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Sample records for petroleum skin carcinogens

  1. Experimental evaluation of skin carcinogenicity associated with chronic exposure to synthetic petroleums

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Most fossil liquids, whether natural or synthetic, possess some degree of skin carcinogenic activity if applied at high enough concentration for sufficient time to genetically responsive experimental animals. Whether a synthetic petroleum shown to be capable of eliciting skin cancer in the mouse will have similar capability in exposed humans depends upon the potency of the material, the dosage and the person's individual susceptibility. This presentation describes the approach being taken to quantitiate skin carcinogenic potency. In addition to potency estimation, exposure conditions that could have an important bearing upon extrapolation of experimental animal data are investigated. These factors include the capacity of the material to induce skin irritation, and physical-chemical characteristics that influence skin localization and persistence of potentially carcinogenic components.

  2. Carcinogenic potential of hydrotreated petroleum aromatic extracts.

    PubMed Central

    Doak, S M; Hend, R W; van der Wiel, A; Hunt, P F

    1985-01-01

    Five experimental petroleum extracts were produced from luboil distillates derived from Middle East paraffinic crude by solvent extraction and severe hydrotreatment. The polycyclic aromatic content (PCA) of the extracts was determined by dimethyl sulphoxide extraction and ranged from 3.7-9.2% w/w. The five extracts were evaluated for their potential to induce cutaneous and systemic neoplasia in female mice derived from Carworth Farm No 1 strain (CF1). The test substances were applied undiluted (0.2 ml per application) to the shorn dorsal skin twice weekly for up to 78 weeks, with 48 mice in each treatment group and 96 in the untreated control group; two further groups, each of 48 mice, were similarly treated either with a non-hydrotreated commercial aromatic extract (PCA content, 19.7% w/v) or with a low dose of benzo(a)pyrene (12.5 micrograms/ml acetone). The mice were housed individually in polypropylene cages in specified pathogen free conditions. The incidence of cutaneous and systemic tumours was determined from histological analysis of haematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections. The results were correlated with the PCA content of the extracts and compared with those from female mice exposed to a non-hydrotreated commercial aromatic extract. Four of the hydrotreated extracts were carcinogenic for murine skin; the two products with the lower PCA contents were less carcinogenic than the products with the higher PCA contents and all were less carcinogenic than the commercial extract. One extract with the lowest PCA content was non-carcinogenic. Thus refining by severe hydrotreatment was an effective method of reducing the carcinogenic potential of petroleum aromatic extracts. Although other physicochemical properties may influence the biological activity of oil products, the PCA content determined by dimethyl sulphoxide extraction may be a useful indicator of the potential of oil products to induce cutaneous tumours in experimental animals. There was no

  3. The carcinogenic potential of selected petroleum-derived products.

    PubMed

    Rothman, N; Emmett, E A

    1988-01-01

    In this chapter the authors examine the toxicologic and epidemiologic literature for a broad range of petroleum-derived products in order to assess the carcinogenic potential of these compounds. Types of evidence used, classes of compounds, and qualitative assessments of carcinogenicity are presented.

  4. Simple analytical test and a formula to predict the potential for dermal carcinogenicity from petroleum oils

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, J.M.; Dimeler, G.R.; Basil, E.W.; Wilkins, G.W.; Nutter, J.S.

    1987-11-01

    A correlation for predicting dermal carcinogenicity of petroleum oils in laboratory animals has been developed using two simple analytical tests. The tests are the Food and Drug Administration test (FDA) commonly used to measure white oil purity, and a viscosity test. In the correlation, FDA is a measure of aromaticity, and viscosity is used to account for molecular weight. The FDA test alone appears to be comparable to other predictors now in use, but incorporating viscosity significantly increases the accuracy of predicting dermal carcinogenicity. A formula is proposed, using both the FDA test results and viscosity, that predicts the percentage of mice which will develop neoplastic skin tumors.

  5. Carcinogenicity of petroleum lubricating oil distillates: effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, and blending.

    PubMed

    Halder, C A; Warne, T M; Little, R Q; Garvin, P J

    1984-01-01

    Certain refining processes were investigated to determine their influence on the dermal carcinogenic activity of petroleum-derived lubricating oil distillates. Specifically, the effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, a combination of both processes, and the blending of oils processed using each technique were evaluated in standard mouse skin-painting bioassays. The refining process used as well as the level or severity of treatment greatly influenced the carcinogenic outcome of processed lubricating oils. Solvent refining at severities normally used appeared to eliminate carcinogenicity. In contrast, hydroprocessing alone at mild levels of treatment was successful only in reducing the carcinogenic potency; severe hydroprocessing conditions were necessary to eliminate carcinogenic activity without the use of additional refining processes. Carcinogenic activity could also be eliminated by following moderate solvent refining with mild hydroprocessing. Blending of hydroprocessed oils with solvent-refined oils resulted in a substantial reduction or even elimination of carcinogenic activity. However, the degree of protection obtained varied with the particular distillates used and appeared largely dependent on the inherent biological activity of the hydroprocessed oil.

  6. Comparative carcinogenic and mutagenic activity of coal tar and petroleum asphalt paints used in potable water supply systems.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M; Bull, R J; Munch, J; Meier, J

    1984-02-01

    Coal tar and petroleum asphalt paints are among the products used as coatings for water pipes and storage tanks to retard corrosion. Formulations of these coatings were tested in the Ames mutagenesis and the mouse skin carcinogenesis bioassays. To test the mutagenicity of the paints, six doses ranging from 0.005 to 10 microliters per plate were assayed. In the mouse skin bioassay, doses of the coal tar paints ranging from 0.2 to 200 microliters were administered topically to 30 SENCAR mice per group. These initiating doses were followed by applications of 1.0 micrograms of 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in 0.2 ml acetone topically, three times weekly for 20 weeks. Petroleum asphalt paints were tested in groups of 40 animals at 200 and 600 microliters doses. All coal tar paints showed mutagenic activity after metabolic activation with S-9, with the highest response being in strains TA 98 and TA 100. None of the petroleum asphalt paints gave mutagenic responses. Both types of coatings resulted in positive responses in the initiation/promotion study. The coal tar paints gave rise to 1000-1800 times the tumor response observed with petroleum asphalt products. One coal tar product was positive when tested as a complete carcinogen in the mouse at 2 microliters per application once weekly for 30 weeks, whereas the asphalt paint was negative at 100 times the dose. The biological responses to the products were greater than expected from their polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. These findings suggest that the hazard posed by these coatings may not be fully explained by their PAH contents.

  7. Exposure to carcinogens for defined job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry, 1970 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E

    2007-04-01

    To identify and describe the exposure to selected known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for defined job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry from 1970 to 2005, in order to provide exposure information for a planned cohort study on cancer. Background information on possible exposure was obtained through company visits, including interviewing key personnel (n = 83) and collecting monitoring reports (n = 118) and other relevant documents (n = 329). On the basis of a previous questionnaire administered to present and former offshore employees in 1998, 27 job categories were defined. This study indicated possible exposure to 18 known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures or exposure circumstances. Monitoring reports were obtained on seven agents (benzene, mineral oil mist and vapour, respirable and total dust, asbestos fibres, refractory ceramic fibres, formaldehyde and tetrachloroethylene). The mean exposure level of 367 personal samples of benzene was 0.037 ppm (range: less than the limit of detection to 2.6 ppm). Asbestos fibres were detected (0.03 fibres/cm3) when asbestos-containing brake bands were used in drilling draw work in 1988. Personal samples of formaldehyde in the process area ranged from 0.06 to 0.29 mg/m3. Descriptions of products containing known and suspected carcinogens, exposure sources and processes were extracted from the collected documentation and the interviews of key personnel. This study described exposure to 18 known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for 27 job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry. For a planned cohort study on cancer, quantitative estimates of exposure to benzene, and mineral oil mist and vapour might be developed. For the other agents, information in the present study can be used for further assessment of exposure, for instance, by expert judgement. More systematic exposure surveillance is needed in this industry

  8. Exposure to carcinogens for defined job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry, 1970 to 2005

    PubMed Central

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To identify and describe the exposure to selected known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for defined job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry from 1970 to 2005, in order to provide exposure information for a planned cohort study on cancer. Methods Background information on possible exposure was obtained through company visits, including interviewing key personnel (n = 83) and collecting monitoring reports (n = 118) and other relevant documents (n = 329). On the basis of a previous questionnaire administered to present and former offshore employees in 1998, 27 job categories were defined. Results This study indicated possible exposure to 18 known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures or exposure circumstances. Monitoring reports were obtained on seven agents (benzene, mineral oil mist and vapour, respirable and total dust, asbestos fibres, refractory ceramic fibres, formaldehyde and tetrachloroethylene). The mean exposure level of 367 personal samples of benzene was 0.037 ppm (range: less than the limit of detection to 2.6 ppm). Asbestos fibres were detected (0.03 fibres/cm3) when asbestos‐containing brake bands were used in drilling draw work in 1988. Personal samples of formaldehyde in the process area ranged from 0.06 to 0.29 mg/m3. Descriptions of products containing known and suspected carcinogens, exposure sources and processes were extracted from the collected documentation and the interviews of key personnel. Conclusions This study described exposure to 18 known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for 27 job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry. For a planned cohort study on cancer, quantitative estimates of exposure to benzene, and mineral oil mist and vapour might be developed. For the other agents, information in the present study can be used for further assessment of exposure, for instance, by expert judgement. More

  9. Inter‐rater agreement in the assessment of exposure to carcinogens in the offshore petroleum industry

    PubMed Central

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E; Kromhout, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the reliability of an expert team assessing exposure to carcinogens in the offshore petroleum industry and to study how the information provided influenced the agreement among raters. Methods Eight experts individually assessed the likelihood of exposure for combinations of 17 carcinogens, 27 job categories and four time periods (1970–1979, 1980–1989, 1990–1999 and 2000–2005). Each rater assessed 1836 combinations based on summary documents on carcinogenic agents, which included descriptions of sources of exposure and products, descriptions of work processes carried out within the different job categories, and monitoring data. Inter‐rater agreement was calculated using Cohen's kappa index and single and average score intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (ICC(2,1) and ICC(2,8), respectively). Differences in inter‐rater agreement for time periods, raters, International Agency for Research on Cancer groups and the amount of information provided were consequently studied. Results Overall, 18% of the combinations were denoted as possible exposure, and 14% scored probable exposure. Stratified by the 17 carcinogenic agents, the probable exposure prevalence ranged from 3.8% for refractory ceramic fibres to 30% for crude oil. Overall mean kappa was 0.42 (ICC(2,1) = 0.62 and ICC(2,8) = 0.93). Providing limited quantitative measurement data was associated with less agreement than for equally well described carcinogens without sampling data. Conclusion The overall κ and single‐score ICC indicate that the raters agree on exposure estimates well above the chance level. The levels of inter‐rater agreement were higher than in other comparable studies. The average score ICC indicates reliable mean estimates and implies that sufficient raters were involved. The raters seemed to have enough documentation on which to base their estimates, but provision of limited monitoring data leads to more incongruence among raters. Having real

  10. Predicting carcinogenicity of petroleum distillation fractions using a modified Salmonella mutagenicity assay.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, G R; Deitch, R A; Schreiner, C A; Mackerer, C R

    1986-03-01

    The Ames Salmonella/microsomal activation mutagenesis assay has been modified to improve sensitivity and reproducibility to complex mixtures derived from the refining and processing of petroleum. Oil samples were dissolved in cyclohexane and subsequently extracted with dimethyl sulfoxide to produce aqueous compatible solutions which readily interact with tester bacteria. Also, the liver homogenate (S-9) and NADP cofactor concentrations were increased and hamster rather than rat liver S-9 was used. The initial slope of the dose response curve relating mutagenicity (revertants per plate) to the dose of extract added was used as an index of mutagenic activity; this slope was obtained through a computerized curve fitting procedure. The modified assay was used to rank 18 oil samples for mutagenic activity; this ranking correlates highly (r = 0.92) with potency rankings of the same samples previously determined from dermal carcinogenicity bioassays. Sensitivity and reproducibility of the assay are sufficient to permit routine use for detecting potential carcinogenic activity of individual refinery streams and blends which contain components boiling above 500 degrees F.

  11. Evaluation of the dermal carcinogenicity of lubricant base oils by the mouse skin painting bioassay and other proposed methods.

    PubMed

    Chasey, K L; McKee, R H

    1993-01-01

    Lubricant base oils are petroleum products that are predominantly derived from the vacuum distillation of crude oil. Various types of refinement can be employed during the manufacturing process, and evidence suggests that certain of the associated process streams produce skin cancer. Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), some of which are considered as the causative agents, are removed, concentrated or chemically converted during the refinement process. In order to understand the effects of various types of refinement processes on carcinogenic potential, 94 oils were evaluated in the mouse epidermal cancer bioassay. This Exxon database is unique, because of the wide range of crude oils and processing histories represented. Seven processing history classifications are described, and conclusions concerning the impacts of each refinement process on dermal carcinogenicity are discussed. This research also included an evaluation of selected biological and chemical test methods for predicting carcinogenic potential. These included a modified version of the Ames test for mutagenicity, as well as analytical characterizations of the polycyclic aromatic structures in the oils. For classification purposes, a sample was considered to be carcinogenic if it resulted in the production of two or more tumor-bearing animals (in test groups of either 40 or 50 animals). The modified Ames test was considered to be positive if the mutagenicity index was > or = 2.0, and PAC analyses were similarly designated as positive or negative according to proposed guidelines. All of the alternative test methods showed similar agreement with dermal carcinogenicity bioassay data; concordance values were > or = 80%. However, each test was incorrect in ca. 10%-20% of the cases evaluated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Development of a screening tool to prioritize testing for the carcinogenic hazard of residual aromatic extracts and related petroleum streams.

    PubMed

    Goyak, Katy O; Kung, Ming H; Chen, Min; Aldous, Keith K; Freeman, James J

    2016-12-15

    Residual aromatic extracts (RAE) are petroleum substances with variable composition predominantly containing aromatic hydrocarbons with carbon numbers greater than C25. Because of the high boiling nature of RAEs, the aromatics present are high molecular weight, with most above the range of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, refinery distillations are imperfect; some PAHs and their heteroatom-containing analogs (collectively referred to as polycyclic aromatic content or PAC) may remain in the parent stream and be extracted into the RAE, and overall PAC content is related to the carcinogenic potential of an RAE. We describe here a real-time analytical chemistry-based tool to assess the carcinogenic hazard of RAE via the development of a functional relationship between carcinogenicity and boiling point. Samples representative of steps along the RAE manufacturing process were obtained from five refineries to evaluate relationships between mutagenicity index (MI), PAC ring content and gas chromatographic distillation (GCD) curves. As expected, a positive linear relationship between MI and PAC ring content occurred, most specifically for 3-6 ring PAC (R(2)=0.68). A negative correlation was found between MI and temperature at 5% vaporization by GCD (R(2)=0.72), indicating that samples with greater amounts of lower boiling constituents were more likely to be carcinogenic. The inverse relationship between boiling range and carcinogenicity was further demonstrated by fractionation of select RAE samples (MI=0.50+0.07; PAC=1.70+0.51wt%; n=5) into low and high boiling fractions, where lower boiling fractions were both more carcinogenic than the higher boiling fractions (MI=2.36±0.55 and 0.17±0.11, respectively) and enriched in 3-6 ring PACs (5.20+0.70wt% and 0.97+0.35wt%, respectively). The criteria defining carcinogenicity was established as 479°C for the 5% vaporization points by GCD, with an approximate 95% probability of a future sample having

  13. Chk1 is essential for chemical carcinogen-induced mouse skin tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Tho, L M; Libertini, S; Rampling, R; Sansom, O; Gillespie, D A

    2012-03-15

    Chk1 is a key regulator of DNA damage checkpoint responses and genome stability in eukaryotes. To better understand how checkpoint proficiency relates to cancer development, we investigated the effects of genetic ablation of Chk1 in the mouse skin on tumors induced by chemical carcinogens. We found that homozygous deletion of Chk1 immediately before carcinogen exposure strongly suppressed benign tumor (papilloma) formation, and that the few, small lesions that formed in the ablated skin always retained Chk1 expression. Remarkably, Chk1 deletion rapidly triggered spontaneous cell proliferation, γ-H2AX staining and apoptosis within the hair follicle, a principal site of origin for carcinogen-induced tumors. At later times, the ablated skin was progressively repopulated by non-recombined Chk1-expressing cells and ultimately normal sensitivity to tumor induction was restored when carcinogen treatment was delayed. In marked contrast, papillomas formed normally in Chk1 hemizygous skin but showed an increased propensity to progress to carcinoma. Thus, complete loss of Chk1 is incompatible with epithelial tumorigenesis, whereas partial loss of function (haploinsufficiency) fosters benign malignant tumor progression.

  14. Suppressive function of RKTG on chemical carcinogen-induced skin carcinogenesis in mouse.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaoduo; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Yuhui; Liu, Weizhong; Ma, Hong; Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yan

    2008-08-01

    Raf kinase trapping to Golgi (RKTG) is a newly characterized negative regulator of the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling pathway via sequestrating Raf-1 to the Golgi apparatus. However, little is known about the physiological functions of RKTG in mitogenic pathway and carcinogenesis. Here, we describe a suppressive role of RKTG in skin carcinogenesis by analyzing chemical carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis. Epidermis hyperplasia and proliferation are increased in RKTG-deficient mice (RKTG(-/-)) after acute treatment with 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Using a two-stage DMBA/TPA carcinogenesis protocol on mouse skin, the number and size of papillomas are increased in RKTG(-/-) mice, accompanied by shortened tumor latency and enhanced keratinocyte proliferation. The regression of the carcinogen-induced tumors is also prolonged in RKTG(-/-) mice. Consistently, the levels of Raf-1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in primary keratinocytes as well as skin tumors are elevated when RKTG is disrupted. Collectively, our results indicate that RKTG has a suppressive activity in chemical carcinogen-induced mitogenesis and tumor formation in mouse skin.

  15. Skin cleaning with kerosene facilitates passage of carcinogens to the lungs of animals treated with used gasoline engine oil.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Roh, J H; Burks, D; Warshawsky, D; Talaska, G

    2000-04-01

    Solvents such as kerosene or gasoline may be used by workers to clean their skin following contact with oily materials. This practice is not recommended, as it is well known that the solvent will defat the skin. Many also suspect that solvent washing may increase exposure by carrying materials through the skin; however, there is little documentation of this. Auto mechanics may be exposed to used gasoline engine oil (UGEO), an animal carcinogen which forms carcinogen-DNA adducts in skin and lung following topical application. This study was designed to determine if cleaning with kerosene following exposure to UGEO altered absorption of carcinogens from this material. UGEO or new oil (NO) was applied to the shaved skins of groups of HSD-ICR mice for five days. At 1 or 8 hours after application, the treated skins were cleaned with either kerosene or a commercial cleaner, or were not cleaned. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last application, skins and lungs harvested, and DNA analyzed for carcinogen-DNA adducts by 32P-postlabeling. Five applications of UGEO significantly increased carcinogen-DNA adduct levels in both lungs and skin compared to animals treated with NO. DNA adduct levels in the skin were reduced significantly in groups washed with kerosene or commercial cleaner. Washing at one as opposed to eight hours after UGEO application resulted in lower adduct levels regardless of cleaner. DNA adduct levels in the lung were reduced when the commercial cleaner was used, again in a time-related fashion. However, cleaning with kerosene resulted in mean carcinogen-DNA adduct levels in the lung which were significantly higher than even the positive controls, regardless of cleaning time. This is the first demonstration that kerosene cleaning facilitates passage of carcinogens through the skin, resulting in higher levels of genetic damage in a critical internal organ.

  16. Chronic and Initiation/Promotion Skin Bioassays of Petroleum Refinery Streams.

    PubMed Central

    Skisak, C; Furedi-Machacek, EM; Schmitt, SS; Swanson, MS; Vernot, EH

    1994-01-01

    Nine refinery streams were tested in both chronic and initiation/promotion (I/P) skin bioassays. In the chronic bioassay, groups of 50 C3H/HeJ mice received twice weekly applications of 50 microl of test article for at least 2 years. In the initiation phase of the I/P bioassay, groups of CD-1 mice received an initiating dose of 50 microl of test article for 5 consecutive days, followed by promotion with 50 microl of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (0.01% w/v in acetone) for 25 weeks. In the promotion phase of the I/P bioassay, CD-1 mice were initiated with 50 microl of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (0.1% w/v in acetone) or acetone, followed by promotion with 50 microl of test article twice weekly for 25 weeks. The most volatile of the streams, sweetened naphtha, and the least volatile, vacuum residuum, were noncarcinogenic in both assays. Middle distillates, with a boiling range of 150 degrees-370 degreesC, demonstrated carcinogenic activity in the chronic bioassay and acted as promoters but not initiators in the I/P bioassay. Untreated mineral oil streams displayed initiating activity and were carcinogenic in the chronic bioassay, presumably due to the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of requisite size and structure. A highly solvent-refined mineral oil stream lacked initiating activity. These results indicate that the I/P bioassay, which takes 6 months to complete, may be a good qualitative predictor of the results of a chronic bioassay, at least for petroleum streams. Furthermore, the I/P bioassay can provide insight into possible mechanisms of tumor development. Images p82-a PMID:9719673

  17. Chronic Dermal Toxicity of Epoxy Resins I. Skin Carcinogenic Potency and General Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, J.M.

    2001-01-16

    Epoxy resins are a diverse class of chemicals that differ in structure, physical properties, and, presumably, biological activity. The purpose of these experiments was to compare the chronic dermal toxicity and carcinogenicity of selected commercial epoxy resins and to determine the potential for positive synergistic carcinogenic interactions between different resins. This work is an extension and continuation of a Department of Energy sponsored program to evaluate epoxy resins for potential occupational health risks. The materials examined were chosen on the basis of their interest to the U.S. government. They are representative of the manufacturer's production at the time, and therefore the data are completely valid only for the specific production period. Results of the experimental exposures will be reported in two parts. This report describes the test materials, their chemical and physical characteristics and the experimental design. General (systemic) toxicity will be evaluated and the skin carcinogenicity of the materials compared. A subsequent report will provide morphological descriptions of skin and significant internal pathology induced by the various treatments.

  18. Skin response to a carcinogen involves the xenobiotic receptor pregnane X receptor.

    PubMed

    Elentner, Andreas; Ortner, Daniela; Clausen, Björn; Gonzalez, Frank J; Fernández-Salguero, Pedro M; Schmuth, Matthias; Dubrac, Sandrine

    2015-11-01

    Skin is in daily contact with potentially harmful molecules from the environment such as cigarette smoke, automobile emissions, industrial soot and groundwater. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a transcription factor expressed in liver and intestine that is activated by xenobiotic chemicals including drugs and environmental pollutants. Topical application of the tumor initiator 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) enhances Pxr, Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1 and Cyp3a11, but not Ahr expression in the skin. Surprisingly, DMBA-induced Pxr upregulation is largely impaired in Langerin(+) cell-depleted skin, suggesting that DMBA mainly triggers Pxr in Langerin(+) cells. Furthermore, PXR deficiency protects from DNA damage in epidermal cells but to a lesser extent than aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) deficiency. Interestingly, skin exposure to low doses of DMBA induces migration of PXR-deficient but not of wild-type and AHR-deficient Langerhans cells (LCs). PXR-humanized mice show a marked increase in DNA damage to epidermal cells after topical application of DMBA, demonstrating relevance of these findings in human tissue. This is the first report suggesting that carcinogens might trigger PXR in epidermal cells, particularly in LCs, thus leading to DNA damage. Further studies are required to better delineate the role of PXR in cutaneous carcinogenesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Tumorigenesis in athymic nude mouse skin by chemical carcinogens and ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.M.; Rice, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    A variety of established skin tumorigenesis protocols were tested for efficacy on athymic nu/nu mice (BALB/c background) and compared on euthymic nu/+ counterparts. Chemical carcinogens and UV light were applied to the ears of 10 mice of each sex and genotype for each group. Treatments were: 0.5 mg 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene ((DMBA) CAS: 57-97-6) to each ear; 0.125 mg DMBA to each ear, followed by 0.1 microgram 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate ((TPA) CAS: 16561-29-8) twice weekly for 56 weeks; 0.2 mg N-nitroso-N-methylurea ((NMU) CAS: 684-93-5; 1% in acetone, 20 microliter) to each ear; 0.1 mg NMU to each ear weekly for 30 weeks; 0.2 mg NMU to each ear, followed by TPA twice weekly for 56 weeks; two ip doses of N-nitroso-N-ethylurea ((NEU) CAS: 759-73-9; 25 mg/kg each), followed by TPA twice weekly topically for 56 weeks; and exposure to sunlamps (250- to 400-nm emission) two or three times per week for 20 weeks, for a total dose of 3.7 X 10(5) J/m2. The chemical treatments caused mainly squamous papillomas and carcinomas, sebaceous adenomas and adenocarcinomas, and basal cell tumors, which appeared both on the skin of the ears and elsewhere. UV light caused squamous tumors, basal cell tumors, and sarcomas. Ear skin of the nu/nu mice developed significantly more squamous tumors than those of nu/+ mice after DMBA-TPA, NMU-TPA, NEU-TPA, repeated NMU, or UV light. Similar results were obtained for the skin of the heads and bodies. Even a single dose of NMU caused a few tumors on the nude, but not the euthymic, mice. A single dose of DMBA caused primarily sebaceous adenomas, distributed at random over the entire bodies. These results show that, contrary to previous reports, nude mice are sensitive to skin tumorigenesis, more so than euthymic nu/+ mice similarly exposed to diverse types of carcinogen and treatment protocols.

