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Sample records for petroleum refinery workers

  1. Kidney cancer and hydrocarbon exposures among petroleum refinery workers

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, C.; Dreyer, N.A.; Satterfield, M.H.; Levin, L.

    1993-12-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis of increased kidney cancer risk after exposure to hydrocarbons, especially those present in gasoline, we conducted a case-control study in a cohort of approximately 100,000 male refinery workers from five petroleum companies. A review of 18,323 death certificates identified 102 kidney cancer cases, to each of whom four controls were matched by refinery location and decade of birth. Work histories, containing an average of 15.7 job assignments per subject, were found for 98% of the cases and 94% of the controls. Tb each job, industrial hygienists assigned semiquantitative ratings for the intensity and frequency of exposures to three hydrocarbon categories: nonaromatic liquid gasoline distillates, aromatic hydrocarbons, and the more volatile hydrocarbons. Ratings of {open_quotes}present{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}absent{close_quotes} were assigned for seven additional exposures: higher boiling hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos, chlorinated solvents, ionizing radiation, and lead. Each exposure had either no association or a weak association with kidney cancer. For the hydrocarbon category of principal a priori interest, the nonaromatic liquid gasoline distillates, the estimated relative risk (RR) for any exposure above refinery background was 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-1.9). Analyses of cumulative exposures and of exposures in varying time periods before kidney cancer occurrence also produced null or near-null results. In an analysis of the longest job held by each subject (average duration 9.2 years or 40% of the refiner&y work history), three groups appeared to be at increased risk: laborers (RR = 1.9,95% CI 1.0-3.9); workers in receipt, storage, and movements (RR = 2.5,95% CI 0.9-6.6); and unit cleaners (RR = 2.3, 95% CI 0.5-9.9). 53 refs., 7 tabs.

  2. Updated epidemiological study of workers at two California petroleum refineries, 1950–95

    PubMed Central

    Satin, K; Bailey, W; Newton, K; Ross, A; Wong, O

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To further assess the potential role of occupational exposures on mortality, a second update of a cohort study of workers at two petroleum refineries in California was undertaken. Methods: Mortality analyses were based on standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using the general population of California as a reference. Additional analyses of lymphatic and haematopoietic cancer deaths and diseases related to asbestos were undertaken. Results: The update consisted of 18 512 employees, who contributed 456 425 person-years of observation between 1950 and 1995. Both overall mortality and total cancer mortality were significantly lower than expected, as were several site specific cancers and non-malignant diseases. In particular, no significant increases were reported for leukaemia cell types or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Mortality excess from multiple myeloma was marginally significant. The excess was confined to employees enrolled before 1949. Furthermore, there was no significant upward trend based on duration of employment, which argues against a causal interpretation relative to employment or exposures at the refineries. No increase was found for diseases related to asbestos: pulmonary fibrosis; lung cancer; or malignant mesothelioma. There was no significant increase in mortality from any other cancers or non-malignant diseases. Conclusion: This second update provides additional reassurance that employment at these two refineries is not associated with increased risk of mortality. PMID:11934952

  3. Sperm as an indicator of reproductive risk among petroleum refinery workers.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, M J; Wyrobek, A J; Ratcliffe, J; Gordon, L A; Watchmaker, G; Fox, S H; Moore, D H; Hornung, R W

    1985-01-01

    A questionnaire study of men in a wastewater treatment plant of a petroleum refinery showed twice the rate of fetal loss in the period during employment in the plant compared with the periods before and after. Questions regarding the interpretation of that study and continuing concern about reproductive risk prompted us to perform a cross sectional evaluation of sperm concentration and morphology. After adjustment for an abstinence period, the mean sperm concentration of the 74 unexposed men did not differ significantly from that of the 34 exposed men (79.9 million/cm3 v 68.2 million/cm3, p(1) = 0.16). The two groups also had a similar proportion of sperm with abnormal morphology (49.1% v 44.5%, p(1) = 0.94). This lack of association remained when degree of exposure, age, use of alcohol and marijuana, past illness or fever, use of baths or sauna, and history of urological problems were considered. These results are most consistent with the absence of sperm mediated reproductive problems. PMID:3970871

  4. Slides for Petroleum Refinery Fenceline Monitoring Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These webinars provided an overview of EPA’s 2015 rule to reduce air emissions from petroleum refineries and solicit input on how to display the information collected from fenceline monitors at refineries.

  5. Environmental and occupational health risks among agricultural workers living in a rural community near petroleum refinery and motorway in Skopje region.

    PubMed

    Karadžinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sašo; Mijakoski, Dragan; Risteska-Kuc, Snežana; Milkovska, Snežana

    2010-12-01

    To assess health risks in agricultural workers associated with environmental exposure to pollutants released from a petroleum refinery and from traffic, we performed a cross-sectional study that included 119 randomly selected subjects divided in two groups. Group 1 included 60 agricultural workers living in a rural community near the petroleum refinery and a motorway overpass, whereas Group 2 consisted of 59 agricultural workers performing similar activities and living in a rural community with no exposure to industrial and traffic pollutants. Risk assessment included a questionnaire, blood pressure measurement, spirometry, laboratory tests, and toxicological analysis. The groups showed a similar prevalence of health problems, with exception of muscle pain in the extremities, headache, and fatigue, which were significantly more common in Group 1. Diastolic blood pressure was higher in Group 1, but not significantly (p=0.057). The same is true for blood carbon monoxide. Significantly higher in Group 1 were blood haemoglobin (p=0.001) and blood lead (p<0.001). Serum cholinesterase activity was similar in both groups. Our findings indicate the need of regular medical exams, ambient monitoring and environmental impact assessment in agricultural population in order to detect individuals at risk and to institute adequate preventive measures.

  6. Health risk assessment for exposure to benzene in petroleum refinery environments.

    PubMed

    Edokpolo, Benjamin; Yu, Qiming Jimmy; Connell, Des

    2015-01-12

    The health risk resulting from benzene exposure in petroleum refineries was calculated using data from the scientific literature from various countries throughout the world. The exposure data was collated into four scenarios from petroleum refinery environments and plotted as cumulative probability distributions (CPD) plots. Health risk was evaluated for each scenario using the Hazard Quotient (HQ) at 50% (CEXP50) and 95% (CEXP95) exposure levels. Benzene levels were estimated to pose a significant risk with HQ50 > 1 and HQ95 > 1 for workers exposed to benzene as base estimates for petroleum refinery workers (Scenario 1), petroleum refinery workers evaluated with personal samplers in Bulgarian refineries (Scenario 2B) and evaluated using air inside petroleum refineries in Bulgarian refineries (Scenario 3B). HQ50 < 1 were calculated for petroleum refinery workers with personal samplers in Italian refineries (Scenario 2A), air inside petroleum refineries (Scenario 3A) and air outside petroleum refineries (Scenario 4) in India and Taiwan indicating little possible adverse health effects. Also, HQ95 was < 1 for Scenario 4 however potential risk was evaluated for Scenarios 2A and 3A with HQ95 > 1. The excess Cancer risk (CR) for lifetime exposure to benzene for all the scenarios was evaluated using the Slope Factor and Overall Risk Probability (ORP) methods. The result suggests a potential cancer risk for exposure to benzene in all the scenarios. However, there is a higher cancer risk at 95% (CEXP95) for petroleum refinery workers (2B) with a CR of 48,000 per 106 and exposure to benzene in air inside petroleum refineries (3B) with a CR of 28,000 per 106.

  7. 75 FR 37730 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... Petroleum Refineries AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY... air pollutants from heat exchange systems at petroleum refineries. These requirements were published as amendments to the national emission standards for petroleum refineries. In this notice, we...

  8. 77 FR 63320 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petroleum Refineries in Foreign Trade Sub-zones

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Petroleum Refineries... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Petroleum Refineries in Foreign Trade... soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Petroleum Refineries in...

  9. Poland petroleum refinery sludge lagoon demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, D.J.

    2000-05-05

    The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Area have been working together to develop mutually beneficial, cost-effective environmental remediation technologies such as the demonstration of bioremediation techniques for the clean up of acidic petroleum sludge impacted soils at an oil refinery in southern Poland. After an expedited site characterization, treatability study, and a risk assessment study, a remediation strategy was devised. The waste material was composed primarily of high molecular weight paraffinic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A biopile design which employed a combination of passive and active aeration in conjunction with nutrient and surfactant application as used to increase the biodegradation of the contaminants of concern.

  10. The Novo-Ufa Petroleum Refinery, Inc. (NOVOIL)

    SciTech Connect

    Karakuts, V.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Novo-Ufa Petroleum Refinery, Inc. (NOVOIL) is one of the largest enterprises of the Russian Federation in terms of output of high-quality petroleum products. This refinery has been operating successfully for more than 40 years: the first tonnes of gasoline were produced on July 25, 1951. The present-day refinery flow plan provides for complex processing to cut deep into the barrel of crude, with extensive use of highly effective hydrogenation processes.

  11. Seasonal variation of toxic benzene emissions in petroleum refinery.

    PubMed

    Rao, P S; Ansari, M F; Gavane, A G; Pandit, V I; Nema, P; Devotta, S

    2007-05-01

    Petroleum refineries are largest chemical industries that are responsible for the emission of several pollutants into the atmosphere. Benzene is among the most important air pollutants that are emitted by petroleum refineries, since they are involved in almost every refinery process. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a major group of air pollutants, which play a critical role in atmospheric chemistry. These contribute to toxic oxidants, which are harmful to ecosystem, human health and atmosphere. The variability of pollutants is an important factor in determining human exposure to these chemicals. The ambient air concentrations of benzene were measured in several sites around the Digboi petroleum refinery, near the city of Gowahati in northeast India, during winter and summer 2004. The seasonal and spatial variations of the ambient air concentrations of this benzene were investigated and analyzed. An estimation of the contribution of the refinery to the measured atmospheric levels of benzene was also performed. The ambient air mixing ratios of benzene in a large area outside the refinery was generally low, in ppbv range, much lower than the ambient air quality standards. This article presents the temporal and spatial variation of air pollution in and around petroleum refinery and showed that no health risk due to benzene is present in the areas adjacent to the refinery.

  12. Thunder Butte Petroleum Services Inc. Refinery NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit ND-003098, the Thunder Butte Petroleum Services Inc. refinery is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facilities near Makoti in Ward County, North Dakota, to wetlands tributary to the East Fork of Shell Creek.

  13. 78 FR 76753 - Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AS03 Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries for Which... direct final action to amend the Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries for Which Construction... Performance for Petroleum Refineries for Which Construction, Reconstruction or Modification Commenced...

  14. 78 FR 76788 - Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AS03 Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries for Which... amend the Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or... to take action on amendments to the standards of performance for petroleum refineries at 40 CFR...

  15. Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-04-01

    Through the California State IOF initiative, the California Energy Commission PIER Program developed a petroleum refining roadmap to identify energy issues and priorities unique to the refining industry in California and create a plan for future R&D that could help California refineries implement energy efficient technologies.

  16. Updated estimation of energy efficiencies of U.S. petroleum refineries.

    SciTech Connect

    Palou-Rivera, I.; Wang, M. Q.

    2010-12-08

    Evaluation of life-cycle (or well-to-wheels, WTW) energy and emission impacts of vehicle/fuel systems requires energy use (or energy efficiencies) of energy processing or conversion activities. In most such studies, petroleum fuels are included. Thus, determination of energy efficiencies of petroleum refineries becomes a necessary step for life-cycle analyses of vehicle/fuel systems. Petroleum refinery energy efficiencies can then be used to determine the total amount of process energy use for refinery operation. Furthermore, since refineries produce multiple products, allocation of energy use and emissions associated with petroleum refineries to various petroleum products is needed for WTW analysis of individual fuels such as gasoline and diesel. In particular, GREET, the life-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory with DOE sponsorship, compares energy use and emissions of various transportation fuels including gasoline and diesel. Energy use in petroleum refineries is key components of well-to-pump (WTP) energy use and emissions of gasoline and diesel. In GREET, petroleum refinery overall energy efficiencies are used to determine petroleum product specific energy efficiencies. Argonne has developed petroleum refining efficiencies from LP simulations of petroleum refineries and EIA survey data of petroleum refineries up to 2006 (see Wang, 2008). This memo documents Argonne's most recent update of petroleum refining efficiencies.

  17. Lead exposure in a petroleum refinery during maintenance and repair activities

    SciTech Connect

    Booher, L.E.; Zampello, F.C.

    1994-02-01

    Exposure to inorganic lead (Pb) may result in a petroleum refinery when paints that contain Pb are disturbed. Frequently performed activities that disturb paint include welding, burning, cutting, abrasive blasting, sanding, grinding, and needle gun chipping. The purpose of the study reported in this article was: to determine the Pb content of paint on metal surfaces in a petroleum refinery; to measure air Pb concentrations during abrasive blasting, torch cutting and burning, and power disk sanding/grinding on surfaces coated with Pb paint; and to evaluate the effectiveness of worker exposure controls by monitoring worker blood Pb (PbB) levels. Pb levels on representative metal surfaces were measured, and most painted surfaces were found to contain significant amounts of Pb. Personal air samples collected indicated that abrasive blasting and torch burning/cutting resulted in elevated air Pb levels, while short duration power disk sanding (less than 30 minutes duration) did not result in elevated air Pb levels as compared to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit. Despite these elevated air Pb levels, exposure controls including personal protective equipment, housekeeping, showering, work area isolation, and training effectively prevented elevated worker PbB levels. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. 76 FR 42052 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... Petroleum Refineries AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule; partial withdrawal... Petroleum Refineries. EPA is now providing final notice of the partial withdrawal. DATES: As of August 17... signed a final rule amending the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From...

  19. 77 FR 47429 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Petroleum Refineries in Foreign Trade Sub-zones

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities; Petroleum Refineries... concerning the Petroleum Refineries in Foreign Trade Sub-zones. This request for comment is being made... CBP is soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title:...

  20. Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets is an update to a previous Energy Information Administration (EIA) report, Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets, released in December 2011. This update analyzes possible market responses and impacts in the event Sunoco's Philadelphia refinery closes this summer, in addition to the recently idled refineries on the East Coast and in the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  1. The Implementation and Maintenance of a Behavioral Safety Process in a Petroleum Refinery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Wanda V.; McSween, Terry E.; Medina, Rixio E.; Rost, Kristen; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2010-01-01

    A values-centered and team-based behavioral safety process was implemented in a petroleum oil refinery. Employee teams defined the refinery's safety values and related practices, which were used to guide the process design and implementation. The process included (a) a safety assessment; (b) the clarification of safety-related values and related…

  2. Final Petroleum Refinery Sector Risk and Technology Review and New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains 3 September 2015 fact sheets with information regarding the final residual risk and technology review for the petroleum refinery source categories. The fact sheets provide an overview, a summary of changes, effects for the community.

  3. Petroleum Refineries New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Direct Final Amendments Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a December 2013 fact sheet with information regarding the direct final rule for the NSPS for Petroleum Refineries. This document provides a summary of the information for this NSPS.

  4. Purification and detoxification of petroleum refinery wastewater by electrocoagulation process.

    PubMed

    Gousmi, N; Sahmi, A; Li, H Z; Poncin, S; Djebbar, R; Bensadok, K

    2016-09-01

    The treatment of synthetic oily wastewater having the characteristics of a typical petroleum refinery wastewater (PRW) by electrocoagulation (EC) using iron and aluminum electrodes was conducted in an electrolytic reactor equipped with fluid recirculation. During the treatment, the emulsion stability was followed by the measurement of Zeta potential and particle sizes. Effects of some operating conditions such as electrodes material, current density and electrolysis time on removal efficiencies of turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were investigated in detail. The PRW purification by the EC process was found to be the most effective using aluminum as the anode and cathode, current density of 60 A/m(2) and 30 min of electrolysis time. Under these conditions, the process efficiencies were 83.52% and 99.94%, respectively, for COD and turbidity removals which correspond to final values of 96 mg O2/L and 0.5 NTU. A moderate energy consumption (0.341 kWh) was needed to treat 1 m(3) of PRW. Besides, the ecotoxicity test proved that toxic substances presented in the PRW, and those inhibiting the germination growth of whet, were eliminated by the EC technique.

  5. [Arterial hypertension and alcoholism among workers in an oil refinery].

    PubMed

    Lima, C T; Carvalho, F M; Quadros, C de A; Gonçalves, H R; Silva Júnior, J A; Peres, M F; Bonfim, M S

    1999-09-01

    The role of alcohol ingestion in the incidence of arterial hypertension has not been completely established. In addition, there are few studies addressing this point in relation to populations of workers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between alcoholism and arterial hypertension among workers in an oil refinery in Mataripe, Bahia, Brazil, from 1986 to 1993. We designed a retrospective cohort study with a 7-year follow-up in a stratified systematic sample of 335 workers from the refinery. Arterial hypertension was diagnosed based on blood pressure measurements done during routine medical examinations. At the beginning of follow-up, three groups were defined using the CAGE test of alcohol dependency: nondrinkers (n = 121), CAGE-negative workers (n = 116), and CAGE-positive workers (n = 98). In comparison with the CAGE-negative group, the CAGE-positive group had both greater relative risk and greater attributable risk for developing arterial hypertension (RR = 2.58; AR = 24.95 per 1,000 person-years). The CAGE-positive group also had greater risks compared to nondrinkers (RR = 2.06; AR = 20.97 per 1,000 person-years). The attributable fractions for the same two comparisons of groups were 61% and 51%, respectively. Rate standardization by age or smoking habit did not substantially change the results. Alcoholism is an important risk factor for arterial hypertension.

  6. Petroleum Refinery Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, M.

    2013-12-31

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are user-friendly tools utilized to estimate the economic impacts at the local level of constructing and operating fuel and power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Petroleum Refinery Model User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in employing and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the model estimates job creation, earning and output (total economic activity) for a given petroleum refinery. This includes the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the refinery's construction and operation phases. Project cost and job data used in the model are derived from the most current cost estimations available. Local direct and indirect economic impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from IMPLAN software. By determining the regional economic impacts and job creation for a proposed refinery, the JEDI Petroleum Refinery model can be used to field questions about the added value refineries may bring to the local community.

  7. Petroleum Technology: From Refinery To Home, Business, and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewell, John A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the application of petroleum technology and presents activities designed to raise students' awareness of the importance of petroleum-based products in their lives. Includes a handout designed to help students understand the refining processes in which the crude oil from the drill site is transformed into nearly 6,000 petroleum-based…

  8. Energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emission intensity of petroleum products at U.S. refineries.

    PubMed

    Elgowainy, Amgad; Han, Jeongwoo; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; Forman, Grant S; DiVita, Vincent B

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of (1) a formula correlating the variation in overall refinery energy efficiency with crude quality, refinery complexity, and product slate; and (2) a methodology for calculating energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensities and processing fuel shares of major U.S. refinery products. Overall refinery energy efficiency is the ratio of the energy present in all product streams divided by the energy in all input streams. Using linear programming (LP) modeling of the various refinery processing units, we analyzed 43 refineries that process 70% of total crude input to U.S. refineries and cover the largest four Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) regions (I, II, III, V). Based on the allocation of process energy among products at the process unit level, the weighted-average product-specific energy efficiencies (and ranges) are estimated to be 88.6% (86.2%-91.2%) for gasoline, 90.9% (84.8%-94.5%) for diesel, 95.3% (93.0%-97.5%) for jet fuel, 94.5% (91.6%-96.2%) for residual fuel oil (RFO), and 90.8% (88.0%-94.3%) for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The corresponding weighted-average, production GHG emission intensities (and ranges) (in grams of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2e) per megajoule (MJ)) are estimated to be 7.8 (6.2-9.8) for gasoline, 4.9 (2.7-9.9) for diesel, 2.3 (0.9-4.4) for jet fuel, 3.4 (1.5-6.9) for RFO, and 6.6 (4.3-9.2) for LPG. The findings of this study are key components of the life-cycle assessment of GHG emissions associated with various petroleum fuels; such assessment is the centerpiece of legislation developed and promulgated by government agencies in the United States and abroad to reduce GHG emissions and abate global warming.

  9. Refinery Outages: Description and Potential Impact on Petroleum Product Prices

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    This report responds to a July 13, 2006 request from Chairman Jeff Bingaman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources requested that the Energy Information Administration conduct a study of the impact that refinery shutdowns have had on the price of oil and gasoline.

  10. EPA Updates Emissions Standards for Petroleum Refineries/First-ever fenceline monitoring requirements will protect nearby communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has updated air pollution standards to further control toxic air emissions from petroleum refineries. Exposure to toxic air pollutants, such as benzene, can cause respiratory problems and o

  11. Probabilistic ecological risk assessment of selected PAH`s in sediments near a petroleum refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, W.R.; Biddinger, G.R.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment samples were collected and analyzed for a number of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) along a gradient from a petroleum refinery`s wastewater diffuser. These data were used to calculate the potential risk to aquatic organisms using probabilistic modeling and Monte Carlo sampling procedures. Sediment chemistry data were used in conjunction with estimates of Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors and Non-Polar Narcosis Theory to predict potential risk to bivalves. Bivalves were the receptors of choice because of their lack of a well-developed enzymatic system for metabolizing PAHs. Thus, they represent a species of higher inherent risk of adverse impact. PAHs considered in this paper span a broad range of octanol-water partition coefficients. Results indicate negligible risk of narcotic effects from PAHs existing near the refinery wastewater discharge.

  12. Review of petroleum transport network models and their applicability to a national refinery model

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, J. N.

    1982-04-01

    This report examines four petroleum transport network models to determine whether parts of them can be incorporated into the transportation component of a national refinery model. Two questions in particular are addressed. (a) How do the models under examination represent the oil transport network, estimate link capacities, and calculate transport costs. (b) Are any of these network representations, capacity estimates, or cost functions suitable for inclusion in a linear programming model of oil refinery and primary distribution in the US. Only pipeline and waterway transport is discussed. The models examined are the Department of Energy's OILNET model, the Department of Transportation's Freight Energy Model, the Federal Energy Administration Petroleum Transportation Network Model, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory oil pipeline energy model. Link capacity and cost functions are recommended for each transport mode. The coefficients of the recommended pipeline cost functions remain to be estimated.

  13. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR A PETROLEUM REFINERY FOR THE JICARILLA APACHE TRIBE

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Jones

    2004-10-01

    A feasibility study for a proposed petroleum refinery for the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation was performed. The available crude oil production was identified and characterized. There is 6,000 barrels per day of crude oil production available for processing in the proposed refinery. The proposed refinery will utilize a lower temperature, smaller crude fractionation unit. It will have a Naphtha Hydrodesulfurizer and Reformer to produce high octane gasoline. The surplus hydrogen from the reformer will be used in a specialized hydrocracker to convert the heavier crude oil fractions to ultra low sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel products. The proposed refinery will produce gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and a minimal amount of lube oil. The refinery will require about $86,700,000 to construct. It will have net annual pre-tax profit of about $17,000,000. The estimated return on investment is 20%. The feasibility is positive subject to confirmation of long term crude supply. The study also identified procedures for evaluating processing options as a means for American Indian Tribes and Native American Corporations to maximize the value of their crude oil production.

  14. Characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from a petroleum refinery in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Li, Guohao; Wang, Gang; Wang, Haiyan

    2014-06-01

    This study made a field VOCs (volatile organic compounds) measurement for a petroleum refinery in Beijing by determining 56 PAMS VOCs, which are demanded for photochemical assessment in US, and obtained the characteristics of VOCs emitted from the whole refinery and from its inner main devices. During the monitoring period, this refinery brought about an average increase of 61 ppbv in the ambient TVOCs (sum of the PAMS VOCs) at the refinery surrounding area, while the background of TVOCs there was only 10-30 ppbv. In chemical profile, the VOCs emitted from the whole refinery was characteristic by isobutane (8.7%), n-butane (7.9%), isopentane (6.3%), n-pentane (4.9%%), n-hexane (7.6%), C6 branched alkanes (6.0%), propene (12.7%), 1-butene (4.1%), benzene (7.8%), and toluene (5.9%). On the other hand, the measurement for the inner 5 devices, catalytic cracking units (CCU2 and CCU3), catalytic reforming unit (CRU), tank farm (TF), and wastewater treatment(WT), revealed the higher level of VOCs pollutions (about several hundred ppbv of TVOCs), and the individual differences in VOCs chemical profiles. Based on the measured speciated VOCs data at the surrounding downwind area, PMF receptor model was applied to identify the VOCs sources in the refinery. Then, coupling with the VOCs chemical profiles measured at the device areas, we concluded that CCU1/3 contributes to 25.9% of the TVOCs at the surrounding downwind area by volume, followed by CCU2 (24.7%), CRU (18.9%), TF (18.3%) and WT (12.0%), which was accordant with the research of US EPA (2008). Finally, ozone formation potentials of the 5 devices were also calculated by MIR technique, which showed that catalytic cracking units, accounting for about 55.6% to photochemical ozone formation, should be given the consideration of VOCs control firstly.

  15. A historical prospective mortality study of workers in copper and zinc refineries

    SciTech Connect

    Logue, J.N.; Koontz, M.D.; Hattwick, M.A.W.

    1982-05-01

    Earlier health studies of workers in electrolytic refinery operations have raised concern that workers may experience excess morbidity and premature death as a result of hazardous occupational exposures. This study was designed to determine if the refinery operation is associated with any excess mortality patterns. A cohort of 4,802 male workers exposed for at least one year during 1964-1975 was assembled from nine U.S. zinc and copper refineries. Vital status was ascertained for 4,241 (88%) of the cohort. Death certificates were obtained for 84% (355/423) of the deceased. Overall standard mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated to be 92 for the cohort, 97 for the subgroup of copper refinery workers, and 83 for the subgroup of zinc refinery workers. Significantly high cause-specific SMRs were as follows: (1) cerebrovacular disease (CBVD) for the cohort: (2) all cancers, cancer of the digestive tract, and CBVD for the copper subgroup; (3) all cancers, cancer of the respiratory tract, and CBVD for one plant that demonstrated a significantly high overall SMR (133). The significant excess of cancer deaths among the study cohort is largely due to the plant that exhibited the significantly high overall mortality rate, but lack of smoking data qualifies this finding. The significant excess of CBVD seems to be consistent across plants and further research seems warranted to verify the finding.

  16. 77 FR 44685 - ConocoPhillips Company, Trainer Refinery, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Shrack, Young...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration ConocoPhillips Company, Trainer Refinery, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Shrack, Young, and Associates, Inc., and Project Control Associates, Trainer, PA; Notice of...Phillips Company, Trainer Refinery, including on-site leased workers from Shrack, Young, and...

  17. Measurement of particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) around a petroleum refinery.

    PubMed

    Rao, Padma S; Ansari, M Faiyaz; Pipalatkar, P; Kumar, A; Nema, P; Devotta, S

    2008-02-01

    A study on concentrations of ambient particulates viz. total suspended particulate matters (TSP), respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were carried out at six sites around the Asia's largest, 12 MMTPA, petroleum refinery in west coast of India. PAH concentrations are correlated with each other in these sites, suggesting that they have related sources and sinks. The present article discusses the monitoring aspects such as sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods and compares the monitored levels for assessing the source receptor distribution pattern. The main sources of RSPM and PAHs in urban air are automobile exhaust (CPCB, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and their effects on human health. " http://www.cpcb.nic.in/ph/ch21103.htm ", 2003; Manuel et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 13: 227-231, 2004) and industrial emissions like petroleum refinery (Vo-Dinh, Chemical analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Wiley: New York, 1989; Wagrowaski and Hites, Environmental Science and Technology, 31: 279-282, 1997). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous constituents of urban airborne particulate mostly generated by anthropogenic activities (Li et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 37:1958-2965, 2003; Thorsen et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 38: 2029-2037, 2004; Ohura et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 32: 450-455, 2004) and some of them are of major health concern mainly due to their well-known carcinogenic and mutagenic properties (Soclo et al., Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40: 387-396, 2000; Chen et al., Environment International, 28: 659-668, 2003; Larsen and Baker, Environmental Science and Technology, 32: 450-455, 2003). Limited information is available on PAHs contributions from refineries to ambient air. Hence this study would not only create a database but also provide necessary inputs towards dose-response relationship for

  18. Preliminary assessment of the integration of a coal gasifier into a petroleum refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, in association with Hunt Oil Company and Westinghouse Electric Corporation, has evaluated the integration of a coal gasifier into a petroleum refinery. The refinery used for this study is the 30,000 EPD Hunt Oil Company refinery in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. The refinery is required to purchase 7.5 x 10/sup 6/ SCFD of natural gas to satisfy fuel and feedstock requirements. This study is based on gasifying 280 tons/day of by-product petroleum coke to produce medium-Btu gas (MBG) to replace natural gas and thus convert a material of relatively low value to a product that can significantly reduce purchased-fuel costs. The gasification system used for this study is the Westinghouse Electric Corporation fluidized-bed, coal-gasification process. The major gasification-train components include the Westinghouse fluidized-bed gasifier, an air separation plant, a heat-recovery system, Selexol acid-gas removal, and a sulfur-recovery plant. The gasification train will convert a nominal 280 tons/day of petroleum coke to 790,000 SCF/hr of 365-Btu/SCF gas (equivalent to 7 x 10/sup 6/ SCFD of natural gas), which comes close to replacing the entire 7.5 x 10/sup 6/ SCFD of natural gas that must be purchased. The total capital investments for a 311-ton/day plant (280-ton/day nominal feed rate with operating factor of 90%) is estimated to be $41 x 10/sup 6/ (1986 basis). Of this investment, approximately $32 x 10/sup 6/ is battery-limits capital and $5 x 10/sup 6/ represents offsites and land. Working capital is estimated at about $3 x 10/sup 6/. Gross annual operating expenses are estimated to be $14.55 x 10/sup 6/ and by-product credits account for $1.92 x 10/sup 6/. This results in a manufacturing cost for the MBG in 1986 of $4.99/10/sup 6/ Btu, based on 2.53 x 10/sup 12/ Btu/yr of gas generated.

  19. Tracking Petroleum Refinery Emission Events Using Lanthanum and Lanthanides as Elemental Markers for Fine Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, P.; Chellam, S.; Fraser, M. P.

    2007-12-01

    This presentation reports the development and application of an analytical method to quantify the rare earth elements (REEs) in atmospheric particulate matter and emissions of catalyst material from the petroleum refining industry. Inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry following high temperature/high pressure microwave digestion has been used to study the REE composition of several fresh and spent catalysts used in fluidized-bed catalytic cracking (FCC) units in petroleum refineries as well as in ambient atmospheric fine particulate matter collected in Houston, TX. The results show that the routine emissions from local FCC units in Houston contribute a constant and low amount to ambient PM2.5 of ~0.1 micrograms per cubic meter. However, a significant (33 - 106 fold) increase in the contributions of FCC emissions to PM2.5 is quantified during an upset emission event compared with background levels associated with routine operation. The impact of emissions from the local refinery that reported the emission event was tracked to a site approximately 50 km downwind from the source, illustrating the potential exposure of humans over a large geographical area through the long-range transport of atmospheric fine particles as well as the power of elemental signatures to understand the sources of fine particles.

  20. Research of combined adsorption-coagulation process in treating petroleum refinery effluent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Shui, Yiyu; Ren, Hongyang; He, Min

    2017-02-01

    The petroleum refinery industry generates a significant amount of wastewater that contains a high level of organic matter, which calls for effective and costly treatments. In this research, the effectiveness of the petroleum refinery effluent (PRE) treatment with physicochemical process of combined adsorption and coagulation was evaluated. The effects of initial pH, hydraulic condition , and combined sequence of treatment process, different treating reagent types and dosages on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were investigated. Additionally, the elimination efficiency of pollutant wastewater was monitored by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometer was adopted to describe the structure of the wastewater. Wooden activated carbon was chosen as adsorbent at the dosage of 10 g/L as a primary treatment, and 1500 mg/L polymeric magnesium ferric sulfate was used in coagulation. Results showed that adsorption and subsequent coagulation displayed the best performance when initial pH was 9 at shear rates (G) of G1 = 65 s(-1) and G2 = 20 s(-1), which reached maximal removal rate of COD and total organic carbon GC-MS testing result revealed that adsorption was effective in phenols and iso-alkanes removal, whereas coagulation was good at removing esters and n-alkanes.

  1. Combined analysis of job and task benzene air exposures among workers at four US refinery operations.

    PubMed

    Burns, Amanda; Shin, Jennifer Mi; Unice, Ken M; Gaffney, Shannon H; Kreider, Marisa L; Gelatt, Richard H; Panko, Julie M

    2017-03-01

    Workplace air samples analyzed for benzene at four US refineries from 1976 to 2007 were pooled into a single dataset to characterize similarities and differences between job titles, tasks and refineries, and to provide a robust dataset for exposure reconstruction. Approximately 12,000 non-task (>180 min) personal samples associated with 50 job titles and 4000 task (<180 min) samples characterizing 24 tasks were evaluated. Personal air sample data from four individual refineries were pooled based on a number of factors including (1) the consistent sampling approach used by refinery industrial hygienists over time, (2) the use of similar exposure controls, (3) the comparability of benzene content of process streams and end products, (4) the ability to assign uniform job titles and task codes across all four refineries, and (5) our analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the distribution of benzene air concentrations for select jobs/tasks across all four refineries. The jobs and tasks most frequently sampled included those with highest potential contact with refinery product streams containing benzene, which reflected the targeted sampling approach utilized by the facility industrial hygienists. Task and non-task data were analyzed to identify and account for significant differences within job-area, task-job, and task-area categories. This analysis demonstrated that in general, areas with benzene containing process streams were associated with greater benzene air concentrations compared to areas with process streams containing little to no benzene. For several job titles and tasks analyzed, there was a statistically significant decrease in benzene air concentration after 1990. This study provides a job and task-focused analysis of occupational exposure to benzene during refinery operations, and it should be useful for reconstructing refinery workers' exposures to benzene over the past 30 years.

  2. Health status of copper refinery workers with specific reference to selenium exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Holness, D.L.; Taraschuk, I.G.; Nethercott, J.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Copper refinery workers exposed to selenium were studied before, during, and after a shutdown period. Urine selenium levels were 83 {plus minus} 30 mumol/mol creatinine and 69 {plus minus} 27 mumol/mol creatinine when measured on two occasions during exposure compared with 56 {plus minus} 17 mumol/mol creatinine when the workers had been free of exposure for 10 wk during a shutdown. The refinery workers reported more nose and eye irritation, indigestion, stomach pain, and fatigue than controls. Garlic-like breath odor was reported to be personally and socially offensive by many of the workers. Reporting of symptoms, pulmonary function indices, and laboratory test results did not change with exposure except for hemoglobin level, which rose during the shutdown. Hemoglobin levels were found to be inversely correlated with the urine selenium level, and there was a positive correlation noted for the interactive effect of urine selenium and urine arsenic levels on hemoglobin.49 references.

  3. Retrospective exposure assessment of airborne asbestos related to skilled craftsmen at a petroleum refinery in Beaumont, Texas (1940-2006).

    PubMed

    Williams, Pamela; Paustenbach, Dennis; Balzer, J LeRoy; Mangold, Carl

    2007-07-01

    Despite efforts over the past 50 or more years to estimate airborne dust or fiber concentrations for specific job tasks within different industries, there have been no known attempts to reconstruct historical asbestos exposures for the many types of trades employed in various nonmanufacturing settings. In this paper, 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) asbestos exposures were estimated for 12 different crafts from the 1940s to the present day at a large petroleum refinery in Beaumont, TX. The crafts evaluated were insulators, pipefitters, boilermakers, masons, welders, sheet-metal workers, millwrights, electricians, carpenters, painters, laborers, and maintenance workers. This analysis quantitatively accounts for (1) the historical use of asbestos-containing materials at the refinery, (2) the typical workday of the different crafts and specific opportunities for exposure to asbestos, (3) industrial hygiene asbestos air monitoring data collected at this refinery and similar facilities since the early 1970s, (4) published and unpublished data sets on task-specific dust or fiber concentrations encountered in various industrial settings since the late 1930s, and (5) the evolution of respirator use and other workplace practices that occurred as the hazards of asbestos became better understood over time. Due to limited air monitoring data for most crafts, 8-h TWA fiber concentrations were calculated only for insulators, while all other crafts were estimated to have experienced 8-h TWA fiber concentrations at some fraction of that experienced by insulators. A probabilistic (Monte Carlo) model was used to account for potential variability in the various data sets and the uncertainty in our knowledge of selected input parameters used to estimate exposure. Significant reliance was also placed on our collective professional experiences working in the fields of industrial hygiene, exposure assessment, and process engineering over the last 40 yr. Insulators at this refinery were

  4. Biostimulation of Indigenous Microbial Community for Bioremediation of Petroleum Refinery Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Jayeeta; Kazy, Sufia K.; Gupta, Abhishek; Dutta, Avishek; Mohapatra, Balaram; Roy, Ajoy; Bera, Paramita; Mitra, Adinpunya; Sar, Pinaki

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient deficiency severely impairs the catabolic activity of indigenous microorganisms in hydrocarbon rich environments (HREs) and limits the rate of intrinsic bioremediation. The present study aimed to characterize the microbial community in refinery waste and evaluate the scope for biostimulation based in situ bioremediation. Samples recovered from the wastewater lagoon of Guwahati refinery revealed a hydrocarbon enriched [high total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)], oxygen-, moisture-limited, reducing environment. Intrinsic biodegradation ability of the indigenous microorganisms was enhanced significantly (>80% reduction in TPH by 90 days) with nitrate amendment. Preferred utilization of both higher- (>C30) and middle- chain (C20-30) length hydrocarbons were evident from GC-MS analysis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and community level physiological profiling analyses indicated distinct shift in community’s composition and metabolic abilities following nitrogen (N) amendment. High throughput deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene showed that the native community was mainly composed of hydrocarbon degrading, syntrophic, methanogenic, nitrate/iron/sulfur reducing facultative anaerobic bacteria and archaebacteria, affiliated to γ- and δ-Proteobacteria and Euryarchaeota respectively. Genes for aerobic and anaerobic alkane metabolism (alkB and bssA), methanogenesis (mcrA), denitrification (nirS and narG) and N2 fixation (nifH) were detected. Concomitant to hydrocarbon degradation, lowering of dissolve O2 and increase in oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) marked with an enrichment of N2 fixing, nitrate reducing aerobic/facultative anaerobic members [e.g., Azovibrio, Pseudoxanthomonas and Comamonadaceae members] was evident in N amended microcosm. This study highlighted that indigenous community of refinery sludge was intrinsically diverse, yet appreciable rate of in situ bioremediation could be achieved by supplying adequate N sources. PMID:27708623

  5. Stabilization of Bio-Oil Fractions for Insertion into Petroleum Refineries

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Robert C.; Smith, Ryan; Wright, Mark; Elliott, Douglas; Resasco, Daniel; Crossley, Steven

    2014-09-28

    This project is part of a collaboration effort between Iowa State University (ISU), University of Oklahoma (OK) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The purpose of this project is to stabilize bio-oil fractions and improve their suitability for insertion into petroleum refineries. Bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of biomass is a complex mixture of unstable organic compounds. These organic compounds react under standard room conditions resulting in increases in bio-oil viscosity and water content – both detrimental for bio-oil storage and transportation. This study employed fractionation and upgrading systems to improve the stability of bio-oil. The fractionation system consists of a series of condensers, and electrostatic precipitators designed to separate bio-oil into five fractions: soluble carbohydrates (SF1&2), clean phenolic oligomers (CPO) and middle fraction (SF3&4), light oxygenates (SF5). A two-stage upgrading process was designed to process bio-oil stage fractions into stable products that can be inserted into a refinery. In the upgrading system, heavy and middle bio-oil fractions were upgraded into stable oil via cracking and subsequent hydrodeoxygenation. The light oxygenate fraction was steam reformed to provide a portion of requisite hydrogen for hydroprocessing. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking employed hydrogen from natural gas, fuel gas and light oxygenates reforming. The finished products from this study consist of gasoline- and diesel-blend stock fuels.

  6. Large scale and long term application of bioslurping: the case of a Greek petroleum refinery site.

    PubMed

    Gidarakos, E; Aivalioti, M

    2007-11-19

    This paper presents the course and the remediation results of a 4-year application of bioslurping technology on the subsurface of a Greek petroleum refinery, which is still under full operation and has important and complicated subsurface contamination problems, mainly due to the presence of light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL). About 55 wells are connected to the central bioslurping unit, while a mobile bioslurping unit is also used whenever and wherever is necessary. Moreover, there are about 120 additional wells for the monitoring of the subsurface of the facilities that cover a total area of 1,000,000 m(2). An integrated monitoring program has also been developed and applied on the site, including frequent LNAPL layer depth and thickness measurements, conduction of bail-down and recovery tests, sampling and chemical analysis of the free oil phase, etc., so as to evaluate the remediation technique's efficiency and ensure a prompt tracing of any new potential leak. Despite the occurrence of new leaks within the last 4 years and the observed entrapment of LNAPL in the vadoze zone, bioslurping has managed to greatly restrict the original plume within certain and relatively small parts of the refinery facilities.

