust; identification of common rocks and minerals; weathering, erosion, and unconformities; deformation; geologic time; sandstone reservoirs; limestone reservoirs; subsurface fluids; sedimentary rock patterns; surface and subsurface maps; ocean environment - plate tectonics; hydrocarbons source rocks, generation, migration and accumulation; well logs, traps; petroleum exploration; drilling a well; completing a well; and petroleum production.

  11. 31 CFR 542.209 - Prohibited transactions or dealings in or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. 542.209 Section 542.209 Money and... dealings in or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. Except as otherwise authorized... petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin is prohibited....

  12. Petroleum Fuel Facilities. Design Manual 22.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    may be com- bined with containments or treatment facilities of other areas. If the loading rack is protected by a fire water or foam system, the...2,500 gal/min. It is desirable to have a relatively unlimited supply of fire water , as from a natural waterway or large reservoir. b. Foam Systems...Operational Facilities. All piers should be protected by fire water systems with hydrants located so that vessels alongside can be reached through hose

  13. Human health risk characterization of petroleum coke calcining facility emissions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Davinderjit; Johnson, Giffe T; Harbison, Raymond D

    2015-12-01

    Calcining processes including handling and storage of raw petroleum coke may result in Particulate Matter (PM) and gaseous emissions. Concerns have been raised over the potential association between particulate and aerosol pollution and adverse respiratory health effects including decrements in lung function. This risk characterization evaluated the exposure concentrations of ambient air pollutants including PM10 and gaseous pollutants from a petroleum coke calciner facility. The ambient air pollutant levels were collected through monitors installed at multiple locations in the vicinity of the facility. The measured and modeled particulate levels in ambient air from the calciner facility were compared to standards protective of public health. The results indicated that exposure levels were, on occasions at sites farther from the facility, higher than the public health limit of 150 μg/m(3) 24-h average for PM10. However, the carbon fraction demonstrated that the contribution from the calciner facility was de minimis. Exposure levels of the modeled SO2, CO, NOx and PM10 concentrations were also below public health air quality standards. These results demonstrate that emissions from calcining processes involving petroleum coke, at facilities that are well controlled, are below regulatory standards and are not expected to produce a public health risk.

  14. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  15. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  16. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  17. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  18. Potential reuse of petroleum-contaminated soil: A directory of permitted recycling facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, S.; Wolf, G.; Avery, M.; Nash, J.H.

    1992-06-01

    Soil contaminated by virgin petroleum products leaking from underground storage tanks is a pervasive problem in the United States. Economically feasible disposal of such soil concerns the responsible party (RP), whether the RP is one individual small business owner, a group of owners, or a large multinational corporation. They may need a starting point in their search for an appropriate solution, such as recycling. The report provides initial assistance in two important areas. First it discusses four potential recycling technologies that manufacture marketable products from recycled petroleum-contaminated soil: the hot mix asphalt process, the cold mix asphalt system, cement production, and brick manufacturing. The report also presents the results of a project survey designed to identify recycling facilities. It lists recycling facilities alphabetically by location within each state, organized by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region. The report also includes detailed addresses, recycling locations, telephone numbers, and contacts for these facilities. The scope of the project limits listings to fixed facilities or small mobile facility owners that recycle soil contaminated by virgin petroleum products into marketable commodities. It does not address site-specific or commercial hazardous waste remediation facilities.

  19. Petroleum Marketing. Selling Automotive Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luter, Robert R.

    This textbook contains material for the individualized instruction of students training for careers in service stations; automotive, tire, battery, and accessory retail stores; oil jobbers and petroleum product wholesalers, or any wholesale or retail establishment that sells automotive products and services. Included among the topics addressed in…

  20. Petroleum Marketing. Selling Automotive Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luter, Robert R.

    This textbook contains material for the individualized instruction of students training for careers in service stations; automotive, tire, battery, and accessory retail stores; oil jobbers and petroleum product wholesalers, or any wholesale or retail establishment that sells automotive products and services. Included among the topics addressed in…

  1. A Course in Fundamentals of Petroleum Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dullien, F. A. L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a course designed to introduce the average chemical engineer, who has only a minimum familiarity with the concepts of capillarity and flow through porous media (and none at all with reservoir engineering concepts) to petroleum production engineering. Includes course outline indicating technical content of the course. (Author/JN)

  2. Vocational-Technical Course in Petroleum Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumrine, Myron A.

    A project was designed to develop a vocational course to satisfy an industry request for trained manpower in petroleum production. During phase one the feasibility was studied, formal instruction determined, an instructor named, site located and secured, and students selected for the class. A three-year trade and industrial level course for…

  3. Vocational-Technical Course in Petroleum Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumrine, Myron A.

    A project was designed to develop a vocational course to satisfy an industry request for trained manpower in petroleum production. During phase one the feasibility was studied, formal instruction determined, an instructor named, site located and secured, and students selected for the class. A three-year trade and industrial level course for…

  4. A Course in Fundamentals of Petroleum Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dullien, F. A. L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a course designed to introduce the average chemical engineer, who has only a minimum familiarity with the concepts of capillarity and flow through porous media (and none at all with reservoir engineering concepts) to petroleum production engineering. Includes course outline indicating technical content of the course. (Author/JN)

  5. 31 CFR 542.208 - Prohibited importation of petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibited importation of petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. 542.208 Section 542.208 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 542.208 Prohibited importation of petroleum or...

  6. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fuels and packaged petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908.7109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY....7109 Fuels and packaged petroleum products. Acquisitions of fuel and packaged petroleum products by...

  7. 46 CFR 105.05-2 - Prohibitions regarding petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. 105.05-2... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-2 Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. (a) Commercial fishing vessels shall not transport Grade A flammable...

  8. 46 CFR 105.05-2 - Prohibitions regarding petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. 105.05-2... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-2 Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. (a) Commercial fishing vessels shall not transport Grade A flammable...

  9. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fuels and packaged petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908.7109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY....7109 Fuels and packaged petroleum products. Acquisitions of fuel and packaged petroleum products by...

  10. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fuels and packaged petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908.7109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY....7109 Fuels and packaged petroleum products. Acquisitions of fuel and packaged petroleum products by...

  11. 46 CFR 105.05-2 - Prohibitions regarding petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. 105.05-2... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-2 Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. (a) Commercial fishing vessels shall not transport Grade A flammable...

  12. 46 CFR 105.05-2 - Prohibitions regarding petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. 105.05-2... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-2 Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. (a) Commercial fishing vessels shall not transport Grade A flammable...

  13. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fuels and packaged petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908.7109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY....7109 Fuels and packaged petroleum products. Acquisitions of fuel and packaged petroleum products by...

  14. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuels and packaged petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908.7109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY....7109 Fuels and packaged petroleum products. Acquisitions of fuel and packaged petroleum products by...

  15. 46 CFR 105.05-2 - Prohibitions regarding petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. 105.05-2... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-2 Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. (a) Commercial fishing vessels shall not transport Grade A flammable...

  16. Detecting and discriminating petroleum and petroleum products from water on terrestrial backgrounds with hyperspectral remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. Scott

    Petroleum and petroleum product spills are frequent and as both Hurricane Katrina and the Deepwater Horizon accident demonstrated, they can be catastrophic. A prominent portion of the response is mapping the extent to which oil has reached both shoreline and inland areas. Yet, petroleum and water--when present on common substrates such as sand, concrete, and vegetation--are often difficult to distinguish in panchromatic and multispectral imagery. This research demonstrates how hyperspectral remote sensing, also known as imaging spectroscopy, provides petroleum detection and discrimination from water on terrestrial backgrounds. Utilizing spectral libraries, it also performs material identification and successfully discriminates some petroleum products from one another as a means of further classification and mapping spill extent. To achieve these goals, this effort collected spectral signatures of four crude oils and five refined petroleum products on ten common terrestrial substrates and compared them to water on the same backgrounds over a period of 1-90 days, depending on liquid volatility. The result is the first publicly available spectral library for petroleum and petroleum products on terrestrial substrates in the reflective portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (400-2500 nm) for use in petroleum spill detection and response. It also establishes a baseline for the use of imaging spectroscopy as a technique for confident, accurate petroleum detection in the terrestrial environment. Using common material identification algorithms, the spectra were successfully applied to airborne hyperspectral data from the Hurricane Katrina disaster in 2005 as a proof-of-concept for discriminating petroleum from water.

  17. Resource constraints in petroleum production potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Geologic reasons indicate that the dominant position of the Middle East as a source of conventional petroleum will not be changed by new discoveries elsewhere. The share of world crude oil production coming from the Middle East could increase, within 10 to 20 years, to exceed 50 percent, under even modest increases in world consumption. Nonconventional resources of oil exist in large quantities, but because of their low production rates they can at best only mitigate extant trends. Increased production of natural gas outside the United States, however, offers an opportunity for geographically diversified energy supplies in the near future.

  18. Environmental issues of petroleum exploration and production: Introduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Dorsey, Nancy S.

    2005-01-01

    Energy is the lifeblood of our planet Earth, an essential commod- ity that powers the expanding global economy. Starting in the 1950s, oil and natural gas became the main sources of primary energy for the increasing world population, and this dominance is expected to continue for several more decades (Edwards, 1997; Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2004). In the United States, petroleum production started in 1859 when Drake's well was drilled near Titusville, Pennsylvania, and oil and natural gas currently supply approximately 63% of the energy consumption; forecasts indicate that by 2025, their use will increase by about 40% to 28.3 million bbl/day and to 31.4 tcf/yr (EIA, 2004). The clear benefits of petroleum consumption, however, can carry major environmental impacts that may be regional or global in scale, in- cluding air pollution, global climate change, and oil spills. This vol- ume of Environmental Geosciences, covering environmental impacts of petroleum exploration and production, does not address these major impacts directly because air pollution and global warming are issues related primarily to petroleum and coal uses, and major oil spills are generally attributed to marine petroleum transportation, such as the Exxon Valdez's 1989 spill of 260,000 bbl of oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska. Exploration for and production of petroleum, however, have caused local detrimental impacts to soils, surface and groundwa- ters, and ecosystems in the 36 producing states in the United States (Richter and Kreitler, 1993; Kharaka and Hanor, 2003). These im- pacts arose primarily from the improper disposal of some of the large volumes (presently estimated at 20 billion bbl/yr total pro- duced) of saline water produced with oil and gas, from accidental hydrocarbon and produced-water releases, and from abandoned oil wells that were orphaned or not correctly plugged (Kharaka et al., 1995; Veil et al., 2004). Impacts and ground-surface disturbances, in the order

  19. Stormwater/washwater treatment at petroleum bulk transfer facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Chilcote, D.D.

    1995-12-31

    Aerated bioreactors that incorporate submerged, stationary, fixed-film biological treatment technology are ideal systems for treating stormwater/washwater flows containing biodegradable petroleum hydrocarbons. They present a small footprint. are resistant to shock loads, require minimal operator attention, generate a minimal amount of sloughed biomass, and are inexpensive to operate. The characteristics of the bioreactor include multiple cells to maximize performance. The multiple-cell configuration produces dispersed plug-flow hydraulics which, for first-order biodegradation kinetics, significantly improves the effluent quality over that produced from a single cell with the same total volume. Positive-displacement blowers are used to provide aeration via a fine-bubble, self-cleaning diffuser assembly located at the base of each cell. The cells are filled with structured PVC packing which provides 30 sq.ft. of surface area per cubic foot of reactor volume (95% void space). Microorganisms attach to this plastic surface and provide the biofilm for treatment. This arrangement allows a high concentration of microorganisms to exist in the reactor, which minimizes reactor volume. Nutrients in the form of a simple liquid fertilizer solution are mixed with the influence to provide appropriate levels of nitrogen and phosphorus for microbial metabolism. A case study from a petroleum bulk transfer facility shows the effectiveness of this technology for treating stormwater and washwater containing a variety of petroleum hydrocarbons. Removal efficiencies for the gasoline range of organics typically exceeded 99 percent. A typical capital cost for the full-scale treatment system was $73,000, with operating costs estimated at $0.85/1000 gallons treated.

  20. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  1. Economic development and the allocation of petroleum products in Sudan

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, M. ); Yousif, M.A.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The Sudanese economy has been characterized in recent years by severe energy shortages which have affected all economic activity. More than 94% of the commercial energy is imported and the level of such imports is seriously limited by the current foreign exchange crisis. However, the problem is not just one of foreign exchange; there is also the problem of utilization of resources to avoid bottleneck problems of supply. The allocation of petroleum products in Sudan has had a severe effect on all aspects of economic life. The aim of this paper is to highlight the problem and to build a model to optimize the distribution of petroleum products in order to achieve at least a minimal supply in all regions. A large linear programming model has been developed and the solution indicates that current facilities should be able to satisfy 96% of the 1986 demand, about 30% more than the actual supply. Furthermore, with a little investment in storage facilities and extra trucks, the supply could satisfy total demand in the immediate future.

  2. Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products Produced in Countries Other Than Iran, The

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This report was prepared in fulfillment of Section 1245(d)(4)(A) of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2012, which requires that, not later than 60 days from enactment and every 60 days thereafter, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) "submit to Congress a report on the availability and price of petroleum and petroleum products produced in countries other than Iran in the 60-day period preceding the submission of the report."

  3. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Thunder Butte Petroleum Services, Inc. - Crude Storage and Loading Facility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains documents relevant to the synthetic minor NSR permi for the Thunder Butte Petroleum Services, Inc., Crude Storage and Loading Facility, located on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation in Ward County, ND.

  4. Proposed Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Thunder Butte Petroleum Services, Inc. - Crude Storage and Loading Facility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Availability for public comment of the proposed Clean Air Act synthetic minor New Source Review permit for Thunder Butte Petroleum Services, Inc., Crude Storage and Loading Facility, located on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation.

  5. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Products Supply Module

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The Petroleum Products Supply Module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model provides forecasts of petroleum refinery inputs (crude oil, unfinished oils, pentanes plus, liquefied petroleum gas, motor gasoline blending components, and aviation gasoline blending components) and refinery outputs (motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuel, residual fuel, liquefied petroleum gas, and other petroleum products).

  6. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Products Supply Module

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The Petroleum Products Supply Module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model provides forecasts of petroleum refinery inputs (crude oil, unfinished oils, pentanes plus, liquefied petroleum gas, motor gasoline blending components, and aviation gasoline blending components) and refinery outputs (motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuel, residual fuel, liquefied petroleum gas, and other petroleum products).

  7. Domestic petroleum product pricing policy: Old issues in new perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.

    1995-09-01

    It appears that the economic basis of domestic petroleum product pacing has, hitherto, received inadequate attention from economists. International comparisons of petroleum product pricing show that domestic markets are highly distorted This article argues that despite significant developments in theoretical and applied economics, economic theories do not provide any ready made solutions for energy pricing issues to the policy makers who have to deal with a large set of practical issues. As a result, it is not unusual to encounter gross misapplication of economic rules in petroleum pricing policies. This work also focuses on the possible effects of changing domestic market structure vis-a-vis pricing policies.

  8. Dispersion Of Crude Oil And Petroleum Products In Freshwater

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between dispersion effectiveness in freshwater and the surfactant composition for fresh and weathered crude oil. Although limited research on the chemical dispersion of crude oil and petroleum products in freshwat...

  9. Dispersion Of Crude Oil And Petroleum Products In Freshwater

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between dispersion effectiveness in freshwater and the surfactant composition for fresh and weathered crude oil. Although limited research on the chemical dispersion of crude oil and petroleum products in freshwat...

  10. Use of absorption spectroscopy for refined petroleum product discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Michael

    1991-07-01

    On-line discrimination between arbitrary petroleum products is necessary for optimal control of petroleum refinery and pipeline operation and process control involving petroleum distillates. There are a number of techniques by which petroleum products can be distinguished from one another. Among these, optical measurements offer fast, non-intrusive, real-time characterization. The application examined here involves optically monitoring the interface between dissimilar batches of fluids in a gasoline pipeline. After examination of near- infrared and mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform mid-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was chosen as the best candidate for implementation. On- line FTIR data is presented, verifying the applicability of the technique for batch interface detection.

  11. 41 CFR 101-26.602-2 - Procurement of packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... petroleum products. 101-26.602-2 Section 101-26.602-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... petroleum products. (a) Packaged petroleum products listed in Federal Supply Catalog for Civil Agencies.... Requisitions for packaged petroleum items not in this catalog and not otherwise included in Defense Fuel...

  12. 41 CFR 101-26.602-2 - Procurement of packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... petroleum products. 101-26.602-2 Section 101-26.602-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... petroleum products. (a) Packaged petroleum products listed in Federal Supply Catalog for Civil Agencies.... Requisitions for packaged petroleum items not in this catalog and not otherwise included in Defense Fuel...

  13. 41 CFR 101-26.602-2 - Procurement of packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum products. 101-26.602-2 Section 101-26.602-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... petroleum products. (a) Packaged petroleum products listed in Federal Supply Catalog for Civil Agencies.... Requisitions for packaged petroleum items not in this catalog and not otherwise included in Defense Fuel...

  14. 41 CFR 101-26.602-2 - Procurement of packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... petroleum products. 101-26.602-2 Section 101-26.602-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... petroleum products. (a) Packaged petroleum products listed in Federal Supply Catalog for Civil Agencies.... Requisitions for packaged petroleum items not in this catalog and not otherwise included in Defense Fuel...

  15. 41 CFR 101-26.602-2 - Procurement of packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum products. 101-26.602-2 Section 101-26.602-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... petroleum products. (a) Packaged petroleum products listed in Federal Supply Catalog for Civil Agencies.... Requisitions for packaged petroleum items not in this catalog and not otherwise included in Defense Fuel...

  16. Allocating petroleum products during oil supply disruptions.

    PubMed

    Bezdek, R H; Taylor, W B

    1981-06-19

    Four options for allocating a long-term, severe shortfall of petroleum imports are analyzed: oil price and allocation controls, coupon gasoline rationing, variable gasoline tax and rebate, and no oil price controls with partial rebates. Each of these options is evaluated in terms of four criteria: microeconomic effects, macroeconomic effects, equity, and practical problems. The implications of this analysis for energy contingency planning are discussed.

  17. The influence of petroleum products on the methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Choromański, Paweł; Karwowska, Ewa; Łebkowska, Maria

    2016-01-15

    In this study the influence of the petroleum products: diesel fuel and spent engine oil on the sewage sludge digestion process and biogas production efficiency was investigated. Microbiological, chemical and enzymatic analyses were applied in the survey. It was revealed that the influence of the petroleum derivatives on the effectiveness of the methane fermentation of sewage sludge depends on the type of the petroleum product. Diesel fuel did not limit the biogas production and the methane concentration in the biogas, while spent engine oil significantly reduced the process efficacy. The changes in physical-chemical parameters, excluding COD, did not reflect the effect of the tested substances. The negative influence of petroleum products on individual bacterial groups was observed after 7 days of the process, while after 14 days probably some adaptive mechanisms appeared. The dehydrogenase activity assessment was the most relevant parameter to evaluate the effect of petroleum products contamination. Diesel fuel was probably used as a source of carbon and energy in the process, while the toxic influence was observed in case of spent engine oil.

  18. Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  19. Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  20. Alternative designs for petroleum product storage tanks for groundwater protection.

    PubMed

    Oke Adeleke, Samson

    In developing countries, there are numerous occurrences of petroleum product spillage in groundwater. The current practice of burying storage tanks beneath the surface without adequate safety devices facilitates this phenomenon. Underground tanks rust and leak, and spilled petroleum products migrate downward. The movement of the oil in the soil depends on its viscosity and quantity, the permeability of the soil/rock, and the presence of fractures within the rock. The oil spreads laterally in the form of a thin pancake due to its lower specific gravity, and soluble components dissolve in water. The pollution plume of petroleum products and dissolved phases moves in the direction of groundwater flow in the aquifer within the pores of soil and sediments or along fractures in basement complex areas. Most communities reply heavily on groundwater for potable and industrial supplies. However, the sustainability of this resource is under threat in areas where there are filling stations as a result of significant groundwater contamination from petroleum product spillage. Drinking water becomes unpalatable when it contains petroleum products in low concentrations, and small quantities may contaminate large volumes of water. Considering the losses incurred from spillage, the cost of cleaning the aquifer, and the fact that total cleansing and attenuation is impossible, the need to prevent spillage and if it happens to prevent it from getting into the groundwater system is of paramount importance. This paper proposes alternative design procedures with a view to achieving these objectives.

  1. Palm oil based surfactant products for petroleum industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permadi, P.; Fitria, R.; Hambali, E.

    2017-05-01

    In petroleum production process, many problems causing reduced production are found. These include limited oil recovery, wax deposit, asphaltene deposit, sludge deposit, and emulsion problem. Petroleum-based surfactant has been used to overcome these problems. Therefore, innovation to solve these problems using surfactant containing natural materials deserves to be developed. Palm oil-based surfactant is one of the potential alternatives for this. Various types of derivative products of palm oil-based surfactant have been developed by SBRC IPB to be used in handling problems including surfactant flooding, well stimulation, asphaltene dissolver, well cleaning, and wax removal found in oil and gas industry.

  2. Substitution for petroleum products in Brasil: Urgent issues

    SciTech Connect

    de Araujo, J.L.; Ghirardi, A.

    1986-06-01

    Brazililan energy policy during the last decade has focused on the replacement of imported petroleum with domestic energy sources, combined with efforts at conservation. The substitution results, however, have been more spectacular by far. The strategy of replacement is based on two elements. first, to increase domestic petroleum exploration and production. Second, to promote non-petroleum fuels as alternatives to the industrial and transportation sectors, for the substitution of fuel oil and gasoline, respectively. A combination of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of demand, has resulted in large surpluses of both gasoline and fuel oil, while diesel has become the most used among petroleum products. The surpluses are not easily exportable because there is ample availability of fuel oil in the world market, and because the low octane number of the gasoline produced in Brasil is not compatible with the engines of cars elsewhere in the region and in the world. Furthermore, although gasoline might be upgraded, the question remains that prospects for the world market are not encouraging, and an export-based strategy does not seem justified in view of the growing surpluses. The objective of this analysis is to review the mechanisms of themajor petroleum-substitution programs currently in existence, identifying their past impact on the energy market and the possible consequences of changes in the goals and operating conditions of these programs, in the light of the new prospects for increased domestic oil production and self-sufficiency. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Bioremediation of leachate and soil contaminated with petroleum products

    SciTech Connect

    Yocum, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum products are generally accepted to be biodegradable, whether they are contaminating a liquid or solid phase. Considerable reference material exist to support this ascertain. However, no parameters exist for design of engineered treatment systems and little is known about how mixed cultures degrade sparingly soluble substrates, particularly in the soil environment. Further the heterogeneity of contaminant distribution in the soil environment, inhibit understanding of the processes involved. This dissertation is an attempt to provide methodologies for the assessment of biodegradation of petroleum products in these environments, together with development of procedures applicable to assessment of remediation in soils with heterogenous distribution of contaminants.

  4. Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Increase in the Facility Capacity and Petroleum Inventory at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's Bryan Mound Storage Facility, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-11-24

    The DOE proposes that the authorized capacity of the BM facility and, upon Administration authorization, the petroleum inventory be increased by 3.5 million m{sup 3} (22 MMB). The proposed action may be subdivided into two distinct actions, the action to increase the facility capacity and the action to increase the facility's petroleum inventory, which is conditioned upon future authorization by the Administration. A portion of the proposed increase in facility capacity would be obtained via modification of the existing internal cavern infrastructure. Specifically, of the proposed increase in cavern capacity, up to 1.4 million m{sup 3} (8.8 MMB) would result from adjustment of the suspended casing of 10 caverns, thereby increasing the working cavern volumes without changing the cavern dimensions. The balance of the proposed increase to facility capacity, 2.1 million m{sup 3} (13.2 MMB), would result from administrative activities including the return of cavern 112 to service at its full capacity [approximately 1.9 million m{sup 3} (12 MMB)] and volume upgrades of at least 0.19 million m{sup 3} (1.2 MMB) based on new information obtained during sonar investigation of caverns.

  5. Early Eocene climate warming increased petroleum production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-04-01

    From the late Paleocene, about 58 million years ago, to the early Eocene, about 51 million years ago, Earth's surface temperatures warmed by about 5°-10°C. Also in the early Eocene, there was an increase of carbon-13-depleted carbon in the oceans that cannot be accounted for by changes in carbon cycling at the surface. To better understand the source of that carbon, Kroeger and Funnell modeled the thermal evolution of four sedimentary basins in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The authors show that the rising surface temperatures of the early Eocene eventually led to warming of the sedimentary beds deep beneath the surface. Petroleum can be produced at only a certain range of temperatures; rising temperatures at greater depths would bring more potential source rocks into temperature conditions under which oil and gas can be produced and released.

  6. The carcinogenic potential of selected petroleum-derived products.

    PubMed

    Rothman, N; Emmett, E A

    1988-01-01

    In this chapter the authors examine the toxicologic and epidemiologic literature for a broad range of petroleum-derived products in order to assess the carcinogenic potential of these compounds. Types of evidence used, classes of compounds, and qualitative assessments of carcinogenicity are presented.

  7. Petroleum and hazardous material releases from industrial facilities associated with Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Sengul, Hatice

    2010-04-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck an area dense with industry, causing numerous releases of petroleum and hazardous materials. This study integrates information from a number of sources to describe the frequency, causes, and effects of these releases in order to inform analysis of risk from future hurricanes. Over 200 onshore releases of hazardous chemicals, petroleum, or natural gas were reported. Storm surge was responsible for the majority of petroleum releases and failure of storage tanks was the most common mechanism of release. Of the smaller number of hazardous chemical releases reported, many were associated with flaring from plant startup, shutdown, or process upset. In areas impacted by storm surge, 10% of the facilities within the Risk Management Plan (RMP) and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) databases and 28% of SIC 1311 facilities experienced accidental releases. In areas subject only to hurricane strength winds, a lower fraction (1% of RMP and TRI and 10% of SIC 1311 facilities) experienced a release while 1% of all facility types reported a release in areas that experienced tropical storm strength winds. Of industrial facilities surveyed, more experienced indirect disruptions such as displacement of workers, loss of electricity and communication systems, and difficulty acquiring supplies and contractors for operations or reconstruction (55%), than experienced releases. To reduce the risk of hazardous material releases and speed the return to normal operations under these difficult conditions, greater attention should be devoted to risk-based facility design and improved prevention and response planning.

  8. 77 FR 54612 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is... Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Petroleum Environmental Research Forum...

  9. 77 FR 2308 - Approval of Altol Petroleum Product Service, as a Commercial Gauger

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Approval of Altol Petroleum Product Service, as a Commercial... approval of Altol Petroleum Product Service, as a commercial gauger. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to 19 CFR 151.13, Altol Petroleum Product Service, Calle Gregorio Ledesma HN-55 Urb....

  10. 77 FR 2308 - Approval of Altol Petroleum Product Service, as a Commercial Gauger

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... SECURITY Customs and Border Protection Approval of Altol Petroleum Product Service, as a Commercial Gauger... of Altol Petroleum Product Service, as a commercial gauger. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to 19 CFR 151.13, Altol Petroleum Product Service, Parque Industrial Sabanetas, Edificio M-...

  11. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude oil...

  12. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude oil...

  13. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude oil...

  14. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude oil...

  15. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude oil...

  16. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Other Petroleum Products Consumption Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The other petroleum product consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. consumption forecasts for 6 petroleum product categories: asphalt and road oil, petrochemical feedstocks, petroleum coke, refinery still gas, unfinished oils, and other miscvellaneous products

  17. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Other Petroleum Products Consumption Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The other petroleum product consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. consumption forecasts for 6 petroleum product categories: asphalt and road oil, petrochemical feedstocks, petroleum coke, refinery still gas, unfinished oils, and other miscvellaneous products

  18. 46 CFR 105.45-1 - Loading or dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Loading or dispensing petroleum products. 105.45-1... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-1 Loading or dispensing petroleum products. (a) A commercial fishing vessel must have aboard a letter...

  19. 46 CFR 105.45-1 - Loading or dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loading or dispensing petroleum products. 105.45-1... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-1 Loading or dispensing petroleum products. (a) A commercial fishing vessel must have aboard a letter...

  20. 46 CFR 105.45-1 - Loading or dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Loading or dispensing petroleum products. 105.45-1... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-1 Loading or dispensing petroleum products. (a) A commercial fishing vessel must have aboard a letter...

  1. 46 CFR 105.45-1 - Loading or dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Loading or dispensing petroleum products. 105.45-1... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-1 Loading or dispensing petroleum products. (a) A commercial fishing vessel must have aboard a letter...

  2. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products... MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The provisions of this part, with the exception...

  3. 46 CFR 105.45-1 - Loading or dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Loading or dispensing petroleum products. 105.45-1... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-1 Loading or dispensing petroleum products. (a) A commercial fishing vessel must have aboard a letter...

  4. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products... MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The provisions of this part, with the exception...

  5. [Assessment of schemes for sewage purification from petroleum products, by using various flotation methods].

    PubMed

    Zabuga, G A; Filippova, T M; Sivkov, A A

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum products are the most common pollutants in petroleum refinery wastewater and are freed from the latter by flotation that is one of the most frequently applied physicochemical methods. The existing petroleum refinery OAO "Angara Petroleum Company" scheme for sewage purification from petroleum products, by using pressure flotation and proposed as a competitive purification scheme by applying electrical and impeller flotations underwent a comparative ecologoeconomic analysis. The use of electrical flotation instead of pressure flotation and that of an impeller flotation-electrical flotation system instead of a mechanical purification-pressure flotation one can considerably lower the concentration of petroleum products at the wastewater outlet into the Angara river.

  6. CAIS standard manual. System number 27. Petroleum fuel facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed, including infrastructure, will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the CAIS Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a related list of components. Detailed observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD CAIS manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Industrial Gas Storage and Distribution System.

  7. Standard test method for saponification number of petroleum products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This method covers the determination of the amount of constituents in petroleum products that will saponify under the conditions of the test. Since compounds of sulfur, phosphorus, the halogens, and certain other elements which are sometimes added to petroleum products also consume alkali and acids, the results obtained indicate the effect of these extraneous materials in addition to the saponifiable material present. Results on products containing such materials, on used internal-combustion-engine crank-case oils, and on used turbine oils must be interpreted in this respect. Summary of method: a known weight of the sample, dissolved in methylethylketone is heated with a known amount of alcoholic potassium hydroxide (KOH). The excess alkali is titrated with standard acid and the saponification number calculated.

  8. Interfacial sciences in unconventional petroleum production: from fundamentals to applications.

    PubMed

    He, Lin; Lin, Feng; Li, Xingang; Sui, Hong; Xu, Zhenghe

    2015-08-07

    With the ever increasing demand for energy to meet the needs of growth in population and improvement in the living standards in particular in developing countries, the abundant unconventional oil reserves (about 70% of total world oil), such as heavy oil, oil/tar sands and shale oil, are playing an increasingly important role in securing global energy supply. Compared with the conventional reserves unconventional oil reserves are characterized by extremely high viscosity and density, combined with complex chemistry. As a result, petroleum production from unconventional oil reserves is much more difficult and costly with more serious environmental impacts. As a key underpinning science, understanding the interfacial phenomena involved in unconventional petroleum production, such as oil liberation from host rocks, oil-water emulsions and demulsification, is critical for developing novel processes to improve oil production while reducing GHG emission and other environmental impacts at a lower operating cost. In the past decade, significant efforts and advances have been made in applying the principles of interfacial sciences to better understand complex unconventional oil-systems, while many environmental and production challenges remain. In this critical review, the recent research findings and progress in the interfacial sciences related to unconventional petroleum production are critically reviewed. In particular, the chemistry of unconventional oils, liberation mechanisms of oil from host rocks and mechanisms of emulsion stability and destabilization in unconventional oil production systems are discussed in detail. This review also seeks to summarize the current state-of-the-art characterization techniques and brings forward the challenges and opportunities for future research in this important field of physical chemistry and petroleum.

  9. Production Facility SCADA Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Gregory E.; Holloway, Michael Andrew; Baily, Scott A.; Woloshun, Keith Albert; Wheat, Robert Mitchell Jr.

    2015-03-23

    The following report covers FY 14 activities to develop supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for the Northstar Moly99 production facility. The goal of this effort is to provide Northstar with a baseline system design.

  10. Price controls and international petroleum product prices

    SciTech Connect

    Deacon, R.T.; Mead, W.J.; Agarwal, V.B.

    1980-02-01

    The effects of Federal refined-product price controls upon the price of motor gasoline in the United States through 1977 are examined. A comparison of domestic and foreign gasoline prices is made, based on the prices of products actually moving in international trade. There is also an effort to ascribe US/foreign market price differentials to identifiable cost factors. Primary emphasis is on price comparisons at the wholesale level, although some retail comparisons are presented. The study also examines the extent to which product price controls are binding, and attempts to estimate what the price of motor gasoline would have been in the absence of controls. The time period under consideration is from 1969 through 1977, with primary focus on price relationships in 1970-1971 (just before US controls) and 1976-1977. The foreign-domestic comparisons are made with respect to four major US cities, namely, Boston, New York, New Orleans, and Los Angeles. 20 figures, 14 tables.

  11. Petroleum reserves and undiscovered resources in the total petroleum systems of Iraq: Reserve growth and production implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, M.K.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Al-Gailani, M.