  20. Petroleum jelly lipogranuloma of the penis treated with excision and native skin coverage.

    PubMed

    Santucci, R A; Zehring, R D; McClure, D

    2000-08-01

    Penile augmentation by injection of petroleum jelly is still performed by nonmedical practitioners abroad and causes foreign body reactions with resultant scarring, deformity, and ulceration. Surgical treatment involves removal of the foreign material and granuloma, followed by scrotal flaps, inguinal flaps, free flaps, or split-thickness skin grafts. We present the use of native penile skin for coverage after resection of oleogranuloma in the first case of which we are aware. Local penile skin coverage allows for an excellent surgical result, with many potential advantages over flaps or skin grafts.

  1. Carcinogenically relevant split dose repair increased with age in rat skin model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Fredric; Tang, Moon-Shong Eric; Wu, Feng; Uddin, Ahmed

    2012-07-01

    These experiments utilize cancer induction to evaluate cancer-relevant repair during the interval between dose fractions. Low LET electron radiation(LET ~ 0.34 keV/u) were utilized in experiments that involved exposing rat dorsal skin to 2 equal 8 Gy dose fractions separated at various intervals from 0.25 h to 24 h. Cancer onset was established for 80 weeks after the exposures and only histologically verified cancers were included in the analysis. This experiment involved a total of 540 rats and 880 induced cancers. In the youngest rats (irradiated at 28 days of age) the cancer yield declined with a halftime of approximately 3.5 hrs. In 113 day old rats the cancer yield halftime was shortened to 1.3 hrs. In the oldest rats (182 days of age), the halftime could not be established quantitatively, because it was less than the shortest interval (15 min) utilized in the protocol (best estimate ~5 min). In the oldest rats the cancer yields for all fractionated exposures dropped essentially to the expected level of 2 single fractions, below which theoretically no further reduction is possible. The follow-up times for obtaining cancer yields were the same for all exposure groups in spite of the differing ages at exposure. These results indicate that repair of carcinogenically-relevant damage accelerates with age of the rat. No information is available on the possible mechanistic basis for this finding, although the model might be useful for delineating which of the many postulated split dose repair pathways is the correct one. The finding indicates that older rats should be less susceptible to the carcinogenic action of single doses of low LET radiation in comparison to younger rats, which has been verified in separate studies.

  2. Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  3. Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  4. Exposure of mouse skin to organic peroxides: subchronic effects related to carcinogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Hanausek, Margaret; Walaszek, Zbigniew; Viaje, Aurora; LaBate, Michael; Spears, Erick; Farrell, David; Henrich, Richard; Tveit, Ann; Walborg, Earl F; Slaga, Thomas J

    2004-03-01

    Screening of newly synthesized organic peroxides for tumor initiating/promoting activity would be greatly facilitated if predictive methodologies could be developed using topical exposures shorter than those required for definitive tumor assessment in mouse skin models. Nine organic peroxides [benzoyl peroxide (BZP), di-t-butyl peroxide (DTBP), t-butyl peroxybenzoate (TBPB), p-t-butyl isopropylbenzene hydroperoxide (TBIBHP), cumene hydroperoxide (CHP), dicetyl peroxydicarbonate (DPD), dicumyl peroxide (DCP), methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) and O,O-t-butyl-O-(2-ethylhexyl) monoperoxycarbonate (TBEC)] were evaluated for their ability to increase biomarkers of tumor promotion in mouse skin, i.e. sustained epidermal hyperplasia, dermal inflammation and oxidative DNA damage. Evaluations were performed using SENCAR mice exposed topically for 4 weeks. The organic peroxides varied in their effects on these biomarkers. BZP, TBPB and TBIBHP exhibited significant increases in all three biomarkers associated with tumor promoting activity, CHP produced increases only in sustained epidermal hyperplasia and dermal inflammation, MEKP and DCP produced increases only in sustained epidermal hyperplasia and TBEC produced an increase only in dermal inflammation. DTBP and DPD had no effect on the three parameters studied. TBPB and TBIBHP were selected for further examination of their ability to produce mutations in codons 12, 13 and 61 of the c-Ha-ras protooncogene, i.e. those mutations known to be involved in the initiation of mouse skin tumors, because they were the only peroxides to exhibit significant positive results in all assays except the Ha-ras mutation following 4 weeks of exposure. Evaluations were performed using SENCAR mice dosed topically for 8 or 12 weeks in a complete carcinogenesis protocol or 16 weeks in an initiation/promotion protocol using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, urethane, benzo[a]pyrene and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine as positive controls

  5. Cutting fluids and their effects on the skin of mice. An experimental study with special reference to carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, J R; Stoyanov, S; Unger, M; Clausen, J; Christensen, H E

    1977-09-01

    Reports of skin malignancies due to occupational exposure have decreased since the introduction of solvent-refining of mineral oil fraction in the manufacture of oil based cutting fluids. Commercial mineral oil based cutting fluids caused local and general pathological changes after repeated application to the skin of mice in the present study. Forty-eight per cent of the mice exposed to oils showed severe dysplasia or malignancy of the skin on histological examination. The corresponding figure for the control group, where various additives were used was 8 per cent. The frequency of papillomas was also increased in the mice exposed to oils. The systemic lesions included focal necrosis of the liver, associated with amyloid deposition, as well as amyloidosis of the skin, spleen and kidneys. The substances responsible for these apparent carcinogenic properties of the complex mixtures may be polycyclic hydrocarbons; the latter are still present in the commercial products despite solvent refining; on the other hand the carcinogens may be additives to the cutting oils the composition of which is generally a trade secret.

  6. Investigation on the carcinogenicity of emission condensate from brown coal-fired residential furnaces applied to mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Deutsch-Wenzel, R P; Brune, H; Grimmer, G; Dettbarn, G; Misfeld, J; Timm, J

    1984-11-01

    Flue gas condensate emitted from brown coal-fired stoves was tested in 3 dosages applied chronically to the skin of female CFLP mice twice a week over a period of 104 weeks. To answer the question which portion of the total carcinogenicity results from benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), this compound was taken as reference substance. The probit and Weibull analysis of the results showed a linear dose-response relationship for both tumor incidences and tumor induction times. The amount of BaP in the emission condensate (0.593 mg/g condensate) contributes about 15% to the total carcinogenic effect of the brown coal flue gas condensate.

  7. Relevance of the mouse skin initiation-promotion model for the classification of carcinogenic substances encountered at the workplace.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Michael; Thielmann, Heinz W; Meischner, Veronika; Fartasch, Manigé

    2015-06-01

    The Permanent Senate Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area (MAK Commission of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) evaluates chemical substances using scientific criteria to prevent adverse effects on health at the work place. As part of this task there is a need to evaluate tumor promoting activity of chemicals (enhancement of formation of squamous cell carcinomas via premalignant papillomas) obtained from two-stage initiation/promotion experiments using the mouse skin model. In the present communication we address this issue by comparing responses seen in mouse skin with those in humans. We conclude that tumor promotional effects seen in such animal models be carefully analyzed on a case by case basis. Substances that elicit a rather non-specific effect that is restricted to the high dose range are considered to be irrelevant to humans and thus do not require classification as carcinogens. In contrast, substances that might have both a mode of action and a potency similar to the specific effects seen with TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), the prototype tumor promoter in mouse skin, which triggers receptor-mediated signal cascades in the very low dose range, have to be classified in a category for carcinogens.

  8. Prediction of mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, developmental toxicity, and skin sensitisation with Caesar program for a set of conazoles.

    PubMed

    Bolčič-Tavčar, Mateja; Vračko, Marjan

    2012-09-01

    This article presents models to predict mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, developmental toxicity, and skin sensitisation for a set of 27 conazoles. The predictions were performed with the program package CAESAR, which is available on the Internet. The CAESAR programs were developed to support the European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use (REACH) and follow the OECD principles for (Q)SAR models used for regulatory purposes. The programs provide a number of information, including a binary classification of a compound as toxic or non-toxic and information on similar compounds from the model's training sets (similarity sets). In this study we analysed conazole sets using principal component analysis (PCA). The predictions were compared to the currently valid classification of these substances in the European Union (EU) or to the classification proposed at expert meetings of the Pesticide Risk Assessment and Peer Review (PRAPeR) group. The predicted classification for mutagenicity was in good agreement with regulatory classification, the predictions for carcinogenicity and developmental toxicity showed some discrepancy in particular cases, while the predictions for skin sensitisation showed even greater discrepancy.

  9. North American Magazine Coverage of Skin Cancer and Recreational Tanning Before and After the WHO/IARC 2009 Classification of Indoor Tanning Devices as Carcinogenic.

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2015-09-01

    The mass media is an influential source of skin cancer information for the public. In 2009, the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer classified UV radiation from tanning devices as carcinogenic. Our objective was to determine if media coverage of skin cancer and recreational tanning increased in volume or changed in nature after this classification. We conducted a directed content analysis on 29 North American popular magazines (2007-2012) to investigate the overall volume of articles on skin cancer and recreational tanning and, more specifically, the presence of skin cancer risk factors, UV behaviors, and early detection information in article text (n = 410) and images (n = 714). The volume of coverage on skin cancer and recreational tanning did not increase significantly after the 2009 classification of tanning beds as carcinogenic. Key-related messages, including that UV exposure is a risk factor for skin cancer and that indoor tanning should be avoided, were not reported more frequently after the classification, but the promotion of the tanned look as attractive was conveyed more often in images afterwards (p < .01). Content promoting high-SPF sunscreen use increased after the classification (p < .01), but there were no significant positive changes in the frequency of coverage of skin cancer risk factors, other UV behaviors, or early detection information over time. The classification of indoor tanning beds as carcinogenic had no significant impact on the volume or nature of skin cancer and recreational tanning coverage in magazines.

  10. Effects of the co-carcinogen catechol on benzo(a)pyrene metabolism and DNA adduct formation in mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Melikian, A.A.; Leszczynska, J.M.; Hecht, S.S.; Hoffmann, D.

    1986-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the co-carcinogen catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) on the metabolic activation of (/sup 3/H) benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in mouse skin, in vivo and on the binding of BaP metabolites to DNA and protein at intervals from 0.5-24 h. Upon topical application of 0.015 mg (/sup 3/H)BaP and 0.25 or 0.5 mg catechol per mouse, catechol had little effect on the total amount of (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolized in mouse skin, but it affected the relative proportions of (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolites. Catechol (0.5 mg/mouse) decreased the proportion of water-soluble (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolites, ethyl acetate-soluble polar metabolites and quinones, but doubled the levels of unconjugated 3-hydroxy-BaP at all measured intervals after treatment. Catechol also caused a small increase in the levels of trans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydroBaP and trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydroBaP 0.5 h after treatment. Two hours after treatment, the levels of these metabolites subsided to those of the controls. Catechol did not affect the levels of glutathione conjugates of BaP. However, it caused a decrease in glucuronide and sulphate conjugate formation from BaP. Catechol caused an approximately 2-fold increase in the formation of anti-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydroBaP (BPDE) DNA adducts and elevated the ratio of anti-syn-BPDE-DNA adducts 1.6 to 2.9-fold. Catechol treatment increased the radioactivity associated with epidermal proteins after (/sup 3/H)BaP application. Because catechol increased levels of 3-hydroxyBaP, we considered the possibility that 3-hydroxyBaP might enhance the tumor initiating activities of BaP or BPDE in mouse skin; a bioassay demonstrated that this was not the case. The results of this study indicate that one important effect of catechol related to its co-carcinogenicity is its ability to enhance formation of anti-BPDE-DNA adducts in mouse skin.

  11. [Carcinogenic viruses in etiopathogenesis of skin cancers in patients after organ transplantation].

    PubMed

    Piesiaków, Maria Luiza; Imko-Walczuk, Beata; Osiecka, Karolina; Kiełbowicz, Marta; Dębska-Ślizień, Alicja

    2016-02-14

    The latest literature report specifies multifactoral etiology of skin cancer in population of patients after organs transplats. Carcirogenic viruses are one of etiopathogenesis components. Viruses of a vital meaning for skin oncogenesis are called Human papillomavirus - HPV, Human herpesvirus 8 - HHV8 i Merkel cell polyomavirus - MCV. Report on connections exisisting between viruses HPV and skin cancers in the population of patients after organs transplants confirms clinical connection between viruses papillas and cancers centres occuring in similar locations and more frequent appearance of attributes characteristic for HPV infection within the limits of changes in the type of Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). What's more, coexisting of viruses papillas and SCC is more often noticed in the population of organ recipients than in the population of healthy people. It is not confirmed yet that any specific correlation between subtypes of HPV and greater frequency of morbidity in skin cancers really exist. However, in the population of organ recipients infections of different types of HPV are found within the limits of cancers centres in the case of SCC (63%) as well as in basal cell carcinoma-BCC (55%). DNA of HPV was also fund in healthy parts of organ recipients skin (92-94%). HHV8 is also an oncogenic viruse that influences the development of lymphoma. Infection of that virus may cause ocuuring of Kaposi's sarkoma, which is one of the most frequent types of cancer appearing in population of patients treating by long-term immunosuppression in particular geographical zones. MCV, which belongs to the group called Polyomaviriade, owes a particular meaning in etiopathogenesis of Merkel cell carcinoma - MCC. It is a rare cancer derived from neuroendocrine cells of the basic layers of epidermie. For over 30 years it was supposed that correlation between viruses and skin cancers in population of organ recipient exist. Knowledge of the total viruses influence on skin cancers

  12. Short- and intermediate-term carcinogenicity testing--a review. Part 1: the prototypes mouse skin tumour assay and rat liver focus assay.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, H; Bomhard, E; Iatropoulos, M; Ahr, H J; Schlueter, G; Williams, G M

    1998-11-01

    Carcinogenicity testing is by far the most expensive and time-consuming study type of toxicology. For many years, the lifetime exposure with the maximum tolerated dose in two rodent species has been the gold standard of carcinogenicity testing of pharmaceuticals. Major change was introduced by the Fourth International Conference on Harmonization in July 1997; a chronic rodent bioassay in one species and a short-term carcinogenicity assay are regarded as sufficient for registration. Such requirements provide the opportunity to redirect the vast resources previously spent on the lifetime study in the second species. Numerous experimental protocols for short- and intermediate-term carcinogenicity testing in many target tissues have been available for years. The first part of this review describes the basic principles of short- and intermediate-term carcinogenicity testing using the examples of the widely used mouse skin tumour assay and the rat liver foci assay. In the context of these experimental models, the discrimination and quantification of initiating and promoting activity and the use of preneoplastic lesions as endpoints in carcinogenicity testing are described. The review includes the limitations of the models with regard to the extrapolation from effects observed in animal experiments to a potential exposure of humans.

  13. Prophylaxis of Diallyl Disulfide on Skin Carcinogenic Model via p21-dependent Nrf2 stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Yunlong; Wei, Zhonghong; Tao, Li; Wang, Siliang; Zhang, Feng; Shen, Cunsi; Wu, Hongyan; Liu, Zhaoguo; Zhu, Pingting; Wang, Aiyun; Chen, Wenxing; Lu, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Cancer prevention through intake of biologically active natural products appears to be an accessible way to reduce the risk of cancer. Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a major garlic derivative, has exhibited potential role in cancer therapy. The study is aimed to evaluate the prophylactic effect of DADS in chemically induced mouse skin carcinogenesis and investigate the molecular targets mediated by DADS. Two-stage chemically induced carcinogenesis model by cutaneous application of DMBA and subsequent TPA was established to study the prophylactic effect of DADS. As a result, we observed that DADS dose-dependently attenuated skin tumor incidence and multiplicity in the model mice, which was related to the up-regulation of a bunch of antioxidant enzymes activities and the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. Furthermore, we developed skin carcinogenesis in Nrf2 knockout mice which could reverse the activity of DADS. Finally, we uncovered the underlying mechanism that DADS promoted the endogenous interaction between p21 and Nrf2, which was critical for impairing the Keap1-mediated degradation of Nrf2. Based on the results, we concluded that DADS was a promising cancer chemoprevention agent and suggested a garlic-rich diet might be beneficial to reduce the cancer risk in our daily life. PMID:27759091

  14. Prophylaxis of Diallyl Disulfide on Skin Carcinogenic Model via p21-dependent Nrf2 stabilization.

    PubMed

    Shan, Yunlong; Wei, Zhonghong; Tao, Li; Wang, Siliang; Zhang, Feng; Shen, Cunsi; Wu, Hongyan; Liu, Zhaoguo; Zhu, Pingting; Wang, Aiyun; Chen, Wenxing; Lu, Yin

    2016-10-19

    Cancer prevention through intake of biologically active natural products appears to be an accessible way to reduce the risk of cancer. Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a major garlic derivative, has exhibited potential role in cancer therapy. The study is aimed to evaluate the prophylactic effect of DADS in chemically induced mouse skin carcinogenesis and investigate the molecular targets mediated by DADS. Two-stage chemically induced carcinogenesis model by cutaneous application of DMBA and subsequent TPA was established to study the prophylactic effect of DADS. As a result, we observed that DADS dose-dependently attenuated skin tumor incidence and multiplicity in the model mice, which was related to the up-regulation of a bunch of antioxidant enzymes activities and the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. Furthermore, we developed skin carcinogenesis in Nrf2 knockout mice which could reverse the activity of DADS. Finally, we uncovered the underlying mechanism that DADS promoted the endogenous interaction between p21 and Nrf2, which was critical for impairing the Keap1-mediated degradation of Nrf2. Based on the results, we concluded that DADS was a promising cancer chemoprevention agent and suggested a garlic-rich diet might be beneficial to reduce the cancer risk in our daily life.

  15. THE CARCINOGENIC EFFECT OF A PAPILLOMA VIRUS ON THE TARRED SKIN OF RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, John G.; Rous, Peyton

    1938-01-01

    A considerable variety of tumors, both benign and malignant, result from the localization of the rabbit papilloma virus in skin which has been prepared by repeated tarrings. They appear only in individuals highly susceptible to the action of the virus, and are more likely to be engendered by highly pathogenic inocula. No evidence has been found that differences in the potentialities of the virus entities are responsible for the diversity of the growths. This is referable to changes in the epidermal cells; and much more preliminary tarring is required to produce these changes than suffices to cause localization of the virus out of the blood stream with a resulting papillomatosis of the ordinary sort. The character of the individual anomalous tumors depends in some degree upon the extent of the preparatory changes in the cells, malignant growths being more frequent when the epidermis has been tarred for a relatively long period. All are focal or punctate in origin, and they exhibit their peculiar characters from the first, none being due to secondary alterations in ordinary papillomas. Tarring after the virus has localized in the epidermis does not significantly increase their number. They are the outcome of the state of the cells at the time of virus infection. Tarring exerts important influences in addition to changing the cells in such a way that unusual tumors result from the action of the virus. The procedure is notably effective in determining localization of the virus out of the blood stream; enables it to produce growths when otherwise it would not do so though present in the tarred skin; stimulates the proliferation of the tumors engendered; makes them disorderly and aggressive; and hastens the anaplasia of such of them as are malignant. It has similar effects upon the tar tumors, as will be demonstrated in a subsequent paper. PMID:19870803

  16. Occupational syncarcinogenesis in the skin - combined effects of two carcinogens from the German occupational disease list.

    PubMed

    Dickel, Heinrich; Blome, Otto; Dickel, Beate; Bruckner, Thomas; Stockfleth, Eggert; Soemantri, Silas Paras

    2016-12-01

    Though scientifically undisputed, cutaneous syncarcinogenesis is not reflected in German occupational disease (OD) regulations, which tend to be guided by the tenet of monocausality. Recognition of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and its precursor lesions as OD requires individual assessment as to whether the requirements pursuant to either OD 5103 (occupational exposure to natural UV radiation) or OD 5102 (occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are fulfilled. Retrospective analysis of 28 patients (median age 72.5 years) with NMSC and respective precursor lesions who had been occupationally exposed to natural UV radiation and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. All cases had undergone expert medical assessment between September 2012 and September 2015. According to our assessments, all 28 cases met the occupational requirements pursuant to OD 5103 and 5102. In 26 cases (93 %), we recommended recognition of skin cancer as occupational disease pursuant to both OD 5103 and OD 5102. The competent occupational insurance association (BG) followed our recommendation in four cases. In eight cases, recognition was solely based on OD 5103; in ten cases, only on OD 5102. Four cases were denied recognition. Following adequate cumulative occupational exposure to natural UV light as well as occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, NMSC or its precursor lesions arising in UV-exposed areas should be reported to the competent occupational insurance association as "OD 5103 and 5102 in terms of syncarcinogenesis". Apart from the fact that the ensuing recognition proceedings will be able to more adequately reflect real-life workplace conditions, filing a report pursuant to both ODs also allows for recognition of basal cell carcinoma as occupational disease. According to current regulations, this would not be possible, if the assessment were solely based on OD 5103. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons

  17. Seasonal Variation in Exposure Level of Types A and B Ultraviolet Radiation: An Environmental Skin Carcinogen

    PubMed Central

    Rafieepour, A; Ghamari, F; Mohammadbeigi, A; Asghari, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main source of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the sun, affecting organs such as the skin, eyes, and immune system. According to American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH) reports, the amount of UVR reaching the Earth's surface is increasing yearly and is responsible for an increase in solar radiation-related diseases. Aims: To investigate the amount of UVR reaching the Earth's surface and understand the risk of UVR on disease among outdoor laborers in one of the central provinces of Iran. Materials and Methods: Arak city was divided into two geographic areas, and the weekly measurement of UVR was done in three locations) asphalt, grass and rooftop). To measure UVR, Hanger UV spectrometer, standard deviation (SD8-A), and SD8-B detectors were used. Amounts of UVR for a consecutive year and varying weather conditions were measured. Finally, values obtained were compared to ACGIH standards. Results: The minimum and maximum levels of UV type A radiation occurred in April 1.27 (0.724) W/m2 and September 7.147 (4.128) W/m2, these figures for UV type B were in March–April 0.005 (0.003) and September 0.083 (0.077). The maximum UVR is received between 11 and 15 o’clock. Conclusions: In the central cities of Iran, the minimum and maximum UV type A and B is received in March–April and in September, respectively. Based on the results, the angular position of the sun in the sky, cloud cover, and height from ground level affected the amount of UVR received, but the geographic locations studied did not. PMID:25861533

  18. Narrow-band UVB induces more carcinogenic skin tumors than broad-band UVB through the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer.

    PubMed

    Kunisada, Makoto; Kumimoto, Hiroshi; Ishizaki, Kanji; Sakumi, Kunihiko; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Nishigori, Chikako

    2007-12-01

    Phototherapy with narrow-band UVB (NB-UVB), with a peak exclusively at 311 nm wavelength, has been found to be more effective in treating a variety of skin diseases than conventional broad-band UVB (BB-UVB). To assess the difference in carcinogenic activity between NB-UVB and BB-UVB, we investigated skin tumor formation by irradiating albino hairless, Ogg1 knockout mice and C57BL/6J wild counterparts with these two UV sources. We found that the ratio of malignant skin tumors induced by NB-UVB was significantly higher than that induced by BB-UVB. There was no significant difference in carcinogenicity of skin tumor induced by NB-UVB between Ogg1 knockout and wild-type mice. To investigate the possible cause of different carcinogenic activity by the different UV sources, we examined three types of DNA damage: cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), (6-4) photoproduct, and 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) induced by each UV source. We found that CPD formation following a minimum erythema dose (MED) by NB-UVB was significantly higher than that following 1 MED by BB-UVB, whereas the formation of (6-4) photoproducts and 8-oxoG following BB-UVB was significantly higher than those following NB-UVB exposure. These results suggest that CPD formation is closely related to the higher carcinogenic characteristics of NB-UVB. JID JOURNAL CLUB ARTICLE: For questions, answers and open discussion about this article please go to http://network.nature.com/.

  19. The contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the carcinogenic impact of emission condensate from coal-fired residential furnaces evaluated by topical application to the skin of mice.

    PubMed

    Grimmer, G; Brune, H; Deutsch-Wenzel, R; Dettbarn, G; Misfeld, J; Abel, U; Timm, J

    1984-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to identify the substances chiefly responsible for the carcinogenicity of the emission condensate from coal-fired residential furnaces. To realize this, the carcinogenic effect of various fractions was compared with that of an unseparated sample of emission condensate, tested in different doses. The probit and Weibull analysis of the results showed: (1) The condensate emitted from a coal fired residential furnace as well as the reconstituted condensate combining all fractions, provoked local tumors after repeated application to the dorsal skin of mice. The tumor incidence exhibited a clear cut dose-response relationship. (2) The fraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and thiaarenes with more than three rings accounted for almost the total carcinogenicity (109-118% compared with the total condensate) of the emission condensate from the coal-fired residential furnace. (3) The fraction containing azaarenes and nitroarenes (NO2-PAH) accounted only for 4-7% of the total carcinoma incidence of the emission condensate. (4) The content of benzo[a]pyrene (0.702 mg/g condensate) contributes 10-11% to the total carcinogenicity of the emission condensate. (5) The PAH-free fraction and the fraction containing PAH with 2 and 3 rings (together about 77% by wt) were almost ineffective. No cocarcinogenic activity of this fraction was obtained, since the total condensate, as well as the PAH-fraction consisting of more than three rings applied proportionally provoked about the same carcinoma incidence.