  7. Environmental impact of plantations in and around the petroleum refinery: a case study.

    PubMed

    Rao, Padma S; Mhaisalkar, Vasant A; Shrivastava, A; Kumar, Animesh; Chakrabarti, T; Devotta, S

    2010-09-01

    Plantation or green belt (GB) grown around the factories and industrial premises improves the condition of land, mitigates air pollution (as the plants serve as a sink for pollutants and check the flow of dust, etc.), and reduces the level of noise pollution. The software developed by NEERI for the determination of the optimal width of GB in and around an industry is based on the pollution attenuation coefficient of selected plant species of deciduous trees existing in the region. The assessment of the impact of these plantations/green belts of 500-m width in and around a petroleum refinery in the west coast of India is evaluated for reducing/managing various waste generated, and it is observed that the overall efficiency is more than 60%.

  8. Cracking of simulated oil refinery off-gas over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Zhang; Jin-hu Wu; Dong-ke Zhang

    2008-03-15

    The cracking of oil refinery off-gas, simulated with a gas mixture containing methane (51%), ethylene (21.4%), ethane (21.1%), and propane (6.5%), over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz, respectively, has been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at temperatures between 850 and 1000{sup o}C and at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the conversions of all species considered increased with increasing temperature. Ethane and propane completely decomposed over all three bed materials in the temperature range investigated. However, the higher initial conversion rates of methane and ethylene cracking at all temperatures were observed only over the coal char and not on the petroleum coke and quartz, indicating a significant catalytic effect of the coal char on methane and ethylene cracking. Methane and ethylene conversions decreased with reaction time due to deactivation of the coal char by carbon deposition on the char surface and, in the later stage of a cracking experiment, became negative, suggesting that methane and ethylene had been formed during the cracking of ethane and propane. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Biofacts: Fueling a stronger economy. Renewable fuel solutions for petroleum refineries

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The DOE Biofuels Program is investigating processes to condition synthesis gas (syngas) produced from the gasification of biomass, coke, waste oils, and other inexpensive feedstocks and low-cost by-products. Syngas technologies offer refiners economical, flexible solutions to the challenges presented by today`s market forces and regulatory environment, such as: increasingly stringent environmental regulations that dictate the composition of petroleum products; increasingly sour crudes; increased coke production and hydrogen use resulting from heavier crude; increased disposal cost for coke and residuals oils; and decreasing hydrogen supply resulting from decreased catalytic reforming severity--a necessity to comply with requirements for reduced aromatic content. Most importantly, refiners can use the DOE syngas processes to upgrade refinery residuals and coke, which minimizes environmental problems and maximizes profitability. DOE`s solution also offers refiners the flexibility to economically supplement petroleum feedstocks with a wide variety of locally available renewable feedstocks that can be fed into the gasifier--feedstocks such as energy crops, municipal solid wastes, many industrial wastes, and agricultural by-products.

  10. Acute myeloid and chronic lymphoid leukaemias and exposure to low-level benzene among petroleum workers

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, L; Schnatter, A R; Tang, G; Glass, D C

    2014-01-01

    Background: High benzene exposure causes acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Three petroleum case–control studies identified 60 cases (241 matched controls) for AML and 80 cases (345 matched controls) for chronic lymphoid leukaemia (CLL). Methods: Cases were classified and scored regarding uncertainty by two haematologists using available diagnostic information. Blinded quantitative benzene exposure assessment used work histories and exposure measurements adjusted for era-specific circumstances. Statistical analyses included conditional logistic regression and penalised smoothing splines. Results: Benzene exposures were much lower than previous studies. Categorical analyses showed increased ORs for AML with several exposure metrics, although patterns were unclear; neither continuous exposure metrics nor spline analyses gave increased risks. ORs were highest in terminal workers, particularly for Tanker Drivers. No relationship was found between benzene exposure and risk of CLL, although the Australian study showed increased risks in refinery workers. Conclusion: Overall, this study does not persuasively demonstrate a risk between benzene and AML. A previously reported strong relationship between myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (potentially previously reported as AML) at our study's low benzene levels suggests that MDS may be the more relevant health risk for lower exposure. Higher CLL risks in refinery workers may be due to more diverse exposures than benzene alone. PMID:24357793

  11. Identification of Genes and Pathways Related to Phenol Degradation in Metagenomic Libraries from Petroleum Refinery Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Cynthia C.; Hayden, Helen; Sawbridge, Tim; Mele, Pauline; De Paula, Sérgio O.; Silva, Lívia C. F.; Vidigal, Pedro M. P.; Vicentini, Renato; Sousa, Maíra P.; Torres, Ana Paula R.; Santiago, Vânia M. J.; Oliveira, Valéria M.

    2013-01-01

    Two fosmid libraries, totaling 13,200 clones, were obtained from bioreactor sludge of petroleum refinery wastewater treatment system. The library screening based on PCR and biological activity assays revealed more than 400 positive clones for phenol degradation. From these, 100 clones were randomly selected for pyrosequencing in order to evaluate the genetic potential of the microorganisms present in wastewater treatment plant for biodegradation, focusing mainly on novel genes and pathways of phenol and aromatic compound degradation. The sequence analysis of selected clones yielded 129,635 reads at an estimated 17-fold coverage. The phylogenetic analysis showed Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales as the most abundant orders among the selected fosmid clones. The MG-RAST analysis revealed a broad metabolic profile with important functions for wastewater treatment, including metabolism of aromatic compounds, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus. The predicted 2,276 proteins included phenol hydroxylases and cathecol 2,3- dioxygenases, involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds, such as phenol, byphenol, benzoate and phenylpropanoid. The sequencing of one fosmid insert of 33 kb unraveled the gene that permitted the host, Escherichia coli EPI300, to grow in the presence of aromatic compounds. Additionally, the comparison of the whole fosmid sequence against bacterial genomes deposited in GenBank showed that about 90% of sequence showed no identity to known sequences of Proteobacteria deposited in the NCBI database. This study surveyed the functional potential of fosmid clones for aromatic compound degradation and contributed to our knowledge of the biodegradative capacity and pathways of microbial assemblages present in refinery wastewater treatment system. PMID:23637911

  12. Developmental toxicity evaluation of a scrubbing solution used in petroleum refineries.

    PubMed

    Bui, Q Q; Clark, C R; Stump, D G; Ulrich, C E; Nemec, M D

    1998-02-06

    The developmental toxicity potential of a scrubbing solution used extensively in petroleum refineries to remove CO2 from hydrogen gas streams was evaluated via inhalation. Pregnant female CD (Sprague-Dawley) rats were exposed to aerosols of a "used" scrubbing solution at 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 mg/l for 6 h/d on d 6-19 of pregnancy. Control animals were exposed to filtered air under the same exposure conditions. Dams were sacrificed on d 20 of pregnancy and a laparohysterectomy was performed. The mass median aerodynamic diameter of the aerosol revealed that all particles ranged from 1.6 to 2.8 microm, with geometric standard deviations between 2.0 and 2.3 microm. The overall pregnancy rate was high (>95%) and equivalent across all groups. All pregnant dams had live litters, and 22-24 litters were examined in each group. Treatment-related clinical signs consisted of rales, observed at all exposure levels, and gasping noted only at the 0.3 mg/l exposure level. The occurrence of rales was presumably a localized effect on the respiratory tract and likely due to the irritating properties of the scrubbing solution. Maternal toxicity was exhibited in the 0.3 mg/l group, including reduced body weight, weight gain, and food consumption and one possible treatment-related death on gestation d 17. At scheduled necropsy, there were no treatment-related gross pathological observations and no statistically significant reproductive and developmental effects. The incidences of fetuses with skeletal variations involving the sternum were clustered in two litters at the highest exposure level with atypically low term fetal body weights. Under the conditions of this investigation, potassium carbonate scrubbing solution is not a selective developmental toxicant.

  13. Cross-sectional study of platinum salts sensitization among precious metals refinery workers.

    PubMed

    Baker, D B; Gann, P H; Brooks, S M; Gallagher, J; Bernstein, I L

    1990-01-01

    A cross-sectional medical evaluation was conducted to determine respiratory and dermatological effects of platinum salts sensitization among workers in a secondary refinery of precious metals. Fifteen of 107 current employees and eight (28%) of 29 former employees, who had been terminated from employment on average for 5 years because of respiratory symptoms, had positive skin reactivity to platinum salts. Platinum salts skin reactivity was significantly associated with average air concentrations of platinum salts in employees' present work area. Workers with positive platinum salts skin tests had significantly higher prevalences of reported rhinitis, asthma, and dermatitis than negative skin test workers. They also had increased bronchial response to cold air challenge and elevated levels of total serum IgE. Platinum salts sensitization was not associated with atopic tendency as measured by sensitivity to common aeroallergens, but was strongly associated with cigarette smoking status. The findings indicate that cigarette smoking may be a risk factor for the development of platinum salts allergy. The persistence of platinum salts sensitization and high prevalence of adverse health outcomes among former workers demonstrate the importance of regular medical monitoring so that sensitized workers can be removed from exposure before they develop long-term health problems.

  14. Report: EPA Needs to Improve Tracking of National Petroleum Refinery Compliance Program Progress and Impacts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2004-P-00021, June 22, 2004. EPA and the U.S. Department of Justice have developed and implemented an integrated refinery compliance strategy that addresses the most important noncompliance problems.

  15. Factors affecting individual injury experience among petroleum drilling workers.

    PubMed

    Mueller, B A; Mohr, D L; Rice, J C; Clemmer, D I

    1987-02-01

    To identify factors affecting the number of injuries experienced by petroleum drilling workers, we carried out a 44-month incidence density study on a cohort employed in January 1979 on mobile drilling units in the Gulf of Mexico. To control for job-related hazards, we computed a standardized ratio of observed to expected injuries for each worker based on his job history. The effect of personal and work history factors was then examined using analysis of variance. Age, rate of job changes, and rate of rig transfers had independent effects on injury rates. Length of service had little effect when age was controlled. The findings suggest that younger workers under stress such as job change may be more susceptible to injury than older workers, regardless of job. If so, targeted changes in procedures and environment which protect workers of all ages are important alternatives to reliance on supervision and experience in injury reduction.

  16. Mortality of workers at a nickel carbonyl refinery, 1958–2000

    PubMed Central

    Sorahan, T; Williams, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: Excess risks of respiratory cancer have been shown in some groups of nickel exposed workers. It is clear, however, that not all forms of nickel exposure are implicated in these excess risks. Aim: To determine whether occupational exposures received in a modern nickel carbonyl refinery lead to increased risks of cancer, in particular nasal cancer and lung cancer. Methods: The mortality experienced by a cohort of 812 workers employed at a nickel refinery was investigated. Study subjects were all male workforce employees first employed in the period 1953–92 who had at least five years' employment with the company. Observed numbers of cause specific deaths were compared with expectations based on national mortality rates; SMRs were also calculated by period from commencing employment, year of commencing employment, and type of work. Results: Overall, standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were close to 100 for all causes (Obs 191, SMR 96, 95% CI 83 to 111), all neoplasms (Obs 63, SMR 104, 95% CI 80 to 133), non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system (Obs 18, SMR 97, 95% CI 57 to 153), and diseases of the circulatory system (Obs 85, SMR 94, 95% CI 75 to 116). There were no significantly increased SMRs for any site of cancer. There was a non-significant excess for lung cancer (Obs 28, Exp 20.17, SMR 139, 95% CI 92 to 201), and in subgroup analyses a significantly increased SMR of 231 (Obs 9) was found for those 142 workers with at least five years' employment in the feed handling and nickel extraction departments. In the total cohort there was a single death from nasal cancer (Exp 0.10). Conclusions: The non-significant excess of lung cancer deaths may well be a chance finding, but in light of previous studies some role for nickel exposures cannot be excluded. PMID:15657188

  17. Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity evaluation of photo-catalytically treated petroleum refinery wastewater using an array of bioassays.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Munawar; Nisar, Jan; Adil, Muhammad; Abbas, Mazhar; Riaz, Muhammad; Tahir, M Asif; Younus, Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    Degradation and detoxification of petroleum refinery wastewater (PRW) was carried out by advanced oxidation processes (UV/TiO2/H2O2 and gamma radiation/H2O2). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the independent variables. The cytotoxicity was evaluated using Allium cepa, brime shrimp and haemolytic assays; whereas mutagenicity was tested by Ames tests (TA98 and TA100 strains). Maximum reductions in COD and BOD were recorded as 78% and 87% for UV/TiO2/H2O2 and 77% and 86% for gamma ray/H2O2, respectively. Treatments with both methods at optimized conditions reduced the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of PRW, however, UV/TiO2/H2O2 system was found slightly efficient as compared to gamma ray/H2O2. From the results, it can be concluded that AOP's can successfully be utilized for the degradation of toxic pollutants in petroleum refinery wastewater. Moreover, the bioassays used in this study offered a good reliability for checking the detoxification of treated and un-treated PRW wastewater.

  18. Using PM(2.5) lanthanoid elements and nonparametric wind regression to track petroleum refinery FCC emissions.

    PubMed

    Du, Li; Turner, Jay

    2015-10-01

    A long term air quality study is being conducted in Roxana, Illinois, USA, at the fenceline of a petroleum refinery. Measurements include 1-in-6 day 24-hour integrated ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) speciation following the Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) sampling and analysis protocols. Lanthanoid elements, some of which are tracers of fluidized-bed catalytic cracker (FCC) emissions, are also measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after extraction from PM2.5 using hot block-assisted acid digestion. Lanthanoid recoveries of 80-90% were obtained for two ambient particulate matter standard reference materials (NIST SRM 1648a and 2783). Ambient PM2.5 La patterns could be explained by a two-source model representing resuspended soil and FCC emissions with enhanced La/Ce ratios when impacted by the refinery. Nonparametric wind regression demonstrates that when the monitoring station was upwind of the refinery the mean La/Ce ratio is consistent with soil and when the monitoring station is downwind of the refinery the mean ratio is more than four times higher for bearings that corresponds to maximum impacts. Source apportionment modeling using EPA UNMIX and EPA PMF could not reliably apportion PM2.5 mass to the FCC emissions. However, the weight of evidence is that such contributions are small with no large episodes observed for the 164 samples analyzed. This study demonstrates the applicability of a hot block-assisted digestion protocol for the extraction of lanthanoid elements as well as insights obtained from long-term monitoring data including wind direction-based analyses.

  19. PORTABLE IMAGING DEVICES FOR INDUSTRIAL LEAK DETECTION AT PETROLEUM REFINERIES AND CHEMICAL PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Undiscovered gas leaks, or fugitive emissions, in chemical plants and refinery operations can impact regional air quality as well as being a public health problem. Surveying a facility for potential gas leaks can be a daunting task. Industrial Leak Detection and Repair (LDAR) pro...

  20. All cause mortality and incidence of cancer in workers in bauxite mines and alumina refineries.

    PubMed

    Fritschi, Lin; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Sim, Malcolm R; Del Monaco, Anthony; MacFarlane, Ewan; McKenzie, Dean; Benke, Geza; de Klerk, Nicholas

    2008-08-15

    Bauxite is a reddish clay that is refined to produce alumina, which is then reduced to aluminium. There have been studies examining the health of workers in aluminium smelters, but not workers in bauxite mining and alumina refining. A cohort of employees of 1 large aluminium company since 1983 was assembled (n = 6,485, 5,828 men). Deaths and incident cancers to 2002 were ascertained by linkage to national and state cancer and death registries. SIRs and SMRs were calculated compared to national rates standardizing for calendar year, sex and 5-year age group. The mortality from all causes (SMR 0.68, 95% CI: 0.60-0.77), and from circulatory and respiratory diseases, all cancers combined and injury in the male cohort were lower than in the Australian male population and were similar across work groups and with duration of employment. The only significant increased mortality risk was from pleural mesothelioma. The incidence of all cancers combined was similar to the Australian rate. The cohort had a lower risk of incident lymphohaematopoietic cancer (SIR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.31-0.88) and a higher risk of melanoma (SIR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.00-1.69) although no dose-responses were seen. There was also an increased risk of mesothelioma (SIR 3.49, 95% CI: 1.82-6.71), which was associated with exposures outside the aluminium industry. This study is the first to examine cancer and mortality amongst workers in bauxite mines and alumina refineries and found little evidence for increased cancer incidence or mortality in these workers.

  1. Treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater containing heavily polluting substances in an aerobic submerged fixed-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Vendramel, S; Bassin, J P; Dezotti, M; Sant'Anna, G L

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum refineries produce large amount of wastewaters, which often contain a wide range of different compounds. Some of these constituents may be recalcitrant and therefore difficult to be treated biologically. This study evaluated the capability of an aerobic submerged fixed-bed reactor (ASFBR) containing a corrugated PVC support material for biofilm attachment to treat a complex and high-strength organic wastewater coming from a petroleum refinery. The reactor operation was divided into five experimental runs which lasted more than 250 days. During the reactor operation, the applied volumetric organic load was varied within the range of 0.5-2.4 kgCOD.m(-3).d(-1). Despite the inherent fluctuations on the characteristics of the complex wastewater and the slight decrease in the reactor performance when the influent organic load was increased, the ASFBR showed good stability and allowed to reach chemical oxygen demand, dissolved organic carbon and total suspended solids removals up to 91%, 90% and 92%, respectively. Appreciable ammonium removal was obtained (around 90%). Some challenging aspects of reactor operation such as biofilm quantification and important biofilm constituents (e.g. polysaccharides (PS) and proteins (PT)) were also addressed in this work. Average PS/volatile attached solids (VAS) and PT/VAS ratios were around 6% and 50%, respectively. The support material promoted biofilm attachment without appreciable loss of solids and allowed long-term operation without clogging. Microscopic observations of the microbial community revealed great diversity of higher organisms, such as protozoa and rotifers, suggesting that toxic compounds found in the wastewater were possibly removed in the biofilm.

  2. Respiratory health of workers exposed to metal dusts and foundry fumes in a copper refinery.

    PubMed Central

    Ostiguy, G; Vaillancourt, C; Bégin, R

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess airflow limitation in workers exposed long term to metal dust, the prevalence of pleural plaques in those workers exposed in the past to asbestos, the influence of pleural plaques on lung function, and the possible association with airway disease caused by asbestos. METHODS--A cross sectional and longitudinal (seven year) survey of 494 long term (mean (SEM) 21(1) years) workers in a copper refinery was carried out from medical questionnaires, chest radiographs, and forced spirometry. RESULTS--The prevalence of lifetime non-smokers was 19%, current smokers 39%, and ex-smokers 42%. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) < 80% predicted) was 5%, small airway dysfunction (SAD) (maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) < 60% predicted) was 7%, and this did not differ from the control population. The COPD and SAD were associated with cumulative smoking index but not with the cumulative work years at the plant or with any type of work at the plant. The mean (SEM) reduction of FEV1 was 20(7) ml in non-smokers, 26(4) ml in smokers, and 26(5) ml in ex-smokers (P > 0.05). In the smokers and ex-smokers with COPD, the loss of FEV1 was 53(10) (P < 0.02). The prevalence of pleural plaques was 11% (P < 0.0001); pleural plaques were found in older workers with known exposure to asbestos. The pleural plaques were circumscribed and associated with a non-significant 196 ml reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC) and non-significant reduction of FVC over time. The pleural plaques were not associated with COPD or SAD. The cumulative smoking index obtained by a technician did not differ from that by a chest physician. CONCLUSIONS--Despite exposures to asbestos that produced pleural plaques and exposures to metal dusts and foundry fumes the long term workers of this plant did not have excessive prevalence of COPD or SAD. The data suggest that low level long term exposure to metal dusts, gases, and

  3. Biodegradation of low and high molecular weight hydrocarbons in petroleum refinery wastewater by a thermophilic bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Pugazhendi, Arulazhagan; Abbad Wazin, Hadeel; Qari, Huda; Basahi, Jalal Mohammad Al-Badry; Godon, Jean Jacques; Dhavamani, Jeyakumar

    2016-12-05

    Clean-up of contaminated wastewater remains to be a major challenge in petroleum refinery. Here, we describe the capacity of a bacterial consortium enriched from crude oil drilling site in Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, to utilize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as sole carbon source at 60°C. The consortium reduced low molecular weight (LMW; naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene and anthracene) and high molecular weight (HMW; pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene and benzo(k)fluoranthene) PAH loads of up to 1.5 g/L with removal efficiencies of 90% and 80% within 10 days. PAH biodegradation was verified by the presence of PAH metabolites and evolution of carbon dioxide (90 ± 3%). Biodegradation led to a reduction of the surface tension to 34 ± 1 mN/m thus suggesting biosurfactant production by the consortium. Phylogenetic analysis of the consortium revealed the presence of the thermophilic PAH degrader Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CEES1 (KU664514) and Bacillus thermosaudia (KU664515) strain CEES2. The consortium was further found to treat petroleum wastewater in continuous stirred tank reactor with 96 ± 2% chemical oxygen demand removal and complete PAH degradation in 24 days.

  4. Accumulation of metals and histopathology in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated NNPC Kaduna (Nigeria) petroleum refinery effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Onwumere, B.G.; Oladimeji, A.A. )

    1990-04-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals and histopathology were observed in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated petroleum refinery effluent from the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Kaduna. Analysis of fish metal burden showed that the fish concentrated trace metals a thousand times above the levels existing in the exposure medium. Some metals were preferentially accumulated more than others and the accumulation was, in decreasing order, Pb, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Ni, and Cd. Whole fish metal burden was lower in fish from which the gill, liver, and kidney had been removed, suggesting that these organs accumulated the metals more than other tissues. Hemorrhaging of fins was observed in all treatment concentrations except that of the control, and fish exposed to 40 and 50% effluent were most affected. Erosion of the caudal fin was also observed in fish exposed to 40 and 50% effluent. Examination of the organs for histopathology revealed damages to the gills. Gills with edematous fused lamellae congested with blood were observed. No histopathological damage was observed in the liver and kidney. The extent of metal accumulation and histopathological damage were directly related to the effluent concentrations.

  5. A combination of solvent extraction and freeze thaw for oil recovery from petroleum refinery wastewater treatment pond sludge.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Hou, Haobo

    2015-01-01

    A combination of solvent extraction and freeze thaw was examined for recovering oil from the high-moisture petroleum refinery wastewater treatment pond sludge. Five solvents including cyclohexane (CHX), dichloromethane (DCM), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), ethyl acetate (EA), and 2-propanol (2-Pro) were examined. It was found that these solvents except 2-Pro showed a promising oil recovery rate of about 40%, but the recycling of DCM solvent after oil extraction was quite low. Three solvents (CHX, MEK and EA) were then selected for examining the effect of freeze/thaw treatment on improving the quality of recovered oil. This treatment increased the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in recovered oil from about 40% to 60% for both MEK and EA extractions, but little effect was observed for CHX extraction. Although the solid residue after oil recovery had a significantly decreased TPH content, a high concentration of heavy metals was observed, indicating that this residue may require proper management. In general, the combination of solvent extraction with freeze/thaw is effective for high-moisture oily hazardous waste treatment.

  6. Increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among upstream petroleum workers

    PubMed Central

    Kirkeleit, Jorunn; Riise, Trond; Bjørge, Tone; Moen, Bente E; Bråtveit, Magne; Christiani, David C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate cancer risk, particularly oesophageal cancer, among male upstream petroleum workers offshore potentially exposed to various carcinogenic agents. Methods Using the Norwegian Registry of Employers and Employees, 24 765 male offshore workers registered from 1981 to 2003 was compared with 283 002 male referents from the general working population matched by age and community of residence. The historical cohort was linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Results Male offshore workers had excess risk of oesophageal cancer (RR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.8) compared with the reference population. Only the adenocarcinoma type had a significantly increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 7.0), mainly because of an increased risk among upstream operators (RR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 14.5). Upstream operators did not have significant excess of respiratory system or colon cancer or mortality from any other lifestyle-related diseases investigated. Conclusion We found a fourfold excess risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among male workers assumed to have had the most extensive contact with crude oil. Due to the small number of cases, and a lack of detailed data on occupational exposure and lifestyle factors associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, the results must be interpreted with caution. Nevertheless, given the low risk of lifestyle-related cancers and causes of death in this working group, the results add to the observations in other low-powered studies on oesophageal cancer, further suggesting that factors related to the petroleum stream or carcinogenic agents used in the production process might be associated with risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:19858535

  7. A nested case-control study of kidney cancer among refinery/petrochemical workers

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, J.F.; Pearlman, E.D.; Nicolich, M.J.

    1996-06-01

    A nested case-control study was designed to evaluate whether a nearly twofold excess of kidney cancer among workers at a refinery/petrochemical plant was associated with cumulative exposure to C{sub 2}-C{sub 5} saturated, C{sub 2}-C{sub 5} unsaturated, C{sub 6}-C{sub 10} aliphatic saturated, C{sub 6}-C{sub 10} aliphatic unsaturated, and C{sub 6}-C{sub 10} aromatic process streams. Nonoccupational risk factors were body mass index association with cumulative exposure or tenure as estimated by conditional logistic regression and adjusted for nonoccupational risk factors. Categorical analysis showed increased odds ratios only in the second (low) and fourth (high) quartiles compared to the first quartile reference group of lowest exposed workers, and a three-quarter-fold increased odds ratio for >32 years` tenure compared to the <25-year reference group. The number of cases was small with wide confidence intervals around estimate of risk, so the possibility of an exposure-response trend cannot be ruled out. Multivariate analysis identified overweight (high BMI; p<0.01) as the most important risk factor in this data set, followed by tenure and increased blood pressure. There was a weak association with current smoking, but not with pack-years smoked. The risk of kidney cancer for a nonsmoker with normal blood pressure but 25% overweight was increased about 2.6-fold (95% CI = 1.2-5.4). The risk of kidney cancer for a nonsmoker of normal weight with high blood pressure (e.g., 150/110), was increased about 4.5 (95% CI, 0.8-26). 49 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. VOCs emission rate estimate for complicated industrial area source using an inverse-dispersion calculation method: A case study on a petroleum refinery in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Lv, Zhaofeng; Yang, Gan; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Li, Yue; Wang, Litao

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to apply an inverse-dispersion calculation method (IDM) to estimate the emission rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for the complicated industrial area sources, through a case study on a petroleum refinery in Northern China. The IDM was composed of on-site monitoring of ambient VOCs concentrations and meteorological parameters around the source, calculation of the relationship coefficient γ between the source's emission rate and the ambient VOCs concentration by the ISC3 model, and estimation of the actual VOCs emission rate from the source. Targeting the studied refinery, 10 tests and 8 tests were respectively conducted in March and in June of 2014. The monitoring showed large differences in VOCs concentrations between background and downwind receptors, reaching 59.7 ppbv in March and 248.6 ppbv in June, on average. The VOCs increases at receptors mainly consisted of ethane (3.1%-22.6%), propane (3.8%-11.3%), isobutane (8.5%-10.2%), n-butane (9.9%-13.2%), isopentane (6.1%-12.9%), n-pentane (5.1%-9.7%), propylene (6.1-11.1%) and 1-butylene (1.6%-5.4%). The chemical composition of the VOCs increases in this field monitoring was similar to that of VOCs emissions from China's refineries reported, which revealed that the ambient VOCs increases were predominantly contributed by this refinery. So, we used the ISC3 model to create the relationship coefficient γ for each receptor of each test. In result, the monthly VOCs emissions from this refinery were calculated to be 183.5 ± 89.0 ton in March and 538.3 ± 281.0 ton in June. The estimate in June was greatly higher than in March, chiefly because the higher environmental temperature in summer produced more VOCs emissions from evaporation and fugitive process of the refinery. Finally, the VOCs emission factors (g VOCs/kg crude oil refined) of 0.73 ± 0.34 (in March) and 2.15 ± 1.12 (in June) were deduced for this refinery, being in the same order with previous direct

  9. The effects of Fenton process on the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from oily sludge in Shiraz oil refinery, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the high concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in oily sludge and their environmental hazards, the concern regarding their effects on health and the environment has increased. The main objective of this research was focused on evaluating the feasibility of using Fenton process in removing TPH in oily sludge from Shiraz oil refinery, Southern Iran. Results To determine optimum conditions, four different parameters were assessed at four different levels using Taguchi method. According to data, the optimum conditions were as follows: the reaction time of 1 hour, H2O2 to sample mass ratio of 15, H2O2 to Fe (II) molar ratio of 10 and pH of 5. The maximum TPH reduction rate was 36.47%. Because of the semi-solid nature of the sample and the hydroxyl radicals mainly generated in the aqueous solution, TPH reduction rate greatly improved by adding water. Ultimately, by adding 40 ml water per gram of the oily sludge under optimized conditions, the reduction rate of 73.07% was achieved. Conclusions The results demonstrated that this method can be used as a pre-treatment method for the oily sludge. Moreover, a complementary treatment is necessary to reach the standard limit. PMID:24422994

  10. Adverse Health Effects of Benzene Exposure Among Children Following a Flaring Incident at the British Petroleum Refinery in Texas City.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Mark A; Reddy, G Kesava

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the health effects of benzene exposure among children from a flaring incident at the British Petroleum (BP) refinery in Texas City, Texas. A total of 899 children (benzene exposed, n = 641 and unexposed, n = 258), aged <17 years, were included. Hematological analysis showed that white blood cell (×10(3)/µL) counts were significantly decreased in the exposed children compared with the unexposed children (7.1 ± 2.2 versus 7.6 ± 2.1, P = .001). Similarly, the hemoglobin (g/dL) levels were decreased significantly in the exposed group compared with the unexposed group (12.7 ± 1.3 vs 13.1 ± 1.5, P = .001). Conversely, platelet (×10(3)/µL) counts were increased significantly in the exposed group compared with the unexposed group (318.6 ± 79.8 versus 266.9 ± 58.8, P = .001). Hepatic enzymes were also significantly elevated among exposed children compared with the unexposed children. These findings suggest that children exposed to benzene are at a higher risk of developing both hepatic and bone marrow-related disorders.

  11. A prospective study of morbidity patterns in a petroleum refinery and chemical plant.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, S P; Dowd, C M; Cowles, S R; Ross, C E

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the morbidity experience from 1981 to 1988 of a prospective cohort of 3422 refinery and petrochemical plant employees from the Shell Deer Park manufacturing complex. The morbidity data for this study, which include all illness and absence records in excess of five days, were extracted from the morbidity section of the Shell health surveillance system. Standardised morbidity ratios (SMRs) of disease prevalence in this cohort were calculated using an internal comparison group of all manufacturing employees of the Shell Oil Company. Among production employees, the overall morbidity was statistically significantly higher (SMR = 109) than that of the comparison group. Illness due to hypertension (SMR = 144), haemorrhoids (SMR = 149), diseases of the nervous system (SMR = 120), respiratory system (SMR = 108), and digestive system (SMR = 117) were also raised for this group. The increased risk due to these medical conditions does not appear to be associated with occupational factors. Lymphatic and haematopoietic tissue neoplasms were raised (SMR = 124), but were based on only four cases. PMID:1637713

  12. Sensitivity of screening-level toxicity tests using soils from a former petroleum refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Pauwels, S.; Bureau, J.; Roy, Y.; Allen, B.; Robidoux, P.Y.; Soucy, M.

    1995-12-31

    The authors tested five composite soil samples from a former refinery. The samples included a reference soil (Mineral Oil and Grease, MO and G < 40 ppm), thermally-treated soil, biotreated soil, and two untreated soils. They evaluated toxicity using the earthworm E. foetida, lettuce, cress, barley, Microtox, green algae, fathead minnow, and D. magna. The endpoints measured were lethality, seed germination, root elongation, growth, and bioluminescence. Toxicity, as measured by the number of positive responses, increased as follows: biotreated soil < untreated soil No. 1 < reference soil < thermally-treated soil and untreated soil No. 2. The biotreated soil generated only one positive response, whereas the thermally-treated soil and untreated soil No. 2 generated five positive responses. The most sensitive and discriminant terrestrial endpoint was lettuce root elongation which responded to untreated soil No. 1, thermally-treated soil, and reference soil. The least sensitive was barley seed germination for which no toxicity was detected. The most sensitive and discriminant aquatic endpoint was green algae growth which responded to untreated soil No. 1, thermally-treated soil, and reference soil. The least sensitive was D. magna for which no toxicity was detected. Overall, soil and aqueous extract toxicity was spotty and no consistent patterns emerged to differentiate the five soils. Biotreatment significantly reduced the effects of the contamination. Aqueous toxicity was measured in the reference soil, probably because of the presence of unknown dissolved compounds in the aqueous extract. Finally, clear differences in sensitivity existed among the test species.

  13. Refinery Capacity Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions. The Refinery Capacity Report does not contain working and shell storage capacity data. This data is now being collected twice a year as of March 31 and September 30 on the Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report", and is now released as a separate report Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity.

  14. Pollution prevention and control procedure case study: an application for petroleum refineries.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Encarnación; Martínez, Jose-Luis

    2005-06-01

    There is global environmental concern about the pollution from industries and other organizations that should not only be controlled but also prevented. Many alternatives are available to those in charge of environmental protection, but they should be able to draw on a systematic procedure to help implement prevention and control measures. At present, there are three immediate tasks: defining the objective of any environmental study, identifying the potential pollution sources, and selecting alternatives to these sources. However, it is necessary to evaluate these alternatives by using as large a number of criteria as possible and making them cumulative so as to enable the classification and selection of the best available techniques for each pollution source. The petroleum refining industry plays an important role in the developed economies and also has a potential for pollution generation that must be controlled. The best solution for all (i.e., petroleum companies, the public, and the environment) is pollution prevention, because this option will protect all of them and will also reduce costs in terms of lower raw materials consumption as well as reducing potential fines. The procedure we have presented in this article has been applied successfully.

  15. A review of the technological solutions for the treatment of oily sludges from petroleum refineries.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Leonardo Jordão; Alves, Flávia Chaves; de França, Francisca Pessôa

    2012-10-01

    The activities of the oil industry have several impacts on the environment due to the large amounts of oily wastes that are generated. The oily sludges are a semi-solid material composed by a mixture of clay, silica and iron oxides contaminated with oil, produced water and the chemicals used in the production of oil. Nowadays both the treatment and management of these waste materials is essential to promote sustainable management of exploration and exploitation of natural resources. Biological, physical and chemical processes can be used to reduce environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons to acceptable levels. The choice of treatment method depends on the physical and chemical properties of the waste as well as the availability of facilities to process these wastes. Literature provides some operations for treatment of oily sludges, such as landfilling, incineration, co-processing in clinkerization furnaces, microwave liquefaction, centrifugation, destructive distillation, thermal plasma, low-temperature conversion, incorporation in ceramic materials, development of impermeable materials, encapsulation and biodegradation in land farming, biopiles and bioreactors. The management of the technology to be applied for the treatment of oily wastes is essential to promote proper environmental management, and provide alternative methods to reduce, reuse and recycle the wastes.

  16. A comprehensive evaluation of re-circulated bio-filter as a pretreatment process for petroleum refinery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaoli; Chen, Chunmao; Yan, Guangxu; Chen, Yu; Guo, Shaohui

    2016-12-01

    Conventional biological treatment process is not very efficient for the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater (PRW) that contains high-concentration of organic contaminants. Prior to biological treatment, an additional pretreatment process for PRW is required for the effluent to meet the discharge standards. While re-circulated bio-filter (RBF) has been applied as a pretreatment process in several PRW treatment plants, its effects have not been comprehensively evaluated. In this study, the parameters of operation, the changes in pollution indexes and contaminant composition in an engineered RBF have been investigated. We found that mainly highly active de-carbonization bacteria were present in the RBF, while no nitrification bacteria were found in the RBF. This indicated the absence of nitrification in this process. The biodegradable organic contaminants were susceptible to degradation by RBF, which decreased the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5) by 83.64% and the Chemical Oxygen Demand (CODCr) by 54.63%. Consequently, the alkalinity and pH value of RBF effluent significantly increased, which was unfavorable for the control of operating parameters in subsequent biological treatment. Along with the decrease of CODCr, the RBF effluent exhibited a reduction in biodegradability. 834 kinds of recalcitrant polar organic contaminants remained in the effluent; most of the contaminant molecules having complex structures of aromatic, polycyclic and heterocyclic rings. The results of this study showed that RBF could efficiently treat PRW for biodegradable organic contaminants removal; however, it is difficult to treat bio-refractory organic contaminants, which was unfavorable for the subsequent biological treatment process operation. An improved process might provide overall guarantees for the PRW treatment.

  17. Active and uncontrolled asthma among children exposed to air stack emissions of sulphur dioxide from petroleum refineries in Montreal, Quebec: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Deger, Leylâ; Plante, Céline; Jacques, Louis; Goudreau, Sophie; Perron, Stéphane; Hicks, John; Kosatsky, Tom; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little attention has been devoted to the effects on children’s respiratory health of exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) in ambient air from local industrial emissions. Most studies on the effects of SO2 have assessed its impact as part of the regional ambient air pollutant mix. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between exposure to stack emissions of SO2 from petroleum refineries located in Montreal’s (Quebec) east-end industrial complex and the prevalence of active asthma and poor asthma control among children living nearby. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study used data from a respiratory health survey of Montreal children six months to 12 years of age conducted in 2006. Of 7964 eligible households that completed the survey, 842 children between six months and 12 years of age lived in an area impacted by refinery emissions. Ambient SO2 exposure levels were estimated using dispersion modelling. Log-binomial regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% CIs for the association between yearly school and residential SO2 exposure estimates and asthma outcomes. Adjustments were made for child’s age, sex, parental history of atopy and tobacco smoke exposure at home. RESULTS: The adjusted PR for the association between active asthma and SO2 levels was 1.14 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.39) per interquartile range increase in modelled annual SO2. The effect on poor asthma control was greater (PR=1.39 per interquartile range increase in modelled SO2 [95% CI 1.00 to 1.94]). CONCLUSIONS: Results of the present study suggest a relationship between exposure to refinery stack emissions of SO2 and the prevalence of active and poor asthma control in children who live and attend school in proximity to refineries. PMID:22536578

  18. A nine year follow up study of renal effects in workers exposed to cadmium in a zinc ore refinery.

    PubMed Central

    van Sittert, N J; Ribbens, P H; Huisman, B; Lugtenburg, D

    1993-01-01

    Renal changes with time have been studied in 14 workers engaged in the production of cadmium (Cd) in a zinc ore refinery. These workers were examined once a year in the period 1980 to 1985 and 13 of them also in 1989. Four of the workers (group A) had been employed in an old Cd plant before 1973 and had received higher exposures to Cd than the other workers (group B). Average urinary Cd concentrations over the whole study period in workers of group A ranged from 6.9 to 9.2 micrograms/g creatinine (median 8.4 micrograms/g) and in workers of group B from 0.64 to 7.1 micrograms/g creatinine (median 1.9 micrograms/g). Renal effects were assessed by the determination of urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M), retinol binding protein, albumin, total protein, and serum creatinine concentrations and activity. Urinary beta 2-M concentrations in three of four workers of group A were close to or marginally above the upper normal limit during the study period. The beta 2-microglobinuria was not, however, progressive. No values outside normal limits were detected for any of the other renal tests in workers of groups A and B, related to exposure to Cd. Dose-response relations showed that urinary Cd correlated significantly with urinary NAG activity and total protein and beta 2-M. The earliest change induced by Cd was seen for urinary NAG activity within normal limits of NAG excretion. The regression lines were similar in the surveys between 1981 and 1989, indicative of no progression to higher values for any of the renal tests. The current biological exposure index (BEI) of 10 micrograms/g creatinine for workers exposed to Cd, set by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), therefore seems justified, although the safety margin is small. The World Health Organisation recommended limit and ACGIH (1992-3) proposed limit of 5 micrograms/g creatinine would provide a much larger safety margin, and could be regarded

  19. Refinery Outages: First Half 2015

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    This report examines refinery outages planned for the first half of 2015 and the potential implications for available refinery capacity, petroleum product markets and supply of gasoline, diesel fuel, and heating oil. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) believes that dissemination of such analyses can be beneficial to market participants that may otherwise be unable to access such information.

  20. Role of natural attenuation, phytoremediation and hybrid technologies in the remediation of a refinery soil with old/recent petroleum hydrocarbons contamination.

    PubMed

    Couto, Maria Nazaré P F S; Pinto, Dorabela; Basto, M Clara P; Vasconcelos, Teresa S D

    2012-09-01

    Within a search for a biological remediation technology to remove petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) from a contaminated soil from a refinery, the potential of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) was compared with the use of transplants of Cortaderia selloana both in the absence and in the presence of soil amendments. After 31 months of experiments, MNA was effective in removing most of the recent PHC contamination (50% of the initial total contamination) at 5-20 cm depth. The presence of weathered contamination explains the existence of an established community of PHC degraders, as can be inferred by the most probable number technique. C. selloana, in its turn, showed capacity to mobilize the most recalcitrant fraction of PHC to its roots, nevertheless masking its remediation capacity. The use of a hybrid technology (C. selloana together with treatments with a surfactant and a bioaugmentation product) improved the removal of PHC at 15-20 cm depth, the presence of C. selloana facilitating the migration of additives into the deeper layers of soil, which can be considered a secondary but positive role of the plant. In the surface soil layer, which was exposed to both microorganisms and the atmosphere, a further 20% of weathered PHC contamination disappeared (70% total removal) as a result of photo- and chemical degradation. Periodic revolving of the soil, like tillage, to expose all the contaminated soil to the atmosphere will therefore be a reliable option for reducing the contamination of the refinery soil if conditions (space and equipment) permit this operation.