    2004-01-01

    Iraq is one of the world's most petroleum-rich countries and, in the future, it could become one of the main producers. Iraq's petroleum resources are estimated to be 184 billion barrels, which include oil and natural gas reserves, and undiscovered resources. With its proved (or remaining) reserves of 113 billion barrels of oil (BBO) as of January 2003, Iraq ranks second to Saudi Arabia with 259 BBO in the Middle East. Iraq's proved reserves of 110 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) rank tenth in the world. In addition to known reserves, the combined undiscovered hydrocarbon potential for the three Total Petroleum Systems (Paleozoic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous/Tertiary) in Iraq is estimated to range from 14 to 84 BBO (45 BBO at the mean), and 37 to 227 TCFG (120 TCFG at the mean). Additionally, of the 526 known prospective structures, some 370 remain undrilled. Petroleum migration models and associated geological and geochemical studies were used to constrain the undiscovered resource estimates of Iraq. Based on a criterion of recoverable reserves of between 1 and 5 BBO for a giant field, and more than 5 BBO for a super-giant, Iraq has 6 super-giant and 11 giant fields, accounting for 88% of its recoverable reserves, which include proved reserves and cumulative production. Of the 28 producing fields, 22 have recovery factors that range from 15 to 42% with an overall average of less than 30%. The recovery factor can be increased with water injection, improved and enhanced oil recovery methods (IOR and EOR) in various reservoirs, thus potentially increasing Iraq's reserves by an additional 50 to 70 BBO. Reserve growth is a significant factor that has been observed, to some extent, in nearly all Iraqi oil fields. Historically, producing fields have shown an average growth of 1.6 fold (or 60%) in their recoverable reserves over a 20-year period (1981-2001). With periodic assessments of reservoirs, application of available technology, and an upgrading of facilities

  12. 46 CFR 105.90-1 - Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Existing Commercial Fishing Vessels Dispensing Petroleum Products § 105.90-1 Existing commercial fishing vessels...

  13. 46 CFR 105.90-1 - Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Existing Commercial Fishing Vessels Dispensing Petroleum Products § 105.90-1 Existing commercial fishing vessels...

  14. 46 CFR 105.90-1 - Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Existing Commercial Fishing Vessels Dispensing Petroleum Products § 105.90-1 Existing commercial fishing vessels...

  15. 46 CFR 105.90-1 - Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Existing Commercial Fishing Vessels Dispensing Petroleum Products § 105.90-1 Existing commercial fishing vessels...

  16. 46 CFR 105.90-1 - Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Existing Commercial Fishing Vessels Dispensing Petroleum Products § 105.90-1 Existing commercial fishing vessels...

  17. Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) initial effort to provide information and analysis on the potential impacts on petroleum product markets from reductions in Northeast petroleum refining activity.

  18. 77 FR 26583 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Project No. 2011-01, Ultra Low Nutrient Control in Wastewater... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Petroleum...

  19. Dictionary of petroleum exploration, drilling, and production

    SciTech Connect

    Hyne, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains more than 20,000 definitions of oil exploration, drilling, and production terms, making this dictionary mandatory for both the experienced industry professional and the nontechnical person. Completing this comprehensive reference are more than 500 detailed illustrations. Appendices include a rotary rig diagram, a cable tool drilling rig, a beam pumping unit, giant oil fields of the world, giant oil, and gas fields of the United States and Canada, a geological time chart, geological map symbols, conversion factors, the Greek alphabet atomic weights and numbers, charts of the geological features of the United States and Canada, plus much, much more.

  20. Taxation of petroleum production in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Attah, J.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis develops an economic model of exploration and extraction of a non-renewable resource. The model is then used to examine the effects of a variety of taxes on the exploration and production decisions of an extractive firm. The effects of the tax policies are analyzed by solving an optimization problem in which the firm is assumed to maximize the present value of cashflows from resource extraction over a finite planning horizon, using non-linear techniques. The tax analysis shows that royalties, severance taxes, property taxes, profit taxes with cost or percentage depletion, profit tax with royalty expensing, and progressive income tax may induce a change in the firm's optimal exploration and extraction decisions. Ad valorem royalty taxes, severance taxes, and progressive income tax may induce the firm to extract at a slower rate in the current periods; whereas property taxes, profit taxes with cost or percentage depletion, and profit taxes with royalty expensing may induce the firm to extract at a faster rate in the current periods. The financial analysis reveals that the net-present values of the Canadian investment are higher than those of each of the other three countries: Nigeria, Indonesia, and Thailand. The Nigerian investment is shown to yield the least net-of-tax cashflows and net-present values.

  1. U.S. Settles with Marathon Petroleum Corporation to Cut Harmful Air Emissions at Facilities in Indiana, Kentucky and Ohio

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) announced a settlement with Marathon Petroleum Corporation today that resolves various alleged Clean Air Act violations at 10 Marathon facilities an

  2. Automated production holography test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, G.W.; Brown, F.A.; Bailey, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    A holographic nondestructive testing facility has been designed and built to measure the residual strain resulting from proof pressurization of stainless assemblies. The system is now in use as an in-line production test of these assemblies produced at Rockwell International's Rocky Flats Division. A complete high-pressure argon facility was built to achieve the necessary proof pressures. The entire holography and pressurizing operation is performed remotely and controlled automatically by means of a programmable controller using a microprocessor. Details of the holography optics, the pressurized gas system and the electronic controls are given. The holographic reconstruction and interference fringe counting and analysis capabilities of this facility are also discussed.

  3. POTENTIAL REUSE OF PETROLEUM-CONTAMINATED SOIL: A DIRECTORY OF PERMITTED RECYCLING FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil contaminated by virgin petroleum products leaking from underground storage tanks Is a pervasive problem in the United States. Economically feasible disposal of such soil concerns the responsible party (RP), whether the RP is one individual small business owner, a group o...

  4. POTENTIAL REUSE OF PETROLEUM-CONTAMINATED SOIL: A DIRECTORY OF PERMITTED RECYCLING FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil contaminated by virgin petroleum products leaking from underground storage tanks Is a pervasive problem in the United States. Economically feasible disposal of such soil concerns the responsible party (RP), whether the RP is one individual small business owner, a group o...

  5. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Measurements of radiation level in petroleum products and wastes in Riyadh City Refinery.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, F S; Al-Harshan, G A

    2008-07-01

    Recent concern has been devoted to the hazard arising from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil and gas facilities. Twenty-seven petroleum samples were collected from Riyadh Refinery. Fourteen samples were products and 13 were waste samples; three of them were scale samples and 10 were sludge samples. The specific radioactivities of (238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (224)Ra, (40)K, and (235)U for all samples were determined using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The radium equivalent activity, radiation hazard indices and absorbed dose rate in air for all waste samples were estimated. The radon emanation coefficient of the waste samples was estimated. It ranged between 0.574 and 0.154. The age of two scale samples was determined and found to be 2.39 and 3.66 years. The chemical structure of the waste samples was investigated using X-ray florescence analysis (XRF) and Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, Ca and Fe were found in all samples. From this study, it was noticed that the concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the petroleum wastes were higher than that of the petroleum products.

  7. A case study of potential human health impacts from petroleum coke transfer facilities.

    PubMed

    Dourson, Michael L; Chinkin, Lyle R; MacIntosh, David L; Finn, Jennifer A; Brown, Kathleen W; Reid, Stephen B; Martinez, Jeanelle M

    2016-11-01

    Petroleum coke or "petcoke" is a solid material created during petroleum refinement and is distributed via transfer facilities that may be located in densely populated areas. The health impacts from petcoke exposure to residents living in proximity to such facilities were evaluated for a petcoke transfer facilities located in Chicago, Illinois. Site-specific, margin of safety (MOS) and margin of exposure (MOE) analyses were conducted using estimated airborne and dermal exposures. The exposure assessment was based on a combined measurement and modeling program that included multiyear on-site air monitoring, air dispersion modeling, and analyses of soil and surfaces in residential areas adjacent to two petcoke transfer facilities located in industrial areas. Airborne particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10) were used as a marker for petcoke. Based on daily fence line monitoring, the average daily PM10 concentration at the KCBX Terminals measured on-site was 32 μg/m(3), with 89% of 24-hr average PM10 concentrations below 50 μg/m(3) and 99% below 100 μg/m(3). A dispersion model estimated that the emission sources at the KCBX Terminals produced peak PM10 levels attributed to the petcoke facility at the most highly impacted residence of 11 μg/m(3) on an annual average basis and 54 μg/m(3) on 24-hr average basis. Chemical indicators of petcoke in soil and surface samples collected from residential neighborhoods adjacent to the facilities were equivalent to levels in corresponding samples collected at reference locations elsewhere in Chicago, a finding that is consistent with limited potential for off-site exposure indicated by the fence line monitoring and air dispersion modeling. The MOE based upon dispersion model estimates ranged from 800 to 900 for potential inhalation, the primary route of concern for particulate matter. This indicates a low likelihood of adverse health effects in the surrounding community. Implications: Handling of petroleum coke at

  8. Environmental Assessment for decommissioning the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Weeks Island Facility, Iberia Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Weeks Island site is one of five underground salt dome crude oils storage facilities operated by the Department of Energy (DOE). It is located in Iberia Parish, Louisiana. The purpose of the proposed action is to decommission the Weeks Island crude oil storage after the oil inventory has been transferred to other SPR facilities. Water intrusion into the salt dome storage chambers and the development of two sinkholes located near the aboveground facilities has created uncertain geophysical conditions. This Environmental Assessment describes the proposed decommissioning operation, its alternatives, and potential environmental impacts. Based on this analyses, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and has issued the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  9. Phototoxicity of petroleum products to marine invertebrate larvae and niles

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.; Ho, K.; Kuhn, A; McKinney, R.; Ryba, S.

    1995-12-31

    Ultraviolet light can activate certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), inducing the production of free radicals. In biological organisms these free radicals destroy tissues, causing up to a 4,000 fold increase in toxicity. This dramatic response is a potential marker for PAH contamination in environmental samples. Ultraviolet enhancement of toxicity has ecological relevance as well. An oil spill can release large amounts of PAHs into the marine environment. Oil spill assessments to date have not included observations of any phototoxic effect on pelagic larvae or juveniles of benthic or epibenthic invertebrates. In this study, larvae and juveniles of the bivalve, Mulinia lateralis and juveniles of the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia were exposed to individual PAHs, as well as the water accommodated fractions of several petroleum products to verify the ability of this method to detect PAHs in environmental samples, and to determine if phototoxicity is a concern during and after an oil spill. Significant phototoxicity was seen in both single chemical and petroleum product exposures. Swartz`s EPAH model was not applicable to the authors` results. They hoped to show causality but were not fully successful due to the need to further develop the model with their species and expand the number of PAH analyzed.

  10. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  11. Pumps: their petroleum applicability in production, transfer, refining

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeflein, H.H.

    1981-12-01

    Pumps employed in production may be used in other areas of petroleum operations, but the greatest differences are in increased pressure and different metallurgy. One of the most commonly used pumps for injection service is the plunger or reciprocating pump. The choice between vertical or horizontal plunger pumps and their sizes depends on the application. A horizontal pump is more cost-effective for smaller capacities and pressures. Due to their configuration and expense, vertical pumps are used mainly as sophisticated, high-pressure types. Most of the pumps used in oil production service also can be employed to transfer crude or finished products. However, horizontally split single and multi-stage centrifugal pumps are used most commonly for their low cost and high reliability under continual use.

  12. Levels of financial responsibility for liquefied-natural-gas and liquefied-petroleum-gas facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-30

    Pursuant to Section 7(a) of the Pipeline Safety Act of 1979, a study was conducted of the risks associated with liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) facilities, and of methods of assuring adequate levels of financial responsibility for those who own and/or operate facilities. The main purpose of the study is to provide a basis for determining general levels of financial responsibility for LNG and LPG facilities, as measured by the risk they represent to the public. It must be emphasized that the quantification of risk is a complicated subject. As used in this study, risk is defined as the occurrence of a maximum credible accident and the consequences that would result from such an accident. Part I of the study describes in detail the methodology used in the report to estimate the magnitude of the financial responsibility requirements associated with nine major facility types - e.g., tankships, pipelines, barges, rail tank car, tank truck, etc. - used to store and transport LNG and LPG under 48 separate operational and storage containment modes. Parts II and III of the study, in addition to providing estimates of the risks and corresponding levels of financial responsibility, contain information on the historical safety record and structure of the LNG facilities and LPG facilities.

  13. Forensic analysis of commercial petroleum products using selective fluorescence quenching.

    PubMed

    Goodpaster, J V; Howerton, S B; McGuffin, L

    2001-11-01

    A novel method for the forensic analysis of commercial petroleum products is presented. In this approach, the petroleum sample is extracted with nitromethane and then separated by capillary liquid chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection. The addition of selective fluorescence quenching agents allows the sample to be profiled by the distribution of alternant and nonalternant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In preliminary studies, the quenching behavior of nitromethane and diisopropylamine was established by using a standard mixture of sixteen PAHs ranging in size from two to six aromatic rings. Subsequent examination of new and used motor oil demonstrated that characteristic differences arise in the PAH content, which may allow for the unique identification of oil from a particular engine or vehicle. In addition, three brands of petrolatum jelly were successfully distinguished. Although a number of alternant alkylated and heterocyclic PAHs were found in all petrolatum samples, there were significant differences in the relative concentrations of alternant as well as nonalternant PAHs. This allowed for clear differentiation of the samples through qualitative inspection of their chromatograms as well as quantitative statistical correlation techniques.

  14. Aquatic toxicity of petroleum products and dispersant agents ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development has developed baseline data on the ecotoxicity of selected petroleum products and several chemical dispersants as part of its oil spills research program. Two diluted bitumens (dilbits) from the Alberta Tar Sands were tested for acute and chronic toxicity to standard freshwater and marine organisms given their spill potential during shipment within the United States. Separately, two reference crude oils representing a range of characteristics, and their mixtures with four representative dispersants, were tested to evaluate acute and chronic toxicity to marine organisms in support of Subpart J of the U.S. National Contingency Plan. Water accommodated fractions (WAF) of oil were prepared using traditional slow-stir methods and toxicity tests generally followed U.S. EPA standard effluent testing guidelines. WAFs were characterized for petroleum hydrocarbons including alkyl PAH homologs. The results of these studies will assist the U.S. EPA to assess toxicity data for unconventional oils (dilbits), and establish baseline toxicity data for selected crude oils and dispersant in support of planning and response activities. Abstract reporting the results of EPA's oil and dispersant toxicity testing program

  15. Groundwater flow velocity measurements in a sinkhole at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve Facility, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, S.; Gibson, J.

    1995-02-01

    In 1992, a sinkhole was discovered above a Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facility at Weeks Island, Louisiana. The oil is stored in an old salt mine located within a salt dome. In order to assess the hydrologic significance of the sink hole, an In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor was deployed within a sand-filled conduit in the salt dome directly beneath the sinkhole. The flow sensor is a recently developed instrument which uses a thermal perturbation technique to measure the magnitude and direction of the full 3-dimensional groundwater flow velocity vector in saturated, permeable materials. The flow sensor measured substantial groundwater flow directed vertically downward into the salt dome. The data obtained with the flow sensor provided critical evidence which was instrumental in assessing the significance of the sinkhole in terms of the integrity of the oil storage facility.

  16. Treatment of petroleum production wastewater for reuse in secondary oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Mijaylova Nacheva, P; Ramírez Camperos, E; Sandoval Yoval, L

    2008-01-01

    Petroleum production wastewater is highly saline and contains large amounts of Ca, Mg, sulphides and hydrocarbons. The reuse of this wastewater in the secondary oil recovery can provide pollution prevention and water conservation benefits. Injection of water to the oil deposits is a frequently used method for secondary oil recovery. This operation is performed at high pressures and temperatures, because of which a suitable water quality is required to avoid deposit formation, scaling and clogging effects. The objective of this study was to select the best treatment system for the oil production wastewater, generated in one of the Mexican oil extraction facilities, for the implementation of this kind of reuse by injecting the treated water to sand formations with 12-15% porosity. A complete characterization of the petroleum production wastewater was done. Based on laboratory tests, three basic treatment options were suggested and evaluated in a pilot plant. The most suitable treatment was determined by injecting the different treated waters in samples of the real formations. The selected system consists in softening, followed by oxidation, decarbonation and filtration. This train allowed 99.8% hardness removal, a complete S(2-) removal, as well as 99% TSS, 78% TOC, 98% Sr, 86% Ba, 51% Si and 17% Fe removals. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  17. Petroleum production and exploration in Ouachita region of Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Suneson, N.H.; Campbell, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    Petroleum production in the Ouachita region of southeastern Oklahoma occurs in three geographic areas parallel to regional structure. The frontal gas, central oil, and central gas belts are distinguished by differences in structural setting, reservoir strata, and types of hydrocarbons. In the frontal belt, nearly 1 trillion ft/sup 3/ of dry gas has been produced from thrusted and subthrust Morrowan and Atokan sandstone and carbonate reservoirs. Over 8000 bbl of oil have been produced in the central oil belt, southeast of the Ti Valley fault. Structures consist of imbricate thrusts and isoclinal to overturned folds. The fields are typically small, associated with asphaltite or tar sands, and produce from Carboniferous sandstone reservoirs. Farther southeast, small fields within the central gas belt have produced minor gas from Ordovician, Devonian, and Mississippian reservoirs. Six Ordovician through Mississippian Ouachita-facies shales are potential petroleum source rocks and occur in the middle to lower part of the oil window. However, Devonian and Mississippian strata are composed primarily of terrestrial organic matter and are probably gas prone. Oil in Carboniferous reservoirs probably migrated upward stratigraphically from older sources. Recent exploration has focused on extending production from Pennsylvanian reservoirs in the frontal gas belt. However, a significant Arbuckle discovery (ARCO 2 Yourman) and a Broken Bow uplift test (Sohio 1-22 Weyerhauser) in 1987 indicate that Cambrian-Ordovician Arbuckle Group carbonates may be prospective beneath all of the Oklahoma Ouachitas. Near-future rank-wildcat exploration will probably focus on subthrust, structurally and stratigraphically favorable Arbuckle plays.

  18. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products... Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table MM-1 Table MM-1 to Subpart MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column A: density(metric tons/bbl...

  19. Primary brain tumor mortality at a petroleum exploration and extraction research facility.

    PubMed

    Buffler, Patricia A; Kelsh, Michael; Chapman, Pamela; Wood, Susan; Lau, Edmund; Golembesky, Amanda; Wood, Ralph; Kalmes, Renee; Brorby, Greg

    2004-03-01

    A cohort mortality study was conducted among 3,779 employees at a petroleum exploration and extraction research facility to evaluate workplace exposures and brain tumor risk. Deaths were identified by searches against the National Death Index, Social Security Administration, and California state mortality files. Work histories were classified by job titles, laboratory activity, and company division. Eleven brain tumor deaths were observed among the cohort (standardized mortality ratio [SMR] 1.8; 95% confidence interval = 0.9-3.2). SMR analyses for scientists, employment in laboratory work, and in the research division were not associated with an increased brain tumor SMR, whereas an increased SMR was observed for administrative and nonresearch employees. Although conclusions are limited by the small study population and lack of specific exposure data, these findings were not consistent with an occupational explanation for the observed brain tumor cluster.

  20. PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS SALES AND SERVICE. AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY - SALES AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING HIGH SCHOOL AND POST-HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR ENTRY AND ADVANCEMENT IN THE PETROLEUM PHASE OF AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY OCCUPATIONS. ONE OF A SERIES FOR AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY OCCUPATIONS, THIS MODULE WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES. SECTIONS ARE (1)…

  1. Petroleum production structures: economic resources for Louisiana sport divers

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, K.J.; Thompson, M.E.

    1983-08-01

    The era of expanding petroleum production from marine waters began 12 miles off the Louisiana coast in 1947 with a joint operation. Since then, the expansion of drilling and production operations has continued until, in 1981, approximately 3,500 structures were located in the Gulf of Mexico. Of the total number of structures, federal and state waters off Louisiana contain 3,100. Scientific articles dealing with the role of structures in marine habitat and their relationship to sport fishing in the Gulf of Mexico increased over the decade. This newly publicized beneficial aspect of structures is particularly important to the marine fishery off Louisiana. The structures (to which Dugas et al. attribute 'nearly all of the offshore sport fishery') are called as platforms in their description: These platforms are supported by a prewelded framework of steel pipe. Structures in other areas of the country also attract marine life and sport fishermen. Catch rates by sport fishermen were two to three times higher near structures off California than near natural reefs. (Turner et al. 1969). This may be the result of the 'fish-concentrating' nature of structures.

  2. Soil Dehydrogenases as an Indicator of Contamination of the Environment with Petroleum Products.

    PubMed

    Kaczyńska, Grażyna; Borowik, Agata; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga

    The aim of the research was to compare the effects of various petroleum products, biodiesel, diesel oil, fuel oil and unleaded petrol on soil dehydrogenases, and to evaluate biostimulation with compost and urea in the restoration of homeostasis of the soil contaminated with these products. The obtained results allowed for defining the weight of dehydrogenases in monitoring of the environment subjected to pressure from petroleum hydrocarbons. The studies were carried out under laboratory conditions for 180 days, and loamy sand was the soil formation used in the experiment. The petroleum products were used in the following amounts: 0, 2, 4, 8 and 16 g kg(-1) DM of soil. Indices of the influence of the petroleum product and the stimulating substance on the activity of dehydrogenases were calculated. It was proved that the petroleum products affect soil dehydrogenases in various ways. Biodiesel, diesel oil and fuel oil stimulate these enzymes, while petrol acts as an inhibitor. Among the substances tested regarding biostimulation of soils contaminated with petroleum products, compost is definitely more useful than urea, and therefore, the former should be used for the remediation of such soils. Stimulation of dehydrogenases by compost, both in contaminated and non-contaminated soils, proves that it may accelerate microbiological degradation of petroleum-derived contaminants.

  3. Use of petroleum reside for production of ion exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Pokonova, Y.V.

    1995-03-10

    Weakly acidic commercial cation exchangers with a static exchange capacity of 4.8-6.7 meq{center_dot}{sup -1} and a mechanical strength of 90% have been synthesized from petroleum asphaltites, resorcinol, and furfural.

  4. Soil contamination by petroleum products. Southern Algerian case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belabbas, Amina; Boutoutaou, Djamel; Segaï, Sofiane; Segni, Ladjel

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of soil by petroleum products is a current problem in several countries in the world. In Algeria, this negative phenomenon is highly remarked in Saharan region. Numerous studies at the University of Ouargla that we will review in this paper, have tried to find an effective solution to eliminate the hydrocarbons from the soil by the technique of "biodegradation" which is a natural process based on microorganisms such as Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Presence of aboriginal strain Bacillus megaterium in the soil samples with different ages of contamination has shown a strong degradation of pollutants. This strain chosen for its short time of generation which is performing as seen the best yields of elimination of hydrocarbons assessed at 98 % biostimule by biosurfactant, also 98% on a sample wich bioaugmente by urea, and 86 % of the sample which biostimule by nutrient solution. The rate of biodegradation of the contaminated soil by crude oil using the strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa is higher in the presence of biosurfactant 53 % that in his absence 35 %. Another elimination technique wich is washing the contaminated soil's sample by centrifugation in the presence of biosurfactant where The rate of hydrocarbons mobilized after washing soil by centrifugation is of 50 % and 76 % but without centrifugation it was of 46% to 79%. Those processes have great capacity in the remobilization of hydrocarbons and acceleration of their biodegradation; thus, they deserve to be further developed in order to prevent environmental degradation in the region of Ouargla.

  5. Structural evolution and petroleum productivity of the Baltic basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmishek, G.F. )

    1991-08-01

    The Baltic basin is an oval depression located in the western part of the Russian craton; it occupies the eastern Baltic Sea and adjacent onshore areas. The basin contains more than 5,000 m of sedimentary rocks ranging from latest Proterozoic to Tertiary in age. These rocks consist of four tectonostratigraphic sequences deposited during major tectonic episodes of basin evolution. Principal unconformities separate the sequences. The basin is underlain by a rift probably filled with Upper Proterozoic rocks. Vendian and Lower Cambrian rocks (Baikalian sequence) form two northeast-trending depressions. The principal stage of the basin development was during deposition of a thick Middle Cambrian-Lower Devonian (Caledonian) sequence. This stage was terminated by the most intense deformations in the basin history. The Middle Devonian-Carboniferous (Hercynian) and Permian-Tertiary (Kimmerian-Alpine) tectonic and depositional cycles only slightly modified the basin geometry and left intact the main structural framework of underlying rocks. The petroleum productivity of the basin is related to the Caledonian tectonostratigraphic sequence that contains both source rocks and reservoirs. However, maturation of source rocks, migration of oil, and formation of fields took place mostly during deposition of the Hercynian sequence.

  6. Petroleum production at Maximum Efficient Rate Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California. Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This document provides an analysis of the potential impacts associated with the proposed action, which is continued operation of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. I (NPR-1) at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER) as authorized by Public law 94-258, the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (Act). The document also provides a similar analysis of alternatives to the proposed action, which also involve continued operations, but under lower development scenarios and lower rates of production. NPR-1 is a large oil and gas field jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.SA Inc. (CUSA) pursuant to a Unit Plan Contract that became effective in 1944; the government`s interest is approximately 78% and CUSA`s interest is approximately 22%. The government`s interest is under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The facility is approximately 17,409 acres (74 square miles), and it is located in Kern County, California, about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield and 100 miles north of Los Angeles in the south central portion of the state. The environmental analysis presented herein is a supplement to the NPR-1 Final Environmental Impact Statement of that was issued by DOE in 1979 (1979 EIS). As such, this document is a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS).

  7. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  8. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  9. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  10. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  11. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  12. Environmental assessment of oil degasification at four Strategic Petroleum Reserve facilities in Texas and Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to treat gassy oil at four Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage sites to lower the gas content of the stored crude oil and help ensure safe transfer of the oil during drawdown. The crude oil is stored underground in caverns created in salt domes. The degree of gassiness of the oil varies substantially among sites and among caverns within a site. This environmental assessment describes the proposed degasification operation, its alternatives, and potential environmental impacts. The need for degasification has arisen because over time, gases, principally methane and nitrogen, have migrated into and become dissolved in the stored crude oil. This influx of gas has raised the crude oil vapor pressure above limits required by safety and emission guidelines. When oil is drawn from the caverns, excess gases may come out of solution. Based on preliminary data from an ongoing sampling program, between 200 and 350 million of the 587 million barrels of crude oil stored at these four sites would require processing to remove excess gas. Degasification, a commonly used petroleum industry process, would be done at four crude oil storage facilities: Bryan Mound and Big Hill in Texas, and West Hackberry and Bayou Choctaw in Louisiana. DOE would use a turnkey services contract for engineering, procurement, fabrication, installation, operation and maintenance of two degasification plants. These would be installed initially at Bryan Mound and West Hackberry. Degasification would be complete in less than three years of continuous operations. This report summarizes the environmental impacts of this gasification process.

  13. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Product Prices Module

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The petroleum products price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. average wholesale and retail price forecasts for motor gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, and jet fuel.

  14. 78 FR 57407 - Approval of Altol Petroleum Product Service, as a Commercial Gauger

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ..., petroleum products, organic chemicals and vegetable oils for customs purposes for the next three years as of... and vegetable oils for customs purposes, in accordance with the provisions of 19 CFR 151.13....

  15. 78 FR 57406 - Approval of Altol Petroleum Product Service, as a Commercial Gauger

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ..., petroleum products, organic chemicals and vegetable oils for customs purposes for the next three years as of... chemicals and vegetable oils for customs purposes, in accordance with the provisions of 19 CFR...

  16. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Product Prices Module

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The petroleum products price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. average wholesale and retail price forecasts for motor gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, and jet fuel.

  17. Petroleum product pricing in Asian developing countries: Lessons from the past and future issues

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.

    1997-09-01

    This paper looks at the pricing of petroleum products in ten Asian developing countries using a data series for 1973--1992. Prices of petroleum products are compared with international prices. Differential prices are measured with respect to diesel prices. It is found that energy prices are used as instruments for revenue earnings. Pricing policies vary widely among countries and neighbors have different fuel prices. Countries try to align the local prices of petroleum products in line with international prices but with a lag of 1--2 years. The wave of liberalization and privatization is sweeping many developing countries. Additionally, environmental issues are gaining importance even in developing countries. The paper also discusses these emerging issues that need to be taken into account in the petroleum product pricing.

  18. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance. Although the blending of petroleum coke with coal may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  19. Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets is an update to a previous Energy Information Administration (EIA) report, Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets, released in December 2011. This update analyzes possible market responses and impacts in the event Sunoco's Philadelphia refinery closes this summer, in addition to the recently idled refineries on the East Coast and in the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  20. Characteristics of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Zhendi; Hollebone, Bruce P; Brown, Carl E; Landriault, Mike

    2009-05-15

    This study presents a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BSs) in numerous crude oils and refined petroleum products including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels, and lubricating oils collected from various sources. Ten commonly recognized bicyclic sesquiterpanes were determined in all the studied crude oils and diesel range fuels with principal dominance of BS3 (C(15)H(28)), BS5 (C(15)H(28)) and BS10 (C(16)H(30)), while they were generally not detected or in trace in light fuel oils like gasoline and kerosene and most lubricating oils. Laboratory distillation of crude oils demonstrated that sesquiterpanes were highly enriched in the medium distillation fractions of approximately 180 to 481 degrees C and were generally absent or very low in the light distillation fraction (boiling point to approximately 180 degrees C) and the heavy residual fraction (>481 degrees C). The effect of evaporative weathering on a series of diagnostic ratios of sesquiterpanes, n-alkanes, and biomarkers was evaluated with two suites of weathered oil samples. The change of abundance of sesquiterpanes was used to determine the extent of weathering of artificially evaporated crude oils and diesel. In addition to the pentacyclic biomarker C(29) and C(30) alphabeta-hopane, C(15) and C(16) sesquiterpanes might be alternative internal marker compounds to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. These findings may offer potential applications for both oil identification and oil-source correlation in cases where the tri- to pentacyclic biomarkers are absent due to refining or environmental weathering of oils.

  1. Domestic petroleum-product prices around the world. [June 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-29

    Since the Energy Detente January 27, 1983 speical price/tax report of petroleum-product markets around the world, several countries in the survey experienced domestic price changes, generally upward. In Peru, the government-controlled price for a gallon of regular leaded gasoline increased 83% during the period. However, when converted to a reference currency, much of Peru's price increase is offset when viewed in terms of US dollars: with devaluation of Peru's national currency of 25% since January, the price increase corresponds to only 37% in US dollars. In the case of Venezuela, a currency devaluation of over 100% since February reduced the price from US $0.26 per gallon for regular leaded gasoline to US $0.11 per gallon, the lowest price in the survey. The highest price is US $3.22 per gallon for regular leaded in South Korea. The world average retail price for regular leaded gasoline is US $1.73 per gallon (16 cents lower than in January this year). For premium (leaded, in all but four countries), the world average price is US $1.86, and the drop since January is also 16 cents per gallon. The lowest price for premium-grade gasoline is US $0.25 in Saudi Arabia (which has no regular grade); the highest in the survey is US $4.34 in South Korea. In this issue, the Energy Detente fuel price/tax series and principal industrial fuel prices are given for June 1983 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  2. Arctic production/terminal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.E.

    1988-11-22

    This patent describes an offshore facility for use in a body of water in an arctic area, the facility comprising: a main structure having a front and a back and a base adapted to rest on the bottom of the body of water; and a marine slip formed integral within the main structure, the slip opening through the back of the structure and extending inwardly into the main structure and adapted to receive and moor a vessel therein whereby the vessel shall be completely inside the periphery of the facility when in a moored position within the slip.

  3. Reducing power production costs by utilizing petroleum coke. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Galbreath, K.C.

    1998-07-01

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  4. The History and Future Challenges of Calcined Petroleum Coke Production and Use in Aluminum Smelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Les

    2015-02-01

    Calcined petroleum coke is used for the production of carbon anodes in the Hall-Héroult aluminum smelting process due to a combination of low impurity levels, ready availability, and relatively low cost. This article provides a review of the history and use of calcined petroleum coke for anode production and describes the different calcining technologies used by the industry. The article discusses the impact of changes in crude oil quality and refining economics over the last 10 years as well as the impact on green petroleum coke quality and availability. The industry has adapted well to quality changes in recent times, and the blending of different quality cokes by smelters is becoming increasingly important. The world has a plentiful supply of green petroleum coke, but the next wave of aluminum smelting capacity growth will put further pressure on the supply of the higher quality cokes traditionally favored by the industry.

  5. Petroleum sludge treatment and reuse for cement production as setting retarder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aeslina, A. K.; Ali, B.

    2017-05-01

    Petroleum sludge is a dangerous waste that needs to be treated to avoid any contamination of soil and groundwater due to its disposal. As an attempt to treat this waste, it has been incorporated into cement production as substitution for gypsum. As results, 5% of petroleum sludge has shown effective results and could play the same role of gypsum in delaying the flash setting of cement clinker.

  6. Upgrading and Refining of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products by Ionizing Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zaikin, Yuriy A; Zaikina, Raissa F

    2016-06-01

    A general trend in the oil industry is a decrease in the proven reserves of light crude oils so that any increase in future oil exploration is associated with high-viscous sulfuric oils and bitumen. Although the world reserves of heavy oil are much greater than those of sweet light oils, their exploration at present is less than 12 % of the total oil recovery. One of the main constraints is very high expenses for the existing technologies of heavy oil recovery, upgrading, transportation, and refining. Heavy oil processing by conventional methods is difficult and requires high power inputs and capital investments. Effective and economic processing of high viscous oil and oil residues needs not only improvements of the existing methods, such as thermal, catalytic and hydro-cracking, but the development of new technological approaches for upgrading and refining of any type of problem oil feedstock. One of the perspective approaches to this problem is the application of ionizing irradiation for high-viscous oil processing. Radiation methods for upgrading and refining high-viscous crude oils and petroleum products in a wide temperature range, oil desulfurization, radiation technology for refining used oil products, and a perspective method for gasoline radiation isomerization are discussed in this paper. The advantages of radiation technology are simple configuration of radiation facilities, low capital and operational costs, processing at lowered temperatures and nearly atmospheric pressure without the use of any catalysts, high production rates, relatively low energy consumption, and flexibility to the type of oil feedstock.