  20. The genotoxic air pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone and its reactive metabolite N-hydroxy-3-aminobenzanthrone lack initiating and complete carcinogenic activity in NMRI mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Schmeiser, Heinz H; Fürstenberger, Gerhard; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Phillips, David H; Arlt, Volker M

    2009-10-18

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), a genotoxic mutagen found in diesel exhaust and ambient air pollution and its active metabolite N-hydroxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-OH-3-ABA) were tested for initiating and complete carcinogenic activity in the NMRI mouse skin carcinogenesis model. Both compounds were found to be inactive as either tumour initiators or complete carcinogens in mouse skin over a dose range of 25-400nmol. Topical application of 3-NBA and N-OH-3-ABA produced DNA adduct patterns in epidermis, detected by (32)P-postlabelling, similar to those found previously in other organs of rats and mice. 24h after a single treatment of 100nmol DNA adduct levels produced by 3-NBA (18+/-4 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) were 6 times lower than those by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA; 114+/-37 adducts/10(8) nucleotides). In contrast, identical treatment with N-OH-3-ABA resulted in adduct levels in the same range as with DMBA (136+/-25 adducts/10(8) nucleotides), indicating that initial DNA adduct levels do not parallel tumour initiating activity. When compounds were tested for tumour initiating activity by a single treatment followed by twice-weekly applications of TPA, DNA adducts formed by DMBA, but not by 3-NBA or N-OH-3-ABA, were still detectable 40weeks after treatment. When tested for activity as complete carcinogens by twice-weekly topical application, 3-NBA and N-OH-3-ABA produced identical DNA adduct profiles in mouse skin, with adducts still detectable after 40weeks. Only 3-NBA produced detectable adducts in other organs.

  1. PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC.

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen in skin, lung, liver, urinary bladder and kidney. In contrast,
    there is no accepted experimental animal model of inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis.
    Proposed mechanisms/modes of action for a...

  2. PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC.

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen in skin, lung, liver, urinary bladder and kidney. In contrast,
    there is no accepted experimental animal model of inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis.
    Proposed mechanisms/modes of action for a...

  3. The Effect of Variation in Carcinogenic Dosage on the Induction of Tumours in the Dorsal and Vulval Skin of Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Glucksmann, A.; Cherry, C. P.

    1971-01-01

    The response to 5, 10, 20 or 40 weekly paintings with DMBA of the dorsal and vulval skin in intact and castrate rats is compared. Squamous and basal celled tumours appear faster in the dorsal than the vulval region with 5, 10, or 20 paintings, but at the same rate with 40 doses. The rate of induction of epithelial tumours is optimal with 20 applications dorsally, but increases with dose at the vulva. Progression of malignancy of squamous celled tumours is greater and faster in the dorsal than in the vulval region. For basal celled neoplasms of the vulva there is a peak value in malignant conversion at 20 doses, but otherwise there is no consistent difference in the pattern at the two sites. Castration reduces the incidence of basal celled tumours of the vulva in rats painted weekly for life, but does not affect the incidence of epithelial tumours of the skin. Sarcomas occur in 29% of rats in the dorsal region, but in only 0·4% at the vulva. Sarcomatous changes in the stroma of epitheliomas are also more frequent in the dorsal skin. Local factors rather than variation in individual sensitivity account for the differences with region in the carcinogenic response as shown by their persistence in rats treated simultaneously at both sites. ImagesFig. 11Fig. 12Fig 13Fig 14 PMID:5144538

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: Comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse

    PubMed Central

    Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Larkin, Andrew; Krueger, Sharon K.; Bradfield, Christopher A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Pereira, Cliff B.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H.; Williams, David E.; Baird, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4 nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by 32P post- labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH- dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p<0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs). PMID:22935520

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse.

    PubMed

    Siddens, Lisbeth K; Larkin, Andrew; Krueger, Sharon K; Bradfield, Christopher A; Waters, Katrina M; Tilton, Susan C; Pereira, Cliff B; Löhr, Christiane V; Arlt, Volker M; Phillips, David H; Williams, David E; Baird, William M

    2012-11-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by ³²P post-labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH-dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p<0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and phase 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: Comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Larkin, Andrew; Krueger, Sharon K.; Bradfield, Christopher A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Pereira, Cliff B.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H.; Williams, David E.; and others

    2012-11-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4 nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by {sup 32}P post‐labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH‐dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p < 0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and phase 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs). -- Highlights: ► Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), 3 PAH mixtures, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were compared. ► DBC and 2 PAH mixtures were more potent than Relative Potency Factor estimates. ► Transcriptome profiles 12 hours post initiation were analyzed by microarray. ► Principle components analysis of alterations revealed treatment-based clustering. ► DBC gave a unique

  7. Chemomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera, Lam, on hepatic carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant parameters and skin papillomagenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Bharali, Rupjyoti; Tabassum, Jawahira; Azad, Mohammed Rekibul Haque

    2003-01-01

    The modulatory effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of drumsticks of Moringa oliefera Lam at doses of 125 mg/kg bodyweight and 250 mg/ kg body weight for 7 and 14 days, respectively, were investigated with reference to drug metabolising Phase I (Cytochrome b(5) and Cytochrome p(450) ) and Phase II (Glutathione-S- transferase) enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 6-8 week old female Swiss albino mice. Further, the chemopreventive efficacy of the extract was evaluated in a two stage model of 7,12 - dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin papillomagenesis. Significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the activities of hepatic cytochrome b(5), cytochrome p(450), catalase, glutathione peroxidase ( GPx ), glutathione reductase (GR), acid soluble sulfhydryl content (-SH ) and a significant decrease ( p<0.01 ) in the hepatic MDA level were observed at both dose levels of treatment when compared with the control values. Glutathione-S- transferase ( GST )activity was found to be significantly increased (p<0.01 ) only at the higher dose level. Butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA ) fed at a dose of 0.75% in the diet for 7 and 14 days (positive control ) caused a significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the levels of hepatic phase I and phase II enzymes, anti- oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and a decrease in lipid peroxidation. The skin papillomagenesis studies demonstrated a significant decrease (p<0.05 ) in the percentage of mice with papillomas, average number of papillomas per mouse and papillomas per papilloma bearing mouse when the animals received a topical application of the extract at a dose of 5mg/ kg body weight in the peri-initiation phase 7 days before and 7 days after DMBA application, Group II ), promotional phase (from the day of croton oil application and continued till the end of the experiment, Group III ) and both peri and post initiation stages (from 7 days prior to DMBA application and continued till the

  8. Carcinogen File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment, 1978

    1978-01-01

    First in a series of bulletins designed to provide information about the problem of carcinogens in the environment is on benzo(a)pyrine. Benzo(a)pyrine is a proven cancer-causing substance that has been known for over ten years to occur in broiled sausages, gas-broiled fish and beef steak, and charcoal-broiled meat. (Author/BB)

  9. Carcinogen File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment, 1978

    1978-01-01

    First in a series of bulletins designed to provide information about the problem of carcinogens in the environment is on benzo(a)pyrine. Benzo(a)pyrine is a proven cancer-causing substance that has been known for over ten years to occur in broiled sausages, gas-broiled fish and beef steak, and charcoal-broiled meat. (Author/BB)

  10. The contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fractions with different boiling ranges to the carcinogenic impact of emission condensate from coal fired residential furnaces as evaluated by topical application to the skin of mice.

    PubMed

    Grimmer, G; Brune, H; Deutsch-Wenzel, R; Dettbarn, G; Misfeld, J; Abel, U; Timm, J

    1985-09-15

    Flue gas condensate from briquet-fired residential furnaces was separated into a polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC)-free and a PAC-containing part, followed by a subfractionation of the PAC-containing fraction into 3 parts: PAC consisting predominantly of (a) 2 and 3 rings, (b) 4 and 5 rings and (c) 6 and more rings. To evaluate the carcinogenic potency of the condensate and its fractions, local application onto skin of mice in 2 or 3 doses was used. Since it was known from an earlier investigation that both the PAC-free fraction and the fraction containing PAC with 2 and 3 rings were almost ineffective, only PAC-fractions containing more than 3 rings were tested. The probit and Weibull analysis of the results showed that the condensate and the fractions containing PAC with 4 and 5 rings as well as 6 and more rings provoke local tumors after repeated application to the dorsal skin of mice. The tumor incidence exhibited a clear cut dose-response relationship. Fractions (b) and (c) were almost equally active, each contributing by about 50% to the total carcinogenicity. The content of benzo[a]pyrene (0.72 mg/g condensate) contributed by 10-11% to the total carcinogenicity of the emission.

  11. Mutagenic, carcinogenic and cocarcinogenic activity of cashewnut shell liquid.

    PubMed

    George, J; Kuttan, R

    1997-01-15

    The petroleum ether extract of cashewnut shell (Anacardium occidentale) was tested for its mutagenic, carcinogenic and cocarcinogenic potency. Mutagenicity tests using Salmonella typhimurium (Ame's test) Strains TA 1535, TA 100 and TA 98 showed that cashewnut shell liquid is non-mutagenic up to a concentration of 0.003% (in 0.1 ml DMSO) with and without metabolic activation (S 9 mixture). Carcinogenicity testing using murine (female Swiss albino mice) two stage skin tumourigenesis model revealed that cashewnut shell liquid has no tumour initiating potency at a concentration of 10% (in 0.2 ml acetone) while it may act as weak promoter (P < 0.05) at a concentration of 5% (in 0.2 ml acetone). Testing for cocarcinogenic potency of cashewnut shell liquid (2% and 5% in 0.2 ml acetone) demonstrated that it has no cocarcinogenic potency on mouse skin tumour model when applied along with 2 x 10(-6)% benzo(a)pyrene in acetone up to a period of 20 weeks.

  12. Chronic dermal studies of petroleum streams in mice.

    PubMed

    Broddle, W D; Dennis, M W; Kitchen, D N; Vernot, E H

    1996-03-01

    During petroleum refining, a large number of products are generated which have varying chemical and physical properties. These are known in the industry as petroleum streams. In order to characterize their carcinogenic activity, a number of these commercially produced streams were administered to C3H/HeJ mice in chronic dermal bioassays. The bioassays were conducted using one of two study designs: the first set of test materials was applied for a lifetime and the second set for 24 months. In the lifetime study, the last mice in the test groups survived for periods of 31 to 32 months. Middle distillates, boiling in the range 115-390 degrees C, were found to decrease the lifespan of exposed mice compared to controls or streams of higher and lower boiling ranges. These middle distillate streams included straight run kerosine, hydrodesulfurized middle distillate, straight run middle distillate, light catalytic cracked distillate, and 90/10% and 70/30% mixtures of the last two. The middle distillate streams also proved to be active as carcinogens, with tumor incidence ranging from 16 to 67%. Light alkylate naphtha, heavy catalytic reformed naphtha, vacuum residuum, and unleaded gasoline did not demonstrate significant carcinogenic potency. Heavy thermal cracked naphtha, heavy catalytic cracked naphtha, and hydrotreated light naphthenic distillate were dermal carcinogens of low potency in this study. Administration of light catalytic cracked naphtha led to a low incidence of very late developing tumors with a mean latency of 118 weeks. Application of the 0.1% solution of catalytic cracked clarified oil in toluene did not result in a significant incidence of tumors, but the 10% solution caused almost 100% mortality and 100% tumor incidence in 12 months. There was no correlation between carcinogenic potency and the indices of irritation, alopecia, erythema, and scabbing. Only two of the streams tested, hydrotreated light naphthenic distillate and 10% catalytic cracked

  13. Carcinogens in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, J. Bradford

    1976-01-01

    Reports the presence and use of known carcinogens in Kentucky colleges, junior colleges, and high schools. Includes a listing of known carcinogens and the synonym names under which each may be labeled. (SL)

  14. Carcinogens in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, J. Bradford

    1976-01-01

    Reports the presence and use of known carcinogens in Kentucky colleges, junior colleges, and high schools. Includes a listing of known carcinogens and the synonym names under which each may be labeled. (SL)

  15. Regulation of carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Crouch, E.; Wilson, R.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure, suitable for regulatory use, is proposed for estimating individual and societal risks of carcinogenic materials by using information on interspecies comparisons of carcinogenic potency. The consistent treatment of uncertainties allows evaluation of confidence limits and hence regulatory measures of risk which incorporate safety factors and incentives for better information. Numerical examples are given, together with discussion of the treatment of undetected carcinogens. Applications of the procedure to setting priorities for carcinogenicity testing and to product substitution are mentioned.

  16. Upgrading petroleum and petroleum fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, S.; Reese, D.D.

    1988-06-21

    A method is described for neutralizing the organic naphthenic acids acidity present in petroleum and petroleum fractions to produce a neutralization number less than 1.0 whereby they are rendered suitable as lube oil feed stocks which consists essentially of treating the petroleum and petroleum fractions with a neutralizing amount of monoethanolamine to form an amine salt with the organic acids and then heating the thus-neutralized petroleum and petroleum fractions at a temperature at least about 25/sup 0/F greater than the boiling point of water and for a time sufficient to convert the amine salts to amides.

  17. Listing Occupational Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Siemiatycki, Jack; Richardson, Lesley; Straif, Kurt; Latreille, Benoit; Lakhani, Ramzan; Campbell, Sally; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Boffetta, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The occupational environment has been a most fruitful one for investigating the etiology of human cancer. Many recognized human carcinogens are occupational carcinogens. There is a large volume of epidemiologic and experimental data concerning cancer risks in different work environments. It is important to synthesize this information for both scientific and public health purposes. Various organizations and individuals have published lists of occupational carcinogens. However, such lists have been limited by unclear criteria for which recognized carcinogens should be considered occupational carcinogens, and by inconsistent and incomplete information on the occupations and industries in which the carcinogenic substances may be found and on their target sites of cancer. Based largely on the evaluations published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and augmented with additional information, the present article represents an attempt to summarize, in tabular form, current knowledge on occupational carcinogens, the occupations and industries in which they are found, and their target organs. We have considered 28 agents as definite occupational carcinogens, 27 agents as probable occupational carcinogens, and 113 agents as possible occupational carcinogens. These tables should be useful for regulatory or preventive purposes and for scientific purposes in research priority setting and in understanding carcinogenesis. PMID:15531427

  18. 29 CFR 1910.1003 - 13 Carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Carcinogens: (A) 4-Nitrobiphenyl: Cancer. (B) alpha-Naphthylamine: Cancer; skin irritation; and acute toxicity effects. (C) Methyl chloromethyl ether: Cancer; skin, eye and respiratory effects; acute toxicity effects; and flammability. (D) 3,3′-Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts): Cancer and skin sensitization. (E) bis...

  19. [Carcinogenic effect of tobacco smoke].

    PubMed

    Starek, Andrzej; Podolak, Irma

    2009-01-01

    Both epidemiological and experimental studies provide evidence of the dose-effect relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked and lung cancer risk, exposure to tar or tobacco smoke and skin cancers or squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea and lung. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile N-nitrosamines, and also tobacco specific N-nitrosamines are considered to be the major carcinogens in tobacco smoke. To exert carcinogenic effect these compounds require previous metabolic activation by biotransformation enzymes. Individual susceptibility to chemical carcinogens is genotype and phenotype dependent. Machine-measured yields of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, benzo[a]pyrene and N-nitrosonornicotine in cigarette smoke are significantly lower than actual intake by smokers. The following features have significant influence on the tobacco smoke composition, cancer risk and other disease risks relative to cigarette smoking: tobacco type and its modifications and also nitrate content in tobacco. Tobacco additives, including ammonia releasing substances, do not contribute to cigarette smoke composition and its toxicity. Filters, paper porosity, cigarette length and circumference as well as the number of tobacco cuts per inch (whether it is coarse-cut or fine-cut tobacco) are of primary significance for the chemical composition of cigarette smoke and health risk.

  20. Petroleum mineral oil refining and evaluation of cancer hazard.

    PubMed

    Mackerer, Carl R; Griffis, Larry C; Grabowski Jr, John S; Reitman, Fred A

    2003-11-01

    Petroleum base oils (petroleum mineral oils) are manufactured from crude oils by vacuum distillation to produce several distillates and a residual oil that are then further refined. Aromatics including alkylated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) are undesirable constituents of base oils because they are deleterious to product performance and are potentially carcinogenic. In modern base oil refining, aromatics are reduced by solvent extraction, catalytic hydrotreating, or hydrocracking. Chronic exposure to poorly refined base oils has the potential to cause skin cancer. A chronic mouse dermal bioassay has been the standard test for estimating carcinogenic potential of mineral oils. The level of alkylated 3-7-ring PAC in raw streams from the vacuum tower must be greatly reduced to render the base oil noncarcinogenic. The processes that can reduce PAC levels are known, but the operating conditions for the processing units (e.g., temperature, pressure, catalyst type, residence time in the unit, unit engineering design, etc.) needed to achieve adequate PAC reduction are refinery specific. Chronic dermal bioassays provide information about whether conditions applied can make a noncarcinogenic oil, but cannot be used to monitor current production for quality control or for conducting research or developing new processes since this test takes at least 78 weeks to conduct. Three short-term, non-animal assays all involving extraction of oil with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) have been validated for predicting potential carcinogenic activity of petroleum base oils: a modified Ames assay of a DMSO extract, a gravimetric assay (IP 346) for wt. percent of oil extracted into DMSO, and a GC-FID assay measuring 3-7-ring PAC content in a DMSO extract of oil, expressed as percent of the oil. Extraction with DMSO concentrates PAC in a manner that mimics the extraction method used in the solvent refining of noncarcinogenic oils. The three assays are described, data demonstrating the

  1. Rodent carcinogens: Setting priorities

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, L.S.; Slone, T.H.; Stern, B.R.; Manley, N.B.; Ames, B.N. )

    1992-10-09

    The human diet contains an enormous background of natural chemicals, such as plant pesticides and the products of cooking, that have not been a focus of carcinogenicity testing. A broadened perspective that includes these natural chemicals is necessary. A comparison of possible hazards for 80 daily exposures to rodent carcinogens from a variety of sources is presented, using an index (HERP) that relates human exposure to carcinogenic potency in rodents. A similar ordering would be expected with the use of standard risk assessment methodology for the same human exposure values. Results indicate that, when viewed against the large background of naturally occurring carcinogens in typical portions of common foods, the residues of synthetic pesticides or environmental pollutants rank low. A similar result is obtained in a separate comparison of 32 average daily exposures to natural pesticides and synthetic pesticides residues in the diet. Although the findings do not indicate that these natural dietary carcinogens are important in human cancer, they cast doubt on the relative importance for human cancer of low-dose exposures to synthetic chemicals.

  2. Treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environment through bioremediation: a review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kriti; Chandra, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation play key role in the treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated environment. Exposure of petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment occurs either due to human activities or accidentally and cause environmental pollution. Petroleum hydrocarbon cause many toxic compounds which are potent immunotoxicants and carcinogenic to human being. Remedial methods for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment include various physiochemical and biological methods. Due to the negative consequences caused by the physiochemical methods, the bioremediation technology is widely adapted and considered as one of the best technology for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment. Bioremediation utilizes the natural ability of microorganism to degrade the hazardous compound into simpler and non hazardous form. This paper provides a review on the role of bioremediation in the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment, discuss various hazardous effects of petroleum hydrocarbon, various factors influencing biodegradation, role of various enzymes in biodegradation and genetic engineering in bioremediation.

  3. The carcinogenicity of chromium

    PubMed Central

    Norseth, Tor

    1981-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of chromium compounds is reviewed with specific attention to the gaps in knowledge for risk estimation and research needs. The most important problems at present are whether trivalent chromium compounds cause cancer, and whether there is a difference in cancer causing effects between the soluble and the slightly soluble hexavalent compounds in the practical exposure situation. Dose estimates for risk estimation based on epidemiological investigations are also lacking. Present evidence indicates that the trivalent chromium compounds do not cause cancer although high concentrations in some in vitro systems have shown genetic toxicity. Hexavalent chromium compounds cause cancer in humans, in experimental animals and exert genetic toxicity in bacteria and in mammalian cells in vitro. Epidemiological evidence and animal experiments indicate that the slightly soluble hexavalent salts are the most potent carcinogens, but proper identification and characterization of exposure patterns in epidemiological work are lacking. Workers also tend to have mixed exposures. Soluble and slightly soluble salts are equally potent genotoxic agents in vitro. Further work for establishing dose estimates for risk evaluation in epidemiological work is important. In vitro systems should be applied for further identification of the mechanism of the carcinogenic effects, and animal experiments are urgent for comparison of the carcinogenic potency of the different hexavalent salts. Hexavalent chromium salts must be regarded as established carcinogens, and proper action should be taken in all industries with regard to such exposure. At present the carcinogenic risk to the general population caused by chromium compounds seems to be negligible, chromium in cigarettes, however, is an uncertainty in this respect. The amount of chromium and the type of chromium compounds inhaled from cigarettes is not known. PMID:7023928

  4. General preventive measures against carcinogenic exposure in the external environment.

    PubMed

    Keiding, L M

    1993-01-01

    Different measures are used to prevent unacceptable carcinogenic exposure from different sources in the external environment, be it accumulated carcinogens from previous pollution, exposure related to life-style, and exposure related to living standards and the organization of the community as a whole. A precondition for goal-directed prevention is knowledge of exposures to carcinogens and measures to minimize or substitute carcinogens in products and in emissions. One of the most significant sources of carcinogens in the outdoor air in many Western countries is the traffic, especially diesel-powered vehicles. Necessary preventive measures include restriction of carcinogenic exhaust from the individual vehicle, plans for the community to diminish transportation needs, as well as to changing the usual behaviour of the individual. Unlike exposure to carcinogens in the surrounding air, exposure to accumulated carcinogens in ground-water and in soil at polluted sites may be diminished by the pattern of use. International aspects are involved in for instance minimizing the risk of getting skin cancer from sunlight. Besides protecting vulnerable individuals there should be a global preservation of the ozone layer. Lowering the risk of long transported air pollution, like radioactivity from accidents at nuclear power stations, demands international efforts to increase safety measures and information about accidents.

  5. Contact dermatitis and related dermatoses associated with petroleum recovery and use

    SciTech Connect

    Birmingham, D.J.

    1988-07-01

    The author reviews the skin's structural and functional protections, and causal factors and clinical patterns of occupational skin disease. He then examines the literature concerning petroleum industry operations and petroleum-derived product use as they relate to skin disease. The chapter concludes with commentary on prevention and treatment of related skin disease. 22 references.

  6. Dietary Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Bruce N.

    1983-01-01

    Describes 16 mutagens/carcinogens found in plant food and coffee as well as several anticarcinogens also found in such food. Speculates on relevant biochemical mechanisms, particularly the role of oxygen radicals and their inhibitors in the fat/cancer relationship, promotion, anticarcinogenesis, and aging. (JN)

  7. Beryllium: genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Terry; Bowser, Darlene

    2003-12-10

    Beryllium (Be) has physical-chemical properties, including low density and high tensile strength, which make it useful in the manufacture of products ranging from space shuttles to golf clubs. Despite its utility, a number of standard setting agencies have determined that beryllium is a carcinogen. Only a limited number of studies, however, have addressed the underlying mechanisms of the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of beryllium. Importantly, mutation and chromosomal aberration assays have yielded somewhat contradictory results for beryllium compounds and whereas bacterial tests were largely negative, mammalian test systems showed evidence of beryllium-induced mutations, chromosomal aberrations, and cell transformation. Although inter-laboratory differences may play a role in the variability observed in genotoxicity assays, it is more likely that the different chemical forms of beryllium have a significant effect on mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because workers are predominantly exposed to airborne particles which are generated during the machining of beryllium metal, ceramics, or alloys, testing of the mechanisms of the mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of beryllium should be performed with relevant chemical forms of beryllium.

  8. Dietary Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Bruce N.

    1983-01-01

    Describes 16 mutagens/carcinogens found in plant food and coffee as well as several anticarcinogens also found in such food. Speculates on relevant biochemical mechanisms, particularly the role of oxygen radicals and their inhibitors in the fat/cancer relationship, promotion, anticarcinogenesis, and aging. (JN)

  9. Evaluating Pesticides for Carcinogenic Potential

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA reviews pesticides for potential carcinogenicity. Learn about EPA's guidelines for evaluating a chemical's potential carcinogenicity and updates to EPA's guidelines to reflect increased understanding of ways chemicals may cause cancer.

  10. Are genotoxic carcinogens more potent than nongenotoxic carcinogens?

    PubMed Central

    Parodi, S; Malacarne, D; Romano, P; Taningher, M

    1991-01-01

    In this report we have raised the question whether genotoxic carcinogens are more potent than nongenotoxic carcinogens when studied in long-term carcinogenicity assays in rodents. To build a large database of compounds for which both carcinogenicity and genotoxicity had been investigated, we have used a database produced by Gold and co-workers for carcinogenic potency data (975 chemicals) and a database produced by Würgler for genotoxicity data (2834 chemicals). Considering compounds positive or negative in at least three short-term tests and in at least 75% of available tests, we could define 67 genotoxic carcinogens and 46 nongenotoxic carcinogens. Carcinogenic potency of genotoxic carcinogens was about 50 times higher than carcinogenic potency of nongenotoxic carcinogens. Our results are different from the results of Tennant et al.; their database (24 genotoxic carcinogens and 12 nongenotoxic carcinogens compatible with our definition) seems to suggest that there is practically no difference in potency between genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens. The two databases have only four compounds in common and are also different in terms of number of elements for different chemical classes. Nitrosocompounds, nitrogen mustards, hydrazine derivatives, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are not represented in the database of Tennant. The overall impression from our analysis is that the usefulness of short-term tests of genotoxicity could be significantly better than what has been suggested by the previous work of Tennant et al. because these tests tend to detect, at least for many important chemical classes, the most potent carcinogens. This consideration may not be valid for certain classes of chemicals. PMID:1821372

  11. Techniques for carcinogenicity studies.

    PubMed

    Weisburger, E K

    1981-09-01

    Short-term tests to detect genetic, chromosomal, or DNA damage are now required by regulatory agencies for any new compound proposed for commercial production. Furthermore, full-scale carcinogenicity tests may be required for certain compounds. In this circumstance, the compound-related factors including stability, purity, physical properties, and chemical structure and reactivity must be considered. Animal factors include species and strain of test animal, route of administration, age, sex, diet, and spontaneous tumor incidence. A team of qualified investigators with experience in various disciplines is required to conduct the studies properly. Quality control measures and adherence to the code of good laboratory practice are also necessary during all phases of the study. The investment in a carcinogenicity study therefore becomes fairly substantial in terms of both time and money.