  1. Emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds and their secondary organic aerosol formation potentials from a petroleum refinery in Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhijuan; Wang, Hao; Chen, Dan; Li, Qinqin; Thai, Phong; Gong, Daocheng; Li, Yang; Zhang, Chunlin; Gu, Yinggang; Zhou, Lei; Morawska, Lidia; Wang, Boguang

    2017-04-15

    A campaign was carried out to measure the emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in different areas of a petroleum refinery in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in China. In the refining area, 2-methylpentane, 2,3-dimethylbutane, methylcyclopentane, 3-methylhexane, and butane accounted for >50% of the total VOCs; in the chemical industry area, 2-methylpentane, p-diethylbenzene, 2,3-dimethylbutane, m-diethylbenzene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were the top five VOCs detected; and in the wastewater treatment area, the five most abundant species were 2-methylpentane, 2,3-dimethylbutane, methylcyclopentane, 3-methylpentane and p-diethylbenzene. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential was estimated using the fractional aerosol coefficients (FAC), secondary organic aerosol potential (SOAP), and SOA yield methods. The FAC method suggests that toluene, p-diethylbenzene, and p-diethylbenzene are the largest contributors to the SOA formation in the refining, chemical industry, and wastewater treatment areas, respectively. With the SOAP method, it is estimated that toluene is the largest contributor to the SOA formation in the refining area, but o-ethyltoluene contributes the most both in the chemical industry and wastewater treatment areas. For the SOA yield method, aromatics dominate the yields and account for nearly 100% of the total in the three areas. The SOA concentrations estimated of the refining, chemical industry and wastewater treatment areas are 30, 3835 and 137μgm(-3), respectively. Despite the uncertainties and limitations associated with the three methods, the SOA yield method is suggested to be used for the estimation of SOA formation from the petroleum refinery. The results of this study have demonstrated that the control of VOCs, especially aromatics such as toluene, ethyltoluene, benzene and diethylbenzene, should be a focus of future regulatory measures in order to reduce PM pollution in the PRD region.

  2. Organic constituents in sour condensates from shale-oil and petroleum-crude runs at Sohio's Toledo refinery: identification and wastewater-control-technology considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wingender, R J; Harrison, W; Raphaelian, L A

    1981-02-01

    Samples of sour condensate generated from the continuous processing of both crude shale oil and petroleum crude were collected and extracted with methylene chloride. The extracts were analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry at Argonne National Laboratory and Radian Corporation. Qualitatively, the predominant types of organic compounds present in the shale-oil sour condensate were pyridines and anilines; semiquantitatively, these compounds were present at a concentration of 5.7 ppM, or about 78% of the total concentration of components detected. In contrast, straight-chain alkanes were the predominant types of compounds found in the sour condensate produced during isocracking of conventional crude oil. The approximate concentration of straight-chain alkanes, 8.3 ppM, and of other branched and/or unsaturated hydrocarbons, 6.8 ppM, amounted to 88% of the total concentration of components detected in the sour condensate from the petroleum-crude run. Nitrogen compounds in the shale-oil sour condensate may necessitate alterations of the sour water and refinery wastewater-treatment facilities to provide for organics degradation and to accommodate the potentially greater ammonia loadings. This would include use of larger amounts of caustic to enhance ammonia removal by steam stripping. Possible problems associated with biological removal of organic-nitrogen compounds should be investigated in future experimental shale-oil refining runs.

  3. Gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Chinese nickel refinery workers with high exposures to nickel and control subjects

    PubMed Central

    Arita, Adriana; Muñoz, Alexandra; Chervona, Yana; Niu, Jingping; Qu, Qingshan; Zhao, Najuan; Ruan, Ye; Kiok, Kathrin; Kluz, Thomas; Sun, Hong; Clancy, Hailey A.; Shamy, Magdy; Costa, Max

    2012-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to nickel (Ni) is associated with an increased risk of lung and nasal cancers. Ni compounds exhibit weak mutagenic activity, alter the cell’s epigenetic homeostasis, and activate signaling pathways. However, changes in gene expression associated with Ni exposure have only been investigated in vitro. This study was conducted in a Chinese population to determine whether occupational exposure to Ni was associated with differential gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of Ni-refinery workers when compared to referents. Methods Eight Ni-refinery workers and ten referents were selected. PBMC RNA was extracted and gene expression profiling was performed using Affymetrix exon arrays. Differentially expressed genes between both groups were identified in a global analysis. Results There were a total of 2756 differentially expressed genes (DEG) in the Ni-refinery workers relative to the control subjects (FDR adjusted p<0.05) with 770 up-regulated genes and 1986 down-regulated genes. DNA repair and epigenetic genes were significantly overrepresented (p< 0.0002) among the DEG. Of 31 DNA repair genes, 29 were repressed in the high exposure group and two were overexpressed. Of the 16 epigenetic genes 12 were repressed in the high exposure group and 4 were overexpressed. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that occupational exposure to Ni is associated with alterations in gene expression profiles in PBMCs of subjects. Impact Gene expression may be useful in identifying patterns of deregulation that precede clinical identification of Ni-induced cancers. PMID:23195993

  4. Injuries to international petroleum drilling workers, 1988 to 1990.

    PubMed

    McNabb, S J; Ratard, R C; Horan, J M; Farley, T A

    1994-06-01

    Nonfatal work-related injury (NFI) rates are 49% higher among oil and gas field workers than among workers in all US industries combined, and these injuries are more severe (the rate of lost workdays in the oil and gas field services industry is 2.8 times that of all US industries combined). We analyzed the 1988 to 1990 incident reports submitted by drilling companies to the International Association of Drilling Contractors, an industry-wide international trade association representing 95% of the world's oil and gas drilling companies. We determined geographic and occupation-specific incidence rates by full-time equivalents, calculated per job category and year. Of the 5,251 reports, 5,218 (99.4%) were of NFI and 33 (0.6%) of fatal work-related injuries (FI). The overall NFI rate was 1.2/100 full-time equivalents and the overall FI rate was 7.5/100,000 full-time equivalents. Reported NFI in US territory was 4 times more common than in non-US territory. Reported FI in US and non-US waters were 4 and 5 times more common than on land, respectively. Three job categories--floormen, roustabouts, and derrickmen--accounted for 74% of the NFI and 64% of FI, with a rate ratio, compared with rates for all other occupations, of 10.5, 8.5, and 7.0 for NFI and 5.0, 9.4, and 4.0 for FI. Among all occupations, the body part most frequently injured was the upper extremity (1,631/5,218 [31%]). The four key NFI types and circumstances identified included the upper extremities "caught in" (857/5,218 [16%]),the back "strained" (592/5,218[11%]), the lower extremities "struck by" (538/5,218 [10%]), and the lower extremities injured while "slipping" (402/5,218 [8%]). Results of these analyses revealed several high-risk occupations in this industry and identified high-risk activities that can be targeted for further study.

  5. Petroleum Sector (NAICS 324)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find relevant environmental regulations for the petroleum industry (NAICS 324), including National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)s for petroleum refineries and gasoline dispensing & effluent guidelines for oil and gas extraction

  6. Mortality and cancer morbidity in a cohort of Canadian petroleum workers

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, R; Schnatter, A; Drummond, I; Murray, N; Thompson, F; Katz, A; Jorgensen, G; Nicolich, M; Dahlman, D; Theriault, G

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To assess mortality and cancer morbidity in Canadian petroleum workers and explore exposure-response relations for specific petroleum agents. Methods: A total of 25 292 employees hired between 1964 and 1994 were linked to the Canadian tumour registry and national mortality database. Exposure-response trends were assessed for hydrocarbon solvents/fuels, hydrocarbon lubricants, petroleum coke/spent catalyst, and hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Results: External comparison analyses (mortality and incidence) showed deficits for all causes and all malignant neoplasms combined and were consistent with expectation for most malignant and non-malignant sites analysed. Gall bladder cancer mortality was increased among males based on four deaths, but cases had no common job assignments and the increase was focused in workers employed <10 years. Mesothelioma incidence was increased. Most exposure-specific analyses were compromised by small numbers. Statistically significant increases were observed for H2S exposure and a subgroup of accidental deaths as well as for petroleum coke/spent catalyst exposure and lung cancer. While both findings have a degree of biologic plausibility, the H2S association, which exhibited a clearer exposure-response pattern, could be subject to unmeasured confounders. Additionally, interpretation was complicated by the high correlation between hydrocarbon and H2S exposures. With regard to lung cancer, the analysis could not adequately control for smoking, was based on small numbers, and exhibited a tenuous exposure-response pattern. Conclusion: The findings for mesothelioma suggest the need for continued attention to asbestos in the petroleum industry. The relation between accidental deaths and H2S exposure deserves closer scrutiny in similarly exposed populations. Further analyses of lung cancer are underway and will be reported separately. PMID:14634182

  7. Petroleum contamination impact on macrobenthic communities under the influence of an oil refinery: Integrating chemical and biological multivariate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturini, Natalia; Muniz, Pablo; Bícego, Márcia C.; Martins, César C.; Tommasi, Luiz Roberto

    2008-07-01

    Petroleum contamination impact on macrobenthic communities in the northeast portion of Todos os Santos Bay was assessed combining in multivariate analyses, chemical parameters such as aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon indices and concentration ratios with benthic ecological parameters. Sediment samples were taken in August 2000 with a 0.05 m 2 van Veen grab at 28 sampling locations. The predominance of n-alkanes with more than 24 carbons, together with CPI values close to one, and the fact that most of the stations showed UCM/resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons ratios (UCM:R) higher than two, indicated a high degree of anthropogenic contribution, the presence of terrestrial plant detritus, petroleum products and evidence of chronic oil pollution. The indices used to determine the origin of PAH indicated the occurrence of a petrogenic contribution. A pyrolytic contribution constituted mainly by fossil fuel combustion derived PAH was also observed. The results of the stepwise multiple regression analysis performed with chemical data and benthic ecological descriptors demonstrated that not only total PAH concentrations but also specific concentration ratios or indices such as ≥C24:petroleum related variables seemed to have a main influence on macrofauna community structure. The PCA ordination performed with the chemical data resulted in the formation of three groups of stations. The decrease in macrofauna density, number of species and diversity from groups III to I seemed to be related to the occurrence of high aliphatic hydrocarbon and PAH concentrations associated with fine sediments. Our results showed that macrobenthic communities in the northeast portion of Todos os Santos Bay are subjected to the impact of chronic oil pollution as was reflected by the reduction in the number of species and diversity. These results

  8. Possible health effects of liquefied petroleum gas on workers at filling and distribution stations of Gaza governorates.

    PubMed

    Sirdah, M M; Al Laham, N A; El Madhoun, R A

    2013-03-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is widely used in the Gaza Strip for domestic purposes, in agriculture and industry and, illegally, in cars. This study aimed to identify possible health effects on workers exposed to LPG in Gaza governorates. Data were collected by a questionnaire interview, and haematological and biochemical analyses of venous blood samples were made from 30 workers at filling and distribution stations and 30 apparently healthy controls. Statistically significant differences were found in all self-reported health-related complaints among LPG workers versus controls. LPG workers had significantly higher values of red blood cell counts, haemoglobin, haematocrit mean corpuscular haemoglobin and platelet counts. They also had significantly higher values of kidney function tests (urea, creatinine and uric acid) and liver function enzyme activities (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). LPG workers at Gaza Strip petroleum stations are at higher risk for health-related symptoms and clinical abnormalities.

  9. Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  10. Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Benzene Exposure Among Petroleum Workers: An International Pooled Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Benzene at high concentrations is known to cause acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but its relationship with other lymphohematopoietic (LH) cancers remains uncertain, particularly at low concentrations. In this pooled analysis, we examined the risk of five LH cancers relative to lower levels of benzene exposure in petroleum workers. Methods We updated three nested case–control studies from Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom with new incident LH cancers among petroleum distribution workers through December 31, 2006, and pooled 370 potential case subjects and 1587 matched LH cancer-free control subjects. Quantitative benzene exposure in parts per million (ppm) was blindly reconstructed using historical monitoring data, and exposure certainty was scored as high, medium, or low. Two hematopathologists assigned diagnoses and scored the certainty of diagnosis as high, medium, or low. Dose–response relationships were examined for five LH cancers, including the three most common leukemia cell-types (AML, chronic myeloid leukemia [CML], and chronic lymphoid leukemia [CLL]) and two myeloid tumors (myelodysplastic syndrome [MDS] and myeloproliferative disease [MPD]). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression, controlling for age, sex, and time period. Results Cumulative benzene exposure showed a monotonic dose–response relationship with MDS (highest vs lowest tertile, >2.93 vs ≤0.348 ppm-years, OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.31 to 14.3). For peak benezene exposures (>3 ppm), the risk of MDS was increased in high and medium certainty diagnoses (peak exposure vs no peak exposure, OR = 6.32, 95% CI = 1.32 to 30.2) and in workers having the highest exposure certainty (peak exposure vs no peak exposure, OR = 5.74, 95% CI = 1.05 to 31.2). There was little evidence of dose–response relationships for AML, CLL, CML, or MPD. Conclusions Relatively low-level exposure to benzene experienced by petroleum

  11. A retrospective mortality study among Canadian petroleum marketing and distribution workers.

    PubMed Central

    Schnatter, A R; Katz, A M; Nicolich, M J; Thériault, G

    1993-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective mortality study among 6672 petroleum marketing and distribution workers from 226 locations throughout Canada. These employees worked for at least 1 year in the marketing distribution segment from 1964 through 1983 or were annuitants as of 1964. Industrial hygienists assigned hydrocarbon (HC) exposure frequency scores for several jobs, departments, and job functions. We computed standardized mortality ratios for the total cohort, HC exposure frequency groups, and tank truck drivers, and we also used Poisson regression techniques to model mortality for selected causes of death according to HC exposure frequency. Results indicate overall mortality below that of the general Canadian population for all marketing distribution workers [Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.88]. Mortality from aortic aneurysms was significantly elevated in all marketing/distribution workers (SMR = 1.79) but was due to raised mortality in nonexposed workers (SMR = 2.80). Tank truck drivers showed significantly elevated mortality due to leukemia (SMR = 3.35) based on five deaths. The leukemia findings were not evident in the larger group of marketing distribution workers classified as exposed to hydrocarbons (SMR = 1.01). No other cause of death was elevated in truck drivers. The leukemia findings are suggestive of a possible influence due to exposure to HCs in tank truck drivers, although other explanations cannot be ruled out. Other findings of elevated mortality in the marketing distribution group are generally not statistically significant. These included moderately increased mortality due to multiple myeloma, malignant melanoma, and kidney cancer. Small numbers of observed and expected deaths limit concise interpretations for these diseases. PMID:8020452

  12. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic application of TiO2/Fe-ZSM-5 nanocomposite for the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater: Optimization of process parameters by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Zahra; Younesi, Habibollah; Zinatizadeh, Ali Akbar

    2016-09-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of organic contaminants from petroleum refinery wastewater under UV and sunlight was investigated by immobilizing nanosized TiO2 photocatalyst into the structure of as-synthesized Fe-ZSM-5 zeolite via sol-gel method. Pure phase of TiO2/Fe-ZSM-5 photocatalyst with specific surface area of 304.6 m(2) g(-1) and loaded TiO2 of 29.28% was successfully synthesized. Effects of various operational parameters on treatment process were investigated by use of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Maximum reduction of 80% COD was achieved at pH of 4, a photocatalyst concentration of 2.1 g l(-1), temperature of 45 °C and UV exposure time of 240 min. Gas chromatography-mass demonstrated an apparent shift in molecular weight from a higher fraction to a lower fraction even under sunlight. It is expected that the prepared photocatalyst is able to use ultraviolet and visible light energy. Results indicated that removal of COD degradation did not decrease as the reuse cycle of photocatalyst increased. Moreover, the potential to use sunlight energy and the simplicity of operation make photocatalysis an attractive prospect in terms of petroleum refinery wastewater treatment.

  13. Identification of awkward postures that cause discomfort to Liquid Petroleum Gas workers in Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Salian Shivani; Boricha, Jinal; Yardi, Sujata

    2012-01-01

    Background: Awkward, extreme and repetitive postures have been associated with work related musculoskeletal discomfort and injury to the lower back. Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) workers in India; that is the delivery men carry heavy cylinders on their shoulders and back. The cylinders come in commercial and residential form which range in weight from 14.2kgs, 16.2kgs, 19.2kgs, 32kgs, 40 kgs etc. They have a tedious schedule of 8 h/day and mostly associated with loading and unloading of the cylinders. Their job demands a high intensity of strength and power. They are exposed to high level of physical demands and relatively lesser amount of rest which makes them vulnerable to various injuries over a period of time. Materials and Methods: 100 LPG workers (delivery men) were interviewed using the Ovako work assessment system OWAS posture code and action category system developed by ISMAIL et al.[10] was used. A battery of questions with specific stress was constructed and validated in the Department of Physiotherapy, Padmashree Dr D.Y Patil University, Nerul, Navi Mumbai, India. Results: This study presented an ergonomic assessment of LPG workers. The results show that the workers work in awkward postures. They transfer the cylinders in poor postures with high velocity and motion repetitiveness thus subjecting their spine to greater amounts of compressive forces. Regarding to work discomfort survey questionnaire, the postures cause ill effects on their various body segments. Among them 90% fall in category 4 while loading the cylinder, that is the load by those postures have a very harmful effect on musculoskeletal, system-corrective action for improvement required immediately. And while unloading 70% fall in category 3, which are postures that have harmful effect on musculoskeletal system. Corrective actions should be done as soon as possible. Majority of workers also complained of severe injury to back-34%, shoulder-20%, knee-20%, neck-16%, and toes-10%. Conclusion

  14. Smoking habits of oil refinery employees

    SciTech Connect

    Van Peenen, P.F.D.; Blanchard, A.G.; Wolkonsky, P.M.

    1984-12-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies of the mortality of oil refinery workers have reported low Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) for lung cancer and other cancers linked to cigarette smoking. A suggested explanation is that refinery employees do not smoke because of the obvious danger of, and prohibition against, smoking in many refinery areas. To evaluate this hypothesis, data were analyzed from employees of a large petrochemical company, Standard Oil Company (Indiana), and a comparison made of smoking habits of White males who worked in oil refineries with those of nonrefinery White males.

  15. Retrospective benzene and total hydrocarbon exposure assessment for a petroleum marketing and distribution worker epidemiology study.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, T W; Pearlman, E D; Schnatter, A R; Bowes, S M; Murray, N; Nicolich, M J

    1996-04-01

    A quantitative exposure-estimating algorithm for benzene and total hydrocarbons was developed for a case control study of petroleum marketing and distribution workers. The algorithm used a multiplicative model to adjust recently measured quantitative exposure data to past scenarios for which representative exposure measurement data did not exist. This was accomplished through the development of exposure modifiers to account for differences in the workplace, the materials handled, the environmental conditions, and the tasks performed. Values for exposure modifiers were obtained empirically and through physical/chemical relationships. Dates for changes that altered exposure potential were obtained from archive records, retired employee interviews, and from current operations personnel. Exposure modifiers were used multiplicatively, adjusting available measured data to represent the relevant exposure scenario and time period. Changes in exposure modifiers translated to step changes in exposure estimates. Though limited by availability of data, a validation exercise suggested that the algorithm provided accurate exposure estimates for benzene (compared with measured data in industrial hygiene survey reports); the estimates generally differed by an average of less than 20% from the measured values. This approach is proposed to quantify exposures retrospectively where there are sufficient data to develop reliable current era estimates and where a historical accounting of key exposure modifiers can be developed, but where there are insufficient historic exposure measurements to directly assess historic exposures.

  16. The relationship between low-level benzene exposure and leukemia in Canadian petroleum distribution workers

    SciTech Connect

    Schnatter, A.R.; Armstrong, T.W.; Nicolich, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between leukemia occurrence and long-term, low-level benzene exposures in petroleum distribution workers. Fourteen cases were identified among a previously studied cohort. Four controls per case were selected from the same cohort, controlling for birth year and time at risk. Industrial hygienists estimated workplace exposures for benzene, without knowledge of case-control status. Average benzene concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 6.2 ppm. Company medical records were used to abstract information on other potential confounders such as cigarette smoking. Odds ratios were calculated for several exposure metrics. Conditional logistic regression modeling was used to control for potential confounders. The risk of leukemia was not associated with increasing cumulative exposure to benzene for these exposure levels. Duration of benzene exposure was more closely associated with leukemia risk than other exposure metrics, although results were not statistically significant. A family history of cancer and cigarette smoking were the two strongest risk factors for leukemia, with cumulative benzene exposure showing no additional risk when considered in the same models. This study is consistent with other data in that it was unable to demonstrate a relationship between leukemia and long-term, low-level benzene exposures. The power of the study was limited. Thus, further study on benzene exposures in this concentration range are warranted. 20 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  17. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Products Supply Module

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The Petroleum Products Supply Module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model provides forecasts of petroleum refinery inputs (crude oil, unfinished oils, pentanes plus, liquefied petroleum gas, motor gasoline blending components, and aviation gasoline blending components) and refinery outputs (motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuel, residual fuel, liquefied petroleum gas, and other petroleum products).

  18. Simultaneous speciation of arsenic (As(III), MMA, DMA, and As(V)) and selenium (Se(IV), Se(VI), and SeCN-) in petroleum refinery aqueous streams.

    PubMed

    Tonietto, Gisele B; Godoy, José M; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; de Souza, Marcia V

    2010-07-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to an ICP-MS with an octapole reaction system (ORS) has been used to carry out quantitative speciation of selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) in the stream waters of a refining process. The argon dimers interfering with the (78)Se and (80)Se isotopes were suppressed by pressurizing the octapole chamber with 3.1 mL min(-1) H(2) and 0.5 mL min(-1) He. Four arsenic species arsenite--As(III), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)--and three inorganic Se species--selenite Se(IV), selenate Se(VI), and selenocyanate (SeCN(-))--were separated in a single run by ion chromatography (IC) using gradient elution with 100 mmol L(-1) NH(4)NO(3), pH 8.5, adjusted by addition of NH(3), as eluent. Repeatabilities of peak position and of peak area evaluation were better than 1% and about 3%, respectively. Detection limits (as 3sigma of the baseline noise) were 81, 56, and 75 ng L(-1) for Se(IV), Se(VI), and SeCN(-), respectively, and 22, 19, 25, and 16 ng L(-1) for As(III), As(V), MMA, and DMA, respectively. Calibration curve R (2) values ranged between 0.996 and 0.999 for the arsenic and selenium species. Column recovery for ion chromatography was calculated to be 97 +/- 6% for combined arsenic species and 98 +/- 3% for combined selenium species. Because certified reference materials for As and Se speciation studies are still not commercially available, in order to check accuracy and precision the method was applied to certified reference materials, BCR 714, BCR 1714, and BCR 715 and to two different refinery samples--inlet and outlet wastewater. The method was successfully used to study the quantitative speciation of selenium and arsenic in petroleum refinery wastewaters.

  19. Biotreatment of refinery spent sulfidic caustics

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L.; Rajganesh, B.; Woolsey, M.; Plato, A.

    1995-12-31

    Caustics are used in petroleum refinering to remove hydrogen sulfide from various hydrocarbon streams. Spent sulfidic caustics from two Conoco refineries have been successfully biotreated on bench and pilot scale, resulting in neutralization and removal of active sulfides. Sulfides were completely oxidized to sulfate by Thiobacillus denitrificans. Microbial oxidation of sulfide produced acid, which at least partially neutralized the caustic.

  20. Refinery siting workbook: appendices C to O

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Applicable laws and permits available for the selection and building of petroleum refineries are enclosed. A glossary of pertinent terms is also included. References related to the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Air Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Toxic Substance Control Act, and Wetlands and Coastal Zone are included. Permit information is also presented. (DC)

  1. [Acid and osmotic erythrocyte resistance in workers at a petroleum factory].

    PubMed

    Shakirov, D F; Samsonov, V M; Kudriavtsev, V P; Gil'manov, A Zh

    2003-07-01

    Data on the impact exerted by industrial products, i.e. pyromellitic dianhydride, on the acidic and osmotic resistance of erythrocytes in workers are described. The influence of hazardous factors of the oil-and-chemical production was found to result in a changing erythrocytes' resistance (of workers) to the osmotic and acidic hemolytics with regard for a labor record and duration of contact with toxicants. The shifts in acidic and osmotic resistance can serve as an early marker of changes in the functional erythron's status in workers occupied under hazardous industrial factors.

  2. Preliminary site visit report, UOP (Universal Oil Products) engineering offices: control-technology assessment of petroleum-refinery operations, Des Plains, Illinois, June 2, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    A visit was made to Universal Oil Products, Inc. (UOP), Des Plaines, Illinois to assess the control methods used at this facility to protect workers from harmful exposures to chemical and physical agents. Specific attention was given to control methods for hydrogen fluoride (HF) alkylation units. Engineering controls included curbs around equipment to prevent acid spills from contaminating surrounding areas, the drainage of surface liquids into a neutralization pit, the scrubbing of all vent streams leaving the HF units with a potassium hydroxide scrubber to neutralize any HF present, the provision of emergency shower booths, and the installation of a sieve dryer to remove water in entering feed. A point was developed for joints, flanges, and valves of the alkylation unit; originally the paint was orange, but on exposure to HF it turned bright yellow. Protective clothing offered included face shields, gauntlets, rubbers, booths, acid-resistant jackets, overalls, acid hoods, or complete pressurized suits. Work practices were carefully rehearsed so as to avoid accidental exposures. Workers were trained in safety measures, spill cleanups and washdowns, how to neutralize, and proper equipment-tagging procedures. Additional information was provided concerning emergency booths, the use of protective clothing, alkylation change houses, and safety procedures.

  3. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The summary statistics section show 16 years of data depicting the balance between supply, disposition and ending stocks for various commodities including crude oil, motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, jet fuel propane/propylene, and liquefied petroleum gases. The detailed statistics section provide 1996 detailed statistics on supply and disposition, refinery operations, imports and exports, stocks, and transportation of crude oil and petroleum products. The refinery capacity contain listings of refineries and associated crude oil distillation and downstream capacities by State, as of January 1, 1997, as well as summaries of corporate refinery capacities and refinery storage capacities. In addition, refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation for 1996 are provided. Also included are fuels consumed at refineries, and lists of shutdowns, sales, reactivations, and mergers during 1995 and 1996. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  4. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of noise-induced hearing loss among liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) cylinder infusion workers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Ju; Chang, Chin-Kuo

    2009-12-01

    We assessed the exposure levels of noise, estimated prevalence, and identify risk factors of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among male workers with a cross-sectional study in a liquefied petroleum gas cylinder infusion factory in Taipei City. Male in-field workers exposed to noise and administrative controls were enrolled in 2006 and 2007. Face-to-face interviews were applied for demographics, employment history, and drinking/smoking habit. We then performed the measurements on noise levels in field and administration area, and hearing thresholds on study subjects with standard apparatus and protocols. Existence of hearing loss > 25 dBHL for the average of 500 Hz, 1 kHz, and 2 kHz was accordingly determined for NIHL. The effects from noise exposure, predisposing characteristics, employment-related factors, and personal habits to NIHL were estimated by univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. A total of 75 subjects were involved in research and 56.8% of in-field workers had NIHL. Between the in-field and administration groups, hearing thresholds on the worse ear showed significant differences at frequencies of 4 k, 6 k, and 8 kHz with aging considered. Adjusted odds ratio for field noise exposure (OR=99.57, 95% CI: 3.53, 2,808.74) and frequent tea or coffee consumption (OR=0.03, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.51) were found significant. Current study addressed NIHL in a specific industry in Taiwan. Further efforts in minimizing its impact are still in need.

  6. Project summary: Land treatability of refinery and petrochemical sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.W.; Deuel, L.E.; Thomas, J.C.

    1983-11-01

    The land disposal of API separator sludges was investigated with regard to decomposition rates of organic constituents and the possible impact of these materials on plants and surface water or groundwater quality. Two oily sludges (one from a petroleum refinery and one from a petrochemical plant) were studied as to their phytotoxicity, biodegradability in soils, water-soluble constituents, and field mobility. Concentrations of refinery sludge of 5% v/v and above depressed ryegrass emergence and yield. The petrochemical sludge suppressed emergence and yield proportional to the amount of sludge applied, and the suppression lasted longer than that of the refinery sludge.

  7. PSD Review Requirements for Modified Petroleum Refineries

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  8. PSD Applicability Determination - ARCO Petroleum Refinery

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  9. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The {ital Petroleum Supply Annual} contains information on supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. It reflects data collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys, and it is divided into 2 volumes. This volume contains three sections: summary statistics, detailed statistics, and selected refinery statistics, each with final annual data. (The other volume contains final statistics for each month and replaces data previously published in the {ital Petroleum Supply Monthly}).

  10. Optimal Design of Air Quality Monitoring Network and its Application in an Oil Refinery Plant: An Approach to Keep Health Status of Workers

    PubMed Central

    ZoroufchiBenis, Khaled; Fatehifar, Esmaeil; Ahmadi, Javad; Rouhi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Industrial air pollution is a growing challenge to humane health, especially in developing countries, where there is no systematic monitoring of air pollution. Given the importance of the availability of valid information on population exposure to air pollutants, it is important to design an optimal Air Quality Monitoring Network (AQMN) for assessing population exposure to air pollution and predicting the magnitude of the health risks to the population. Methods: A multi-pollutant method (implemented as a MATLAB program) was explored for configur­ing an AQMN to detect the highest level of pollution around an oil refinery plant. The method ranks potential monitoring sites (grids) according to their ability to represent the ambient concentration. The term of cluster of contiguous grids that exceed a threshold value was used to calculate the Station Dosage. Selection of the best configuration of AQMN was done based on the ratio of a sta­tion’s dosage to the total dosage in the network. Results: Six monitoring stations were needed to detect the pollutants concentrations around the study area for estimating the level and distribution of exposure in the population with total network efficiency of about 99%. An analysis of the design procedure showed that wind regimes have greatest effect on the location of monitoring stations. Conclusion: The optimal AQMN enables authorities to implement an effective program of air quality management for protecting human health. PMID:26933646

  11. Mild Biomass Liquefaction Process for Economic Production of Stabilized Refinery-Ready Bio-oil

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, Santosh; Meng, Jiajia; McCabe, Kevin; Larson, Eric; Mastro, Kelly

    2016-04-25

    Southern Research (SR) in cooperation with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Bioenergy Technology Office (BETO), investigated a biomass liquefaction process for economic production of stabilized refinery-ready bio-oil. The project was awarded by DOE under a Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA-0000686) for Bio-oil Stabilization and Commoditization that intended to evaluate the feasibility of using bio-oil as a potential feedstock in an existing petroleum refinery. SR investigated Topic Area 1 of the FOA at Technology Readiness Level 2-3 to develop thermochemical liquefaction technologies for producing a bio-oil feedstock from high-impact biomass that can be utilized within a petroleum refinery. Bio-oil obtained from fast pyrolysis of biomass is a green intermediate that can be further upgraded into a biofuel for blending in a petroleum refinery using a hydro-deoxygenation (HDO) route. Co-processing pyrolysis bio-oil in a petroleum refinery is an attractive approach to leverage the refinery’s existing capital. However, the petroleum industry is reluctant to accept pyrolysis bio-oil because of a lack of a standard definition for an acceptable bio-oil feedstock in existing refinery processes. Also per BETO’s multiyear program plan, fast pyrolysis-based bio-fuel is presently not cost competitive with petroleum-based transportation fuels. SR aims to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective low-severity thermal liquefaction and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process to convert woody biomass to stabilized bio-oils that can be directly blended with hydrotreater input streams in a petroleum refinery for production of gasoline and/or diesel range hydrocarbons. The specific project objectives are to demonstrate the processes at laboratory scale, characterize the bio-oil product and develop a plan in partnership with a refinery company to move the technology towards commercialization.

  12. Refinery buyers and sellers hunt cash

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, D.

    1995-07-01

    There`s a high-risk premium in the petroleum refining business today. The ability to transfer assets is viewed with a high degree of skepticism, and capital is not freely available. There are willing buyers and sellers for refinery assets today, but it is tough to qualify for a loan. Private financing also was responsible for a refinery deal that closed recently - the sale of Kerr-McGee`s 100,000-b/d unit in Corpus Christi, Texas. After nearly 3 years on the market, this unit was finally bought by a deep-pocketed private firm, Koch Industries of Wichita, Kan. The purchase price has not been disclosed, but it was probably not rich.

  13. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide

  14. Measurement and removal of bioconcentratable compounds in refinery effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Gala, W.R.; Dorn, P.B.; Means, J.C.; Jenkins, K.D.; Folwarkow, S.

    1994-12-31

    Public concern regarding the presence of persistent, bioconcentratable compounds in fish and shellfish has led the petroleum industry to investigate methods for the measurement of bioconcentratable compounds in refinery effluents. Research has focused on developing methods to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other hydrocarbons directly in the effluent and in bivalves exposed to refinery effluents in the field and in the laboratory. Results from a multi-refinery study in the San Francisco Bay Area using selective ion monitoring GC/MS-MS indicated that alkylated and non-substituted 2--3 ring PAHs are rarely present in refinery effluents at concentrations greater than 100 ng/L. Higher MW PAHs were rarely detected. PAHs did not substantially bioconcentrate in bivalves exposed in the laboratory to refinery effluent and reference sea water. Total PAHs were generally less than 50 {mu}g/g in the effluent-exposed bivalves. A comparison of the waste water treatment facilities at each refinery suggest that biological treatment already required by existing regulations is sufficient to reduce PAH concentrations to these low levels.

  15. Refinery anti-foulant-asphaltene dispersant

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, W.K.; Mercer, B.D.; Comer, D.G.

    1992-03-31

    This patent describes a method of dispersing asphalt and asphaltene in petroleum, crude oil, or any hydrocarbon fraction thereof exposed to heat transfer processes in an oil refinery. It comprises: adding an effective anti-foulant amount of asphalt-asphaltene polymeric anti-foulant to the petroleum, crude oil, or fraction thereof, the polymeric anti-foulant comprising an admixture of Polymer A and Polymer B ranging from 95 to 5 weight percent A and from 5 to 95 weight percent B, wherein Polymer A is an alkyl substituted phenol-formaldehyde liquid resin having a weight average molecular weight ranging from about 1,000 to about 20,000, and an alkyl substituent may be a linear or branched alkyl group; an Polymer B is a hydrophilic-lipophilic vinylic polymer.

  16. Nickel refinery dust

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel refinery dust ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  17. Effect of 5-HT2A Receptor Polymorphisms, Work Stressors, and Social Support on Job Strain among Petroleum Workers in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu; Tang, Jinhua; Li, Rong; Zhao, Junling; Song, Zhixin; Ge, Hua; Lian, Yulong; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that work stressors and social support influence job strain. However, few studies have examined the impact of individual differences on job strain. In Xinjiang, there are a large number of petroleum workers in arid deserts. The present study investigated the effects of work stressors, social support, and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A) genotype on the etiology of job strain among petroleum workers in Xinjiang. A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and August 2013. A total of 700 workers were selected by a three-stage stratified sampling method. 5-HTR2A genotypes were determined with the SNaPshot single nucleotide polymorphism assay. Work stressors and job strain were evaluated with the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised questionnaire. Social support was assessed with the Chinese Social Support Rating Scale. Work overload and responsibility were significantly associated with job strain. Low social support was associated with severe vocational and interpersonal strain. High social support was a protective factor against job strain (odds ratio (OR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14–0.76). The CC genotype of rs6313 and the AA genotype of rs2070040 were linked to severe vocational strain. Ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of rs6313 was linked to higher risk of job strain than the TT genotype (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.10–3.23). These data provide evidence that work stressors, low social support, and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the risk of job strain. PMID:27999378

  18. Effect of 5-HT2A Receptor Polymorphisms, Work Stressors, and Social Support on Job Strain among Petroleum Workers in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Tang, Jinhua; Li, Rong; Zhao, Junling; Song, Zhixin; Ge, Hua; Lian, Yulong; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-12-19

    Previous studies have shown that work stressors and social support influence job strain. However, few studies have examined the impact of individual differences on job strain. In Xinjiang, there are a large number of petroleum workers in arid deserts. The present study investigated the effects of work stressors, social support, and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A) genotype on the etiology of job strain among petroleum workers in Xinjiang. A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and August 2013. A total of 700 workers were selected by a three-stage stratified sampling method. 5-HTR2A genotypes were determined with the SNaPshot single nucleotide polymorphism assay. Work stressors and job strain were evaluated with the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised questionnaire. Social support was assessed with the Chinese Social Support Rating Scale. Work overload and responsibility were significantly associated with job strain. Low social support was associated with severe vocational and interpersonal strain. High social support was a protective factor against job strain (odds ratio (OR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14-0.76). The CC genotype of rs6313 and the AA genotype of rs2070040 were linked to severe vocational strain. Ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of rs6313 was linked to higher risk of job strain than the TT genotype (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.10-3.23). These data provide evidence that work stressors, low social support, and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the risk of job strain.

  19. Petroleum Refining Industry Final Air Toxics Rule Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a July 1995 fact sheet for the final NESHAP for Petroleum Refineries. This page also contains a June 2013 fact sheet with information regarding the final amendments to the 2013 final rule for the NESHAP.

  20. Enterprise Integration of Management and Automation in a Refinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengen

    Traditionally, problems in a petroleum refinery were separately modeled and solved with respect to disciplines. The segregated implementations of various disciplinary technologies resulted in considerable barriers impeding the pursuit of global optimal performance. It is recognized that enterprise-wide integration of the managerial and automation systems is of fundamental significance for refineries to promptly respond to global market requirements. In this paper, the technical implementations are disciplinarily categorized into managerial and automatic systems. Then, typical managerial and automatic implementations in a refinery are depicted to give an insight perception of the heterogeneous data sources manipulated by these systems. Finally, an integration approach based on data reconciliation techniques is proposed to link up the heterogeneous data sources.

  1. [Assessment of schemes for sewage purification from petroleum products, by using various flotation methods].

    PubMed

    Zabuga, G A; Filippova, T M; Sivkov, A A

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum products are the most common pollutants in petroleum refinery wastewater and are freed from the latter by flotation that is one of the most frequently applied physicochemical methods. The existing petroleum refinery OAO "Angara Petroleum Company" scheme for sewage purification from petroleum products, by using pressure flotation and proposed as a competitive purification scheme by applying electrical and impeller flotations underwent a comparative ecologoeconomic analysis. The use of electrical flotation instead of pressure flotation and that of an impeller flotation-electrical flotation system instead of a mechanical purification-pressure flotation one can considerably lower the concentration of petroleum products at the wastewater outlet into the Angara river.

  2. Biotreat oily refinery wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, M.L.; Oolman, T.; Castaldi, F.J.; Behrens, G.P. )

    1992-08-01

    Technical and economic potential exists for meeting regulatory standards with tank-based biological treatment. Oily waste treatment at a 100,000-bpd Gulf Coast refinery is used as the basis for this evaluation. Results from bench-scale treatability studies of the refiner's API separator sludge and dissolved air flotation float verify that biological treatment can meet EPA's Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) standards, thereby allowing disposal of the treated residue in a RCRA-permitted landfill. This paper reports that on the basis of these results, an economic feasibility study was conducted to estimate the costs for treating all oily wastes from the refinery. The simplified process flow diagram shows biotreatment as an integral part of a waste treatment process. Key components are: Initial recovery of recyclable oil, biological degradation of hazardous organic components, chemical stabilization of metals and dewatering of the residual sludge.

  3. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Technologies to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions at North American Refineries.

    PubMed

    Motazedi, Kavan; Abella, Jessica P; Bergerson, Joule A

    2017-02-07

    A petroleum refinery model, Petroleum Refinery Life-cycle Inventory Model (PRELIM), that estimates energy use and CO2 emissions was modified to evaluate the environmental and economic performance of a set of technologies to reduce CO2 emissions at refineries. Cogeneration of heat and power (CHP), carbon capture at fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) and steam methane reformer (SMR) units, and alternative hydrogen production technologies were considered in the analysis. The results indicate that a 3-44% reduction in total annual refinery CO2 emissions (2-24% reductions in the CO2 emissions on a per barrel of crude oil processed) can be achieved in a medium conversion refinery that processes a typical U.S. crude slate obtained by using the technologies considered. A sensitivity analysis of the quality of input crude to a refinery, refinery configuration, and prices of natural gas and electricity revealed how the magnitude of possible CO2 emissions reductions and the economic performance of the mitigation technologies can vary under different conditions. The analysis can help inform decision making related to investment decisions and CO2 emissions policy in the refining sector.

  4. [Risks scenarios frameworks in the context of an oil refinery installation at Pernambuco State].