  7. Groundwater contamination and natural attenuation capacity at a petroleum spilled facility in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2011-01-01

    As a remedial option, the natural attenuation capacity of a petroleum contaminated groundwater at a military facility was examined. Hydrogeological conditions, such as high water level, permeable uppermost layer and frequent heavy rainfall, were favorable to natural attenuation at this site. The changes in the concentrations of electron acceptors and donors, as well as the relevant hydrochemical conditions, indicated the occurrence of aerobic respiration, denitrification, iron reduction, manganese reduction and sulfate reduction. The calculated BTEX expressed biodegradation capacity ranged between 20.52 and 33.67 mg/L, which appeared effective for the reduction of the contaminants levels. The contribution of each electron accepting process to the total biodegradation was in the order: denitrification > iron reduction > sulfate reduction > aerobic respiration > manganese reduction. The BTEX and benzene point attenuation rates were 0.0058-0.0064 and 0.0005-0.0032 day(-1), respectively, and the remediation time was 0.7-1.2 and 2.5-30 years, respectively. The BTEX and benzene bulk attenuation rates were 8.69 x 10(-4) and 1.05 x 10(-3) day(-1), respectively, and the remediation times for BTEX and benzene were 7.2 and 17.5 years, respectively. However, most of the natural attenuation occurring in this site can be attributed to dilution and dispersion. Consequently, the biodegradation and natural attenuation capacities were good enough to lower the contaminants levels, but their rates appeared to be insufficient to reach the remediation goal within a reasonable time frame. Therefore, some active remedial measures would be required.

  8. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1983-09-20

    A process is described for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 1 fig.

  9. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products

    DOEpatents

    Googin, John M.; Napier, John M.; Travaglini, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced.

  10. 44 CFR 331.5 - Production facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... agencies shall give consideration to labor surplus areas in the selection of sites for Government-financed production facilities, including expansion, to the extent that such selection is consistent with existing...

  11. 44 CFR 331.5 - Production facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Production facilities. 331.5 Section 331.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... and essential economic and strategic factors. ...

  12. 44 CFR 331.5 - Production facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Production facilities. 331.5 Section 331.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... and essential economic and strategic factors. ...

  13. 44 CFR 331.5 - Production facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Production facilities. 331.5 Section 331.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... and essential economic and strategic factors. ...

  14. 44 CFR 331.5 - Production facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Production facilities. 331.5 Section 331.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... and essential economic and strategic factors. ...

  15. Environmental Impacts of Petroleum Production: Initial Results from the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research Sites, Osage County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Otton, James K.

    2003-01-01

    Exploration for and production of petroleum have caused major detrimental impacts to soils, surface and ground waters, and the local ecosystems in the United States. These impacts arise primarily from the improper disposal of large volumes of saline water produced with oil and gas, from accidental hydrocarbon and produced water releases, and from abandoned oil wells that were not correctly sealed. It is important to understand the long-term and short-term effects of produced water and hydrocarbon releases from these sites in order to develop risk-based remediation plans. Remediation is particularly needed in aging and depleted fields where land use is changing from petroleum production to residential, agricultural or recreational uses. About 20 scientists from the USGS and other governmental agencies and academia are involved in a multidisciplinary investigation to study the transport, fate, and natural attenuation of inorganic salts, trace metals, organic compounds and radionuclides present in produced water, and their impacts at the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research (OSPER) 'A' and 'B' sites, located on the Osage Reservation in Osage County, Oklahoma. Stakeholders in the project include the Osage Nation, which holds the mineral rights, the Bureau of Indian Affairs with trust responsibility, and the Army Corps of Engineers, which owns the surface rights at these sites and manages adjacent Skiatook Lake. The 4250-hectare Skiatook Lake provides drinking water to local Tulsa suburban communities and a rural water district, and offers recreational fishing and boating opportunities to tens of thousands of visitors each year. Approximately 1.5 and 1.0 hectare of land at the OSPER 'A' (depleted Lester lease) and 'B' (active Branstetter lease) sites, respectively, are affected by salt scarring, tree kills, soil salinization and brine and petroleum contamination due to the leakage of produced water and associated hydrocarbons from brine pits and accidental

  16. Separations of petroleum products involving supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Thiébaut, Didier

    2012-08-24

    This paper gives a survey of the most attractive trends and applications of supercritical fluid chromatography in the petroleum industry: simulated distillation, group-type analysis and related applications including the implementation of multidetection in a so-called "hypernated" system, as well as the hyphenation to GC×GC for improved group-type separation, SFC×GC and first promising SFC×SFC results. Some specific technical information related to the use of capillary columns or conventional packed columns in combination with FID (or detectors that require decompression and in some instances splitting of the mobile phase prior detection) is also provided.

  17. 40 CFR Table W - 1A of Subpart W-Default Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production W Table W Protection of Environment... Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-1A Table W-1A of Subpart W—Default Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production Onshore petroleum and...

  18. Operation database petroleum GIS results: Evaluation and application of geographic information systems to exploration and production

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, C.C. ); Leonard, J.E. )

    1990-05-01

    FACT: Maps are the principle graphic tool used in exploration and production. FACT: The geographic information systems (GTS) industry exceeds $250 million annually providing powerful mapping tools to a variety of disciplines. FACT: Geographic information systems are infrequently used in exploration and production which represents less than 2% of the total GIS sphere. Therefore, Operation Database Petroleum GIS, sponsored by AAPG's Geobyte and the National Computer Graphics Association, was conceived as an information exchange between the petroleum industry and GIS vendors to address this disparity. The objective of the database was to communicate petroleum industry requirements to GIS vendors and to demonstrate the potential of GIS to the petroleum industry. Requirements, in the form of data and problems, were developed by an industry group representing major and independent oil companies. The problems included base map, well, seismic, lease, transportation, topographic, three-dimensional, and remote sensing exercises. Data included scout well data, directional surveys, production histories, seismic shot-point locations and interpretive times, geologic interpretations (tops and structure and isopach maps), leases, topography, well logs, remote sensing images, gravity contours, and geographic reference information. Over 120 GIS vendors were offered a chance to participate, and nearly 20 engaged in the exercises. This talk will focus on the process, results, and conclusions of Operation Database Petroleum GIS.

  19. Investigation on the continued production of the Naval Petroleum Reserves beyond April 5, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The authority to produce the Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPRs) is due to expire in April 1991, unless extended by Presidential finding. As provided in the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production act of 1976 (Public Law 94-258), the President may continue production of the NPRs for a period of up to three years following the submission to Congress, at least 180 days prior to the expiration of the current production period, of a report that determines that continued production of the NPRs is necessary and a finding by the President that continued production is in the national interest. This report assesses the need to continue production of the NPRs, including analyzing the benefits and costs of extending production or returning to the shut-in status that existed prior to 1976. This continued production study considers strategic, economic, and energy issues at the local, regional, and national levels. 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Method and apparatus for the recovery of refined petroleum products from pipeline mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Click, R.F.

    1981-07-21

    A method is claimed for recovering petroleum products from an interface mixture containing a low boiling gasoline having lead components, a medium boiling aviation fuel, and a high boiling residual petroleum product. The steps involved are preheating a fluid stream containing the interface mixture; introducing the fluid stream into a first fractionation tower operating at a first temperature below the degrading point of the lead components and below the initial boiling point of the aviation fuel; recovering the majority of the gasoline and a major quantity of the lead components as a first overhead product stream from the first tower; recovering a minor fraction of the gasoline along with a minor quantity of the lead components; in addition to the aviation fuel and the residual petroleum product, as a first bottoms stream from the first tower, introducing the bottoms stream into a bottom-fed reactor vessel having a catalyst bed containing a catalyst capable of chemically adsorbing the lead components while the first bottoms stream is liquid; withdrawing a second overhead stream from the top of the reactor vessel and heating the same to a second temperature near the initial boiling point of the aviation fuel; and introducing the heated second overhead stream into a second fractionation tower wherein the remaining gasoline and a small fraction of the aviation fuel are carried off as overhead products, recovering the residual petroleum product as a second bottoms stream, and recovering the remaining fraction of aviation fuel as an intermediate side stream.

  1. Petroleum storage tank cleaning using commercial microbial culture products

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, D.R.; Entzeroth, L.C.; Timmis, A.; Whiteside, A.; Hoskins, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The removal of paraffinic bottom accumulations from refinery storage tanks represents an increasingly costly area of petroleum storage management. Microorganisms can be used to reduce paraffinic bottoms by increasing the solubility of bottom material and by increasing the wax-carrying capacity of carrier oil used in the cleaning process. The economic savings of such treatments are considerable. The process is also intrinsically safer than alternative methods, as it reduces and even eliminates the need for personnel to enter the tank during the cleaning process. Both laboratory and field sample analyses can be used to document changes in tank material during the treatment process. These changes include increases in volatile content and changes in wax distribution. Several case histories illustrating these physical and chemical changes are presented along with the economics of treatment.

  2. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  3. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  4. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  5. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  6. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  7. Identification of refined petroleum products in contaminated soils using an identification index for GC chromatograms.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Dongwook; Ko, Myoung-Soo; Yang, Jung-Seok; Kwon, Man Jae; Lee, Seung-Woo; Lee, Seunghak

    2015-08-01

    Hydrocarbons found in the environment are typically characterized by gas chromatography (GC). The shape of the GC chromatogram has been used to identify the source of petroleum contamination. However, the conventional practice of simply comparing the peak patterns of source products to those of environmental samples is dependent on the subjective decisions of individual analysts. We have developed and verified a quantitative analytical method for interpreting GC chromatograms to distinguish refined petroleum products in contaminated soils. We found that chromatograms for gasoline, kerosene, and diesel could be divided into three ranges with boundaries at C6, C8, C16, and C26. In addition, the relative peak area (RPA(GC)) of each range, a dimensionless ratio of the peak area within each range to that of the total range (C6-C26), had a unique value for each petroleum product. An identification index for GC chromatograms (ID(GC)), defined as the ratio of RPA(GC) of C8-C16 to that of C16-C26, was able to identify diesel and kerosene sources in samples extracted from artificially contaminated soils even after weathering. Thus, the ID(GC) can be used to effectively distinguish between refined petroleum products in contaminated soils.

  8. MERCURY IN PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS: ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of mercury (Hg) in liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons that are produced and/or processed in the U.S. The Hg associated with petroleum and natural gas production and processing enters the environment primarily via solid waste streams (drilli...

  9. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 1. COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SELECTED OILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multicomponent composition and corresponding physical properties data of crude oils and petroleum products are needed as input to environmental fate simulations. Complete sets of such data, however, are not available in the literature due to the complexity and expense of making t...

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 1. COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SELECTED OILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multicomponent composition and corresponding physical properties data of crude oils and petroleum products are needed as input to environmental fate simulations. Complete sets of such data, however, are not available in the literature due to the complexity and expense of making t...

  11. MERCURY IN PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS: ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of mercury (Hg) in liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons that are produced and/or processed in the U.S. The Hg associated with petroleum and natural gas production and processing enters the environment primarily via solid waste streams (drilli...

  12. Summary of events and geotechnical factors leading to decommissioning of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) facility at Weeks Island, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.T.; Bauer, S.J.; Ehgartner, B.L.

    1996-10-01

    A sinkhole discovered over the edge of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facility at Weeks Island salt dome, Louisiana, led to decommissioning the site during 1995--1998, following extensive diagnostics in 1994. The sinkhole resulted from mine-induced fractures in the salt which took may years to develop, eventually causing fresh water to leak into the storage chamber and dissolve the overlying salt, thus causing overburden collapse into the void. Prior to initiating the oil removal, a freeze wall was constructed at depth around the sinkhole in 1995 to prevent water inflow; a freeze plug will remain in place until the mine is backfilled with brine in 1997--8, and stability is reached. Residual oil will be removed; environmental monitoring has been initiated and will continue until the facility is completely plugged and abandoned, and environmental surety is achieved.

  13. A nested case-control study of brain tumors among employees at a petroleum exploration and extraction research facility.

    PubMed

    Buffler, Patricia A; Kelsh, Michael A; Kalmes, Renee M; Lau, Edmund C; Chapman, Pamela S; Wood, Susan M; Brorby, Greg P; Silva, J Michael; Hooper, H Christopher; Rizzo, Barbara Dowdle; Wood, Ralph

    2007-07-01

    Work-related exposures potentially associated with a cluster of brain tumors at a petroleum exploration and extraction research facility were evaluated in a nested case-control study. Fifteen cases were identified in the original cohort and 150 matched controls were selected. Odds ratios (ORs) for occupational exposure to petroleum, radiation, solvents, magnetic fields, and work activities were near or below 1.0. ORs near 1.5 were observed for: working with computers (OR = 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30-9.35); work-related travel (OR = 1.48; 95% CI = 0.25-5.95), and travel immunizations (OR = 1.62; 95% CI = 0.23-9.45). Higher ORs were observed for work in administrative and marketing buildings and for achieving a master's or higher degree (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 0.4-10.7). While some ORs above 1.5 were noted, no work-related chemical and physical exposures were significantly associated with the occurrence of brain tumors among employees at this facility.

  14. A spectroscopic method of determining color of petroleum products using CIELab color space with LED illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, John D.; Comstock, Matthew; Auz, Bryan; Olmstead, Ty

    2017-02-01

    Color is an important metric for determining the quality of petroleum products, as it is a characteristic readily observed by operators and end users and can also be indicative of the degree of refinement of a petroleum product. There are two primary color standards covering a wide range of petroleum color in industry; ASTM D 156 (Saybolt Color Scale) and ASTM D 1500 (ASTM Color Scale). For highly refined petroleum products the industry uses the Saybolt color scale, ranging from 30 at the clearest to -16 at the darkest. Fuels that are darker in color than -16 on the Saybolt scale are tested using the ASTM Color scale, which ranges from 0.5 at the clearest to 8 at the darkest. As fuels age (increased time from the point of refinement), their color darkens because of oxidizing olefins, such as ethylene and propylene. Traditionally, this color scale is measured using a series of photodiodes and optical filters with a blackbody light source. The spectroscopic method described in this paper incorporates a white LED designed for maximizing color measurements. The spectra are processed using CIE 1931 color space, which is then converted into CIELab color space. Results using this method are accurate and repeatable.

  15. Standard test method for density, relative density (specific gravity), or API gravity of crude petroleum and liquid petroleum products by hydrometer method

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This method covers the laboratory determination, using a glass hydrometer, of the density, relative density (specific gravity), of API gravity of crude petroleum, petroleum products, or mixtures of petroleum and nonpetroleum products normally handled as liquids, and having a Reid vapor pressure (Method D 323, or IP 69) of 26 lb or less. Values are measured on a hydrometer at convenient temperatures, reading of density being reduced to 15/sup 0/C, and readings of relative density (specific gravity) and API gravity to 60/sup 0/F, by means of international standard tables. By means of these same tables, values determined in any one of the three systems of measurement are convertible to equivalent values in either of the other two so that measurements may be made in the units of local convenience.

  16. Dedicated nuclear facilities for electrolytic hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foh, S. E.; Escher, W. J. D.; Donakowski, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    An advanced technology, fully dedicated nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen production facility is presented. This plant will produce hydrogen and oxygen only and no electrical power will be generated for off-plant use. The conceptual design was based on hydrogen production to fill a pipeline at 1000 psi and a 3000 MW nuclear base, and the base-line facility nuclear-to-shaftpower and shaftpower-to-electricity subsystems, the water treatment subsystem, electricity-to-hydrogen subsystem, hydrogen compression, efficiency, and hydrogen production cost are discussed. The final conceptual design integrates a 3000 MWth high-temperature gas-cooled reactor operating at 980 C helium reactor-out temperature, direct dc electricity generation via acyclic generators, and high-current density, high-pressure electrolyzers based on the solid polymer electrolyte approach. All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced and pipeline hydrogen is produced at 1000 psi. Hydrogen costs were about half of the conventional nuclear electrolysis process.

  17. Dedicated nuclear facilities for electrolytic hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foh, S. E.; Escher, W. J. D.; Donakowski, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    An advanced technology, fully dedicated nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen production facility is presented. This plant will produce hydrogen and oxygen only and no electrical power will be generated for off-plant use. The conceptual design was based on hydrogen production to fill a pipeline at 1000 psi and a 3000 MW nuclear base, and the base-line facility nuclear-to-shaftpower and shaftpower-to-electricity subsystems, the water treatment subsystem, electricity-to-hydrogen subsystem, hydrogen compression, efficiency, and hydrogen production cost are discussed. The final conceptual design integrates a 3000 MWth high-temperature gas-cooled reactor operating at 980 C helium reactor-out temperature, direct dc electricity generation via acyclic generators, and high-current density, high-pressure electrolyzers based on the solid polymer electrolyte approach. All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced and pipeline hydrogen is produced at 1000 psi. Hydrogen costs were about half of the conventional nuclear electrolysis process.

  18. Development of a Medical Cyclotron Production Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Danny R.

    2003-08-26

    Development of a Cyclotron manufacturing facility begins with a business plan. Geographics, the size and activity of the medical community, the growth potential of the modality being served, and other business connections are all considered. This business used the customer base established by NuTech, Inc., an independent centralized nuclear pharmacy founded by Danny Allen. With two pharmacies in operation in Tyler and College Station and a customer base of 47 hospitals and clinics the existing delivery system and pharmacist staff is used for the cyclotron facility. We then added cyclotron products to contracts with these customers to guarantee a supply. We partnered with a company in the process of developing PET imaging centers. We then built an independent imaging center attached to the cyclotron facility to allow for the use of short-lived isotopes.

  19. Development of a Medical Cyclotron Production Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Danny R.

    2003-08-01

    Development of a Cyclotron manufacturing facility begins with a business plan. Geographics, the size and activity of the medical community, the growth potential of the modality being served, and other business connections are all considered. This business used the customer base established by NuTech, Inc., an independent centralized nuclear pharmacy founded by Danny Allen. With two pharmacies in operation in Tyler and College Station and a customer base of 47 hospitals and clinics the existing delivery system and pharmacist staff is used for the cyclotron facility. We then added cyclotron products to contracts with these customers to guarantee a supply. We partnered with a company in the process of developing PET imaging centers. We then built an independent imaging center attached to the cyclotron facility to allow for the use of short-lived isotopes.

  20. Production-related petroleum microbiology: progress and prospects.

    PubMed

    Voordouw, Gerrit

    2011-06-01

    Microbial activity in oil reservoirs is common. Methanogenic consortia hydrolyze low molecular weight components to methane and CO2, transforming light oil to heavy oil to bitumen. The presence of sulfate in injection water causes sulfate-reducing bacteria to produce sulfide. This souring can be reversed by nitrate, stimulating nitrate-reducing bacteria. Removing biogenic sulfide is important, because it contributes to pitting corrosion and resulting pipeline failures. Increased water production eventually makes oil production uneconomic. Microbial fermentation products can lower oil viscosity or interfacial tension and produced biomass can block undesired flow paths to produce more oil. These biotechnologies benefit from increased understanding of reservoir microbial ecology through new sequence technologies and help to decrease the environmental impact of oil production.

  1. Comparing Migration Pathways of Biodegradation Products from Petroleum Hydrocarbon Natural Attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, E.; de Sieyes, N. R.; Mackay, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons contaminants frequently exist in both the vadose and saturated zones at contaminated fuel sites. Natural biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants occur in in situ reactive zones present in both the vadose and saturated zones. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons results in a mass discharge of gaseous biodegradation products through the vadose zone and transport of dissolved gases through the saturated zone. While previous studies have focused solely on transport of degradation products or geochemical parameters in groundwater or efflux of gaseous byproducts from the vadose zone, this study examines both pathways for discharge of degradation products. Quantifying the mass discharge of the biodegradation products through these zones is important to estimate the rates of natural source attenuation, assess the success of monitored natural attenuation, and quantify and document contaminant mass loss. In this study, surface efflux and groundwater mass discharge rates of biodegradation products (carbon dioxide, methane, and other intermediates) were quantified using field data. Field and analytical methodologies will be presented along with the results of the data analysis and a discussion of the uncertainties. Based on the data analysis, the surface efflux pathway through the vadose was found to be the dominant pathway for carbon loss at the monitored field site.

  2. Succession in the petroleum reservoir microbiome through an oil field production lifecycle

    DOE PAGES

    Vigneron, Adrien; Alsop, Eric B.; Lomans, Bartholomeus P.; ...

    2017-05-19

    Subsurface petroleum reservoirs are an important component of the deep biosphere where indigenous microorganisms live under extreme conditions and in isolation from the Earth's surface for millions of years. However, unlike the bulk of the deep biosphere, the petroleum reservoir deep biosphere is subject to extreme anthropogenic perturbation, with the introduction of new electron acceptors, donors and exogenous microbes during oil exploration and production. Despite the fundamental and practical significance of this perturbation, there has never been a systematic evaluation of the ecological changes that occur over the production lifetime of an active offshore petroleum production system. Analysis of themore » entire Halfdan oil field in the North Sea (32 producing wells in production for 1-15 years) using quantitative PCR, multigenic sequencing, comparative metagenomic and genomic bins reconstruction revealed systematic shifts in microbial community composition and metabolic potential, as well as changing ecological strategies in response to anthropogenic perturbation of the oil field ecosystem, related to length of time in production. The microbial communities were initially dominated by slow growing anaerobes such as members of the Thermotogales and Clostridiales adapted to living on hydrocarbons and complex refractory organic matter. However, as seawater and nitrate injection (used for secondary oil production) delivered oxidants, the microbial community composition progressively changed to fast growing opportunists such as members of the Deferribacteres, Delta-, Epsilon- and Gammaproteobacteria, with energetically more favorable metabolism (for example, nitrate reduction, H2S, sulfide and sulfur oxidation). This perturbation has profound consequences for understanding the microbial ecology of the system and is of considerable practical importance as it promotes detrimental processes such as reservoir souring and metal corrosion. These findings provide a new

  3. Succession in the petroleum reservoir microbiome through an oil field production lifecycle.

    PubMed

    Vigneron, Adrien; Alsop, Eric B; Lomans, Bartholomeus P; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Head, Ian M; Tsesmetzis, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    Subsurface petroleum reservoirs are an important component of the deep biosphere where indigenous microorganisms live under extreme conditions and in isolation from the Earth's surface for millions of years. However, unlike the bulk of the deep biosphere, the petroleum reservoir deep biosphere is subject to extreme anthropogenic perturbation, with the introduction of new electron acceptors, donors and exogenous microbes during oil exploration and production. Despite the fundamental and practical significance of this perturbation, there has never been a systematic evaluation of the ecological changes that occur over the production lifetime of an active offshore petroleum production system. Analysis of the entire Halfdan oil field in the North Sea (32 producing wells in production for 1-15 years) using quantitative PCR, multigenic sequencing, comparative metagenomic and genomic bins reconstruction revealed systematic shifts in microbial community composition and metabolic potential, as well as changing ecological strategies in response to anthropogenic perturbation of the oil field ecosystem, related to length of time in production. The microbial communities were initially dominated by slow growing anaerobes such as members of the Thermotogales and Clostridiales adapted to living on hydrocarbons and complex refractory organic matter. However, as seawater and nitrate injection (used for secondary oil production) delivered oxidants, the microbial community composition progressively changed to fast growing opportunists such as members of the Deferribacteres, Delta-, Epsilon- and Gammaproteobacteria, with energetically more favorable metabolism (for example, nitrate reduction, H2S, sulfide and sulfur oxidation). This perturbation has profound consequences for understanding the microbial ecology of the system and is of considerable practical importance as it promotes detrimental processes such as reservoir souring and metal corrosion. These findings provide a new

  4. Succession in the petroleum reservoir microbiome through an oil field production lifecycle

    PubMed Central

    Vigneron, Adrien; Alsop, Eric B; Lomans, Bartholomeus P; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Head, Ian M; Tsesmetzis, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Subsurface petroleum reservoirs are an important component of the deep biosphere where indigenous microorganisms live under extreme conditions and in isolation from the Earth’s surface for millions of years. However, unlike the bulk of the deep biosphere, the petroleum reservoir deep biosphere is subject to extreme anthropogenic perturbation, with the introduction of new electron acceptors, donors and exogenous microbes during oil exploration and production. Despite the fundamental and practical significance of this perturbation, there has never been a systematic evaluation of the ecological changes that occur over the production lifetime of an active offshore petroleum production system. Analysis of the entire Halfdan oil field in the North Sea (32 producing wells in production for 1–15 years) using quantitative PCR, multigenic sequencing, comparative metagenomic and genomic bins reconstruction revealed systematic shifts in microbial community composition and metabolic potential, as well as changing ecological strategies in response to anthropogenic perturbation of the oil field ecosystem, related to length of time in production. The microbial communities were initially dominated by slow growing anaerobes such as members of the Thermotogales and Clostridiales adapted to living on hydrocarbons and complex refractory organic matter. However, as seawater and nitrate injection (used for secondary oil production) delivered oxidants, the microbial community composition progressively changed to fast growing opportunists such as members of the Deferribacteres, Delta-, Epsilon- and Gammaproteobacteria, with energetically more favorable metabolism (for example, nitrate reduction, H2S, sulfide and sulfur oxidation). This perturbation has profound consequences for understanding the microbial ecology of the system and is of considerable practical importance as it promotes detrimental processes such as reservoir souring and metal corrosion. These findings provide a new

  5. Water Consumption in the Production of Ethanol and Petroleum Gasoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

  6. Water consumption in the production of ethanol and petroleum gasoline.

    PubMed

    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

  7. Studies on water-in-oil products from crude oils and petroleum products.

    PubMed

    Fingas, Merv; Fieldhouse, Ben

    2012-02-01

    Water-in-oil mixtures such as emulsions, often form and complicate oil spill countermeasures. The formation of water-in-oil mixtures was studied using more than 300 crude oils and petroleum products. Water-in-oil types were characterized by resolution of water at 1 and 7 days, and some after 1 year. Rheology measurements were carried out at the same intervals. The objective of this laboratory study was to characterize the formed water-in-oil products and relate these properties to starting oil properties. Analysis of the starting oil properties of these water-in-oil types shows that the existence of each type relates to the starting oil viscosity and its asphaltene and resin contents. This confirms that water-in-oil emulsification is a result of physical stabilization by oil viscosity and chemical stabilization by asphaltenes and resins. This stabilization is illustrated using simple graphical techniques. Four water-in-oil types exist: stable, unstable, meso-stable and entrained. Each of these has distinct physical properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling fish production for southern California's petroleum platforms.

    PubMed

    Pondella, Daniel J; Zahn, Laurel A; Love, Milton S; Siegel, David; Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    California's oil platforms are nearing the end of their productive lives and therefore will be decommissioned in the near future. These structures have been shown to be important habitats for both settlement and growth for reef fishes. Important information on the biological effects (i.e., loss of biomass and production) of different decommissioning options has not yet been explored in detail. An important step in the assessment of these different decommissioning options is to look at the potential loss of fish production and habitat under the different alternatives. Using the large amount of information available on fish abundances at these structures, we have created a model to estimate the standing stock of fishes and production that would be lost because of both partial (removal from surface to 85 ft) and complete removal (the 2 decommissioning options being considered). Complete removal of a platform will likely eliminate most of its fish biomass; however, this study has shown that for rockfishes, which settle predominantly below 85 feet (26 m) and move deeper as they age, partial removal through topping would leave more than 90% of the fish biomass at the deeper platforms. Modeling of larval dispersal suggests that platforms provide an important opportunity for recruitment of fish larvae and that many larvae produced near the platforms would settle elsewhere in the region. The results presented here indicate that, even if topped, the potential contribution of platform habitat to biological resources (e.g., fish production) in this region is significant. © 2015 SETAC.

  9. [Evaluation of the efficiency of Angara River water protection measures against pollution by petroleum products].

    PubMed

    Zabuga, G A; Katul'skiĭ, Iu N; Gorbunova, O V; Storozheva, L N

    2011-01-01

    The process installations and storage reservoirs of a petroleum refinery have leaks of petroleum products (PP) that pollute soil, underground waters, and eventually nearest water objects, by worsening their hygienic state. Environmental and economic assessments of the Angara River water protection system that is in operation at the petroleum refinery OAO "Angara Petroleum Company", which comprises well clusters, a gravel-filled trench, and a drainage system, have shown the high values of preventable relative natural and economic damages and other economic indicators. At the same time, comparison of the amount of PPs accumulated at the industrial site with their annual withdrawal has demonstrated a need for further development of a river protection system. Therefore the environmental protection system efficacy evaluated by the quality of goal attainment and by means of a matrix of algorithmized statements was 60% or 5 of 20 scores, which shows the necessity of special measures to protect Angara River waters. The elaboration and implementation of these measures associated with considerable expenditures make it possible not only to increase the environmental efficiency of water protection of the Angara River, but also to do the hygienic quality of water use in its related localities.

  10. Assessing Bacillus subtilis biosurfactant effects on the biodegradation of petroleum products.

    PubMed

    Montagnolli, Renato Nallin; Lopes, Paulo Renato Matos; Bidoia, Ederio Dino

    2015-01-01

    Microbial pollutant removal capabilities can be determined and exploited to accomplish bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted environments. Thus, increasing knowledge on environmental behavior of different petroleum products can lead to better bioremediation strategies. Biodegradation can be enhanced by adding biosurfactants to hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism consortia. This work aimed to improve petroleum products biodegradation by using a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis. The produced biosurfactant was added to biodegradation assays containing crude oil, diesel, and kerosene. Biodegradation was monitored by a respirometric technique capable of evaluating CO₂ production in an aerobic simulated wastewater environment. The biosurfactant yielded optimal surface tension reduction (30.9 mN m(-1)) and emulsification results (46.90% with kerosene). Biodegradation successfully occurred and different profiles were observed for each substance. Precise mathematical modeling of biosurfactant effects on petroleum degradation profile was designed, hence allowing long-term kinetics prediction. Assays containing biosurfactant yielded a higher overall CO₂ output. Higher emulsification and an enhanced CO2 production dataset on assays containing biosurfactants was observed, especially in crude oil and kerosene.

  11. Production Facility System Reliability Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Crystal Buchanan; Klein, Steven Karl

    2015-10-06

    This document describes the reliability, maintainability, and availability (RMA) modeling of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) design for the Closed Loop Helium Cooling System (CLHCS) planned for the NorthStar accelerator-based 99Mo production facility. The current analysis incorporates a conceptual helium recovery system, beam diagnostics, and prototype control system into the reliability analysis. The results from the 1000 hr blower test are addressed.

  12. Products equip facilities for effective response

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    EPA and OSHA require facilities using hazardous materials to have on hand such emergency response tools as PPE, and spill control, cleanup and decontamination equipment. Regulations specifically refer to absorbents for cleaning up possible spills. Many spill response products are available to ensure compliance and preparedness for spills involving hazardous substances. For example, absorbents are composed of diverse materials to provide various levels of chemical compatibility, depending on company requirements. Facilities using hazardous chemicals must inventory their stock to determine what materials they need, including: Selective absorbents to absorb oil and repel water; non-selective absorbents to absorb liquids, although some materials are compatible with some chemicals. Spill kits are convenient containers for spill response products. Kits should be designed to handle the worst possible spill. Although vendors offer numerous standard configurations, customized kits meeting specific facility requirements often are most effective. Finally, spill response products provide effective means for managing hazardous materials releases onsite, but proper training ultimately is the key to accomplishing such tasks effectively.

  13. 29 CFR 794.137 - Effect of activities other than “wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum products.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... distribution of petroleum products.â 794.137 Section 794.137 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... RELATED TO REGULATIONS PARTIAL OVERTIME EXEMPTION FOR EMPLOYEES OF WHOLESALE OR BULK PETROLEUM... other than “wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum products.” As previously noted, in some...

  14. 29 CFR 794.137 - Effect of activities other than “wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum products.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... distribution of petroleum products.â 794.137 Section 794.137 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... RELATED TO REGULATIONS PARTIAL OVERTIME EXEMPTION FOR EMPLOYEES OF WHOLESALE OR BULK PETROLEUM... other than “wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum products.” As previously noted, in some...

  15. 29 CFR 794.137 - Effect of activities other than “wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum products.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... distribution of petroleum products.â 794.137 Section 794.137 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... RELATED TO REGULATIONS PARTIAL OVERTIME EXEMPTION FOR EMPLOYEES OF WHOLESALE OR BULK PETROLEUM... other than “wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum products.” As previously noted, in some...

  16. 29 CFR 794.137 - Effect of activities other than “wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum products.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... distribution of petroleum products.â 794.137 Section 794.137 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... RELATED TO REGULATIONS PARTIAL OVERTIME EXEMPTION FOR EMPLOYEES OF WHOLESALE OR BULK PETROLEUM... other than “wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum products.” As previously noted, in some...

  17. 29 CFR 794.137 - Effect of activities other than “wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum products.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... distribution of petroleum products.â 794.137 Section 794.137 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... RELATED TO REGULATIONS PARTIAL OVERTIME EXEMPTION FOR EMPLOYEES OF WHOLESALE OR BULK PETROLEUM... other than “wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum products.” As previously noted, in some...

  18. Transient fluid flow and heat transfer in petroleum production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dongqing

    Heat transfer is an important phenomenon in both wellbore and reservoir. The pertinent temperature distribution can provide a valuable perspective in analyzing and optimizing the oil production. In this work, two kinds of co-production, production fluid through the annulus and tubing, and through two independent tubings, have been modeled using steady state analysis. The fluid temperatures in the production string and annulus have been solved analytically in both cases. Furthermore, we extended the theory of steady state energy transport to remedy asphaltene deposition problem by circulating the cooling fluid in the annulus. Due to the complex nature of two-phase flow in the oil/gas production, more reliable mechanistic modeling approaches have been developed since early 1980's. Rooted in Hasan-Kabir model, we have developed a wellbore/reservoir coupling simulator for the transient non-Darcy two-phase flow in the flow-after-flow well test. The entire historical flow behavior has been modeled using superposition method and validated with field data. Our second simulation is for the investigation of a blowout well, which is a great concern in the oil field. When the pressure in the wellbore is sufficiently high, the fluids will attain sonic velocity at the wellhead. We presented a computational algorithm to estimate the blowout rate in a given wellbore/reservoir system and examined four major parameters, such as formation permeability, Gas-Oil-Ratio (GOR), reservoir pressure and tubing diameter. The transient nature of this approach also illustrates the evolution process of a blowout. We have also developed a transient simulator to determine the location and severity of a blockage in a gas pipeline based on the theory of two-phase flow and pressure transient analysis. The presence of a sizeable blockage will affect the outlet gas pressure response by decreasing the available pipe volume and increasing the friction loss of the fluid flow. The simulator solves for the

  19. Application of FTIR spectroscopy for the prediction of properties of Australian refined-petroleum products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokot, Serge; Asker, Nazaneen

    1992-03-01

    An NIR/mid-IR approach for the prediction of properties of petroleum products such as reformate (REF), light catalytic naphtha (LCN) and stripper bottom (STRBM) is outlined. Examples of suitable spectral ranges selected with the assistance of property correlation spectra and statistics are shown and some illustrations of predictions of properties such as the research octane number (RON) and the flexible volatility index (FVI) are provided.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  1. Production operation of small petroleum enterprises in Tomsk region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharf, I.; Filjushin, V.; Shenderova, I.; Kochetkova, O.