  12. Prebiotic petroleum.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that "the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process.

  13. Prebiotic Petroleum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that " the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process.

  14. Carcinogen risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hazelwoold, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    This article describes the methods by which risk factors for carcinogenic hazards are determined and the limitations inherent in the process. From statistical and epidemiological studies, the major identifiable factors related to cancer in the United States were determined to be cigarette smoking, diet, reproductive and sexual behavior, infections, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, and alcohol consumption. The incidence of lung cancer due to air pollutants was estimated to be less than 2%. Research needs were discussed.

  15. Carcinogenicity of oil shale tars, some of their components, and commercial products.

    PubMed Central

    Bogovski, P A; Vinkmann, F

    1979-01-01

    Bioassays for carcinogenicity of various primary processing products (crude oils or tars) and commercial products obtained from Estorian oil shale have been carried out since 1951. The products (undiluted or diluted) were painted twice weekly 50 times on the interscapular area of the skin of random-bred or CC57Br mice. The products processed at high temperatures have a higher carcinogenic activity. Blends of products containing over 10% of high temperature crude oil (chamber furnace oil) have about the same carcinogenic activity as the latter. There is no strict correlation between the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in oil shale products and their carcinogenic activity. Determination of BP in such products can serve as an approximate estimate of carcinogenic properties. The results of animal experiments with chromatographic fractions of the high temperature shale oil demonstrated the presence of compounds which lengthen the latency period of the carcinogenic effect of BP in the aromatic fraction of this oil as well as other carcinogens and compounds enhancing the activity of carcinogenic compounds. Under industrial conditions, contact of workers with carcinogenic shale oils can be reduced by means of coking the carcinogenic oils, which results in production of solid coke and of distillate which is recycled. Medical vaseline potentiates the carcinogenic action of BP and similar compounds. Dilution of shale oils with oils containing aliphatic hydrocarbons cannot be considered as diminution of the carcinogenic potency of these products. PMID:446447

  16. Carcinogenicity of oil shale tars, some of their components, and commercial products.

    PubMed

    Bogovski, P A; Vinkmann, F

    1979-06-01

    Bioassays for carcinogenicity of various primary processing products (crude oils or tars) and commercial products obtained from Estorian oil shale have been carried out since 1951. The products (undiluted or diluted) were painted twice weekly 50 times on the interscapular area of the skin of random-bred or CC57Br mice. The products processed at high temperatures have a higher carcinogenic activity. Blends of products containing over 10% of high temperature crude oil (chamber furnace oil) have about the same carcinogenic activity as the latter. There is no strict correlation between the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in oil shale products and their carcinogenic activity. Determination of BP in such products can serve as an approximate estimate of carcinogenic properties. The results of animal experiments with chromatographic fractions of the high temperature shale oil demonstrated the presence of compounds which lengthen the latency period of the carcinogenic effect of BP in the aromatic fraction of this oil as well as other carcinogens and compounds enhancing the activity of carcinogenic compounds. Under industrial conditions, contact of workers with carcinogenic shale oils can be reduced by means of coking the carcinogenic oils, which results in production of solid coke and of distillate which is recycled. Medical vaseline potentiates the carcinogenic action of BP and similar compounds. Dilution of shale oils with oils containing aliphatic hydrocarbons cannot be considered as diminution of the carcinogenic potency of these products.

  17. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  18. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  19. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  20. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  1. Carcinogenic human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Mark; Doorbar, John; Wentzensen, Nicolas; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Fakhry, Carole; Monk, Bradley J; Stanley, Margaret A; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    Infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) are common and transmitted by direct contact. Although the great majority of infections resolve within 2 years, 13 phylogenetically related, sexually transmitted HPV genotypes, notably HPV16, cause - if not controlled immunologically or by screening - virtually all cervical cancers worldwide, a large fraction of other anogenital cancers and an increasing proportion of oropharyngeal cancers. The carcinogenicity of these HPV types results primarily from the activity of the oncoproteins E6 and E7, which impair growth regulatory pathways. Persistent high-risk HPVs can transition from a productive (virion-producing) to an abortive or transforming infection, after which cancer can result after typically slow accumulation of host genetic mutations. However, which precancerous lesions progress and which do not is unclear; the majority of screening-detected precancers are treated, leading to overtreatment. The discovery of HPV as a carcinogen led to the development of effective preventive vaccines and sensitive HPV DNA and RNA tests. Together, vaccination programmes (the ultimate long-term preventive strategy) and screening using HPV tests could dramatically alter the landscape of HPV-related cancers. HPV testing will probably replace cytology-based cervical screening owing to greater reassurance when the test is negative. However, the effective implementation of HPV vaccination and screening globally remains a challenge.

  2. Report on carcinogens monograph on 1-bromopropane.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program conducted a cancer evaluation on 1 bromopropane for possible listing in the Report on Carcinogens (RoC). The cancer evaluation is captured in the RoC monograph, which was peer reviewed in a public forum. The monograph consists of two components: (Part 1) the cancer evaluation, which reviews the relevant scientific information, assesses its quality, applies the RoC listing criteria to the scientific information, and provides the NTP recommendation for listing status for 1 bromopropane in the RoC, and (Part 2) the substance profile proposed for the RoC, containing the NTP's listing status recommendation, a summary of the scientific evidence considered key to reaching that decision, and data on properties, use, production, exposure, and Federal regulations and guidelines to reduce exposure to 1-bromopropane. This monograph provides an assessment of the available scientific information on 1 bromopropane, including human exposure and properties, disposition and toxicokinetics, cancer studies in experimental animals, and studies of mechanisms and other related effects, including relevant toxicological effects, genetic toxicology, and mechanisms of carcinogenicity. From this assessment, the NTP recommended that 1 bromopropane be listed as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the RoC based on sufficient evidence from studies in experimental animals, which found inhalation exposure to 1-bromopropane caused skin tumors in male rats, large intestine tumors in female and male rats, and lung tumors in female mice. Also noted was that 1 bromopropane, either directly or via reactive metabolites, caused molecular alterations that typically are associated with carcinogenesis, including genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and glutathione depletion. These alterations, observed in mainly in vitro and toxicity studies in rodents, are relevant to possible mechanisms of human carcinogenicity and support the relevance of the cancer studies in

  3. The mammalian toxicological hazards of petroleum-derived substances: an overview of the petroleum industry response to the high production volume challenge program.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; White, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum-derived substances are complex and composed of aliphatic (normal-, iso-, and cycloparaffins), olefinic, and/or aromatic constituents. Approximately 400 of these complex substances were evaluated as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency voluntary High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge program. The substances were separated into 13 groups (categories), and all available data were assessed. Toxicology testing was conducted as necessary to fully address the end points encompassed by the HPV initiative. In a broad sense, volatile hydrocarbons may cause acute central nervous system effects, and those that are liquids at room temperature pose aspiration hazards if taken into the lungs as liquids and may also cause skin irritation. Higher boiling substances may contain polycyclic aromatic constituents (PACs) that can be mutagenic and carcinogenic and may also cause developmental effects. Substances containing PACs can also cause target organ and developmental effects. The effects of aliphatic constituents include liver enlargement and/or renal effects in male rats via an α-2u-globulin-mediated process and, in some cases, small but statistically significant reductions in hematological parameters. Crude oils may contain other constituents, particularly sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds, which are removed during refining. Aside from these more generic considerations, some specific petroleum substances may contain unusually toxic constituents including benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and/or n-hexane, which should also be taken into account if present at toxicologically relevant levels.

  4. Carcinogenicity of chloroform.

    PubMed Central

    Reuber, M D

    1979-01-01

    Chloroform is carcinogenic in rats, mice, and probably in dogs. Chloroform induced carcinomas of the liver and kidney and malignant tumors in other organs in rats and mice. Liver neoplasms have been described in three strains of mice. Carcinomas of the kidney were found in a first study in mice and in the repeat of that study. Dogs given chloroform developed neoplasms of the liver as well as in other organs. Rats given chloroform also developed toxic changes, particularly male rats, as a result of treatment. These lesions included interstitial fibrosis of the kidney; polyarteritis of the mesenteric, pancreatic, and other arterioles and arteries; and atrophy of the testes. These toxic changes may have interfered with the development of neoplasms in male rats. PMID:227668

  5. Low-Dose Carcinogenicity Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the major deficiencies of cancer risk assessments is the lack of low-dose carcinogenicity data. Most assessments require extrapolation from high to low doses, which is subject to various uncertainties. Only 4 low-dose carcinogenicity studies and 5 low-dose biomarker/pre-n...

  6. Arsenic Is A Genotoxic Carcinogen

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is a recognized human carcinogen; however, there is controversy over whether or not it should be considered a genotoxic carcinogen. Many possible modes of action have been proposed on how arsenic induces cancer, including inhibiting DNA repair, altering methylation patter...

  7. Low-Dose Carcinogenicity Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the major deficiencies of cancer risk assessments is the lack of low-dose carcinogenicity data. Most assessments require extrapolation from high to low doses, which is subject to various uncertainties. Only 4 low-dose carcinogenicity studies and 5 low-dose biomarker/pre-n...

  8. Arsenic Is A Genotoxic Carcinogen

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is a recognized human carcinogen; however, there is controversy over whether or not it should be considered a genotoxic carcinogen. Many possible modes of action have been proposed on how arsenic induces cancer, including inhibiting DNA repair, altering methylation patter...

  9. Carcinogenicity and drinking water.

    PubMed

    Dayan, A D

    1993-01-01

    Water is a powerful solvent that readily dissolves many natural and synthetic substances from the environment (e.g. inorganic salts, humic acids and pesticide residues). The processes of purification, disinfection and preparation and storage necessary to provide and distribute drinking water may introduce further chemicals, including some used for these purposes and others derived by interaction between them and the compounds of natural origin. The composition of drinking water, therefore, is complex and varies between sites and with the seasons. Modern technology is employed to minimise the amounts of many of these substances, but some may persist, including derivatives generated by halogenation and ozonation for disinfection. Some of the substances are genotoxic in the laboratory and a few are proven experimental carcinogens--all at much higher concentrations than those normally found in a drinking water supply. Many ecological and epidemiological surveys have been done to compare the occurrence of various types of tumour in man with exposure to different types of drinking, but no consistent or reliable association has been found. There are serious and probably irremediable methodological weaknesses in these attempts, because of the difficulty of defining the nature of the waters consumed over a major part of life, and the variable composition of waters. The surveys do not permit even a realistic assessment of the upper confidence limit of the exclusion of the risk. Thus, although there is some experimental indication of the possible presence of carcinogenic substances in most or all drinking waters, and of how they are formed, the concentrations are very low and there is no realistic evidence that they have caused harm to man.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Carcinogen Control in the Chemical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents general and specific guidelines for handling carcinogens. Additional topics include: definition of potential occupational carcinogens; classification of carcinogens; inventory requirements; signs and labels for materials and laboratories; decontamination and disposal procedures; medical surveillance for employees working with controlled…

  11. Carcinogen Control in the Chemical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents general and specific guidelines for handling carcinogens. Additional topics include: definition of potential occupational carcinogens; classification of carcinogens; inventory requirements; signs and labels for materials and laboratories; decontamination and disposal procedures; medical surveillance for employees working with controlled…

  12. Acrylonitrile: a suspected human carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Koerselman, W; van der Graaf, M

    1984-01-01

    The literature on carcinogenicity of acrylonitrile (an important intermediate in the chemical industry) is reviewed. The three main conclusions are: (1) Acrylonitrile has genotoxic effects in various tests in microorganisms and in mammal cells. (2) Chronic exposure to acrylonitrile causes tumours in rats. (3) Results of epidemiological studies indicate that acrylonitrile may be a human carcinogen. From this it is clear that acrylonitrile is very probably carcinogenic to humans. Therefore the authors plead for a reduction of acrylonitrile standards to the lowest practicable limit.

  13. Carcinogen testing. Fact and fallacy.

    PubMed

    Moore, J A

    1988-10-15

    In the absence of human information on the carcinogenicity of chemical substances, one must rely primarily on information from long-term animal testing. Although far from perfect, animal studies seem to be reasonable predictors of the human experience, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Short-term tests for genotoxicity may be helpful for establishing priorities for chemical testing, but they are not as strong indicators of potential carcinogenicity as had been previously thought. New directions in toxicologic research hold the promise for scientists being able to perform more reasoned assessments of carcinogenic risk.

  14. Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment provide EPA staff with guidance for developing and using risk assessments. They also provide basic information to the public about the Agency's risk assessment methods.

  15. Carcinogenicity of methyl-tertiary butyl ether in gasoline.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, Myron A

    2002-12-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) was added to gasoline on a nationwide scale in 1992 without prior testing of adverse, toxic, or carcinogenic effects. Since that time, numerous reports have appeared describing adverse health effects of individuals exposed to MTBE, both from inhalation of fumes in the workplace and while pumping gasoline. Leakage of MTBE, a highly water-soluble compound, from underground storage tanks has led to contamination of the water supply in many areas of the United States. Legislation has been passed by many states to prohibit the addition of MTBE to gasoline. The addition of MTBE to gasoline has not accomplished its stated goal of decreasing air pollution, and it has posed serious health risks to a large portion of the population, particularly the elderly and those with respiratory problems, asthma, and skin sensitivity. Reports of animal studies of carcinogenicity of MTBE began to appear in the 1990s, prior to the widespread introduction of MTBE into gasoline. These reports were largely ignored. In ensuing years, further studies have shown that MTBE causes various types of malignant tumors in mice and rats. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors' Report on Carcinogens Subcommittee met in December 1998 to consider listing MTBE as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen." In spite of recommendations from Dr. Bailer, the primary reviewer, and other scientists on the committee, the motion to list MTBE in the report was defeated by a six to five vote, with one abstention. On the basis of animal studies, it is widely accepted that if a chemical is carcinogenic in appropriate laboratory animal test systems, it must be treated as though it were carcinogenic in humans. In the face of compelling evidence, NTP Committee members who voted not to list MTBE as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" did a disservice to the general public; this action may cause needless exposure of many to health risks

  16. Petroleum Processing Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the petroleum processing wastes, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as the use of activated carbon in petroleum and petrochemical waste treatment. A list of 15 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Petroleum Sector (NAICS 324)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find relevant environmental regulations for the petroleum industry (NAICS 324), including National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)s for petroleum refineries and gasoline dispensing & effluent guidelines for oil and gas extraction

  18. Petroleum Processing Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the petroleum processing wastes, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as the use of activated carbon in petroleum and petrochemical waste treatment. A list of 15 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. Metabolic activation and inactivation of chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Pelkonen, O.; Vaehaekangas, K.

    1980-09-01

    Chemical carcinogens are metabolized by numerous pathways catalyzed by enzymes in endoplasmic reticulum and other parts of the cell. Reactions in which functional groups are created are especially important in the activation of polycyclic hydrocarbon carcinogens to ultimate carcinogenic forms, although other enzymes may also participate in the activation of other chemical carcinogens. The reasons why carcinogens act on specific target tissues are incompletely understood, although differences in enzyme profiles between tissues certainly contribute to the target tissue variability. The concept of metabolic activation of carcinogens by body's own enzymes has led to the development of short-term assay systems, which essentially measure the production of biologically active metabolites from potential carcinogens.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  2. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  3. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  4. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    PubMed

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios.

  5. Asbestos and metals as carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Norseth, T.

    1980-09-01

    Increased incidences of lung carcinoma and pleural mesothelioma in humans exposed to asbestos have been irrefutably established. Different forms of asbestos may have different tumorigenic activities, depending on surface properties, durability, and size of the fibers. A number of metals, such as nickel, chromium and arsenic, are known to be carcinogenic to humans; for beryllium and cadmium the epidemiologic evidence is less extensive. All these metals also induce genetic toxicity in vitro. At present it cannot be concluded that all metals act by the same carcinogenic mechanism, even though direct modification of DNA seems to be the common experimental finding.

  6. Summary of carcinogenic potency and positivity for 492 rodent carcinogens in the carcinogenic potency database.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, L S; Slone, T H; Bernstein, L

    1989-01-01

    A tabulation of carcinogenic potency (TD50) by species for 492 chemicals that induce tumors in rats or mice is presented. With the use of the Carcinogenic Potency Database, experimental results are summarized by indicating in which sex-species groups the chemical was tested and the respective evaluations of carcinogenicity. A comparison of three summary measures of TD50 for chemicals with more than one positive experiment per species shows that the most potent TD50 value is similar to measures that average values or functions of values. This tabulation can be used to investigate associations between rodent potency and other factors such as mutagenicity, teratogenicity, chemical structure, and human exposure. PMID:2707207

  7. Comparative carcinogenicity of the PAHs as a basis for acceptable exposure levels (AELs) in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Rugen, P.J.; Stern, C.D.; Lamm, S.H. )

    1989-06-01

    The carcinogenicity of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has generally been demonstrated by their ability to act as complete carcinogens in the development of cancers in rodent skin tests. In order to develop proposed acceptable concentration levels for various PAHs in drinking water, we reviewed the studies that formed the basis for determining that these specific PAHs were carcinogenic in animals. We found that the relative potency of these PAHs varied over a range of many orders of magnitude. For example, the carcinogenic strength of benz(a)anthracene (BaA) is found to be about 1/2000th that of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). We have used the calculated carcinogenic potency of the various PAHs relative to that of BaP as a means for proposing specific acceptable concentration levels in drinking water for each of the specific PAHs. BaP is the only carcinogenic PAH for which EPA has published an acceptable concentration level based on carcinogenicity. Based on the level EPA set for BaP (0.028 micrograms/liter), this methodology has provided for the specific PAHs a determination of proposed acceptable concentration levels quantitatively based on the same data that were used to qualitatively determine them to be animal carcinogens. We have proposed acceptable concentration levels for the carcinogenic PAHs in drinking water that range from 0.03 micrograms/liter for BaP to 6.5 micrograms/liter for BaA. We recommend that acceptable concentration levels for the various PAHs be based on their relative carcinogenic potencies rather than the EPA method of using the potency of only one specific PAH, BaP, to serve as the exposure level determinant for all PAHs. We further suggest that this methodology may be applicable to other classes of carcinogenic compounds.

  8. The Regulation of Carcinogenic Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gori, Gio Batta

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested that a system of relative standards be formulated which would compare utility of substances to their relative risk as carcinogens. This would define a range of use restrictions. Substances intended for specific uses would then be regulated according to these standards. (Author/RE)

  9. Predictive testing of environmental carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Two research approaches are presented which address different aspects of predictive testing for environmental carcinogens. In Part I, a well-known microbial assay is used to determine the presence of carcinogens in an environmental sample of suspected hazard. In Part II, a single chemical carcinogen is chosen to demonstrate the utility of three-phase microcosms for prediction of transport and transformations pathways in a reservoir ecosystem. The Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity assay was used to screen processed oil shale extracts for potentially carcinogenic chemicals. Positive mutagenic activity was detected in organic solvent extracts of all four spent shales tested. Problems which might limit application of the Ames assay were explored. The results of assays of one-to-one mixtures of two mutagens which exhibited different dose response curves when assayed separately indicated the response to the mixture was nonadditive. Furthermore, the response to the mixture was determined to be statistically indistinguishable (chi-square analysis) from the dose response curve of one of the mutagens in the majority of cases. This masking effect was found to persist for one strong mutagen (benzo(a)pyrene) even when it composed only 10% of the mixture. The effect of various non-toxic solvents on the mutagenic response of certain mutagens was also determined. Three-phase microcosms were used to study the aquatic fate and effect of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benz(a)antracene.

  10. The Regulation of Carcinogenic Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gori, Gio Batta

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested that a system of relative standards be formulated which would compare utility of substances to their relative risk as carcinogens. This would define a range of use restrictions. Substances intended for specific uses would then be regulated according to these standards. (Author/RE)

  11. Chemical structure and carcinogenicity relationships of some chloroalkene oxides and their parent olefins.

    PubMed

    Van Duuren, B L; Kline, S A; Melchionne, S; Seidman, I

    1983-01-01

    Six epoxides of structurally related chloroalkenes were examined for their carcinogenicity by chronic testing in female ICR/Ha Swiss mice, 30/group. Repeated skin application three times weekly or s.c. injection once weekly were used for the life spans of the mice. The epoxides were: cis-1-chloropropene oxide, trans-1-chloropropene oxide, cis-1,3-dichloropropene oxide, trans-1,3-dichloropropene oxide, trichloroethylene oxide (TCEO), and tetrachloroethylene oxide (PCEO). In mouse skin, cis-1-chloropropene oxide, trans-1-chloropropene oxide, cis-1-,3-dichloropropene oxide, and trans-1,3-dichloropropene oxide induced statistically significant incidences of squamous carcinomas of the skin; TCEO did not cause any skin tumors; and PCEO resulted in three mice with benign skin tumors and one with a squamous carcinoma of the skin. Repeated s.c. injection of the four propene oxides induced statistically significant incidences of local tumors, mostly fibrosarcomas. This was not the case with TCEO and PCEO. The data are consistent with the carcinogenicity findings on the parent chloropropenes and suggest that the epoxides function as their activated carcinogenic intermediates. The essentially negative findings with TCEO and PCEO suggest further studies on the carcinogenicity of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene.

  12. Application of the Salmonella mutagenicity assay and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in workplaces exposed to petroleum pitch and petroleum coke.

    PubMed

    Monarca, S; Pasquini, R; Sforzolini, G S; Viola, V; Fagioli, F

    1982-02-01

    Workplaces of an Italian carbon electrode factory, exposed to petroleum pitch and petroleum coke, were studied using a coupled chemical and biological approach to evaluate occupational mutagenic/carcinogenic hazards. Analytical procedures for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity tests (with TA98 and TA100 strains) were performed on both industrial ingredients (pitch and coke) and airborne particulate matter of the working environment, after fractionating by sequential Soxhlet extractions with four organic solvents of increasing polarity (benzene, chloroform, methanol and acetone). The results showed: (a) the presence of extraordinarily high PAH (carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic) contents in the benzene extracts of petroleum pitch (3.6 wt% of total PAH) and of airborne particulate samples (up to 0.35 wt% of total PAH), in correlation with very high indirect (after metabolic activation) mutagenic responses of benzene extracts with strain TA98; (b) very high indirect mutagenic responses in the other extracts of the airborne particulate samples (especially with strain TA98); (c) the production during the processing at high temperatures of directly acting mutagens (without metabolic activation) which were absent in the starting materials and their release in the air of workplaces. The comparison of chemical analytical and mutagenicity data has proved to be an interesting approach for better defining the relative health hazards due to occupational exposure to potentially mutagenic/carcinogenic petroleum products.

  13. Future petroleum geologist: discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.D.

    1987-07-01

    Robert R. Berg's (1986) article, ''The Future Petroleum Geologist,'' summarizes the findings of the 13-member AAPG Select Committee on The Future Petroleum Geologist appointed by President William L. Fisher in July 1985. While this undertaking is laudable, particularly considering present circumstance in the petroleum industry, the committee has apparently overlooked a vital aspect concerning the future knowledge requirements of the petroleum geologist. Specifically, the Select Committee makes no mention of the need for computer literacy in its list of educational training categories. Obviously, AAPG is well aware of both the interest in computers by its membership and the increasing need for training and familiarity in this discipline. The Select Committee on The Future Petroleum Geologist, while undertaking a difficult and potentially controversial task, has omitted an important aspect of the background requirements for generations of future petroleum geologists; the committee should consider an amendment to their recommendations to reflect this increasingly important field study.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  17. Health effects of coal mining and combustion: carcinogens and cofactors.