    PubMed

    Gurgel, Aline do Monte; Medeiros, Ana Catarina Leite Veras; Alves, Paloma Corrêa; Silva, José Marcos da; Gurgel, Idê Gomes Dantas; Augusto, Lia Giraldo da Silva

    2009-01-01

    The magnitude of the environmental and social problems due to urbanization, industrialization and exhaustion of natural resources has shown an increase in the impact on health and environment. Paradoxically, the consumption patterns demand for the expansion in the industrial production based on the exploitation of the non-renewable resources, which technological risks, especially from the petrochemical industry, have put difficulties on the risk control and health surveillance. The petroleum refining is an activity potentially damageable to the environment and human health, particularly to workers. The main objective of this study was to characterize the scenarios of risk to environmental health due to an oil refinery installation in the Metropolitan Region of Recife (Pernambuco). Based on secondary data and literature review, a Social Reproduction Matrix was made contextualizing the problems in the biological, consciousness and conduct, economic, policy and ecological dimensions, enabling to presume the risks to support the health surveillance development and organization in the state, with intersectoriality, social participation, and able to intervene on risks and prevent diseases among the workers and people in the territory.

  5. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs.

  6. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-22

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  7. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  8. Benzene and total hydrocarbons exposures in the downstream petroleum industries.

    PubMed

    Verma, D K; Johnson, D M; Shaw, M L; des Tombe, K

    2001-01-01

    A review of studies, including both articles published in peer-reviewed journals and reports that were not peer reviewed, regarding occupational exposure to benzene and total hydrocarbons in the downstream petroleum industry operations was performed. The objective was to provide a broad estimate of exposures by compiling exposure data according to the following categories: refinery, pipeline, marine, rail, bulk terminals and trucks, service stations, underground storage tanks, tank cleaning, and site remediations. The data in each category was divided into personal occupational long-term and short-term samples. The summarized data offers valuable assistance to hygienists by providing them with an estimate and range of exposures. The traditional 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposure and the 40-hour workweek do not generally coincide with exposure periods applicable to workers in marine, pipeline, railcar, and trucking operations. They are more comparable with short-term exposure or task-based exposure assessments. The marine sector has a large number of high exposures. Although relatively few workers are exposed, their exposures to benzene and total hydrocarbons are sometimes an order of magnitude higher than the respective exposure limits. It is recommended that in the future, it would be preferable to do more task-based exposure assessments and fewer traditional TWA long-term exposure assessments within the various sectors of the downstream petroleum industry.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, with data from June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Petroleum Supply Division (PSD) of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) collects and published information on petroleum supply and disposition in the United States. The information is collected through a series of surveys that make up the Petroleum Supply Reporting System (PSRS). The PSRS data are published in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM), and Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). This report presents information on crude oil production, crude oil imports and exports, refinery operations, natural gas processing, transportation, and oxygenate data.

  10. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Other Petroleum Products Consumption Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The other petroleum product consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. consumption forecasts for 6 petroleum product categories: asphalt and road oil, petrochemical feedstocks, petroleum coke, refinery still gas, unfinished oils, and other miscvellaneous products

  11. Computer model for refinery operations with emphasis on jet fuel production. Volume 1: Program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, D. N.; Tunnah, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer program is described for predicting the flow streams and material, energy, and economic balances of a typical petroleum refinery, with particular emphasis on production of aviation turbine fuel of varying end point and hydrogen content specifications. The program has provision for shale oil and coal oil in addition to petroleum crudes. A case study feature permits dependent cases to be run for parametric or optimization studies by input of only the variables which are changed from the base case.

  12. Updated mortality among diverse operating segments of a petroleum company

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, R; Schnatter, A; Katz, A.; Thompson, F; Murray, N.; Jorgensen, G.; Theriault, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To update mortality for 34 560 employees from diverse operating segments of a Canadian petroleum company; and to investigate potential relations with occupational factors.
METHODS—Employees from 1964-83 were linked to the Canadian mortality data base to provide 11 years additional follow up. There were 6760 deaths and 750 683 person-years of follow up compared with 3909 and 428 190, respectively, in the earlier study. Analyses used standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) to compare worker cause specific mortality with the Canadian general population. Duration of employment and latency analyses were performed for causes previously found to be increased in this and other petroleum cohorts, as well as any findings of interest.
RESULTS—For the period 1964-94, employees experienced significantly low overall mortality (SMR=0.86 men, SMR=0.80 women). Kidney cancer, which has been increased in some studies of petroleum workers, was not increased. Acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia in exposed operating segments was consistent with the expected or only slightly, non-significantly increased. The most notable finding was increased deaths from mesothelioma among refinery and petrochemical workers (SMR 8.68; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.51 to 13.03), most of whom were long term employees in jobs with presumed exposure to asbestos (mechanical and pipefitters). Deaths from multiple myeloma among marketing and distribution workers, which were previously increased, remained increased (SMR 2.08; 95% CI 0.95 to 3.95) in the update period 1984-94; however, there was no clear pattern by duration of employment or latency. Aortic aneurysms, which also were previously significantly increased among marketing and distribution workers approached the expected in the update period (SMR 1.18; 95% CI 0.65-1.98). Analyses by duration of employment showed suggestive trends for aortic aneurysms, but earlier studies of this cohort have not found a relation between aortic

  13. Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-10-01

    The petroleum refining energy bandwidth report analyzes the most energy-intensive unit operations used in U.S. refineries: crude oil distillation, fluid catalytic cracking, catalytic hydrotreating, catalytic reforming, and alkylation. The "bandwidth" provides a snapshot of the energy losses that can potentially be recovered through best practices and technology R&D.

  14. Chemtrade Refinery Services NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0034207, Chemtrade Refinery Services, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Fremont County,Wyoming, to an unnamed drainage way that flows into the Little Wind River near St. Stephens, Wyo.

  15. Motiva Enterprises LLC Refinery Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Settlement summary for nine refineries owned by Motiva, Equilon, and the Deer Park Refining Limited Partnership (Shell Deer Park) to assure compliance with major provisions of the Clean Air Act (CAA).

  16. GHGRP Refineries Sector Industrial Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Refineries industry.

  17. A case-control study to investigate the risk of leukaemia associated with exposure to benzene in petroleum marketing and distribution workers in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, L; Romaniuk, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of leukaemia in workers in the petroleum distribution industry who were exposed to low levels of benzene. METHODS: From the cohort of distribution workers, 91 cases were identified as having leukaemia on either a death certificate or on cancer registration. These cases were compared with controls (four per case) randomly selected from the cohort, who were from the same company as the respective case, matched for age, and alive and under follow up at the time of case occurrence. Work histories were collected for the cases and controls, together with information about the terminals at which they had worked, fuel compositions, and occupational hygiene measurements of benzene. These data were used to derive quantitative estimates of personal exposure to benzene. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated conditional on the matching, to identify those variables in the study which were associated with risk of leukaemia. Examination of the potential effects of confounding and other variables was carried out with conditional logistic regression. Analyses were carried out for all leukaemia and separately for acute lymphoblastic, chronic lymphocytic, acute myeloid and monocytic, and chronic myeloid leukaemias. RESULTS: There was no significant increase in the overall risk of all leukaemias with higher cumulative exposure to benzene or with intensity of exposure, but risk was consistently doubled in subjects employed in the industry for > 10 years. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia tended to occur in workers employed after 1950, who started work after the age of 30, worked for a short duration, and experienced low cumulative exposure with few peaks. The ORs did not increase with increasing cumulative exposure. The risk of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia seemed to be related most closely to duration of employment and the highest risk occurred in white collar workers with long service. These workers had only background levels of benzene exposure. There was

  18. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The ``Petroleum Supply Annual`` (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the PSA. The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  19. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01

    The R D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650[degrees]F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  20. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01

    The R&D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650{degrees}F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  1. 75 FR 23561 - Workers Memorial Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ...;#0; ] Proclamation 8507 of April 28, 2010 Workers Memorial Day, 2010 By the President of the United... fulfilling that promise. On Workers Memorial Day, we remember all those who have died, been injured, or... refinery explosion in Washington State just days earlier, the 4 workers who died at a power plant...

  2. Refinery suppliers face tough times

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.; Walsh, K.

    1997-03-12

    Despite a handful of bright spots in hydroprocessing and petrochemical sectors, economic woes plague much of the refinery and petrochemical catalysts business, as suppliers are feeling the impact of mature markets and refiners` ongoing cost cutting. Industry experts say the doldrums could spur further restructuring in the catalyst business, with suppliers scrambling for market share and jockeying for position in growing sectors. Expect further consolidation over the next several years, says Pierre Bonnifay, president of IFP Enterprises (New York). {open_quotes}There are still too many players for the mature [refinery catalyst] markets.{close_quotes} Others agree. {open_quotes}Only about seven [or] eight major suppliers will survive,{close_quotes} says Robert Allsmiller, v.p./refinery and petrochemical catalysts at United Catalysts Inc. (UCI; Louisville, KY). {open_quotes}Who they [will be] is still up in the air.{close_quotes}

  3. Multi objective multi refinery optimization with environmental and catastrophic failure effects objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khogeer, Ahmed Sirag

    2005-11-01

    Petroleum refining is a capital-intensive business. With stringent environmental regulations on the processing industry and declining refining margins, political instability, increased risk of war and terrorist attacks in which refineries and fuel transportation grids may be targeted, higher pressures are exerted on refiners to optimize performance and find the best combination of feed and processes to produce salable products that meet stricter product specifications, while at the same time meeting refinery supply commitments and of course making profit. This is done through multi objective optimization. For corporate refining companies and at the national level, Intea-Refinery and Inter-Refinery optimization is the second step in optimizing the operation of the whole refining chain as a single system. Most refinery-wide optimization methods do not cover multiple objectives such as minimizing environmental impact, avoiding catastrophic failures, or enhancing product spec upgrade effects. This work starts by carrying out a refinery-wide, single objective optimization, and then moves to multi objective-single refinery optimization. The last step is multi objective-multi refinery optimization, the objectives of which are analysis of the effects of economic, environmental, product spec, strategic, and catastrophic failure. Simulation runs were carried out using both MATLAB and ASPEN PIMS utilizing nonlinear techniques to solve the optimization problem. The results addressed the need to debottleneck some refineries or transportation media in order to meet the demand for essential products under partial or total failure scenarios. They also addressed how importing some high spec products can help recover some of the losses and what is needed in order to accomplish this. In addition, the results showed nonlinear relations among local and global objectives for some refineries. The results demonstrate that refineries can have a local multi objective optimum that does not

  4. Kansas refinery starts up coke gasification unit

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1996-08-05

    Texaco Refining and Marketing Inc. has started up a gasification unit at its El Dorado, Kan., refinery. The unit gasifies delayed coke and other refinery waste products. This is the first refinery to install a coke-fueled gasification unit for power generation. Start-up of the $80-million gasification-based power plant was completed in mid-June. The gasifier produces syngas which, along with natural gas, fuels a combustion turbine. The turbine produces virtually 100% of the refinery`s electricity needs and enough heat to generate 40% of its steam requirements.

  5. Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-18

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Petroleum Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. The PMM models petroleum refining activities, the marketing of petroleum products to consumption regions, the production of natural gas liquids in gas processing plants, and domestic methanol production. The PMM projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil, both domestic and imported; other inputs including alcohols and ethers; natural gas plant liquids production; petroleum product imports; and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates domestic refinery capacity expansion and fuel consumption. Product prices are estimated at the Census division level and much of the refining activity information is at the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District level.

  6. Computer model for refinery operations with emphasis on jet fuel production. Volume 3: Detailed systems and programming documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, D. N.; Tunnah, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    The FORTRAN computing program predicts flow streams and material, energy, and economic balances of a typical petroleum refinery, with particular emphasis on production of aviation turbine fuels of varying end point and hydrogen content specifications. The program has a provision for shale oil and coal oil in addition to petroleum crudes. A case study feature permits dependent cases to be run for parametric or optimization studies by input of only the variables which are changed from the base case.

  7. Aged refinery hydrocarbon biodegradation in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, E.N.; Stokley, K.E.; Calcavecchio, P.

    1995-12-31

    Aged hydrocarbon biodegradation was investigated as a potential cleanup technology for refinery soil. Well-mixed field soil was amended with water and nutrients and tilled weekly for one year in laboratory mesocosms to stimulate biodegradation. Freon infrared analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and triterpane biomarkers were used to determine the extent of biodegradation. Significant reductions in TPH (up to 68%) and methylene chloride extractable material (up to 55%) were observed. The combined trimethylated phenanthrene/anthracenes (C3P/A) were even more highly depleted than TPH. Nutrient amendment increased TPH, methylene chloride, and C3P/A removal, but not biomarker concentrations. Significant reduction of two to five ring PAHs occurred. Expected depletion patterns for PAHs were observed except in the case of naphthalene and derivatives, phenanthrene/anthracene and derivatives, and chrysene. A possible explanation is that the more readily degradable PAHs were already highly biodegraded before the study and the remaining portions were less available for biodegradation. These results are consistent with reports on the effects of aging on PAH biodegradation in soil. Biodegradation was influenced by PAH structure and molecular weight.

  8. Distribution of 23 elements in the kidney, liver and lungs of workers from a smeltery and refinery in North Sweden exposed to a number of elements and of a control group.

    PubMed

    Brune, D; Nordberg, G; Wester, P O

    1980-09-01

    The levels of antimony, arsenic, cadmium, caesium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, iron, lanthanum, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, phosphorus, rubidium, scandium, selenium, silver, tellurium, tin, tungsten and zinc in the kidney, liver and lungs of autopsy specimens from exposed workers in North Sweden, as well as from a control group, have been assayed quantitatively. The workers had been exposed to several elements and their compounds, e.g. lead, mercury, arsenic and cadmium, for long periods in arsenic, lead or selenium plants and in a lead or copper smelter. The chemical analysis was by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Median levels of antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium cobalt, lanthanum, lead or selenium in kidney, liver or lungs in the exposed worker group were found to be about 2 to 16 times as great as the corresponding levels for the control group. Long biological half-life values were observed for these elements, especially in lung tissue.

  9. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  10. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  11. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-04-23

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  12. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  13. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on algae

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadauria, S. ); Sengar, R.M.S. ); Mittal, S.; Bhattacharjee, S. )

    1992-01-01

    Algal species (65) were isolated from oil refinery effluent. Twenty-five of these species were cultured in Benecke's medium in a growth chamber, along with controls. Retardation in algal growth, inhibition in algal photosynthesis, and discoloration was observed in petroleum enriched medium. Few forms, viz. Cyclotella sp., Cosmarium sp., and Merismopedia sp. could not survive. The lag phase lengthened by several days and slope of exponential phase was also depressed. Chlamydomonas sp., Scenedesmus sp., Ankistrodesmus sp., Nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. were comparatively susceptible to petroleum. Depression in carbon fixation, cell numbers, and total dry algal mass was noticeable, showing toxicity to both diatoms and green algae.

  14. Use of injection wells for refinery waste disposal. Quarterly report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Paque, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Ground Water Protection Council has had initial discussions with the American Petroleum Institute staff and several major oil companies concerning a project that would address several technical and regulatory issues related to the use of injection wells at refineries. As currently regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), injection wells used for refinery related disposal are typically classified as either Class I hazardous or non- hazardous, depending on RCRA classification. The expense of acquiring an operating permit for these types of wells is very high and they have substantially more operational expenses than a typical Class II injection well. What is perplexing, based on general observation, is that some Class II injection wells are being permitted and allowed to dispose of waste having similar characteristics as some of those used by the refineries but classified as hazardous. Class II injection wells are authorized statutorily because the injectate is associated with fluids originating from the production of hydrocarbons. From our conversations with several state oil and gas regulatory agencies and representatives of the refinery industry, it appears that the use of Class II wells at refineries has been rejected because they are not seen as being directly associated with production of oil & gas. Examples of such refinery wastes are those associated with various treatment or process stream originating from the plant. Although these wastes are associated with produced hydrocarbons, USEPA does not consider them to be in the same category as wastes associated with Class II injection wells, even if they are characteristically similar. This project would collect sufficient data to determine whether or not (in relation to the underlying regulations) there is an inconsistency in current federal and state regulation. If one is found, refineries might be eligible for reclassification of wastes.

  15. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  16. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and selected Refinery Statistics each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1995, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary.

  17. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  18. Petroleum supply annual 1994, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary.

  19. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1996, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  20. 2. NORTHEAST CORNER OF LARD REFINERY (CONNECTING BUILDING ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTHEAST CORNER OF LARD REFINERY (CONNECTING BUILDING ON THE RIGHT) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Lard Refinery, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  1. 3. FOURTH FLOOR OF LARD REFINERY (NOTICE ORIGINAL WOODEN BEAMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FOURTH FLOOR OF LARD REFINERY (NOTICE ORIGINAL WOODEN BEAMS AND UNDATED LARD PRESS AND VATS ON RIGHT SIDE) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Lard Refinery, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  2. Heat Recovery and Energy Conservation in Petroleum Refining.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, William Gale

    1990-01-01

    The focus of the analysis presented here is improved recovery (and use) of waste heat at existing petroleum refineries. The major energy-conservation opportunities associated with waste heat are systematically examined both physically and in terms of cost. The opportunities at the Study Refinery are systematically examined in detail. The presentation begins with an overview of the processes carried out in contemporary petroleum refineries including discussion of typical energy use. There follows a brief thermodynamic description of refinery energy flows with an emphasis on heat and on energy-efficiency analysis. The heart of the thesis is Chapters 3-5 describing heat recovery opportunities involving, respectively: extraction and use of heat from combustion gases being discharged through stacks, the exchange of heat between product streams, and uses for low-temperature waste heat. In Chapter 6, a unifying economic concept is introduced (with details in the Appendix): a "supply curve" for saved energy. This describes the potential rate of energy savings in barrels of oil-equivalent per year (in analogy with production capacity of oil or gas fields), as a function of the cost of saved energy in dollars per barrel (in analogy with the production cost of energy). The nature of the distribution is, of course, for the cost of saved energy to increase with increasing energy savings. In this chapter, estimates are presented for the energy conservation opportunities other than waste heat at the Study Refinery. All the opportunities are then summarized in a single supply curve. The extraordinary result in a cost-effective opportunity to reduce refinery energy use by some 26% at 1984 prices. This translates into roughly a 1 energy-cost reduction per 42-gallon barrel of petroleum input. Of course, investments are required; the net benefit would be about 1.5 cents per gallon of product. This would be a major benefit in relation to typical refinery earnings. The concluding

  3. Refinery burner simulation design architecture summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, Guylaine M.; McDonald, Michael James; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the architectural design for a high fidelity simulation of a refinery and refinery burner, including demonstrations of impacts to the refinery if errors occur during the refinery process. The refinery burner model and simulation are a part of the capabilities within the Sandia National Laboratories Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE). Three components comprise the simulation: HMIs developed with commercial SCADA software, a PLC controller, and visualization software. All of these components run on different machines. This design, documented after the simulation development, incorporates aspects not traditionally seen in an architectural design, but that were utilized in this particular demonstration development. Key to the success of this model development and presented in this report are the concepts of the multiple aspects of model design and development that must be considered to capture the necessary model representation fidelity of the physical systems.

  4. Phenol removal from refinery wastewater by mutant recombinant horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Asad, Sedigheh; Dabirmanesh, Bahareh; Khajeh, Khosro

    2014-01-01

    Application of mutated recombinant horseradish peroxidase (HRP) for phenol removal from refinery effluents is reported. Recombinant HRP produced in Escherichia coli suffers from the disadvantage of lacking glycosylation, which affects its catalytic efficiency and stability toward inactivating parameters such as increased temperature and enhanced amounts of hydrogen peroxide. In the present study, the previously reported variant (in which Asn268 was substituted with Asp, N268D) with improved stability characteristics and catalytic efficiency was used to remove phenol from a petroleum refinery effluent. The presence and removal of phenol was studied by high-performance liquid chromatography; the precipitated oxidized phenol was also observed and removed from the sample by centrifugation. Results showed that the N268D variant can remove 61%, 67%, and 81% of phenol from effluent in 1, 2, and 16 H, respectively. By exploiting the N268D mutant, removal of 50% phenol could be achieved in 42 Min, which was more than 22 times less than the treatment time required by native recombinant enzyme.

  5. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses

  6. 78 FR 10128 - Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Subzone 70T; Marathon Petroleum Company LP; Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Subzone 70T; Marathon Petroleum... Marathon Petroleum Company LP refinery in Detroit, Michigan. (B-42-2012, docketed 6/1/2012);...

  7. 40 CFR 80.1441 - Small refinery exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Small refinery exemption. 80.1441... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1441 Small refinery exemption... refinery meets the definition of a small refinery under § 80.1401 for calendar year 2006. (2) The...

  8. 40 CFR 80.1141 - Small refinery exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Small refinery exemption. 80.1141... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1141 Small refinery exemption... parties under this subpart if that refinery meets the definition of a small refinery under §...

  9. 40 CFR 80.1141 - Small refinery exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small refinery exemption. 80.1141... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1141 Small refinery exemption... parties under this subpart if that refinery meets the definition of a small refinery under §...

  10. Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Petroleum Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. The PMM models petroleum refining activities, the marketing of petroleum products to consumption regions. The production of natural gas liquids in gas processing plants, and domestic methanol production. The PMM projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil, both domestic and imported; other inputs including alcohols and ethers; natural gas plant liquids production; petroleum product imports; and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates domestic refinery capacity expansion and fuel consumption. Product prices are estimated at the Census division level and much of the refining activity information is at the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District level. This report is organized as follows: Chapter 2, Model Purpose; Chapter 3, Model Overview and Rationale; Chapter 4, Model Structure; Appendix A, Inventory of Input Data, Parameter Estimates, and Model Outputs; Appendix B, Detailed Mathematical Description of the Model; Appendix C, Bibliography; Appendix D, Model Abstract; Appendix E, Data Quality; Appendix F, Estimation methodologies; Appendix G, Matrix Generator documentation; Appendix H, Historical Data Processing; and Appendix I, Biofuels Supply Submodule.

  11. Danube refinery operates under complex air regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.R.

    1994-05-30

    A good example of a major refinery coping with German environmental regulations is the Erdoel-Raffinerie Neustadt GmbH Co. (ERN) refinery near the town of Neustadt a.d. Donau, or Neustadt on the Danube, in lower Bavaria. The 7 million tons/year (144,000 b/d) complex refinery deals regularly with nearly 30 different crude oils, arriving via the Italian port of Trieste and the Trans Alpine Line from the Middle East, North and West Africa, Venezuela, and the North Sea. Table 1 is a listing of these crudes and some of their characteristics that are important in the refinery's environmental program. ERN is in a relatively isolated pastoral setting of fields and forests about 1[1/2] miles south of the Danube. Hops which go into the world famous Bavarian beers are a major crop in the region and the refinery is only 2 miles from a spa popular since the Romans occupied the Danube valley. German physicians still send patients there to relax, drink the waters, and breathe the country air for a variety of ailments. In short, ERN is in a high-profile setting that demands maximum attention be paid to environmental matters. The paper first describes the various German regulations that affect refineries, then discusses the monitoring and waste processing operations being performed by the ERN refinery.

  12. Recent trends in refinery hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Aitani, A.M.; Siddiqui, M.A.B.

    1996-12-31

    Refiners are experiencing a rise in hydrogen requirements to improve product quality and process heavy sour crudes. Fuel reformulation has disrupted refinery hydrogen balance in two ways: more hydrogen is needed for hydroprocessing and less hydrogen is coproduced from catalytic naphtha reforming. The purpose of this paper is to review trends in maximizing refinery hydrogen production by modifications and alternatives to the conventional steam methane reforming, recovery from refinery off gases and {open_quote}across-the-fence{close_quote} hydrogen supply. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Former Soviet refineries face modernization, restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-29

    A massive modernization and restructuring program is under way in the refining sector of Russia and other former Soviet republics. Economic reforms and resulting economic dislocation following the collapse of the Soviet Union has left refineries in the region grappling with a steep decline and changes in product demand. At the same time, rising oil prices and an aging, dilapidated infrastructure promise a massive shakeout. Even as many refineries in the former Soviet Union (FSU) face possible closure because they are running at a fraction of capacity, a host of revamps, expansions, and grass roots refineries are planned or under way. The paper discusses plans.

  14. Tactical Garbage to Energy Refinery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Food Waste -Slop Food - RawAeri BIOCATALYTIC BioPlastics Faadatock Prap rennentar Prap t=3 Eth.no! Racovery ETHAN CX THERMOCHEMICAL...to minimum drip for pilot ignition i Ethanol Syn-Desei Power Takeoff • Petroleum based plastics recalcitrant until gasifier ’ Bioplastics can

  15. The potential for low petroleum gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

  16. A Comparative Assessment of Resource Efficiency in Petroleum Refining

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jeongwoo; Forman, G; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; Divita, V

    2015-10-01

    Because of increasing environmental and energy security concerns, a detailed understanding of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the petroleum refining industry is critical for fair and equitable energy and environmental policies. To date, this has proved challenging due in part to the complex nature and variability within refineries. In an effort to simplify energy and emissions refinery analysis, we delineated LP modeling results from 60 large refineries from the US and EU into broad categories based on crude density (API gravity) and heavy product (HP) yields. Product-specific efficiencies and process fuel shares derived from this study were incorporated in Argonne National Laboratory's GREET life-cycle model, along with regional upstream GHG intensities of crude, natural gas and electricity specific to the US and EU regions. The modeling results suggest that refineries that process relatively heavier crude inputs and have lower yields of HPs generally have lower energy efficiencies and higher GHG emissions than refineries that run lighter crudes with lower yields of HPs. The former types of refineries tend to utilize energy-intensive units which are significant consumers of utilities (heat and electricity) and hydrogen. Among the three groups of refineries studied, the major difference in the energy intensities is due to the amount of purchased natural gas for utilities and hydrogen, while the sum of refinery feed inputs are generally constant. These results highlight the GHG emissions cost a refiner pays to process deep into the barrel to produce more of the desirable fuels with low carbon to hydrogen ratio. (c) 2015 Argonne National Laboratory. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 81-372-1727, Exxon Corporation, Bayway Refinery and Chemical Plant, Linden, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Liveright, T.; Gann, P.; McAna, J.

    1986-09-01

    A representative of Teamsters Local 877 requested an evaluation of the hazards of asbestos exposure at the Exxon Bayway Refinery and Chemical Plant, Bayway, New Jersey. Asbestos was extensively used for insulation at this facility before 1972. Chest x-rays of retired and current workers with at least 20 years employment at the facility were reviewed and the relationship of work history to asbestos related x-ray abnormalities was investigated. Oil-refinery and petrochemical workers examined showed several abnormalities on chest x-rays. Pleural abnormalities were more prevalent than parenchymal ones. Abnormal chest x-rays were found among workers from various job categories, suggesting that exposures were dispersed and widespread. There was a general relationship between length of employment and the appearance of x-ray abnormalities. The authors conclude that there is a possibility of increased risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma in exposed workers.

  18. U.S. refinery efficiency: impacts analysis and implications for fuel carbon policy implementation.

    PubMed

    Forman, Grant S; Divita, Vincent B; Han, Jeongwoo; Cai, Hao; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael

    2014-07-01

    In the next two decades, the U.S. refining industry will face significant changes resulting from a rapidly evolving domestic petroleum energy landscape. The rapid influx of domestically sourced tight light oil and relative demand shifts for gasoline and diesel will impose challenges on the ability of the U.S. refining industry to satisfy both demand and quality requirements. This study uses results from Linear Programming (LP) modeling data to examine the potential impacts of these changes on refinery, process unit, and product-specific efficiencies, focusing on current baseline efficiency values across 43 existing large U.S. refineries that are operating today. These results suggest that refinery and product-specific efficiency values are sensitive to crude quality, seasonal and regional factors, and refinery configuration and complexity, which are determined by final fuel specification requirements. Additional processing of domestically sourced tight light oil could marginally increase refinery efficiency, but these benefits could be offset by crude rebalancing. The dynamic relationship between efficiency and key parameters such as crude API gravity, sulfur content, heavy products, residual upgrading, and complexity are key to understanding possible future changes in refinery efficiency. Relative to gasoline, the efficiency of diesel production is highly variable, and is influenced by the number and severity of units required to produce diesel. To respond to future demand requirements, refiners will need to reduce the gasoline/diesel (G/D) production ratio, which will likely result in greater volumes of diesel being produced through less efficient pathways resulting in reduced efficiency, particularly on the marginal barrel of diesel. This decline in diesel efficiency could be offset by blending of Gas to Liquids (GTL) diesel, which could allow refiners to uplift intermediate fuel streams into more efficient diesel production pathways, thereby allowing for the

  19. Test Report for DCU D603 Vent at the ExxonMobil Baytown Refinery Performed July 14 through July 17, 2011

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ExxonMobil owns and operates a petroleum refinery in Baytown, Texas that is subject to the U.S. Clean Air Act (CAA) Sections 111 and 112. This report presents the results of the test program conducted July 14 through 17, 2011.

  20. Current situation of oil refinery in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vershkova, Elena; Petkova, Petinka; Grinkevich, Anastasia

    2016-09-01

    This article deals with the classification approach for oil refineries in international practices. Criteria of refinery estimation group, including its financial status estimation, have been investigated. The analysis object is “Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas” AD (LNCHB) activity. This company is a leading enterprise in Bulgaria. The analysis of LNCHB operating: energy intensity index; index of operating costs and return on investment index have been performed.

  1. Recovering selenium from copper refinery slimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyvärinen, Olli; Lindroos, Leo; Yllö, Erkki

    1989-07-01

    The selenium contained within copper refinery slimes may be recovered advantageously by roasting at about 600°C. While roasting in air is inefficient, roasting in a sulfating atmosphere enables practically complete selenium recovery. Based on laboratory tests, a new selenium recovery process was adopted at Outokumpu Copper Refinery. In this process, sulfation is achieved by feeding sulfur dioxide and oxygen into the roasting furnace.

  2. Refinery siting workbook: appendices A and B

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop and provide basic refinery-related information for use by state and local government officials as a basis for establishing responsible refinery siting requirements and policies consistent with the federal clean air and water standards and socio-economic concerns. The report will be organized into two volumes. The main text comprises the basic topics of physical concerns, regulatory requirements, and permitting activities, while the second volume includes the detailed appendix materials such as the applicable laws, and the necessary permits, as available and a glossary of pertinent terms. As a means to this objective, three refinery sizes, 200,000, 100,000 and 30,000 barrels per day crude charge will be discussed in technical terms. Process unit configuration will be presented which will maximize either gasoline or heating oil production with either sweet or sour crude oil feedstocks. The major issues affecting the socio-economic impact of siting the refinery in a given locale will be presented. These data will review the factors affecting the human environment and the issues that must be addressed to assess the impact that a refinery will have on a community. The key federal registrations which impact upon a refinery siting decision shall be reviewed. Summaries of these regulations and a simplified decision diagram for the air and water acts shall be presented to assist both government and refinery officials in understanding the scope of regulatory impact. All pertinent procedures required for refinery permitting shall be reviewed under the generalized headings of air, water, health and safety, land use, and miscellaneous permits. This categorization at the federal, state and local levels of government shall be used as a basis for establishing degrees of emphasis.

  3. Recycle of oily refinery wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bartilucci, M.P.; Karsner, G.G.; Tracy, W.J. III.

    1989-10-17

    This patent describes a process for recycling of petroleum containing sludge. It comprises segregating waste oil-containing sludges into a relatively high oil content sludge and a relatively high water content sludge; introducing the high oil content sludge into a delayed coking drum under delayed conditions in the presence of a liquid coker hydrocarbon feedstock to form coke; introducing the high water content sludge into a delayed coking drum to quench the coke formed in the coking drum.

  4. 77 FR 56421 - Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    .../tribal government Not affected. \\1\\ North American Industry Classification System. This table is not... Applicability New or reconstructed Similar, except flare systems or specific list of existing flare systems... requirements within 3 years. Flares Flow limits Flare system-wide flow No limits. limit of 250,000...

  5. Test plan, the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.; Tien, A.J.; Worsztynowicz, A.; Ulfig, K.

    1997-05-10

    The overall objective of the bioremediation project is to provide a cost effective bioremediation demonstration of petroleum contaminated soil at the Czechowice Oil Refinery. Additional objectives include training of personnel, and transfer of this technology by example to Poland, and the Risk Abatement Center for Central and Eastern Europe (RACE). The goal of the remediation is to reduce the risk of PAH compounds in soil and provide a green zone (grassy area) adjacent to the site boundary. Initial project discussions with the Czechowice Oil Refinery resulted in helping the refinery find an immediate cost effective solution for the dense organic sludge in the lagoons. They found that when mixed with other waste materials, the sludge could be sold as a fuel source to local cement kilns. Thus the waste was incinerated and provided a revenue stream for the refinery to cleanup the lagoon. This allowed the bioremediation project to focus on remediation of contaminated soil that unusable as fuel, less recalcitrant and easier to handle and remediate. The assessment identified 19 compounds at the refinery that represented significant risk and would require remediation. These compounds consisted of metals, PAH`s, and BTEX. The contaminated soil to be remediated in the bioremediation demonstration contains only PAH (BTEX and metals are not significantly above background concentrations). The final biopile design consists of (1) dewatering and clearing lagoon A to clean clay, (2) adding a 20 cm layer of dolomite with pipes for drainage, leachate collection, air injection, and pH adjustment, (3) adding a 1.1 m layer of contaminated soil mixed with wood chips to improve permeability, and (4) completing the surface with 20 cm of top soil planted with grass.

  6. Computer model for refinery operations with emphasis on jet fuel production. Volume 2: Data and technical bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, D. N.; Tunnah, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    The FORTRAN computing program predicts the flow streams and material, energy, and economic balances of a typical petroleum refinery, with particular emphasis on production of aviation turbine fuel of varying end point and hydrogen content specifications. The program has provision for shale oil and coal oil in addition to petroleum crudes. A case study feature permits dependent cases to be run for parametric or optimization studies by input of only the variables which are changed from the base case. The report has sufficient detail for the information of most readers.

  7. Recycle of oily refinery wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bartilucci, M.P.; Karsner, G.G.; Tracy, W.J.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a process for disposing of petroleum containing sludge. It comprises segregating waste oil-containing sludges into a first sludge and a second sludge, the first sludge being of high oil content relative to the second sludge and the second sludge being of high water content relative to the first sludge; dewatering the first, high oil content sludge; introducing the dewatered sludge into a delayed coking drum under delayed coking conditions in the presence of a liquid coker hydrocarbon feedstock to form coke; introducing the second, high water content sludge into a delayed coking drum to quench the coke formed in the coking drum.

  8. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Pester Refinery, Butler County, El Dorado, KS. (First remedial action), September 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-30

    The 10-acre Pester Refinery site is a former petroleum refining facility located in El Dorado, Butler County, Kansas. Petroleum refining operations in the area began in 1917, and from 1958 to 1977, Fina Oil Company operated a petroleum refinery at this site. Process wastes, such as slop-oil emulsion solids, API separator sludge, and heat exchanger bundle cleaning sludge were sent through a pipe to a burn pond. Gaseous waste products were ignited at the end of the pipe, and whatever did not burn was discharged to the pond. The ROD provides a final remedy for the principal source of contamination at the site, the burn pit sludge. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and sludge are VOCs, including ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes; other organics, including PAHs and phenols; and metals, including arsenic, chromium, and lead.

  9. 3 CFR 8507 - Proclamation 8507 of April 28, 2010. Workers Memorial Day, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in our thoughts and prayers. We also mourn the loss of 7 workers who died in a refinery explosion in... government, businesses, employer associations, unions, community organizations, the scientific and...

  10. Use of absorption spectroscopy for refined petroleum product discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Michael

    1991-07-01

    On-line discrimination between arbitrary petroleum products is necessary for optimal control of petroleum refinery and pipeline operation and process control involving petroleum distillates. There are a number of techniques by which petroleum products can be distinguished from one another. Among these, optical measurements offer fast, non-intrusive, real-time characterization. The application examined here involves optically monitoring the interface between dissimilar batches of fluids in a gasoline pipeline. After examination of near- infrared and mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform mid-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was chosen as the best candidate for implementation. On- line FTIR data is presented, verifying the applicability of the technique for batch interface detection.

  11. The US petroleum refining industry in the 1980's

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-11

    As part of the EIA program on petroleum, The US Petroleum Refining Industry in the 1980's, presents a historical analysis of the changes that took place in the US petroleum refining industry during the 1980's. It is intended to be of interest to analysts in the petroleum industry, state and federal government officials, Congress, and the general public. The report consists of six chapters and four appendices. Included is a detailed description of the major events and factors that affected the domestic refining industry during this period. Some of the changes that took place in the 1980's are the result of events that started in the 1970's. The impact of these events on US refinery configuration, operations, economics, and company ownership are examined. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Risk of Asthmatic Episodes in Children Exposed to Sulfur Dioxide Stack Emissions from a Refinery Point Source in Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Smargiassi, Audrey; Kosatsky, Tom; Hicks, John; Plante, Céline; Armstrong, Ben; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Goudreau, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the respiratory effects of short-term exposures to petroleum refinery emissions in young children. This study is an extension of an ecologic study that found an increased rate of hospitalizations for respiratory conditions among children living near petroleum refineries in Montreal (Canada). Methods We used a time-stratified case–crossover design to assess the risk of asthma episodes in relation to short-term variations in sulfur dioxide levels among children 2–4 years of age living within 0.5–7.5 km of the refinery stacks. Health data used to measure asthma episodes included emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions from 1996 to 2004. We estimated daily levels of SO2 at the residence of children using a) two fixed-site SO2 monitors located near the refineries and b) the AERMOD (American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model) atmospheric dispersion model. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios associated with an increase in the interquartile range of daily SO2 mean and peak exposures (31.2 ppb for AERMOD peaks). We adjusted for temperature, relative humidity, and regional/urban background air pollutant levels. Results The risks of asthma ED visits and hospitalizations were more pronounced for same-day (lag 0) SO2 peak levels than for mean levels on the same day, or for other lags: the adjusted odds ratios estimated for same-day SO2 peak levels from AERMOD were 1.10 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00–1.22] and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.82), over the interquartile range, for ED visits and hospital admissions, respectively. Conclusions Short-term episodes of increased SO2 exposures from refinery stack emissions were associated with a higher number of asthma episodes in nearby children. PMID:19440507

  13. Prebiotic Petroleum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that " the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process.

  14. Prebiotic petroleum.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that "the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process.

  15. The Use of Oil Refinery Wastes as a Dust Suppression Surfactant for Use in Mining

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon-Hardy, D.W.; Beyhan, S.; Ediz, I.G.; Erarslan, K.

    2008-10-15

    In this research, the suitability of a selection of petroleum refinery wastes as a dust suppressant were examined. Dust is a significant problem in surface and underground mining mainly because of its adverse effects on human health and machinery. Hence, dust control and suppression is a vital part of mine planning for mining engineers. Water is the oldest and the cheapest suppressant in dealing with the mine dusts. However, surfactant use has recently been used for a wider range of applications in the mining industry. In order to carry out laboratory experiments, a dust chamber was designed and manufactured. The chamber has an inlet for coal dust entrance and a nozzle for spraying water and the oil refinery wastes. Water and the surfactants were mixed at various ratios and then sprayed onto the coal dusts within the cell. Dust concentration was measured systematically to determine the effects of surfactant containing solution on the coal dust and the data obtained by the measurements were analyzed. The results showed that the oil refinery wastes could be used as a dust suppressant, which may create an economical utilization for the wastes concerned.

  16. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 2, technology development, annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    Oil refineries discharge large volumes of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This program seeks to develop a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol, which can be blended with gasoline to reduce emissions. Production of ethanol from all 194 US refineries would save 450 billion BTU annually, would reduce crude oil imports by 110 million barrels/year and emissions by 19 million tons/year. Phase II efforts has yielded at least 3 cultures (Clostridium ljungdahlii, Isolate O-52, Isolate C-01) which are able to produce commercially viable concentrations of ethanol from CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} in petroleum waste gas. Single continuous stirred tank reactor studies have shown that 15-20 g/L of ethanol can be produced, with less than 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Culture and reactor optimization in Phase III should yield even higher ethanol concentrations and minimal acetic acid. Product recovery studies showed that ethanol is best recovered in a multi-step process involving solvent extraction/distillation to azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation, or direct distillation to the azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation. Projections show that the ethanol facility for a typical refinery would require an investment of about $30 million, which would be returned in less than 2 years.

  17. TPH-contaminated Mexican refinery soil: health risk assessment and the first year of changes.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Rosa M; Flores, Carlos R; Torres, Luis G

    2004-02-01

    The soil of a coastal Mexican refinery is quite contaminated, especially by hydrocarbons, with detected concentrations up to 130000 mg kg(-1) as TPHs (total petroleum hydrocarbons). The main sources of contamination are pipelines, valves, and old storage tanks, besides the land disposal of untreated hydrocarbon sediments derived from the cleaning of storage tanks. A health risk assessment (HRA) was carried out in order to measure the risk hazard indexes and clean-up standards for the refinery soil. HRA suggested the following actions to be taken: benzene concentrations must be reduced in eight of the 16 studied refinery zones to 0.0074-0.0078 mg kg(-1). Also, vanadium concentration must be reduced in two zones up to a concentration of 100 mg kg(-1). In only one of all of the studied zones, benzo(a)pyrene concentration must be reduced to 0.1 mg kg(-1). After 1 yr, TPHs showed a diminution of about 52%. Even though TPHs concentrations were variable, during 1999 the average concentrations were as much as 15.5 times the goal concentration. For year 2000, TPHs concentrations were only 7.4-fold the proposed value. For the 1999-2000 period, PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) concentrations decreased by 82%. Some PAHs with 2, 3, 4, and 5 aromatic rings were removed up to 100% values.