    2015-11-01

    Implementing resource-innovative strategy to develop Russian fuel-and-energy sector implies the promotion of small oil production enterprises developing fields with the reserves of less than 5 mln. tons. However, the efficiency of such enterprises, investigated on the example of Tomsk region (considering the indexes of oil extraction, growth of reserves, amount of capital expenditures and geological surveys), signifies the presence of definite tendencies. Consequently, management decisions concerning economic, organizational, financial and fiscal character should be taken in order to eliminate detrimental factors.

  2. Consolidating and Dispatching Truck Shipments of Mobil Heavy Petroleum Products

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-01

    8217 INTERFACES 25:2 uc;;uallv rt•ached bdore truck \\ <llume limit-... llo\\\\ e\\ t’r, ..,ome product., ilrt’ light (for ex- ample, flal-.;ed \\\\cl...c;uc- l"es-. with centralized wmputt>r assic;ted d1..,patch of light produrto; 111 the early 19HO ... reported latl’r b\\- Brown, 1-llio.;, Crave...in light of the di..,Pl’l"!>lon of ordt>rs over a rclt~tively lt~rge geographiC area . Common and contract cc1rriers are an uphl>n fur \\ irtualh

  3. A compositional multiphase model for groundwater contamination by petroleum products: 1. Theoretical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corapcioglu, M.Y.; Baehr, Arthur L.

    1987-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to describe the fate of hydrocarbon constituents of petroleum products introduced to soils as an immiscible liquid from sources such as leaking underground storage tanks and ruptured pipelines. The problem is one of multiphase transport (oil (immiscible), air, and water phases) of a reactive contaminant with constituents such as benzene, toluene, and xylene found in refined petroleum products like gasoline. In the unsaturated zone, transport of each constituent can occur as a solute in the water phase, vapor in the air phase, and as an unaltered constituent in the oil phase. Additionally, the model allows for adsorption. Molecular transformations, microbially mediated or abiotic, are incorporated as sink terms in the conservation of mass equations. An equilibrium approximation, applicable to any immiscible organic contaminant is applied to partition constituent mass between the air, oil, water, and adsorbed phases for points in the region where the oil phase exists. Outside the oil plume the equilibrium approximation takes on a simpler form to partition constituent mass between the air, water, and adsorbed phases only. Microbial degradation of petroleum products is first discussed in a general model, then the conservation of mass equation for oxygen is incorporated into the analysis which takes advantage of the key role played by oxygen in the metabolism of hydrocarbon utilizing microbes in soil environments. Approximations to two subproblems, oil plume establishment in the unsaturated zone, and solute and vapor transport subsequent to immiscible plume establishment are then developed from the general model.

  4. Declining Petroleum Production and the Effect Upon Communities in New Mexico's Permian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipton, Ryan D.

    The petroleum industry, a vital component of New Mexico's economy, is in a gradual decline. As petroleum production is primarily focused in the southeastern corner of the state, this decline phenomenon is particularly relevant to area residents. The problem addressed in this study was that little information is available regarding the lived experiences of business and community leaders concerning this phenomenon, particularly in terms of future economic sustainability. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to interview a purposive sample of business and community leaders regarding their lived experiences and perceptions relating to the economic sustainability of the region. Research questions asked about the general awareness of the decline of oil production---data collected from federal and state databases---and potential options for alternative economic development. Coded data were analyzed and themes and patterns were identified. Findings included a general lack of awareness of area residents regarding a decline of production, assumed economic stability, and resistance to change based on a lack of incentive. Included in the findings were potential options for strategic economic diversification. Recommendations included a campaign to promote awareness of the decline of oil, provide incentives for change, and economic diversification as method of moving the local economy away from dependence upon the petroleum industry. Implications for positive social change were that the affected region can use the findings to identify sustainable alternative industries to support the communities into the future.

  5. Treatment of effluents from petroleum production by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Celina Lopes; Geraldo, Lucia Limoeiro; Junior, Oswaldo de Aquino P.; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Sato, Ivone Mulako; Sampa, Maria Helena de Oliveira

    2004-09-01

    During the offshore oil production large volumes of aqueous waste with high salinity are produced. The produced water originates mainly from the oil-bearing formation but may also include seawater, which has been injected to maintain reservoir pressure. This water is normally separated from oil on the platform generating aqueous effluent with metals, sulfite, ammonium and organic compounds. The conventional treatment used includes filtration, flotation, ionic change and adsorption in activated charcoal, but the high salinity of this water decreases the treatment efficiency. The high efficiency of electron beam irradiation on removing organic compound in industrial effluent has been shown, and the primary aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of this new technology to treat the oil water production. Experiments were conducted using samples from two platforms processed in the radiation dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37 kW power. The results showed that the electron beam technology has high efficiency in destroying organic compounds even in the presence of high salinity and complex effluent.

  6. Use of coal tar pitch and petroleum bitumen in the production of thermally expanded graphite (Short Communication)

    SciTech Connect

    T.P. Miloshenko; O.Yu. Fetisova; M.L. Shchipko; B.N. Kuznetsov

    2008-06-15

    The applicability of coal tar pitch and petroleum bitumen to the production of thermally expanded graphite was studied. The dependence of the coefficient of thermal expansion and the specific surface area on the amount of added substances was examined.

  7. 77 FR 28405 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on April 17, 2012, pursuant to Section 6... Act''), Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (``PERF'') has filed written notifications...

  8. 76 FR 78044 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on November 1, 2011, pursuant to Section... Act''), Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (``PERF'') has filed written notifications...

  9. 77 FR 14046 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on January 31, 2012, pursuant to Section... Act''), Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (``PERF'') has filed written notifications...

  10. 77 FR 61786 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on September 10, 2012, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (``PERF'') has filed written notifications...

  11. Process, optimized acidizing reduce production facility upsets

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.A.; Hill, D.G.; McConnell, S.B.; Johnson, M.R.

    1997-02-10

    The filtration/absorption process, coupled with optimum treatments, prevent facility upsets that increase the time and resources required for bringing a well back on-line following an acid stimulation. Surface active agents, required in acidizing to improve well productivity, can form oil/water emulsions and cause unacceptable oil and grease levels during acid flowback. But recent offshore experiences after acidizing show that operators can achieve oil and grease discharge limits without facility upsets. To minimize oil and grease, the additives need to be optimized by adding a mutual breakout solvent (MBS). MBS has the dual function of being a mutual solvent and a sludge and emulsion control additive. The paper discusses acidizing problems, acid additives, handling options, and a case history of the Main Pass A field.

  12. Petroleum: An Energy Profile 1999

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    Explains in layman's terms the major components and operations of the U.S. petroleum industry that include: petroleum products, resources and reserves, drilling and exploration, refining, storage and transportation, imports, exports, and petroleum marketing.

  13. Energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emission intensity of petroleum products at U.S. refineries.

    PubMed

    Elgowainy, Amgad; Han, Jeongwoo; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; Forman, Grant S; DiVita, Vincent B

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of (1) a formula correlating the variation in overall refinery energy efficiency with crude quality, refinery complexity, and product slate; and (2) a methodology for calculating energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensities and processing fuel shares of major U.S. refinery products. Overall refinery energy efficiency is the ratio of the energy present in all product streams divided by the energy in all input streams. Using linear programming (LP) modeling of the various refinery processing units, we analyzed 43 refineries that process 70% of total crude input to U.S. refineries and cover the largest four Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) regions (I, II, III, V). Based on the allocation of process energy among products at the process unit level, the weighted-average product-specific energy efficiencies (and ranges) are estimated to be 88.6% (86.2%-91.2%) for gasoline, 90.9% (84.8%-94.5%) for diesel, 95.3% (93.0%-97.5%) for jet fuel, 94.5% (91.6%-96.2%) for residual fuel oil (RFO), and 90.8% (88.0%-94.3%) for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The corresponding weighted-average, production GHG emission intensities (and ranges) (in grams of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2e) per megajoule (MJ)) are estimated to be 7.8 (6.2-9.8) for gasoline, 4.9 (2.7-9.9) for diesel, 2.3 (0.9-4.4) for jet fuel, 3.4 (1.5-6.9) for RFO, and 6.6 (4.3-9.2) for LPG. The findings of this study are key components of the life-cycle assessment of GHG emissions associated with various petroleum fuels; such assessment is the centerpiece of legislation developed and promulgated by government agencies in the United States and abroad to reduce GHG emissions and abate global warming.

  14. Hydrocarbon groups type analysis of petroleum products by HPLC on specific stationary phases

    SciTech Connect

    Felix, G.; Thoumazeau, E.; Colin, J.M.; Vion, G.

    1987-01-01

    The hydrocarbon group types analysis of a large number of petroleum products by HPLC equipped with columns of suitable selectivity is described. An effective approach to the factors influencing the specificity of the columns was developed and stationary phases were synthetised in function of the products to be separated. All new phases were characterized by elemental, /sup 29/Si and /sup 13/C NMR analyses. The potentialities of these phases were illustrated by analysis of selected samples either of fundamental or of industrial interest.

  15. Microbial abundance and community composition influence production performance in a low-temperature petroleum reservoir.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqiang; Gao, Peike; Wu, Yunqiang; Tian, Huimei; Dai, Xuecheng; Wang, Yansen; Cui, Qingfeng; Zhang, Hongzuo; Pan, Xiaoxuan; Dong, Hanping; Ma, Ting

    2014-05-06

    Enhanced oil recovery using indigenous microorganisms has been successfully applied in the petroleum industry, but the role of microorganisms remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the relationship between microbial population dynamics and oil production performance during a water flooding process coupled with nutrient injection in a low-temperature petroleum reservoir. Samples were collected monthly over a two-year period. The microbial composition of samples was determined using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. Our results indicated that the microbial community structure in each production well microhabitat was dramatically altered during flooding with eutrophic water. As well as an increase in the density of microorganisms, biosurfactant producers, such as Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Rhodococcus, and Rhizobium, were detected in abundance. Furthermore, the density of these microorganisms was closely related to the incremental oil production. Oil emulsification and changes in the fluid-production profile were also observed. In addition, we found that microbial community structure was strongly correlated with environmental factors, such as water content and total nitrogen. These results suggest that injected nutrients increase the abundance of microorganisms, particularly biosurfactant producers. These bacteria and their metabolic products subsequently emulsify oil and alter fluid-production profiles to enhance oil recovery.

  16. Development of Prototype Production ESR Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-01

    4 3^ SCHEMATIC OF A STEEL FUNNEL MOLD ESR INGOT CASTING SET-UP 6 4. SCHEMATIC OF ESR HOLLOW INGOT MANUFACTURING SYSTEM 8 5. ESR HOLLOW INGOT...UP SLAG SKIN ESR INGOT IN GOT STOOL FIGURE 3. SCHEMATIC OTA STEEL FUNNEL MOLD (MOVES UPjESR INGOT CASTING SET UP Title: Development of...Prototype Production ESR Facilities Because the steel mold was heavy, a two-sided support and lift system was used. An x-ray molten metal scanning device

  17. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-16

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

  18. Consumptive water use in the production of ethanonl and petroleum gasoline.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.; Mintz, M.; Wang, M.; Arora, S.; Energy Systems

    2009-01-30

    The production of energy feedstocks and fuels requires substantial water input. Not only do biofuel feedstocks like corn, switchgrass, and agricultural residues need water for growth and conversion to ethanol, but petroleum feedstocks like crude oil and oil sands also require large volumes of water for drilling, extraction, and conversion into petroleum products. Moreover, in many cases, crude oil production is increasingly water dependent. Competing uses strain available water resources and raise the specter of resource depletion and environmental degradation. Water management has become a key feature of existing projects and a potential issue in new ones. This report examines the growing issue of water use in energy production by characterizing current consumptive water use in liquid fuel production. As used throughout this report, 'consumptive water use' is the sum total of water input less water output that is recycled and reused for the process. The estimate applies to surface and groundwater sources for irrigation but does not include precipitation. Water requirements are evaluated for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, ethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from Canadian oil sands, Saudi Arabian crude, and U.S. conventional crude from onshore wells. Regional variations and historic trends are noted, as are opportunities to reduce water use.

  19. Environmental and petroleum resource conflicts: a simulation model to determine the benefits of petroleum production in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Goerold, W.T.

    1987-01-01

    The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), located on the Alaska North Slope, is believed to contain high petroleum production potential. This region also has outstanding wildlife and wilderness values. Currently ANWR is closed to oil and gas leasing. However, Congress is considering an Interior Department recommendation to open a portion of ANWR to oil and gas production. Environmentalists maintain that petroleum exploration and development will have severe environmental impacts. A draft study by the Interior Department reports values that are used to generate an expected present value of the net economic benefits of petroleum development in ANWR of $2.98 billion. Alternatively, using updated oil price projections and revised tax and financial assumptions, the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Financial Analysis Simulation Model (AFAM) projects the expected present value of net economic benefits of oil production at between $0.32 and $1.39 billion. AFAM results indicate that, within most drilling cost scenarios, oil producers would earn an aftertax profit in 100% of the simulation trials. However, in a high-cost drilling scenario, AFAM projects aftertax losses to oil producers in 45% of the simulation trials. Although the Interior Department does not report a range of net economic benefits from oil development of ANWR, AFAM indicates that the distribution of net economic benefits across all scenarios is positively skewed. Net economic benefits from oil development range from $0 to $4.75 billion with a greater probability of benefits closer to the lower value. Decision makers considering whether or not to open ANWR to petroleum development can use these values to judge if the economic benefits outweigh the projected negative wilderness and wildlife impacts. 10 references, 9 figures, 6 tables.

  20. Spatially explicit methane emissions from petroleum production and the natural gas system in California.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seongeun; Millstein, Dev; Fischer, Marc L

    2014-05-20

    We present a new, spatially resolved inventory of methane (CH4) emissions based on US-EPA emission factors and publically available activity data for 2010 California petroleum production and natural gas production, processing, transmission, and distribution. Compared to official California bottom-up inventories, our initial estimates are 3 to 7 times higher for the petroleum and natural gas production sectors but similar for the natural gas transmission and distribution sectors. Evidence from published "top-down" atmospheric measurement campaigns within Southern California supports our initial emission estimates from production and processing but indicates emission estimates from transmission and distribution are low by a factor of approximately 2. To provide emission maps with more accurate total emissions we scale the spatially resolved inventory by sector-specific results from a Southern California aircraft measurement campaign to all of California. Assuming uncertainties are determined by the uncertainties estimated in the top-down study, our estimated state total CH4 emissions are 541 ± 144 Gg yr(-1) (as compared with 210.7 Gg yr(-1) in California's current official inventory), where the majority of our reported uncertainty is derived from transmission and distribution. We note uncertainties relative to the mean for a given region are likely larger than that for the State total, emphasizing the need for additional measurements in undersampled regions.

  1. Preliminary investigation of soil and ground-water contamination at a U.S. Army Petroleum Training Facility, Fort Lee, Virginia, September-October 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, W.G.; Powell, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel-oil constituents in the soil and groundwater at the Fort Lee Petroleum Training Facility near Petersburg, Virginia, were studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Department of Defense, U.S. Army. The study included installation of 25 groundwater monitoring wells and description of groundwater flow patterns of the shallow-aquifer system underlying the facility. Soil and groundwater samples were collected to determine the concentrations of fuel-oil constituents and to determine the potential for off-site migration of the constituents. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations up to 18,400 mg/km were reported in soil samples. Concentrations of benzene in water from wells at the facility were up to 130 micrograms per liter (ug/L), and concentrations of ethylbenzene and xylene were up to 54 and 120 ug/L, respectively. Potential exists for off-site migration of the contaminants and migration of contaminants downward to deeper aquifers. Further investigations of these potential contamination-migration pathways are warranted. Risk identification at the Petroleum Training Facility cannot be properly addressed because the distribution of the fuel-oil constituents has not been fully characterized. Preliminary identification of risk, however is presented by an examination of toxicity data for the chemical constituents reported in the groundwater at the facility. Concentrations of constituents were compared to the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Concentrations of benzene in water from wells at the facility exceed the USEPA 's 5 ug/L MCL by as much as 26 times. Sufficient data are not available to fully design the remedial-action plan for the facility; however, general responses to contamination of the type associated with the facility include no-action, monitoring, institutional controls, removal, and treatment. (USGS)

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  3. An integrated assessment of location-dependent scaling for microalgae biofuel production facilities

    DOE PAGES

    Coleman, André M.; Abodeely, Jared M.; Skaggs, Richard L.; ...

    2014-06-19

    Successful development of a large-scale microalgae-based biofuels industry requires comprehensive analysis and understanding of the feedstock supply chain—from facility siting and design through processing and upgrading of the feedstock to a fuel product. The evolution from pilot-scale production facilities to energy-scale operations presents many multi-disciplinary challenges, including a sustainable supply of water and nutrients, operational and infrastructure logistics, and economic competitiveness with petroleum-based fuels. These challenges are partially addressed by applying the Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF) – an integrated multi-scale modeling, analysis, and data management suite – to address key issues in developing and operating an open-pond microalgae production facility.more » This is done by analyzing how variability and uncertainty over space and through time affect feedstock production rates, and determining the site-specific “optimum” facility scale to minimize capital and operational expenses. This approach explicitly and systematically assesses the interdependence of biofuel production potential, associated resource requirements, and production system design trade-offs. To provide a baseline analysis, the IAF was applied in this paper to a set of sites in the southeastern U.S. with the potential to cumulatively produce 5 billion gallons per year. Finally, the results indicate costs can be reduced by scaling downstream processing capabilities to fit site-specific growing conditions, available and economically viable resources, and specific microalgal strains.« less

  4. Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The gasifier selected for development under this contract is an innovative and patented hybrid technology which combines the best features of both fixed-bed and fluidized-bed types. PyGas{trademark}, meaning Pyrolysis Gasification, is well suited for integration into advanced power cycles such as IGCC. It is also well matched to hot gas clean-up technologies currently in development. Unlike other gasification technologies, PyGas can be designed into both large and small scale systems. It is expected that partial repowering with PyGas could be done at a cost of electricity of only 2.78 cents/kWh, more economical than natural gas repowering. It is extremely unfortunate that Government funding for such a noble cause is becoming reduced to the point where current contracts must be canceled. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project was initiated to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology at a cost approaching $1,000 per kilowatt for electric power generation applications. The project was to include an innovative, advanced, air-blown, pressurized, fixed-bed, dry-bottom gasifier and a follow-on hot metal oxide gas desulfurization sub-system. To help defray the cost of testing materials, the facility was to be located at a nearby utility coal fired generating site. The patented PyGas{trademark} technology was selected via a competitive bidding process as the candidate which best fit overall DOE objectives. The paper describes the accomplishments to date.

  5. 77 FR 48992 - Tobacco Product Manufacturing Facility Visits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Manufacturing Facility Visits AGENCY: Food... Manufacturing Facility Visits. This program is intended to give FDA staff an opportunity to visit facilities involved in the manufacturing of tobacco products, including any related laboratory testing, and...

  6. Analysis of solvent dyes in refined petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Solvent dyes are used to color refined petroleum products to enable differentiation between gasoline, diesel, and jet fuels. Analysis for these dyes in the hydrocarbon product is difficult due to their very low concentrations in such a complex matrix. Flow injection analysis/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry in both negative and positive mode was used to optimize ionization of ten typical solvent dyes. Samples of hydrocarbon product were analyzed under similar conditions. Positive electrospray ionization produced very complex spectra, which were not suitably specific for targeting only the dyes. Negative electrospray ionization produced simple spectra because aliphatic and aromatic moieties were not ionized. This enabled screening for a target dye in samples of hydrocarbon product from a spill.

  7. Pinellas Plant facts. [Products, processes, laboratory facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant.

  8. Environmental assessment of the brine pipeline replacement for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound Facility in Brazoria County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0804, for the proposed replacement of a deteriorated brine disposal pipeline from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Bryan Mound storage facility in Brazoria County, Texas, into the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, the ocean discharge outfall would be moved shoreward by locating the brine diffuser at the end of the pipeline 3.5 miles offshore at a minimum depth of 30 feet. The action would occur in a floodplain and wetlands; therefore, a floodplain/wetlands assessment has been prepared in conjunction with this EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 USC. 4321, et seg.). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). This FONSI also includes a Floodplain Statement of Findings in accordance with 10 CFR Part 1022.

  9. Geotechnical studies associated with decommissioning the strategic petroleum reserve facility at Weeks Island, Louisiana: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, S.J.; Ehgartner, B.L.; Neal, J.T.

    1997-05-01

    The first sinkhole at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) site was initially observed in May 1992. Concurrent with the increasing dissolution of salt over the mined oil storage area below, it has gradually enlarged and deepened. Beginning in 1994 and continuing to the present, the injection of saturated brine directly into the sinkhole throat some 76 m beneath the ground surface essentially arrested further dissolution, providing time to make adequate preparation for the safe and orderly transfer of crude oil to other storage facilities. This mitigation measure marked the first time that such a control procedure has been used in salt mining; previously all control has been achieved by either in-mine or from-surface grouting. A second and much smaller sinkhole was noticed in early 1995 on an opposite edge of the SPR mine, but with a very similar geological and mine mechanics setting. Both sinkholes occur where the edges of upper 152 m and lower 213 m mined storage levels are nearly vertically aligned. Such coincidence maximizes the tensional stress development, leading to fracturing in the salt. This cracking takes 20 or more years to develop. The cracks then become flow paths for brine incursion, which after time progress into the mined openings. Undersaturated ground water gradually enlarges the cracks in salt through dissolution, leading to eventual collapse of the overlying sand to form sinkholes. Other geologic conditions may also be secondary factors in controlling both mining extent and sinkhole location.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  12. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1982-03-31

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

  13. Health Effects of Cut Gas Lines and Other Petroleum Product Release Incidents - Seven States, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ayana R

    2015-06-12

    Large mass casualty gas explosions and catastrophic oil spills are widely reported and receive considerable regulatory attention. Smaller, less catastrophic petroleum product releases are less likely to receive publicity, although study of these incidents might help focus and prioritize prevention efforts. To describe the causes and health impacts of petroleum product release incidents (including gas explosions and oil spills), the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) analyzed 2010-2012 data from the National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP). A total of 1,369 petroleum product release incidents were reported from seven states, resulting in 512 injuries and 36 deaths. Approximately one fourth of the incidents were associated with utilities, and approximately one fifth were associated with private vehicles or residences. Approximately 10% of petroleum product releases resulted from inadvertent damage to utility lines. Understanding the characteristics of acute petroleum product releases can aid the public and utility workers in the development of preventive strategies and reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with such releases.

  14. An Integrated Assessment of Location-Dependent Scaling for Microalgae Biofuel Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Andre M.; Abodeely, Jared; Skaggs, Richard; Moeglein, William AM; Newby, Deborah T.; Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-07-01

    Successful development of a large-scale microalgae-based biofuels industry requires comprehensive analysis and understanding of the feedstock supply chain—from facility siting/design through processing/upgrading of the feedstock to a fuel product. The evolution from pilot-scale production facilities to energy-scale operations presents many multi-disciplinary challenges, including a sustainable supply of water and nutrients, operational and infrastructure logistics, and economic competitiveness with petroleum-based fuels. These challenges are addressed in part by applying the Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF)—an integrated multi-scale modeling, analysis, and data management suite—to address key issues in developing and operating an open-pond facility by analyzing how variability and uncertainty in space and time affect algal feedstock production rates, and determining the site-specific “optimum” facility scale to minimize capital and operational expenses. This approach explicitly and systematically assesses the interdependence of biofuel production potential, associated resource requirements, and production system design trade-offs. The IAF was applied to a set of sites previously identified as having the potential to cumulatively produce 5 billion-gallons/year in the southeastern U.S. and results indicate costs can be reduced by selecting the most effective processing technology pathway and scaling downstream processing capabilities to fit site-specific growing conditions, available resources, and algal strains.

  15. An air quality emission inventory of offshore operations for the exploration and production of petroleum by the Mexican oil industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villasenor, R.; Magdaleno, M.; Quintanar, A.; Gallardo, J. C.; López, M. T.; Jurado, R.; Miranda, A.; Aguilar, M.; Melgarejo, L. A.; Palmerín, E.; Vallejo, C. J.; Barchet, W. R.

    An air quality screening study was performed to assess the impacts of emissions from the offshore operations of the oil and gas exploration and production by Mexican industry in the Campeche Sound, which includes the states of Tabasco and Campeche in southeast Mexico. The major goal of this study was the compilation of an emission inventory (EI) for elevated, boom and ground level flares, processes, internal combustion engines and fugitive emissions. This inventory is so far the most comprehensive emission register that has ever been developed for the Mexican petroleum industry in this area. The EI considered 174 offshore platforms, the compression station at Atasta, and the Maritime Ports at Dos Bocas and Cayo Arcas. The offshore facilities identified as potential emitters in the area were the following: (1) trans-shipment stations, (2) a maritime floating port terminal, (3) drilling platforms, (4) crude oil recovering platforms, (5) crude oil production platforms, (6) linking platforms, (7) water injection platforms, (8) pumping platforms, (9) shelter platforms, (10) telecommunication platforms, (11) crude oil measurement platforms, and (12) flaring platforms. Crude oil storage tanks, helicopters and marine ship tankers were also considered to have an EI accurate enough for air quality regulations and mesoscale modeling of atmospheric pollutants. Historical ambient data measure at two onshore petroleum facilities were analyzed to measure air quality impacts on nearby inhabited coastal areas, and a source-receptor relationship for flares at the Ixtoc marine complex was performed to investigate health-based standards for offshore workers. A preliminary air quality model simulation was performed to observe the transport and dispersion patterns of SO 2, which is the main pollutant emitted from the offshore platforms. The meteorological wind and temperature fields were generated with CALMET, a diagnostic meteorological model that used surface observations and upper

  16. Sulphur petroleum coke as a highly effective reducing agent in the production of barite salts

    SciTech Connect

    Koshkarov, V.Ya; Barabadze, R.A.; Kazakova, M.Ye.; Margvelashvili, P.V.; Okreshidze, A.Yu.; Trutnyev, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes laboratory and industrial tests on the use of lowasash sulphurous petroleum coke during reduction of barite. Shows the potential of substituting blast furnace coke with petroleum/coke fines in this process.

  17. 77 FR 40086 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on June 8, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a...''), Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (``PERF'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with...

  18. 75 FR 45156 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on June 2, 2010, pursuant to Section 6(a...''), Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (``PERF'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with...

  19. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  20. 76 FR 23838 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ...--Petroleum Industry Data Exchange, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on March 21, 2011, pursuant to Section 6... Act''), Petroleum Industry Data Exchange, Inc. (``PIDX'') has filed written notifications... organization is: Petroleum Industry Data Exchange, Inc., Houston, TX. The nature and scope of PIDX's...

  1. Characterization of corrosive bacterial consortia isolated from petroleum-product-transporting pipelines.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, Aruliah; Anandkumar, Balakrishnan; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Ting, Yen-Peng; Rahman, Pattanathu K S M

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion is a problem commonly encountered in facilities in the oil and gas industries. The present study describes bacterial enumeration and identification in diesel and naphtha pipelines located in the northwest and southwest region in India, using traditional cultivation technique and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences of the isolates was carried out, and the samples obtained from the diesel and naphtha-transporting pipelines showed the occurrence of 11 bacterial species namely Serratia marcescens ACE2, Bacillus subtilis AR12, Bacillus cereus ACE4, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AI1, Klebsiella oxytoca ACP, Pseudomonas stutzeri AP2, Bacillus litoralis AN1, Bacillus sp., Bacillus pumilus AR2, Bacillus carboniphilus AR3, and Bacillus megaterium AR4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were not detected in samples from both pipelines. The dominant bacterial species identified in the petroleum pipeline samples were B. cereus and S. marcescens in the diesel and naphtha pipelines, respectively. Therefore, several types of bacteria may be involved in biocorrosion arising from natural biofilms that develop in industrial facilities. In addition, localized (pitting) corrosion of the pipeline steel in the presence of the consortia was observed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The potential role of each species in biofilm formation and steel corrosion is discussed.

  2. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 MM Table MM-1 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column A: density(metric tons/bbl... Natural Gas Liquids Aviation Gasoline 0.1120 85.00 0.3490 Special Naphthas 0.1222 84.76 0.3798...

  3. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 MM Table MM-1 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column A: density(metric tons/bbl... Natural Gas Liquids Aviation Gasoline 0.1120 85.00 0.3490 Special Naphthas 0.1222 84.76 0.3798...

  4. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 MM Table MM-1 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column A: density(metric tons/bbl... Natural Gas Liquids Aviation Gasoline 0.1120 85.00 0.3490 Special Naphthas 0.1222 84.76 0.3798...

  5. Mine-induced sinkholes over the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storge facility

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.T.; Bauer, S.J.; Ehgartner, B.L.

    1995-12-31

    The initial sinkhole at the Weeks Island SPR site that was first observed in May 1992 gradually enlarged and deepened, concurrent with the increasing dissolution of salt over the mined oil storage area below. Beginning in 1994 and continuing to the present, the injection of saturated brine directly into the sinkhole throat some 76 in (250 ft) beneath the surface essentially arrested further dissolution, buying time to make adequate preparation for the safe and orderly transfer of crude oil to other storage facilities. A second and much smaller sinkhole was first noticed in early 1995 on an opposite edge of the SPR mine, but with a very similar geological and mine mechanics setting. Both sinkholes occur where the edges of upper-152 in (-500 ft) and lower-213 m (-700 ft) storage levels are nearly vertically aligned. Such coincidence maximizes the tensional stress development leading to fracturing in the salt. Such cracking takes years to develop, perhaps 20 or more. The cracks then become flowpaths for brine incursion, wherein after time it is released into mined openings. Undersaturated ground water gradually enlarges the cracks in salt, leading to further dissolution and eventual collapse of the overlying sand to form sinkholes. Other geologic conditions may have been secondary factors in controlling both mining extent and sinkhole location. An en echelon alignment of sinkholes over other mine edges has been observed. Thus most likely areas of future occurrence at Weeks Island are adjacent to the existing sinkholes; surface inspections are now concentrated at those locations. Although neither timing nor location is predictable with precision, the study of numerous sinkholes elsewhere shows that progression is inevitable, provided that relevant conditions and enough time exists for development. These principles should provide mine designers and operators the knowledge to minimize the occurrence of sinkholes, and to plan for their progression when they occur.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  7. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  8. An integrated assessment of location-dependent scaling for microalgae biofuel production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, André M.; Abodeely, Jared M.; Skaggs, Richard L.; Moeglein, William A.; Newby, Deborah T.; Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-07-01

    Successful development of a large-scalemicroalgae-based biofuels industry requires comprehensive analysis and understanding of the feedstock supply chain—fromfacility siting and design through processing and upgrading of the feedstock to a fuel product. The evolution from pilot-scale production facilities to energy-scale operations presents many multi-disciplinary challenges, including a sustainable supply of water and nutrients, operational and infrastructure logistics, and economic competitiveness with petroleum-based fuels. These challenges are partially addressed by applying the Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF) – an integrated multi-scale modeling, analysis, and data management suite – to address key issues in developing and operating an open-pond microalgae production facility. This is done by analyzing howvariability and uncertainty over space and through time affect feedstock production rates, and determining the site-specific “optimum” facility scale to minimize capital and operational expenses. This approach explicitly and systematically assesses the interdependence of biofuel production potential, associated resource requirements, and production system design trade-offs. To provide a baseline analysis, the IAF was applied to a set of sites in the southeastern U.S. with the potential to cumulatively produce 5 billion gallons per year. The results indicate costs can be reduced by scaling downstream processing capabilities to fit site-specific growing conditions, available and economically viable resources, and specific microalgal strains.

  9. Biological assessment of the effects of petroleum production activities, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California, on the endangered giant kangaroo rat, Dipodomys ingens

    SciTech Connect

    O'Farrell, T.P.; Kato, T.T.

    1987-09-01

    This Biological Assessment evaluates the potential adverse effects that production activities conducted on the Naval Petroleum Reserveys in California may have on the endangered giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens). DOE concluded that the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of the proposed activities will not jeopardize the continued existence of the species because results of surveys indicated that giant kangaroo rat burrow systems and habitat was initiated; a habitat restoration program was developed and implemented; and administrative policies to reduce vehicle speeds, contain oil and waste water spills, restrict off-road vehicle travel, and to regulate public access, livestock grazing, and agricultural activities were maintained. 33 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  11. Production and Injection data for NV Binary facilities

    DOE Data Explorer

    Mines, Greg

    2013-12-24

    Excel files are provided with well production and injection data for binary facilities in Nevada. The files contain the data that reported montly to the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG) by the facility operators. this data has been complied into Excel spreadsheets for each of the facilities given on the NBMG web site.

  12. Geologic structures and horizontal stresses: their impact on petroleum and coal production in Illinois Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Lizak, J.B.

    1983-09-01

    Knowledge of subsurface structures and stress is important to the petroleum and mining industries. These factors have a direct impact on reservoir performance and mine roof stability. Local structures and stresses typically cannot be defined by normal exploration drill spacing. Underground mine mapping, however, provides a unique opportunity to measure these local features and to determine how they affect petroleum and coal production. A geologic mapping program was conducted at old Ben Coal Company's Mine 27, which operates in the Illinois No. 6 coal in Franklin County, Illinois. The mine is in an area of pod-type transitional roof, in which isolated energy Shale pods are overlain by Anna Shale and Brereton Limestone. Each facies has a distinctive structural and deformational assemblage. Mapping shows that an excessive east-west horizontal stress also exists in the area. The stress and the structural and lithologic discontinuities are the primary cause of roof failure in the mine. The detailed structure and stress data acquired in the Mine 27 investigation can also be used to model oil and gas reservoirs. The measurements of joint density, fracture orientation, etc., can be integrated with petrol-physical and mechanical data to evaluate fracture permeability. Because underground stresses control hydraulic fracture propagation, knowledge of the subsurface stress field can be used to evaulate stimulation techniques. The orientation of hydraulically induced fractures can be approximated if the magnitude and direction of the stresses are known.