    PubMed

    Falk, H L; Jurgelski, W

    1979-12-01

    Some polynuclear aromatics (PNA) have been found to be potent carcinogens for all tissues and organs of experimental animals that have been exposed to them, but different dose levels are needed for these effects. They have been known for decades to cause cancer at the site of application but also at certain sites distant from the area of contact. Although some hydrocarbons are potent and complete carcinogens, the majority of related hydrocarbons was originally found to be inactive. Since they generally appear together, it was important to know more about their interaction, particularly whether they would synergize, or antagonize. The polycyclic hydrocarbons have been studied by subcutaneous injection, where they prove very potent carcinogens. They are also very active on the skin of mice where they produce cancer on prolonged application. Inhalation studies, require larger doses yielded negative results until particulate matter was introduced which facilitated the development of lung tumors. Although iron oxide dust was used initially, other dusts were also capable of enhancing the response of the tissue to benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenesis. This point is of importance, particularly since the inhalation of PNA in situations of air pollution or coal mining involves particulates, although of a different type. Soot is not a homogenous substance and several factors determine its properties. Soots will lose some of the absorbed chemicals during their residence in air, but they retain their PNAs for long periods of time when they reach the soil. The carcinogenicity of PNAs in the adsorbed state may be completely absent, depending on particle size of the soot and availability of eluting capability of the tissues or cells in contact with the soot. Whenever the carcinogenic polynuclear aromatics can be eluted they will be active in producing cancer if their residence is adequate. There seems to be no reason to assume that a large increase in coal combustion in the future will

  18. Health effects of coal mining and combustion: carcinogens and cofactors.

    PubMed Central

    Falk, H L; Jurgelski, W

    1979-01-01

    Some polynuclear aromatics (PNA) have been found to be potent carcinogens for all tissues and organs of experimental animals that have been exposed to them, but different dose levels are needed for these effects. They have been known for decades to cause cancer at the site of application but also at certain sites distant from the area of contact. Although some hydrocarbons are potent and complete carcinogens, the majority of related hydrocarbons was originally found to be inactive. Since they generally appear together, it was important to know more about their interaction, particularly whether they would synergize, or antagonize. The polycyclic hydrocarbons have been studied by subcutaneous injection, where they prove very potent carcinogens. They are also very active on the skin of mice where they produce cancer on prolonged application. Inhalation studies, require larger doses yielded negative results until particulate matter was introduced which facilitated the development of lung tumors. Although iron oxide dust was used initially, other dusts were also capable of enhancing the response of the tissue to benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenesis. This point is of importance, particularly since the inhalation of PNA in situations of air pollution or coal mining involves particulates, although of a different type. Soot is not a homogenous substance and several factors determine its properties. Soots will lose some of the absorbed chemicals during their residence in air, but they retain their PNAs for long periods of time when they reach the soil. The carcinogenicity of PNAs in the adsorbed state may be completely absent, depending on particle size of the soot and availability of eluting capability of the tissues or cells in contact with the soot. Whenever the carcinogenic polynuclear aromatics can be eluted they will be active in producing cancer if their residence is adequate. There seems to be no reason to assume that a large increase in coal combustion in the future will

  19. Evaluation of the dermal carcinogenic potential of tar sands bitumen-derived liquids.

    PubMed

    McKee, R H; Stubblefield, W A; Lewis, S C; Scala, R A; Simon, G S; DePass, L R

    1986-08-01

    The carcinogenic potential of Athabasca tar sands and six experimental liquids derived from crude bitumen was evaluated utilizing the mouse epidermal carcinogenesis model. Tar sands, bitumen, and untreated naphtha produced few, if any, tumors. Three thermally and catalytically cracked liquids, light (nominal boiling range: 149-316 degrees C) and heavy (nominal boiling range: greater than 316 degrees C) gas oils and gas oil blend (boiling range: greater than 316 degrees C), produced a significant number of epidermal neoplasms. A synthetic crude oil, prepared by blending naphtha and light and heavy gas oils, was moderately carcinogenic; however, the activity of this sample fell within the range of values obtained in studies of crude petroleum samples. Since the bitumen-derived streams do not differ substantially in carcinogenic potency from petroleum-derived materials of comparable boiling range and process history, industrial hygiene practices which limit exposures to levels comparable to those observed in the petroleum-refining industry should provide similar measures of protection.

  20. Petroleum 1996: Issues and Trends

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Examines historical trends and focuses on major petroleum issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the petroleum industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to the volatility in petroleum markets.

  1. Petroleum: An Energy Profile 1999

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    Explains in layman's terms the major components and operations of the U.S. petroleum industry that include: petroleum products, resources and reserves, drilling and exploration, refining, storage and transportation, imports, exports, and petroleum marketing.

  2. Asphalt fume dermal carcinogenicity potential: I. dermal carcinogenicity evaluation of asphalt (bitumen) fume condensates.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charles R; Burnett, Donald M; Parker, Craig M; Arp, Earl W; Swanson, Mark S; Minsavage, Gary D; Kriech, Anthony J; Osborn, Linda V; Freeman, James J; Barter, Robert A; Newton, Paul E; Beazley, Shelley L; Stewart, Christopher W

    2011-10-01

    Asphalt (bitumen) fume condensates collected from the headspace above paving and Type III built up roofing asphalt (BURA) tanks were evaluated in two-year dermal carcinogenicity assays in male C3H/HeNCrl mice. A third sample was generated from the BURA using a NIOSH laboratory generation method. Similar to earlier NIOSH studies, the BURA fume condensates were applied dermally in mineral oil twice per week; the paving sample was applied 7 days/week for a total weekly dose of 50 mg/wk in both studies. A single benign papilloma was observed in a group of 80 mice exposed to paving fume condensate at the end of the two-year study and only mild skin irritation was observed. The lab generated BURA fume condensate resulted in statistically significant (P<0.0001) increases in squamous cell carcinomas (35 animals or 55% of animals at risk). The field-matched BURA condensate showed a weaker but significant (P=0.0063) increase (8 carcinomas or 13% of animals) and a longer average latency (90 weeks vs. 76 for the lab fume). Significant irritation was observed in both BURA condensates. It is concluded that the paving fume condensate was not carcinogenic under the test conditions and that the field-matched BURA fume condensate produced a weak tumor response compared to the lab generated sample. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Geostatistics and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Hohn, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The book reviewed is designed as a practical guide to geostatistics or kriging for the petroleum geologists. The author's aim in the book is to explain geostatistics as a working tool for petroleum geologists through extensive use of case-study material mostly drawn from his own research in gas potential evaluation in West Virginia. Theory and mathematics are pared down to immediate needs.

  4. Fundamentals of Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic information on petroleum is presented in this book prepared for naval logistics officers. Petroleum in national defense is discussed in connection with consumption statistics, productive capacity, world's resources, and steps in logistics. Chemical and geological analyses are made in efforts to familiarize methods of refining, measuring,…

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  6. Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity studies of benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Giovanni; Carrozzino, Roberto; Martelli, Antonietta

    2007-12-01

    This survey is a compendium of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity information of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine analogues. Data from 51 drugs were collected; 41 of them are still in the market. Of the 51 drugs, 12 (23.5%) do not have retrievable genotoxicity or carcinogenicity data. The remaining 39 (76.5%) have at least one genotoxicity or carcinogenicity test result. Of these 39, 12 (30.8%) have at least one positive finding: 9 tested positive in at least one genotoxicity assay, 8 in at least one carcinogenicity assay, and 5 gave a positive result in both at least one genotoxicity assay and at least one carcinogenicity assay. In terms of correlation between results of the various genotoxicity assays and absence of carcinogenic activity in mice and/or rats or in other species, none of the 11 non-carcinogenic drugs tested positive in one of the various genotoxicity assay systems. Concerning the predictivity of genetic toxicology findings for the result(s) of long-term carcinogenesis assays, 18 drugs had both genotoxicity and carcinogenicity data; of these 11 (61.1%) were neither genotoxic nor carcinogenic, 2 (11.1%) were carcinogenic in at least one sex of mice or rats but tested negative in genotoxicity assays, and 5 (27.8%) gave a positive response in at least one genotoxicity assay and in at least one carcinogenicity assay. Only 8 (19.5%) of the 41 marketed benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine analogues had all data required by current guidelines for testing of pharmaceuticals.

  7. World petroleum supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A number of conclusions by political conservatives about the fate of world petroleum supplies have been emerging lately. Among the most recent of them arose from discussions, held at the 1983 spring meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), which focused on the environment and resource study entitled “The Global 2000 Report” (New Scientist, June 9, 1983). Fred Singer, representing the Heritage Foundation of Washington, D.C., criticized the report, which predicted shortages in the near future, saying that the current world-wide oil glut will continue beyond the year 2000. Alternatives to the use of petroleum are a part of the cause. Singer argued that conservation, nuclear energy, and other petroleum substitutes will continue to suppress the demand for petroleum. In addition, according to other evaluations, exploration for petroleum and natural gas has not really begun.

  8. Carcinogens show comedogenic activity: a potential animal screen for tumorigenic substances.

    PubMed

    Kligman, A M; Kligman, L H

    1994-12-09

    Formation of a comedo, an impaction of horny cells in sebaceous follicles, entails a metaplastic change in the differentiation patterns of the follicular epithelium. Since metaplasia is a requisite early stage in carcinogenesis, we postulated that carcinogens might be comedogenic. The rabbit ear was used to assay the comedogenic potentialities of an array of known tumorigens. Complete carcinogens and some tumor promotors were invariably strongly comedogenic at concentrations of 1.0% and below. Comedogenic chemicals commonly found in skin care products usually required concentrations of 40% and greater to induce comedones which were small in comparison to carcinogen induced comedones. We suggest that the rabbit ear model might be an easy and reliable way to screen for carcinogenicity.

  9. The carcinogenicity of chrysotile asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Harington, J.S. )

    1991-12-31

    In in vitro test systems, chrysotile is markedly toxic, causes chromosomal aberrations, and is capable of inducing morphological and preneoplastic transformation. In carefully designed animal experiments, chrysotile produces lung cancer and mesothelioma as effectively as do the amphiboles tested. Human population studies do not refute these experimental results. Chrysotile asbestos is carcinogenic to humans, especially for the induction of lung cancer and mesothelioma in exposed populations. For cancers of other sites, with the exception of laryngeal and possibly gastrointestinal cancer, the evidence for association with exposure to all forms of asbestos, including chrysotile, is not yet adequate for evaluation.48 references.

  10. Carcinogens in estuaries, their monitoring and possible hazard to man.

    PubMed

    Stich, H F; Acton, A B; Dunn, B P

    1976-01-01

    Bottom-dwelling flatfish and their skin tumors can be used as an early-warning-system for the pollution by chemical carcinogens in sub- and inter-tidal waters. A trial in British Columbia and the State of Washington showed a link between tumor prevalence and urban activity. The possible use of marine accumulator organisms (mussels) in the estimation of benzo(a)pyrene levels of harbours is considered. The combination of biological and chemical assays could provide the basis for a large-scale routine surveillance of the marine environment.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  13. Inter-species comparisons of carcinogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Purchase, I. F.

    1980-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of 250 chemicals in 2 species, usually the rat and the mouse, was obtained from the published literature through 3 independent sources. Of the 250 compounds listed, 38% were non-carcinogenic in both rats and mice, and 44% were carcinogenic in both species. A total of 43 compounds had different results in the two species, 21 (8%) being carcinogenic in mice only, 17 (7%) in rats only and 5 (2%) having differing results from other species. A comparison of the major target organs affected by chemicals carcinogenic in both species revealed that 64% of the chemicals studied produced cancer at the same site. This comparison of carcinogenic activity in 2 species suggests that extrapolation from results in a single-animal study to man may be subject to substantial errors. PMID:7387835

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  15. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates.

  16. Carbonate petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Roehl, P.O.; Choquette, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the geology of petroleum deposits. Topics considered include diagenesis, porosity, dolomite reservoirs, deposition, reservoir rock, reefs, morphology, fracture-controlled production, Cenozoic reservoirs, Mesozoic reservoirs, and Paleozoic reservoirs.

  17. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  18. Prediction of rodent carcinogenicity for 30 chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, J.

    1996-10-01

    Predictions of carcinogenic activity are made for 30 chemicals currently being assessed for rodent carcinogenicity by the U.S. National Toxicology Program. The predictions are based upon the chemical structure, the anticipated or reported mutagenicity, and the reported sub-chronic toxicity of each chemical. It is predicted that 13 chemicals will be noncarcinogenic to rodents, that 7 will be genotoxic carcinogens, and that 10 may show some evidence of presumed nongenotoxic rodent carcinogenesis. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Co-carcinogenicity of promoting agents

    SciTech Connect

    Vose, C.W.; Coombs, M.M.; Bhatt, T.S.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment is described to investigate whether coadministration of a promoting agent would enhance the carcinogenicity of a repeatedly administered complete carcinogen. Topical application of the strong carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-methylcyclopenta(a)phenanthren-17-one (I) in toluene containing 1% v/v croton oil is about five times more effective than applications in toluene alone, as judged from the respective mean latent periods. A similar effect is also apparent for benzo(a)pyrene.

  20. Fundamentals of petroleum maps

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Elroy, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    It's a complete guide to the fundamentals of reading, using, and making petroleum maps. The topics covered are well spotting, lease posting, contouring, hanging cross sections, and ink drafting. This book not only tells the how of petroleum mapping, but it also tells the why to better understand the principles and techniques. The books does not teach ''drafting,'' but does describe the proper care and use of drafting equipment for those who are totally new to the task.

  1. Sedimentology and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorlykke, K.O. )

    1989-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to sedimentology as well as petroleum geology. It integrates both subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately. The author covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modelling forms the base for the part on petroleum geology. Subjects discussed include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

  2. NAFTA opportunities: Petroleum refining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) creates a more transparent environment for the sale of refined petroleum products to Mexico, and locks in access to Canada's relatively open market for these products. Canada and Mexico are sizable United States export markets for refined petroleum products, with exports of $556 million and $864 million, respectively, in 1992. These markets represent approximately 24 percent of total U.S. exports of these goods.

  3. Comparative results of 327 chemical carcinogenicity studies.

    PubMed Central

    Haseman, J K; Huff, J E; Zeiger, E; McConnell, E E

    1987-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) have carried out a number of laboratory animal carcinogenicity studies and presented the results of these experiments in a series of Technical Reports. This paper tabulates the results of the 327 NCI/NTP studies carried out to date on 308 distinct chemicals, and discusses certain issues relevant to the evaluation of carcinogenicity in these experiments. This compilation of results from NCI/NTP carcinogenicity experiments provides a large database that can be used to study structure-activity correlations, interspecies concordance, and associations between laboratory animal carcinogenicity and other toxicological effects. PMID:3691430

  4. Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity studies of antihistamines.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Giovanni; Mattioli, Francesca; Robbiano, Luigi; Martelli, Antonietta

    2011-10-01

    This review provides a compendium of the results of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity assays performed on marketed antihistamines. Of the 70 drugs examined, 29 (41.4%) have at least one genotoxicity and/or carcinogenicity test result: 12 tested positive in at least one genotoxicity assay, six in at least one carcinogenicity assay, and four gave a positive response in both at least one genotoxicity assay and at least one carcinogenicity assay. Of 19 drugs with both genotoxicity and carcinogenicity data, eight were neither genotoxic nor carcinogenic, two were carcinogenic in at least one sex of mice or rats but tested negative in genotoxicity assays, five tested positive in at least one genotoxicity assay but were non-carcinogenic, and four gave a positive response in at least one genotoxicity assay and in at least one carcinogenicity assay. Only 12 (17.1%) of the 70 drugs examined have all data required by present guidelines for testing of pharmaceuticals, but it should be considered that a large fraction of them were developed and marketed prior the present regulatory climate.

  5. Beyond the petroleum system

    SciTech Connect

    Magoon, L.B.; Sanchez, R.M.O.

    1995-12-01

    The first joint AAPG/AMGP (Association of Mexican Petroleum Geologists) Hedberg Conference on {open_quotes}Geologic Aspects of Petroleum Systems{close_quotes} was held October 2-6, 1994, in Mexico City, Mexico. This research conference attracted nearly 150 geoscientists from 15 countries; 41 papers and 27 posters were presented. The opposite response occurred when the petroleum-system concept was presented more than 20 yr ago; it was largely overlooked. In the past decade, however, interest in this concept as an exploration tool has been growing rapidly. The research conference addressed the concept itself, its elements and processes, the tools and methods used to identify a petroleum system, and many case studies. We summarize responses by the participants to the following three questions: First, what is gained from using the petroleum-system concept? Second, in what new directions will the petroleum-system concept take us in the future? Third, has anything new come out of this research conference?

  6. 1991 international petroleum encyclopedia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    There is no other petroleum industry publication quite like the International Petroleum Encyclopedia. With a timely, accurate combination of global industry coverage and analysis, detailed statistical surveys, cutting-edge reports on technological advancements and the ever-popular atlas maps, the 1991 International Petroleum Encyclopedia is a smart buy for professionals whose business is oil and gas, as well as for those whose business is affected by the industry's trends and developments. Written by a professional staff of Oil and Gas Journal petroleum experts, the 1991 IPE gives you the all important global perspective for constructing sound business strategies for the 90's. The petroleum industry is scrambling for information that will help it survive this volitile period. This book reports on the topics in the petroleum industry the latest developments in horizontal drilling, world refining (the latest information on reformulated fuels), and predictions about the post-war Persian Gulf industry. PULS, discussions on changes in the Gulf of Mexico, developments in the LNG trade, and crude oil tanker supply/.demand curves.

  7. Comparative hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity of sodium arsenite and three petroleum products in experimental Swiss Albino Mice: the modulatory effects of Aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Gbadegesin, Michael A; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Akinwumi, Kazeem A; Osifeso, Olabode O

    2009-10-01

    Petroleum products (PPs) consist of complex chemical mixtures, mainly hydrocarbons. Their composition varies considerably with source and use. Inappropriate manual handling and use of PPs, in countries like Nigeria, results in excessive skin contact with the possibility of hazard to health. There has been inadequate evidence to classify diesel, kerosene and hydraulic oil as human carcinogens and there is limited evidence for their toxicity and carcinogenicity in experimental animals. We compared the hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity of diesel, petrol or hydraulic oil with that of sodium arsenite (Na(2)AsO(2)) in mice. Our findings showed that these PPs are capable of inducing gamma-glutamyl transferase (gammaGT) activity in the serum and liver to levels comparable with that induced by Na(2)AsO(2). Mice treated with individual PPs have elevated mean liver and serum gammaGT at levels that are significantly different from the values observed for the negative control group. Also, the individual PPs alone have micronuclei formation induction activity similar to Na(2)AsO(2). We found that treatment with Aloe vera gel before the PPs significantly reduced mean liver and serum gammaGT, and the mean number of micronuclei scored when compared with groups administered each of the PPs alone, supporting the presence of hepatoprotective components in Aloe vera.

  8. A computational method for the identification of new candidate carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Chu, Chen; Lu, Jing; Kong, Xiangyin; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of human death. Based on current knowledge, one of the causes of cancer is exposure to toxic chemical compounds, including radioactive compounds, dioxin, and arsenic. The identification of new carcinogenic chemicals may warn us of potential danger and help to identify new ways to prevent cancer. In this study, a computational method was proposed to identify potential carcinogenic chemicals, as well as non-carcinogenic chemicals. According to the current validated carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic chemicals from the CPDB (Carcinogenic Potency Database), the candidate chemicals were searched in a weighted chemical network constructed according to chemical-chemical interactions. Then, the obtained candidate chemicals were further selected by a randomization test and information on chemical interactions and structures. The analyses identified several candidate carcinogenic chemicals, while those candidates identified as non-carcinogenic were supported by a literature search. In addition, several candidate carcinogenic/non-carcinogenic chemicals exhibit structural dissimilarity with validated carcinogenic/non-carcinogenic chemicals.

  9. 31 CFR 542.314 - Petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum or petroleum products of... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 542.314 Petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. The term petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin means petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

  10. Carcinogenic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Faroon, O M; Keith, S; Jones, D; De Rosa, C

    2001-03-01

    As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) sites that have the greatest public health impact. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article constitutes the release of an important section of the Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls [ATSDR. 2000: Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.] into the scientific literature. This article focuses on the carcinogenic effects of this group of synthetic organic chemicals (polychlorinated biphenyls) in humans and animals. Information on other health effects, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, biomarkers, interactions, chemical and physical properties, potential for human exposure, and regulations and advisories is detailed in the profile.

  11. Short- and intermediate-term carcinogenicity testing--a review. Part 2: available experimental models.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, H; Iatropoulos, M; Brunnemann, K D; Bomhard, E; Ahr, H J; Schlueter, G; Williams, G M

    1998-11-01

    Numerous experimental protocols for short- and intermediate-term carcinogenicity assays have been available for many years. This paper surveys various of these test systems in rodents, fish species, non-vertebrates and avian embryos in ovo. The mouse skin tumour assay and the rat liver foci assay were used to introduce the basic concepts of short- and intermediate-term carcinogenicity testing in the previous part of the review. The focus of this second part of the review is on rodent assays for carcinogenicity testing in the lung, kidney, urinary bladder, pancreas, stomach, oral cavity, small intestine, colon, and on the possibility to combine several target organs in multi-organ models. The potential use of various fish species, non-vertebrates and hatching eggs for carcinogenicity testing is outlined and the advantages and limitations are discussed. This review also presents the problem of validation of any carcinogenicity test system and proposes a strategy for contemporary safety assessment of chemicals with regard to the detection and evaluation of carcinogenicity.

  12. Carcinogen susceptibility is regulated by genome architecture and predicts cancer mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    García-Nieto, Pablo E; Schwartz, Erin K; King, Devin A; Paulsen, Jonas; Collas, Philippe; Herrera, Rafael E; Morrison, Ashby J

    2017-10-02

    The development of many sporadic cancers is directly initiated by carcinogen exposure. Carcinogens induce malignancies by creating DNA lesions (i.e., adducts) that can result in mutations if left unrepaired. Despite this knowledge, there has been remarkably little investigation into the regulation of susceptibility to acquire DNA lesions. In this study, we present the first quantitative human genome-wide map of DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the ubiquitous carcinogen in sunlight that causes skin cancer. Remarkably, the pattern of carcinogen susceptibility across the genome of primary cells significantly reflects mutation frequency in malignant melanoma. Surprisingly, DNase-accessible euchromatin is protected from UV, while lamina-associated heterochromatin at the nuclear periphery is vulnerable. Many cancer driver genes have an intrinsic increase in carcinogen susceptibility, including the BRAF oncogene that has the highest mutation frequency in melanoma. These findings provide a genome-wide snapshot of DNA injuries at the earliest stage of carcinogenesis. Furthermore, they identify carcinogen susceptibility as an origin of genome instability that is regulated by nuclear architecture and mirrors mutagenesis in cancer. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. TOPICAL REVIEW: MUTAGENICITY AND CARCINOGENICITY OF AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although both outdoor and indoor airs provide exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, this review shows that the level of hazard is highly variable. Outdoor air was first shown to be carcinogenic in 1942 and mutagenic in 1975; and studies examining the genotoxicity of indoor air so...

  14. Risk assessment of carcinogens in food

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, Susan

    2010-03-01

    Approaches for the risk assessment of carcinogens in food have evolved as scientific knowledge has advanced. Early methods allowed little more than hazard identification and an indication of carcinogenic potency. Evaluation of the modes of action of carcinogens and their broad division into genotoxic and epigenetic (non-genotoxic, non-DNA reactive) carcinogens have played an increasing role in determining the approach followed and provide possibilities for more detailed risk characterisation, including provision of quantitative estimates of risk. Reliance on experimental animal data for the majority of risk assessments and the fact that human exposures to dietary carcinogens are often orders of magnitude below doses used in experimental studies has provided a fertile ground for discussion and diverging views on the most appropriate way to offer risk assessment advice. Approaches used by national and international bodies differ, with some offering numerical estimates of potential risks to human health, while others express considerable reservations about the validity of quantitative approaches requiring extrapolation of dose-response data below the observed range and instead offer qualitative advice. Recognising that qualitative advice alone does not provide risk managers with information on which to prioritise the need for risk management actions, a 'margin of exposure' approach for substances that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic has been developed, which is now being used by the World Health Organization and the European Food Safety Authority. This review describes the evolution of risk assessment advice on carcinogens and discusses examples of ways in which carcinogens in food have been assessed in Europe.

  15. TOPICAL REVIEW: MUTAGENICITY AND CARCINOGENICITY OF AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although both outdoor and indoor airs provide exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, this review shows that the level of hazard is highly variable. Outdoor air was first shown to be carcinogenic in 1942 and mutagenic in 1975; and studies examining the genotoxicity of indoor air so...

  16. Markers of exposure to carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Wogan, G.N. )

    1989-05-01

    Methods have been developed for the detection of exposure to carcinogens and other DNA damaging agents in experimental animals and man through the detection of carcinogens or their metabolic derivatives in body fluids, or through adducts bound covalently to DNA or hemoglobin. The successful use of urinary markers of genotoxic exposures has been reported with respect to nitrosoproline as an indicator of exposure to N-nitroso compounds. The same approach has been used to detect AFB1 and AFB1-N7-Gua as markers of exposure to aflatoxin B1; of 3-methyladenine produced as a result of exposure to methylating agents; and thymine glycol as an indicator of exposure to agents causing oxidative damage to DNA. Detection of adducts formed between genotoxic agents and hemoglobin has been reported in studies of populations occupationally exposed to ethylene oxide, in which 3-hydroxyhistidine and 3-hydroxyvaline have been measured, and in smokers, whose hemoglobin has been found to contain levels of 4-aminobiphenyl and 3-hydroxyvaline that were correlated with the frequency of cigarette smoking. Detection of DNA adducts of genotoxic agents in the cells and tissues of exposed individuals has also been accomplished through the use of several types of analytical methods. Immunoassays and physicochemical methods have been applied to detect adducts formed through the major intermediate in the activation of benzo(a)pyrene, the 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE). This adduct has been found in the DNA of peripheral leukocytes of workers in foundries, aluminum manufacturing plants, roofers, and coke oven plants, and also in cigarette smokers. 36 references.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  18. Carbonization of petroleum feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Eser, S.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of the petroleum cokes are determined by their crystalline structure, which principally depends on the nature of the mesophase formed during the liquid-phase carbonization of the precursors. This study was aimed at investigating the relationships between the chemical nature of the petroleum feedstocks and the mesophase development during carbonization. Ashland 240 pitch and a range of petroleum heavy residua were characterized by solvent fractionation, elemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, H and TC Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. The semi-coke (pyridine insolubles) formation from the feedstocks and their asphaltene fractions was found to be first-order with respect to the concentration of pyridine solubles over a wide conversion range. An inverse relationship was observed between the rate of carbonization of the asphaltenes and the degree of mesophase development. The degree of mesophase development during the carbonization of the feedstock asphaltenes increased consistently with the increasing hydrogen aromaticity over the whole range of the feedstocks used. The principal conclusion from this study is that the mesophase development during carbonization critically depends on the chemical constitution of the petroleum feedstocks. The molecular nature of the asphaltene fractions determines the extent of mesophase development during the carbonization of the petroleum heavy residua. In this respect, the hydrogen aromaticity of the asphaltenes appears to be a good measure for the feedstock quality in terms of resulting coke structure and properties.