  18. Use of refinery computer model to predict fuel production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, F. J.

    1979-01-01

    Several factors (crudes, refinery operation and specifications) that affect yields and properties of broad specification jet fuel were parameterized using the refinery simulation model which can simulate different types of refineries were used to make the calculations. Results obtained from the program are used to correlate yield as a function of final boiling point, hydrogen content and freezing point for jet fuels produced in two refinery configurations, each one processing a different crude mix. Refinery performances are also compared in terms of energy consumption.

  19. Integrated Corn-Based Bio-Refinery

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    The Integrated Corn-Based Bio-Refinery (ICBR) process will use new technology to convert corn grain and stover into fermentable sugars for the parallel production of value-added chemicals such as 1,3-propanediol (PDO) and fuel ethanol.

  20. Refinery Upgrading of Hydropyrolysis Oil From Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Michael; Marker, Terry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Wangerow, Jim; Swanson, Dan; McLeod, Celeste; Del Paggio, Alan; Urade, Vikrant; Rao, Madhusudhan; Narasimhan, Laxmi; Gephart, John; Starr, Jack; Hahn, John; Stover, Daniel; Parrish, Martin; Maxey, Carl; Shonnard, David; Handler, Robert; Fan, Jiquig

    2015-08-31

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be converted to bio-oils containing less than 10% oxygen by a hydropyrolysis process. Hydropyrolysis is the first step in Gas Technology Institute’s (GTI) integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion IH2®. These intermediate bio-oils can then be converted to drop-in hydrocarbon fuels using existing refinery hydrotreating equipment to make hydrocarbon blending components, which are fully compatible with existing fuels. Alternatively, cellulosic or woody biomass can directly be converted into drop-in hydrocarbon fuels containing less than 0.4% oxygen using the IH2 process located adjacent to a refinery or ethanol production facility. Many US oil refineries are actually located near biomass resources and are a logical location for a biomass to transportation fuel conversion process. The goal of this project was to work directly with an oil refinery partner, to determine the most attractive route and location for conversion of biorenewables to drop in fuels in their refinery and ethanol production network. Valero Energy Company, through its subsidiaries, has 12 US oil refineries and 11 ethanol production facilities, making them an ideal partner for this analysis. Valero is also part of a 50- 50 joint venture with Darling Ingredients called Diamond Green Diesel. Diamond Green Diesel’s production capacity is approximately 11,000 barrels per day of renewable diesel. The plant is located adjacent to Valero’s St Charles, Louisiana Refinery and converts recycled animal fats, used cooking oil, and waste corn oil into renewable diesel. This is the largest renewable diesel plant in the U.S. and has successfully operated for over 2 years For this project, 25 liters of hydropyrolysis oil from wood and 25 liters of hydropyrolysis oils from corn stover were produced. The hydropyrolysis oil produced had 4-10% oxygen. Metallurgical testing of hydropyrolysis liquids was completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratories (Oak Ridge) and showed the

  1. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  2. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  3. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  4. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  5. Petroleum coke in the urban environment: a review of potential health effects.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Joseph A; Zhang, Kezhong; Schroeck, Nicholas J; McCoy, Benjamin; McElmurry, Shawn P

    2015-05-29

    Petroleum coke, or petcoke, is a granular coal-like industrial by-product that is separated during the refinement of heavy crude oil. Recently, the processing of material from Canadian oil sands in U.S. refineries has led to the appearance of large petcoke piles adjacent to urban communities in Detroit and Chicago. The purpose of this literature review is to assess what is known about the effects of petcoke exposure on human health. Toxicological studies in animals indicate that dermal or inhalation petcoke exposure does not lead to a significant risk for cancer development or reproductive and developmental effects. However, pulmonary inflammation was observed in long-term inhalation exposure studies. Epidemiological studies in coke oven workers have shown increased risk for cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, but these studies are confounded by multiple industrial exposures, most notably to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are generated during petcoke production. The main threat to urban populations in the vicinity of petcoke piles is most likely fugitive dust emissions in the form of fine particulate matter. More research is required to determine whether petcoke fine particulate matter causes or exacerbates disease, either alone or in conjunction with other environmental contaminants.

  6. Petroleum Coke in the Urban Environment: A Review of Potential Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Joseph A.; Zhang, Kezhong; Schroeck, Nicholas J.; McCoy, Benjamin; McElmurry, Shawn P.

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum coke, or petcoke, is a granular coal-like industrial by-product that is separated during the refinement of heavy crude oil. Recently, the processing of material from Canadian oil sands in U.S. refineries has led to the appearance of large petcoke piles adjacent to urban communities in Detroit and Chicago. The purpose of this literature review is to assess what is known about the effects of petcoke exposure on human health. Toxicological studies in animals indicate that dermal or inhalation petcoke exposure does not lead to a significant risk for cancer development or reproductive and developmental effects. However, pulmonary inflammation was observed in long-term inhalation exposure studies. Epidemiological studies in coke oven workers have shown increased risk for cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, but these studies are confounded by multiple industrial exposures, most notably to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are generated during petcoke production. The main threat to urban populations in the vicinity of petcoke piles is most likely fugitive dust emissions in the form of fine particulate matter. More research is required to determine whether petcoke fine particulate matter causes or exacerbates disease, either alone or in conjunction with other environmental contaminants. PMID:26035666

  7. Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum RefiningIndustry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-05-01

    Information has proven to be an important barrier inindustrial energy efficiency improvement. Voluntary government programsaim to assist industry to improve energy efficiency by supplyinginformation on opportunities. ENERGY STAR(R) supports the development ofstrong strategic corporate energy management programs, by providingenergy management information tools and strategies. This paper summarizesENERGY STAR research conducted to develop an Energy Guide for thePetroleum Refining industry. Petroleum refining in the United States isthe largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually every economicsector, including the transport sector and the chemical industry.Refineries spend typically 50 percent of the cash operating costs (e.g.,excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy amajor cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction.The petroleum refining industry consumes about 3.1 Quads of primaryenergy, making it the single largest industrial energy user in the UnitedStates. Typically, refineries can economically improve energy efficiencyby 20 percent. The findings suggest that given available resources andtechnology, there are substantial opportunities to reduce energyconsumption cost-effectively in the petroleum refining industry whilemaintaining the quality of the products manufactured.

  8. Reconstruction of historical exposures at a Welsh nickel refinery (1953-2000).

    PubMed

    Sivulka, Donna J; Seilkop, Steven K; Lascelles, Keith; Conard, Bruce R; Jones, Sian F; Collinson, Eric C

    2014-07-01

    Past epidemiological studies of workers in a nickel refinery in Clydach, Wales, have shown evidence of large excess respiratory cancer mortality risks [lung cancer relative risk (RR) ≈ 3; nasal cancer RR ≈ 140] in those employed prior to 1930, with risks dropping dramatically in workers hired subsequently. The pre-1930 risks have generally been attributed to high exposures to mixtures of nickel compounds. More recent studies of this refinery's workers have focused on those first hired in 1953, when many of the operations that presumably gave rise to the high exposures were no longer in operation. While these studies have shown greatly decreased lung cancer risks overall (RR ≈ 1.4), and no substantive evidence of increased nasal cancer risk, the absence of reliable exposure estimates have made it difficult to ascertain whether the increased lung cancer risks are nickel related or due to other factors. This study uses nickel measurements from the 1970s to the present, documentation of process changes, and dust measurements taken around the 1950s to construct an exposure matrix for the recent cohort. It provides evidence of at least 30-fold decreases in levels of nickel exposure from the 1950s to the present, with estimated inhalable nickel concentrations in the 1950s in excess of 5mg Ni m(-3).

  9. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emission Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Ethanol Blending: Phase II Analysis with Refinery Investment Options

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael; Elgowainy, Amgad; DiVita, Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Higher-octane gasoline can enable increases in an internal combustion engine’s energy efficiency and a vehicle’s fuel economy by allowing an increase in the engine compression ratio and/or by enabling downspeeding and downsizing. Producing high-octane fuel (HOF) with the current level of ethanol blending (E10) could increase the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity of the fuel product from refinery operations. Alternatively, increasing the ethanol blending level in final gasoline products could be a promising solution to HOF production because of the high octane rating and potentially low blended Reid vapor pressure (RVP) of ethanol at 25% and higher of the ethanol blending level by volume. In our previous HOF well-to-wheels (WTW) report (the so-called phase I report of the HOF WTW analysis), we conducted WTW analysis of HOF with different ethanol blending levels (i.e., E10, E25, and E40) and a range of vehicle efficiency gains with detailed petroleum refinery linear programming (LP) modeling by Jacobs Consultancy and showed that the overall WTW GHG emission changes associated with HOFVs were dominated by the positive impact associated with vehicle efficiency gains and ethanol blending levels, while the refining operations to produce gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (BOB) for various HOF blend levels had a much smaller impact on WTW GHG emissions (Han et al. 2015). The scope of the previous phase I study, however, was limited to evaluating PADDs 2 and 3 operation changes with various HOF market share scenarios and ethanol blending levels. Also, the study used three typical configuration models of refineries (cracking, light coking, and heavy coking) in each PADD, which may not be representative of the aggregate response of all refineries in each PADD to various ethanol blending levels and HOF market scenarios. Lastly, the phase I study assumed no new refinery expansion in the existing refineries, which limited E10 HOF production to the

  10. Impact of software and hardware technologies on occupational health and safety policies in Saudi Arabian oil refineries.

    PubMed

    Idreis, Hany M; Siqueira, Carlos E; Levenstein, Charles C

    2006-01-01

    This article seeks to examine the impact of technology importation on occupational health and safety in both Saudi Arabian and U.S. oil refining industries. Technologies imported to the Saudi oil industry take two forms: hardware (sophisticated equipment to run oil facilities) and software (policies and regulations pertaining to workers' health and safety, and employment rights installed by Aramco's founding multinational companies). This study utilizes qualitative, historically oriented, cross-national case studies to compare and assess workers' health, safety, and rights in Saudi Aramco with its U.S. counterpart, Motiva Enterprises. Two facilities were chosen to conduct field research: the Saudi Aramco oil refinery at Jeddah and Motiva's refinery at Port Arthur, Texas. The Jeddah refinery is fully owned by Saudi Aramco, thus, representing Aramco's health and safety policies and regulations. The Port Arthur refinery serves as a reference case study for U.S. oil refining facilities. The aspects of occupational health and safety in Saudi Aramco--ExxonMobil's joint ventures SAMREF and LUBREF--also are discussed to examine workers' health policies in both companies. The American oil industry made a significant contribution in establishing the Saudi oil industry, with the cooperation of the Saudi government. Despite having outstanding employment benefits schemes in Saudi Aramco, the presence of an organized work force better serves employee participation in Motiva than in Aramco. Safety systems such as Process Safety Management (PSM)--applied in Motiva--partially exist in Aramco to operate hardware technologies safely. Motiva training systems are better through PACE's Triangle of Prevention (TOP). Both companies follow the same pattern of handling occupational injuries and diseases; however, Saudi government agencies (GOSI) are responsible for compensating and treating injured workers. Saudi workers expressed conditional support for the worker committee program

  11. Siberian company starts up modular refinery

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-18

    Uraineftegas, a subsidiary of Russian oil giant Lukoil, has started up Siberia`s first modular crude distillation unit. The 2,000 b/d refinery was designed and manufactured by Ventech Engineers Inc., Pasadena, Tex. Uraineftegas is based in Urai, Siberia. Located in the Tyumen region on the Konda river, the remote town is accessible only by air and water. Most of Urai`s crude production--about 50,000 b/d, according to Ventech president Bill Stanley--is shipped by pipeline to the refining centers at Ufa and Omsk. Because there are no products pipelines in which to ship fuels back to Urai, the town needed a small refinery in order to produce its own fuels. This report briefly describes the design ad operation of these modular units. It describes construction techniques and temperature control equipment used to maintain an operational environment under severe winter weather.

  12. Refinery hydrogen recovery with sepharex membrane systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schnell, W.J.; Houston, C.D.

    1985-03-01

    Gas separation by membranes is discussed, and presented to be an economically viable process. Commercial installation of membrane systems has been made for hydrogen recovery in refineries and ammonia plants and for CO/sub 2/ removal from various gas streams. The process described in this paper utilizes a flat-sheet cellulose acetate membrane fabricated into a spiral wound element configuration. An illustration of the membrane, named Separex, is provided. These membranes exhibit long-time stability in refinery H/sub 2/ recovery applications even under harsh operating conditions. The successful operation of this system demonstrates the commercial capability of Separex membranes. A comparison with PSA for hydrogen purification shows that membrane systems offer a substantially lower hydrogen production cost and an increase in hydrogen recovery.

  13. Occupational exposure to carbon/coke fibers in plants that produce green or calcined petroleum coke and potential health effects: 2. Fiber concentrations.

    PubMed

    Maxim, L Daniel; Galvin, Jennifer B; Niebo, Ron; Segrave, Alan M; Kampa, Otto A; Utell, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    We monitored exposure to various fibers among workers in eight plants operated by ConocoPhillips that produce green or calcined petroleum coke. Carbon/coke and other fibers, including calcium silicate, cellulose, gypsum, and iron silicate, were found in occupational samples. Carbon/coke fibers were found in bulk samples of calcined petroleum coke, the probable source of these fibers in occupational samples. Time-weighted average (TWA) total fiber concentrations were approximately lognormally distributed; 90% were < or = 0.1 f/ml. Although consistently low, TWA total fiber concentrations varied with plant, job (tasks), and type of coke. This was expected given the substantial differences in plant configuration, technology, and workplace practices among refineries and carbon plants. Carbon/coke fibers (identified and measured using transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) were found at all plants producing all types of calcined coke and not detected at any plant producing only green coke. Approximately 98% of all carbon/coke TWAs were < or = 0.1 f/ml. Analysis of task length average (TLA) data by various statistical techniques indicates that the average carbon/coke TLA is certainly < or = 0.05 f/ml and probably < 0.03 f/ml.

  14. Opportunities for Biorenewables in Oil Refineries

    SciTech Connect

    Marker, T.L.

    2005-12-19

    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for using biorenewable feedstocks in oil refineries. Economic analyses were conducted, with support from process modeling and proof of principle experiments, to assess a variety of potential processes and configurations. The study considered two primary alternatives: the production of biodiesel and green diesel from vegetable oils and greases and opportunities for utilization of pyrolysis oil. The study identified a number of promising opportunities for biorenewables in existing or new refining operations.

  15. EIA model documentation: Petroleum market model of the national energy modeling system

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-28

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Petroleum Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The PMM models petroleum refining activities, the marketing of petroleum products to consumption regions, the production of natural gas liquids in gas processing plants, and domestic methanol production. The PMM projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil, both domestic and imported; other inputs including alcohols and ethers; natural gas plant liquids production; petroleum product imports; and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates domestic refinery capacity expansion and fuel consumption. Product prices are estimated at the Census division level and much of the refining activity information is at the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District level.

  16. Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-18

    This report contains the following: Bibliography; Petroleum Market Model abstract; Data quality; Estimation methodologies (includes refinery investment recovery thresholds, gas plant models, chemical industry demand for methanol, estimation of refinery fixed costs, estimation of distribution costs, estimation of taxes gasoline specifications, estimation of gasoline market shares, estimation of low-sulfur diesel market shares, low-sulfur diesel specifications, estimation of regional conversion coefficients, estimation of SO{sub 2} allowance equations, unfinished oil imports methodology, product pipeline capacities and tariffs, cogeneration methodology, natural gas plant fuel consumption, and Alaskan crude oil exports); Matrix generator documentation; Historical data processing; and Biofuels supply submodule.

  17. Development of a health effects-based priority ranking system for air emissions reductions from oil refineries in Canada.

    PubMed

    Gower, Stephanie; Hicks, John; Shortreed, John; Craig, Lorraine; McColl, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    In Canada, the Canadian Council of Ministers for the Environment (CCME) is currently engaged in a process to determine how best to reduce air emissions from oil refineries. The National Framework for Petroleum Refineries Emissions Reduction (NFPRER) is being developed with the input of stakeholders, including nongovernment organizations (NGOs), industry, and regulatory jurisdictions. One component of this framework is the development of a tool to prioritize emissions for reduction based on estimated health impacts. HEIDI II (Health Effects Indicators Decision Index II) is a spreadsheet-based model that prioritizes a series of carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic air toxicicants and criteria air contaminants commonly emitted from Canadian oil refineries. A generic meteorological dispersion model was applied to reported annual emissions data for each of Canada's 20 refineries. Photodegradation rates and ambient levels of each substance were accounted for, and air concentrations were calculated for 20 geographic zones around each refinery. These were coupled to toxicity data derived mainly from Health Canada and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and applied to target populations of children, adults and seniors. HEIDI II predicts incidence of relevant disease endpoints from each substance emitted, except for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which were treated as chemical mixtures. Rankings were based on predicted case incidence or the application of a common health impact metric, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), to the predicted incidence. Using the DALY approach, priority rankings can be made within each of the chemical classes, or across all three classes together. HEIDI II incorporates several switches that allow the user to investigate alternate scenarios based on stack height, average daily sunlight hours (for calculating photodegradation), and the possibility of emissions below

  18. Biodegradation of petroleum sludge and petroleum polluted soil by a bacterial consortium: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Gojgic-Cvijovic, G D; Milic, J S; Solevic, T M; Beskoski, V P; Ilic, M V; Djokic, L S; Narancic, T M; Vrvic, M M

    2012-02-01

    This article presents a study of the efficiency and degradation pattern of samples of petroleum sludge and polluted sandy soil from an oil refinery. A bacterial consortium, consisting of strains from the genera Pseudomonas, Achromobacter, Bacillus and Micromonospora, was isolated from a petroleum sludge sample and characterized. The addition of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients and a chemical surfactant to both the samples and bioaugmentation to the soil sample were applied under laboratory conditions. The extent of biodegradation was monitored by the gravimetric method and analysis of the residual oil by gas chromatography. Over a 12-week experiment, the achieved degree of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon) degradation amounted to 82-88% in the petroleum sludge and 86-91% in the polluted soil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to determine the biodegradability and degradation rates of n-alkanes, isoprenoids, steranes, diasteranes and terpanes. Complete degradation of the n-alkanes and isoprenoids fractions occurred in both the samples. In addition, the intensities of the peaks corresponding to tricyclic terpenes and homohopanes were decreased, while significant changes were also observed in the distribution of diasteranes and steranes.

  19. Occupational exposure to benzene at the ExxonMobil refinery at Baton Rouge, Louisiana (1977-2005).

    PubMed

    Panko, Julie M; Gaffney, Shannon H; Burns, Amanda M; Unice, Ken M; Kreider, Marisa L; Booher, Lindsay E; Gelatt, Richard H; Marshall, J Ralph; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2009-09-01

    Because crude oil contains up to 3% benzene and there is an association between high chronic exposure to appreciable concentrations of benzene and acute myelogenous leukemia, exposure of refinery workers has been studied for many years. To date, no extensive industrial hygiene exposure analyses for historical benzene exposure have been performed, and none have focused on the airborne concentrations in the workplace at specific refineries or for specific tasks. In this study, the authors evaluated the airborne concentrations of benzene and their variability over time at the ExxonMobil refinery in Baton Rouge between 1977 and 2005. Refinery workers were categorized into 117 worker groups using company job descriptions. These 117 groups were further collapsed into 25 job categories based on similarity of measured exposure results. Results of 5289 personal air samples are included in this analysis; 3403 were considered nontask (>or= 180 min) personal samples, and 830 were considered task-related (< 180 min) personal samples; the remainder did not fit in either category. In general, nontask personal air samples indicated that exposures of the past 30 years were generally below the occupational exposure limit of 1 ppm, but there was only a small, decreasing temporal trend in the concentrations. The job sampled most frequently during routine operations was process technician and, as broken down by area, resulted in the following mean benzene concentrations: analyzers (mean = 0.12 ppm), coker (mean = 0.013 ppm), hydrofiner (mean = 0.0054 ppm), lube blending and storage (mean = 0.010 ppm), waste treatment (mean = 0.092 ppm), and all other areas (mean = 0.055 ppm). Task-based samples indicated that the highest exposures resulted from the sampling tasks, specifically from those performed on process materials; in general, though, even these tasks had concentrations well below the STEL of 5 ppm. The most frequently sampled task was gauging (mean = 0.12 ppm). Task

  20. [Analysis of fluorescence spectrum of petroleum-polluted water].

    PubMed

    Huang, Miao-Fen; Song, Qing-Jun; Xing, Xu-Feng; Jian, Wei-Jun; Liu, Yuan; Zhao, Zu-Long

    2014-09-01

    In four ratio experiments, natural waters, sampled from the mountain reservoir and the sea water around Dalian city, were mixed with the sewage from petroleum refinery and petroleum exploitation plants. The fluorescence spectra of water samples containing only chromophoric dissolved organic matters(CDOM), samples containing only petroleum, and samples containing a mixture of petroleum and CDOM were analyzed, respectively. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a basis for determining the contribution of petroleum substances and CDOM to the total absorption coefficient of the petroleum-contaminated water by using fluorescence technique. The results showed that firstly, CDOM in seawater had three main fluorescence peaks at Ex: 225-230 nm/Em: 320-330 nm, Ex: 280 nm/Em: 340 nm and Ex: 225-240 nm/Em: 430-470 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the oceanic chlorophyll. CDOM in natural reservoir water had two main fluorescence peaks at EX: 240- 260 nm/Em: 420-450 nm and Ex: 310~350 nm/Em: 420--440 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the terrestrial sources; secondly, the water samples containing only petroleum extracted with n-hexane had one to three fluorescence spectral peaksat Ex: 220-240 nm/Em: 320-340 nm, Ex: 270-290 nm/Em: 310-340 nm and Ex: 220-235 nm/Em: 280-310 nm, respectively, caused by their hydrocarbon component; finally, the water samples containing both petroleum and CDOM showed a very strong fluorescence peak at Ex: 230-250 nm/Em: 320-370 nm, caused by the combined effect of CDOM and petroleum hydrocarbons.

  1. [Low temperature plasma technology for biomass refinery].

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaoguo; Chen, Hongzhang

    2014-05-01

    Biorefinery that utilizes renewable biomass for production of fuels, chemicals and bio-materials has become more and more important in chemical industry. Recently, steam explosion technology, acid and alkali treatment are the main biorefinery treatment technologies. Meanwhile, low temperature plasma technology has attracted extensive attention in biomass refining process due to its unique chemical activity and high energy. We systemically summarize the research progress of low temperature plasma technology for pretreatment, sugar platflow, selective modification, liquefaction and gasification in biomass refinery. Moreover, the mechanism of low temperature plasma in biorefinery and its further development were also discussed.

  2. 40 CFR 80.1441 - Small refinery exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1441 Small refinery exemption. (a)(1) Transportation fuel produced at a refinery by a refiner, or foreign refiner (as defined at § 80.1465(a)), is exempt from January 1, 2010 through December 31, 2010 from the renewable...

  3. Report to Congress: Coal refineries: A definition and example concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    A definition of the term coal refinery'' is offered and twenty-seven coal refinery concepts are identified and described. These concepts were selected as being representative of the many possible variations of coal refinery concepts that are possible. The status of development of the different coal refinery descriptions ranges from conceptualized processes in the laboratory stage to integrated processes which are being demonstrated at near commercial scale. The extent of the descriptions ranges from a short summary of the basic processes involved and products produced to more detailed discussions of the processes, coal feeds, environmental aspects, status of development, and research needs. The concepts are grouped into one of four categories and a summary discussion of status and research and development needs for each category is provided. Comments pertinent to the research and development needs for coal refineries in general are also provided. 11 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Petroleum Processing Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the petroleum processing wastes, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as the use of activated carbon in petroleum and petrochemical waste treatment. A list of 15 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Reduction of COD in refinery wastewater through adsorption on date-pit activated carbon.

    PubMed

    El-Naas, Muftah H; Al-Zuhair, Sulaiman; Abu Alhaija, Manal

    2010-01-15

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate the batch adsorption of COD from petroleum refinery wastewater on a locally prepared date-pit activated carbon (DP-AC), and its adsorption effectiveness was compared to that of commercially available BDH activated carbon (BDH-AC). Adsorption equilibrium and kinetic data were determined for both adsorbents and fitted to several adsorption isotherm and kinetics models, respectively. The Langmuir monolayer isotherm fitted well the equilibrium data of COD on both adsorbents; whereas, the kinetics data were best fitted by the pseudo-second order model. Modeling of the controlling mechanisms indicated that both intrinsic kinetics and mass transfer contributed to controlling the adsorption process. Mass transfer seemed to be the dominant mechanism at low COD content, while intrinsic kinetics dominates at high concentrations. In general, the adsorption effectiveness of locally prepared DP-AC was proven to be comparable to that of BDH-AC. Therefore, DP-AC can be utilized as an effective and less expensive adsorbent for the reduction of COD in refinery wastewater.

  6. Aquatic toxicity variability for fresh- and saltwater species in refinery wastewater effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Bleckmann, C.A.; Rabe, B.; Edgmon, S.J.; Fillingame, D.

    1995-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established test requirements for toxicity reduction or toxicity identification evaluations (TR/TIE) of wastewater effluents. Interpretations of test results are complicated by factors other than toxicity when essentially freshwater wastewaters flow into estuaries and the effluent permit requires marine organisms for testing. This paper reports the results of an investigation of potential freshwater surrogate species, and Microtox{reg_sign}, for use in such a TIE. Of the five species tested, mysid shrimp were found to be most sensitive to unidentified toxicants in petroleum refinery wastewater. No strong correlations of this sensitivity to that of other organisms, or to several wastewater constitutents, were identified. The two marine species specified in the effluent permit were more sensitive to the toxicants that were the freshwater species.

  7. Applications of T-ray spectroscopy in the petroleum field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Douseri, Fatemah M.

    2005-11-01

    Because of heavy usage of petroleum products, which are the main source of energy in daily life and industry, a fast, reliable, and portable analysis system is needed to complement traditional techniques. Terahertz (THz) radiation, or T-rays, is electromagnetic radiation in the 0.1 to 10 THz frequency range. One unique attribute of T-rays is their ability to sensitively measure the induced molecular dipole moments in non-polar liquids such as aromatics, which make up the majority of the contents of many petroleum products. This information can lead to several applications in petroleum analysis. The application of T-rays to petroleum product analysis has the potential to make a significant impact in the petroleum field. In this dissertation, I show the first use of T-ray time-domain spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy techniques for petroleum product analysis. I report on the feasibility of analyzing selected petroleum products, including gasoline, diesel, lubricating oil, and selected compounds of toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX). With the use of a T-ray time-domain spectrometer. I demonstrate that gasolines with different octane numbers and diesel all show specific absorption coefficients and refractive indexes in the spectral range from 0.5 to 2.0 THz. Furthermore, I report the qualitative and quantitative analysis of selected BTEX components in gasoline and diesel using FTIR spectroscopy in the 50 to 650 cm-1 region. I distinguish gasolines with different octane numbers from diesel and lubricating oil according to their different spectral features. I also determine the concentration of (o, m, p) xylene isomers in gasoline according to their specific absorption bands. The experimental results in this thesis, imply that linking between the knowledge of petroleum products and the development of T-ray spectrometer with the cooperation of industry might translate the T-ray spectroscopic system into a real world application in

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  9. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  11. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  12. Method for recovery of energy values of oily refinery sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.J. Jr.; Lafser, F.A. Jr.; Yonely, C.

    1992-01-07

    This patent describes a method for disposal of oil refinery sludges containing hydrocarbons, sediment, and at least about 5 percent water by weight in an operating rotary kiln comprising a heated, rotating cylinder containing in-process mineral matter, the rotary kiln having a firing zone in which fuel is ignited. It comprises analyzing the oily refinery sludge to determine its composition, providing the oily refinery sludge as a dried bulk granular material having an energy content of at least about 4,000 BTU per pound, and charging the dried granular material to the firing zone of the rotary kiln as a bulk material and burning the bulk material therein.

  13. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 3. Engineering development. Annual report, April 1, 1995--May 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C; Gaddy, J.L.

    1996-11-01

    Refineries discharge large volumes of H2, CO, and CO 2 from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This R&D program seeks to develop, demonstrate, and commercialize a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol for blending with gasoline. A 200,000 BPD refinery could produce up to 38 million gallons ethanol per year. The program is being conducted in 3 phases: II, technology development; III, engineering development; and IV, demonstration. Phase I, exploratory development, has been completed. The research effort has yielded two strains (Isolates O-52 and C-01) which are to be used in the pilot studies to produce ethanol from CO, CO2, and H2 in petroleum waste gas. Results from single continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) laboratory tests have shown that 20-25 g/L ethanol can be produced with < 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Laboratory studies with two CSTRs in series have yielded ethanol concentrations of 30-35 g/L with 2-4 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Water recycle from distillation back to the fermenter shows that filtration of the water before distillation eliminates the recycle of toxic materials back to the fermenter. Product recovery in the process will use direct distillation to the azeotrope, followed by adsorption to produce neat ethanol. This is less energy intensive than e.g. solvent extraction, azeotropic distillation, or pervaporation. Economic projections are quite attractive; the economics are refinery stream dependent and thus vary depending on refinery location and operation.

  14. Refinery catalysts: Coping with performance anxiety

    SciTech Connect

    Shelley, S.

    1994-04-01

    Petroleum refiners worldwide are struggling to comply with environmental mandates that tightly dictate the composition of gasoline and diesel fuel. At the same time, many are trying to capitalize on cost advantages offered by heavy, dirty feedstocks. This is stimulating development in catalysts for resid cracking, isomerization, alkylation and hydrotreating. The paper briefly describes development efforts.

  15. Reengineering refinery systems: The next generation desktop

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.P.

    1996-09-01

    As refiners reengineer, flatten, or downsize, they remove entire levels of people, leaving in a state of flux the legacy systems and procedures that were designed to support the old organization. The remaining people have new, expanded positions as they absorb roles of the flattened organization. Reengineering will thus drive a new type of structural obsolescence. In addition to normal departmental software aging, many roles must be supported throughout the corporation instead of within a dedicated group. The net result is that reengineering provides an opportunity and mandate to rethink what roles are needed to support refining and what software is needed to support those roles. This article provides both a component architecture technology background and a plan of action for implementing a new manufacturing system that includes the software required to support refinery operations. The emphasis on infrastructure is key to success; these projects are too big to implement immediately. A solid infrastructure and good support feed the continuous improvement process.

  16. Nigerian refineries strive for product balance

    SciTech Connect

    Obuasi, P.A.

    1985-06-17

    This article discusses the growth patterns of the Nigerian refining industry. Production and consumption are expected to follow the pattern of consumption of fuel products by the domestic market, Presently, however, production and consumption are not evenly balanced for most fuel products, and non-fuel products are domestically consumed but not produced. Some progress has been made in the effort to match production and consumption of fuel products. But the progress that would have been made to balance non-fuel products has been nullified by 50% of the Daduna refinery being idle. This is due to problems associated with importation of heavy crude oil into Nigeria and also a weak market for asphalt in Nigeria.

  17. Petroleum and diesel sulfur degradation under gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Luana dos Santos; Calvo, Wilson Aparecido Parejo; Sato, Ivone Mulako; Duarte, Celina Lopes

    2015-10-01

    Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is currently the most common method used by refineries to remove sulfur compounds from petroleum fractions. However, it is not highly effective for removing thiophene compounds such as benzothiophene. Additionally, this process generates high costs for the oil industry. In the present work, ionizing radiation was used in order to study the effect on the degradation of petroleum and diesel sulfur compounds. Crude oil and diesel fuel samples were studied, without any pretreatment, and irradiated using a cobalt-60 gamma cell in a batch system at absorbed doses of 30 kGy and 50 kGy. The sulfur compounds were extracted and then analyzed by gas chromatography associated with mass spectrometry (GCMS). A high efficiency of ionizing radiation was observed regarding the degradation of sulfur compounds such as benzothiophene and benzenethiol and the formation of fragments, for example 1.2-dimethylbenzene and toluene.

  18. Implementation results for automated gas-pulsed cleaning systems of TsKTI on petroleum-heating furnaces, heat-recovery boilers, and hot-water boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrebnyak, A. P.; Kokorev, V. L.; Kokorev, A. L.; Moiseenko, I. O.; Gul'Tyaev, A. V.; Efimova, N. N.

    2012-03-01

    A description is given on the long-term positive experience of implementation of gas-pulsed cleaning (GPC) systems of TsKTI, development for heating surfaces of heat-exchange apparatuses for various purposes (steam and hot-water boilers, processing furnaces of petroleum refineries, etc.) against external soot-dust, ash, and condensed deposits formed during solid and fluid combustion.

  19. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the no cost extension period of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts for a third round of testing, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Hydrotreating and hydrogenation of the product has been completed, and due to removal of material before processing, yield of the jet fuel fraction has decreased relative to an increase in the gasoline fraction. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for

  20. Modeling the chemistry of complex petroleum mixtures.

    PubMed

    Quann, R J

    1998-12-01

    Determining the complete molecular composition of petroleum and its refined products is not feasible with current analytical techniques because of the astronomical number of molecular components. Modeling the composition and behavior of such complex mixtures in refinery processes has accordingly evolved along a simplifying concept called lumping. Lumping reduces the complexity of the problem to a manageable form by grouping the entire set of molecular components into a handful of lumps. This traditional approach does not have a molecular basis and therefore excludes important aspects of process chemistry and molecular property fundamentals from the model's formulation. A new approach called structure-oriented lumping has been developed to model the composition and chemistry of complex mixtures at a molecular level. The central concept is to represent an individual molecular or a set of closely related isomers as a mathematical construct of certain specific and repeating structural groups. A complex mixture such as petroleum can then be represented as thousands of distinct molecular components, each having a mathematical identity. This enables the automated construction of large complex reaction networks with tens of thousands of specific reactions for simulating the chemistry of complex mixtures. Further, the method provides a convenient framework for incorporating molecular physical property correlations, existing group contribution methods, molecular thermodynamic properties, and the structure--activity relationships of chemical kinetics in the development of models.

  1. Design of petroleum products terminal wastewater systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klock, B.

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum products terminals, used in conjunction with transportation operations to accomplish the flow of products from their source in refineries down to the consumers, are relatively simple facilities comprising product storage, the means for connecting storage to transportation operations, and other operations to support those functions. Although wastewater generation at terminals is relatively minor, increasingly strict regulation of wastewater from even minor sources is making it more critical that terminal wastewater handling, treatment, and disposal be understood and optimized to ensure that effective wastewater treatment is accomplished at reasonable cost. Anticipating the increased demands on terminal wastewater handling, the API Marketing Terminal Effluent Task Force has sponsored a number of studies to characterize wastewater at terminals and to develop practical means for treating the water. In addition, the Task Force sponsored Texaco`s writing of the report on which this paper is based, API 4602, Minimization, Handling, Treatment, and Disposal of Petroleum Products Terminal Wastewaters. This paper highlights some of the key recommendations in the report, which are: (1) begin characterizing the terminal`s tank bottoms water flow and quality as soon as possible; (2) determine the optimum wastewater disposal option; (3) for most situations, segregate stormwater from contaminated water; (4) if wastewater is treated, use a collection tank to equalize the flow and concentration of tank bottoms water; (5) if wastewater is hauled off to a disposal company, consider removing benzene first; and (6) minimize the use of detergents in the terminal.

  2. Modeling the chemistry of complex petroleum mixtures.

    PubMed Central

    Quann, R J

    1998-01-01

    Determining the complete molecular composition of petroleum and its refined products is not feasible with current analytical techniques because of the astronomical number of molecular components. Modeling the composition and behavior of such complex mixtures in refinery processes has accordingly evolved along a simplifying concept called lumping. Lumping reduces the complexity of the problem to a manageable form by grouping the entire set of molecular components into a handful of lumps. This traditional approach does not have a molecular basis and therefore excludes important aspects of process chemistry and molecular property fundamentals from the model's formulation. A new approach called structure-oriented lumping has been developed to model the composition and chemistry of complex mixtures at a molecular level. The central concept is to represent an individual molecular or a set of closely related isomers as a mathematical construct of certain specific and repeating structural groups. A complex mixture such as petroleum can then be represented as thousands of distinct molecular components, each having a mathematical identity. This enables the automated construction of large complex reaction networks with tens of thousands of specific reactions for simulating the chemistry of complex mixtures. Further, the method provides a convenient framework for incorporating molecular physical property correlations, existing group contribution methods, molecular thermodynamic properties, and the structure--activity relationships of chemical kinetics in the development of models. PMID:9860903

  3. Combined-cycle cogeneration to power oil refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Broeker, R.J.

    1986-11-01

    A cogeneration plant now under construction at an oil refinery in Martinez, California, is an example of how the energy industry has been responding to the fundamental economic and technological challenges it has been facing over the past ten years. The industry is re-examining cogeneration as one way of meeting the requirements of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act. The new plant is located at Tosco Corporation's Avon Oil Refinery, 45 miles northeast of San Francisco. It was designed by Foster Wheeler to supply process steam for the refinery as well as for a water-treatment installation that will benefit the Contra Costa Water District. Electric power produced will be used primarily by the refinery, with the balance purchased by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company.

  4. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Refinery Model

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Refinery Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  5. Device and method for upgrading petroleum feedstocks and petroleum refinery streams using an alkali metal conductive membrane

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier

    2016-09-13

    A reactor has two chambers, namely an oil feedstock chamber and a source chamber. An ion separator separates the oil feedstock chamber from the source chamber, wherein the ion separator allows alkali metal ions to pass from the source chamber, through the ion separator, and into the oil feedstock chamber. A cathode is at least partially housed within the oil feedstock chamber and an anode is at least partially housed within the source chamber. A quantity of an oil feedstock is within the oil feedstock chamber, the oil feedstock comprising at least one carbon atom and a heteroatom and/or one or more heavy metals, the oil feedstock further comprising naphthenic acid. When the alkali metal ion enters the oil feedstock chamber, the alkali metal reacts with the heteroatom, the heavy metals and/or the naphthenic acid, wherein the reaction with the alkali metal forms inorganic products.

  6. Fingerprinting aliphatic hydrocarbon pollutants over agricultural lands surrounding Tehran oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Javad; Hashemi, Seyed Hossein; Khoshbakht, Korros; Deihimfard, Reza

    2016-11-01

    The analysis of aliphatic hydrocarbons, which are composed of n-alkanes as well as branched and cyclic alkanes, can be used to distinguish between the sources of hydrocarbon contamination. In this study, the concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons, soil pH, and organic matter in agricultural soils located south of Tehran were monitored. Eighty-three soil samples were taken from two depth ranges of 0-30 and 30-60 cm. The results showed that aliphatic compounds ranged from 0.22-68.11 mg kg(-1) at the top to 0.33-53.18 mg kg(-1) at subsoil. The amount of hydrocarbons increases from the northern parts toward the south, and hydrocarbon pollutants originated from both petroleum and non-petroleum sources. Higher concentrations of aliphatic compounds in the southern parts indicated that, aside from the practice of irrigating with untreated wastewater, leakage from oil refinery storage tanks possibly contributed to soil pollution. The results also showed that several sources have polluted the agricultural soils. It is necessary to develop a new local pollution criterion as a diagnostic index that includes not only hydrocarbons but also other parameters such as heavy metal content in both soil and untreated wastewater, surface runoff, and other irrigation water resources to determine the exact origin of pollution.

  7. [Indian workers in Oman].

    PubMed

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable

  8. Estimate of mercury emissions to the atmosphere from petroleum.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, S M

    2001-12-15

    An estimate of the contribution of mercury to the atmospheric environment from petroleum processed in the United States is constructed from recent data. The estimate is based on a mass balance approach for mercury in crude oil, in refined products, and in waste streams (air, water, solid waste) from refineries. Although there are insufficient data at present to have a high degree of confidence in the mean amount and range of mercury concentrations in crude oil or in refined products, the framework of the estimate should assist direction for the acquisition of additional data. On the basis of selected data that put the estimated mean concentration of total mercury in crude oil close to 10 ppb, it is calculated that the total amount of mercury in U.S. petroleum processed yearly is slightly over 8000 kg/yr. Of this amount, approximately 6000 kg/yr is estimated to be emitted to the atmosphere from combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, which represents about 10% of the U.S. yearly emission rate of atmospheric mercury from coal combustion. The material balance predicts that the amount of mercury in air emissions from all U.S. refineries is on the order of 1500 kg/yr based on the assumption that fugitive mercury emissions from refineries are negligible. Atmospheric emissions of mercury from fuel oil burned in the United States are estimated in the U.S. EPA Mercury Report to Congress to be approximately 10000 kg/yr, and this estimate may be in error on the high side by a factor of 3-10. If the mean amounts of mercury in U.S. distillate and residual fuel oils are in the range of 5-15 ppb, as suggested by more recent data, then U.S. fuel oil combustion should contribute no more that about 1000-3000 kg/yr (emission ratio = 1) of mercury to the atmospheric burden.