  13. A theoretical model of subsidence caused by petroleum production: Big Hill Field, Jefferson County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.W.; Sharp, J.M. Jr. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    In the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain, there is a history of oil and gas production extending over 2 to 5 decades. Concurrent with this production history, there has been unprecedented population growth accompanied by vastly increased groundwater demands. Land subsidence on both local and regional bases in this geologic province has been measured and predicted in several studies. The vast majority of these studies have addressed the problem from the standpoint of groundwater usage while only a few have considered the effects of oil and gas production. Based upon field-based computational techniques (Helm, 1984), a model has been developed to predict land subsidence caused by oil and gas production. This method is applied to the Big Hill Field in Jefferson County, Texas. Inputs include production data from a series of wells in this field and lithologic data from electric logs of these same wells. Outputs include predicted amounts of subsidence, the time frame of subsidence, and sensitivity analyses of compressibility and hydraulic conductivity estimates. Depending upon estimated compressibility, subsidence, to date, is predicted to be as high as 20 cm. Similarly, depending upon estimated vertical hydraulic conductivity, the time frame may be decades for this subsidence. These same methods can be applied to other oil/gas fields with established production histories as well as new fields when production scenarios are assumed. Where subsidence has been carefully measured above petroleum reservoir, the model may be used inversely to calculate sediment compressibilities.

  14. Methodology for assessing quantities of water and proppant injection, and water production associated with development of continuous petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.

    2015-07-13

    The quantities of water and hydraulic fracturing proppant required for producing petroleum (oil, gas, and natural gas liquids) from continuous accumulations, and the quantities of water extracted during petroleum production, can be quantitatively assessed using a probabilistic approach. The water and proppant assessment methodology builds on the U.S. Geological Survey methodology for quantitative assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable petroleum resources in continuous accumulations. The U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology for continuous petroleum accumulations includes fundamental concepts such as geologically defined assessment units, and probabilistic input values including well-drainage area, sweet- and non-sweet-spot areas, and success ratio within the untested area of each assessment unit. In addition to petroleum-related information, required inputs for the water and proppant assessment methodology include probabilistic estimates of per-well water usage for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic-fracture stimulation; the ratio of proppant to water for hydraulic fracturing; the percentage of hydraulic fracturing water that returns to the surface as flowback; and the ratio of produced water to petroleum over the productive life of each well. Water and proppant assessments combine information from recent or current petroleum assessments with water- and proppant-related input values for the assessment unit being studied, using Monte Carlo simulation, to yield probabilistic estimates of the volume of water for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic fracture stimulation; the quantity of proppant for hydraulic fracture stimulation; and the volumes of water produced as flowback shortly after well completion, and produced over the life of the well.

  15. Photochemical Production of Aldehydes and Ketones from Petroleum Films on Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarr, M. A.; Rebet, K.; Monin, L.; Bastian, G.

    2016-02-01

    While numerous reports have demonstrated that sunlight results in oxygenation of petroleum in environmental systems, few details are available regarding the specific mechanisms of these reactions. Previous studies have not been able to identify specific chemicals formed when oil is subjected to photochemical transformation. In this study, we have utilized several petroleum samples to investigate the formation of aldehyde and ketone photoproducts. These samples included oil from the MC252 well (source of the Deepwater Horizon spill), surrogate oil provided by BP to represent the MC252 oil, and residual fuel oil (NIST 2717a). Thin films of oil ( 100 μm) were placed over water and irradiated with a solar simulator for the equivalent of 1.5-12 days. After irradiation, the water was carefully separated from the oil and derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, a selective derivatization agent for aldehydes and ketones. The derivatized material was then analyzed by HPLC. Additional analysis by electrospray MS was also performed, and absorbance and fluorescence spectra of the underivatized aqueous phase were recorded. For all oils, exposure to sunlight resulted in release of aldehydes and ketones to the aqueous phase. The amount of released photoproducts was proportional to the length of solar exposure, but no production was seen for dark controls. Despite some similarities, the pattern of product formation varied from oil to oil. Addition of dispersant (Corexit 9500a or 9527a) resulted in larger amounts of aldehydes and ketones detected in the aqueous phase after solar irradiation of the oil. Electrospray mass spectrometry was utilized in an attempt to provide structural information about the aldehydes and ketones formed. Results of this study demonstrate that aldehydes and ketones are important photoproducts resulting from solar irradiation of oil on water. These products will affect the transport and bioavailability of oil spilled in aquatic systems.

  16. "Cosmetic electrochemistry": the facile production of graphite microelectrode ensembles.

    PubMed

    Choudhry, Nadeem A; Kadara, Rashid O; Banks, Craig E

    2010-03-14

    The facile and rapid production of microelectrode ensembles is shown to be possible using off-the-shelf cosmetic products and is exemplified with the electrochemical sensing of a toxic metal offering a novel fabrication methodology.

  17. The choice of equipment for automation of hazardous production facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziyatdinov, R. R.

    2015-06-01

    The characteristics that must be considered when selecting electrical equipment used at hazardous production facilities are discussed. To minimize hardware costs and security features it is suggested to use expert system based on the productional model.

  18. Naval petroleum reserves: Preliminary analysis of future net revenues from Elk Hills production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This is an interim report on the present value of the net revenues from Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve. GAO calculated alternative present values of the net revenues applying (1) low, medium, and high forecasts of future crude oil prices and (2) alternative interest rates for discounting the future net revenues to their present values. The calculations are sensitive to both the oil price forecasts and discount rates used; they are preliminary and should be used with caution. They do not take into account possible added tax revenues collected by the government if Elk Hills were sold nor varying production levels and practices, which could either increase or decrease the total amount of oil that can be extracted.

  19. Application of aerobic microorganisms in bioremediation in situ of soil contaminated by petroleum products.

    PubMed

    Wolicka, Dorota; Suszek, Agnieszka; Borkowski, Andrzej; Bielecka, Aleksandra

    2009-07-01

    Aerobic microorganisms able to biodegrade benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX) have been isolated from an area contaminated by petroleum products. The activity of the isolated communities was tested under both laboratory and field conditions. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene were added to the cultures as the sole carbon source, at a concentration of 500 mg/L. In batch cultures under laboratory conditions, an 84% reduction of benzene, 86% of toluene and 82% of xylene were achieved. In cultures with ethylbenzene as the sole carbon source, the reduction was around 80%. Slightly lower values were observed under field conditions: 95% reduction of benzene and toluene, 81% of ethylbenzene and 80% of xylene. A high biodegradation activity of benzene (914 microM/L/24h), toluene (771 microM/L/24h), xylene (673 microM/L/24h) and ethylbenzene (644 microM/L/24h) was observed in the isolated communities.

  20. Direct hydro-liquefaction of sawdust in petroleum ether and comprehensive bio-oil products analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Song, Linhua; Wu, Pingping; Liu, Yan; Li, Qingyin; Yan, Zifeng

    2014-03-01

    The effect of temperature, time, hydrogen pressure and amount of catalyst on production distribution and the bio-oil yield obtained from the direct liquefaction of sawdust in the petroleum ether (60-90°C) are investigated. The highest sawdust conversion obtained was 72.32% with a bio-oil yield of 47.69% were obtained at 370°C, 40min and 5wt.% catalyst content with the initial H2 pressure of 3.0MPa. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) approach was utilized to analyze the non-volatile fraction. In this study, the composition of bio-oil could be analyzed in an unprecedented detail through a combination of GC-MS and FT-ICR MS techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 15 CFR 712.4 - New Schedule 1 production facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.4 New Schedule 1 production facility. (a) Establishment of a...) of the CWCR, and you intend to begin production of Schedule 1 chemicals at your facility in...

  2. 15 CFR 712.4 - New Schedule 1 production facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.4 New Schedule 1 production facility. (a) Establishment of a...) of the CWCR, and you intend to begin production of Schedule 1 chemicals at your facility in...

  3. 15 CFR 712.4 - New Schedule 1 production facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.4 New Schedule 1 production facility. (a) Establishment of a...) of the CWCR, and you intend to begin production of Schedule 1 chemicals at your facility in...

  4. 15 CFR 712.4 - New Schedule 1 production facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.4 New Schedule 1 production facility. (a) Establishment of a...) of the CWCR, and you intend to begin production of Schedule 1 chemicals at your facility in...

  5. 15 CFR 712.4 - New Schedule 1 production facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.4 New Schedule 1 production facility. (a) Establishment of a...) of the CWCR, and you intend to begin production of Schedule 1 chemicals at your facility in...

  6. Aquatic toxicity of petroleum products and dispersant agents determined under the U.S. EPA Oil Spill Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development has developed baseline data on the ecotoxicity of selected petroleum products and several chemical dispersants as part of its oil spills research program. Two diluted bitumens (dilbits) from the Alberta Tar Sands were tested for acu...

  7. COMPARISON OF MID-WESTERN AND MID-ATLANTIC REGIONS EXPOSURE CRITERIA FOR PETROLEUM AND COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional background levels of exposure to fish from petroleum and combustion by-products were determined for the state of Ohio (mid-Western) and the mid-Atlantic region. Exposures were measured using bile metabolites that fluoresce at 290/335 nm for naphthalene (NAPH)-type compou...

  8. DETERMINING BACKGROUND EXPOSURE TO PETROLEUM AND COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS: COMPARISON OF MID-WESTERN AND MID-ATLANTIC REGIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional background levels of exposure to fish from petroleum and combustion by-products were determined for the state of Ohio and the mid-Atlantic region. Exposures were measured using bile metabolites that fluoresce at 290/335 nm for naphthalene(NAPH)-type compounds and at 380...

  9. COMPARISON OF MID-WESTERN AND MID-ATLANTIC REGIONS EXPOSURE CRITERIA FOR PETROLEUM AND COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional background levels of exposure to fish from petroleum and combustion by-products were determined for the state of Ohio (mid-Western) and the mid-Atlantic region. Exposures were measured using bile metabolites that fluoresce at 290/335 nm for naphthalene (NAPH)-type compou...

  10. DETERMINING BACKGROUND EXPOSURE TO PETROLEUM AND COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS: COMPARISON OF MID-WESTERN AND MID-ATLANTIC REGIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional background levels of exposure to fish from petroleum and combustion by-products were determined for the state of Ohio and the mid-Atlantic region. Exposures were measured using bile metabolites that fluoresce at 290/335 nm for naphthalene(NAPH)-type compounds and at 380...

  11. Groundwater quality from private domestic water-supply wells in the vicinity of petroleum production in southwestern Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risch, Martin R.; Silcox, Cheryl A.

    2016-06-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey provided technical support to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry for site selection and sample collection and analysis in a 2012 investigation of groundwater quality from 29 private domestic water-supply wells in the vicinity of petroleum production in southwestern Indiana. Petroleum hydrocarbons, oil and grease, aromatic volatile organic compounds, methane concentrations greater than 8,800 micrograms per liter, chloride concentrations greater than 250 milligrams per liter, and gross alpha radioactivity greater than 15 picocuries per liter were reported in the analysis of groundwater samples from 11 wells.

  12. The mammalian toxicological hazards of petroleum-derived substances: an overview of the petroleum industry response to the high production volume challenge program.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; White, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum-derived substances are complex and composed of aliphatic (normal-, iso-, and cycloparaffins), olefinic, and/or aromatic constituents. Approximately 400 of these complex substances were evaluated as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency voluntary High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge program. The substances were separated into 13 groups (categories), and all available data were assessed. Toxicology testing was conducted as necessary to fully address the end points encompassed by the HPV initiative. In a broad sense, volatile hydrocarbons may cause acute central nervous system effects, and those that are liquids at room temperature pose aspiration hazards if taken into the lungs as liquids and may also cause skin irritation. Higher boiling substances may contain polycyclic aromatic constituents (PACs) that can be mutagenic and carcinogenic and may also cause developmental effects. Substances containing PACs can also cause target organ and developmental effects. The effects of aliphatic constituents include liver enlargement and/or renal effects in male rats via an α-2u-globulin-mediated process and, in some cases, small but statistically significant reductions in hematological parameters. Crude oils may contain other constituents, particularly sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds, which are removed during refining. Aside from these more generic considerations, some specific petroleum substances may contain unusually toxic constituents including benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and/or n-hexane, which should also be taken into account if present at toxicologically relevant levels.

  13. Workbook for prioritizing petroleum industry exploration and production sites for remediation

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.J.

    1998-08-03

    The purpose of this Workbook is to provide a screening-level method for prioritizing petroleum exploration and production sites for remediation that is based on readily available information, but which does not require a full characterization of the sites being evaluated. The process draws heavily from the Canadian National Classification System for Contaminated Sites, and fits into the framework for ecological risk assessment provided in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Using this approach, scoring guidelines are provided for a number of Evaluation Factors relating to: (1) the contaminants present at the site; (2) the potential exposure pathways for these contaminants; and (3) the potential receptors of those contaminants. The process therefore incorporates a risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework to estimate the relative threat posed by a site to human health and to ecological systems. Physical (non-toxic) disturbance factors have also been incorporated into the process. It should also be noted that the process described in this Workbook has not yet been field tested at petroleum E and P sites. The first logical step in the field testing of this process is to apply the method at a small number of sites to assess the availability of the information that is needed to score each evaluation factor. Following this evaluation, the Workbook process should be applied at a series of sites to determine the effectiveness of the process at ranking sites according to their relative need for remediation. Upon completion of these tests, the Workbook should be revised to reflect the findings of the field tests.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  20. Cost estimate for muddy water palladium production facility at Mound

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, R.K.

    1988-11-30

    An economic feasibility study was performed on the ''Muddy Water'' low-chlorine content palladium powder production process developed by Mound. The total capital investment and total operating costs (dollars per gram) were determined for production batch sizes of 1--10 kg in 1-kg increments. The report includes a brief description of the Muddy Water process, the process flow diagram, and material balances for the various production batch sizes. Two types of facilities were evaluated--one for production of new, ''virgin'' palladium powder, and one for recycling existing material. The total capital investment for virgin facilities ranged from $600,000 --$1.3 million for production batch sizes of 1--10 kg, respectively. The range for recycle facilities was $1--$2.3 million. The total operating cost for 100% acceptable powder production in the virgin facilities ranged from $23 per gram for a 1-kg production batch size to $8 per gram for a 10-kg batch size. Similarly for recycle facilities, the total operating cost ranged from $34 per gram to $5 per gram. The total operating cost versus product acceptability (ranging from 50%--100% acceptability) was also evaluated for both virgin and recycle facilities. Because production sizes studied vary widely and because scale-up factors are unknown for batch sizes greater than 1 kg, all costs are ''order-of-magnitude'' estimates. All costs reported are in 1987 dollars.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  3. Benzene Exposures and Risk Potential for Vehicle Mechanics from Gasoline and Petroleum-Derived Products.

    PubMed

    Williams, Pamela R D; Mani, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Benzene exposures among vehicle mechanics in the United States and abroad were characterized using available data from published and unpublished studies. In the United States, the time-weighted-average (TWA) airborne concentration of benzene for vehicle mechanics averaged 0.01-0.05 ppm since at least the late 1970s, with maximal TWA concentrations ranging from 0.03 to 0.38 ppm. Benzene exposures were notably lower in the summer than winter and in the Southwest compared to other geographic regions, but significantly higher during known gasoline-related tasks such as draining a gas tank or changing a fuel pump or fuel filter. Measured airborne concentrations of benzene were also generally greater for vehicle mechanics in other countries, likely due to the higher benzene content of gasoline and other factors. Short-term airborne concentrations of benzene frequently exceeded 1 ppm during gasoline-related tasks, but remained below 0.2 ppm for tasks involving other petroleum-derived products such as carburetor and brake cleaner or parts washer solvent. Application of a two-zone mathematical model using reasonable input values from the literature yielded predicted task-based benzene concentrations during gasoline and aerosol spray cleaner scenarios similar to those measured for vehicle mechanics during these types of tasks. When evaluated using appropriate biomarkers, dermal exposures were found to contribute little to total benzene exposures for this occupational group. Available data suggest that vehicle mechanics have not experienced significant exposures to benzene in the workplace, except perhaps during short-duration gasoline-related tasks, and full-shift benzene exposures have remained well below current and contemporaneous occupational exposure limits. These findings are consistent with epidemiology studies of vehicle mechanics, which have not demonstrated an increased risk of benzene-induced health effects in this cohort of workers. Data and information presented

  4. Development of criteria for response to oil and petroleum product spills on soils

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, Y.

    1993-01-01

    This study developed cleanup criteria for oil and petroleum contaminated soils at spill sites. The maximum contaminant level (MCL) of benzene allowable in drinking water as established by US EPA was selected as a criterion to assess whether or not the groundwater will be contaminated as the result of the entering of benzene-containing soil leachate at the spill site. If the anticipated maximum benzene concentration in soil leachate reaching the groundwater table is below the MCL, no action is needed to protect the groundwater and the natural degradation processes will take care of the spilled materials. If the anticipated maximum benzene concentration in soil leachate is close to the MCL when it reaches the groundwater level or there are no usable groundwater aquifers in the spill area, minor treatment actions can be taken to treat the contaminated soil on site; such as in situ bioremediation, in situ air-venting, surface covering, or addition of natural organic materials to the contaminated soil. If the anticipated maximum benzene concentration in soil leachate entering the groundwater will be much greater than the MCL and the groundwater resource is likely to be contaminated, major remedial actions will be insufficient, contaminated soils will need to be removed from the spill site for off-site treatment at a commercialized treatment facility or disposal at a regulated hazardous waste disposal site. Computer simulation provides a practical and economical way to estimate the anticipated benzene concentration in soil leachate resulting from a specific spill. A vadose zone fate and transport model, such as the Vadose Zone Interactive Processes (VIP) model used in this study, may be able to perform the task. If surface revegetation in the spill area also becomes a major concern, the phytotoxic effects of the spilled hydrocarbons on plants can be used as the second criterion for selecting cleanup options.

  5. Production of rhamnolipids and diesel oil degradation by bacteria isolated from soil contaminated by petroleum.

    PubMed

    Leite, Giuseppe G F; Figueirôa, Juciane V; Almeida, Thiago C M; Valões, Jaqueline L; Marques, Walber F; Duarte, Maria D D C; Gorlach-Lira, Krystyna

    2016-03-01

    Biosurfactants are microbial secondary metabolites. The most studied are rhamnolipids, which decrease the surface tension and have emulsifying capacity. In this study, the production of biosurfactants, with emphasis on rhamnolipids, and diesel oil degradation by 18 strains of bacteria isolated from waste landfill soil contaminated by petroleum was analyzed. Among the studied bacteria, gram-positive endospore forming rods (39%), gram positive rods without endospores (17%), and gram-negative rods (44%) were found. The following methods were used to test for biosurfactant production: oil spreading, emulsification, and hemolytic activity. All strains showed the ability to disperse the diesel oil, while 77% and 44% of the strains showed hemolysis and emulsification of diesel oil, respectively. Rhamnolipids production was observed in four strains that were classified on the basis of the 16S rRNA sequences as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Only those strains showed the rhlAB gene involved in rhamnolipids synthesis, and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Erwinia carotovora, and Ralstonia solanacearum. The highest production of rhamnolipids was 565.7 mg/L observed in mineral medium containing olive oil (pH 8). With regard to the capacity to degrade diesel oil, it was observed that 7 strains were positive in reduction of the dye 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (2,6-DCPIP) while 16 had the gene alkane mono-oxygenase (alkB), and the producers of rhamnolipids were positive in both tests. Several bacterial strains have shown high potential to be explored further for bioremediation purposes due to their simultaneous ability to emulsify, disperse, and degrade diesel oil. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:262-270, 2016.

  6. Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills): Supplemental environmental impact statement. Record of decision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Pursuant to the Council on Environmental Quality regulations, which implement the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act, and the US Department of Energy National Environmental Policy Act regulations, the Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, is issuing a Record of Decision on the continued operation of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California. The Department of Energy has decided to continue current operations at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 and implement additional well drilling, facility development projects and other activities necessary for continued production of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in accordance with the requirements of the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976. The final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, entitled ``Petroleum Production at Maximum Efficient Rate, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California (DOE/SEIS-0158),`` was released on September 3, 1993.

  7. Maps showing petroleum exploration intensity and production in major Cambrian to Ordovician reservoir rocks in the Anadarko Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Mitch; Hester, Tim

    1996-01-01

    The Anadarko basin is a large, deep, two-stage Paleozoic basin (Feinstein, 1981) that is petroleum rich and generally well explored. The Anadarko basin province, a geogrphic area used here mostly for the convenience of mapping and data management, is defined by political boundaries that include the Anadarko basin proper. The boundaries of the province are identical to those used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the 1995 National Assessment of United Stated Oil and Gas Resources. The data in this report, also identical to those used in the national assessment, are from several computerized data bases including Nehring Research Group (NRG) Associates Inc., Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States (1992); Petroleum Information (PI), Inc., Well History Control System (1991); and Petroleum Information (PI), Inc., Petro-ROM: Production data on CD-ROM (1993). Although generated mostly in response to the national assessment, the data presented here arc grouped differently and arc displayed and described in greater detail. In addition, the stratigraphic sequences discussed may not necessarily correlate with the "plays" of the 1995 national assessment. This report uses computer-generated maps to show drilling intensity, producing wells, major fields, and other geologic information relevant to petroleum exploration and production in the lower Paleozoic part of the Anadarko basin province as defined for the U.S. Geological Survey's 1995 national petroleum assessment. Hydrocarbon accumulations must meet a minimum standard of 1 million barrels of oil (MMBO) or 6 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG) estimated ultimate recovery to be included in this report as a major field or revoir. Mapped strata in this report include the Upper Cambrian to Lower Ordovician Arbuckle and Low Ordovician Ellenburger Groups, the Middle Ordovician Simpson Group, and the Middle to Upper Ordovician Viola Group.

  8. Stimulating in situ surfactant production to increase contaminant bioavailability and augment bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haws, N. W.; Bentley, H. W.; Yiannakakis, A.; Bentley, A. J.; Cassidy, D. P.

    2006-12-01

    The effectiveness of a bioremediation strategy is largely dependent on relationships between contaminant sequestration (geochemical limitations) and microbial degradation potential (biological limitations). As contaminant bioavailability becomes mass transfer limited, contaminant removal will show less sensitivity to biodegradation enhancements without concurrent enhancements to rates of mass transfer into the bioavailable phase. Implementing a strategy that can simultaneously address geochemical and biological limitations is motivated by a subsurface zone of liquid petroleum hydrocarbons (LPH) contamination that is in excess of 10 acres (40,000 sq. meters). Biodegradation potential at the site is high; however, observed biodegradation rates are generally low, indicative of bioavailability limitations (e.g., low aqueous solubilities, nutrient deficiencies, and/or mass transfer limitations), and estimates indicate that bioremediation (i.e., biosparging/bioventing) with unaugmented biodegradation may be unable to achieve the remedial objectives within an acceptable time. Bench-scale experiments using soils native to the site provide evidence that, in addition to nutrient additions, a pulsed oxygen delivery can increase biodegradation rates by stimulating the microbial production of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids), leading to a reduction in surface tension and an increase in contaminant bioavailability. Pilot-scale tests at the field site are evaluating the effectiveness of stimulating in situ biosurfactant production using cyclic biosparging. The cyclic sparging creates extended periods of alternating aerobic and oxygen-depleted conditions in the submerged smear zone. The increased bioavailability of LPH and the resulting biodegradation enhancements during the test are evaluated using measurements of surface tension (as confirmation of biosurfactant accumulation) and nitrate concentrations (as substantiation of anaerobic biodegradation during shut-off periods). The

  9. Production Facility Prototype Blower Installation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Dalmas, Dale Allen; Romero, Frank Patrick

    2015-07-28

    The roots blower in use at ANL for in-beam experiments and also at LANL for flow tests was sized for 12 mm diameter disks and significantly less beam heating.  Currently, the disks are 29 mm in diameter, with a 12 mm FWHM Gaussian beam spot at 42 MeV and 2.86 μA on each side of the target, 5.72 μA total. The target design itself is reported elsewhere.  With the increased beam heating, the helium flow requirement increased so that a larger blower was need for a mass flow rate of 400 g/s at 2.76 MPa (400 psig).  An Aerzen GM 12.4 blower was selected, and is currently being installed at the LANL facility for target and component flow testing.  This report describes this blower/motor/ppressure vessel package and the status of the facility preparations.

  10. Remediation of saturated soil contaminated with petroleum products using air sparging with thermal enhancement.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, A M I; El-menshawy, Nabil; Saif, Amany M

    2007-05-01

    Pollutants in the form of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), such as petroleum products, pose a serious threat to the soil and groundwater. A mathematical model was derived to study the unsteady pollutant concentrations through water saturated contaminated soil under air sparging conditions for different NAPLs and soil properties. The comparison between the numerical model results and the published experimental results showed acceptable agreement. Furthermore, an experimental study was conducted to remove NAPLs from the contaminated soil using the sparging air technique, considering the sparging air velocity, air temperature, soil grain size and different contaminant properties. This study showed that sparging air at ambient temperature through the contaminated soil can remove NAPLs, however, employing hot air sparging can provide higher contaminant removal efficiency, by about 9%. An empirical correlation for the volatilization mass transfer coefficient was developed from the experimental results. The dimensionless numbers used were Sherwood number (Sh), Peclet number (Pe), Schmidt number (Sc) and several physical-chemical properties of VOCs and porous media. Finally, the estimated volatilization mass transfer coefficient was used for calculation of the influence of heated sparging air on the spreading of the NAPL plume through the contaminated soil.

  11. Sequential production of amylolytic and lipolytic enzymes by bacterium strain isolated from petroleum contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Nayara Bezerra; de Souza, Ranyere Lucena; de Castro, Heizir F; Zanin, Gisella M; Lima, Alvaro Silva; Soares, Cleide M F

    2008-07-01

    Amylases and lipases are highly demanded industrial enzymes in various sectors such as food, pharmaceuticals, textiles, and detergents. Amylases are of ubiquitous occurrence and hold the maximum market share of enzyme sales. Lipases are the most versatile biocatalyst and bring about a range of bioconversion reactions such as hydrolysis, inter-esterification, esterification, alcoholysis, acidolysis, and aminolysis. The objective of this work was to study the feasibility for amylolitic and lipolytic production using a bacterium strain isolated from petroleum contaminated soil in the same submerged fermentation. This was a sequential process based on starch and vegetable oils feedstocks. Run were performed in batchwise using 2% starch supplemented with suitable nutrients and different vegetable oils as a lipase inducers. Fermentation conditions were pH 5.0; 30 degrees C, and stirred speed (200 rpm). Maxima activities for amyloglucosidase and lipase were, respectively, 0.18 and 1,150 U/ml. These results showed a promising methodology to obtain both enzymes using industrial waste resources containing vegetable oils.

  12. Metrication in Building Facilities for Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manderville, L. E.

    1974-01-01

    Today's 868 foundries are designed around the equipment necessary for maximum production and safety. It follows that any change in the product manufactured has a definite effect on the building that houses it. Therefore, it is necessary that development of metrication in the construction industry must be coordinated with its development in…

  13. Optimization of a multi-product, multi-period distribution network with fixed costs, for refined petroleum products

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    The distribution network for refined petroleum products is multi-commodity in nature since multiple products must share the same transportation resources. To satisfactorily model this network in order to study strategic decisions requires modeling multiple time periods and the use of integer variables for fixed costs. Although the problem can be mathematically formulated as a mixed integer linear program the number of variables makes it difficult to solve using standard linear programming software for real world problems. In order to exploit the structure of the problem, which includes coupling constraints, coupling variables and embedded networks, a three-level decomposition algorithm using the large scale programming techniques of partitioning and decomposition has been developed. The first level partitions the integer variables and coupling variables (inventory variables) into one set and the product flow variables into the other set. The first set of variables is fixed while a subproblem is solved for the second set. Results from the subproblem are used to generate constraints for a relaxed master problem. Solution of the subproblem results in the second level of decomposition where the embedded networks become subproblems, at the third level, to a master problem which includes the side constraints. It is shown that the necessary results can be obtained via solution of the subproblem by decomposition. The decomposition algorithm was implemented and a case study solved.

  14. Distribution and health risk assessment of some organic and inorganic substances in a petroleum facility in central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Serrano, R. M.; Torres, L. G.; Flores, C.; Castro, A.; Iturbe, R.

    An oil distribution and storage station was subjected to an Environmental Auditory and results showed soil contamination in part of the surface. An assessment of the site was required in order to fulfill a complete characterization of the contaminants present in soil and groundwater, as well as to establish the probable sources of contamination. Besides, a health risk assessment was performed to set remediation goals. The aim of this work is to show how the entire characterization and risk assessment process performed in this storage station from central Mexico, regarding to subsoil and groundwater. Thirty sample points were examined. Total petroleum hydrocarbons concentrations in soil were in a very low range (20-268 mg/kg). Ethylbenzene, methyl tert-butyl ether, tert-amyl methyl ether, and lead were identified in one sampling point. Iron and zinc were found in all soil samples. There was no correlation between total petroleum hydrocarbons and any of the metals or between both metals. Only two out of four monitoring wells showed total petroleum hydrocarbons levels (1.4 and 66 mg/L, respectively). Regarding lead, all four monitored wells showed lead concentrations (0.043-0.15 mg/L). Results suggested that metal concentrations were not associated to petroleum contamination, but to iron scrap deposits placed over the soil; nevertheless more data is needed to make a clear conclusion. Health risk assessment showed that none of the evaluated contaminants represented a risk either for the on-site or the off-site receptors, since the hazardous quotients estimated did not exceed the acceptable values.

  15. Complementary Microorganisms in Highly Corrosive Biofilms from an Offshore Oil Production Facility.

    PubMed

    Vigneron, Adrien; Alsop, Eric B; Chambers, Brian; Lomans, Bartholomeus P; Head, Ian M; Tsesmetzis, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Offshore oil production facilities are frequently victims of internal piping corrosion, potentially leading to human and environmental risks and significant economic losses. Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) is believed to be an important factor in this major problem for the petroleum industry. However, knowledge of the microbial communities and metabolic processes leading to corrosion is still limited. Therefore, the microbial communities from three anaerobic biofilms recovered from the inside of a steel pipe exhibiting high corrosion rates, iron oxide deposits, and substantial amounts of sulfur, which are characteristic of MIC, were analyzed in detail. Bacterial and archaeal community structures were investigated by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, multigenic (16S rRNA and functional genes) high-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing, and quantitative PCR analysis. The microbial community analysis indicated that bacteria, particularly Desulfovibrio species, dominated the biofilm microbial communities. However, other bacteria, such as Pelobacter, Pseudomonas, and Geotoga, as well as various methanogenic archaea, previously detected in oil facilities were also detected. The microbial taxa and functional genes identified suggested that the biofilm communities harbored the potential for a number of different but complementary metabolic processes and that MIC in oil facilities likely involves a range of microbial metabolisms such as sulfate, iron, and elemental sulfur reduction. Furthermore, extreme corrosion leading to leakage and exposure of the biofilms to the external environment modify the microbial community structure by promoting the growth of aerobic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms.

  16. Complementary Microorganisms in Highly Corrosive Biofilms from an Offshore Oil Production Facility

    PubMed Central

    Alsop, Eric B.; Chambers, Brian; Lomans, Bartholomeus P.; Head, Ian M.; Tsesmetzis, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Offshore oil production facilities are frequently victims of internal piping corrosion, potentially leading to human and environmental risks and significant economic losses. Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) is believed to be an important factor in this major problem for the petroleum industry. However, knowledge of the microbial communities and metabolic processes leading to corrosion is still limited. Therefore, the microbial communities from three anaerobic biofilms recovered from the inside of a steel pipe exhibiting high corrosion rates, iron oxide deposits, and substantial amounts of sulfur, which are characteristic of MIC, were analyzed in detail. Bacterial and archaeal community structures were investigated by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, multigenic (16S rRNA and functional genes) high-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing, and quantitative PCR analysis. The microbial community analysis indicated that bacteria, particularly Desulfovibrio species, dominated the biofilm microbial communities. However, other bacteria, such as Pelobacter, Pseudomonas, and Geotoga, as well as various methanogenic archaea, previously detected in oil facilities were also detected. The microbial taxa and functional genes identified suggested that the biofilm communities harbored the potential for a number of different but complementary metabolic processes and that MIC in oil facilities likely involves a range of microbial metabolisms such as sulfate, iron, and elemental sulfur reduction. Furthermore, extreme corrosion leading to leakage and exposure of the biofilms to the external environment modify the microbial community structure by promoting the growth of aerobic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms. PMID:26896143

  17. Fundamentals of Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic information on petroleum is presented in this book prepared for naval logistics officers. Petroleum in national defense is discussed in connection with consumption statistics, productive capacity, world's resources, and steps in logistics. Chemical and geological analyses are made in efforts to familiarize methods of refining, measuring,…

  18. PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT CHANGES FOR CLEANER PRODUCTION IN FEDERAL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses process and equipment changes for cleaner production in federal facilities. During the 1990s, DoD and EPA conducted joint research and development, aimed at reducing the discharge of hazardous and toxic pollutants from military production and maintenance faci...

  19. PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT CHANGES FOR CLEANER PRODUCTION IN FEDERAL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses process and equipment changes for cleaner production in federal facilities. During the 1990s, DoD and EPA conducted joint research and development, aimed at reducing the discharge of hazardous and toxic pollutants from military production and maintenance faci...

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  1. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  2. Specific in vitro toxicity of crude and refined petroleum products: 3. Estrogenic responses in mammalian assays.