  19. Geophysics in petroleum exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    There were 40,000 professionals involved in geophysical exploration for oil and gas during 1982, and they spent nearly $3 billion, mostly on seismic surveys. This brochure explains petroleum geology in terms of earth dynamics and petroleum deposits. It explains gravity, magnetic, and seismic surveys and the use of computers to search for oil and gas. The information covers both onshore and offshore surveying, the technology involved, the processing of seismic data, and the development of maps and models. The temporary nature of petroleum exploration introduces the need for environmental protection which is site specific. The technology is available for continued exploration, but impediments to exploration on public lands and at offshore sites need to be removed for both economic and national security reasons. 3 references, 30 figures.

  20. Effect of glycerol on local and systemic carcinogenicity of topically applied tobacco condensate.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J.; Clapp, M. J.; Conning, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    When glycerol was added to tobacco smoke condensate in acetone solvent, the topical carcinogenicity and the ability to produce epithelial hyperplasia in mice was reduced. Two doses of condensate were applied, combined with 2 concentrations of added glycerol. Age-standardized results show that glycerol reduced the incidence of tumours and malignant tumours and of hyperplasia in animals not developing skin tumours. The relative incidences of malignant tumours, benign tumours, hyperplasia and unaffected skin suggest that there is a sequential relationship (i.e. normal skin to hyperplasia to benign neoplasia to malignant neoplasia) which is impeded by glycerol. There was no systemic effect attributable to the condensate. PMID:698039

  1. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  2. Petroleum marketing annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This publication contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  7. A comprehensive evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of middle distillate fuels.

    PubMed

    Nessel, C S

    1999-02-01

    Middle distillate fuels (MDFs), which include jet fuel, kerosene, and diesel fuel, are a class of hydrocarbons distilled from crude oil at approximately 350-700 degrees F (176-371 degrees C). Although MDFs generally do not contain appreciable levels of potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), they have produced weak tumorigenic responses in mouse skin characterized by low tumor yield and long latency. Recent studies demonstrated that the tumorigenic effects of these MDFs were dependent upon chronic dermal irritation. In the absence of skin irritation, tumors did not develop. Mechanistic studies suggest that straight-run MDFs containing low levels of PACs cause skin tumors through a nongenotoxic mechanism. MDFs cause chronic skin irritation and injury with repeated application to the skin. They have been found to have little or no activity in the modified Ames mutagenicity assay, lack tumor initiating activity, and are active skin tumor promoters. It has been hypothesized that the tumorigenic response to MDFs results from the promotion of preexisting, spontaneously initiated cells. Two recent studies, a one-year tumor promotion study and a two-year skin painting study, evaluated the role of skin irritation on the tumorigenic activity of MDFs in mice. MDFs were applied in pure and diluted forms to assess the effect of equal weekly doses of irritating and nonirritating test materials. The tumorigenicity of straight-run MDFs correlated to the level of skin irritation. No significant increase in tumor incidence occurred under conditions that resulted in minimal skin irritation and injury. These studies indicate that the tumorigenic activity of MDFs containing low levels of PACs is secondary to chronic skin irritation. These materials should not present a carcinogenic hazard in the absence of prolonged skin irritation.

  8. Carcinogenicity of antineoplastic agents in man.

    PubMed

    Rieche, K

    1984-03-01

    Review of the literature shows that: Anticancer drugs are in all probability mostly also carcinogenic. Alkylating agents such as melphalan, chlorambucil and cyclophosphamide seem to lead to the highest rate of second malignancies. Second malignancies after antitumour drugs are mostly acute leukaemias. Conditions which could influence the carcinogenicity of an antitumour drug are (a) its carcinogenic potency; (b) long-term administration; (c) the total dose used and (d) long-term survival of the patient. Irradiation and chemotherapy seem to have the greatest carcinogenic potential, e.g. in malignant lymphomas. The role of immunosuppression as a co-carcinogenic factor is difficult to estimate. Although transplant patients on anticancer drugs for immunosuppression have a higher risk of reticulosarcomas, but not of solid tumours, there is no evidence to suppose that in general immunosuppression and carcinogenicity are directly related. There is no reason to abandon intensive chemotherapy regimes if they lead to significant therapeutic results on the grounds of possible carcinogenicity of these drugs.

  9. Survey of animal drugs with carcinogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, A

    1984-01-01

    Residues of animal drugs with carcinogenic potential cannot always be avoided in food. The risk/benefit evaluation of carcinogenic drugs used in food-producing animals is a scientifically unresolved problem. Nonetheless, a pragmatic solution taking into account such drugs' putative mechanisms of action, their relative potency, and their significance in the prevention and therapy of disease must and can be achieved. While it is unlikely that a new animal drug possessing overt carcinogenic properties would pass the approval process practiced in most countries today, a number of carcinogenic drugs for use in food-producing animals are currently on the market. Their re-evaluation from the viewpoint of human food safety is necessary, particularly if they are genotoxic (for example nitrofurans, nitroimidazoles, quinoxaline-di-N-oxides). The carcinogenicity of hormonally active animal drugs, none of which has genotoxic potential, is believed to be related to their hormonal action. Thus, the establishment of a threshold level for these drugs and their residues appears possible. It is difficult to evaluate certain other nongenotoxic animal drugs which are carcinogenic at very high dose levels and in one species only. No carcinogenic substance, regardless of its hypothetical mechanism of action, should be used in food-producing animals for which a very significant therapeutic benefit has not been demonstrated.

  10. Chemical Principles Revisited: Petroleum Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an historical review of the role of petroleum in world history and information on the chemistry of petroleum. It is suggested that petroleum chemistry be discussed since within the next two decades oil and gas will provide the major portion of U.S. energy. (Author/SA)

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  12. Chemical Principles Revisited: Petroleum Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an historical review of the role of petroleum in world history and information on the chemistry of petroleum. It is suggested that petroleum chemistry be discussed since within the next two decades oil and gas will provide the major portion of U.S. energy. (Author/SA)

  13. Identification of chemicals carcinogenic to man

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbourn, J.D.; Haroun, L.; Vainio, H.; Montesano, R.

    1984-01-01

    Although both the epidemiologic and experimental studies have led to the identification of chemical carcinogens, the limitations in epidemiologic approaches and the need for primary prevention of cancer require a greater reliance on experimental studies. Long-term carcinogenicity studies in experimental animals have been instrumental in identifying chemicals with carcinogenic activity, and, in some cases, the experimental evidence has preceded the epidemiologic evidence (for 4-aminobiphenyl, aflatoxin B1, diethylstilbestrol, melphalan, mustard gas, and vinyl chloride). A better understanding of the multistage process of carcinogenesis and the findings from various short-term tests available more recently may provide a more solid basis for extrapolating experimental findings to man.

  14. Handbook of Petroleum Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, David S. J.; Pujado, Peter P.

    This handbook describes and discusses the features that make up the petroleum refining industry. It begins with a description of the crude oils and their nature, and continues with the saleable products from the refining processes, with a review of the environmental impact. There is a complete overview of the processes that make up the refinery with a brief history of those processes.

  15. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    EPA Science Inventory

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  16. Non-Petroleum Oils

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  17. Petroleum lands and leasing

    SciTech Connect

    Burk, J.

    1984-01-01

    This is a reference book for the lessor, lessee, royalty owner, PLM student and landman. Contents: A historical background; Rights of ownership; Instruments of conveyance; Who owns this land. The oil and gas lease and leasing procedures; Curing titles; Pooling and utilization; Contracts and agreements; Lease maintenance; Land measurements and descriptions; Code of ethics; American Association of Petroleum Landmen; Glossary.

  18. Petroleum-derived carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Bacha, J.D.; Newman, J.W.; White, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on petroleum coke. Topics considered at the symposium included mesophase formation, thermal analysis, rheology, microstructure, carbon fibers, electron microscopy, residual oil processing, synthetic aromatic pitch, delayed coking, calcination, desulfurization, graphite, metallurgical coke, carbon black, natural gas pyrolysis, liquid impregnation, and carbon-carbon composites.

  19. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    EPA Science Inventory

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  20. Carcinogens in the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Järvholm, Bengt

    2006-09-01

    The construction industry is a complex work environment. The work sites are temporary and rapidly changing. Asbestos has been widely used in construction industry, but the risks were primarily detected in specialized trades, such as insulation workers and plumbers. Today, the majority of cases related to asbestos exposure will occur in other occupational groups in the construction industry. In a large cohort of Swedish construction workers, insulators and plumbers constituted 37% of all cases of pleural mesothelioma between 1975 and 1984 while they constituted 21% of the cases between 1998 and 2002. It is estimated that 25-40% of all male cases of pleural mesothelioma in Sweden are caused by asbestos exposure in the construction trades. There are many other known carcinogens occurring in the construction industry, including PAHs, diesel exhausts, silica, asphalt fumes, solvents, etc., but it is difficult to estimate exposures and thus the size of the risk. The risk of cancer is less easy to detect with traditional epidemiological methods in the construction industry than in other industrial sectors. It is not sufficient to rely upon broad epidemiological data to estimate the risk of cancer due chemicals in the construction industry. Thus, a strategy to decrease exposure, e.g., to dust, seems a feasible way to reduce the risk.

  1. Experimental approach to the determination of pulmonary carcinogenic influences of shale oil effluents.

    PubMed Central

    Palekar, L D; Coffin, D L

    1979-01-01

    Oil derived from oil shale deposits is known to contain many organic complexes. The formation of carcinogenic hydrocarbons is temperature-dependent and is associated with retorting of the oil. Furthermore, oil shale is a rich source of inorganic elements such as the metals. Biological studies have demonstrated that concentrated extract of tars from combustion of shale oil are carcingenic to the skin of mice. The purpose of the current project is to evaluate the potential carcinogenic hazard from inhalation of retort and combustion effluents for man. These studies will be carried out in pathogen-free rats by intratracheal instillation with and without added factors such supplemental particles and known carcinogens as interactants. PMID:221216

  2. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and skin manifestations.

    PubMed

    Ju, Qiang; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2016-09-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous compounds that have the ability to disrupt the production and actions of hormones through direct or indirect interaction with hormone receptors, thus acting as agonists or antagonists. Human health is affected after either individual occupation or dietary and environmental exposure to EDCs. On the other hand, skin is one of the largest organs of the body and its main function is protection from noxious substances. EDCs perturb the endocrine system, and they are also carcinogenic, immunotoxic, and hepatotoxic to human skin. In addition, their effects on keratinocytes, melanocytes, sebocytes, inflammatory and immunological cells, and skin stem cells produce inflammatory and allergic skin diseases, chloracne, disorders of skin pigmentation, skin cancer, and skin aging. Mechanisms, which EDCs use to induce these skin disorders are complicated, and involve the interference of endogenous hormones and most importantly the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor signal pathway. Further studies on EDCs and skin diseases are necessary to elucidate these mechanisms.

  3. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710 Petroleum...

  4. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710 Petroleum...

  5. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710 Petroleum...

  6. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710 Petroleum...

  7. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710 Petroleum...

  8. ASSESSMENT OF GENOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON-BIOREMEDIATED SOIL

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGMON, ROBIN

    2004-10-20

    The relationship between toxicity and soil contamination must be understood to develop reliable indicators of environmental restoration for bioremediation. Two bacterial rapid bioassays: SOS chromotest and umu-test with and without metabolic activation (S-9 mixture) were used to evaluate genotoxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil following bioremediation treatment. The soil was taken from an engineered biopile at the Czor Polish oil refinery. The bioremediation process in the biopile lasted 4 years, and the toxicity measurements were done after this treatment. Carcinogens detected in the soil, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were reduced to low concentrations (2 mg/kg dry wt) by the bioremediation process. Genotoxicity was not observed for soils tested with and without metabolic activation by a liver homogenate (S-9 mixture). However, umu-test was more sensitive than SOS-chromotest in the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon-bioremediated soil. Analytical results of soil used in the bioassays confirmed that the bioremediation process reduced 81 percent of the petroleum hydrocarbons including PAHs. We conclude that the combined test systems employed in this study are useful tools for the genotoxic examination of remediated petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

  9. Combining QSAR Modeling and Text-Mining Techniques to Link Chemical Structures and Carcinogenic Modes of Action.

    PubMed

    Papamokos, George; Silins, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for new reliable non-animal based methods to predict and test toxicity of chemicals. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), a computer-based method linking chemical structures with biological activities, is used in predictive toxicology. In this study, we tested the approach to combine QSAR data with literature profiles of carcinogenic modes of action automatically generated by a text-mining tool. The aim was to generate data patterns to identify associations between chemical structures and biological mechanisms related to carcinogenesis. Using these two methods, individually and combined, we evaluated 96 rat carcinogens of the hematopoietic system, liver, lung, and skin. We found that skin and lung rat carcinogens were mainly mutagenic, while the group of carcinogens affecting the hematopoietic system and the liver also included a large proportion of non-mutagens. The automatic literature analysis showed that mutagenicity was a frequently reported endpoint in the literature of these carcinogens, however, less common endpoints such as immunosuppression and hormonal receptor-mediated effects were also found in connection with some of the carcinogens, results of potential importance for certain target organs. The combined approach, using QSAR and text-mining techniques, could be useful for identifying more detailed information on biological mechanisms and the relation with chemical structures. The method can be particularly useful in increasing the understanding of structure and activity relationships for non-mutagens.

  10. Combining QSAR Modeling and Text-Mining Techniques to Link Chemical Structures and Carcinogenic Modes of Action

    PubMed Central

    Papamokos, George; Silins, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for new reliable non-animal based methods to predict and test toxicity of chemicals. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), a computer-based method linking chemical structures with biological activities, is used in predictive toxicology. In this study, we tested the approach to combine QSAR data with literature profiles of carcinogenic modes of action automatically generated by a text-mining tool. The aim was to generate data patterns to identify associations between chemical structures and biological mechanisms related to carcinogenesis. Using these two methods, individually and combined, we evaluated 96 rat carcinogens of the hematopoietic system, liver, lung, and skin. We found that skin and lung rat carcinogens were mainly mutagenic, while the group of carcinogens affecting the hematopoietic system and the liver also included a large proportion of non-mutagens. The automatic literature analysis showed that mutagenicity was a frequently reported endpoint in the literature of these carcinogens, however, less common endpoints such as immunosuppression and hormonal receptor-mediated effects were also found in connection with some of the carcinogens, results of potential importance for certain target organs. The combined approach, using QSAR and text-mining techniques, could be useful for identifying more detailed information on biological mechanisms and the relation with chemical structures. The method can be particularly useful in increasing the understanding of structure and activity relationships for non-mutagens. PMID:27625608

  11. Quantifying the carcinogenicity of antineoplastic drugs.

    PubMed

    Kaldor, J M; Day, N E; Hemminki, K

    1988-04-01

    It has been well established that many of the drugs used in cancer therapy are themselves potentially carcinogenic. It is therefore important to quantify the carcinogenic risk associated with specific agents, and to investigate ways of predicting their risk from animal and in vitro studies. In this paper, an index of carcinogenic potency is defined, and applied to published data on acute non-lymphocytic leukemia following therapy with cytotoxic drugs used as single agents. Carcinogenic potency estimates for rats and mice are also obtained for 15 antineoplastic drugs, and the potency correlation between humans and rodents is examined for the five agents for which there are data in common. The broader implications for quantitative cancer risk prediction are discussed.

  12. Contributions of human enzymes in carcinogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rendic, Slobodan; Guengerich, F Peter

    2012-07-16

    Considerable support exists for the roles of metabolism in modulating the carcinogenic properties of chemicals. In particular, many of these compounds are pro-carcinogens that require activation to electrophilic forms to exert genotoxic effects. We systematically analyzed the existing literature on the metabolism of carcinogens by human enzymes, which has been developed largely in the past 25 years. The metabolism and especially bioactivation of carcinogens are dominated by cytochrome P450 enzymes (66% of bioactivations). Within this group, six P450s--1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2E1, and 3A4--accounted for 77% of the P450 activation reactions. The roles of these P450s can be compared with those estimated for drug metabolism and should be considered in issues involving enzyme induction, chemoprevention, molecular epidemiology, interindividual variations, and risk assessment.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  16. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  20. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  1. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  2. Tobacco smoke carcinogens and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S

    2002-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an established cause of a variety of cancer types, but its role in breast cancer etiology is not clear. In this report, the potential role of cigarette smoke carcinogens as causes of human breast cancer is evaluated. Of over 60 known carcinogens in tobacco smoke, several are known to induce mammary tumors in laboratory animals: benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P), 2-toluidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, nitromethane, ethylene oxide, and benzene. Studies in humans demonstrate that tobacco constituents can reach breast tissue. The uptake and metabolic activation of mammary carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 4-aminobiphenyl are frequently higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. Although it is likely that specific mammary carcinogens in tobacco smoke can reach breast tissue, evidence is lacking at the present time. Some PAHs present in cigarette smoke can be metabolized to sterically hindered diol epoxides, which are potent mammary carcinogens. Thus, compounds such as benzo[c]phenanthrene (B[c]P), not classically considered to be a strong carcinogen in rodents, could nevertheless be metabolized in humans to diol epoxides carcinogenic to the breast. Collectively, the link between smoking and breast cancer is plausible but has been difficult to establish, probably because of the low carcinogen dose. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Predictive Models for Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are endpoints of major environmental and regulatory concern. These endpoints are also important targets for development of alternative methods for screening and prediction due to the large number of chemicals of potential concern and the tremendous cost (in time, money, animals) of rodent carcinogenicity bioassays. Both mutagenicity and carcinogenicity involve complex, cellular processes that are only partially understood. Advances in technologies and generation of new data will permit a much deeper understanding. In silico methods for predicting mutagenicity and rodent carcinogenicity based on chemical structural features, along with current mutagenicity and carcinogenicity data sets, have performed well for local prediction (i.e., within specific chemical classes), but are less successful for global prediction (i.e., for a broad range of chemicals). The predictivity of in silico methods can be improved by improving the quality of the data base and endpoints used for modelling. In particular, in vitro assays for clastogenicity need to be improved to reduce false positives (relative to rodent carcinogenicity) and to detect compounds that do not interact directly with DNA or have epigenetic activities. New assays emerging to complement or replace some of the standard assays include VitotoxTM, GreenScreenGC, and RadarScreen. The needs of industry and regulators to assess thousands of compounds necessitate the development of high-t

  4. Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity Data: New Initiatives to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Currents models for prediction of chemical carcinogenicity and mutagenicity rely upon a relatively small number of publicly available data resources, where the data being modeled are highly summarized and aggregated representations of the actual experimental results. A number of new initiatives are underway to improve access to existing public carcinogenicity and mutagenicity data for use in modeling, as well as to encourage new approaches to the use of data in modeling. Rodent bioassay results from the NIEHS National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the Berkeley Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) have provided the largest public data resources for building carcinogenicity prediction models to date. However, relatively few and limited representations of these data have actually informed existing models. Initiatives, such as EPA's DSSTox Database Network, offer elaborated and quality reviewed presentations of the CPDB and expanded data linkages and coverage of chemical space for carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. In particular the latest published DSSTox CPDBAS structure-data file includes a number of species-specific and summary activity fields, including a species-specific normalized score for carcinogenic potency (TD50) and various weighted summary activities. These data are being incorporated into PubChem to provide broad

  5. Carcinogen adducts as an indicator for the public health risks of consuming carcinogen-exposed fish and shellfish

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, B.P. )

    1991-01-01

    A large variety of environmental carcinogens are metabolically activated to electrophilic metabolites that can bind to nucleic acids and protein, forming covalent adducts. The formation of DNA-carcinogen adducts is thought to be a necessary step in the action of most carcinogens. Recently, a variety of new fluorescence, immunochemical, and radioactive-postlabeling procedures have been developed that allow the sensitive measurement of DNA-carcinogen adducts in organisms exposed to environmental carcinogens. In some cases, similar procedures have been developed for protein-carcinogen adducts. In an organism with active metabolic systems for a given carcinogen, adducts are generally much longer lived than the carcinogens that formed them. Thus, the detection of DNA- or protein-carcinogen adducts in aquatic foodstuffs can act as an indicator of prior carcinogen exposure. The presence of DNA adducts would, in addition, suggest a mutagenic/carcinogenic risk to the aquatic organism itself. Vertebrate fish are characterized by high levels of carcinogen metabolism, low body burdens of carcinogen, the formation of carcinogen-macromolecule adducts, and the occurrence of pollution-related tumors. Shellfish, on the other hand, have low levels of carcinogen metabolism, high body burdens of carcinogen, and have little or no evidence of carcinogen-macromolecule adducts or tumors. The consumption of carcinogen adducts in aquatic foodstuffs is unlikely to represent a human health hazard. There are no metabolic pathways by which protein-carcinogen or DNA-carcinogen adducts could reform carcinogens. Incorporation via salvage pathways of preformed nucleoside-carcinogen adducts from foodstuffs into newly synthesized human DNA is theoretically possible.

  6. Carcinogen adducts as an indicator for the public health risks of consuming carcinogen-exposed fish and shellfish.

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, B P

    1991-01-01

    A large variety of environmental carcinogens are metabolically activated to electrophilic metabolites that can bind to nucleic acids and protein, forming covalent adducts. The formation of DNA-carcinogen adducts is thought to be a necessary step in the action of most carcinogens. Recently, a variety of new fluorescence, immunochemical, and radioactive-postlabeling procedures have been developed that allow the sensitive measurement of DNA-carcinogen adducts in organisms exposed to environmental carcinogens. In some cases, similar procedures have been developed for protein-carcinogen adducts. In an organism with active metabolic systems for a given carcinogen, adducts are generally much longer lived than the carcinogens that formed them. Thus, the detection of DNA- or protein-carcinogen adducts in aquatic foodstuffs can act as an indicator of prior carcinogen exposure. The presence of DNA adducts would, in addition, suggest a mutagenic/carcinogenic risk to the aquatic organism itself. Vertebrate fish are characterized by high levels of carcinogen metabolism, low body burdens of carcinogen, the formation of carcinogen-macromolecule adducts, and the occurrence of pollution-related tumors. Shellfish, on the other hand, have low levels of carcinogen metabolism, high body burdens of carcinogen, and have little or no evidence of carcinogen-macromolecule adducts or tumors. The consumption of carcinogen adducts in aquatic foodstuffs is unlikely to represent a human health hazard. There are no metabolic pathways by which protein-carcinogen or DNA-carcinogen adducts could reform carcinogens. Incorporation via salvage pathways of preformed nucleoside-carcinogen adducts from foodstuffs into newly synthesized human DNA is theoretically possible.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. PMID:2050048

  7. 29 CFR 1990.112 - Classification of potential carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification of potential carcinogens. 1990.112 Section... CARCINOGENS The Osha Cancer Policy § 1990.112 Classification of potential carcinogens. The following criteria for identification, classification and regulation of potential occupational carcinogens will be...

  8. 29 CFR 1990.112 - Classification of potential carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification of potential carcinogens. 1990.112 Section... CARCINOGENS The Osha Cancer Policy § 1990.112 Classification of potential carcinogens. The following criteria for identification, classification and regulation of potential occupational carcinogens will be...

  9. 29 CFR 1990.112 - Classification of potential carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification of potential carcinogens. 1990.112 Section... CARCINOGENS The Osha Cancer Policy § 1990.112 Classification of potential carcinogens. The following criteria for identification, classification and regulation of potential occupational carcinogens will be...

  10. 29 CFR 1990.112 - Classification of potential carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification of potential carcinogens. 1990.112 Section... CARCINOGENS The Osha Cancer Policy § 1990.112 Classification of potential carcinogens. The following criteria for identification, classification and regulation of potential occupational carcinogens will be...

  11. 29 CFR 1990.112 - Classification of potential carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification of potential carcinogens. 1990.112 Section... CARCINOGENS The Osha Cancer Policy § 1990.112 Classification of potential carcinogens. The following criteria for identification, classification and regulation of potential occupational carcinogens will be...

  12. Differential modulation of the genotoxicity of food carcinogens by naturally occurring monomeric and dimeric polyphenolics.

    PubMed

    Catterall, F; Souquet, J M; Cheynier, V; de Pascual-Teresa, S; Santos-Buelga, C; Clifford, M N; Ioannides, C

    2000-01-01

    Naturally occurring dimeric polyphenolics and their gallate esters were isolated from grape seeds, almond fruits, and apple skin, and their ability to modulate the mutagenicity of food carcinogens was studied in the Ames test, and compared to that of the monomeric green tea flavonols, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. Neither the monomeric nor the dimeric polyphenols and their galloylated derivatives influenced the mutagenic activity elicited by the indirectly acting food carcinogens benzo[a]pyrene and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), in the presence of a hepatic activation system derived from Aroclor 1254-treated rats; the only exception was the B7 dimer, which, at concentrations above 1 microM, suppressed the mutagenicity of IQ. None of the polyphenolics modulated the mutagenic activity elicited by the directly acting carcinogen N'-methyl-N'-nitro-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). In contrast, all the dimeric polyphenols and the galloylated metabolites, at concentrations over 1 microM, potentiated the mutagenic activity induced by the indirectly acting carcinogen N-nitrosopyrrolidine, in the presence of an activation system derived from isoniazid-treated rats. In conclusion, dimeric polyphenols and galloylated derivatives of plant origin are unlikely to influence the initiation stage of the carcinogenicity of chemicals through mechanisms that involve inhibition of their cytochrome P450-mediated bioactivation or scavenging of the reactive, genotoxic intermediates. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Sedimentology and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorlykke, K.