  9. Health assessment for Pester Refinery, El Dorado, Butler County, Kansas, Region 7. CERCLIS No. KSD000829846. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-16

    The Pester Refinery site has been proposed for listing on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The site, located in the vicinity of an active oil refinery, is known as a burn pond; it had been used as a retention basin for storm water and for disposal of separator sludge from the adjacent refinery. The site is in a mainly rural area, although the town of El Dorado is within a 3-mile radius. Demographic data are not available. Past disposal practices have resulted in contamination of on- and off-site groundwater, surface water, soil, sediment, and sludge. Based on information reviewed, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has concluded that this site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse human health effects. As noted in the Human Exposure Pathways Section, human exposure to heavy metals may be occurring and may have occurred in the past via ingestion of and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater, surface water, soil, sediment, and sludge. Recommendations are made concerning additional monitoring, determination of groundwater and surface water use in the area, surface water protection, and worker protection during hazardous waste activities.

  10. Petroleum: An Energy Profile 1999

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    Explains in layman's terms the major components and operations of the U.S. petroleum industry that include: petroleum products, resources and reserves, drilling and exploration, refining, storage and transportation, imports, exports, and petroleum marketing.

  11. Petroleum 1996: Issues and Trends

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Examines historical trends and focuses on major petroleum issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the petroleum industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to the volatility in petroleum markets.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF GENOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON-BIOREMEDIATED SOIL

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGMON, ROBIN

    2004-10-20

    The relationship between toxicity and soil contamination must be understood to develop reliable indicators of environmental restoration for bioremediation. Two bacterial rapid bioassays: SOS chromotest and umu-test with and without metabolic activation (S-9 mixture) were used to evaluate genotoxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil following bioremediation treatment. The soil was taken from an engineered biopile at the Czor Polish oil refinery. The bioremediation process in the biopile lasted 4 years, and the toxicity measurements were done after this treatment. Carcinogens detected in the soil, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were reduced to low concentrations (2 mg/kg dry wt) by the bioremediation process. Genotoxicity was not observed for soils tested with and without metabolic activation by a liver homogenate (S-9 mixture). However, umu-test was more sensitive than SOS-chromotest in the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon-bioremediated soil. Analytical results of soil used in the bioassays confirmed that the bioremediation process reduced 81 percent of the petroleum hydrocarbons including PAHs. We conclude that the combined test systems employed in this study are useful tools for the genotoxic examination of remediated petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

  13. The US petroleum industry: Past as prologue 1970--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report focuses on the developments that shaped the domestic petroleum industry, and US supply and demand patterns between 1970 and 1992. It also highlights foreign demand and refinery trends. These events are presented in statistical terms in Chapter 2, and are described in detail in Chapter 3. Some similarity, in information noted in Chapters 2 and 3 allows each chapter to stand independently, to facilitate the report`s use. The report is intended to provide background information on the petroleum industry, and its history, and to act as a reference for those more familiar with the industry. Chapter 2 describes the patterns of change for each component of supply and demand, and briefly touches on the events (fully described in Chapter 3) that induced significant change or fluctuation. Supplemental data are contained in the Appendix section. Chapter 3 presents a chronology of the major petroleum-related events and their consequences. The Chapter also describes the actions or reactions of the petroleum industry to the event, and the impact of the events and actions taken on domestic and/or foreign economies.

  14. Overview of infrared in the petroleum industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohliger, Albert A.

    2003-04-01

    Infrared Thermography has been found to be a very valuable tool in the petroleum industry. It has had focus in surveying all the types of equipment in its asset base. This includes electrical distribution systems, pumping systems, piping systems, exchangers, flares, process fired heaters and many other types of equipment. The petroleum industry is divided into three basic operating areas; Upstream, Midstream and Downstream. Upstream operation covers the exploration, drilling and production of natural gas and crude oil. Midstream operation in the petroleum industry is the distribution and storage system between the Upstream to the Downstream systems. Downstream operations make the finished energy product and are the refineries and chemical plants. As in other industries, the petroleum industry has mechanical equipment, electrical equipment, pressure-containing equipment, and fixed structures. In addition to this equipment, there is some specialty equipment which includes items such as fired heaters and specialty process vessels. The industry has put in place infrared programs as a predictive maintenance tool in many of their operating areas. Using infrared to monitor the operating integrity on equipment is one of the synergies now being better developed. The opportunity is to define measurable thermal patterns that can be used to define defects and predict failures. Infrared technology is a mature reliability work process and been around for many years. The first commercial infrared camera was available in the '70's. These radiometric cameras and the support equipment have had many improvements since then. The use of the technology has also been improved with synergies incorporated from many type of industries, including the military. Infrared is a technology that has been added to the predictive & preventative maintenance toolbox of the petroleum industry reliability focus. An important part of any reliability work process is to have predictive tools to define

  15. Understanding Naphthenic Acid Corrosion in Refinery Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Brian Neil

    Naphthenic acid corrosion has plagued refineries for nearly a century. However, the vast majority of naphthenic acid corrosion research to date is solely focused on remediation, and not understanding the fundamental mechanism of corrosion. To further the current state of understanding in order to mitigate corrosion, experiments were performed to address the corrosion mechanism of iron, as well as of the ferrous alloying elements. In addition, electrochemical methods were used to determine the presence of acids within nonpolar solvents, such as a crude. The structure of the acids in solution was studied with FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy to understand how the acids self-associate as a function of temperature, concentration and presence of a metal. The results have yielded that iron corrodes via an etch pitting mechanism. In addition, this work has determined that the mechanism of resistance of chromium and molybdenum are their passive films, and that these metals are susceptible to naphthenic acid attack if the passive films break down. The mechanism of resistance of these elements provides insight into the failure mode of 304 and the 400 series stainless steels in naphthenic acid service. A particular result of interest is that nickel catalytically decomposes naphthenic acids at high temperatures (e.g. 270°C) via a catalytic mechanism. Finally, a palladium hydride reference electrode was developed that functions in aprotic solvents, and an ionic liquid was synthesized that allowed for the electrochemical detection of naphthenic acids in toluene.

  16. Fundamentals of Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic information on petroleum is presented in this book prepared for naval logistics officers. Petroleum in national defense is discussed in connection with consumption statistics, productive capacity, world's resources, and steps in logistics. Chemical and geological analyses are made in efforts to familiarize methods of refining, measuring,…

  17. Geostatistics and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Hohn, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The book reviewed is designed as a practical guide to geostatistics or kriging for the petroleum geologists. The author's aim in the book is to explain geostatistics as a working tool for petroleum geologists through extensive use of case-study material mostly drawn from his own research in gas potential evaluation in West Virginia. Theory and mathematics are pared down to immediate needs.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  19. World petroleum supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A number of conclusions by political conservatives about the fate of world petroleum supplies have been emerging lately. Among the most recent of them arose from discussions, held at the 1983 spring meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), which focused on the environment and resource study entitled “The Global 2000 Report” (New Scientist, June 9, 1983). Fred Singer, representing the Heritage Foundation of Washington, D.C., criticized the report, which predicted shortages in the near future, saying that the current world-wide oil glut will continue beyond the year 2000. Alternatives to the use of petroleum are a part of the cause. Singer argued that conservation, nuclear energy, and other petroleum substitutes will continue to suppress the demand for petroleum. In addition, according to other evaluations, exploration for petroleum and natural gas has not really begun.

  20. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO

  1. 77 FR 959 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries; National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... entities Industry 325 Manufacturing industries, particularly petrochemical, chemical, polymers, plastics... another opportunity to comment on the specific application to your industry. Because we feel that... organic compounds (VOC) and hazardous air pollutants (HAP). The proposed uniform standards reflect the...

  2. 78 FR 37133 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... and from these heat exchangers. Sample coolers or pump seal coolers are not considered heat exchangers... determined based on direct measurement, pump curves, heat balance calculations or other engineering methods... sample coolers and pump seal coolers should be specifically exempted from the monitoring requirements...

  3. Petroleum Refinery Information Collection Request (ICR) Emissions Test Report for BP-Husky Refining LLC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On March 31, 2011, U.S. EPA sent a Section 114 letter to the BP-Husky Refining Company in Oregon, Ohio stating that the facility was subject to the ICR and that certain information would need to be submitted by the facility to satisfy U.S. EPA’s ICR.

  4. PETROLEUM REFINERY OPERATIONS SCHEDULING. CHAPTER III. A CRUDE OIL ALLOCATION PROBLEM,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    mathematical technique used takes notice of the net realization estimates that are available in large integrated companies and also handles the question of crude oil availabilities and of primary distillation capacities.

  5. [Evaluation of the efficiency of Angara River water protection measures against pollution by petroleum products].

    PubMed

    Zabuga, G A; Katul'skiĭ, Iu N; Gorbunova, O V; Storozheva, L N

    2011-01-01

    The process installations and storage reservoirs of a petroleum refinery have leaks of petroleum products (PP) that pollute soil, underground waters, and eventually nearest water objects, by worsening their hygienic state. Environmental and economic assessments of the Angara River water protection system that is in operation at the petroleum refinery OAO "Angara Petroleum Company", which comprises well clusters, a gravel-filled trench, and a drainage system, have shown the high values of preventable relative natural and economic damages and other economic indicators. At the same time, comparison of the amount of PPs accumulated at the industrial site with their annual withdrawal has demonstrated a need for further development of a river protection system. Therefore the environmental protection system efficacy evaluated by the quality of goal attainment and by means of a matrix of algorithmized statements was 60% or 5 of 20 scores, which shows the necessity of special measures to protect Angara River waters. The elaboration and implementation of these measures associated with considerable expenditures make it possible not only to increase the environmental efficiency of water protection of the Angara River, but also to do the hygienic quality of water use in its related localities.

  6. Oil refinery wastewater treatment using coupled electrocoagulation and fixed film biological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Laura S.; Rodriguez, Oscar M.; Reyna, Silvia; Sánchez-Salas, José Luis; Lozada, J. Daniel; Quiroz, Marco A.; Bandala, Erick R.

    2016-02-01

    Oil refinery wastewater was treated using a coupled treatment process including electrocoagulation (EC) and a fixed film aerobic bioreactor. Different variables were tested to identify the best conditions using this procedure. After EC, the effluent was treated in an aerobic biofilter. EC was capable to remove over 88% of the overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the wastewater under the best working conditions (6.5 V, 0.1 M NaCl, 4 electrodes without initial pH adjustment) with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal slightly higher than 80%. Aluminum release from the electrodes to the wastewater was found an important factor for the EC efficiency and closely related with several operational factors. Application of EC allowed to increase the biodegradability of the sample from 0.015, rated as non-biodegradable, up to 0.5 widely considered as biodegradable. The effluent was further treated using an aerobic biofilter inoculated with a bacterial consortium including gram positive and gram negative strains and tested for COD and TPH removal from the EC treated effluent during 30 days. Cell count showed the typical bacteria growth starting at day three and increasing up to a maximum after eight days. After day eight, cell growth showed a plateau which agreed with the highest decrease on contaminant concentration. Final TPHs concentration was found about 600 mgL-1 after 30 days whereas COD concentration after biological treatment was as low as 933 mgL-1. The coupled EC-aerobic biofilter was capable to remove up to 98% of the total TPH amount and over 95% of the COD load in the oil refinery wastewater.

  7. Revise refinery/distribution models to a regional basis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, H.F.; Capers, J.D.; Webster, L.D. Jr.; Wise, J.R.

    1980-12-30

    This project was conducted to demonstrate that DOE Regions are feasible geographical subdivisions of a domestic petroleum industry aggregating model that simulates the industry's entire operation from raw materials production to the satisfaction of products demands. The modeling system, developed for DOE on a different geographical basis in prior studies, has been successfully modified, validated and used to satisfy the requirements of this project. Basic project efforts were divided into eight different tasks. A summary of each task, including its description, completion date and reporting method, is included. Task 1 consisted of developing an appropriate data base and redesigning the modeling system to accommodate small groupings of states (Aggregator Model Areas) which could be combined in final reports to produce results on the basis of DOE Regions. Task 2 involved restructuring and validating a set of refinery linear programming (LP) models, and the same effort was required for the industry aggregator model under Task 3. Under Task 4, we determined that utilizing the 1985-normal supply and demand balances developed earlier in the project would be appropriate for efforts under this contract modification. Task 5 supported development of extreme yields for refinery operations within each modeled AMA. Task 6, an analysis of potential supply interruption scenarios, combined with DOE response strategies, was conducted along the lines of scenario/response strategies developed earlier under this contract. Results for Task 7 showed that it would not be necessary to divert remaining imported crude supplies away from the Gulf Coast during an emergency. Task 8 results provided DOE with the capability to estimate the impact on world crude markets of potential DOE strategies for acquiring crude supplies to be stored in SPR sites along the Gulf Coast.

  8. Refinery uses bioslurry process to treat RCRA wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Oolman, T.; Baker, R.R.; Renfro, N.L.; Marshall, G.E.

    1996-04-01

    Restrictions on land disposal of oily refinery wastes have forced the refining industry to develop cost-effective methods to treat these wastes before disposal. Valero Refining Company is using an onsite, tank-based biological treatment process to treat oily wastes at its Corpus Christi, Texas, refinery. This system consistently treats these wastes to RCRA universal treatment standards (UTS), thereby allowing direct disposal of the treated residue in a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted landfill. In selecting the biotreatment process, Valero used several criteria including environmental performance, equipment reliability and ability to be integrated into refinery operations and process safety. Capital investment, maintenance and operating costs also were important considerations. This case history shows how Valero successfully used the bioslurry process to treat oily wastes such as API separator sludge and slop-oil emulsion before landfill disposal.

  9. Mortality experience among employees at a hydrometallurgical nickel refinery and fertiliser complex in Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta (1954-95)

    PubMed Central

    Egedahl, R; Carpenter, M; Lundell, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To study the mortality experience of workers at a hydrometallurgical nickel refinery and fertiliser complex in Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, Canada.
METHODS—A total of 1649 male employees of Sherritt International who worked for at least 12 continuous months during the years 1954 to 1978 at the Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta hydrometallurgical nickel refinery and fertiliser complex were followed up for an additional 17 years. Mortality was ascertained from the Canadian mortality data base maintained by Statistics Canada and covered the years 1954-95. Statistics were analysed with Monson's computer program.
RESULTS—Total mortality, when compared with the Canadian population, was significantly below expectation. Fewer deaths were found for circulatory disease, ischaemic heart disease, respiratory disease, neoplasms, digestive cancer, and accidents, poisonings, and violence. Among the 718 men in the group exposed to nickel, there were no deaths due to nasal cavity or paranasal sinus cancer. Fewer deaths were found for all causes, circulatory disease, ischaemic heart disease, neoplasms and digestive cancer. Lower death rates were observed than expected for respiratory malignancies and cancer of the bronchus and lung.
CONCLUSION—No association was found in this study between exposure to nickel concentrate or metallic nickel in the hydrometallurgical refining process and the subsequent development of respiratory cancer.


Keywords: epidemiology; nickel workers; mortality PMID:11600726

  10. EIA model documentation: Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-30

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Petroleum Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, section 57.b.2). The PMM models petroleum refining activities, the marketing of products, the production of natural gas liquids and domestic methanol, projects petroleum provides and sources of supplies for meeting demand. In addition, the PMM estimates domestic refinery capacity expansion and fuel consumption.

  11. Exposures and symptoms among workers after an offsite train derailment and vinyl chloride release

    PubMed Central

    Wilken, Jason A.; Graziano, Leah; Vaouli, Elena; Markiewicz, Karl; Helverson, Robert; Brinker, Kimberly; Shumate, Alice M.; Duncan, Mary Anne

    2015-01-01

    Objective In 2012 in New Jersey, a train derailment resulted in the puncture of a tanker car carrying liquid vinyl chloride under pressure, and a resulting airborne vinyl chloride plume drifted onto the grounds of a nearby refinery. This report details the investigation of exposures and symptoms among refinery workers. Design and setting The investigation team met with refinery workers to discuss their experience after the derailment and provided workers a self-administered survey to document symptoms and worker responses during the incident. Associations among categorical variables and experiencing symptoms were evaluated using Fisher’s exact test. Participants Twenty-six of 155 (17 percent) workers present at the refinery or driving on the access road the date the spill occurred completed the survey. Main outcome measure(s) Any self-reported symptom following exposure from the vinyl chloride release. Results Fifteen workers (58 percent) reported ≥1 symptom, most commonly headache (12, 46 percent). Three (12 percent) reported using respiratory protection. No differences in reporting symptoms were observed by location during the incident or by the building in which workers sheltered. Workers who moved from one shelter to another during the incident (ie, broke shelter) were more likely to report symptoms (Fisher’s exact test, p = 0.03); however, there are only limited data regarding vinyl chloride concentrations in shelters versus outside. Conclusions Breaking shelter might result in greater exposures and managers and health and safety officers of vulnerable facilities with limited physical access should consider developing robust shelter-in-place plans and alternate emergency egress plans. Workers should consider using respiratory protection if exiting a shelter is necessary during a chemical incident. PMID:26312496

  12. 75 FR 27641 - Safety Zone; Marathon Oil Refinery Construction, Rouge River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... No. USCG-2010-0333] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Marathon Oil Refinery Construction, Rouge River... vessels from a portion of the Rouge River during the Marathon Oil Refinery Construction project. This... offloading of equipment in conjunction with the Marathon Oil Refinery Construction project. The offloading...

  13. 40 CFR 80.1280 - How are refinery benzene baselines calculated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are refinery benzene baselines... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Averaging, Banking and Trading (abt) Program § 80.1280 How are refinery benzene baselines calculated? (a) A refinery's...

  14. 40 CFR 80.1280 - How are refinery benzene baselines calculated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are refinery benzene baselines... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Averaging, Banking and Trading (abt) Program § 80.1280 How are refinery benzene baselines calculated? (a) A refinery's...

  15. 40 CFR 80.1280 - How are refinery benzene baselines calculated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How are refinery benzene baselines... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Averaging, Banking and Trading (abt) Program § 80.1280 How are refinery benzene baselines calculated? (a) A refinery's...

  16. 40 CFR 80.1280 - How are refinery benzene baselines calculated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How are refinery benzene baselines... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Averaging, Banking and Trading (abt) Program § 80.1280 How are refinery benzene baselines calculated? (a) A refinery's...

  17. 40 CFR 80.1280 - How are refinery benzene baselines calculated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How are refinery benzene baselines... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Averaging, Banking and Trading (abt) Program § 80.1280 How are refinery benzene baselines calculated? (a) A refinery's...

  18. 40 CFR 80.295 - How is a refinery sulfur baseline determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is a refinery sulfur baseline... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Abt Program-Baseline Determination § 80.295 How is a refinery sulfur baseline determined? (a) A refinery's gasoline sulfur...

  19. 40 CFR 80.295 - How is a refinery sulfur baseline determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How is a refinery sulfur baseline... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Abt Program-Baseline Determination § 80.295 How is a refinery sulfur baseline determined? (a) A refinery's gasoline sulfur...

  20. 40 CFR 80.295 - How is a refinery sulfur baseline determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How is a refinery sulfur baseline... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Abt Program-Baseline Determination § 80.295 How is a refinery sulfur baseline determined? (a) A refinery's gasoline sulfur...

  1. 40 CFR 80.295 - How is a refinery sulfur baseline determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How is a refinery sulfur baseline... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Abt Program-Baseline Determination § 80.295 How is a refinery sulfur baseline determined? (a) A refinery's gasoline sulfur...

  2. 40 CFR 80.295 - How is a refinery sulfur baseline determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How is a refinery sulfur baseline... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Abt Program-Baseline Determination § 80.295 How is a refinery sulfur baseline determined? (a) A refinery's gasoline sulfur...

  3. Migrant Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a new German law to encourage foreign workers to return to their home countries, employment exchanges for young foreigners in Germany, and a training program for migrant workers in India. (SK)

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  6. Toxicity reduction in the treatment of refinery waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenfelder, W.W. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic Toxicity in refinery and petrochemical wastewaters may result from chemicals present in the feedstock, chemicals added or generated in the process, or chemicals generated during the wastewater treatment process, usually referred to as soluble microbial products (SMP). In most cases, the chemicals originally present or generated are biodegradable and can be removed in the biological treatment process. In some cases, a physical-chemical source treatment may be required. SMP generated through the wastewater treatment process are non-biodegradable and are best handled by the application of powdered activated carbon (PAC) integrated into the activated sludge process. This paper describes toxicity reduction in refinery effluents.

  7. Amine corrosion inhibitor successful in tests at Mobil's Paulsboro refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-03

    Mobil Oil Corp. has successfully completed a test of an amine unit corrosion inhibition system at its 100,000-b/d refinery in Paulsboro, NJ. The system, the Amine Guard ST system is used to inhibit corrosion of diethanolamine (DEA) sweetening units that treat process streams from the fluid catalytic cracker (FCC), a hydrodesulfurization unit (HDU), and lube oil dewaxing (LDW) units at the refinery. Use of the corrosion-inhibition system has allowed an increase in the DEA concentration to 55 wt %, a reduction of the DEA circulation rate by 40%, and a reduction in regeneration steam of 35%.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  9. Carbonate petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Roehl, P.O.; Choquette, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the geology of petroleum deposits. Topics considered include diagenesis, porosity, dolomite reservoirs, deposition, reservoir rock, reefs, morphology, fracture-controlled production, Cenozoic reservoirs, Mesozoic reservoirs, and Paleozoic reservoirs.

  10. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  11. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates.

  12. Biological Treatment of Petroleum in Radiologically Contaminated Soil

    SciTech Connect

    BERRY, CHRISTOPHER

    2005-11-14

    This chapter describes ex situ bioremediation of the petroleum portion of radiologically co-contaminated soils using microorganisms isolated from a waste site and innovative bioreactor technology. Microorganisms first isolated and screened in the laboratory for bioremediation of petroleum were eventually used to treat soils in a bioreactor. The bioreactor treated soils contaminated with over 20,000 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbon and reduced the levels to less than 100 mg/kg in 22 months. After treatment, the soils were permanently disposed as low-level radiological waste. The petroleum and radiologically contaminated soil (PRCS) bioreactor operated using bioventing to control the supply of oxygen (air) to the soil being treated. The system treated 3.67 tons of PCRS amended with weathered compost, ammonium nitrate, fertilizer, and water. In addition, a consortium of microbes (patent pending) isolated at the Savannah River National Laboratory from a petroleum-contaminated site was added to the PRCS system. During operation, degradation of petroleum waste was accounted for through monitoring of carbon dioxide levels in the system effluent. The project demonstrated that co-contaminated soils could be successfully treated through bioventing and bioaugmentation to remove petroleum contamination to levels below 100 mg/kg while protecting workers and the environment from radiological contamination.

  13. NAFTA opportunities: Petroleum refining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) creates a more transparent environment for the sale of refined petroleum products to Mexico, and locks in access to Canada's relatively open market for these products. Canada and Mexico are sizable United States export markets for refined petroleum products, with exports of $556 million and $864 million, respectively, in 1992. These markets represent approximately 24 percent of total U.S. exports of these goods.

  14. Fundamentals of petroleum maps

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Elroy, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    It's a complete guide to the fundamentals of reading, using, and making petroleum maps. The topics covered are well spotting, lease posting, contouring, hanging cross sections, and ink drafting. This book not only tells the how of petroleum mapping, but it also tells the why to better understand the principles and techniques. The books does not teach ''drafting,'' but does describe the proper care and use of drafting equipment for those who are totally new to the task.

  15. Use of injection wells for refinery waste disposal. Quarterly technical report, January 1, 1997--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Paque, M.

    1997-04-30

    The Ground Water Protection Council (GWPC) has had initial discussions with the American Petroleum Institute staff and several major oil companies concerning a project that would address several technical and regulatory issues related to the use of injection wells at refineries. All parties believe that this project has significant potential to save millions of dollars in operational costs by streamlining and improving both state and federal regulations which are now overly redundant and not risk-based. As currently regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), injection wells used for refinery related disposal are typically classified as either Class I hazardous or non-hazardous, depending on RCRA classification. The expense of acquiring an operating permit for these types of wells is very high and they have substantially more operational expenses than a typical Class II injection well. The combination of permitting requirements (including a {open_quotes}no-migration{close_quotes} petition), stringent construction requirements, and intensive monitoring and reporting requirements often make these wells uneconomical for otherwise legitimate waste disposal purposes.

  16. 1991 international petroleum encyclopedia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    There is no other petroleum industry publication quite like the International Petroleum Encyclopedia. With a timely, accurate combination of global industry coverage and analysis, detailed statistical surveys, cutting-edge reports on technological advancements and the ever-popular atlas maps, the 1991 International Petroleum Encyclopedia is a smart buy for professionals whose business is oil and gas, as well as for those whose business is affected by the industry's trends and developments. Written by a professional staff of Oil and Gas Journal petroleum experts, the 1991 IPE gives you the all important global perspective for constructing sound business strategies for the 90's. The petroleum industry is scrambling for information that will help it survive this volitile period. This book reports on the topics in the petroleum industry the latest developments in horizontal drilling, world refining (the latest information on reformulated fuels), and predictions about the post-war Persian Gulf industry. PULS, discussions on changes in the Gulf of Mexico, developments in the LNG trade, and crude oil tanker supply/.demand curves.

  17. Bioremediation of Petroleum and Radiological Contaminated Soils at the Savannah River Site: Laboratory to Field Scale Applications

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGMON, ROBINL.

    2004-06-07

    In the process of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations limited amounts of waste are generated containing petroleum, and radiological contaminated soils. Currently, this combination of radiological and petroleum contaminated waste does not have an immediate disposal route and is being stored in low activity vaults. SRS developed and implemented a successful plan for clean up of the petroleum portion of the soils in situ using simple, inexpensive, bioreactor technology. Treatment in a bioreactor removes the petroleum contamination from the soil without spreading radiological contamination to the environment. This bioreactor uses the bioventing process and bioaugmentation or the addition of the select hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Oxygen is usually the initial rate-limiting factor in the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Using the bioventing process allowed control of the supply of nutrients and moisture based on petroleum contamination concentrations and soil type. The results of this work have proven to be a safe and cost-effective means of cleaning up low level radiological and petroleum-contaminated soil. Many of the other elements of the bioreactor design were developed or enhanced during the demonstration of a ''biopile'' to treat the soils beneath a Polish oil refinery's waste disposal lagoons. Aerobic microorganisms were isolated from the aged refinery's acidic sludge contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Twelve hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were isolated from the sludge. The predominant PAH degraders were tentatively identified as Achromobacter, Pseudomonas Burkholderia, and Sphingomonas spp. Several Ralstonia spp were also isolated that produce biosurfactants. Biosurfactants can enhance bioremediation by increasing the bioavailability of hydrophobic contaminants including hydrocarbons. The results indicated that the diversity of acid-tolerant PAH-degrading microorganisms in acidic oil wastes may be much greater than previously

  18. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31

    fuels ({approx}60 ON for coal-based gasoline and {approx}20 CN for coal-based diesel fuel). Therefore, the allowable range of blending levels was studied where the blend would achieve acceptable performance. However, in both cases of the coal-based fuels, their ignition characteristics may make them ideal fuels for advanced combustion strategies where lower ON and CN are desirable. Task 3 was designed to develop new approaches for producing ultra clean fuels and value-added chemicals from refinery streams involving coal as a part of the feedstock. It consisted of the following three parts: (1) desulfurization and denitrogenation which involves both new adsorption approach for selective removal of nitrogen and sulfur and new catalysts for more effective hydrotreating and the combination of adsorption denitrogenation with hydrodesulfurization; (2) saturation of two-ring aromatics that included new design of sulfur resistant noble-metal catalysts for hydrogenation of naphthalene and tetralin in middle distillate fuels, and (3) value-added chemicals from naphthalene and biphenyl, which aimed at developing value-added organic chemicals from refinery streams such as 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 4,4{prime}-dimethylbiphenyl as precursors to advanced polymer materials. Major advances were achieved in this project in designing the catalysts and sorbent materials, and in developing fundamental understanding. The objective of Task 4 was to evaluate the effect of introducing coal into an existing petroleum refinery on the fuel oil product, specifically trace element emissions. Activities performed to accomplish this objective included analyzing two petroleum-based commercial heavy fuel oils (i.e., No. 6 fuel oils) as baseline fuels and three co-processed fuel oils, characterizing the atomization performance of a No. 6 fuel oil, measuring the combustion performance and emissions of the five fuels, specifically major, minor, and trace elements when fired in a watertube boiler designed

  19. [Physiological and hygienic characteristics of working conditions of workers in petrochemical enterprise].

    PubMed

    Setko, A G; Nazmeev, M A; Ponomareva, S G; Lutoshkina, A S; Vasil'eva, F F

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents results of a study of the functional state of major workers of the refinery "Gazprom Neftekhim Salavat" when exposed to hazardous working conditions. The results have shown adverse effects of chemical factors of working environment and the intensity of the labor process on the functional state of the body of workers that shows a violation of efficiency and adaptability of the their organism to the working conditions.

  20. Texas refinery air pollution emissions are being severely underestimated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-06-01

    The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria region of southeastern Texas is home to heavy industrial investment in oil refining and petrochemical production. Pollutants emanating from the factories and refineries have repeatedly caused the region to fail national and state-level tests for air quality and ground-level ozone.

  1. 40 CFR 80.1621 - Small volume refinery definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....1622: (1) Produces gasoline by processing crude oil through refinery processing units. (2) The average aggregate daily crude oil throughput, including feedstocks derived from crude oil, for the calendar year... the calendar year) does not exceed 75,000 barrels. Throughput means the total crude oil...

  2. Battle of the starches: Insoluble versus soluble at the refinery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study using the USDA starch research method has been conducted to evaluate the effects of total, insoluble, and soluble starch on raw sugar filterability and viscosity in international carbonatation refineries. Raw sugar qualities, i.e., pol, color, % invert, ash, and dextran, were also studied in...

  3. 31 CFR 542.314 - Petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum or petroleum products of... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 542.314 Petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. The term petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin means petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  5. Carbonization of petroleum feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Eser, S.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of the petroleum cokes are determined by their crystalline structure, which principally depends on the nature of the mesophase formed during the liquid-phase carbonization of the precursors. This study was aimed at investigating the relationships between the chemical nature of the petroleum feedstocks and the mesophase development during carbonization. Ashland 240 pitch and a range of petroleum heavy residua were characterized by solvent fractionation, elemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, H and TC Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. The semi-coke (pyridine insolubles) formation from the feedstocks and their asphaltene fractions was found to be first-order with respect to the concentration of pyridine solubles over a wide conversion range. An inverse relationship was observed between the rate of carbonization of the asphaltenes and the degree of mesophase development. The degree of mesophase development during the carbonization of the feedstock asphaltenes increased consistently with the increasing hydrogen aromaticity over the whole range of the feedstocks used. The principal conclusion from this study is that the mesophase development during carbonization critically depends on the chemical constitution of the petroleum feedstocks. The molecular nature of the asphaltene fractions determines the extent of mesophase development during the carbonization of the petroleum heavy residua. In this respect, the hydrogen aromaticity of the asphaltenes appears to be a good measure for the feedstock quality in terms of resulting coke structure and properties.

  6. Petroleum storage tank cleaning using commercial microbial culture products

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, D.R.; Entzeroth, L.C.; Timmis, A.; Whiteside, A.; Hoskins, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The removal of paraffinic bottom accumulations from refinery storage tanks represents an increasingly costly area of petroleum storage management. Microorganisms can be used to reduce paraffinic bottoms by increasing the solubility of bottom material and by increasing the wax-carrying capacity of carrier oil used in the cleaning process. The economic savings of such treatments are considerable. The process is also intrinsically safer than alternative methods, as it reduces and even eliminates the need for personnel to enter the tank during the cleaning process. Both laboratory and field sample analyses can be used to document changes in tank material during the treatment process. These changes include increases in volatile content and changes in wax distribution. Several case histories illustrating these physical and chemical changes are presented along with the economics of treatment.

  7. Contingent workers.

    PubMed

    Guerrina, Ryan T; Burns, Candace M; Conlon, Helen

    2011-03-01

    Contingent workers compose a large portion of the U.S. work force. Contingent workers include temporary employees, contracted employees, day laborers, and freelancers. The skill level and educational requirements for their jobs vary from basic to highly advanced. Construction, housekeeping, engineering, and nursing have such positions. U.S. contingent workers are more likely to engage in occupations associated with increased risk of injury, and a variety of factors increase their risk of work injuries, particularly those leading to death. This article focuses on select occupational health and safety issues affecting contingent workers and their implications for occupational health nurses.

  8. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  13. National Standard Petroleum Oil Tables

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1936-03-04

    largely according to the recommendations of a committee appointed by the American Petroleum Institute to represent the petroleum industry. In order to... Petroleum Institute , the U. S. Bureau of Mines, and the National Bureau of Standards, in December 1921, agreed to recommend that in the future only...overcome the confusion that has existed in the petroleum-oil industry by reason of the use of two so-called Baume scales for light liquids, the American

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  15. Chemical Principles Revisited: Petroleum Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an historical review of the role of petroleum in world history and information on the chemistry of petroleum. It is suggested that petroleum chemistry be discussed since within the next two decades oil and gas will provide the major portion of U.S. energy. (Author/SA)

  16. Evaluation of oil removal efficiency and enzymatic activity in some fungal strains for bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soils

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Petroleum pollution is a global disaster and there are several soil cleaning methods including bioremediation. Methods In a field study, fugal strains were isolated from oil-contaminated sites of Arak refinery (Iran) and their growth ability was checked in potato dextrose agar (PDA) media containing 0-10% v/v crude oil, the activity of three enzymes (Catalase, Peroxidase and Phenol Oxidase) was evaluated in the fungal colonies and bioremediation ability of the fungi was checked in the experimental pots containing 3 kg sterilized soil and different concentrations of petroleum (0-10% w/w). Results Four fungal strains, Acromonium sp., Alternaria sp., Aspergillus terreus and Penicillium sp., were selected as the most resistant ones. They were able to growth in the subjected concentrations and Alternaria sp. showed the highest growth ability in the petroleum containing media. The enzyme assay showed that the enzymatic activity was increased in the oil-contaminated media. Bioremediation results showed that the studied fungi were able to decrease petroleum pollution. The highest petroleum removing efficiency of Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium sp., Alternaria sp. and Acromonium sp. was evaluated in the 10%, 8%, 8% and 2% petroleum pollution respectively. Conclusions Fungi are important microorganisms in decreasing of petroleum pollution. They have bioremediation potency that is related to their enzymatic activities. PMID:23369665

  17. Petroleum lands and leasing

    SciTech Connect

    Burk, J.

    1984-01-01

    This is a reference book for the lessor, lessee, royalty owner, PLM student and landman. Contents: A historical background; Rights of ownership; Instruments of conveyance; Who owns this land. The oil and gas lease and leasing procedures; Curing titles; Pooling and utilization; Contracts and agreements; Lease maintenance; Land measurements and descriptions; Code of ethics; American Association of Petroleum Landmen; Glossary.

  18. Petroleum-derived carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Bacha, J.D.; Newman, J.W.; White, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on petroleum coke. Topics considered at the symposium included mesophase formation, thermal analysis, rheology, microstructure, carbon fibers, electron microscopy, residual oil processing, synthetic aromatic pitch, delayed coking, calcination, desulfurization, graphite, metallurgical coke, carbon black, natural gas pyrolysis, liquid impregnation, and carbon-carbon composites.

  19. Non-Petroleum Oils

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  20. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    EPA Science Inventory

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  1. Petroleum Processing Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson; Jenny Loveridge

    2012-09-01

    A series of volatile crude oils was characterized using the Asphaltene Determinator oncolumn precipitation and re-dissolution method developed at Western Research Institute (WRI). Gravimetric asphaltenes and polars fractions from silica gel chromatography separation of the oils were characterized also. A study to define the differences in composition of asphaltenes in refinery desalter rag layer emulsions and the corresponding feed and desalter oils was conducted. Results indicate that the most polar and pericondensed aromatic material in the asphaltenes is enriched in the emulsions. The wax types and carbon number distributions in the two heptaneeluting fractions from the Waxphaltene Determinator separation were characterized by repetitive collection of the fractions followed by high temperature gas chromatography (GC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). High resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICRMS) was conducted by researchers at the Florida State University National High Magnetic Field laboratory in a no-cost collaboration with the study.

  2. Selective toluene disproportionation process proven at Italian refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Gorra, F. ); Breckenridge, L.L.; Guy, W.M. ); Sailor, R.A. )

    1992-10-12

    This paper reports that a selective toluene disproportionation process based on Mobil's ZSM-5 catalyst, Mstdp, has completed a full 500-day first cycle at Enichem Anic's refinery in Gela, Italy. After regeneration, a second cycle operated for 100 days to confirm the regenerability of the catalyst. For Enichem, the main objective was to evaluate process yields and economics. For Mobil, the main objective was to demonstrate commercial catalyst selectivation (the establishment of high selectivity through a pretreatment step), cycle length, and regenerability.

  3. University of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) Technology Research

    SciTech Connect

    Pendse, Hemant P.

    2010-11-23

    This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led to active projects in bioplastics and carbon nanofibers. A lease for 40,000 sq. ft. high-bay space has been obtained to establish a Technology Research Center for IFPR technology validation on industrially relevant scale. UMaine forest bioproducts research initiative that began in April 2006 has led to establishment of a formal research institute beginning in March 2010.

  4. Recommissioned German refinery ready to meet tough fuels, emissions specs

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1993-08-09

    In November and December 1991, Beta Raffinerie-gesellschaft Wilhelmshaven MBH restarted the mothballed refinery at Wilhelmshaven, Germany. The refurbished refinery is sophisticated enough to produce high-grade, low-sulfur fuels and meet stringent emissions specifications, even when processing high-sulfur crudes. Located on Jade Bay in northern Germany near Wilhelmshaven, the Beta facility is the only refinery in Germany on a deep-water port. Refurbishment and recommissioning took only about 1 year. The primary steps were: detailed visual/ultrasonic inspection; reassembly or replacement of all pumps; replacement of much of the piping and installment of new piping to improve tank farm flexibility; disassembly and reassembly of all jetty booms and dredging of the jetty; sandblasting and relining of all tanks, installation of double seals, and replacement of various tank bottoms; conversion or upgrading of several tanks to other uses; strengthening of LPG spheres and covering them with concrete casements; reactivating the Foxboro control system for startup (the system is now being replaced with another system); complete overhauling of all process units, replacement of drawers in towers, rotors, and other equipment, and debottlenecking of process units to achieve higher throughputs; upgrading of al furnaces and heaters, as required, and re-equipping; them with low-NO[sub x] burners; installation of a stack-emissions measurement control system; removal of all asbestos gaskets and replacing them with non asbestos gaskets, and renewal of rail and truck-loading automation and installation of bottom-loading and vapor-recovery systems.

  5. Integrating hazardous waste management into a multimedia pollution prevention paradigm. A protoype regulatory program for petroleum refinesments

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Gasper, J.

    1996-12-31

    An emerging trend in environmental regulatory management promises enhanced environmental protection and more flexibility for regulated entities. This trend reflects three concepts. First, regulations designed to reduce one type of environmental pollution (e.g., air pollution) should not increase other types of pollution (e.g. hazardous waste). Second, pollution prevention is an important alternative to end-of-pipe control requirements. Third, offering polluting entities the flexibility of meeting certain performance criteria may produce better environmental results than prescribing specific technologies or approaches. A significant body of literature supports the need to develop regulatory programs that incorporate these concepts. However, there is little evidence that these concepts have been integrated into actual multimedia regulatory programs. Argonne National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy are developing a prototype regulatory program for petroleum refineries that embraces these concepts. The development approach in this case study comprises several steps: (1) identifying and evaluating existing regulations governing petroleum refineries (if any); (2) characterizing expected future operating conditions of refineries; (3) setting goals for the regulatory program; (4) identifying and evaluating options for the program; (5) developing a prototype based on selected options; (6) identifying and addressing implementation issues; and (7) testing the prototype on a pilot basis. The approach being used in the U.S. effort is flexible and can be used in environmental management efforts throughout the Pacific Basin--in both developing and developed countries.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  11. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  13. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  14. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  15. Field trial on removal of petroleum-hydrocarbon pollutants using a microbial consortium for bioremediation and rhizoremediation.

    PubMed

    Pizarro-Tobías, Paloma; Niqui, José L; Roca, Amalia; Solano, Jennifer; Fernández, Matilde; Bastida, Felipe; García, Carlos; Ramos, Juan L

    2015-02-01

    Petroleum waste sludges are toxic and dangerous that is why environmental protection agencies have declared their treatment top priority. Physicochemical treatments are expensive and environmentally unfriendly, while alternative biological treatments are less costly but, in general, work at a slower pace. An in situ bioremediation and rhizoremediation field scale trial was performed in an area contaminated with oil refinery sludge under semiarid climate. The bioremediation and rhizoremediation treatments included the use of an artificial consortium made up of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria,and the combined use of the mentioned consortium along with pasture plants respectively. Rhizoremediation revealed that the development of vegetation favoured the evolution of indigenous microbiota with potential to remove petroleum wastes. This was inferred as the decline of total petroleum hydrocarbons 7 months after the biological treatment.