    PubMed

    Vrabie, Cozmina M; Candido, Angelica; van den Berg, Hans; Murk, Albertinka J; van Duursen, Majorie B M; Jonker, Michiel T O

    2011-04-01

    Current petroleum risk assessment considers only narcosis as the mode of action, but several studies have demonstrated that oils contain compounds with dioxin-like, estrogenic or antiestrogenic, and androgenic or antiandrogenic activities. The present study is the third in a series investigating the specific toxic effects of 11 crude oils and refined products. By employing recombinant mammalian cells stably transfected with the human estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) or beta (ERβ), and expressing the luciferase protein (ERα-U2OS-Luc and ERβ-U2OS-Luc assay), the estrogenicity or antiestrogenicity of oils was studied. All oils, except for two refined oils and one crude oil, induced estrogenic responses. The calculated estrogenic potencies of the oils were six to nine orders of magnitude lower than the potency of 17β-estradiol (E2). Upon coexposure to a fixed concentration of E2 and increasing concentrations of oils, additive, antagonistic, and synergistic effects were revealed. One nautical fuel oil was tested in the human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7, in which it induced cell proliferation up to 70% relative to the maximal induction by E2. At its minimum effect concentration of 25 mg/L, the oil was also capable of inducing mRNA expression of the estrogen-dependent protein pS2 by a factor of two. The present results indicate that oils naturally contain potentially endocrine-disrupting compounds that are able to influence the estrogenicity of other compounds and may cause biological responses beyond receptor binding.

  3. Initial utilization of the CVIRB video production facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, Russell V.; Busquets, Anthony M.; Hogge, Thomas W.

    1987-02-01

    Video disk technology is one of the central themes of a technology demonstrator workstation being assembled as a man/machine interface for the Space Station Data Management Test Bed at Johnson Space Center. Langley Research Center personnel involved in the conception and implementation of this workstation have assembled a video production facility to allow production of video disk material for this propose. This paper documents the initial familiarization efforts in the field of video production for those personnel and that facility. Although the entire video disk production cycle was not operational for this initial effort, the production of a simulated disk on video tape did acquaint the personnel with the processes involved and with the operation of the hardware. Invaluable experience in storyboarding, script writing, audio and video recording, and audio and video editing was gained in the production process.

  4. Initial utilization of the CVIRB video production facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Russell V.; Busquets, Anthony M.; Hogge, Thomas W.

    1987-01-01

    Video disk technology is one of the central themes of a technology demonstrator workstation being assembled as a man/machine interface for the Space Station Data Management Test Bed at Johnson Space Center. Langley Research Center personnel involved in the conception and implementation of this workstation have assembled a video production facility to allow production of video disk material for this propose. This paper documents the initial familiarization efforts in the field of video production for those personnel and that facility. Although the entire video disk production cycle was not operational for this initial effort, the production of a simulated disk on video tape did acquaint the personnel with the processes involved and with the operation of the hardware. Invaluable experience in storyboarding, script writing, audio and video recording, and audio and video editing was gained in the production process.

  5. Use and application of organic geochemical techniques related to exploration and production of petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, H.; Hall, P.B.; Bharati, S.

    1995-08-01

    Petroleum geochemical data are essential to many aspects of reservoir evaluation, for example, in the detection of barriers to fluid-flow and the identification of different reservoir compartments. The analytical techniques used in reservoir geochemistry include bulk screening analyses (e.g. Rock-Eval and Iatroscan TLC-FID), detailed gas chromatographic analyses (e.g. whole oil GC) and compound specific analyses (e.g. thermal extraction GC-MS and GC-IRMS). New techniques which have proved to be particularly useful include Iatroscan TLC-FID and GC-IRMS. Optimum sampling and analytical programs are crucial to acquiring sufficient data which are appropriate for specific reservoirs. Both fluid and rock samples are necessary for characterization of the petroleum populations present in the reservoir, as occasionally rock extracts are different in composition to the produced fluids. Sampling programs depend on the complexity of the reservoir, which can vary from simple {open_quote}tanks{close_quotes} with relatively uniform petroleum requiring a relatively small sampling density, to highly compartmentalized reservoirs with very heterogeneous petroleum types. In both cases, however, a range of compound specific analytical techniques will be needed to discriminate between different petroleum populations. Specific barriers to fluid flow such as tarmats and cemented intervals can be detected using screening techniques. Evaluation of filling point(s) and petroleum populations, reservoir compartmentalization etc. can be performed using quantitative and compound specific analysis data. Potential satellite field locations can also be identified based on the knowledge of filling directions and other geochemical data. The application of different analytical techniques in the assessment of reservoirs is demonstrated using examples from carbonate and clastic reservoirs of varying complexity.

  6. The hazards of tank ships and barges transporting petroleum products on the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Keillor, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A coastal management issue in the Great Lakes is the risk of oil spills from tank vessels operating during a proposed extended navigation season. A description of a tanker trip, analysis of oil spill statistics, and vessel casualty records reveal the nature of hazards faced by vessels engaged in the Great Lakes petroleum trade. Required use of Loran-C and fathometers, frequent maintenance dredging, and other measures could improve the safety of petroleum transport. Reduced fleet sizes should make inspection and introduction of safety improvements easier.

  7. NAFTA opportunities: Petroleum refining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) creates a more transparent environment for the sale of refined petroleum products to Mexico, and locks in access to Canada's relatively open market for these products. Canada and Mexico are sizable United States export markets for refined petroleum products, with exports of $556 million and $864 million, respectively, in 1992. These markets represent approximately 24 percent of total U.S. exports of these goods.

  8. Upgrading petroleum and petroleum fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, S.; Reese, D.D.

    1988-06-21

    A method is described for neutralizing the organic naphthenic acids acidity present in petroleum and petroleum fractions to produce a neutralization number less than 1.0 whereby they are rendered suitable as lube oil feed stocks which consists essentially of treating the petroleum and petroleum fractions with a neutralizing amount of monoethanolamine to form an amine salt with the organic acids and then heating the thus-neutralized petroleum and petroleum fractions at a temperature at least about 25/sup 0/F greater than the boiling point of water and for a time sufficient to convert the amine salts to amides.

  9. Conference on the topic: {open_quotes}Exploration and production of petroleum and gas from chalk reservoirs worldwide{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, V.G.

    1995-07-01

    More than 170 delegates from 14 countries in Europe, North America, Africa, and Asia took part in a conference on the topic: Exploration and Production of Petroleum and Gas from Chalk Reservoirs Worldwide. The conference was held in Copenhagen, Denmark in September,1994, and was a joint meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the European Association of Petroleum Geoscientists and Engineers (EAPG). In addition to the opening remarks, 25 oral and nine poster reports were presented. The topics included chalk deposits as reservoir rocks, the occurrence of chalk deposits worldwide, the North Sea oil and gas fields, and other related topics.

  10. Studies on the effect of inoculation of activated sludge with bacteria actively degrading hydrocarbons on the biodegradation of petroleum products.

    PubMed

    Bieszkiewicz, Ewa; Boszczyk-Maleszak, Hanka; Włodarczyk, Anna; Horoch, Maciej

    2002-01-01

    Eighteen strains of bacteria were isolated from activated sludge purifying petroleum-refining wastewaters. These strains were plated on solidified mineral medium supplemented with oil fraction in concentration 1000 mg/l. Four of the strains that grew best in the presence of oil were selected for further studies. The strains were identified based on Bonde's scheme and microscopic observations. Three of them belonged to the genus Arthrobacter and one to the genus Micrococcus. Stationary cultures of single strains and their mixtures were set up in mineral medium containing oil (sterile and non-sterile) as sole carbon source in concentration 1000 mg/l. The oils were found to be removed the most efficiently by a mixture of the strains. After 14 days of culture the amount of oil was utilized by from 63 to 95%. In the next stage of the studies the bacteria were used to inoculate activated sludge. Stationary cultures of the activated sludge were set up in mineral medium with oil. The utilisation of petroleum products by non-inoculated activated sludge (control), activated sludge inoculated with a single strain or a mixture of all four strains was examined. In both inoculated activated sludge cultures approximately 80% of the oils were removed, compared to 60% in the control activated sludge. Therefore, inoculated activated sludge showed 20% higher effectiveness of removal of petroleum derivatives.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  14. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Recent Productivity Improvements to the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popernack, Thomas G., Jr.; Sydnor, George H.

    1998-01-01

    Productivity gains have recently been made at the National Transonic Facility wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. A team was assigned to assess and set productivity goals to achieve the desired operating cost and output of the facility. Simulations have been developed to show the sensitivity of selected process productivity improvements in critical areas to reduce overall test cycle times. The improvements consist of an expanded liquid nitrogen storage system, a new fan drive, a new tunnel vent stack heater, replacement of programmable logic controllers, an increased data communications speed, automated test sequencing, and a faster model changeout system. Where possible, quantifiable results of these improvements are presented. Results show that in most cases, improvements meet the productivity gains predicted by the simulations.

  19. Development of catalyst production facilities at Ufa Oil Refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Propkopyuk, S.G.; Rozenbaum, B.L.; Putilin, N.Ye.; Amirkhanov, K.Sh.; Morozov, B.F.; Britenkova, T.G.

    1982-08-03

    The Ufa Order of Lenin Oil Refinery is one of the USSR's largest facilities for production of catalysts for oil refining and petrochemistry, as well as for the food industry. Nine types of catalysts are produced for cracking, selective hydrogenation and oligomerization. A plant for production of NaY zeolite catalysts by the ash method has been remodeled. The production of nickel catalysts on kieselgur is growing rapidly. The facility for producing copper-chromium type MKhB catalyst is to be remodeled during the 11th Five-Year Plan. Production of cracking catalysts will be basically redesigned, increasing the capacity by 50% and significantly improving the operating characteristics of microspherical catalysts.

  20. Carbonate petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Roehl, P.O.; Choquette, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the geology of petroleum deposits. Topics considered include diagenesis, porosity, dolomite reservoirs, deposition, reservoir rock, reefs, morphology, fracture-controlled production, Cenozoic reservoirs, Mesozoic reservoirs, and Paleozoic reservoirs.

  1. Topside facilities for floating production systems require new engineering thinking

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, A.J.; Graaf, G.

    1983-05-01

    Since the oil industry moved offshore, great emphasis has been placed on the need to reduce space and weight requirements of topside facilities. For successful design of floating production systems, weight consciousness assumes an even higher level of importance, necessitating systematic attention to detail even at the feasibility study stage of a project.

  2. The potential for hydrocarbon biodegradation and production of extracellular polymeric substances by aerobic bacteria isolated from a Brazilian petroleum reservoir.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, S P; Dellagnezze, B M; Wieland, A; Klock, J-H; Santos Neto, E V; Marsaioli, A J; Oliveira, V M; Michaelis, W

    2011-06-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) can contribute to the cellular degradation of hydrocarbons and have a huge potential for application in biotechnological processes, such as bioremediation and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Four bacterial strains from a Brazilian petroleum reservoir were investigated for EPS production, emulsification ability and biodegradation activity when hydrocarbons were supplied as substrates for microbial growth. Two strains of Bacillus species had the highest EPS production when phenanthrene and n-octadecane were offered as carbon sources, either individually or in a mixture. While Pseudomonas sp. and Dietzia sp., the other two evaluated strains, had the highest hydrocarbon biodegradation indices, EPS production was not detected. Low EPS production may not necessarily be indicative of an absence of emulsifier activity, as indicated by the results of a surface tension reduction assay and emulsification indices for the strain of Dietzia sp. The combined results gathered in this work suggest that a microbial consortium consisting of bacteria with interdependent metabolisms could thrive in petroleum reservoirs, thus overcoming the limitations imposed on each individual species by the harsh conditions found in such environments.

  3. Medical Isotope Production Analyses In KIPT Neutron Source Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2016-01-01

    Medical isotope production analyses in Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) neutron source facility were performed to include the details of the irradiation cassette and the self-shielding effect. An updated detailed model of the facility was used for the analyses. The facility consists of an accelerator-driven system (ADS), which has a subcritical assembly using low-enriched uranium fuel elements with a beryllium-graphite reflector. The beryllium assemblies of the reflector have the same outer geometry as the fuel elements, which permits loading the subcritical assembly with different number of fuel elements without impacting the reflector performance. The subcritical assembly is driven by an external neutron source generated from the interaction of 100-kW electron beam with a tungsten target. The facility construction was completed at the end of 2015, and it is planned to start the operation during the year of 2016. It is the first ADS in the world, which has a coolant system for removing the generated fission power. Argonne National Laboratory has developed the design concept and performed extensive design analyses for the facility including its utilization for the production of different radioactive medical isotopes. 99Mo is the parent isotope of 99mTc, which is the most commonly used medical radioactive isotope. Detailed analyses were performed to define the optimal sample irradiation location and the generated activity, for several radioactive medical isotopes, as a function of the irradiation time.

  4. Finding of No Significant Impact for the Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-08-31

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1497, for the proposed replacement of the existing 107 centimeter (cm) [42 inch (in)] 6.87 kilometer (km) [4.27 mile (mi)] raw water intake pipeline (RWIPL). This action is necessary to allow for continued, optimum operations at the West Hackberry facility (main site/facility). The EA described the proposed action (including action alternatives) and three alternatives to the proposed action. The EA evaluated only the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action (one action alternative), and Alternative 3, which consisted of the No Build Action that is required by 10 CFR 1021.321(c). Based on the analysis in DOE/EA-1497, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting humans or the natural environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). To further minimize impacts to environmental media, the DOE will also implement a Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for this action. The MAP is included as Appendix F of this EA, which is appended to this FONSI. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, authorizes the creation of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to store crude oil to reduce the United States' vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Crude oil is stored in geologic formations, or salt domes, located under these facilities. The purpose of this proposed project is to construct a new RWIPL at the main site to replace the existing RWIPL which services this facility.

  5. Environmental report for the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Norris, E.S.; Duck, R.R.; Hass, R.B.; Morgan, M.E.; Helble, J.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Fossil Energy Program has a mission to develop energy systems that utilize national coal resources in power systems with increased efficiency and environmental compatibility. Coal gasification technology is a versatile candidate that meets this goal. This two phased project consists primarily of the design, construction and operation of a 5-foot inside diameter (minimum) fixed-bed gasifier called PyGas{trademark} and supporting infrastructure (Phase I), and an additional follow on phase consisting of the design, construction and operation of a hot fuel gas cleanup unit (Phase II). Issues expected to be successfully overcome by PyGas{trademark} through its application in this test facility include the processing of high-swelling coals, which causes agglomeration in conventional fixed-bed gasifiers. Such coals comprise 87% of all eastern coals. Other issues expected to be eliminated or significantly reduced include: production of ash clinkers, production of ammonia, the presence of significant tars and fines, and the volatilization of alkalinity in the product fuel gas. A second portion of the NEPA report is concerned with the emission of toxic metal compounds by the gasification process improvement facility (GPIF). The GPIF facility will be located on site at the Fort Martin facility of Allegheny Power Company, and the energy produced (steam) will be directly used by Fort Martin to produce electricity. The coal used at the GPIF facility will be the same coal used by the utility. Therefore, the emissions of the GPIF will be put in context of the entire facility. The GPIF assessment will be divided into four sections: Estimation of the toxic metals content of the raw coal; calculation of the emissions from Fort Martin normally; an estimate of the emission from the GPIF; and a comparison of the two flows.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-05

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. It presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include domestic first purchase price, f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude, and refiners` acquisition cost of crude. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  7. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  8. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  9. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  11. Literature Survey on Long-Term Storage of Petroleum Products, Artillery Storage Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-05-31

    Carl VT.: Inst. Spokesman 7. No. 5, 1, 4-7; No. 6, 2, 4-7 (1943); C, L81 4782 (1944).- ,°11 Q I APPENDIX II Pertinent References Not Specifically...Tear 4, 215-7 (1928)j CA 22, 246o (1928). 1205. Frank, Fr., and Solberg , H.: Petroleum Z. 24, 641-4 (1928); CA 23, 271, 1929. 1206. Hebler, F.: Erdbl

  12. Crude oil, petroleum product, and water discrimination on terrestrial substrates with airborne imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. Scott; Krekeler, Mark P. S.

    2011-06-01

    The Deepwater Horizon explosion and subsequent sinking produced the largest oil spill in U.S. history. One of the most prominent portions of the response is mapping the extent to which oil has reached thousands of miles of shoreline. The most common method of detecting oil remains visual spotting from airframes, supplemented by panchromatic / multispectral aerial photography and satellite imagery. While this imagery provides a synoptic view, it is often ambiguous in its ability to discriminate water from hydrocarbon materials. By employing spectral libraries for material identification and discrimination, imaging spectroscopy supplements traditional imaging techniques by providing specific criteria for more accurate petroleum detection and discrimination from water on terrestrial backgrounds. This paper applies a new hydrocarbon-substrate spectral library to SpecTIR HST-3 airborne imaging spectroscopy data from the Hurricane Katrina disaster in 2005. Using common material identification algorithms, this preliminary analysis demonstrates the applicability and limitations of hyperspectral data to petroleum/water discrimination in certain conditions. The current work is also the first application of the petroleum-substrate library to imaging spectroscopy data and shows potential for monitoring long term impacts of Deepwater Horizon.

  13. Determination of hydrocarbon types in petroleum and coal-derived products by thin-layer chromatography/densitometry.

    PubMed

    Cebolla, V L; Membrado, L; Vela, J; Garriga, R; Henrion, P; Domingo, M P; González, P

    2000-01-01

    Different methodologies based on thin-layer chromatography (TLC)/densitometry were used to separate and quantitate hydrocarbon types in middle distillates (gas oil), heavy distillates (lubricant) from petroleum, and coal-derived products. Thus, petroleum products were separated into saturates and aromatics by development, using n-hexane (9 min) followed by dichloromethane (4.5 min), of silica gel plates impregnated with berberine sulfate. Detection of saturates and aromatics was performed by fluorescence scanning using 365 nm as the excitation wavelength. Alternative detection of aromatics can be performed on either silica gel or berberine-impregnated plates by using ultraviolet (UV) densitometry at 250 nm. On the other hand, polar coal-derived products were separated into aromatics, polar compounds, and uneluted components by using silica gel plates and development with toluene (12 min), followed by dichloromethane-methanol (95 + 5, v/v), with detection by UV densitometry at 250 nm. In all cases, external standard calibration was used for quantitation. Results were validated by using standard methods or well-established techniques of the petrochemical industry. The potential usefulness of TLC/densitometry is discussed.

  14. Decommissioning of U.S. uranium production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    From 1980 to 1993, the domestic production of uranium declined from almost 44 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} to about 3 million pounds. This retrenchment of the U.S. uranium industry resulted in the permanent closing of many uranium-producing facilities. Current low uranium prices, excess world supply, and low expectations for future uranium demand indicate that it is unlikely existing plants will be reopened. Because of this situation, these facilities eventually will have to be decommissioned. The Uranium Mill Tailings and Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) vests the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with overall responsibility for establishing environmental standards for decommissioning of uranium production facilities. UMTRCA also gave the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) the responsibility for licensing and regulating uranium production and related activities, including decommissioning. Because there are many issues associated with decommissioning-environmental, political, and financial-this report will concentrate on the answers to three questions: (1) What is required? (2) How is the process implemented? (3) What are the costs? Regulatory control is exercised principally through the NRC licensing process. Before receiving a license to construct and operate an uranium producing facility, the applicant is required to present a decommissioning plan to the NRC. Once the plan is approved, the licensee must post a surety to guarantee that funds will be available to execute the plan and reclaim the site. This report by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) represents the most comprehensive study on this topic by analyzing data on 33 (out of 43) uranium production facilities located in Colorado, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Washington.

  15. 76 FR 16728 - Announcement of the American Petroleum Institute's Standards Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... (Specific Gravity), or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method..., and API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Thermohydrometer Method, 3rd...

  16. Preconceptual design of the new production reactor circulator test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, G.

    1990-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study of a new circulator test facility for the New Production Reactor Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor. The report addresses the preconceptual design of a stand-alone test facility with all the required equipment to test the Main Circulator/shutoff valve and Shutdown Cooling Circulator/shutoff valve. Each type of circulator will be tested in its own full flow, full power helium test loop. Testing will cover the entire operating range of each unit. The loop will include a test vessel, in which the circulator/valve will be mounted, and external piping. The external flow piping will include a throttle valve, flowmeter, and heat exchanger. Subsystems will include helium handling, helium purification, and cooling water. A computer-based data acquisition and control system will be provided. The estimated costs for the design and construction of this facility are included. 2 refs., 15 figs.

  17. DECOMMISSIONING OF A CAESIUM-137 SEALED SOURCE PRODUCTION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, A.; Abbott, H.

    2003-02-27

    Amersham owns a former Caesium-137 sealed source production facility. They commissioned RWE NUKEM to carry out an Option Study to determine a strategy for the management of this facility and then the subsequent decommissioning of it. The decommissioning was carried out in two sequential phases. Firstly robotic decommissioning followed by a phase of manual decommissioning. This paper describes the remote equipment designed built and operated, the robotic and manual decommissioning operations performed, the Safety Management arrangements and summarizes the lessons learned. Using the equipment described the facility was dismantled and decontaminated robotically. Some 2300kg of Intermediate Level Waste containing in the order of 4000Ci were removed robotically from the facility. Ambient dose rates were reduced from 100's of R per hour {gamma} to 100's of mR per hour {gamma}. The Telerobotic System was then removed to allow man access to complete the decommissioning. Manual decommissioning reduced ambient dose rates further to less than 1mR per hour {gamma} and loose contamination levels to less than 0.25Bq/cm2. This allowed access to the facility without respiratory protection.

  18. Data products in the ESO Science Archive Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retzlaff, Jörg; Arnaboldi, Magda; Romaniello, Martino; Ballester, Pascal; Carson, Paul; Delmotte, Nausicaa; Forchi, Vincenzo; Freudling, Wolfram; Gabasch, Armin; Garcia-Dabo, Cesar Enrique; Hanuschik, Reinhard; Hummel, Wolfgang; Klein Gebbinck, Maurice; Lockhart, John; Micol, Alberto; Modigliani, Andrea; Percheron, Isabelle; Szostak, Artur; Vera Sequeiros, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    The European Southern Observatory Science Archive Facility is evolving from an archive containing predominantly raw data into a resource also offering science-grade data products for immediate analysis and prompt interpretation. New products originate from two different sources. On the one hand Principal Investigators of Public Surveys and other programmes reduce the raw observational data and return their products using the so-called Phase 3 - a process that extends the Data Flow System after proposal submission (Phase 1) and detailed specification of the observations (Phase 2). On the other hand raw data of selected instruments and modes are uniformly processed in-house, independently of the original science goal. Current data products assets in the ESO science archive facility include calibrated images and spectra, as well as catalogues, for a total volume in excess of 16 TB and increasing. Images alone cover more than 4500 square degrees in the NIR bands and 2400 square degrees in the optical bands; over 85000 individually searchable spectra are already available in the spectroscopic data collection. In this paper we review the evolution of the ESO science archive facility content, illustrate the data access by the community, give an overview of the implemented processes and the role of the associated data standard.

  19. Summary of Historical Production for Nevada Binary Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, Greg; Hanson, Hillary

    2014-09-01

    The analysis described was initiated to validate inputs used in the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) economic modeling tool GETEM (Geothermal Electricity Technology Evaluation Model) by using publically available data to identify production trends at operating geothermal binary facilities in the state of Nevada. Data required for this analysis was obtained from the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG), whom received the original operator reports from the Nevada Division of Minerals (NDOM). The data from the NBMG was inputted into Excel files that have been uploaded to the DOE’s National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). Once data was available in an Excel format, production trends for individual wells and facilities could be established for the periods data was available (thru 2009). Additionally, this analysis identified relationships existing between production (temperature and flow rates), power production and plant conversion efficiencies. The data trends showed that temperature declines have a significant impact on power production, and that in some instances operators increased production flow rate to offset power declines. The production trends with time that were identified are being used to update GETEM’s default inputs.

  20. DNA-polyfluorophore Chemosensors for Environmental Remediation: Vapor-phase Identification of Petroleum Products in Contaminated Soil†

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Shenliang; Yuen, Lik Hang; Kwon, Hyukin; Ono, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of soil and groundwater by petroleum-based products is an extremely widespread and important environmental problem. Here we have tested a simple optical approach for detecting and identifying such industrial contaminants in soil samples, using a set of fluorescent DNA-based chemosensors in pattern-based sensing. We used a set of diverse industrial volatile chemicals to screen and identify a set of five short oligomeric DNA fluorophores on PEG-polystyrene microbeads that could differentiate the entire set after exposure to their vapors in air. We then tested this set of five fluorescent chemosensor compounds for their ability to respond with fluorescence changes when exposed to headgas over soil samples contaminated with one of ten different samples of crude oil, petroleum distillates, fuels, lubricants and additives. Statistical analysis of the quantitative fluorescence change data (as Δ(R,G,B) emission intensities) revealed that these five chemosensors on beads could differentiate all ten product mixtures at 1000 ppm in soil within 30 minutes. Tests of sensitivity with three of the contaminant mixtures showed that they could be detected and differentiated in amounts at least as low as one part per million in soil. The results establish that DNA-polyfluorophores may have practical utility in monitoring the extent and identity of environmental spills and leaks, while they occur and during their remediation. PMID:23878719

  1. Role of nutrients and illuminance in predicting the fate of fungal mediated petroleum hydrocarbon degradation and biomass production.

    PubMed

    Ali Khan, Aqib Hassan; Tanveer, Sundus; Anees, Mariam; Muhammad, Yousaf Shad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Yousaf, Sohail

    2016-07-01

    Biodegradation and biomass production are affected by numerous environmental factors including pH, oxygen availability and presence of pollutants. The present study, for the first time, elucidated the effects of nutrients and light on mycodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel oil. Seven fungal strains (Aspergillus terreus FA3, Aspergillus niger FA5, Aspergillus terreus FA6, Penicillium chrysogenum FP4, Aspergillus terreus FP6, Aspergillus flavus FP10, and Candida sp. FG1) were used for hydrocarbon degradation under static conditions, in four combinations of nutrient media and illuminance for 45 days. Highest degradation was achieved by Aspergillus terreus FA6 and Candida sp. FG1 under both conditions of light and dark, with nutrient deprived HAF (Hydrocarbon adopted fungi) broth. Under HAF/Dark diesel oil degradation by FA6 and FG1 was 87.3% and 84.3% respectively, while under HAF/Light both FA6 and FG1 performed 84.3% biodegradation. The highest biomass was produced by Aspergillus flavus FP10 in PDB (Potato dextrose broth)/Dark (109.3 mg). Fungal degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was negatively affected by the presence of other simpler-to-degrade carbon sources in the medium. The biomass production was enhanced by improved nutrient availability and diminished by illuminance.

  2. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSVP20 isolated from petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and its physicochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Adgaba, Nuru; Khan, Khalid Ali; Pruthi, Vikas; Al-Waili, Noori

    2015-11-01

    Among 348 microbial strains isolated from petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, five were selected for their ability to produce biosurfactant based on battery of screening assay including hemolytic activity, surface tension reduction, drop collapse assay, emulsification activity, and cell surface hydrophobicity studies. Of these, bacterial isolate DSVP20 was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCBI GenBank accession no. GQ865644) based on biochemical characterization and the 16S rDNA analysis, and it was found to be a potential candidate for biosurfactant production. Maximum biosurfactant production recorded by P. aeruginosa DSVP20 was 6.7 g/l after 72 h at 150 rpm and at a temperature of 30 °C. Chromatographic analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) revealed that it was a glycolipid in nature which was further confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Bioremediation studies using purified biosurfactant showed that P. aeruginosa DSVP20 has the ability to degrade eicosane (97%), pristane (75%), and fluoranthene (47%) when studied at different time intervals for a total of 7 days. The results of this study showed that the P. aeruginosa DSVP20 and/or biosurfactant produced by this isolate have the potential role in bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

  3. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates.

  4. Reconnaissance investigation of petroleum products in soil and ground water at Longmire, Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumioka, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    The removal of an underground waste-oil storage tank in Mount Rainier National Park, at Longmire, Washington, led to the discovery that soil surrounding the tank was saturated with unidentified petroleum hydrocarbons. Subsequent investigations by the National Park Service indicated that a petroleum product smelling like diesel oil was present in the unsaturated zone as far as 120 feet from the tank site. A study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service to determine the extent to which the petroleum hydrocarbons have affected the unsaturated zone and ground water in the Longmire area. Measurements of water levels in wells and of water-surface elevations of the Nisqually River and a wetland west of Longmire indicate that ground water does not flow from the maintenance area to the river or to the wetland. Waste oil and diesel oil were detected in soil samples from the site closest to the waste-oil storage-tank site. Diesel oil was also detected in samples from a site about 200 feet northwest of the storage-tank site. Organic compounds of undetermined origin were detected in soil samples from all of the other sites. Waste oil was not conclusively detected in any of the ground-water samples. Diesel oil was detected in water samples from the well closest to the storage tank and from a well about 200 feet west of the storage-tank site. Ground-water samples from all of the other wells contained organic compounds of undetermined origin.

  5. Monitoring of soil and groundwater contamination following a pipeline explosion and petroleum product spillage in Ijegun, Lagos Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Victoria Funmilayo; Otitoloju, Adebayo Akeem

    2013-05-01

    In May 2008, an accidental damage of a Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) pipeline occurred in Ijegun area of Lagos, Nigeria, resulting in oil spillage and consequent contamination of the environment. The residual concentration of the total hydrocarbon (THC) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) in the groundwater and soil was therefore investigated between March 2009 and July 2010. Results showed elevated THC mean levels in groundwater which were above the World Health Organization maximum admissible value of 0.1 mg/l. THC values as high as 757.97 mg/l in groundwater and 402.52 mg/l in soil were observed in March 2009. Pronounced seasonal variation in the concentration of THC in groundwater and soil samples show that there was significant (P < 0.05) difference in the measured concentration of THC between each season (dry and wet), with the highest being in the dry season and between the years 2009 and 2010. Significant hydrocarbon contamination, 500 m beyond the explosion site and 25 months after the incident, was observed revealing the extent of the spillage of petroleum products. The highest concentrations of 16.65 μg/l (benzene), 2.08 μg/l (toluene), and 4864.79 μg/l (xylene) were found in stations within the 100 m buffer zone. Most of the samples of groundwater taken were above the target value of 0.2 μg/l set for BTEX compounds by the Environmental Guidelines and Standards for Petroleum Industry in Nigeria. The level of hydrocarbon in the impacted area calls for concern and remediation of the area is urgently needed to reduce further negative impact on the ecosystem.

  6. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaraman, Chitra

    2013-07-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for value-added products (VAP) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing VAPs, (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to a VAP, and (5) top requested VAPs from the archive.

  7. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaraman, Chitra

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for value-added products (VAP) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing VAPs, (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to a VAP, and (5) top requested VAPs from the archive.

  8. Fertilizer production facilities of the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Faucett, H.L.; Nichols, D.E.; Weatherington, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    TVA is examining the concept of using integrated gasification combined cycle technology as a way of meeting electrical power and fertilizers needs starting around the year 2000. This technology offers a way to use coal, a US resource, in an environmentally acceptable manner to produce electricity, urea, and sulfuric acid for phosphate fertilizer. The technology, envirorunental emissions, and economics for a commercial-scale production facility are discussed.

  9. Fertilizer production facilities of the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Faucett, H.L.; Nichols, D.E.; Weatherington, R.W.

    1991-12-31

    TVA is examining the concept of using integrated gasification combined cycle technology as a way of meeting electrical power and fertilizers needs starting around the year 2000. This technology offers a way to use coal, a US resource, in an environmentally acceptable manner to produce electricity, urea, and sulfuric acid for phosphate fertilizer. The technology, envirorunental emissions, and economics for a commercial-scale production facility are discussed.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Data are presented which describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. Data are presented in two sections: Summary Statistics, presenting a time series of selected petroleum data on a U.S. level, and Detailed Statistics, presenting statistics for the most current month available as well as year to date.

  11. Sedimentology and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorlykke, K.O. )

    1989-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to sedimentology as well as petroleum geology. It integrates both subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately. The author covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modelling forms the base for the part on petroleum geology. Subjects discussed include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  14. Impacts of petroleum production on ground and surface waters: Results from the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research A site, Osage County Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Thordsen, J.J.; Kakouros, E.; Herkelrath, W.N.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary group of about 20 scientists, we are investigating the transport, fate, natural attenuation, and ecosystem impacts of inorganic salts and organic compounds present in releases of produced water and associated hydrocarbons at the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research (OSPER) sites, located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Geochemical data collected from nearby oil wells show that the produced water source is a Na-Ca-Cl brine (???150,000 mg/L total dissolved solids [TDS]), with relatively high concentrations of Mg, Sr, and NH4, but low SO4 and H2S. Results from the depleted OSPER A site show that the salts continue to be removed from the soil and surficial rocks, but degraded oil persists on the contaminated surface. Eventually, the bulk of inorganic salts and dissolved organics in the brine will reach the adjacent Skiatook Lake, a 4250-ha (10,501-ac) potable water reservoir. Repeated sampling of 44 wells show a plume of high-salinity water (2000-30,000 mg/L TDS) at intermediate depths that intersects Skiatook Lake and extends beyond the visibly impacted areas. No liquid petroleum was observed in this plume, but organic acid anions, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), and other volatile organic carbon (VOC) are present. The chemical composition of released brine is modified by sorption, mineral precipitation and dissolution, evapotranspiration, volatilization, and bacterially mediated oxidation-reduction reactions, in addition to mixing with percolating precipitation water, lake water, and pristine groundwater. Results show that only minor amounts of salt are removed by runoff, supporting the conclusion that significant amounts of salts from produced water and petroleum releases still remain in the soils and rocks of the impacted area after more than 65 yr of natural attenuation. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point distribution in petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qian, Kuangnan; Edwards, Kathleen E; Dechert, Gary J; Jaffe, Stephen B; Green, Larry A; Olmstead, William N

    2008-02-01

    We report a new method for rapid measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point (BP) distribution for petroleum crude and products. The technology is based on negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for selective ionization of petroleum acid and quantification of acid structures and molecular weight distributions. A chip-based nanoelectrospray system enables microscale (<200 mg) and higher throughput (20 samples/h) measurement. Naphthenic acid structures were assigned based on nominal masses of a set of predefined acid structures. Stearic acid is used as an internal standard to calibrate ESI-MS response factors for quantification purposes. With the use of structure-property correlations, boiling point distributions of TAN values can be calculated from the composition. The rapid measurement of TAN BP distributions by ESI is demonstrated for a series of high-TAN crudes and distillation cuts. TAN values determined by the technique agree well with those by the titration method. The distributed properties compare favorably with those measured by distillation and measurement of TAN of corresponding cuts.