    1989-01-01

    In this introduction to sedimentology and petroleum geology the subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately, are integrated. The first part covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis, including brief discussions of flow in rivers and channels, types of sediment transport, lake and river deposits, deltas (river-dominated, tide-dominated, and wave-dominated) and the water budget. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modeling form the basis for the last part on petroleum geology. Here subjects include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Finally, short introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

  14. Environmental pollutants and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Baudouin, C; Charveron, M; Tarroux, R; Gall, Y

    2002-01-01

    We are increasingly exposed to environmental pollution. Pollutants can be inhaled, ingested or come into contact with the skin depending on the form in which they occur. On metabolization, activation, or accumulation, pollutants can become extremely toxic for the vital organs and this is often related to a strong genotoxic effect. Since the skin acts as a barrier between the organism and the environment, it is frequently directly exposed to pollution. It is very often degraded by polluting agents and acts as an inlet toward other tissues. Numerous studies in man recognize and demonstrate the carcinogenic power of certain pollutants in the digestive and respiratory tracts. The "pollutants" that react most specifically with the skin are: ultraviolet radiation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., benzo[a]pyrene), volatile organic compounds (e.g., benzene), heavy metals, and ozone. Ultraviolet radiation, a "physical" pollutant, has been described as being the factor responsible for most skin cancers in man. The genotoxicity of UV light is well documented (type of lesion or mutation, etc.) and its carcinogenic effect is clearly demonstrated in vivo in man. A few epidemiological studies describe the carcinogenicity of certain pollutants such as arsenic or lead on the skin. However, most of the evidence for the role of pollutants in skin cancers comes from in vivo animal studies or from in vitro studies (e.g., PAHs). In this report, different studies are presented to illustrate the research strategies developed to investigate the mechanism of action of "chemical" pollutants and their potential role in human skin pathology. All the study models and the associated techniques of investigation are tools for a better understanding and thus more efficient prevention of the deleterious effects caused by the environment.

  15. Norwegian petroleum guide

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    This is about the comprehensive guide to Norwegian oil and gas activities, very useful to anyone in the industry. Material includes political guidelines, control institutions, work possibilities and licenses, working environment law, employer and employee organizations, national insurance, taxes, communication, rescue operations and standby. Contents: Oil and the economy; Petroleum technology research; Responsibilities of different authorities; The Labour Inspection Directorate; The Health Directorate Offshore Office; The Coastal Directorate; Helicopter traffic; The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate; The Maritime Directorate; Det norske Veritas; The Norwegian Waterways and Electricity Board; The State Institute for Radiation Hygiene; The State Explosive Inspection; Work possibilities in the North Sea; Working environment legislation on the Continental Shelf; Collective bargaining agreements, labor conflicts and the right to organize; Taxation Rules; National health insurance and the petroleum activity; Occupational injuries on the Norwegian Continental Shelf; Company insurances; The private pension scheme; Other types of insuracne common among oil companies; The rescue service in Norway; Oganizations within the oil industry offshore and onshore; and Law of aliens admission to the Kindgom.

  16. Experimental studies on betel nut and tobacco carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Ranadive, K J; Gothoskar, S V; Rao, A R; Tezabwalla, B U; Ambaye, R Y

    1976-04-15

    Sun-dried Mangalore betel nut extracts in water and in DMSO, and sun-cured Vadakkan tobacco extract in DMSO, were tested for their carcinogenic potency. Inbred Swiss and C17 mice and golden hamsters were used for the experiments. Control animals treated with either DMSO or water did not show any changes at the sites of administration. On subcutaneous administration of betel nut extract, 60% of Swiss mice developed transplantable fibrosarcomas at the site of injection. Skin application of DMSO extracts of tobacco and of betel nut separately did not result in skin lesions in C17 mice; but when a mixed DMSO extract of tobacco and betel nut was used, skin papilloma and epidermoid carcinoma developed in some animals. Similarly, hamster cheek pouches painted with a DMSO extract of tobacco alone did not develop malignant atypia whereas those painted with a DMSO extract of betel nut showed early malignant changes. DMSO extract of a mixture of tobacco and betel nut positively increased the incidence of early malignant changes in the hamster cheek pouch, indicating the enhancing effect of betel nut in carcinogenesis.

  17. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Varjani, Sunita J

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are recalcitrant compounds and are classified as priority pollutants. Cleaning up of these pollutants from environment is a real world problem. Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradation activity. Petroleum hydrocarbons utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in environment. They naturally biodegrade pollutants and thereby remove them from the environment. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from environment by applying oleophilic microorganisms (individual isolate/consortium of microorganisms) is ecofriendly and economic. Microbial biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants employs the enzyme catalytic activities of microorganisms to enhance the rate of pollutants degradation. This article provides an overview about bioremediation for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. It also includes explanation about hydrocarbon metabolism in microorganisms with a special focus on new insights obtained during past couple of years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  20. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... that need skin grafts to heal Venous ulcers, pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that do not heal Very ... graft; Full thickness skin graft Patient Instructions Preventing pressure ulcers Surgical wound care - open Images Skin graft Skin ...

  1. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Cancer What is Skin Cancer? Skin cancer is the most common type ... of approximately 9,480 Americans in 2013. Can Skin Cancer Be Treated? Most basal cell and squamous ...

  2. Evaluation of the carcinogenic risks at the influence of POPs.

    PubMed

    Nazhmetdinova, Aiman; Kassymbayev, Adlet; Chalginbayeva, Altinay

    2017-08-30

    Kazakhstan is included in the list of environmentally vulnerable countries and Kyzylorda oblast in particular. This is due to its geographical, spatial and temporal and socioeconomic features. As part of the program "Integrated approaches in the management of public health in the Aral region", we have carried out an expertise on many samples of natural environments and products. Samples were selected in accordance with sampling procedures according to regulatory documents by specialists of the Pesticide Toxicology Laboratory. It is accredited by the State Standard of the Republic of Kazakhstan, for compliance with ST RK ISO/IEC 17025-2007 "General requirements for the competence of test and calibration laboratories". Gas chromatograph was used for the determination of residues of organochlorine pesticides. For the determination of dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyl was conducted on the gas chromatomass spectrometer with quadruple detector produce by Agilent Company, USA. To assess the risk, we carried out the mathematical calculations according to the risk of chemicals polluting (No P 2.1.10.1920-04, Russia). Calculation of the carcinogenic risk was carried out with the use of data on the size of the exposure and meanings of carcinogenic potential factors (slope factor and unit risk). The evaluation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), based on the previous results of the research concerning water, soil and food products, was held in five population settlements in Kyzylorda oblast villages: Ayteke bi, Zhalagash, Zhosaly, Shieli and Aralsk town. Pollution with the POPs in the environmental objects by means of exposition and evaluation of the carcinogenic risk to human health is confirmed by the data of the statistical reporting about some morbidity in Kyzylorda oblast, such as skin diseases and subcutaneous tissue, endocrine system diseases, pregnancy complications etc. The received levels of carcinogenic risks, which were first carried out in the Republic of

  3. The multitude and diversity of environmental carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Belpomme, D. Irigaray, P.; Hardell, L.; Clapp, R.; Montagnier, L.; Epstein, S.; Sasco, A.J.

    2007-11-15

    We have recently proposed that lifestyle-related factors, screening and aging cannot fully account for the present overall growing incidence of cancer. In order to propose the concept that in addition to lifestyle related factors, exogenous environmental factors may play a more important role in carcinogenesis than it is expected, and may therefore account for the growing incidence of cancer, we overview herein environmental factors, rated as certainly or potentially carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). We thus analyze the carcinogenic effect of microorganisms (including viruses), radiations (including radioactivity, UV and pulsed electromagnetic fields) and xenochemicals. Chemicals related to environmental pollution appear to be of critical importance, since they can induce occupational cancers as well as other cancers. Of major concerns are: outdoor air pollution by carbon particles associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; indoor air pollution by environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds such as benzene and 1,3 butadiene, which may particularly affect children, and food pollution by food additives and by carcinogenic contaminants such as nitrates, pesticides, dioxins and other organochlorines. In addition, carcinogenic metals and metalloids, pharmaceutical medicines and cosmetics may be involved. Although the risk fraction attributable to environmental factors is still unknown, this long list of carcinogenic and especially mutagenic factors supports our working hypothesis according to which numerous cancers may in fact be caused by the recent modification of our environment.

  4. Model carcinogen adsorption dynamics of DNA gel.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Naoko; Naito, Daisuke; Rokugawa, Isamu; Yamamoto, Takao; Dobashi, Toshiaki

    2014-09-01

    We have derived theoretical equations describing the adsorption of carcinogen to gels in an immersion medium containing carcinogens. The theory was developed for a cylindrical boundary condition under the assumption of a carcinogen diffusion-limited process combined with the "moving boundary picture (Furusawa et al., 2007)". The time course of the adsorbed carcinogen layer thickness and that of the carcinogen concentration in an immersion medium were expressed by a set of scaled variables, and the asymptotic behavior in the initial stage was derived. Experiments based on the theory were performed using a DNA gel sandwiched between a set of coverglasses in a medium containing acridine orange (AO). The boundary between the AO-adsorbed gel layer and AO-nonadsorbed gel layer was traced during the immersion. The time courses of the AO-adsorbed gel layer thickness and the AO concentration in the immersion medium were well explained by the theory, and the number ratio of the total AO molecules to the adsorption sites in the DNA gel was determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on Activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This August 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1990, through June 30, 1990. 3 tabs.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-05

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. It presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include domestic first purchase price, f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude, and refiners` acquisition cost of crude. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  7. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... and dryness. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. ( See "Skin and Sun—Not a Good Mix") . ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and Drug ...

  8. [Possible carcinogenic risk associated with production and use of creosote-treated wood].

    PubMed

    Holme, J A; Refsnes, M; Dybing, E

    1999-08-10

    Creosote is a coal tar product which contains varying amounts of mutagenic and carcinogenic substances such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene. Marketing and use of creosote and preparations containing creosote, as well as creosote-treated wood, are regulated by a EU Directive. According to the EU classification of such mixtures, inclusion of a warning against creosote as a carcinogen is not necessary if the contents of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and benzene are lower than 50 ppm (parts per million) and 1000 ppm, respectively. A recent well designed skin painting study in mice clearly indicates that the creosote preparations had a five-fold higher potency to induce skin cancer than the potency based on BaP content. Furthermore, it was estimated that creosote containing 50 ppm BaP would induce a significant incidence of skin cancer. Preliminary results from determination of concentrations of various carcinogens (BaP and benzene) in the air close to creosote impregnation plants as well as the crudely estimated exposure of children to dermal contact with creosote-treated wood, indicate that the life-time cancer risk from such exposures is in the order of one per 10,000. Despite the uncertainty related to such estimates, these risk levels give reasons for some concern. A further reduction in the content of PAH and benzene in creosote preparations should be considered.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Data are presented which describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. Data are presented in two sections: Summary Statistics, presenting a time series of selected petroleum data on a U.S. level, and Detailed Statistics, presenting statistics for the most current month available as well as year to date.

  10. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products...

  11. 31 CFR 542.412 - Transactions relating to Syrian petroleum or petroleum products from third countries...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum or petroleum products from third countries; transshipments. 542.412 Section 542.412 Money and... Syrian petroleum or petroleum products from third countries; transshipments. (a) Transactions relating to goods containing petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin are not prohibited by § 542.208...

  12. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  13. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  14. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  15. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  16. Known occupational carcinogens and their significance.

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, P.; Thériault, G.

    1984-01-01

    Although rates of occupational cancer can be excessive in certain industries, less than 5% of all cancers seem attributable to exposure to carcinogens in the workplace. For example, workers in hard-rock mining and the woodworking industries are at increased risk; cigarette smoking has a synergistic effect. There is conclusive evidence of carcinogenicity for fewer than 20 substances, including asbestos, arsenic, chromium, nickel, cadmium, radon, several aromatic hydrocarbons and certain herbicides. Most of the hundreds of organic compounds known to be mutagenic in in-vitro tests have not been shown to be carcinogenic in epidemiologic studies. Both laboratory and epidemiologic approaches, however, can identify probable causes of cancer and permit the application of effective preventive measures. In addition, it is still possible for the alert individual clinician to make the initial discovery of an occupational hazard. PMID:6367918

  17. Contributions of Human Enzymes in Carcinogen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rendic, Slobodan; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2012-01-01

    Considerable support exists for roles of metabolism in modulating the carcinogenic properties of chemicals. In particular, many of these compounds are procarcinogens that require activation to electrophilic forms to exert genotoxic effects. We systematically analyzed the existing literature on metabolism of carcinogens by human enzymes, which has been developed largely in the past 25 years. The metabolism and especially bioactivation of carcinogens are dominated by cytochrome P450 enzymes (66% of bioactivations). Within this group, six P450s—1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2E1, and 3A4—accounted for 77% of the P450 activation reactions. The roles of these P450s can be compared with those estimated for drug metabolism and should be considered in issues involving enzyme induction, chemoprevention, molecular epidemiology, inter-individual variations, and risk assessment. PMID:22531028

  18. Anti-carcinogenicity of probiotics and prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Burns, A J; Rowland, I R

    2000-03-01

    Yoghurt, and the lactic acid producing bacteria (LAB; probiotics) that it contains, have received much attention as potential cancer-preventing agents in the diet. It is usually considered that the mechanism of the action is by increasing the numbers of LAB in the colon, which modifies the ability of the microflora to produce carcinogens. Prebiotics such as non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) appear to have similar effects on the microflora by selectively stimulating the growth of LAB in the colon. Evidence for cancer-preventing properties of pro- and prebiotics is derived from studies on faecal enzyme activities in animals and humans, inhibition of genotoxicity of known carcinogens in vitro and In vivo, suppression of carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesions and tumours in laboratory animals. Some of these studies indicate that combinations of pro and prebiotics ('synbiotics') are more effective. Epidemiological and intervention studies provide some, albelt limited, evidence for protective effects of products containing probiotics in humans.

  19. The ISS Carcinogens Data Bank (BDC).

    PubMed

    Binetti, Roberto; Ceccarelli, Federica; Costamagna, Francesca Marina; D'Angiolini, Antonella; Fabri, Alessandra; Ferri, Maurizio; Riva, Giovanni; Roazzi, Paolo; Trucchi, Daniela; Marcello, Ida

    2008-01-01

    The Data Bank on Carcinogens (Banca Dati Cancerogeni, BDC) is a factual data bank, available on the Istituto Superiore di Sanità website, aimed at supporting the risk management decision making of central and local administrators. It can also represent a valuable tool for industry. The available information on carcinogenicity evaluations/classifications produced by European Union and by other institutions (IARC, USEPA, NTP, CCTN) is presented in a concise form accompanied by bibliographic references enabling the users to consult the original sources and, in some cases, to be directly connected to the relevant website. The classifications carried out by each organization in accordance with its own criteria assign the examined agents to specific qualitative categories and do not include quantitative assessment. BDC intends to provide an easy tool for experts, researchers and risk managers dealing with carcinogenic agents.

  20. Prediction of chemical carcinogenicity from molecular structure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongmao

    2004-01-01

    Carcinogens represent a serious threat to human health. In vivo determination of carcinogenicity is time-consuming and expensive, thus in silico models to predict chemical carcinogenicity are highly desirable for virtual screening of compound libraries of both pharmaceutically and other commercially interesting molecules. In the present study, a PLS-DA (partial least squares discriminant analysis) model was developed to predict carcinogenicities in each of four rodent models: male mouse (MM), female mouse (FM), male rat (MR), and female rat (FR). The data set that was used contained over 520 compounds from both the NTP and the FDA databases. All the models were built from the same molecular descriptor system, which is based on atom typing [Sun, H. J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 2004, 44, 748-757], enabling the comparison of atomic contributions to carcinogenicity with respect to species and gender. Using four components, the models were able to achieve excellent fitting and prediction, with r(2) = 0.987 and q(2) = 0.944 for MM, r(2) = 0.985 and q(2) = 0.950 for FM, r(2) = 0.989 and q(2) = 0.962 for MR, and r(2) = 0.990 and q(2) = 0.965 for FR. The models were further validated by response permutation testing and external validation, and the results indicated that the models were both statistically significant and predictive. Variable influence on projection (VIP) analysis identified the key atom types and fragments that contributed to carcinogenicities and response differences across species and gender.

  1. Allergic contact sensitizing chemicals as environmental carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, R E

    1997-01-01

    Chemicals that were bioassayed by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) and that also produce allergic dermatitis (ACD) in humans were evaluated for their tumorigenic characteristics. The impetus for the study was that most contact sensitizers, i.e., those that produce ACD, and genotoxic carcinogens are chemically similar in that they are electrophilic, thereby producing adducts on macromolecules including protein and DNA. This similarity in chemical behavior suggests that many contact sensitizers might be environmental carcinogens. All of the published NTP bioassays by early 1996 that had both genotoxicity and carcinogenicity studies were included in this analysis. The NTP chemicals had been chosen for bioassay without regard to their ability to produce ACD. Of the 209 chemicals that were bioassayed, there were 36 (17%) that were known to be human contact sensitizers; about half of these were positive on tumor bioassays. The contact sensitizers differed from the NTP sample as a whole by having a proportionately larger number of nongenotoxic chemicals by the Ames Salmonella assay, presumably because more of them were selected on the basis of widespread usage rather than structural resemblance to known carcinogens. Compared to the nongenotoxic chemicals, the genotoxics were stronger carcinogens in that they had a higher incidence of positive tumor bioassays, with twice the number of organs in which tumors were induced. The nongenotoxic chemicals had a preference for tumor induction in parenchymal tissues in contrast to epithelial tissues. The contact sensitizers showed essentially the same characteristics as the whole NTP sample when stratified according to genotoxicity. Judging by the chemicals that were chosen primarily for their widespread use rather than for their structural resemblance to carcinogens, the addition of a test for contact sensitization to the Ames test as a screening tool would increase the tumorigenic detection efficiency by about 40% because of

  2. Underground petroleum tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This book presents the results of a survey of 46 state underground storage tank program officials. The survey covers: Whether petroleum tank insurance (mandated by the EPA) is available in each state and whether category 3 and 4 owners can obtain it; state programs that help owners meet the financial responsibility and/or technical requirements of such insurance; and lending institutions' attitudes towards providing loans to storage tank owners. A survey of the number and terms of insurance policies offered to tank owners is also presented.

  3. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  4. Skin cancer in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, S.V.

    1987-11-01

    Skin cancer is a major concern in geriatric populations. Cumulative exposure to carcinogens and age-related factors both contribute to the high prevalence of cutaneous malignancy in the elderly. Although mortality rates from skin cancer are relatively low, morbidity can be significant, particularly if lesions are neglected. Physicians can have a major impact on the course of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma by nurturing a high index of suspicion for malignancy when unexplained cutaneous lesions are encountered. 56 references.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  7. Cutaneous HPV and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Accardi, Rosita; Gheit, Tarik

    2014-12-01

    Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small non-enveloped icosahedral viruses that infect the keratinocytes of skin and mucosa. The cutaneous HPV types are represented mainly by the beta and gamma genera, which are widely present in the skin of normal individuals. More than 40 beta-HPV types and 50 gamma-HPV types have been isolated, and these numbers are continuously growing. The main cause of non-melanoma skin cancer is exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, cutaneous HPVs that belong to the beta genus may act as a co-carcinogen with UVR. The association between beta-HPVs and skin cancer was first reported in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), who frequently develop cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) on sun-exposed areas. Isolation of HPVs from the lesions suggested that HPVs might act as a co-carcinogen with UVR in EV patients. Beta-HPVs may also play a role in cutaneous SCC in immunocompromised non-EV and in immunocompetent individuals. Several studies have reported an association of viral DNA and/or antibodies to beta HPV types with SCC. Interestingly, HPV prevalence and viral load decrease during skin carcinogenesis, being significantly higher in actinic keratosis than in SCC, suggesting that the virus may play a role in the early stages of tumour development (the "hit-and-run" hypothesis). Concordantly, in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that E6 and E7 from certain cutaneous HPV types display transforming activities, further confirming their potential role in carcinogenesis.

  8. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  9. Indigenous Precambrian petroleum revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, G.E.; Kaczor, M.J.; McArthur, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    Irrefutable evidence of fossil remains from Precambrian sediments and proved petroleum reserves in upper Proterozoic (Riphean-Vendian) strata of the Irkutsk basin, USSR, suggest that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks should be a focus for hydrocarbon exploration. Since 1965, a dramatic increase in publications which document worldwide occurrences of Precambrian life forms discloses that, by the end of the Proterozoic, organic evolution had produced diversified assemblages of relatively highly developed macroorganisms and microorganisms. Some of these organisms have generated crude oil in the Nonesuch Shale of northern Michigan and kerogen in stromatolitic carbonate rocks in Africa Kerogen has been extracted from approx. 2300-m.y. old Transvaal (Africa) stromatolitic limestone containing coccoid and complex filamentous cyanophytes. Also, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons have been obtained from the approx. 2800-m.y. old Bulawayan stromatolitic limestone of Rhodesia. Additional evidence indicates that commercial reserves of petroleum from Precambrian strata are possible. An oil discovery in Lower Cambrian rocks in 1962, at Markovo in the Irkutsk basin of the Siberian platform area, led to four noncommercial and eight commercial fields producing from Lower Cambrian and Upper Proterozoic strata.

  10. Job Prospects for Petroleum Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Describes petroleum engineering as one area in industry where job opportunities are few but where the worst of the declines has been seen. Discusses the causes of the decline. Lists several areas where petroleum engineers have found alternatives including environmental projects, water supply projects, and computer applications. (CW)

  11. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Petroleum occurrences and plate tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Olenin, V.B.; Sokolov, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the mechanisms of petroleum formation and petroleum accumulation proposed in recent years by some Russian and foreign investigators from the viewpoint of the new global or plate tectonics. On the basis of discussion and the facts, the authors conclude that the mechanisms proposed are in contradiction to reality and their use in practical application is at least premature.

  13. Job Prospects for Petroleum Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Describes petroleum engineering as one area in industry where job opportunities are few but where the worst of the declines has been seen. Discusses the causes of the decline. Lists several areas where petroleum engineers have found alternatives including environmental projects, water supply projects, and computer applications. (CW)

  14. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  15. Petroleum industry assists hurricane relief

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-14

    This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas.

  16. Congenital Fibrosarcoma and History of Prenatal Exposure to Petroleum Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie P.; López-Hernández, Fernando A.; Trasande, Leonardo; Ferrís-Tortajada, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Congenital fibrosarcoma (CFS) is a rare fibrous tissue malignancy that usually presents in the first few years of life. It is unique among human sarcomas in that it has an excellent prognosis. We describe a temporal clustering of a number of cases of CFS and investigate the possible associated prenatal risk factors. The Pediatric Environmental History, a questionnaire developed in our clinic that is instrumental in determining environmental risk factors for tumor-related disease, was essential in documenting the presence or absence of risk factors considered as human carcinogens. We found a history of exposure to petroleum products in four cases of CFS that occurred at a greater than expected rate in a short time frame–an apparent cancer cluster. We call attention to the possibility that exposure to petroleum products raises the risk of developing CFS. While future studies should focus on systematic investigation of CFS and its underlying mechanisms, this report suggests the need for proactive measures to avoid exposure to solvents and petroleum products during pregnancy. PMID:22945410

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-10

    This report for March 1995, provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. A glossary is included.

  18. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-15

    This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  19. Carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages: an update.

    PubMed

    Pflaum, Tabea; Hausler, Thomas; Baumung, Claudia; Ackermann, Svenja; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-10-01

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages.

  20. Polypropylene mesh: evidence for lack of carcinogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Moalli, Pamela; Brown, Bryan; Reitman, Maureen T. F.

    2016-01-01

    Tumors related to the implantation of surgical grade polypropylene in humans have never been reported. In this commentary we present a balanced review of the information on what is known regarding the host response to polypropylene and provide data as to why the potential for carcinogenicity of polypropylene mesh is exceedingly small. PMID:24614956

  1. Evaluation of the carcinogenicity of gallium arsenide.

    PubMed

    Bomhard, Ernst M; Gelbke, Heinz-Peter; Schenk, Hermann; Williams, Gary M; Cohen, Samuel M

    2013-05-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is an important semiconductor material. In 2-year inhalation studies, GaAs increased the incidence of lung tumors in female rats, but not in male rats or male and female mice. Alveolar proteinosis followed by chronic active inflammation was the predominant non-neoplastic pulmonary findings. IARC classified GaAs as carcinogenic to humans (group 1) based on the assumption that As and Ga ions are bioavailable. The European Chemical Agency Risk Assessment Committee concluded that GaAs should be classified into Carcinogenicity Category 1B (presumed to have carcinogenic potential for humans; ECHA). We evaluate whether these classifications are justified. Physico-chemical properties of GaAs particles and the degree of mechanical treatment are critical in this evaluation. The available data on mode of action (MOA), genotoxicity and bioavailability do not support the contribution of As or Ga ions to the lung tumors in female rats. Most toxicological studies utilized small particles produced by strong mechanical treatment, destroying the crystalline structure. The resulting amorphous GaAs is not relevant to crystalline GaAs at production and processing sites. The likely tumorigenic MOA is lung toxicity related to particulate-induced inflammation and increased proliferation. It is concluded that there is no evidence for a primary carcinogenic effect of GaAs.