  16. The Toxicity of Petroleum and Shale JP5.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    primarily of 55% Iranian and 𔃿", Ni gerian crude. Fhe ,hale crude .T icricd by the Paraho above- ground retorting process from a ,nale depo,,it :n...lateral and 5 mm anterior to bregma). Additional attached screws served as support posts for the plug or acted as electric ground . The electrodes were...serious, long-term adverse effects (36[. But recent reports of polyneuropathies developing in workers occupationally exposed to petroleum jet fuels 137-391

  17. Removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum refinery wastewater through adsorption on modified activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ben Hariz, Ichrak; Al Ayni, Foued; Monser, Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption of sulfur compounds from petroleum refinery wastewater on a chemically modified activated carbon (MAC) was investigated. The modification technique (nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide and thermal modification) enhanced the removal capacity of carbon and therefore decreases cost-effective removal of sulfide from refinery wastewater. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics data were determined for sulfur removal from real refinery wastewater. The data were evaluated according to several adsorption isotherm and kinetics models. The Freundlich isotherm fitted well with the equilibrium data of sulfur on different adsorbents, whereas the kinetics data were best fitted by the pseudo-second-order model. Insights of sulfide removal mechanisms indicated that the sorption was controlled through the intraparticle diffusion mechanism with a significant contribution of film diffusion. The MAC adsorbent was found to have an effective removal capacity of approximately 2.5 times that of non-modified carbon. Using different MAC, sulfides were eliminated with a removal capacity of 52 mg g(-1). Therefore, MAC can be utilized as an effective and less expensive adsorbent for the reduction of sulfur in refinery wastewater.

  18. Biocide usage in cooling towers in the electric power and petroleum refining industries

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Rice, J.K.; Raivel, M.E.S.

    1997-11-01

    Cooling towers users frequently apply biocides to the circulating cooling water to control growth of microorganisms, algae, and macroorganisms. Because of the toxic properties of biocides, there is a potential for the regulatory controls on their use and discharge to become increasingly more stringent. This report examines the types of biocides used in cooling towers by companies in the electric power and petroleum refining industries, and the experiences those companies have had in dealing with agencies that regulate cooling tower blowdown discharges. Results from a sample of 67 electric power plants indicate that the use of oxidizing biocides (particularly chlorine) is favored. Quaternary ammonia salts (quats), a type of nonoxidizing biocide, are also used in many power plant cooling towers. The experience of dealing with regulators to obtain approval to discharge biocides differs significantly between the two industries. In the electric power industry, discharges of any new biocide typically must be approved in writing by the regulatory agency. The approval process for refineries is less formal. In most cases, the refinery must notify the regulatory agency that it is planning to use a new biocide, but the refinery does not need to get written approval before using it. The conclusion of the report is that few of the surveyed facilities are having any difficulty in using and discharging the biocides they want to use.

  19. Norwegian petroleum guide

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    This is about the comprehensive guide to Norwegian oil and gas activities, very useful to anyone in the industry. Material includes political guidelines, control institutions, work possibilities and licenses, working environment law, employer and employee organizations, national insurance, taxes, communication, rescue operations and standby. Contents: Oil and the economy; Petroleum technology research; Responsibilities of different authorities; The Labour Inspection Directorate; The Health Directorate Offshore Office; The Coastal Directorate; Helicopter traffic; The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate; The Maritime Directorate; Det norske Veritas; The Norwegian Waterways and Electricity Board; The State Institute for Radiation Hygiene; The State Explosive Inspection; Work possibilities in the North Sea; Working environment legislation on the Continental Shelf; Collective bargaining agreements, labor conflicts and the right to organize; Taxation Rules; National health insurance and the petroleum activity; Occupational injuries on the Norwegian Continental Shelf; Company insurances; The private pension scheme; Other types of insuracne common among oil companies; The rescue service in Norway; Oganizations within the oil industry offshore and onshore; and Law of aliens admission to the Kindgom.

  20. Respirometry for assessing the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Plaza, G; Ulfig, K; Worsztynowicz, A; Malina, G; Krzeminska, B; Brigmon, R L

    2005-02-01

    The respiration method using the Micro-Oxymax respirometer was applied to evaluate the bioremediation potential of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in two biopiles at the oil refinery in Czechowice-Dziedzice, Poland. In biopiles 1 and 2, two different technologies, i.e., enhanced (engineered) bioremediation and monitored natural attenuation (MNA) were used, respectively. In biopiles 1 and 2, the bioremediation process lasted 6 years and 8 months, respectively. The biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was evaluated on the basis of CO2 production and O2 uptake. The CO2 production and O2 consumption rates during hydrocarbon biodegradation were calculated from the slopes of cumulative curve linear regressions. The results confirmed the hydrocarbon biodegradation process in both biopiles. However, in biopile 2 the process was more effective compared to biopile 1. In biopile 2, the O2 consumption and CO2 production means were 3.37 and 2.4 milliliters per kilogram of soil (dry weight) per minute, respectively. Whereas, in biopile 1, the O2 consumption and CO2 production means were 1.52 and 1.07 milliliters per kilogram of soil (dry weight) per minute, respectively. The mean biodegradation rate for biopile 2 was two times higher--67 mg hydrocarbons kg d.w.(-1)day(-1) compared with biopile 1, where the mean was 30 mg hydrocarbons kg d.w.(-1)day(-l). The results were correlated with petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and microbial activity measured by dehydrogenase assay.

  1. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 89-374-2197, Exxon Baytown Refinery, Baytown, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnes, G.M.; Kawamoto, M.M.

    1992-03-01

    In response to a request from The Gulf Coast Industrial Workers Union (GCIWU), an investigation was begun of possible hazardous working conditions at the Exxon Baytown Refinery (SIC-2911), Baytown, Texas. Some process technicians had reported that they experienced heart attack type symptoms while or after they were involved in unloading the diesel fuel cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl-nitrate (27247967), from tanker trucks. Approximately every 5 days the 2-ethylhexyl-nitrate was delivered to the facility in a 6000 gallon tanker truck, and pumped into a 15,000 gallon storage tank. Nine personal breathing zone and general area air samples were collected during the cetane improver unloading operation. Only three of the nine samples had detectable levels of 2-ethylhexyl-nitrate, ranging from 0.05 to 0.48 parts per million (ppm); however, the validity of the data was questionable due to difficulties in analysis. Of the 11 interviewed employees, six reported symptoms related to cetane improver exposure. Often the symptoms were temporally related to direct skin exposure. Some of the symptoms were headache, lightheadedness or dizziness, chest discomfort or palpitations, and nausea. Personal protective equipment procedures had been implemented, decreasing the occurence of symptomatic episodes. The authors conclude that symptoms were consistent with excessive exposure to nitrated esters. The authors recommend that efforts continue to limit the exposure to the chemical.

  2. A cross-cultural study of organizational factors on safety: Japanese vs. Taiwanese oil refinery plants.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shang Hwa; Lee, Chun-Chia; Wu, Muh-Cherng; Takano, Kenichi

    2008-01-01

    This study attempts to identify idiosyncrasies of organizational factors on safety and their influence mechanisms in Taiwan and Japan. Data were collected from employees of Taiwanese and Japanese oil refinery plants. Results show that organizational factors on safety differ in the two countries. Organizational characteristics in Taiwanese plants are highlighted as: higher level of management commitment to safety, harmonious interpersonal relationship, more emphasis on safety activities, higher devotion to supervision, and higher safety self-efficacy, as well as high quality of safety performance. Organizational characteristics in Japanese plants are highlighted as: higher level of employee empowerment and attitude towards continuous improvement, more emphasis on systematic safety management approach, efficient reporting system and teamwork, and high quality of safety performance. The casual relationships between organizational factors and workers' safety performance were investigated using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results indicate that the influence mechanisms of organizational factors in Taiwan and Japan are different. These findings provide insights into areas of safety improvement in emerging countries and developed countries respectively.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  4. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Varjani, Sunita J

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are recalcitrant compounds and are classified as priority pollutants. Cleaning up of these pollutants from environment is a real world problem. Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradation activity. Petroleum hydrocarbons utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in environment. They naturally biodegrade pollutants and thereby remove them from the environment. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from environment by applying oleophilic microorganisms (individual isolate/consortium of microorganisms) is ecofriendly and economic. Microbial biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants employs the enzyme catalytic activities of microorganisms to enhance the rate of pollutants degradation. This article provides an overview about bioremediation for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. It also includes explanation about hydrocarbon metabolism in microorganisms with a special focus on new insights obtained during past couple of years.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  6. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on Activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This August 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1990, through June 30, 1990. 3 tabs.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-05

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. It presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include domestic first purchase price, f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude, and refiners` acquisition cost of crude. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Data are presented which describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. Data are presented in two sections: Summary Statistics, presenting a time series of selected petroleum data on a U.S. level, and Detailed Statistics, presenting statistics for the most current month available as well as year to date.

  9. Refinery evaluation of optical imaging to locate fugitive emissions.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Donald R; Luke-Boone, Ronke; Aggarwal, Vineet; Harris, Buzz; Anderson, Eric; Ranum, David; Kulp, Thomas J; Armstrong, Karla; Sommers, Ricky; McRae, Thomas G; Ritter, Karin; Siegell, Jeffrey H; Van Pelt, Doug; Smylie, Mike

    2007-07-01

    Fugitive emissions account for approximately 50% of total hydrocarbon emissions from process plants. Federal and state regulations aiming at controlling these emissions require refineries and petrochemical plants in the United States to implement a Leak Detection and Repair Program (LDAR). The current regulatory work practice, U.S. Environment Protection Agency Method 21, requires designated components to be monitored individually at regular intervals. The annual costs of these LDAR programs in a typical refinery can exceed US$1,000,000. Previous studies have shown that a majority of controllable fugitive emissions come from a very small fraction of components. The Smart LDAR program aims to find cost-effective methods to monitor and reduce emissions from these large leakers. Optical gas imaging has been identified as one such technology that can help achieve this objective. This paper discusses a refinery evaluation of an instrument based on backscatter absorption gas imaging technology. This portable camera allows an operator to scan components more quickly and image gas leaks in real time. During the evaluation, the instrument was able to identify leaking components that were the source of 97% of the total mass emissions from leaks detected. More than 27,000 components were monitored. This was achieved in far less time than it would have taken using Method 21. In addition, the instrument was able to find leaks from components that are not required to be monitored by the current LDAR regulations. The technology principles and the parameters that affect instrument performance are also discussed in the paper.

  10. Isolation and characterization of hyper phenol tolerant Bacillus sp. from oil refinery and exploration sites.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aditi; Ghoshal, Aloke K

    2010-04-15

    Bacillus cereus MTCC 9817 strain AKG1 and B. cereus MTCC 9818 strain AKG2 were isolated from petroleum refinery and oil exploration site, respectively. The 16S rDNA sequence of strain AKG1 showed the closest relation to B. cereus 99.63% and Bacillus coagulans 99.63% followed by 99.34% homology with Bacillus thuringiensis strain 2PR56-10. AKG2 is mostly related to B. thuringiensis strain CMG 861 with 99.37% homology. The similarity search between AKG1 and AKG2 gave the lowest similarity 99.19% among same genus similar sequences. At phenol concentration of 1000 mg/L, the optimum growth conditions for AKG1 were found to be 37 degrees C and pH 7.0 and the same were found to be 37 degrees C and pH 7.5 for AKG2. The growth kinetics of the strains AKG1 and AKG2 are best fitted by Yano model (maximum growth rate, mu(max)=1.024 h(-1) and inhibition constant, K(I)=171,800 mg/L) and Edward model (mu(max)=0.5969 h(-1) and K(I)=1483 mg/L) respectively. Growth kinetics of both the strains are also well fitted by the Haldane model with mu(max)=0.4396 h(-1) and K(I)=637.8 mg/L for AKG1 and mu(max)=0.9332 h(-1) and K(I)=494.4 mg/L for AKG2.

  11. Loss prevention and fire protection for oil refineries. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, N.R.

    1981-04-01

    The handling of large volumes of volatile, toxic, and flammable liquids at high pressures and high temperatures requires special fire protection to reduce fire risk. Fire water systems, fixed water-spray systems, monitors and hose reels, drainage, portable fire extinguishers, process safety and fire protection, control buildings, offsites, storage tank fire protection, fire trucks, utilities and training are methods of fire protection and loss prevention discussed to protect today's sophisticated, expensive oil refineries in the most cost-effective way. These methods are described and discussed individually.

  12. Toxicological characteristics of refinery streams used to manufacture lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Kane, M L; Ladov, E N; Holdsworth, C E; Weaver, N K

    1984-01-01

    In the past, reports on the tumorigenic potential of lubricating oils in experimental animals have poorly defined the materials under study. In this paper the results of mouse skin painting studies with 46 clearly defined samples of refinery streams associated with lubricating oil processing show that modern conventional solvent refining of distillates removes tumorigenic potential while conventional acid refining may not. Furthermore, dewaxing, hydrofinishing, and clay treatments do not appear to mitigate the tumorigenicity of the lubricant distillates. Lubricant processing has changed over the years and assessments of the carcinogenicity of present-day lubricating materials must be based on knowledge of modern processing.

  13. Advanced controls pay out in 6 weeks at Texas refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Bullerdiek, E.A.; Hobbs, J.W.

    1995-06-19

    Marathon Oil Co. installed advanced controls on two crude units and a fluid catalytic cracking unit main fractionator at its 70,000 b/d Texas City, Tex., refinery. The advanced controls were based on inferred properties supplied by an outside vendor, who also provided consulting and assistance during the implementation phases. (Inferred properties are on-line computations for estimating laboratory test properties, such as ASTM boiling point and flash point, that are used for product quality control.) The paper discusses inferred properties, bias updating, control strategies, control implementation, and post-project work, including fuzzy logic, the statistical quality control program, benefits, and availability.

  14. 31 CFR 542.412 - Transactions relating to Syrian petroleum or petroleum products from third countries...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum or petroleum products from third countries; transshipments. 542.412 Section 542.412 Money and... Syrian petroleum or petroleum products from third countries; transshipments. (a) Transactions relating to goods containing petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin are not prohibited by § 542.208...

  15. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  16. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710...

  17. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  18. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710...

  19. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  20. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710...

  2. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710...

  3. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  4. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710...

  5. 40 CFR 80.94 - Requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that is located outside the United States, including the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin... to in this section as “the United States”). (2) A foreign refiner is a person who meets the... refinery that has been assigned an individual refinery baseline and that is imported into the United...

  6. 40 CFR 80.1238 - How is a refinery's or importer's average benzene concentration determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... average benzene concentration determined? 80.1238 Section 80.1238 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1238 How is a refinery's or importer's average benzene concentration determined? (a) The average benzene concentration of gasoline produced at a refinery or...

  7. 40 CFR 80.1238 - How is a refinery's or importer's average benzene concentration determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... average benzene concentration determined? 80.1238 Section 80.1238 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1238 How is a refinery's or importer's average benzene concentration determined? (a) The average benzene concentration of gasoline produced at a refinery or...

  8. 40 CFR 80.1238 - How is a refinery's or importer's average benzene concentration determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... average benzene concentration determined? 80.1238 Section 80.1238 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1238 How is a refinery's or importer's average benzene concentration determined? (a) The average benzene concentration of gasoline produced at a refinery or...

  9. 40 CFR 80.1238 - How is a refinery's or importer's average benzene concentration determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... average benzene concentration determined? 80.1238 Section 80.1238 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1238 How is a refinery's or importer's average benzene concentration determined? (a) The average benzene concentration of gasoline produced at a refinery or...

  10. 40 CFR 80.1238 - How is a refinery's or importer's average benzene concentration determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... average benzene concentration determined? 80.1238 Section 80.1238 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1238 How is a refinery's or importer's average benzene concentration determined? (a) The average benzene concentration of gasoline produced at a refinery or...

  11. 40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? 80.210 Section 80.210 Protection of Environment... Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.210 What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers? The sulfur standard for gasoline at any point in the gasoline distribution...

  12. 77 FR 5865 - In the Matter of Blue Earth Refineries, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of Blue Earth Refineries, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading February 2, 2012. It... concerning the securities of Blue Earth Refineries, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports...

  13. 40 CFR 80.1666 - Additional requirements for foreign small refiners and foreign small volume refineries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... movement and storage of the certified Sulfur-FRGAS from the refinery to the load port, and from this review... description of the gasoline's movement and storage between production at the source refinery and vessel... requirements of this subpart O. (3) The forum for any civil or criminal enforcement action related to...

  14. Feasibility study report for the Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery: a 14. 9-million-gallon-per-year ethanol synfuel refinery utilizing geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The construction and operation of a 14,980,000 gallon per year fuel ethanol from grain refinery in the Imperial Valley of California is proposed. The Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery (refinery) will use hot geothermal fluid from geothermal resources at the East Mesa area as the source of process energy. In order to evaluate the economic viability of the proposed Project, exhaustive engineering, cost analysis, and financial studies have been undertaken. This report presents the results of feasibility studies undertaken in geothermal resource, engineering, marketing financing, management, environment, and permits and approvals. The conclusion of these studies is that the Project is economically viable. US Alcohol Fuels is proceeding with its plans to construct and operate the Refinery.

  15. Underground petroleum tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This book presents the results of a survey of 46 state underground storage tank program officials. The survey covers: Whether petroleum tank insurance (mandated by the EPA) is available in each state and whether category 3 and 4 owners can obtain it; state programs that help owners meet the financial responsibility and/or technical requirements of such insurance; and lending institutions' attitudes towards providing loans to storage tank owners. A survey of the number and terms of insurance policies offered to tank owners is also presented.

  16. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  17. 40 CFR 80.1363 - What are the additional requirements under this subpart for gasoline produced at foreign refineries?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Foreign Refiners § 80.1363 What are the additional requirements under this... under § 80.2(i) for a foreign refinery. (3) Benzene-FRGAS means gasoline produced at a foreign refinery that has been assigned an individual refinery benzene baseline under § 80.1285, has been approved as...

  18. 40 CFR 80.1363 - What are the additional requirements under this subpart for gasoline produced at foreign refineries?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Foreign Refiners § 80.1363 What are the additional requirements under this... under § 80.2(i) for a foreign refinery. (3) Benzene-FRGAS means gasoline produced at a foreign refinery that has been assigned an individual refinery benzene baseline under § 80.1285, has been approved as...

  19. 40 CFR 80.1363 - What are the additional requirements under this subpart for gasoline produced at foreign refineries?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Foreign Refiners § 80.1363 What are the additional requirements under this... under § 80.2(i) for a foreign refinery. (3) Benzene-FRGAS means gasoline produced at a foreign refinery that has been assigned an individual refinery benzene baseline under § 80.1285, has been approved as...

  20. Measured and estimated benzene and volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions at a major U.S. refinery/chemical plant: Comparison and prioritization.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Daniel; Raun, Loren H

    2015-08-01

    Estimates of emissions for processes and point sources at petroleum refineries and chemical plants provide the foundation for many other environmental evaluations and policy decisions. The most commonly used method, based on emission factors, results in unreliable estimates. More information regarding the actual emissions within a facility is necessary to provide a foundation for improving emission factors and prioritizing which emission factors most need improvement. Identification of which emission factors both perform poorly and introduce the largest error is needed to provide such a prioritization. To address this need, benzene and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions within a major chemical plant/refinery were measured and compared with emission factor estimates. The results of this study indicate estimated emissions were never higher and commonly lower than the measured emissions. At one source location, VOC emissions were found to be largely representative of those measured (i.e., the catalytic reformer), but more often, emissions were significantly underestimated (e.g., up to 448 times greater than estimated at a floating roof tank). The sources with both the largest relative error between the estimate and the measurement and the largest magnitude of emissions in this study were a wastewater treatment process, an aromatics concentration unit and benzene extraction unit process area, and two sets of tanks (sets 7 and 8). Emission factors for these sources are priorities for further evaluation and improvement in this chemical plant/refinery. This study presents empirical data that demonstrate the need to validate and improve emission factors. Emission factors needing improvement are prioritized by identifying those that are weak models and introduce the largest error in magnitude of emissions. The results can also be used to prioritize evaluations of the emissions sources and controls, and any operational conditions or erroneous assumptions that may be

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  3. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  4. Indigenous Precambrian petroleum revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, G.E.; Kaczor, M.J.; McArthur, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    Irrefutable evidence of fossil remains from Precambrian sediments and proved petroleum reserves in upper Proterozoic (Riphean-Vendian) strata of the Irkutsk basin, USSR, suggest that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks should be a focus for hydrocarbon exploration. Since 1965, a dramatic increase in publications which document worldwide occurrences of Precambrian life forms discloses that, by the end of the Proterozoic, organic evolution had produced diversified assemblages of relatively highly developed macroorganisms and microorganisms. Some of these organisms have generated crude oil in the Nonesuch Shale of northern Michigan and kerogen in stromatolitic carbonate rocks in Africa Kerogen has been extracted from approx. 2300-m.y. old Transvaal (Africa) stromatolitic limestone containing coccoid and complex filamentous cyanophytes. Also, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons have been obtained from the approx. 2800-m.y. old Bulawayan stromatolitic limestone of Rhodesia. Additional evidence indicates that commercial reserves of petroleum from Precambrian strata are possible. An oil discovery in Lower Cambrian rocks in 1962, at Markovo in the Irkutsk basin of the Siberian platform area, led to four noncommercial and eight commercial fields producing from Lower Cambrian and Upper Proterozoic strata.

  5. The fouling in the tubular heat exchanger of Algiers refinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harche, Rima; Mouheb, Abdelkader; Absi, Rafik

    2016-05-01

    Crude oil fouling in refinery preheat exchangers is a chronic operational problem that compromises energy recovery in these systems. Progress is hindered by the lack of quantitative knowledge of the dynamic effects of fouling on heat exchanger transfer and pressure drops. In subject of this work is an experimental determination of the thermal fouling resistance in the tubular heat exchanger of the crude oil preheats trains installed in an Algiers refinery. By measuring the inlet and outlet temperatures and mass flows of the two fluids, the overall heat transfer coefficient has been determined. Determining the overall heat transfer coefficient for the heat exchanger with clean and fouled surfaces, the fouling resistance was calculated. The results obtained from the two cells of exchangers studies, showed that the fouling resistance increased with time presented an exponential evolution in agreement with the model suggested by Kern and Seaton, with the existence of fluctuation caused by the instability of the flow rate and the impact between the particles. The bad cleaning of the heat exchangers involved the absence of the induction period and caused consequently, high values of the fouling resistance in a relatively short period of time.

  6. International comparison CCQM-K77: Refinery gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwenkamp, G.; Wessel, R. M.; van der Veen, A. M. H.; Ziel, P. R.; Han, Qiao; Tuma, Dirk; Woo, Jin-Chun; Tóthné Fuko, Judit; Szilágyi, Nagyné; Büki, Tamás; Konopelko, L. A.; Kustikov, Y. A.; Popova, T. A.; Pankratov, V. V.; Pir, M. N.; Nazarov, E. V.; Ehvalov, L. V.; Timofeev, A. U.; Kuzmina, T. A.; Meshkov, A. V.; Valkova, Miroslava; Pätoprsty, Viliam; Downey, Michael; Vargha, Gergely; Brown, Andrew; Milton, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Refinery gas is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons and non-combustible gases (e.g., carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium). It is obtained as part of the refining and conversion of crude oil. This key comparison aims to evaluate the measurement capabilities for these types of mixtures. The results of the key comparison indicate that the analysis of a refinery-type gas mixture is for some laboratories a challenge. Overall, four laboratories (VSL, NIM, NPL and VNIIM) have satisfactory results. The results of some participants highlight some non-trivial issues, such as appropriate separation between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, and issues with the measurement of nitrogen, hydrogen and helium. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  7. Biodegradation of oil refinery wastes under OPA and CERCLA

    SciTech Connect

    Gamblin, W.W.; Banipal, B.S.; Myers, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Land treatment of oil refinery wastes has been used as a disposal method for decades. More recently, numerous laboratory studies have been performed attempting to quantify degradation rates of more toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs). This paper discusses the results of the fullscale aerobic biodegradation operations using land treatment at the Macmillan Ring-Free Oil refining facility. The tiered feasibility approach of evaluating biodegradation as a treatment method to achieve site-specific cleanup criteria, including pilot biodegradation operations, is discussed in an earlier paper. Analytical results of biodegradation indicate that degradation rates observed in the laboratory can be met and exceeded under field conditions and that site-specific cleanup criteria can be attained within a proposed project time. Also prevented are degradation rates and half-lives for PAHs for which cleanup criteria have been established. PAH degradation rates and half-life values are determined and compared with the laboratory degradation rates and half-life values which used similar oil refinery wastes by other in investigators (API 1987).

  8. Biodegradation of oil refinery wastes under OPA and CERCLA

    SciTech Connect

    Banipal, B.S.; Myers, J.M.; Fisher, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    Land treatment of oil refinery wastes has been used as a disposal method for decades. More recently, numerous laboratory studies have been performed attempting to quantify degradation rates of more toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs). This paper discusses the results of the full-scale aerobic biodegradation operations using land treatment at the Macmillan Ring-Free Oil refining facility. The tiered feasibility approach in the evaluation of using biodegradation as a treatment method to achieve site-specific clean-up including pilot scale biodegradation operations is included in an earlier paper. Analytical results of biodegradation indicate that degradation rates observed in the laboratory can be met and exceeded under field conditions and that the site-specific cleanup criteria can be attained within a proposed project time. Also presented are degradation rates and half-lives for PAHs for which cleanup criteria has been established. PAH degradation rates and half-life values are determined and compared with the laboratory degradation rates and half-life values which used similar oil refinery wastes by other investigators (API 1987).

  9. Petroleum occurrences and plate tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Olenin, V.B.; Sokolov, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the mechanisms of petroleum formation and petroleum accumulation proposed in recent years by some Russian and foreign investigators from the viewpoint of the new global or plate tectonics. On the basis of discussion and the facts, the authors conclude that the mechanisms proposed are in contradiction to reality and their use in practical application is at least premature.

  10. Discrimination of petroleum fluorescence spectra.

    PubMed

    Stelmaszewski, Adam

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents studies of the total spectra (fluorescence-excitation matrix) of petroleum with regard to the utilization of fluorescence for determining petroleum pollutants. Thorough testing of one group, comprising almost forty lubricating oils in the form of their hexane solutions, points out their discrimination.

  11. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  12. Job Prospects for Petroleum Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Describes petroleum engineering as one area in industry where job opportunities are few but where the worst of the declines has been seen. Discusses the causes of the decline. Lists several areas where petroleum engineers have found alternatives including environmental projects, water supply projects, and computer applications. (CW)

  13. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-15

    This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  14. Ergonomics in designing process: dialogue between designers, executors and users in the maintenance activity of radars in an oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Menegon, Fabrício Augusto; Rodrigues, Daniela da Silva; Fontes, Andréa Regina Martins; Menegon, Nilton Luiz

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the role of ergonomics in design process using the dialogue developed by designers, implementers and users in an oil refinery. It was possible to identify the need of minimizing the postural constraints, risk of accidents, mechanical shocks and to enlarge safety perception in the access and permanency of the users at the workspace. It has been determined and validated by workers and managers to implement different deadlines depending on programming, viability and execution time for the improvements proposed. In a long-term: it was proposed the substitution of the ladders with time planning according to the maintenance program of the tanks; in a short-time: it was suggested the expansion of the existing platforms, implementation of a walkway connection provided with guardrails between the upper access of the side ladder and the repositioning of radar set and aerial aiming at the usage by workers at the workstation of the new platform. It was also elaborated eight typologies of intervention, according to the request, type of tank, material stored, and its setting place. The design process arises from ergonomics workplace analysis that presents concepts for solutions which was a mediator tool to be settled between users and implementers.

  15. Strategic Petroleum Reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    GAO examined approximately 40 alternative, nontraditional methods of acquiring oil for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The alternatives identified were compared to the current method of acquiring and financing SPR oil through congressional appropriations that are reported in the budget. When compared to the conventional method of financing oil, most of the proposals have certain benefits or advantages, but all of them have economic or other disadvantages. For example, some proposals would reduce the budget deficit by increasing government revenues but would raise prices to the consumer. Other proposals would reduce short-term expenditures (asset sales, leasing oil or indexed bonds). However, the proposals might increase long-term expenditures by more than the initial reduction in outlays.

  16. Strategic petroleum reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This report has examined approximately 40 alternative, nontraditional methods of acquiring oil for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The alternatives identified are compared to the current method of acquiring and financing SPR oil through congressional appropriations that are reported in the budget. When compared to the conventional method of financing oil, most of the proposals have certain benefits or advantages, but all of them have economic or other disadvantages. For example, some proposals would reduce the budget deficit by increasing government revenues but would raise prices to the consumer. Other proposals would reduce short-term expenditures (asset sales, leasing oil or indexed bonds). However, the proposals might increase long-term expenditures by more than the initial reduction in outlays.

  17. [Evolution of technology and occupational exposures in petrochemical industry and in petroleum refining].

    PubMed

    Cottica, Danilo; Grignani, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The industry of oil refining and petrochemical play an important role in terms of number of employees in the Italian production. Often the terms "petroleum refining" and "petrochemical" are used interchangeably to define processes that occur in complex plants, which grow outdoors on large surfaces and a visual impact is not irrelevant. In reality, the two areas involve potential exposure to different chemical agents, related to raw materials processed and the specific products. The petrochemical uses as raw materials, the oil fractions, obtained by distillation in the refinery, or natural gas; petrochemical products are, usually, single compounds with a specific degree of purity, used as basic raw materials for the entire industry of organic chemistry, from the production of plastics to pharmaceuticals. The oil refining, that is the topic of this paper, processes mainly oil to obtain mixtures of hydrocarbon compounds, the products of which are specified on the basis of aptitude for use. For example gasolines, are obtained by mixing of fractions of the first distillation, reforming products, antiknock. The paper illustrates, necessarily broadly due to the complexity of the productive sectors, the technological and organizational changes that have led to a significant reduction of occupational exposure to chemical agents, the results of environmental monitoring carried out in some refineries both during routine conditions that during scheduled maintenance activities with plant shutdown and a store of petroleum products. The chemical agents measured are typical for presence, physico-chemical properties and toxicological characteristics of the manufacturing processes of petroleum products like benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethyl benzene, n-hexane, Volatile Hydrocarbons belonging to gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel. Data related to both personal sampling and fixed positions.

  18. Hydrotreating Pyrolytic Lignin to Produce a Refinery Feedstock (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    French, R. J.

    2013-09-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass followed by water separation to produce pyrolytic lignin and hydrotreating of the lignin could be used to produce a stable volatile low-oxygen intermediate liquid. Such a liquid could be converted into a finished motor-fuel in a refinery, taking advantage of the existing infrastructure and economies of scale of refineries. Hydrotreating just the lignin would consume less hydrogen while preserving about half of the energy of the original oil. The aqueous by-products could be reformed to produce the needed hydrogen and would contain much of the unwanted acids and unstable oxygenates. To assess such intermediate liquids, several pyrolytic lignins were prepared by mixing pyrolysis oil with water at 1:1 and 3:1 ratios. The carboxylic acidity in the pyrolytic lignin was reduced to 24 and 10 mg-KOH/g-lignin compared to 81 in the whole oil. These lignins were hydrotreated using Ni-Mo(S)/alumina, Pt/char, or Pd/C(activated) in a semi-batch 1 L stirred autoclave. The oil was stabilized under hydrogen at 150-280 degrees C, then water and light organics were removed by partial depressurization. Hydrodeoxygenation was then performed at 340-400 degrees C. Total pressure was controlled at 70 or 170 bar with hydrogen gas. Organic liquid yields of 39-56% were obtained. For many experiments the organic oxygen content was <7%, acidity was < 7 mg-KOH/g-oil, the volatility was greater than or equal to 94% and, on a carbon basis, the total yield of organic products miscible in hydrocarbons at a 1:10 ratio was over 50%. These properties are probably acceptable to a refinery.The residual liquids left in the reactor at the end of the experiment comprised 60-85% of the organic-phase product while the rest was condensate. 13C-NMR of the residual liquids showed that they were 50-80% aliphatic. 13C-NMR coupled with GC-MS identified phenolic compounds as the main oxygenates in most residual liquids.

  19. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve reduces the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument and an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current and projected storage capacity, analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  20. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement in the United States Petroleum Refining Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, William R.; Marano, John; Sathaye, Jayant; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Xu, Tengfang

    2013-02-01

    Adoption of efficient process technologies is an important approach to reducing CO2 emissions, in particular those associated with combustion. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among the most cost-effective approaches that any refiner can take, improving productivity while reducing emissions. Therefore, careful analysis of the options and costs associated with efficiency measures is required to establish sound carbon policies addressing global climate change, and is the primary focus of LBNL’s current petroleum refining sector analysis for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The analysis is aimed at identifying energy efficiency-related measures and developing energy abatement supply curves and CO2 emissions reduction potential for the U.S. refining industry. A refinery model has been developed for this purpose that is a notional aggregation of the U.S. petroleum refining sector. It consists of twelve processing units and account s for the additional energy requirements from steam generation, hydrogen production and water utilities required by each of the twelve processing units. The model is carbon and energy balanced such that crud e oil inputs and major refinery sector outputs (fuels) are benchmarked to 2010 data. Estimates of the current penetration for the identified energy efficiency measures benchmark the energy requirements to those reported in U.S. DOE 2010 data. The remaining energy efficiency potential for each of the measures is estimated and compared to U.S. DOE fuel prices resulting in estimates of cost- effective energy efficiency opportunities for each of the twelve major processes. A combined cost of conserved energy supply curve is also presented along with the CO2 emissions abatement opportunities that exist in the U.S. petroleum refinery sector. Roughly 1,200 PJ per year of primary fuels savings and close to 500 GWh per y ear of electricity savings are potentially cost

  1. Childhood Exposure to Manganese and Postural Instability in Children living near a Ferromanganese Refinery in Southeastern Ohio

    PubMed Central

    Rugless, Fedoria; Bhattacharya, Amit; Succop, Paul; Dietrich, Kim N.; Cox, Cyndy; Alden, Jody; Kuhnell, Pierce; Barnas, Mary; Wright, Robert; Parsons, Patrick J.; Praamsma, Meredith L.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Beidler, Caroline; Wittberg, Richard; Haynes, Erin N.

    2014-01-01

    Airborne manganese (Mn) exposure can result in neurotoxicity and postural instability in occupationally exposed workers, yet few studies have explored the association ambient exposure to Mn in children and postural stability. The goal of this study was to determine the association between Mn and lead (Pb) exposure, as measured by blood Pb, blood and hair Mn and time weighted distance (TWD) from a ferromanganese refinery, and postural stability in children. A subset of children ages 7–9 years enrolled in the Marietta Community Actively Researching Exposure Study (CARES) were invited to participate. Postural balance was conducted on 55 children residing in Marietta, Ohio and the surrounding area. Samples of blood were collected and analyzed for Mn and Pb, and samples of hair were analyzed for Mn. Neuromotor performance was assessed using postural balance testing with a computer force platform system. Pearson correlations were calculated to identify key covariates. Associations between postural balance testing conditions and Mn and Pb exposure were estimated with linear regression analyses adjusting for gender, age, parent IQ, parent age. Mean blood Mn was 10 μg/L (SEM=0.36), mean blood Pb was 0.85 μg/dL (SEM=0.05), and mean hair Mn was 0.76 μg/g (SEM=0.16). Mean residential distance from the refinery was 11.5 km (SEM=0.46). All three measures of Mn exposure were significantly associated with poor postural balance. In addition, low-level blood Pb was also negatively associated with balance outcomes. We conclude that Mn exposure and low-level blood Pb are significantly associated with poor postural balance. PMID:24370548

  2. MTR BASEMENT. WORKERS (DON ALVORD AND CYRIL VAN ORDEN OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BASEMENT. WORKERS (DON ALVORD AND CYRIL VAN ORDEN OF PHILLIPS PETROLEUM CO.) POSE FOR GAMMA IRRADIATION EXPERIMENT IN MTR CANAL. CANS OF FOOD WILL BE LOWERED TO CANAL BOTTOM, WHERE SPENT MTR FUEL ELEMENTS EMIT GAMMA RADIATION. INL NEGATIVE NO. 11746. Unknown Photographer, 8/20/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Petroleum fingerprinting: Effective identification of petroleum products at contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Uhler, A.D.

    1997-07-01

    A critical issue in many environmental liability cases is the successful identification of the parties responsible for petroleum products that contaminate sites or properties. Identification of these parties is critical for owners of petroleum contaminated sites who are seeking to spread liability by identifying previous owners or operators of nearby properties who may be the source of, and thus be responsible for, the petroleum contamination at these sites. This issue is also critical for these potential defendants who will seek to demonstrate that the petroleum products associated with their activities could not be the source of the contamination in question. Finally, the issue is critical in situations where multiple responsible parties seek to equitably allocate among themselves shares of contamination and associated clean-up costs.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-22

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-25

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  8. Efficient biodegradation of naphthalene by a newly characterized indigenous Achromobacter sp. FBHYA2 isolated from Tehran Oil Refinery Complex.

    PubMed

    Farjadfard, Sima; Borghei, Seyyed Mehdi; Hassani, Amir Hessam; Yakhchali, Bagher; Ardjmand, Mehdi; Zeinali, Majid

    2012-01-01

    A bacterial strain, FBHYA2, capable of degrading naphthalene, was isolated from the American Petroleum Institute (API) separator of the Tehran Oil Refinery Complex (TORC). Strain FBHYA2 was identified as Achromobacter sp. based on physiological and biochemical characteristics and also phylogenetic similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequence. The optimal growth conditions for strain FBHYA2 were pH 6.0, 30 °C and 1.0% NaCl. Strain FBHYA2 can utilize naphthalene as the sole source of carbon and energy and was able to degrade naphthalene aerobically very fast, 48 h for 96% removal at 500 mg/L concentration. The physiological response of Achromobacter sp., FBHYA2 to several hydrophobic chemicals (aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons) was also investigated. No biosurfactant was detected during bacterial growth on any aliphatic/aromatic hydrocarbons. The results of hydrophobicity measurements showed no significant difference between naphthalene- and LB-grown cells. The capability of the strain FBHYA2 to degrade naphthalene completely and rapidly without the need to secrete biosurfactant may make it an ideal candidate to remediate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sites.

  9. Assessment of the potential for refinery applications of inorganic membrane technology: An identification and screening analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, H.E.; Schulman, B.L.

    1993-05-01

    Commercial application of membrane technology in the separation of gas, liquid, and solid streams has grown to a business with worldwide revenues exceeding $1 billion annually. Use of organic membranes for industrial gas separation, particularly in the refining industry, is one of the major growth areas. However, organic membranes based on polymeric separation barriers, are susceptible to damage by liquids, and careful precautions must be taken to retain the system integrity. Researchers are currently developing small pore sized inorganic membranes which may substantially increase the efficiency and economics in selected refinery separation applications. Expected advantages of these advanced inorganic membranes include high permeability, high selectivity, and low manufacturing cost. SFA Pacific conducted a screening analysis to identify applications for inorganic membrane technology in the petroleum refining industry and their potential cost advantages over competing separation systems. Two meetings were held in connection with this project. Copies of Viewgraphs presented by SFA Pacific at these meetings are attached in Appendices A and C. Potential high priority applications and market impacts of advanced inorganic membrane technology in the refining industry are addressed in this report, and include the following areas: Competitive separation technologies; application of those technologies; incentives for inorganic membranes; market benefits and impacts of inorganic membranes.

  10. Removal of mercury from an alumina refinery aqueous stream.

    PubMed

    Mullett, Mark; Tardio, James; Bhargava, Suresh; Dobbs, Charles

    2007-06-01

    Digestion condensate is formed as a by-product of the alumina refinery digestion process. The solution exhibits a high pH and is chemically reducing, containing many volatile species such as water, volatile organics, ammonia, and mercury. Because digestion condensate is chemically unique, an innovative approach was required to investigate mercury removal. The mercury capacity and adsorption kinetics were investigated using a number of materials including gold, silver and sulphur impregnated silica and a silver impregnated carbon. The results were compared to commercial sorbents, including extruded and powdered virgin activated carbons and a sulphur impregnated mineral. Nano-gold supported on silica (88% removal under batch conditions and 95% removal under flow conditions) and powdered activated carbon (91% under batch conditions and 98% removal under flow conditions) were the most effective materials investigated. The silver and sulphur impregnated materials were unstable in digestion condensate under the test conditions used.

  11. Development of catalyst production facilities at Ufa Oil Refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Propkopyuk, S.G.; Rozenbaum, B.L.; Putilin, N.Ye.; Amirkhanov, K.Sh.; Morozov, B.F.; Britenkova, T.G.

    1982-08-03

    The Ufa Order of Lenin Oil Refinery is one of the USSR's largest facilities for production of catalysts for oil refining and petrochemistry, as well as for the food industry. Nine types of catalysts are produced for cracking, selective hydrogenation and oligomerization. A plant for production of NaY zeolite catalysts by the ash method has been remodeled. The production of nickel catalysts on kieselgur is growing rapidly. The facility for producing copper-chromium type MKhB catalyst is to be remodeled during the 11th Five-Year Plan. Production of cracking catalysts will be basically redesigned, increasing the capacity by 50% and significantly improving the operating characteristics of microspherical catalysts.

  12. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  13. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 172.886 Section 172.886 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.886 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used in or on food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  14. 21 CFR 172.250 - Petroleum naphtha.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum naphtha. 172.250 Section 172.250 Food... Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.250 Petroleum naphtha. Petroleum naphtha may be safely used in..., essentially paraffinic and naphthenic in nature obtained from petroleum, (b) The additive is refined to...