  16. Cleaner production opportunity assessment for a milk processing facility.

    PubMed

    Ozbay, A; Demirer, G N

    2007-09-01

    Possible cleaner production (CP) opportunities for a milk processing facility were examined in this study. The CP concept and its key tools of implementation were used to assess the potential CP opportunities in the facility studied. The general production process and its resulting environmental loads were investigated by taking possible CP opportunities as the basis of study. The methodology developed for CP opportunity assessment in the milk processing facility covered two major steps: preparation of checklists to assist auditing and CP opportunity assessment, and implementation of the mass-balance analysis. For mass-balance analysis, measurements and experimental analysis of the mass flows were utilized to determine the inputs and outputs. Prepared checklists were utilized to determine waste reduction options that could be implemented. Selected opportunities were evaluated considering their environmental benefits and economic feasibility. The results of the study indicated that 50% of the service water used, 9.3% of the current wastewater (WW) discharge, 65.36% of the chemical use and the discharge of 181.9 kg/day of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 20.7 kg/day of total suspended solids (TSS) could be eliminated and 19.6% of the service water used could be recycled/reused.

  17. Mine-induced sinkholes over the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Storage Facility at Weeks Island, Louisiana: geological mitigation and environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.T.

    1997-03-01

    A sinkhole formed over the former salt mine used for crude oil storage by the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve at Weeks Island, Louisiana. This created a dilemma because in-mine grouting was not possible, and external grouting, although possible, was impractical. However, environmental protection during oil withdrawal and facility decommissioning was considered critical and alternative solutions were essential. Mitigation of, the sinkhole growth over the salt mine was accomplished by injecting saturated brine directly into the sinkhole throat, and by constructing a cylindrical freeze curtain around and into the dissolution orifice at the top of the salt dome. These measures vastly reduced the threat of major surface collapse around the sinkhole during oil transfer and subsequent brine backfill. The greater bulk of the crude oil was removed from the mine during 1995-6. Final skimming operations will remove residual oil trapped in low spots, concurrent with initiating backfill of the mine with saturated brine. Environmental monitoring during 1995-9 will assure that environmental surety is achieved.

  18. Associated petroleum gas utilization in Tomsk Oblast: energy efficiency and tax advantages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazim, A.; Romanyuk, V.; Ahmadeev, K.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    This article deals with oil production companies activities in increasing the utilization volume of associated petroleum gas (APG) in Tomsk Oblast. Cost-effectiveness analysis of associated petroleum gas utilization was carried out using the example of gas engine power station AGP-350 implementation at Yuzhno-Cheremshanskoye field, Tomsk Oblast. Authors calculated the effectiveness taking into account the tax advantages of 2012. The implementation of this facility shows high profitability, the payback period being less than 2 years.

  19. A valuable product from a construction and demolition facility

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, S.G.

    1997-12-31

    A Construction and Demolition (C and D) Facility in Northeast Florida produces a manufactured soil that is a by-product of recycling operations. Upon arrival at the facility, the incoming material is separated into concrete and non-concrete materials. The non-concrete material passes through several screen and conveyor line stations to remove deleterious and unsuitable materials. The remaining material becomes the final product known as recycled soil product. The consistency of the material is similar to soil mixed with some mulch. Present uses of the material include daily landfill cover and fill material (exclusive of top cover) at construction sites, road base preparation and landscaping material. In order to determine if the material was safe to be used in places where it may come in contact with the public or sensitive environments, several analytical tests for metals and volatile organic compounds were performed. The material was determined to be within applicable standards for all parameters sampled and the product is expected to be approved for unrestricted use. This former waste material has been proven to be a valuable commodity again.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data on the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1995 with data for March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-16

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary Statistics Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption.

  2. Environmental assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Big Hill facility storage of commercial crude oil project, Jefferson County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The Big Hill SPR facility located in Jefferson County, Texas has been a permitted operating crude oil storage site since 1986 with benign environmental impacts. However, Congress has not authorized crude oil purchases for the SPR since 1990, and six storage caverns at Big Hill are underutilized with 70 million barrels of available storage capacity. On February 17, 1999, the Secretary of Energy offered the 70 million barrels of available storage at Big Hill for commercial use. Interested commercial users would enter into storage contracts with DOE, and DOE would receive crude oil in lieu of dollars as rental fees. The site could potentially began to receive commercial oil in May 1999. This Environmental Assessment identified environmental changes that potentially would affect water usage, power usage, and air emissions. However, as the assessment indicates, changes would not occur to a major degree affecting the environment and no long-term short-term, cumulative or irreversible impacts have been identified.

  3. An attempt to use selected strains of bacteria adapted to high concentrations of petroleum oil to increase the effective removal of petroleum products in excess activated sludge in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Bieszkiewicz, E; Horoch, M; Boszczyk-Maleszak, H; Mycielski, R

    1998-01-01

    Forty two strains of bacteria were isolated from excess activated sludge from petroleum wastewater treatment plant. The strains were identified and classified to the following groups: Enterobacteriaceae (7 strains), Anitratum (3 strains), Pseudomonas (13 strains), Micrococcus (12 strains), Comamonas (2 strains), Xanthomonas (2 strains), Achromobacter (1 strain) and Vibrio-Aeromonas (1 strain). One of the isolates was found to be a yeast strain. Following preliminary selection ten strains, showing the best growth in medium with oil fraction as sole carbon source, were chosen for further studies. The selected strains belong to Pseudomonas (6 strains), Xanthomonas (2 strains), Micrococcus (1 strain) and Saccharomyces (1 strain). The strains were adapted to high oil concentration (500-2000 mg/L) and an attempt to use them to intensify removal of petroleum products from excess activated sludge was made. The sludge was inoculated with a mixture of the isolated strains. The experiment was carried out three times, each time with a fresh sample of the excess sludge. The obtained results show that the inoculation of activated sludge with the strains active against oil reduced the petroleum products content by 20% in 14 days. The greatest reduction of oil was observed in sludge with the lowest dry weight, that is with the greatest degree of hydration. The dry weight of the excess sludge did not significantly decrease during the course of the experiment, after having been inoculated with the mixture of strains.

  4. Chemometric analysis of gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection chromatograms: a novel method for classification of petroleum products.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, N J; Ballabio, D; Tomasi, G; Todeschini, R; Christensen, J H

    2012-05-18

    Most oil characterisation procedures are time consuming, labour intensive and utilise only part of the acquired chemical information. Oil spill fingerprinting with multivariate data processing represents a fast and objective evaluation procedure, where the entire chromatographic profile is used. Methods for oil classification should be robust towards changes imposed on the spill fingerprint by short-term weathering, i.e. dissolution and evaporation processes in the hours following a spill. We propose a methodology for the classification of petroleum products. The method consists of: chemical analysis; data clean-up by baseline removal, retention time alignment and normalisation; recognition of oil type by classification followed by initial source characterisation. A classification model based on principal components and quadratic discrimination robust towards the effect of short-term weathering was established. The method was tested successfully on real spill and source samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-08-31

    The proposed action and three alternatives, including a No Build alternative, were evaluated along the existing RWIPL alignment to accommodate the placement of the proposed RWIPL. Construction feasibility, reasonableness and potential environmental impacts were considered during the evaluation of the four actions (and action alternatives) for the proposed RWIPL activities. Reasonable actions were identified as those actions which were considered to be supported by common sense and sound technical principles. Feasible actions were those actions which were considered to be capable of being accomplished, practicable and non-excessive in terms of cost. The evaluation process considered the following design specifications, which were determined to be important to the feasibility of the overall project. The proposed RWIPL replacement project must therefore: (1) Comply with the existing design basis and criteria, (2) Maintain continuity of operation of the facility during construction, (3)Provide the required service life, (4) Be cost effective, (5)Improve the operation and maintenance of the pipeline, and (6) Maintain minimal environmental impact while meeting the performance requirements. Sizing of the pipe, piping construction materials, construction method (e.g., open-cut trench, directional drilling, etc.) and the acquisition of new Right-of-Way (ROW) were additionally evaluated in the preliminary alternative identification, selection and screening process.

  6. 40 CFR 63.11164 - What General Provisions apply to primary zinc production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... primary zinc production facilities? 63.11164 Section 63.11164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Zinc Production Facilities § 63.11164 What General Provisions apply to primary zinc production facilities? (a) If you own or...

  7. 40 CFR 63.11164 - What General Provisions apply to primary zinc production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary zinc production facilities? 63.11164 Section 63.11164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Zinc Production Facilities § 63.11164 What General Provisions apply to primary zinc production facilities? (a) If you own or...

  8. 40 CFR 63.11164 - What General Provisions apply to primary zinc production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... primary zinc production facilities? 63.11164 Section 63.11164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Zinc Production Facilities § 63.11164 What General Provisions apply to primary zinc production facilities? (a) If you own or...

  9. 40 CFR 63.11164 - What General Provisions apply to primary zinc production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... primary zinc production facilities? 63.11164 Section 63.11164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Zinc Production Facilities § 63.11164 What General Provisions apply to primary zinc production facilities? (a) If you own or...

  10. 40 CFR 63.11164 - What General Provisions apply to primary zinc production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary zinc production facilities? 63.11164 Section 63.11164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Zinc Production Facilities § 63.11164 What General Provisions apply to primary zinc production facilities? (a) If you own or...

  11. 40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section 63.11166 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? (a) You must...

  12. 40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section 63.11166 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? (a) You must...

  13. 40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section 63.11166 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? (a) You must...

  14. 40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section 63.11166 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? (a) You must...

  15. 40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section 63.11166 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? (a) You must...

  16. 18 CFR 292.204 - Criteria for qualifying small power production facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY... production capacity of any other small power production facilities that use the same energy resource, are... production facilities within one mile of such facilities. (b) Fuel use. (1)(i) The primary energy source...

  17. 18 CFR 292.204 - Criteria for qualifying small power production facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY... production capacity of any other small power production facilities that use the same energy resource, are... production facilities within one mile of such facilities. (b) Fuel use. (1)(i) The primary energy source...

  18. Isotope dilution ICP-MS with laser-assisted sample introduction for direct determination of sulfur in petroleum products.

    PubMed

    Boulyga, Sergei F; Heilmann, Jens; Heumann, Klaus G

    2005-08-01

    Inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry (ICP-IDMS) with direct laser-assisted introduction of isotope-diluted samples into the plasma, using a laser ablation system with high ablation rates, was developed for accurate sulfur determinations in different petroleum products such as 'sulfur-free' premium gasoline, diesel fuel, and heating oil. Two certified gas oil reference materials were analyzed for method validation. Two different 34S-enriched spike compounds, namely, elementary sulfur dissolved in xylene and dibenzothiophene in hexane, were synthesized and tested for their usefulness in this isotope dilution technique. The isotope-diluted sample was adsorbed on a filter-paper-like material, which was fixed in a special holder for irradiation by the laser beam. Under these conditions no time-dependent spike/analyte fractionation was only observed for the dibenzothiophene spike during the laser ablation process, which means that the measured 34S/32S isotope ratio of the isotope-diluted sample remained constant-a necessary precondition for accurate results with the isotope dilution technique. A comparison of LA-ICP-IDMS results with the certified values of the gas oil reference materials and with results obtained from ICP-IDMS analyses with wet sample digestion demonstrated the accuracy of the new LA-ICP-IDMS method in the concentration range of 9.2 microg g(-1) ('sulfur-free' premium gasoline) to 10.4 mg g(-1) (gas oil reference material BCR 107). The detection limit for sulfur by LA-ICP-IDMS is 0.04 microg g(-1) and the analysis time is only about 10 min, which therefore also qualifies this method for accurate determinations of low sulfur contents in petroleum products on a routine level.

  19. A new procedure for the determination of distillation temperature distribution of high-boiling petroleum products and fractions.

    PubMed

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kamiński, Marian

    2011-03-01

    The distribution of distillation temperatures of liquid and semi-fluid products, including petroleum fractions and products, is an important process and practical parameter. It provides information on properties of crude oil and content of particular fractions, classified on the basis of their boiling points, as well as the optimum conditions of atmospheric or vacuum distillation. At present, the distribution of distillation temperatures is often investigated by simulated distillation (SIMDIS) using capillary gas chromatography (CGC) with a short capillary column with polydimethylsiloxane as the stationary phase. This paper presents the results of investigations on the possibility of replacing currently used CGC columns for SIMDIS with a deactivated fused silica capillary tube without any stationary phase. The SIMDIS technique making use of such an empty fused silica column allows a considerable lowering of elution temperature of the analytes, which results in a decrease of the final oven temperature while ensuring a complete separation of the mixture. This eliminates the possibility of decomposition of less thermally stable mixture components and bleeding of the stationary phase which would result in an increase of the detector signal. It also improves the stability of the baseline, which is especially important in the determination of the end point of elution, which is the basis for finding the final temperature of distillation. This is the key parameter for the safety process of hydrocracking, where an excessively high final temperature of distillation of a batch can result in serious damage to an expensive catalyst bed. This paper compares the distribution of distillation temperatures of the fraction from vacuum distillation of petroleum obtained using SIMDIS with that obtained by the proposed procedure. A good agreement between the two procedures was observed. In addition, typical values of elution temperatures of n-paraffin standards obtained by the two

  20. Targetry at the LANL 100 MeV isotope production facility: lessons learned from facility commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Nortier, F. M.; Fassbender, M. E.; DeJohn, M.; Hamilton, V. T.; Heaton, R. C.; Jamriska, David J.; Kitten, J. J.; Lenz, J. W.; Lowe, C. E.; Moddrell, C. F.; McCurdy, L. M.; Peterson, E. J.; Pitt, L. R.; Phillips, D. R.; Salazar, L. L.; Smith, P. A.; Valdez, Frank O.

    2004-01-01

    The new Isotope Production Facility (IPF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been commissioned during the spring of 2004. Commissioning activities focused on the establishment of a radionuclide database, the review and approval of two specific target stack designs, and four trial runs with subsequent chemical processing and data analyses. This paper highlights some aspects of the facility and the targetry of the two approved target stacks used during the commissioning process. Since one niobium encapsulated gallium target developed a blister after the extended irradiation of 4 days, a further evaluation of the gallium targets is required. Beside this gallium target, no other target showed any sign of thermal failure. Considering the uncertainties involved, the production yields obtained for targets irradiated in the same energy slot are consistent for all three 'Prototype' stacks. A careful analysis of the temperature profile in the RbCl targets shows that energy shifts occur in the RbCl and Ga targets. Energy shifts are a result of density variations in the RbCl disk under bombardment. Thickness adjustments of targets in the prototype stack are required to ensure maximum production yields of {sup 82}Sr and {sup 68}Ge in the design energy windows. The {sup 68}Ge yields obtained are still consistently lower than the predicted yield value, which requires further investigation. After recalculation of the energy windows for the RbCl and Ga targets, the measured {sup 82}Sr production yields compare rather well with values predicted on the basis of evaluated experimental excitation function data.

  1. Evaluation of medical isotope production with the accelerator production of tritium (APT) facility

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, R.W.; Frey, G.D.; McLean, D.C., Jr; Spicer, K.M.; Davis, S.E.; Baron, S.; Frysinger, J.R.; Blanpied, G.; Adcock, D.

    1997-07-10

    The accelerator production of tritium (APT) facility, with its high beam current and high beam energy, would be an ideal supplier of radioisotopes for medical research, imaging, and therapy. By-product radioisotopes will be produced in the APT window and target cooling systems and in the tungsten target through spallation, neutron, and proton interactions. High intensity proton fluxes are potentially available at three different energies for the production of proton- rich radioisotopes. Isotope production targets can be inserted into the blanket for production of neutron-rich isotopes. Currently, the major production sources of radioisotopes are either aging or abroad, or both. The use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine is growing and changing, both in terms of the number of nuclear medicine procedures being performed and in the rapidly expanding range of procedures and radioisotopes used. A large and varied demand is forecast, and the APT would be an ideal facility to satisfy that demand.

  2. Connecticut Company Settles with EPA for Chemical Reporting Lapses at Manchester N.H. Facility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An EPA settlement reached with BWE, Inc., an East Hartford, Conn. company that stores and distributes petroleum products and other flammable liquids at several facilities in New England, will help ensure that the community and emergency responders...

  3. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaraman, C.

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for Value-Added Products (VAPs) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun; (2) progress on existing VAPs; (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved; (4) other work that leads to a VAP; (5) top requested VAPs from the ARM Data Archive; and (6) a summary of VAP and data releases to production and evaluation. New information is highlighted in blue text. New information about processed data by the developer is highlighted in red text. The upcoming milestones and dates are highlighted in green.

  4. Moly99 Production Facility: Report on Beamline Components, Requirements, Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Bishofberger, Kip A.

    2015-12-23

    In FY14 we completed the design of the beam line for the linear accelerator production design concept. This design included a set of three bending magnets, quadrupole focusing magnets, and octopoles to flatten the beam on target. This design was generic and applicable to multiple different accelerators if necessary. In FY15 we built on that work to create specifications for the individual beam optic elements, including power supply requirements. This report captures the specification of beam line components with initial cost estimates for the NorthStar production facility.This report is organized as follows: The motivation of the beamline design is introduced briefly, along with renderings of the design. After that, a specific list is provided, which accounts for each beamline component, including part numbers and costs, to construct the beamline. After that, this report details the important sections of the beamline and individual components. A final summary and list of follow-on activities completes this report.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  7. Tazerka multiwell FPSU the design of production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rietveld, R.J.C.; Biss, N.C.; Gelderblom, D.

    1983-09-01

    This paper will review the problems and the solutions associated with the design of the production facilities on the Multiwell Floating-Production and Storage Unit (FPSU) operated by Shell Tunirex in the Tazerka field, offshore Tunisia, on behalf of a joint venture with AGIP (Africa) and Enterprise Tunisienne d'Activites Petrolieres. Economics and product specification dictated the application of special techniques in the production of, and utility of, designs as regards process flexibility, gas disposal, power generation and pollution prevention. The field, containing estimated reserves of 8-10 million barrels of recoverable oil, is located in deep water (140-300m). To be economic, a novel application of multi-well floating-production and storage concept was developed. It was desirable to use a single process train with as near a 100% on-stream factor as possible. While not the first application of a flow station on a weather-vaning unit, it is believed to be the first to process crude directly from several subsea wells.

  8. Does the spillage of petroleum products in Anopheles breeding sites have an impact on the pyrethroid resistance?

    PubMed Central

    Djouaka, Rousseau F; Bakare, Adekunle A; Bankole, Honore S; Doannio, Julien MC; Coulibaly, Ousmane N; Kossou, Hortense; Tamo, Manuele; Basene, Harcourt I; Popoola, OK; Akogbeto, Martin C

    2007-01-01

    Background The emergence of Anopheles populations capable of withstanding lethal doses of insecticides has weakened the efficacy of most insecticide based strategies of vector control and, has highlighted the need for further studies on the mechanisms of insecticide resistance and the various factors selecting resistant populations of mosquitoes. This research targeted the analysis of breeding sites and the oviposition behaviour of susceptible and resistant populations of Anopheles in localities of spilled petroleum products. The aim was to establish the possible contribution of oil spillage in the selection of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors. Methods Anopheles breeding sites were identified and the insecticide susceptibility of the Anopheles gambiae populations mapped in 15 localities of South Western Nigeria. The presence of oil particles as well as the turbidity, the dissolved oxygen and the pH of each identified breeding site was recorded. Data were cross-analysed to correlate the habitat types and the insecticide susceptibility status of emerging mosquitoes. The second phase of this study was basically a laboratory model to provide more information on the implication of the spillage of petroleum on the selection of pyrethroid resistance in An. gambiae. Results Moderate levels of resistance following exposure to permethrin-impregnated papers were recorded with the majority of An. gambiae samples collected in the South Western Nigeria. Data from this study established a link between the constituency of the breeding sites and the resistance status of the emerging Anopheles. Conclusion This study has revealed the segregational occupation of breeding habitats by pyrethroid resistant and susceptible strains of An. gambiae in south-western Nigeria. Compiled results from field and laboratory research point out clear relationships between oil spillage and pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors. The identification of this factor of resistance could serve as

  9. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  10. Petroleum marketing annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This publication contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  11. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the twelfth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Drafting and releasing the 2007 Request for Proposals; (2) Securing a meeting facility, scheduling and drafting plans for the 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; (3) Conducting elections and announcing representatives for the four 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; (4) 2005 Final Project Reports; (5) Personal Digital Assistant Workshops scheduled; and (6) Communications and outreach.

  12. The impending peak and decline of petroleum production: an underestimated challenge for conservation of ecological integrity.

    PubMed

    Czúcz, Bálint; Gathman, Joseph P; McPherson, Guy R

    2010-08-01

    In the last few decades petroleum has been consumed at a much faster pace than new reserves have been discovered. The point at which global oil extraction will attain a peak ("peak oil") and begin a period of unavoidable decline is approaching. This eventuality will drive fundamental changes in the quantity and nature of energy flows through the human economic system, which probably will be accompanied by economic turmoil, political conflicts, and a high level of social tension. Besides being a geological and economic issue, peak oil is also a fundamental concern as it pertains to ecological systems and conservation because economics is a subsystem of the global ecosystem and changes in human energy-related behaviors can lead to a broad range of effects on natural ecosystems, ranging from overuse to abandonment. As it becomes more difficult to meet energy demands, environmental considerations may be easily superseded. Given the vital importance of ecosystems and ecosystem services in a postpetroleum era, it is crucially important to wisely manage our ecosystems during the transition period to an economy based on little or no use of fossil fuels. Good policies can be formulated through awareness and understanding gained from scenario-based assessments. Presently, most widely used global scenarios of environmental change do not incorporate resource limitation, including those of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Considering the potential magnitude of the effects of peak oil on society and nature, the development of resource-constrained scenarios should be addressed immediately. Ecologists and conservation biologists are in an important position to analyze the situation and provide guidance, yet the topic is noticeably absent from ecological discussions. We urge politicians, corporate chief executives, thought leaders, and citizens to consider this problem seriously because it is likely to develop into one of the

  13. Petroleum and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, Peter H.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    1995-01-01

    Crude petroleum, refined-petroleum products, and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained within petroleum are found throughout the world. their presence has been detected in living and nonliving components of ecosystems. Petroleum can be an environmental hazard for wild animals and plants. Individual PAHs are also hazardous to wildlife, but they are most commonly associated with human illnesses. Because petroleum is a major environmental source of these PAHs, petroleum and PAHs are jointly presented in this chapter. Composition, sources, environmental fate, and toxic effects on all living components of aquatic and terrestrial environments are addessed.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-10

    This report for March 1995, provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. A glossary is included.

  15. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-15

    This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  16. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  17. 7 CFR 1424.10 - Succession and control of facilities and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Succession and control of facilities and production... § 1424.10 Succession and control of facilities and production. A person who obtains a facility that is... may terminate a contract and demand full refund of payments made if a contracting party loses...

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-27

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 54 tabs.

  19. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Whited, D.; Jacobus, P.

    1990-11-28

    Data presented in this PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 46 tabs.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  1. Facile production of up-converted quantum dot lasers.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Raffaella; Fortunati, Ilaria; Todescato, Francesco; Gardin, Samuele; Bozio, Renato; Jasieniak, Jacek J; Martucci, Alessandro; Della Giustina, Gioia; Brusatin, Giovanna; Guglielmi, Massimo

    2011-10-05

    We report a facile production of an up-converted surface-emitting DFB laser, performed by exploiting the versatility of sol-gel chemistry, the intriguing properties of well designed graded CdSe-CdS-Cd(0.5)Zn(0.5)S-ZnS colloidal quantum dots, and the scalability of nanoimprinting. Our laser prototype operates in the visible region following efficient optical pumping by either direct one-photon excitation or through the up-conversion of near infrared (NIR) light. By achieving cavity mode Q-factors in excess of 650 and retaining high lasing stabilities in air, this work highlights the feasibility of creating integrated lasing devices through solution based methods.

  2. Investigation of relationships between linears, total and hazy areas, and petroleum production in the Williston Basin: An ERTS approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. M.; Street, J. S. (Principal Investigator); Munsell, C. J.; Obrien, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery in a variety of formats was used to locate linear, tonal, and hazy features and to relate them to areas of hydrocarbon production in the Williston Basin of North Dakota, eastern Montana, and northern South Dakota. Derivative maps of rectilinear, curvilinear, tonal, and hazy features were made using standard laboratory techniques. Mapping of rectilinears on both bands 5 and 7 over the entire region indicated the presence of a northeast-southwest and a northwest-southeast regional trend which is indicative of the bedrock fracture pattern in the basin. Curved lines generally bound areas of unique tone, maps of tonal patterns repeat many of the boundaries seen on curvilinear maps. Tones were best analyzed on spring and fall imagery in the Williston Basin. It is postulated that hazy areas are caused by atmospheric phenomena. The ability to use ERTS imagery as an exploration tool was examined where petroleum and gas are presently produced (Bottineau Field, Nesson and Antelope anticlines, Redwing Creek, and Cedar Creek anticline). It is determined that some tonal and linear features coincide with location of present production in Redwing and Cedar Creeks. In the remaining cases, targets could not be sufficiently well defined to justify this method.

  3. Contamination issues in a continuous ethanol production corn wet milling facility

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low ethanol yields and poor yeast viability were investigated at a continuous ethanol production corn wet milling facility. Using starch slurries and recycle streams from a commercial ethanol facility, laboratory hydrolysates were prepared by reproducing starch liquefaction and saccharification ste...

  4. Ethanol production in small- to medium-size facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiler, E. A.; Coble, C. G.; Oneal, H. P.; Sweeten, J. M.; Reidenbach, V. G.; Schelling, G. T.; Lawhon, J. T.; Kay, R. D.; Lepori, W. A.; Aldred, W. H.

    1982-04-01

    In early 1980 system design criteria were developed for a small-scale ethanol production plant. The plant was eventually installed on November 1, 1980. It has a production capacity of 30 liters per hour; this can be increased easily (if desired) to 60 liters per hour with additional fermentation tanks. Sixty-six test runs were conducted to date in the alcohol production facility. Feedstocks evaluated in these tests include: corn (28 runs); grain sorghum (33 runs); grain sorghum grits (1 run); half corn/half sorghum (1 run); and sugarcane juice (3 runs). In addition, a small bench-scale fermentation and distillation system was used to evaluate sugarcane and sweet sorghum feedstocks prior to their evaluation in the larger unit. In each of these tests, evaluation of the following items was conducted: preprocessing requirements; operational problems; conversion efficiency (for example, liters of alcohol produced per kilogram of feedstock); energy balance and efficiency; nutritional recovery from stillage; solids separation by screw press; chemical characterization of stillage including liquid and solids fractions; wastewater requirements; and air pollution potential.

  5. NFL Films audio, video, and film production facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Russ; Schrag, Richard C.; Ridings, Jason J.

    2003-04-01

    The new NFL Films 200,000 sq. ft. headquarters is home for the critically acclaimed film production that preserves the NFL's visual legacy week-to-week during the football season, and is also the technical plant that processes and archives football footage from the earliest recorded media to the current network broadcasts. No other company in the country shoots more film than NFL Films, and the inclusion of cutting-edge video and audio formats demands that their technical spaces continually integrate the latest in the ever-changing world of technology. This facility houses a staggering array of acoustically sensitive spaces where music and sound are equal partners with the visual medium. Over 90,000 sq. ft. of sound critical technical space is comprised of an array of sound stages, music scoring stages, audio control rooms, music writing rooms, recording studios, mixing theaters, video production control rooms, editing suites, and a screening theater. Every production control space in the building is designed to monitor and produce multi channel surround sound audio. An overview of the architectural and acoustical design challenges encountered for each sophisticated listening, recording, viewing, editing, and sound critical environment will be discussed.

  6. Unit: Petroleum, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on petroleum developed for the Australian Science Education Project. The package contains the teacher's edition of the written material and a script for a film entitled "The Extraordinary Experience of Nicholas Nodwell" emphasizing the uses of petroleum and petroleum products in daily life and…

  7. Unit: Petroleum, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on petroleum developed for the Australian Science Education Project. The package contains the teacher's edition of the written material and a script for a film entitled "The Extraordinary Experience of Nicholas Nodwell" emphasizing the uses of petroleum and petroleum products in daily life and…

  8. Assessment of Air Emissions at the U S Liquids Exploration and Production Land Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pardue; K.T. Valsaraj

    2000-12-01

    This project was initiated to make the first set of measurements documenting the potential for emissions of pollutants from exploration and production (E&P) waste disposal facilities at Bourg, Louisiana and Bateman Island, Louisiana. The objective of the project was to quantify the emissions and to determine whether the measured emissions were potentially harmful to human health of workers and the adjacent community. The study, funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) is designed to complement additional studies funded by Louisiana Department of Natural Resources (LADNR) and the American Petroleum Institute. The distinguishing feature of this study is that actual, independent field measurements of emissions were used to assess the potential problems of this disposal technology. Initial measurements were made at the Bourg, LA facility, adjacent to the community of Grand Bois in late 1998-early 1999. Emission measurements were performed using aluminum chambers placed over the surface of the landfarm cells. Air was pulled through the chambers and the concentration of the contaminants in the air exiting the chambers was measured. The contaminants of interest were the ''BTEX'' compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), commonly found in E&P wastes and hydrogen sulfide, a noxious gas present naturally in many E&P wastes and crude oils. Measurements indicated that emissions were measurable using the techniques developed for the study. However, when the air concentrations of these contaminants that developed above the landfarm cells were compared with standards for workers from the Occupational and Safety and Health Association (''OSHA'') and for communities (Louisiana's ambient air standards), levels were not of concern. Since amounts of wastes being processed by the Bourg facility were considerably lower than normal, a decision was made to continue the study at the Bateman Island facility near Morgan City, LA. This facility was receiving more normal loadings

  9. Evaluation of production facilities in a closed-loop supply chain: a fuzzy TOPSIS approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochampally, Kishore K.; Gupta, Surendra M.; Kamarthi, Sagar V.

    2004-02-01

    It has become common for manufacturing facilities involved in production of new products to also carry out collection and re-processing of used products. While environmental consciousness has become an obligation to the facilities in the production of new products due to governmental regulations and public perspective on environmental issues, potentiality of the facilities to re-process used products directly affects the profitability of the facilities. Although many papers in the literature deal with performance evaluation of facilities, none of them address these two factors. To this end, a TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution) approach, which evaluates production facilities in terms of both environmental-consciousness and potentiality, is proposed. Furthermore, since most of the criteria that fall under these two factors are intangible, triangular fuzzy numbers (TFNs) are employed to rate them in the evaluation process. A numerical example demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed method.

  10. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The {ital Petroleum Supply Annual} contains information on supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. It reflects data collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys, and it is divided into 2 volumes. This volume contains three sections: summary statistics, detailed statistics, and selected refinery statistics, each with final annual data. (The other volume contains final statistics for each month and replaces data previously published in the {ital Petroleum Supply Monthly}).

  11. Asphaltenes: The cholesterol of petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Kokal, S.L.; Sayegh, S.G.

    1995-11-01

    Asphaltene precipitation and deposition has been recognized to be a significant problem in oil production, transmission,and processing facilities. The precipitation of asphaltenes is cause by a number of factors including changes in pressure, temperature, chemical composition of the crude oil, mixing the oil with diluents or other oils, and during acid stimulation. The precipitated asphaltenes reduces the permeability of the reservoir near the well-bore region causing formation damage and can plug-up the well-bores and well tubings. Deposition of asphaltenic organic scales leads to operational problems, safety hazards and an overall decrease in production efficiency, thereby increasing the cost of oil production. This paper presents a review of the important factors which affect asphaltene precipitation in petroleum reservoirs and in processing facilities. The nature and characteristics of asphaltenes in the crude oil and their molecular and colloidal properties are discussed. A description of the asphaltene deposition problem manifestations in the reservoir, well bores and well tubings, processing and transportation equipment is presented. current research work in this area is also discussed.

  12. Handbook of Petroleum Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, David S. J.; Pujado, Peter P.

    This handbook describes and discusses the features that make up the petroleum refining industry. It begins with a description of the crude oils and their nature, and continues with the saleable products from the refining processes, with a review of the environmental impact. There is a complete overview of the processes that make up the refinery with a brief history of those processes.

  13. Brief: Information technology as an aid to productivity in petroleum exploration -- fact or fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, M.; Iliffe, J. )

    1994-06-01

    This paper considers the relationship between information technology investment, technical productivity, and business benefit. The effect of introducing IT to the industry and its impact on geoscience is described, along with a discussion of whether investment in IT has brought the expected benefits to other industries. The paper concludes with a consideration of the present business perceptions of IT and asks whether a company, by concentrating solely on such issues as technical productivity, will actually maximize the benefits of IT.

  14. Evaluation of gas production potential from gas hydrate deposits in National Petroleum Reserve Alaska using numerical simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nandanwar, Manish S.; Anderson, Brian J.; Ajayi, Taiwo; Collett, Timothy S.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.