  15. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  16. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  17. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  18. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  19. 21 CFR 172.250 - Petroleum naphtha.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum naphtha. 172.250 Section 172.250 Food... Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.250 Petroleum naphtha. Petroleum naphtha may be safely used in..., essentially paraffinic and naphthenic in nature obtained from petroleum, (b) The additive is refined to...

  20. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  1. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  2. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 172.886 Section 172.886 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.886 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used in or on food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  3. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 172.886 Section 172.886 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.886 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used in or on food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  4. 21 CFR 172.250 - Petroleum naphtha.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum naphtha. 172.250 Section 172.250 Food... § 172.250 Petroleum naphtha. Petroleum naphtha may be safely used in food in accordance with the... naphthenic in nature obtained from petroleum, (b) The additive is refined to meet the...

  5. 21 CFR 172.250 - Petroleum naphtha.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum naphtha. 172.250 Section 172.250 Food and..., Films and Related Substances § 172.250 Petroleum naphtha. Petroleum naphtha may be safely used in food..., essentially paraffinic and naphthenic in nature obtained from petroleum, (b) The additive is refined to...

  6. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  7. 21 CFR 172.250 - Petroleum naphtha.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum naphtha. 172.250 Section 172.250 Food... Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.250 Petroleum naphtha. Petroleum naphtha may be safely used in..., essentially paraffinic and naphthenic in nature obtained from petroleum, (b) The additive is refined to...

  8. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 172.886 Section 172.886 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.886 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used in or on food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  9. Beryllium contamination inside vehicles of machine shop workers.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, W T; Henneberger, P K; Martyny, J; Ellis, K; Mroz, M M; Newman, L S

    1999-04-01

    Inhalation of beryllium particles causes a chronic, debilitating lung disease--chronic beryllium disease (CBD)--in immunologically sensitized workers. Evidence that very low concentrations of beryllium may initiate this chronic disease is provided by incidences of the illness in family members exposed to beryllium dust from workers' clothes and residents in neighborhoods surrounding beryllium refineries. This article describes the results of a cross-sectional survey to evaluate potential take-home beryllium exposures by measuring surface concentrations on the hands and in vehicles of workers at a precision machine shop where cases of CBD had recently been diagnosed. Many workers did not change out of their work clothes and shoes at the end of their shift, increasing the risk of taking beryllium home to their families. Wipe samples collected from workers' hands and vehicle surfaces were analyzed for beryllium content by inductively coupled argon plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results ranged widely, from nondetectable to 40 micrograms/ft2 on workers' hands and up to 714 micrograms/ft2 inside their vehicles, demonstrating that many workers carried residual beryllium on their hands and contaminated the inside of their vehicles when leaving work. The highest beryllium concentrations inside the workers' vehicles were found on the drivers' floor (GM = 19 micrograms/ft2, GSD = 4.9), indicating that workers were carrying beryllium on their shoes into their vehicles. A safe level of beryllium contamination on surfaces is not known, but it is prudent to reduce the potential for workers to carry beryllium away from the work site.

  10. PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, PROPERTIES, QUALITY, APPLICATION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The document contains Chapters 7-10 of a Russian handbook of petroleum products. These chapters discuss drive-train oils, lubricating oils for aviation gas-turbine engines, industrial oils, and insulating oils.

  11. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Chemtrade Refinery Services, Inc. Riverton, Wyoming Facility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the response to public comments and final synthetic minor NSR permit for the Chemtrade Refinery Services, Inc. Riverton, Wyoming Facility, operated by Chemtrade Logistics and located on the Wind River Indian Reservation in Fremont County

  12. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1084 through 1994.

  13. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  14. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  15. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-27

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  16. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  17. VERIFICATION OF PORTABLE OPTICAL AND THERMAL IMAGING DEVICES FOR LEAK DETECTION AT PETROLEUM REFINERIES AND CHEMICAL PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Optical and thermal imaging devices are remote sensing systems that can be used to detect leaking gas compounds such as methane and benzene. Use of these systems can reduce fugitive emission losses through early detection and repair at industrial facilities by providing an effici...

  18. A Review of the Pollution Abatement Programs Relating to the Petroleum Refinery Industry in the Great Lakes Basin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    wastewaters. Many of the contaminants originate from the crude oil while others are produced in the process units. Others are the products of corrosion or...permit 1 irmiitations. Many water treatment additives are useo for controlling scale, corrosion , and biological growths in cooling water and stream...pollutants shall not: - create a fire or explosion hazard; - cause corrosive struct,!ral damage to treatment works, and in no case have a pH lower than

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:26339653

  20. Bioleaching of nickel from spent petroleum catalyst using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans DSM- 11478.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mohita; Bisht, Varsha; Singh, Bina; Jain, Pratiksha; Mandal, Ajoy K; Lal, Banwari; Sarma, Priyangshu M

    2015-06-01

    The present work deals with optimization of culture conditions and process parameters for bioleaching of spent petroleum catalyst collected from a petroleum refinery. The efficacy of Ni bioleaching from spent petroleum catalyst was determined using pure culture of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans DSM- 11478. The culture conditions of pH, temperature and headspace volume to media volume ratio were optimized. EDX analysis was done to confirm the presence of Ni in the spent catalyst after roasting it to decoke its surface. The optimum temperature for A. thiooxidans DSM-11478 growth was found to be 32 degrees C. The enhanced recovery of nickel at very low pH was attributed to the higher acidic strength of sulfuric acid produced in the culture medium by the bacterium. During the bioleaching process, 89% of the Ni present in the catalyst waste could be successfully recovered in optimized conditions. This environment friendly bioleaching process proved efficient than the chemical method. Taking leads from the lab scale results, bioleaching in larger volumes (1, 5 and 10 L) was also performed to provide guidelines for taking up this technology for in situ industrial waste management.

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  2. Petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Harayama, S; Kishira, H; Kasai, Y; Shutsubo, K

    1999-08-01

    Petroleum-based products are the major source of energy for industry and daily life. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products such as plastics, paints, and cosmetics. The transport of petroleum across the world is frequent, and the amounts of petroleum stocks in developed countries are enormous. Consequently, the potential for oil spills is significant, and research on the fate of petroleum in a marine environment is important to evaluate the environmental threat of oil spills, and to develop biotechnology to cope with them. Crude oil is constituted from thousands of components which are separated into saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. Upon discharge into the sea, crude oil is subjected to weathering, the process caused by the combined effects of physical, chemical and biological modification. Saturates, especially those of smaller molecular weight, are readily biodegraded in marine environments. Aromatics with one, two or three aromatic rings are also efficiently biodegraded; however, those with four or more aromatic ring are quite resistant to biodegradation. The asphaltene and resin fractions contain higher molecular weight compounds whose chemical structures have not yet been resolved. The biodegradability of these compounds is not yet known. It is known that the concentrations of available nitrogen and phosphorus in seawater limit the growth and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in a marine environment. In other words, the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers to an oil-contaminated marine environment can stimulate the biodegradation of spilled oil. This notion was confirmed in the large-scale operation for bioremediation after the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Alaska. Many microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum components have been isolated. However, few of them seem to be important for petroleum biodegradation in natural environments. One group of bacteria belonging to the genus

  3. Petroleum scene heating in fledgling crude exporter Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-18

    Operators, paced by a feisty independent based in Port Moresby, have drilled a string of discoveries near the infrastructure of the Kutubu development project that supports Papua New Guinea crude exports. All signs point to the increasing likelihood of good sized -- maybe world class -- oil discoveries that promise to sustain exploration and development interest beyond 2000. Also in the offing are world class gas strikes that eventually could support a liquefied natural gas export project. And integration is the newest concept in Papua New Guinea petroleum. Efforts are under way to build the country's first refineries. Most operators in Papua New Guinea believe thy have merely scratched the surface of the country's oil and gas potential. Thy agree there still will be frustrations and setbacks -- political as well as technical -- but the prevailing opinion is that these problems are no greater than they are in a number of other countries with similar exploration/development potential. The paper discusses the development of Papua New Guinea's oil and gas industry, and exploratory drilling in areas other than Kutubu.

  4. Problems Caused by Microbes and Treatment Strategies Downstream Petroleum Microbiology - An Industry Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, Elaine

    In the mid 1800's it was discovered that crude oil could be extracted and exploited to produce energy. However, it was the invention of the first four-stroke internal combustion engine in 1876 that transformed the petroleum industry from a localised to a global business (Dell and Rand, 2004). Crude oil is made into useable products at the refinery via separation, conversion and treatment processes. Separation starts with distillation where the crude is evaporated and condensed into fractions based on their boiling ranges (Fig. 19.1). As well as carbon and hydrogen, the fractions consist of sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen (present in low concentrations) and metals like copper and iron (in trace amounts). After separation, heavy fractions are converted into lighter ones using intense heat, pressure and a catalyst to speed up chemical reactions. Molecules like sulphur can then be stripped out by heat treatment under pressure with hydrogen. Injection of refinery additives makes a finished fuel. For example, static dissipator is added to Automotive Gas Oil (AGO) to reduce the risk of spark and explosion during fuel movements; middle distillate flow improver to improve low temperature operability and lubricity improver to lubricate engine components. Finally, fuel quality measurements are made to ensure that the finished fuel meets the relevant specification.

  5. Thermodynamics Analysis of Refinery Sludge Gasification in Adiabatic Updraft Gasifier

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Reem; Sinnathambi, Chandra M.; Eldmerdash, Usama; Subbarao, Duvvuri

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available about the thermodynamic evaluation for biomass gasification process using updraft gasifier. Therefore, to minimize errors, the gasification of dry refinery sludge (DRS) is carried out in adiabatic system at atmospheric pressure under ambient air conditions. The objectives of this paper are to investigate the physical and chemical energy and exergy of product gas at different equivalent ratios (ER). It will also be used to determine whether the cold gas, exergy, and energy efficiencies of gases may be maximized by using secondary air injected to gasification zone under various ratios (0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5) at optimum ER of 0.195. From the results obtained, it is indicated that the chemical energy and exergy of producer gas are magnified by 5 and 10 times higher than their corresponding physical values, respectively. The cold gas, energy, and exergy efficiencies of DRS gasification are in the ranges of 22.9–55.5%, 43.7–72.4%, and 42.5–50.4%, respectively. Initially, all 3 efficiencies increase until they reach a maximum at the optimum ER of 0.195; thereafter, they decline with further increase in ER values. The injection of secondary air to gasification zone is also found to increase the cold gas, energy, and exergy efficiencies. A ratio of secondary air to primary air of 0.5 is found to be the optimum ratio for all 3 efficiencies to reach the maximum values. PMID:24672368

  6. Thermodynamics analysis of refinery sludge gasification in adiabatic updraft gasifier.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Reem; Sinnathambi, Chandra M; Eldmerdash, Usama; Subbarao, Duvvuri

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available about the thermodynamic evaluation for biomass gasification process using updraft gasifier. Therefore, to minimize errors, the gasification of dry refinery sludge (DRS) is carried out in adiabatic system at atmospheric pressure under ambient air conditions. The objectives of this paper are to investigate the physical and chemical energy and exergy of product gas at different equivalent ratios (ER). It will also be used to determine whether the cold gas, exergy, and energy efficiencies of gases may be maximized by using secondary air injected to gasification zone under various ratios (0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5) at optimum ER of 0.195. From the results obtained, it is indicated that the chemical energy and exergy of producer gas are magnified by 5 and 10 times higher than their corresponding physical values, respectively. The cold gas, energy, and exergy efficiencies of DRS gasification are in the ranges of 22.9-55.5%, 43.7-72.4%, and 42.5-50.4%, respectively. Initially, all 3 efficiencies increase until they reach a maximum at the optimum ER of 0.195; thereafter, they decline with further increase in ER values. The injection of secondary air to gasification zone is also found to increase the cold gas, energy, and exergy efficiencies. A ratio of secondary air to primary air of 0.5 is found to be the optimum ratio for all 3 efficiencies to reach the maximum values.

  7. Kinetic Modeling of a Heterogeneous Fenton Oxidative Treatment of Petroleum Refining Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Basheer Hasan, Diya'uddeen; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2014-01-01

    The mineralisation kinetics of petroleum refinery effluent (PRE) by Fenton oxidation were evaluated. Within the ambit of the experimental data generated, first-order kinetic model (FKM), generalised lumped kinetic model (GLKM), and generalized kinetic model (GKM) were tested. The obtained apparent kinetic rate constants for the initial oxidation step (k2′), their final oxidation step (k1′), and the direct conversion to endproducts step (k3′) were 10.12, 3.78, and 0.24 min−1 for GKM; 0.98, 0.98, and nil min−1 for GLKM; and nil, nil, and >0.005 min−1 for FKM. The findings showed that GKM is superior in estimating the mineralization kinetics. PMID:24592152

  8. Investigation of waste biomass co-pyrolysis with petroleum sludge using a response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Zhang, Xinying; Li, Yubao

    2017-05-01

    The treatment of waste biomass (sawdust) through co-pyrolysis with refinery oily sludge was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor. Response surface method was applied to evaluate the main and interaction effects of three experimental factors (sawdust percentage in feedstock, temperature, and heating rate) on pyrolysis oil and char yields. It was found that the oil and char yields increased with sawdust percentage in feedstock. The interaction between heating rate and sawdust percentage as well as between heating rate and temperature was significant on the pyrolysis oil yield. The higher heating value of oil originated from sawdust during co-pyrolysis at a sawdust/oily sludge ratio of 3:1 increased by 5 MJ/kg as compared to that during sawdust pyrolysis alone, indicating a synergistic effect of co-pyrolysis. As a result, petroleum sludge can be used as an effective additive in the pyrolysis of waste biomass for improving its energy recovery.

  9. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  10. Petroleum 1996 - issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Increasingly, users of the Energy Information Administration`s petroleum data and analytical reports have expressed an interest in a recurring report that takes a broad view of the petroleum sector. What is sought is some perspective on the complex interrelationships that comprise an industry and markets accounting for 40 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and ranging from the drilling rig in the oil field to the pump at the local gasoline station. This report comprehensively examines historical trends, and selectively focuses on major issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to a common theme, in this case, the volatility in petroleum markets.

  11. Assessment of three approaches of bioremediation (Natural Attenuation, Landfarming and Bioagumentation - Assistited Landfarming) for a petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Guarino, C; Spada, V; Sciarrillo, R

    2017-03-01

    Contamination with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) subsequent to refining activities, is currently one of the major environmental problems. Among the biological remediation approaches, landfarming and in situ bioremediation strategies are of great interest. Purpose of this study was to verify the feasibility of a remediation process wholly based on biological degradation applied to contaminated soils from a decommissioned refinery. This study evaluated through a pot experiment three bioremediation strategies: a) Natural Attenuation (NA), b) Landfarming (L), c) Bioaugmentation-assisted Landfarming (LB) for the treatment of a contaminated soil with petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). After a 90-days trial, Bioagumentation - assistited Landfarming approach produced the best results and the greatest evident effect was shown with the most polluted samples reaching a reduction of about 86% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), followed by Landfarming (70%), and Natural Attenuation (57%). The results of this study demonstrated that the combined use of bioremediation strategies was the most advantageous option for the treatment of contaminated soil with petroleum hydrocarbons, as compared to natural attenuation, bioaugmentation or landfarming applied alone. Besides, our results indicate that incubation with an autochthonous bacterial consortium may be a promising method for bioremediation of TPH-contaminated soils.

  12. Oil refinery hazardous effluents minimization by membrane filtration: An on-site pilot plant study.

    PubMed

    Santos, Bruno; Crespo, João G; Santos, Maria António; Velizarov, Svetlozar

    2016-10-01

    Experiments for treating two different types of hazardous oil refinery effluents were performed in order to avoid/minimize their adverse impacts on the environment. First, refinery wastewater was subjected to ultrafiltration using a ceramic membrane, treatment, which did not provide an adequate reduction of the polar oil and grease content below the maximal contaminant level allowed. Therefore the option of reducing the polar oil and grease contamination at its main emission source point in the refinery - the spent caustic originating from the refinery kerosene caustic washing unit - using an alkaline-resistant nanofiltration polymeric membrane treatment was tested. It was found that at a constant operating pressure and temperature, 99.9% of the oil and grease and 97.7% of the COD content were rejected at this emission point. Moreover, no noticeable membrane fouling or permeate flux decrease were registered until a spent caustic volume concentration factor of 3. These results allow for a reuse of the purified permeate in the refinery operations, instead of a fresh caustic solution, which besides the improved safety and environmentally related benefits, can result in significant savings of 1.5 M€ per year at the current prices for the biggest Portuguese oil refinery. The capital investment needed for nanofiltration treatment of the spent caustic is estimated to be less than 10% of that associated with the conventional wet air oxidation treatment of the spent caustic that is greater than 9 M€. The payback period was estimated to be 1.1 years. The operating costs for the two treatment options are similar, but the reuse of the nanofiltration spent caustic concentrate for refinery pH control applications can further reduce the operating expenditures. Overall, the pilot plant results obtained and the process economics evaluation data indicate a safer, environmentally friendly and highly competitive solution offered by the proposed nanofiltration treatment, thus

  13. Assessing the Methane Emissions from Natural Gas-Fired Power Plants and Oil Refineries.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Tegan N; Shepson, Paul B; Gore, Chloe A; Stirm, Brian H; Kaeser, Robert; Wulle, Bernard; Lyon, David; Rudek, Joseph

    2017-03-21

    Presently, there is high uncertainty in estimates of methane (CH4) emissions from natural gas-fired power plants (NGPP) and oil refineries, two major end users of natural gas. Therefore, we measured CH4 and CO2 emissions at three NGPPs and three refineries using an aircraft-based mass balance technique. Average CH4 emission rates (NGPPs: 140 ± 70 kg/h; refineries: 580 ± 220 kg/h, 95% CL) were larger than facility-reported estimates by factors of 21-120 (NGPPs) and 11-90 (refineries). At NGPPs, the percentage of unburned CH4 emitted from stacks (0.01-0.14%) was much lower than respective facility-scale losses (0.10-0.42%), and CH4 emissions from both NGPPs and refineries were more strongly correlated with enhanced H2O concentrations (R(2)avg = 0.65) than with CO2 (R(2)avg = 0.21), suggesting noncombustion-related equipment as potential CH4 sources. Additionally, calculated throughput-based emission factors (EF) derived from the NGPP measurements made in this study were, on average, a factor of 4.4 (stacks) and 42 (facility-scale) larger than industry-used EFs. Subsequently, throughput-based EFs for both the NGPPs and refineries were used to estimate total U.S. emissions from these facility-types. Results indicate that NGPPs and oil refineries may be large sources of CH4 emissions and could contribute significantly (0.61 ± 0.18 Tg CH4/yr, 95% CL) to U.S. emissions.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-10

    This publication is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  15. Petroleum mineral oil refining and evaluation of cancer hazard.

    PubMed

    Mackerer, Carl R; Griffis, Larry C; Grabowski Jr, John S; Reitman, Fred A

    2003-11-01

    Petroleum base oils (petroleum mineral oils) are manufactured from crude oils by vacuum distillation to produce several distillates and a residual oil that are then further refined. Aromatics including alkylated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) are undesirable constituents of base oils because they are deleterious to product performance and are potentially carcinogenic. In modern base oil refining, aromatics are reduced by solvent extraction, catalytic hydrotreating, or hydrocracking. Chronic exposure to poorly refined base oils has the potential to cause skin cancer. A chronic mouse dermal bioassay has been the standard test for estimating carcinogenic potential of mineral oils. The level of alkylated 3-7-ring PAC in raw streams from the vacuum tower must be greatly reduced to render the base oil noncarcinogenic. The processes that can reduce PAC levels are known, but the operating conditions for the processing units (e.g., temperature, pressure, catalyst type, residence time in the unit, unit engineering design, etc.) needed to achieve adequate PAC reduction are refinery specific. Chronic dermal bioassays provide information about whether conditions applied can make a noncarcinogenic oil, but cannot be used to monitor current production for quality control or for conducting research or developing new processes since this test takes at least 78 weeks to conduct. Three short-term, non-animal assays all involving extraction of oil with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) have been validated for predicting potential carcinogenic activity of petroleum base oils: a modified Ames assay of a DMSO extract, a gravimetric assay (IP 346) for wt. percent of oil extracted into DMSO, and a GC-FID assay measuring 3-7-ring PAC content in a DMSO extract of oil, expressed as percent of the oil. Extraction with DMSO concentrates PAC in a manner that mimics the extraction method used in the solvent refining of noncarcinogenic oils. The three assays are described, data demonstrating the

  16. 46 CFR 148.04-15 - Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture). 148.04-15 Section 148.04-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-15 Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined...

  17. The Second Colloquium on Petroleum Engineering Education

    SciTech Connect

    Willhite, G.P.; Forney, R.H.

    1993-11-30

    This paper describes findings from the Second Colloquium on Petroleum engineering Education. The purpose of this colloquium was to provide a forum for petroleum engineering educators and representatives from industry and government to explore critical issues facing petroleum engineering education as we move into the 21st Century. It was expected that the colloquium would identify areas where changes are needed in petroleum engineering education, to best prepare students for careers in the oil and gas industry or other, related industries.

  18. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    different from that of gas displacement processes. The work is of experimental nature and clarifies several misconceptions in the literature. Based on experimental results, it is established that the main reason for high efficiency of solution gas drive from heavy oil reservoirs is due to low gas mobility. Chapter III presents the concept of the alteration of porous media wettability from liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting. The idea is novel and has not been introduced in the petroleum literature before. There are significant implications from such as proposal. The most direct application of intermediate gas wetting is wettability alteration around the wellbore. Such an alteration can significantly improve well deliverability in gas condensate reservoirs where gas well deliverability decreases below dewpoint pressure. Part I of Chapter III studies the effect of gravity, viscous forces, interfacial tension, and wettability on the critical condensate saturation and relative permeability of gas condensate systems. A simple phenomenological network model is used for this study, The theoretical results reveal that wettability significantly affects both the critical gas saturation and gas relative permeability. Gas relative permeability may increase ten times as contact angle is altered from 0{sup o} (strongly liquid wet) to 85{sup o} (intermediate gas-wetting). The results from the theoretical study motivated the experimental investigation described in Part II. In Part II we demonstrate that the wettability of porous media can be altered from liquid-wetting to gas-wetting. This part describes our attempt to find appropriate chemicals for wettability alteration of various substrates including rock matrix. Chapter IV provides a comprehensive treatment of molecular, pressure, and thermal diffusion and convection in porous media Basic theoretical analysis is presented using irreversible thermodynamics.

  19. Investigating bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons through landfarming using apparent electrical conductivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van De Vijver, Ellen; Van Meirvenne, Marc; Seuntjens, Piet

    2015-04-01

    Bioremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons through landfarming has been widely applied commercially at large scale. Biodegradation is one of the dominant pollutant removal mechanisms involved in landfarming, but strongly depends on the environmental conditions (e.g. presence of oxygen, moisture content). Conventionally the biodegradation process is monitored by the installation of field monitoring equipment and repeated sample collection and analysis. Because the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons and their degradation products can affect the electrical properties of the soil, proximal soil sensors such as electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors may provide an alternative to investigate the biodegradation process of these contaminants. We investigated the relation between the EMI-based apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) of a landfarm soil and the presence and degradation status of petroleum hydrocarbons. The 3 ha study area was located in an oil refinery complex contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly composed of diesel. At the site, a landfarm was constructed in 1999. The most recent survey of the petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations was conducted between 2011 and 2013. The sampling locations were defined by a grid with a 10 m by 10 m cell size and on each location a sample was taken from four successive soil layers with a thickness of 0.5 m each. Because the survey was carried out in phases using different georeferencing methods, the final dataset suffered from uncertainty in the coordinates of the sampling locations. In September 2013 the landfarm was surveyed for ECa with a multi-receiver electromagnetic induction sensor (DUALEM-21S) using motorized conveyance. The horizontal measurement resolution was 1 m by 0.25 m. On each measurement location the sensor recorded four ECa values representative of measurement depths of 0.5 m, 1.0 m, 1.6 m and 3.2 m. After the basic processing, the ECa measurements were filtered to remove

  20. Community Health Worker Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perales, Aurora Rodriguez

    An experienced community health worker describes her experiences in the field as a basis for recommended guidelines for the role, philosophy, aims, and goals of community health workers. The role of the community health worker as a member of the health care team is explored, and the problem of recognition for community health workers is considered…

  1. 31 CFR 561.318 - Petroleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum. 561.318 Section 561.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 561.318 Petroleum. The term petroleum (also known as crude oil) means a mixture of hydrocarbons...

  2. 78 FR 40131 - National Petroleum Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory... Business Properly Brought Before the National Petroleum Council Adjournment Public Participation:...

  3. 77 FR 42297 - National Petroleum Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. ] SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal... Brought Before the National Petroleum Council Adjournment Public Participation: The meeting is open to...

  4. 31 CFR 561.318 - Petroleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petroleum. 561.318 Section 561.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 561.318 Petroleum. The term petroleum (also known as crude oil) means a mixture of hydrocarbons...

  5. 76 FR 53889 - National Petroleum Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory... National, Petroleum Council, Adjournment. Public Participation: The meeting is open to the public....

  6. Unit: Petroleum, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on petroleum developed for the Australian Science Education Project. The package contains the teacher's edition of the written material and a script for a film entitled "The Extraordinary Experience of Nicholas Nodwell" emphasizing the uses of petroleum and petroleum products in daily life and…

  7. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 172.886 Section 172.886 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.886 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used in or on food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a)...

  8. Vegetable oils as a petroleum replacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current dependence of the world economy on petroleum cannot be sustained in the long run. Petroleum is expected to be depleted in the foreseeable future. In addition, the use of petroleum causes carbon dioxide emissions leading to global warming. Renewable sources need to be explored. One of the...

  9. Lymphohaematopoietic malignancy around all industrial complexes that include major oil refineries in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, P.; Thakrar, B.; Walls, P.; Landon, M.; Falconer, S.; Grundy, C.; Elliott, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the incidence of lymphohaematopoietic malignancy around industrial complexes that include major oil refineries in Great Britain after recent public and scientific concern of possible carcinogenic hazards of emissions from the petrochemical industry. METHODS: Small area study of the incidence of lymphohaematopoietic malignancies, 1974-91, within 7.5 km of all 11 oil refineries (grouped into seven sites) in Great Britain that were operational by the early 1970s and processed more than two million tonnes of crude oil in 1993. RESULTS: Combined analysis of data from all seven sites showed no significant (p < 0.05) increase in risk of these malignancies within 2 km or 7.5 km. Hodgkin's lymphoma, but no other malignancy, showed evidence (p = 0.02) of a decline in risk with distance from refineries, but there was an apparent deficit of cases of multiple myeloma near the refineries (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: There was no evidence of association between residence near oil refineries and leukaemias, or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. A weak positive association was found between risk of Hodgkin's disease and proximity to major petrochemical industry, and a negative association with multiple myeloma, which may be chance findings within the context of multiple statistical testing.   PMID:10615289

  10. Application of oil refinery waste in the biosynthesis of glycolipids by yeast.

    PubMed

    Bednarski, Włodzimierz; Adamczak, Marek; Tomasik, Jan; Płaszczyk, Mariusz

    2004-10-01

    Candida antarctica or Candida apicola synthesized surfactants (glycolipids) in the cultivation medium supplemented with oil refinery waste, either with soapstock (from 5.0% to 12.0% v/v) or post-refinery fatty acids (from 2.0% to 5.0% v/v). The efficiency of glycolipids synthesis was determined by the amount of waste supplemented to the medium and was from 7.3 to 13.4 g/l and from 6.6 to 10.5 g/l in the medium supplemented with soapstock and post-refinery fatty acids, respectively. The studied yeast also synthesized glycolipids in the non-supplemented medium however, by the enrichment of medium with the oil refinery waste, a 7.5-8.5-fold greater concentration of glycolipids was obtained in the post-culture liquid then in the medium without addition of oil refinery waste. The yeast synthesized from 6.6 to 10.3 g dry biomass/l and the intra-cellular fat content was from 16.8% to 30.2%. The efficiency of glycolipids synthesis was determined by yeast species, medium acidity and culture period. The surface tension of the post-culture liquid separated from yeast biomass was reduced to 35.6 mN/m, which corresponded to the surface tension obtained at the critical micelle concentration of glycolipids.

  11. Feasibility of flare gas reformation to practical energy in Farashband gas refinery: no gas flaring.

    PubMed

    Rahimpour, Mohammad Reaza; Jokar, Seyyed Mohammad

    2012-03-30

    A suggested method for controlling the level of hazardous materials in the atmosphere is prevention of combustion in flare. In this work, three methods are proposed to recover flare gas instead of conventional gas-burning in flare at the Farashband gas refinery. These methods aim to minimize environmental and economical disadvantages of burning flare gas. The proposed methods are: (1) gas to liquid (GTL) production, (2) electricity generation with a gas turbine and, (3) compression and injection into the refinery pipelines. To find the most suitable method, the refinery units that send gas to the flare as well as the required equipment for the three aforementioned methods are simulated. These simulations determine the amount of flare gas, the number of GTL barrels, the power generated by the gas turbine and the required compression horsepower. The results of simulation show that 563 barrels/day of valuable GTL products is produced by the first method. The second method provides 25 MW electricity and the third method provides a compressed natural gas with 129 bar pressure for injection to the refinery pipelines. In addition, the economics of flare gas recovery methods are studied and compared. The results show that for the 4.176MMSCFD of gas flared from the Farashband gas refinery, the electricity production gives the highest rate of return (ROR), the lowest payback period, the highest annual profit and mild capital investment. Therefore, the electricity production is the superior method economically.

  12. Strategic petroleum reserve annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.

  13. PETROLEUM BIOREFINING FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    SciTech Connect

    John J. Kilbane II

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this project was to isolate and characterize thermophilic bacterial cultures that can be used for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur, and/or metals in the biorefining of petroleum. The project was completed on schedule and no major difficulties were encountered. Significant progress was made on multiple topics relevant to the development of a petroleum biorefining process capable of operating at thermophilic temperatures. New cultures capable of selectively cleaving C-N or C-S bonds in molecules relevant to petroleum were obtained, and the genes encoding the enzymes for these unique biochemical reactions were cloned and sequenced. Genetic tools were developed that enable the use of Thermus thermophilus as a host to express any gene of interest, and information was obtained regarding the optimum conditions for the growth of T. thermophilus. The development of a practical biorefining process still requires further research and the future research needs identified in this project include the development of new enzymes and pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N or C-S bonds that have higher specific activities, increased substrate range, and are capable of functioning at thermophilic temperatures. Additionally, there is a need for process engineering research to determine the maximum yield of biomass and cloned gene products that can be obtained in fed-batch cultures using T. thermophilus, and to determine the best configuration for a process employing biocatalysts to treat petroleum.

  14. Petroleum geology of marine evaporites

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M. )

    1994-08-01

    The conditions necessary for evaporite deposition are also important with respect to genesis of source beds for petroleum. In a restricted basin marked by large-scale salt successions, it is presumed that the basin proper is separated from the open sea either by structural or physiographic barriers. These barriers may elevate the effective wave base so that much of the basin is in the stagnant zone or in reducing environment, where sediments rich in organic matter may be deposited. Such shallow barriers increase the conditions favorable for the generation of petroleum. Since marine evaporitic basins are not ideally closed systems, but are subject to influxes and perhaps refluxes of sea water or brine, much petroleum associated with evaporites is generated from dissolved and particulate organic matter swept from the normal marine into the evaporitic environments. Only carbonates precipitate in the mesosaline part (4-12% salinity) of such evaporitic environments. They are of great significance in source rock origin. The huge reserves of petroleum in the Mesozoic of the Middle East, and many other areas including the Michigan, Paradox, and Delaware basins, owe their origin to the thick sequences of carbonates and evaporites of the mesosaline environments. Repeated cycles of oil and gas formation in the stratigraphic record are related to tectonic, climatic, or eustatic events or both, and to increasing sedimentary overburden.

  15. Coke from coal and petroleum

    DOEpatents

    Wynne, Jr., Francis E.; Lopez, Jaime; Zaborowsky, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

  16. Assessment of petroleum streams for thyroid toxicity.

    PubMed

    Fowles, Jeff R; Banton, Marcy I; Boogaard, Peter J; Ketelslegers, Hans B; Rohde, Arlean M

    2016-07-08

    in the JP-8 or F-179 products than in studies in which thyroid effects were not observed. Thus, a few products may carry a weak potential to affect the thyroid at high doses in rodents, possibly through secondary effects on the rodent liver or possibly through a pathway involving the inhibition of TPO by specific members of the PAH family. Human epidemiology evidence found weak and inconsistent effects on the thyroid but without identification of specific chemicals involved. Two studies in petroleum workers, which found a lower rate of morbidity and mortality overall, reported a statistically significant increase in thyroid cancer, but the small number of cases could not exclude confounding variables as possible explanations for the statistical findings. Overall, the available data indicates a low potential for thyroid hormone effects from exposure to petroleum streams, especially when the aromatic content is low. Because regulatory studies for most chemicals do not include detailed thyroid function or receptor studies, it remains possible that subclinical effects on this system may exist that were not detectable using conventional pathology or hormone measurements.

  17. Recent Advances in Petroleum Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Singh, Ajay; Ward, Owen P.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have extended our understanding of the metabolic processes related to microbial transformation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The physiological responses of microorganisms to the presence of hydrocarbons, including cell surface alterations and adaptive mechanisms for uptake and efflux of these substrates, have been characterized. New molecular techniques have enhanced our ability to investigate the dynamics of microbial communities in petroleum-impacted ecosystems. By establishing conditions which maximize rates and extents of microbial growth, hydrocarbon access, and transformation, highly accelerated and bioreactor-based petroleum waste degradation processes have been implemented. Biofilters capable of removing and biodegrading volatile petroleum contaminants in air streams with short substrate-microbe contact times (<60 s) are being used effectively. Microbes are being injected into partially spent petroleum reservoirs to enhance oil recovery. However, these microbial processes have not exhibited consistent and effective performance, primarily because of our inability to control conditions in the subsurface environment. Microbes may be exploited to break stable oilfield emulsions to produce pipeline quality oil. There is interest in replacing physical oil desulfurization processes with biodesulfurization methods through promotion of selective sulfur removal without degradation of associated carbon moieties. However, since microbes require an environment containing some water, a two-phase oil-water system must be established to optimize contact between the microbes and the hydrocarbon, and such an emulsion is not easily created with viscous crude oil. This challenge may be circumvented by application of the technology to more refined gasoline and diesel substrates, where aqueous-hydrocarbon emulsions are more easily generated. Molecular approaches are being used to broaden the substrate specificity and increase the rates and

  18. Cost and Performance Report for LNAPL Recovery: Multi-Phase Extraction and Dual-Pump Recovery of LNAPL at the BP Former Amoco Refinery, Sugar Creek, MO

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This case study was prepared to summarize the recovery of light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) at two locations at the BP Products of North America, Inc. Former Amoco Refinery (former refinery) in Sugar Creek, Missouri.

  19. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  20. 31 CFR 542.209 - Prohibited transactions or dealings in or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. 542.209 Section 542.209 Money and... dealings in or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. Except as otherwise authorized... petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin is prohibited....

  1. 31 CFR 542.529 - Policy on activities related to petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit of the National Coalition of Syrian... activities related to petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit of the National... the purchase, trade, export, import, or production of petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

  2. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  3. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  4. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  5. Basic petroleum geology, 2nd ed. , revised

    SciTech Connect

    Link.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains revised and updated material, including approximately 200 additional illustrations and an extensive glossary of terms. A valuable reference for geology students and petroleum professionals, the text presents fundamental concepts of geology in terms of sedimentary deposition, petroleum occurrence, exploration, and recovery. This book contains information on geologic time, historical geology and stratigraphy; Minerals and rocks; Weathering erosion, and deposition; Marine erosion and deposition; Depositional basins; Lacustrine, desert and glacial environments; Subsurface water and diagenesis; Structural geology; petroleum traps; Petroleum and reservoirs; Geological considerations and engineering practices; Rocks, reservoirs, and recovery techniques; Exploration techniques for petroleum; Bibliography Glossary; Index.

  6. Oil refinery effluents: evidence of cocarcinogenic activity in the trout embryo microinjection assay

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, C.D.; Sonstegard, R.A.

    1985-12-01

    Extracts prepared from oil refinery effluents (soxhlet and XAD-2) were tested for carcinogenic potential by means of the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) embryo-injection bioassay. No neoplasms were detected in fish given injections of refinery extracts alone (with and without exogenous rat S-9 activation). Refinery extracts coinjected with aflatoxin B1 induced elevated frequencies of hepatic neoplasms. This cocarcinogenic effect was most pronounced when aflatoxin B1 was preincubated with rat S-9 prior to injection. Effluent extracts coinjected with a direct-acting carcinogen (N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (CAS: 56-57-5)) did not increase the incidence of hepatic neoplasms (with and without exogenous S-9 activation).

  7. Correcting systematic bias and instrument measurement drift with mzRefinery

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, Bryson C.; Chambers, Matthew C.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Tabb, David L.; Payne, Samuel H.

    2015-08-04

    Systematic bias in mass measurement adversely affects data quality and negates the advantages of high precision instruments. We introduce the mzRefinery tool into the ProteoWizard package for calibration of mass spectrometry data files. Using confident peptide spectrum matches, three different calibration methods are explored and the optimal transform function is chosen. After calibration, systematic bias is removed and the mass measurement errors are centered at zero ppm. Because it is part of the ProteoWizard package, mzRefinery can read and write a wide variety of file formats. In conclusion, we report on availability; the mzRefinery tool is part of msConvert, available with the ProteoWizard open source package at http://proteowizard.sourceforge.net/

  8. Correcting systematic bias and instrument measurement drift with mzRefinery

    DOE PAGES

    Gibbons, Bryson C.; Chambers, Matthew C.; Monroe, Matthew E.; ...

    2015-08-04

    Systematic bias in mass measurement adversely affects data quality and negates the advantages of high precision instruments. We introduce the mzRefinery tool into the ProteoWizard package for calibration of mass spectrometry data files. Using confident peptide spectrum matches, three different calibration methods are explored and the optimal transform function is chosen. After calibration, systematic bias is removed and the mass measurement errors are centered at zero ppm. Because it is part of the ProteoWizard package, mzRefinery can read and write a wide variety of file formats. In conclusion, we report on availability; the mzRefinery tool is part of msConvert, availablemore » with the ProteoWizard open source package at http://proteowizard.sourceforge.net/« less

  9. 40 CFR 80.1030 - What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... documents that reflect movement and storage of the Certified Toxics-FRGAS from the refinery to the load port... description of the gasoline's movement and storage between production at the source refinery and vessel... requirements of this subpart J. (3) A foreign refiner shall be subject to civil liability for violations...

  10. 40 CFR 80.1030 - What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... documents that reflect movement and storage of the Certified Toxics-FRGAS from the refinery to the load port... description of the gasoline's movement and storage between production at the source refinery and vessel... requirements of this subpart J. (3) A foreign refiner shall be subject to civil liability for violations...

  11. 40 CFR 80.1030 - What are the requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having individual refiner...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... documents that reflect movement and storage of the Certified Toxics-FRGAS from the refinery to the load port... description of the gasoline's movement and storage between production at the source refinery and vessel... requirements of this subpart J. (3) A foreign refiner shall be subject to civil liability for violations...

  12. 40 CFR 80.1363 - What are the additional requirements under this subpart for gasoline produced at foreign refineries?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... movement and storage of the Certified Benzene-FRGAS from the refinery to the load port, and from this... description of the gasoline's movement and storage between production at the source refinery and vessel... this subpart. (3) The forum for any civil or criminal enforcement action related to the provisions...

  13. 19 CFR Appendix to Part 146 - Guidelines for Determining Producibility and Relative Values for Oil Refinery Zones

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Refinery Subzone, from one or more storage tanks into process 150 barrels of Privileged Foreign (PF) Class..., into the refinery subzone, from one or more storage tanks 4 barrels of domestic motor gasoline blend... subzone, from one or more storage tanks into process 320 barrels of Domestic Class III crude...

  14. 19 CFR Appendix to Part 146 - Guidelines for Determining Producibility and Relative Values for Oil Refinery Zones

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Refinery Subzone, from one or more storage tanks into process 150 barrels of Privileged Foreign (PF) Class..., into the refinery subzone, from one or more storage tanks 4 barrels of domestic motor gasoline blend... subzone, from one or more storage tanks into process 320 barrels of Domestic Class III crude...

  15. Mechanism of removal of undesirable residual amylase, insoluble starch, and select colorants from refinery streams by powdered activated carbons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need in the world-wide sugar industry to find a practical and economical solution to remove or inactivate residual alpha-amylase that are high temperature stable from factory or refinery streams. A survey of refineries that used amylase and had activated carbon systems for decolorization,...

  16. 19 CFR Appendix to Part 146 - Guidelines for Determining Producibility and Relative Values for Oil Refinery Zones

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Relative Values for Oil Refinery Zones Appendix to Part 146 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Pt... Refinery Zones Where an example is set out in this appendix, the example is for purposes of...

  17. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average...

  18. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average...

  19. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average...

  20. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average...