    2016-01-01

    An evaluation of the gas production potential of Sunlight Peak gas hydrate accumulation in the eastern portion of the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA) of Alaska North Slope (ANS) is conducted using numerical simulations, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gas hydrate Life Cycle Assessment program. A field scale reservoir model for Sunlight Peak is developed using Advanced Processes & Thermal Reservoir Simulator (STARS) that approximates the production design and response of this gas hydrate field. The reservoir characterization is based on available structural maps and the seismic-derived hydrate saturation map of the study region. A 3D reservoir model, with heterogeneous distribution of the reservoir properties (such as porosity, permeability and vertical hydrate saturation), is developed by correlating the data from the Mount Elbert well logs. Production simulations showed that the Sunlight Peak prospect has the potential of producing 1.53 × 109 ST m3 of gas in 30 years by depressurization with a peak production rate of around 19.4 × 104 ST m3/day through a single horizontal well. To determine the effect of uncertainty in reservoir properties on the gas production, an uncertainty analysis is carried out. It is observed that for the range of data considered, the overall cumulative production from the Sunlight Peak will always be within the range of ±4.6% error from the overall mean value of 1.43 × 109 ST m3. A sensitivity analysis study showed that the proximity of the reservoir from the base of permafrost and the base of hydrate stability zone (BHSZ) has significant effect on gas production rates. The gas production rates decrease with the increase in the depth of the permafrost and the depth of BHSZ. From the overall analysis of the results it is concluded that Sunlight Peak gas hydrate accumulation behaves differently than other Class III reservoirs (Class III reservoirs are composed of a single layer of hydrate with no

  15. Projected Salt Waste Production from a Commercial Pyroprocessing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel inevitably produces salt waste from electrorefining and/or oxide reduction unit operations. Various process design characteristics can affect the actual mass of such waste produced. This paper examines both oxide and metal fuel treatment, estimates the amount of salt waste generated, and assesses potential benefit of process options to mitigate the generation of salt waste. For reference purposes, a facility is considered in which 100 MT/year of fuel is processed. Salt waste estimates range from 8 to 20 MT/year from considering numerous scenarios. It appears that some benefit may be derived from advanced processes for separating fission products from molten salt waste, but the degree of improvement is limited. Waste form production is also considered but appears to be economically unfavorable. Direct disposal of salt into a salt basin type repository is found to be the most promising with respect to minimizing the impact of waste generation on the economic feasibility and sustainability of pyroprocessing.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly with data from October 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This publication provides information on the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United states and major geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports, exports, PAD district movements, and inventories by major suppliers of petroleum products.

  17. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Psarras, Peter C.; Ball, David W.; Timko, Michael T.; Wong, Hsi-Wu; Peck, Jay; Chianelli, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these nontraditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and H2) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tröpsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activities are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  18. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, A. F.; Kulis, M. J.; Psarras, P. C.; Ball, D. W.; Timko, M. T.; Wong, H.-W.; Peck, J.; Chianelli, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these non-traditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and hydrogen) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activity are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  19. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Canadian Oil Sands Products: Implications for U.S. Petroleum Fuels.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hao; Brandt, Adam R; Yeh, Sonia; Englander, Jacob G; Han, Jeongwoo; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael Q

    2015-07-07

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) regulations affecting U.S. transportation fuels require holistic examination of the life-cycle emissions of U.S. petroleum feedstocks. With an expanded system boundary that included land disturbance-induced GHG emissions, we estimated well-to-wheels (WTW) GHG emissions of U.S. production of gasoline and diesel sourced from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis was based on detailed characterization of the energy intensities of 27 oil sands projects, representing industrial practices and technological advances since 2008. Four major oil sands production pathways were examined, including bitumen and synthetic crude oil (SCO) from both surface mining and in situ projects. Pathway-average GHG emissions from oil sands extraction, separation, and upgrading ranged from ∼6.1 to ∼27.3 g CO2 equivalents per megajoule (in lower heating value, CO2e/MJ). This range can be compared to ∼4.4 g CO2e/MJ for U.S. conventional crude oil recovery. Depending on the extraction technology and product type output of oil sands projects, the WTW GHG emissions for gasoline and diesel produced from bitumen and SCO in U.S. refineries were in the range of 100-115 and 99-117 g CO2e/MJ, respectively, representing, on average, about 18% and 21% higher emissions than those derived from U.S. conventional crudes. WTW GHG emissions of gasoline and diesel derived from diluted bitumen ranged from 97 to 103 and 96 to 104 g CO2e/MJ, respectively, showing the effect of diluent use on fuel emissions.

  20. Analysis of alkane-dependent methanogenic community derived from production water of a high-temperature petroleum reservoir.

    PubMed

    Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Li, Kai-Ping; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Li-Ying; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2012-10-01

    Microbial assemblage in an n-alkanes-dependent thermophilic methanogenic enrichment cultures derived from production waters of a high-temperature petroleum reservoir was investigated in this study. Substantially higher amounts of methane were generated from the enrichment cultures incubated at 55 °C for 528 days with a mixture of long-chain n-alkanes (C(15)-C(20)). Stoichiometric estimation showed that alkanes-dependent methanogenesis accounted for about 19.8% of the total amount of methane expected. Hydrogen was occasionally detected together with methane in the gas phase of the cultures. Chemical analysis of the liquid cultures resulted only in low concentrations of acetate and formate. Phylogenetic analysis of the enrichment revealed the presence of several bacterial taxa related to Firmicutes, Thermodesulfobiaceae, Thermotogaceae, Nitrospiraceae, Dictyoglomaceae, Candidate division OP8 and others without close cultured representatives, and Archaea predominantly related to uncultured members in the order Archaeoglobales and CO(2)-reducing methanogens. Screening of genomic DNA retrieved from the alkanes-amended enrichment cultures also suggested the presence of new alkylsuccinate synthase alpha-subunit (assA) homologues. These findings suggest the presence of poorly characterized (putative) anaerobic n-alkanes degraders in the thermophilic methanogenic enrichment cultures. Our results indicate that methanogenesis of alkanes under thermophilic condition is likely to proceed via syntrophic acetate and/or formate oxidation linked with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis.

  1. Spectral range optimization for the near-infrared quantitative analysis of petrochemical and petroleum products: naphtha and gasoline.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngbok; Chung, Hoeil; Kim, Nakjoong

    2006-08-01

    The proper selection of the spectral range in partial least squares (PLS) calibration is critical when highly overlapping spectra from compositionally complex samples are used, such as naphtha and gasoline. In particular, the relevant spectral information related to a given property is frequently localized in a narrow range, and the most selective region may be difficult to locate. We have presented the importance of range optimization in near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the analyses of petrochemical and petroleum products that are generally highly complex in composition. For this purpose, the determination of a detailed compositional analysis (so called PIONA) and the distillation temperature of naphtha were evaluated. In the same fashion, the research octane number (RON) and Reid vapor pressure (RVP) were selected for gasoline. By optimizing the range using moving window (MW) PLS, the overall calibration performance was improved by finding the optimal spectral range for each property. In particular, for a detailed compositional analysis of naphtha, it was effective to search for localized spectral information in a relatively narrow range with fewer factors.

  2. 12 CFR 7.5002 - Furnishing of products and services by electronic means and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Furnishing of products and services by... products and services by electronic means and facilities. (a) Use of electronic means and facilities. A..., function, product, or service that it is otherwise authorized to perform, provide, or deliver, subject to...

  3. 12 CFR 7.5002 - Furnishing of products and services by electronic means and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Furnishing of products and services by... products and services by electronic means and facilities. (a) Use of electronic means and facilities. A..., function, product, or service that it is otherwise authorized to perform, provide, or deliver, subject to...

  4. 12 CFR 7.5002 - Furnishing of products and services by electronic means and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Furnishing of products and services by... products and services by electronic means and facilities. (a) Use of electronic means and facilities. A..., function, product, or service that it is otherwise authorized to perform, provide, or deliver, subject to...

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1999, with data for March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1998, with data for July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; Crude oil prices; Prices of petroleum products; Volumes of petroleum products; and Prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1998, with data for August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; Crude oil prices; Prices of petroleum products; Volumes of petroleum products; and Prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1998, with data for June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1998, with data for February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides Information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1999 with data for October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1999 with data for December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1998, with data from March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1999, with data for February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1999 with data for November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in six sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1998 with data for September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1999, with data for April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: initial estimates; summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 70 tabs.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly: August 1998, with data for May 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1998 with data for April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  19. Further investigation of the impact of the co-combustion of tire-derived fuel and petroleum coke on the petrology and chemistry of coal combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Elswick, E.R.; Roberts, J.M.; Brandsteder, K.; Trimble, A.S.; Mardon, S.M.

    2007-07-01

    A Kentucky cyclone-fired unit burns coal and tire-derived fuel, sometimes in combination with petroleum coke. A parallel pulverized combustion (pc) unit at the same plant burns the same coal, without the added fuels. The petrology, chemistry, and sulfur isotope distribution in the fuel and resulting combustion products was investigated for several configurations of the fuel blend. Zinc and Cd in the combustion products are primarily contributed from the tire-derived fuel, the V and Ni are primarily from the petroleum coke, and the As and Hg are probably largely from the coal. The sulfur isotope distribution in the cyclone unit is complicated due to the varying fuel sources. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) array in the pc unit shows a subtle trend towards heavier S isotopic ratios in the cooler end of the ESP.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-12

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-10

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-22

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase prices, the f.o b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-25

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  9. Screening of polar components of petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    The polar components of fuels may enable differentiation between fuel types or commercial fuel sources. Screening for these components in the hydrocarbon product is difficult due to their very low concentrations in such a complex matrix. Various commercial fuels from several sources were analyzed by flow injection analysis/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry without extensive sample preparation, separation, or chromatography. This technique enabled screening for unique polar components at very low concentrations in commercial hydrocarbon products. This analysis was then applied to hydrocarbon samples collected from the subsurface with a different extent of biodegradation or weathering. Although the alkane and isoprenoid portion had begun to biodegrade or weather, the polar components had changed little over time. Because these polar compounds are unique in different fuels, this screening technique can provide source information on hydrocarbons released into the environment. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  10. Biodegradation of corrosion inhibitors and their influence on petroleum product pipeline.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, Aruliah; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Palaniswamy, Narayanan; Rajendran, Annamalai

    2007-01-01

    The present study enlightens the role of Bacillus cereus ACE4 on biodegradation of commercial corrosion inhibitors (CCI) and the corrosion process on API 5LX steel. Bacillus cereus ACE4, a dominant facultative aerobic species was identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis, which was isolated from the corrosion products of refined diesel-transporting pipeline in North West India. The effect of CCI on the growth of bacterium and its corrosion inhibition efficiency were investigated. Corrosion inhibition efficiency was studied by rotating cage test and the nature of biodegradation of corrosion inhibitors was also analyzed. This isolate has the capacity to degrade the aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon present in the corrosion inhibitors. The degraded products of corrosion inhibitors and bacterial activity determine the electrochemical behavior of API 5LX steel.

  11. Environmental Regulations: Impact on the United States Petroleum Exploration and Production Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Quality Act of 1987. The CWA’s main purpose is to control the discharge of pollutants from point sources into U.S. waters. This requirement is carried out...current air quality standards are not being met, the states are required to adopt control requirement regulations and new source emission standards to...accidents beyond their control , harmless drilling and production wastes have been declared toxic, drilling rigs are banned to protect the environment

  12. Production of Biosurfactants by Pseudomonas Species for Application in the Petroleum Industry.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Aparecida M; Silva, Aline F; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2017-02-01

      The production of surfactants by microorganisms has become an attractive option in the treatment of oil-contaminated environments because biosurfactants are biodegradable and less toxic than synthetic surfactants, although production costs remain high. With the aim of reducing the cost of biosurfactant production, three strains of Pseudomonas (designated P1, P2, and P3) were cultivated in a low-cost medium containing molasses and corn steep liquor as substrates. Following the selection of the best producer (P3), a rotational central composite design (RCCD) was used to determine the influence of substrates concentration on surface tension and biosurfactant yield. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension of water to 27.5 mN/m, and its CMC was determined to be 600 mg/L. The yield was 4.0 g/L. The biosurfactant demonstrated applicability under specific environmental conditions and was able to remove 80 to 90% of motor oil adsorbed to sand. The properties of the biosurfactant suggest its potential application in bioremediation of hydrophobic pollutants.

  13. 75 FR 64949 - Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities; Updates to Incorporation by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... 3150-AI37 Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities; Updates to Incorporation by... requirements of the Congressional Review Act. This information was inadvertently omitted from the final...

  14. Effect of petroleum products on the decomposition of soil organic matter as assessed by 13C natural abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelmach, Wioleta; Szarlip, Paweł; Trembaczowski, Andrzej; Bieganowski, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    Petroleum products are common contaminants in soils due to human activities. They are toxic for microorganisms and threat their functions, including decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). The direct estimation of altered SOM decomposition - based on the CO2 emission - is impossible after oil contamination, because oil decomposition also contributes to the CO2 release. We used the natural differences in the isotopic signature (δ13C) of SOM and of oil products to partition the total CO2 for both sources and to analyze the suppression of SOM decomposition. The dynamics of 13C fractionation during the mineralization of gasoline and diesel was measured during 42 days. The 13C fractionation varied between -8.8‰ and +3.6‰ within the first 10 days, and stabilized thereafter at about -5.3‰ for gasoline and +3.2‰ for diesel. These 13C fractionations and δ13C values of CO2 emitted from the soil were used for correct partitioning of the total CO2. Contamination with gasoline reduced the CO2 efflux from SOM decomposition by a factor of 25 (from 151 to 6 mg C-CO2 kg-1 soil during 42 days). The negative effect of diesel was much lower: the CO2 efflux from SOM was decreased by less than a factor of 2. The strong effect of gasoline versus diesel reflects the lower absorption of gasoline to mineral particles and the development of a thin film on water surfaces, leading to toxicity for microorganisms. We conclude that the small differences of 13C of SOM and of organic pollutants can be used to partition CO2 fluxes and analyze pollutant effects on SOM decomposition.

  15. Secondary production of freshwater zooplankton communities exposed to a fungicide and to a petroleum distillate in outdoor pond mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Bayona, Yannick; Roucaute, Ana; Roucaute, Marc; Gorzerino, Caroline; Cailleaud, Kevin; Lagadic, Laurent; Bassères, Anne; Caquet, Thierry

    2014-04-01

    Ecological risk assessment of chemicals in mesocosms requires measurement of a large number of parameters at the community level. Studies on invertebrate communities usually focus on taxonomic approaches, which only provide insights into taxonomic structure changes induced by chemicals. In the present study, abundance, biomass (B), theoretical production (P), and instantaneous P/B ratio were used as endpoints to assess the effects of the commercial form of the dithiocarbamate fungicide thiram (35 µg/L and 170 µg/L nominal concentrations) and of the hydrocarbon water accommodated fraction (HWAF) of a petroleum distillate (0.01 mg/L, 0.4 mg/L, 2 mg/L, and 20 mg/L loadings) on the zooplankton community in freshwater pond mesocosms. Endpoints were measured during a 4-wk treatment period (1 pulse/wk) followed by a 5-mo posttreatment period to evaluate zooplankton population recovery. The chlorophyll a concentration in water was significantly increased after treatment with HWAF, whereas it was not affected by thiram treatment. Zooplankton abundance-based analysis showed effects on a limited number of taxa, whereas other endpoints (mainly the P/B ratio) revealed that more taxa were impacted, with recovery depending on the chemical and concentration. Exposure to HWAF mainly had a negative impact on cladocerans, which resulted in top-down effects (between cladocerans and phytoplankton). Thiram negatively affected rotifers and copepods, suggesting more direct toxic effects. The results show that the use of secondary production as an endpoint provides a more comprehensive assessment of potential direct and indirect effects of chemicals on a community, and they also support evidence of alteration in functional processes.

  16. 2010 and 1997 Earthquakes near Alice, Texas: Were They Induced by Petroleum Production?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohlich, C. A.; Brunt, M.; Glidewell, J.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate mb 3.9 earthquakes occurring on 24 March 1997 and 25 April 2010 near Alice, Texas, about 75 km west of Corpus Christi. For the 2010 earthquake we identified P arrivals at seven EarthScope stations situated within ~100 km of the epicentral region and determined a location of 27.72°N, 97.95°W, about 11 km east of the location reported by NEIC, but coincident with the region of highest intensity (MMI V-VI) felt reports. We compare arrivals for observed secondary P- and S-arrivals with predictions from a published Gulf Coast velocity model. At nearby stations the secondary arrivals are much stronger than primary arrivals; the arrival times and the presence of high-amplitude phases traveling at the velocity of the uppermost model layer suggest the focal depth was shallow, 3 km or less. Seismograms at Hockley, Texas, were virtually identical for the 1997 and 2010 Alice earthquakes, and both events had similar felt areas. We thus conclude they occurred at nearly the same location. This location places the Alice earthquakes approximately along the mapped trace of the Vicksburg fault zone and at the depth of the Frio formation, the principal productive member in the Stratton oil and gas field. The Stratton field has produced at least 2.7 trillion cubic feet of gas and about 100 million barrels of oil since production commenced in 1938. These volumes over the areal extent of Stratton field correspond to a pond of oil having a thickness of ~16 cm, and of liquefied natural gas of thickness of about a meter. We conclude it is plausible, although not proven definitively, that production in the Stratton field contributed to the occurrence of the 1997 and 2010 Alice earthquakes.

  17. Distortionary effects of a production-sharing fiscal system in a sequential modular offshore petroleum project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves de Campos, Thiago

    This research examines the distortionary effects of a discovered and undeveloped sequential modular offshore project under five different designs for a production-sharing agreement (PSA). The model differs from previous research by looking at the effect of taxation from the perspective of a host government, where the objective is to maximize government utility over government revenue generated by the project and the non-pecuniary benefits to society. This research uses Modern Asset Pricing (MAP) theory, which is able to provide a good measure of the asset value accruing to various stakeholders in the project combined with the optimal decision rule for the development of the investment opportunity. Monte Carlo simulation was also applied to incorporate into the model the most important sources of risk associated with the project and to account for non-linearity in the cash flows. For a complete evaluation of how the fiscal system affects the project development, an investor's behavioral model was constructed, incorporating three operational decisions: investment timing, capacity size and early abandonment. The model considers four sources of uncertainty that affect the project value and the firm's optimal decision: the long run oil price and short-run deviations from that price, cost escalation and the reservoir recovery rate. The optimizations outcomes show that all fiscal systems evaluated produce distortion over the companies' optimal decisions, and companies adjust their choices to avoid taxation in different ways according to the fiscal system characteristics. Moreover, it is revealed that fiscal systems with tax provisions that try to capture additional project profits based on production profitability measures leads to stronger distortions in the project investment and output profile. It is also shown that a model based on a fixed percentage rate is the system that creates the least distortion. This is because companies will be subjected to the same

  18. Variability of oil and gas well productivities for continuous (unconventional) petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, oil and gas well productivities were estimated using decline-curve analysis for thousands of wells as part of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources in the United States. The estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs) of these wells show great variability that was analyzed at three scales: within an assessment unit (AU), among AUs of similar reservoir type, and among groups of AUs with different reservoir types. Within a particular oil or gas AU (such as the Barnett Shale), EURs vary by about two orders of magnitude between the most productive wells and the least productive ones (excluding those that are dry and abandoned). The distributions of EURs are highly skewed, with most of the wells in the lower part of the range. Continuous AUs were divided into four categories based on reservoir type and major commodity (oil or gas): coalbed gas, shale gas, other low-permeability gas AUs (such as tight sands), and low-permeability oil AUs. Within each of these categories, there is great variability from AU to AU, as shown by plots of multiple EUR distributions. Comparing the means of each distribution within a category shows that the means themselves have a skewed distribution, with a range of approximately one to two orders of magnitude. A comparison of the three gas categories (coalbed gas, shale gas, and other low-permeability gas AUs) shows large overlap in the ranges of EUR distributions. Generally, coalbed gas AUs have lower EUR distributions, shale gas AUs have intermediate sizes, and the other low-permeability gas AUs have higher EUR distributions. The plot of EUR distributions for each category shows the range of variation among developed AUs in an appropriate context for viewing the historical development within a particular AU. The Barnett Shale is used as an example to demonstrate that dividing wells into groups by time allows one to see the changes in EUR distribution. Subdivision into groups

  19. A compositional multiphase model for groundwater contamination by petroleum products. 2. Numerical solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baehr, A.L.; Corapcioglu, M.Y.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we develop a numerical solution to equations developed in part 1 (M.Y. Corapcioglu and A.L. Baehr, this issue) to predict the fate of an immiscible organic contaminant such as gasoline in the unsaturated zone subsequent to plume establishment. This solution, obtained by using a finite difference scheme and a method of forward projection to evaluate nonlinear coefficients, provides estimates of the flux of solubilized hydrocarbon constituents to groundwater from the portion of a spill which remains trapped in a soil after routine remedial efforts to recover the product have ceased. The procedure was used to solve the one-dimensional (vertical) form of the system of nonlinear partial differential equations defining the transport for each constituent of the product. Additionally, a homogeneous, isothermal soil with constant water content was assumed. An equilibrium assumption partitions the constituents between air, water, adsorbed, and immiscible phases. Free oxygen transport in the soil was also simulated to provide an upper bound estimate of aerobic biodegradation rates. Results are presented for a hypothetical gasoline consisting of eight groups of hydrocarbon constituents. Rates at which hydrocarbon mass is removed from the soil, entering either the atmosphere or groundwater, or is biodegraded are presented. A significant sensitivity to model parameters, particularly the parameters characterizing diffusive vapor transport, was discovered. We conclude that hypocarbon solute composition in groundwater beneath a gasoline contaminated soil would be heavily weighted toward aromatic constituents like benzene, toluene, and xylene.In this paper we develop a numerical solution to equations developed in part 1 (M. Y. Corapcioglu and A. L. Baehr, this issue) to predict the fate of an immiscible organic contaminant such as gasoline in the unsaturated zone subsequent to plume establishment. This solution, obtained by using a finite difference scheme and a method

  20. Comparison of Microbial Community Compositions of Injection and Production Well Samples in a Long-Term Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Zhi-yong; Rupert, Wieger; Gao, Guang-Jun; Guo, Sheng-xue; Zhao, Li-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working block of the water-flooded Gudao petroleum reservoir located in the Yellow River Delta. DGGE fingerprints showed that the similarities of the bacterial communities between the injection water and production waters were lower than between the two production waters. It was also observed that the archaeal composition among these three samples showed no significant difference. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the dominant groups within the injection water were Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia, while the dominant groups in the production waters were Gammaproteobacteria and Methanobacteria. Only 2 out of 54 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 5 out of 17 archaeal OTUs in the injection water were detected in the production waters, indicating that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection water may not survive to be detected in the production waters. Additionally, there were 55.6% and 82.6% unique OTUs in the two production waters respectively, suggesting that each production well has its specific microbial composition, despite both wells being flooded with the same injection water. PMID:21858049

  1. Comparison of microbial community compositions of injection and production well samples in a long-term water-flooded petroleum reservoir.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Zhi-yong; Rupert, Wieger; Gao, Guang-Jun; Guo, Sheng-xue; Zhao, Li-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working block of the water-flooded Gudao petroleum reservoir located in the Yellow River Delta. DGGE fingerprints showed that the similarities of the bacterial communities between the injection water and production waters were lower than between the two production waters. It was also observed that the archaeal composition among these three samples showed no significant difference. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the dominant groups within the injection water were Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia, while the dominant groups in the production waters were Gammaproteobacteria and Methanobacteria. Only 2 out of 54 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 5 out of 17 archaeal OTUs in the injection water were detected in the production waters, indicating that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection water may not survive to be detected in the production waters. Additionally, there were 55.6% and 82.6% unique OTUs in the two production waters respectively, suggesting that each production well has its specific microbial composition, despite both wells being flooded with the same injection water.

  2. Simulation of a Production Facility with an Automated Transport System

    SciTech Connect

    ABRAMCZYK, GLENN

    2004-04-07

    A model was needed to assess material throughput and validate the conceptual design of a production facility, including equipment lists and layout. The initial desire was to use a commercially available discrete event simulation package. However, the available software was found to be too limited in capability. Database interface software was used to develop autonomous intelligent manufacturing workstations and material transporters. The initial Extend model used to assess material throughput and develop equipment lists for the preconceptual design effort was upgraded with software add-ons from Simulation Dynamics, Inc. (SDI). Use of the SDI database interface allowed the upgraded model to include: 1. a material mass balance at any level of detail required by the user, and 2. a transport system model that includes all transport system movements, time delays, and transfers between systems. This model will assist in evaluating transport system capacity, sensitive time delays in the system, and optimal operating strategies. An additional benefit of using the SDI database interface is dramatically improved run time performance. This allows significantly more runs to be completed to provide better statistics for overall plant performance. The model has all system and process parameters entered into sub-component accessible tables. All information for the manufactured items and process data is automatically generated and written to the database. The standard software is used for the movement of manufactured items between workstations, and for sequence and timing functions. Use of the database permits almost unlimited process control and data collection with an insignificant effect on run time.

  3. Risk-based maintenance of ethylene oxide production facilities.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faisal I; Haddara, Mahmoud R

    2004-05-20

    This paper discusses a methodology for the design of an optimum inspection and maintenance program. The methodology, called risk-based maintenance (RBM) is based on integrating a reliability approach and a risk assessment strategy to obtain an optimum maintenance schedule. First, the likely equipment failure scenarios are formulated. Out of many likely failure scenarios, the ones, which are most probable, are subjected to a detailed study. Detailed consequence analysis is done for the selected scenarios. Subsequently, these failure scenarios are subjected to a fault tree analysis to determine their probabilities. Finally, risk is computed by combining the results of the consequence and the probability analyses. The calculated risk is compared against known acceptable criteria. The frequencies of the maintenance tasks are obtained by minimizing the estimated risk. A case study involving an ethylene oxide production facility is presented. Out of the five most hazardous units considered, the pipeline used for the transportation of the ethylene is found to have the highest risk. Using available failure data and a lognormal reliability distribution function human health risk factors are calculated. Both societal risk factors and individual risk factors exceeded the acceptable risk criteria. To determine an optimal maintenance interval, a reverse fault tree analysis was used. The maintenance interval was determined such that the original high risk is brought down to an acceptable level. A sensitivity analysis is also undertaken to study the impact of changing the distribution of the reliability model as well as the error in the distribution parameters on the maintenance interval.

  4. Serial evaluations at an indium-tin oxide production facility.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Kristin J; Suarthana, Eva; Edwards, Nicole; Liang, Xiaoming; Stanton, Marcia L; Day, Gregory A; Saito, Rena; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2013-03-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of workplace changes to prevent indium lung disease, using 2002-2010 surveillance data collected by an indium-tin oxide production facility. We assessed pulmonary function using lower limits of normal. Blood indium concentration and personal air sampling data were used to estimate exposure. Abnormalities were uncommon at hire. After hire, prevalence of spirometric restriction was 31% (n = 14/45), about fourfold higher than expected. Excessive decline in FEV1 was elevated at 29% (n = 12/41). Half (n = 21/42) had blood indium ≥5 µg/l. More recent hires had fewer abnormalities. There was a suggestion that abnormalities were more common among workers with blood indium ≥5 µg/l, but otherwise an exposure-response relationship was not evident. Peak dust concentrations were obscured by time averaging. Evolving lung function abnormalities consistent with subclinical indium lung disease appeared common and merit systematic investigation. Traditional measures of exposure and response were not illustrative, suggesting fresh approaches will be needed. Workplace changes seemed to have had a positive though incomplete impact; novel preventive interventions are warranted. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Conceptual design report -- Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; House, L.S.; Duck, R.R.; Lisauskas, R.A.; Dixit, V.J.; Morgan, M.E.; Johnson, S.A.; Boni, A.A.

    1994-09-01

    The problems heretofore with coal gasification and IGCC concepts have been their high cost and historical poor performance of fixed-bed gasifiers, particularly on caking coals. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is being developed to solve these problems through the development of a novel coal gasification invention which incorporates pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification (fixed-bed). It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration caused in the conventional process of gradually heating coal through the 400 F to 900 F range. In so doing, the coal is rapidly heated sufficiently such that the coal tar exists in gaseous form rather than as a liquid. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can become chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NH{sub 3} and HCN from fuel born nitrogen, steam injection is minimized, and residual nitrogen compounds are partially chemically reduced in the cracking stage in the upper gasifier region. Assuming testing confirms successful deployment of all these integrated processes, future IGCC applications will be much simplified, require significantly less mechanical components, and will likely achieve the $1,000/kWe commercialized system cost goal of the GPIF project. This report describes the process and its operation, design of the plant and equipment, site requirements, and the cost and schedule. 23 refs., 45 figs., 23 tabs.

  6. Activation of air and concrete in medical isotope production facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Adam C.; Shackelton, R. J.; Carr, D. A.; Ismail, A.

    2017-05-01

    Medical isotope facilities operating in the 10 to 25 MeV proton energy range have long been used to generate radioisotopes for medical diagnostic imaging. In the last few years the beam currents available in commercially available cyclotrons have increased dramatically, and so the activation of the materials within cyclotron vaults may now pose more serious radiological hazards. This will impact the regulatory oversight of cyclotron operations, cyclotron servicing and future decommissioning activities. Air activation could pose a hazard to cyclotron staff. With the increased cyclotron beam currents it was necessary to examine the issue more carefully. Therefore the ways in which radioactivity may be induced in air by neutron reactions and neutron captures were considered and it was found that the dominant mechanism is neutron capture on Ar-40. A study of the activation of the air by neutron capture on Ar-40 within a cyclotron vault was performed using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. The neutron source energy spectrum used was from the production of the widely used F-18 PET isotope. The results showed that the activation of the air within a cyclotron vault does not pose a significant radiological hazard at the beam intensities currently in use and shows how ventilation affects the results. A second MCNP study on the activation of ordinary concrete in cyclotron vaults by neutron capture was made with a view to determining the optimum thickness of borated polyethylene to reduce neutron activation on both the inner surfaces of the vault and around production targets. This is of importance in decommissioning cyclotrons and therefore in the design of new cyclotron vaults. The distribution of activation on the walls as a function of the source position was also studied. Results are presented for both borated and regular polyethylene, and F-18 and Tc-99 neutron spectra.

  7. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve reduces the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument and an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current and projected storage capacity, analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  8. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum...

  9. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178.3720... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum wax...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum...

  11. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum...

  12. IR detector for hydrocarbons concentration measurement in emissions during petroleum and oil products storage and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, Andrey O.; Shemanin, Valeriy G.; Chartiy, Pavel V.

    2011-10-01

    A double beam IR detector is developed for light hydrocarbons concentration measurement in emissions from storage vessels during oil and oil products storage and transportation. It was concluded on the basis of chromatogram that main crude losses from evaporation are the share of hydrocarbons light ends from methane to decane. Detector operation is based on spectral transparency measurement in the infrared spectra absorption range. Operational wavelength of infrared radiation makes 3.4 μm. measurement principle is based on concentration calculation proceed from molecule absorption cross-section, optical path length between light emitted diode and reference and signal photodiodes as well as from value of measured signal transmitted through gaging volume. The novel of offering device is an actual paraffin hydrocarbons concentration measurement in emissions and continuous and automatic environment quality control.

  13. In Situ Biosurfactant Production by Bacillus Strains Injected into a Limestone Petroleum Reservoir▿

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, N.; Simpson, D. R.; Duncan, K. E.; McInerney, M. J.; Folmsbee, M.; Fincher, T.; Knapp, R. M.

    2007-01-01

    Biosurfactant-mediated oil recovery may be an economic approach for recovery of significant amounts of oil entrapped in reservoirs, but evidence that biosurfactants can be produced in situ at concentrations needed to mobilize oil is lacking. We tested whether two Bacillus strains that produce lipopeptide biosurfactants can metabolize and produce their biosurfactants in an oil reservoir. Five wells that produce from the same Viola limestone formation were used. Two wells received an inoculum (a mixture of Bacillus strain RS-1 and Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii NRRL B-23049) and nutrients (glucose, sodium nitrate, and trace metals), two wells received just nutrients, and one well received only formation water. Results showed in situ metabolism and biosurfactant production. The average concentration of lipopeptide biosurfactant in the produced fluids of the inoculated wells was about 90 mg/liter. This concentration is approximately nine times the minimum concentration required to mobilize entrapped oil from sandstone cores. Carbon dioxide, acetate, lactate, ethanol, and 2,3-butanediol were detected in the produced fluids of the inoculated wells. Only CO2 and ethanol were detected in the produced fluids of the nutrient-only-treated wells. Microbiological and molecular data showed that the microorganisms injected into the formation were retrieved in the produced fluids of the inoculated wells. We provide essential data for modeling microbial oil recovery processes in situ, including growth rates (0.06 ± 0.01 h−1), carbon balances (107% ± 34%), biosurfactant production rates (0.02 ± 0.001 h−1), and biosurfactant yields (0.015 ± 0.001 mol biosurfactant/mol glucose). The data demonstrate the technical feasibility of microbial processes for oil recovery. PMID:17172458

  14. A Pareto analysis approach to assess relevant marginal CO{sub 2} footprint for petroleum products

    SciTech Connect

    Tehrani, Nejad M. Alireza

    2015-07-15

    Recently, linear programing (LP) models have been extended to track the marginal CO{sub 2} intensity of automotive fuels at the refinery gate. The obtained CO{sub 2} data are recommended for policy making because they capture the economic and environmental tensions as well as the processing effects related to oil products. However, they are proven to be extremely sensitive to small perturbations and therefore useless in practice. In this paper, we first investigate the theoretical reasons of this drawback. Then, we develop a multiple objective LP framework to assess relevant marginal CO{sub 2} footprints that preserve both defensibility and stability at a satisfactory level of acceptance. A case study illustrates this new methodology. - Highlights: • Refining LP models have limitations to provide useful marginal CO{sub 2} footprints. • A multi objective optimization framework is developed to assess relevant CO{sub 2} data. • Within a European Refinig industry, diesel is more CO{sub 2} intensive than gasoline.

  15. Comparison of methods for inorganic sulfur speciation in a petroleum production effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Witter, A.E.; Jones, A.D.

    1998-11-01

    Multiple analytical techniques were compared for identification and quantification of inorganic sulfur species present in a sulfidic waste effluent (produced water) generated during offshore oil production. Inorganic sulfur species including sulfide, polysulfides, thiosulfate, sulfite, and sulfate were measured in produced water samples using sampled direct current polarography, differential pulse polarography, iodometry, spectrophotometry after derivatization with Ellman`s reagent, high-performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with 2,2{prime}-dithiobis(5-nitropyridine), and barium chloride precipitation of sulfate. Sulfide was determined in seven produced water samples at concentrations of 1 to 8 mM, as well as sulfate, polysulfides, and thiosulfate; sulfite was detected only occasionally in lower concentrations. Comparison of four methods used for sulfide measurement demonstrated systematic differences in results generated by various methods. Measurements of inorganic sulfur species in produced water are influenced by coupled equilibria between different chemical forms. Polysulfides exert an important role in coupling reactions between sulfur in intermediate oxidation states, and their presence can affect quantitation of these species when physical separations or standard additions perturb solution equilibria.

  16. Prebiotic petroleum.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that "the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process.

  17. Prebiotic Petroleum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that " the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly with data from January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1998, with data for March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly with data for March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.