  2. Iron in asbestos chemistry and carcinogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.A.; Aust, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the various aspects regarding the carcinogenicity of asbestos and associated reactions catalyzed by iron. Attention is focused on the following: structure of asbestos; physical properties of asbestos involved in carcinogenesis; reactions catalyzed by iron; reactions catalyzed by asbestos; fiber inactivation; physiological effects; and mutations and cancer. 183 refs.

  3. Carcinogenic substances in Soviet tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Zaridze, D G; Safaev, R D; Belitsky, G A; Brunnemann, K D; Hoffmann, D

    1991-01-01

    Chemical carcinogens were determined in mainstream smoke from nonfilter cigarettes produced and consumed in the USSR and in nass, a mixture of tobacco, lime, ash and cotton oil. Cigarettes contained high levels of tar (23-25 mg/cigarette) and nicotine (1.5-1.9 mg/cigarette) and, generally, a high content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are major epithelial carcinogens, N-nitrosamines, which are organ-specific carcinogens, and some carcinogenic metals, such as arsenic and chromium. Nass contained the tobacco-specific N-nitroso compounds, N'-nitrosonornicotine, N'-nitrosoanatabine, N'-nitrosoanabasine and 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, as well as volatile N-nitrosamines, but at levels lower than in other types of chewing tobacco and snuff. The low levels in nass are due to the short ageing process used, in contrast to commercially produced chewing tobacco and fine-cut snuff, which are highly processed products requiring long ageing and fermentation.

  4. Immunologic methods for monitoring carcinogen exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santella, Regina M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Zhang, Yu J.; Chen, Chen J.; Young, Tie L.

    1993-03-01

    Immunologic methods have been developed for monitoring human exposure to environmental and occupational carcinogens. These methods involve the development of monoclonal and polyclonal antisera which specifically recognize the carcinogens themselves or their DNA or protein adducts. Antisera recognizing the DNA adducts of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol epoxides have been used in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to monitor adducts in tissue or blood samples. Elevated levels of DNA adducts have been seen in mononuclear cells of smokers and in total white blood cells of foundry and coke oven workers. Environmental exposure to PAH has been measured in individuals living in a highly polluted region of Poland. Antisera recognizing PAH-DNA adducts have also been used in immunohistochemical studies to monitor adducts in specific cells of biopsy samples. The DNA adducts of aflatoxin B1 have been monitored in liver tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma patients in Taiwan. Detectable adducts were seen in 50 - 70% of the patients suggesting that dietary exposure to this carcinogen may be a risk factor for cancer induction. Thus, immunoassays for monitoring exposure to carcinogens are an important tool in epidemiologic studies.

  5. Development of toxicity criteria for petroleum hydrocarbon fractions in the Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group approach for risk-based management of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Twerdok, L E

    1999-02-01

    The Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Croup (TPHCWG) was formed in 1993 based on the observation that widely different clean-up requirements were being used by states at sites that were contaminated with hydrocarbon materials such as fuels, lubricating oils, and crude oils. These requirements were usually presented as concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and ranged from 10 to over 10,000 mg TPH/kg soil. Members of this multi-disciplinary group, consisting of representatives from industry, government and academia, jointly recognized that the numerical standard was not based on a scientific assessment of human health risk and established the following goal for the effort: To develop scientifically defensible information for establishing soil cleanup levels that are protective of human health at hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The approach developed by the TPHCWG for TPH hazard assessment consisted of dividing the petroleum hydrocarbon material into multichemical-containing fractions with similar fate and transport characteristics. These fractions were then assigned fate and transport properties (volatilization factor, soil leaching factor, etc.) and toxicity values (RfDs/RfCs) representative of the fraction. The actual site specific hazard assessment and derivation of cleanup levels is accomplished by analyzing sites to determine which fraction(s) is present and applying the appropriate fate, transport and toxicity factors. The method used by this group to determine TPH Faction specific toxicity criteria is a surrogate approach intended to supplement the indicator approach. Indicators are single, carcinogenic hydrocarbon compounds which are evaluated/regulated individually at either the federal or state level. The TPHCWG surrogate approach utilized all appropriate fraction specific toxicity data (single compound and mixture/product), minus the carcinogenic indicator compounds, to derive the fraction specific RfDs and RfCs. This hazard

  6. New public QSAR model for carcinogenicity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background One of the main goals of the new chemical regulation REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals) is to fulfill the gaps in data concerned with properties of chemicals affecting the human health. (Q)SAR models are accepted as a suitable source of information. The EU funded CAESAR project aimed to develop models for prediction of 5 endpoints for regulatory purposes. Carcinogenicity is one of the endpoints under consideration. Results Models for prediction of carcinogenic potency according to specific requirements of Chemical regulation were developed. The dataset of 805 non-congeneric chemicals extracted from Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDBAS) was used. Counter Propagation Artificial Neural Network (CP ANN) algorithm was implemented. In the article two alternative models for prediction carcinogenicity are described. The first model employed eight MDL descriptors (model A) and the second one twelve Dragon descriptors (model B). CAESAR's models have been assessed according to the OECD principles for the validation of QSAR. For the model validity we used a wide series of statistical checks. Models A and B yielded accuracy of training set (644 compounds) equal to 91% and 89% correspondingly; the accuracy of the test set (161 compounds) was 73% and 69%, while the specificity was 69% and 61%, respectively. Sensitivity in both cases was equal to 75%. The accuracy of the leave 20% out cross validation for the training set of models A and B was equal to 66% and 62% respectively. To verify if the models perform correctly on new compounds the external validation was carried out. The external test set was composed of 738 compounds. We obtained accuracy of external validation equal to 61.4% and 60.0%, sensitivity 64.0% and 61.8% and specificity equal to 58.9% and 58.4% respectively for models A and B. Conclusion Carcinogenicity is a particularly important endpoint and it is expected that QSAR models will not replace the human experts opinions

  7. Dangerous properties of petroleum-refining products: carcinogenicity of motor fuels (gasoline).

    PubMed

    Mehlman, M A

    1990-01-01

    Gasoline contains large numbers of dangerous and cancer-causing chemicals such as benzene, butadiene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, trimethyl pentane, methyltertbutylether (MTBE) and many others. For the U.S. alone approximately 140 billion gallons of gasoline were consumed in 1989. An increase in only ten cents per gallon in price of gasoline generates 14 billion dollars in extra profit per year for oil industry cartel. Laboratory animals exposed to gasoline developed cancers in different tissues and organs. A number of epidemiological studies in humans provide evidence of increased cancer risk of leukemia, kidney, liver, brain, lymphosarcoma, lymphatic tissue pancreas and other tissues and organs.

  8. Orbital compressed air and petroleum injury mimicking necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Mellington, Faye E; Bacon, Annette S; Abu-Bakra, Mohammed A J; Martinez-Devesa, Pablo; Norris, Jonathan H

    2014-09-01

    Orbital injury secondary to petroleum-based products is rare. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of a combined compressed air and chemical orbital injury, which mimicked necrotizing fasciitis. A 58-year-old man was repairing his motorcycle engine when a piston inadvertently fired, discharging compressed air and petroleum-based carburetor cleaner into his left eye. He developed surgical emphysema, skin necrosis, and a chemical cellulitis, causing an orbital compartment syndrome. He was treated initially with antibiotics and subsequently with intravenous steroid and orbital decompression surgery. There was almost complete recovery by 4 weeks postsurgery. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Petroleum-based products can cause severe skin irritation and necrosis. Compressed air injury can cause surgical emphysema. When these two mechanisms of injury are combined, the resulting orbitopathy and skin necrosis can mimic necrotizing fasciitis and cause diagnostic confusion. A favorable outcome is achievable with aggressive timely management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Carcinogens formed when Meat is Cooked

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J S; Salmon, C P; Knize, M G

    2003-05-30

    Diet has been associated with varying cancer rates in human populations for many years, yet the causes of the observed variation in cancer patterns have not been adequately explained (Wynder et al. 1977). Along with the effect of diet on human cancer incidence is the strong evidence that mutations are the initiating events in the cancer process (Vogelstein et al. 1992). Foods, when heated, are a good source of genotoxic carcinogens that very likely are a cause for some of these events(Doll et al. 1981). These carcinogens fall into two chemical classes: heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). There is ample evidence that many of these compounds are complete carcinogens in rodents(El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991). Heterocyclic aromatic amines are among the most potent mutagenic substances ever tested in the Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity test (Wakabayashi et al. 1992). Both classes of carcinogen cause tumors in rodents at multiple sites, (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991) many of which are common tumor sites in people on a Western diet. An HAA, PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and a PAH, B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene), of comparable carcinogenic potency caused mammary gland tumors in a feeding study in female rats (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995). In addition, PhIP has recently been shown to cause carcinomas in the prostate of the male rat (Shirai et al. 1997). Complementing the rodent cancer studies are numerous human case-control and prospective studies suggesting a relationship between overheated beef, chicken, and lamb, and cancer of the colon, breast, prostate, and stomach (Sinha et al. 1999; Ward et al. 1997; Zheng et al. 1998).

  10. Mechanistic considerations in small fish carcinogenicity testing.

    PubMed

    Law, J M

    2001-01-01

    Historically, small fish species have proven useful both as environmental sentinels and as versatile test animals in toxicity and carcinogenicity bioassays. They can be bred in large numbers, have low maintenance and bioassay costs, and have a low background incidence of tumors. However, more mechanistic information is needed to help validate the information garnered from these models and to keep pace with other more fully developed animal models. This paper focuses on mechanistic considerations when using small fish models for carcinogenicity testing. Several small aquarium fish species have proven useful. The Japanese medaka is perhaps the best characterized small fish model for carcinogenicity testing; however, the zebrafish is emerging as an important model because it is well characterized genetically. Both route and methodology of exposure may affect the outcome of the study. Most studies have been conducted by introducing the test compound into the ambient water, but dietary exposures and embryo microinjection have also been used. Other considerations in study design include use of an initiating carcinogen, such as diethlynitrosamine, and differences in xenobiotic metabolism, such as the fact that fish CYP2B is refractory to phenobarbital induction. The small size of these models has perhaps limited some types of mechanistic studies, such as formation and repair of DNA adducts in response to carcinogen exposure. However, improved analytical methods are allowing greater resolution and should be applied to small fish species. Slide-based methods such as immunohistochemistry are an important adjunct to routine histopathology and should be included in study design. However, there is a need for development of more species-specific antibodies for fish research. There is also a need for more fish-specific data on cytokines, serum biochemistry, and oncogenes to strengthen the use of these important test models.

  11. Prediction of the carcinogenicity of a second group of organic chemicals undergoing carcinogenicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.P.; Sussman, N.; Macina, O.T.

    1996-10-01

    Twenty-four organic compounds currently undergoing testing within cancer bioassays under the aegis of the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) were submitted to the computer automated structure evaluation (CASE) and multiple computer automated structure evaluation (MULTICASE) system for predictions of activity. Individual predictions resulting from the NTP combined rodent, NTP mouse, Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) combined rodent, and CPDB mouse databases were combined using Bayes` theorem to yield an overall probability of rodent carcinogenicity. 17 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Correlation of Mutagenic, Carcinogenic and Co-Carcinogenic Effects of Chemical Substances. Granuloma Pouch Assay.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-25

    of a single dose treatment with procarbazine of GP cells during the time of maximal growth was investigated. Local fibrosarcomas were induced...regardless whether the carcinogen was given (t) Zbinden, G. and Maler, P. Single dose carcinogenicity of procarbazine in rats. Cancer letters in press - ii...locally (into the pouch) or systemically. The administration of croton oil before procarbazine increased the tumor yield. This is the first time that

  13. Effects of chemical carcinogens on bacteria and yeast: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, R.L.; Gerritsen, N.; Meadows, H.

    1981-03-01

    Early studies and reviews of the effects of carcinogens on bacteria and yeast are noted, after which a brief discussion deals specifically with chemical carcinogens and their relations with mutagenesis, deficiencies in DNA repair, RNA synthesis and function, and respiration-deficient mutants. Specific chemical carcinogens are then reviewed as to their mode of action, mutagenic and carcinogenic potency, and biochemical effects, including induced biological alterations such as cytogenetic variants. Structure-function relations are discussed for some types of compounds.

  14. Strategic Petroleum Reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    GAO examined approximately 40 alternative, nontraditional methods of acquiring oil for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The alternatives identified were compared to the current method of acquiring and financing SPR oil through congressional appropriations that are reported in the budget. When compared to the conventional method of financing oil, most of the proposals have certain benefits or advantages, but all of them have economic or other disadvantages. For example, some proposals would reduce the budget deficit by increasing government revenues but would raise prices to the consumer. Other proposals would reduce short-term expenditures (asset sales, leasing oil or indexed bonds). However, the proposals might increase long-term expenditures by more than the initial reduction in outlays.

  15. Strategic petroleum reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This report has examined approximately 40 alternative, nontraditional methods of acquiring oil for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The alternatives identified are compared to the current method of acquiring and financing SPR oil through congressional appropriations that are reported in the budget. When compared to the conventional method of financing oil, most of the proposals have certain benefits or advantages, but all of them have economic or other disadvantages. For example, some proposals would reduce the budget deficit by increasing government revenues but would raise prices to the consumer. Other proposals would reduce short-term expenditures (asset sales, leasing oil or indexed bonds). However, the proposals might increase long-term expenditures by more than the initial reduction in outlays.

  16. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve reduces the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument and an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current and projected storage capacity, analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  17. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has finalized its Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide. This assessment addresses the potential carcinogenicity from long-term inhalation exposure to ethylene oxide. Now final, this assessment updates the carcinogenicity information in EPA’s 1985 Hea...

  18. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has finalized its Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide. This assessment addresses the potential carcinogenicity from long-term inhalation exposure to ethylene oxide. Now final, this assessment updates the carcinogenicity information in EPA’s 1985 Hea...

  19. Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  20. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  1. Cutaneously applied 4-hydroxytamoxifen is not carcinogenic in female rats.

    PubMed

    Sauvez, F; Drouin, D S; Attia, M; Bertheux, H; Forster, R

    1999-05-01

    Tamoxifen is widely used to treat oestrogen-dependent carcinoma of the breast. Previous long-term studies have shown that oral administration of tamoxifen induces hepatoproliferative lesions and hepatocellular tumours in rats. 4-hydroxytamoxifen is an active metabolite of tamoxifen undergoing clinical evaluation for the treatment of various non-malignant breast diseases by topical application. In the present study, 4-hydroxytamoxifen was administered daily by cutaneous application for 101 weeks to groups of 50 female Sprague-Dawley rats at 20, 140 or 1000 microg/kg/day. The product was applied with no occlusive bandage and oral ingestion was avoided by application of an Elizabethan collar for 6 h after administration. Treatment with 4-hydroxytamoxifen was clinically well tolerated and induced changes such as decreased food consumption and body weight gain, uterine and ovarian atrophy, mucification of vaginal epithelium and reduced mammary development, all of which were attributed to its pharmacological action. Mortality was significantly lower in the treated animals. The number of animals with palpable masses was similarly reduced. The incidence of mammary tumours and hypophyseal tumours was markedly lower in 4-hydroxytamoxifen-treated animals. The incidence of chronic tubulo-interstitial nephropathies, a common cause of mortality, was also lowered. There was no evidence of a carcinogenic action of 4-hydroxytamoxifen on the liver, genital organs or skin. Plasma levels of 4-hydroxytamoxifen were stable over the duration of the study and were proportional to the administered dose, exceeding clinical plasma levels by 60-fold at the high dose-level. In conclusion, 4-hydroxytamoxifen is not carcinogenic in the rat and reduces the incidence of spontaneous mammary and hypophyseal tumours.

  2. Tumors of the skin and soft tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    The majority of the body surface is covered by the skin. Many internal disorders are reflected in the condition of the skin. One of the major functions of the skin is protection of the other organ systems from a variety of environmental insults. In this role, the skin itself is exposed to factors that can ultimately cause chronic diseases and cancer. Since it is relatively easy to recognize skin abnormalities, most skin cancers are brought to professional attention sooner than other types of cancer. However, due to the close resemblance between many skin neoplasms and noncancerous dermatologic disorders, these neoplasms may be mistreated for months or even years. In veterinary oncology, as in human medicine, most cancers can be effectively treated or cured following an accurate diagnosis. Once diagnosed, skin neoplasms should be aggressively treated. If causal factors are known, exposure to these factors should be limited through removal of the agent (for chemical carcinogens) or limiting exposure to the agent (for other carcinogens such as sunlight). 10 tabs. (MHB)

  3. Petroleum fingerprinting: Effective identification of petroleum products at contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Uhler, A.D.

    1997-07-01

    A critical issue in many environmental liability cases is the successful identification of the parties responsible for petroleum products that contaminate sites or properties. Identification of these parties is critical for owners of petroleum contaminated sites who are seeking to spread liability by identifying previous owners or operators of nearby properties who may be the source of, and thus be responsible for, the petroleum contamination at these sites. This issue is also critical for these potential defendants who will seek to demonstrate that the petroleum products associated with their activities could not be the source of the contamination in question. Finally, the issue is critical in situations where multiple responsible parties seek to equitably allocate among themselves shares of contamination and associated clean-up costs.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-12

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-10

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-22

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase prices, the f.o b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-25

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  13. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type jet...

  14. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  15. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  16. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  17. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  18. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  19. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  20. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  1. Interactions of carcinogens with DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

    SciTech Connect

    Broyde, S.; Shapiro, R.

    1989-10-01

    The principal goal of this research has been the determination of the conformational changes produced in DNA by the covalent binding of a carcinogenic aromatic amine, and the correlation of these changes with the mutations and carcinogenic effects initiated by the same substances. To this end, we have devised new synthetic methods for the preparation of oligonucleotides modified by derivatives af 4-aminobiphenyl and aniline. We have also performed potential energy minimization studies on the above substances and on single and double stranded DNA fragments bearing the above amines as well as acetylaminofluorene, aminofluorene, aminopyrene and the antibiotic mitomycin. Our computations have been carried out on DOE supercomputers using our program, DUPLEX. We have defined a number of novel structures for these modified DNAs, including Hoogsteen, wedge'' (see below) denatured, cross-linked and intercalated forms. Some suggestions have been made about the relation of these forms to mutagenesis. 7 refs.

  2. Carcinogenicity of Embedded Tungsten Alloys in Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    out a two-year protocol in mice based upon NTP guidelines. The uses the B6C3F1 hybrid mouse , a strain commonly used in carcinogenicity and toxicity...the same percentages present in the alloys). Aim 2: Sacrifice mice at various times after alloy implantation to detect early signs of tumor...Alloys in Mice PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David E. McClain, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the

  3. Cobalt and antimony: genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Marlies; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Lison, Dominique

    2003-12-10

    The purpose of this review is to summarise the data concerning genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of Co and Sb. Both metals have multiple industrial and/or therapeutical applications, depending on the considered species. Cobalt is used for the production of alloys and hard metal (cemented carbide), diamond polishing, drying agents, pigments and catalysts. Occupational exposure to cobalt may result in adverse health effects in different organs or tissues. Antimony trioxide is primarily used as a flame retardant in rubber, plastics, pigments, adhesives, textiles, and paper. Antimony potassium tartrate has been used worldwide as an anti-shistosomal drug. Pentavalent antimony compounds have been used for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Co(II) ions are genotoxic in vitro and in vivo, and carcinogenic in rodents. Co metal is genotoxic in vitro. Hard metal dust, of which occupational exposure is linked to an increased lung cancer risk, is proven to be genotoxic in vitro and in vivo. Possibly, production of active oxygen species and/or DNA repair inhibition are mechanisms involved. Given the recently provided proof for in vitro and in vivo genotoxic potential of hard metal dust, the mechanistic evidence of elevated production of active oxygen species and the epidemiological data on increased cancer risk, it may be advisable to consider the possibility of a new evaluation by IARC. Both trivalent and pentavalent antimony compounds are generally negative in non-mammalian genotoxicity tests, while mammalian test systems usually give positive results for Sb(III) and negative results for Sb(V) compounds. Assessment of the in vivo potential of Sb2O3 to induce chromosome aberrations (CA) gave conflicting results. Animal carcinogenicity data were concluded sufficient for Sb2O3 by IARC. Human carcinogenicity data is difficult to evaluate given the frequent co-exposure to arsenic. Possible mechanisms of action, including potential to produce active oxygen species and to interfere with

  4. The benefits of Fischer-Tropsch waxes in synthetic petroleum jelly.

    PubMed

    Bekker, M; Louw, N R; Jansen Van Rensburg, V J; Potgieter, J

    2013-02-01

    This article is an introduction and general discussion regarding the use of Fisher-Tropsch wax in petroleum jelly applications. Traditionally, petroleum jelly is prepared from a blend of microwax, paraffin wax and mineral oil that are all derived from crude oil. Sasol Wax has successfully prepared a petroleum jelly based on predominantly to fully synthetic Fisher-Tropsch wax. Sasol Wax was awarded a patent P53898ZP00-29 November 11 for a predominantly to fully synthetic petroleum jelly based on Fisher-Tropsch wax blends. The benefits of Fisher-Tropsch wax discussed in this article include the absence of aromatic compounds and polycyclic aromatic compounds in Fisher-Tropsch wax as well as the sustainable production that is possible with Fisher-Tropsch wax, as opposed to paraffin wax that may be affected by the closure of group I Base Oil plants. This article will be the first in a series of articles from the same authors, and follow-up articles will include solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and crystallization studies to determine the influence of predominantly synthetic waxes on petroleum jelly network structures compared with more traditional mineral oil-derived petroleum jellies, final product performance and stability of synthetic petroleum jelly used in, for example, personal care lotions or creams. The influence of oxygenated compounds and product safety and rheological properties (including primary skin feel upon application and secondary skin feel after application) of synthetic petroleum jellies compared with traditional mineral oil-derived petroleum jellies are discussed. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Industry viewpoint on thresholds for genotoxic carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Morelli, M A

    2000-01-01

    Modern chemical control of pests has contributed to a dramatic improvement in public welfare since its introduction 50 years ago. Millions of lives have been saved through the control of disease vectors, and millions more have been improved by the use of chemicals to produce an inexpensive and abundant food supply. Hundreds of pesticidally active ingredients are in commercial use today, and among these are found genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency regulates carcinogens using threshold and nonthreshold approaches depending upon the outcome of a weight-of-evidence determination. More than one-half of all pesticides with some evidence of carcinogenic potential are regulated by the nonthreshold approach. The limitations on product use imposed by this approach have restricted the number of products available to growers and to the public. This restriction has had a direct impact on industry with respect to commercial success and financial returns on investment as well as an indirect impact on the industry's ability to fund the discovery and development of new compounds. This paper explores the question of how well regulation by the nonthreshold approach has achieved the goal of protecting public health, whether it does this better than the alternative use of the threshold approach, and whether the incremental protection it affords is a meaningful public benefit that justifies the aforementioned impacts on industry.

  6. Impact and compliance: OSHA Carcinogen Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, A.F. Jr.; Crowder, C.; Wisniewski, S.; Russell, T.; Senn, K.

    1980-06-26

    This document provides an examination of various aspects of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)Carcinogen Policy. To satisfy the dimensions of the Policy's broad, general nature, a two-fold approach was taken. Throughout, the focus is on the possible effects of the Policy's implementation, but this is first approached as it generally will effect research and compliance activities across broad industry sectors, while specific impacts on DOE are addressed separately. To overview and integrate these approaches, and to provide a quick reference for further information, an outline of information is presented. General or industry-wide applications are addressed both in the Summary and Overview of the Policy (Chapters I and II) and in the discussion of the Model Standard (Chapter V). Also included is a copy of the Policy itself in the General Industry Standards and interpretations Change 10. Sections specifically addressed to the major concerns of DOE and its contractors are a discussion of implications for action regarding the synthetic fuels program, a comparison of the OSHA Model Regulations and the FE OSH Manual Standards for Carcinogens, and finally, a list of known carcinogens in coal gasification/liquefaction. Together, these elements illustrate the broad scope of the policy's impact, which economic and other constraining consequences begin to become visible. Measures to minimize these consequences are a common underlying theme to each of the sections.

  7. Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity risk of carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Toyokuni, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    Novel materials are often commercialized without a complete assessment of the risks they pose to human health because such assessments are costly and time-consuming; additionally, sometimes the methodology needed for such an assessment does not exist. Carbon nanotubes have the potential for widespread application in engineering, materials science and medicine. However, due to the needle-like shape and high durability of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), concerns have been raised that they may induce asbestos-like pathogenicity when inhaled. Indeed, experiments in rodents supported this hypothesis. Notably, the genetic alterations in MWCNT-induced rat malignant mesothelioma were similar to those induced by asbestos. Single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) cause mitotic disturbances in cultured cells, but thus far, there has been no report that SWCNTs are carcinogenic. This review summarizes the recent noteworthy publications on the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of CNTs and explains the possible molecular mechanisms responsible for this carcinogenicity. The nanoscale size and needle-like rigid structure of CNTs appear to be associated with their pathogenicity in mammalian cells, where carbon atoms are major components in the backbone of many biomolecules. Publishing adverse events associated with novel materials is critically important for alerting people exposed to such materials. CNTs still have a bright future with superb economic and medical merits. However, appropriate regulation of the production, distribution and secondary manufacturing processes is required, at least to protect the workers.

  8. In vitro testing for carcinogens and mutagens

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    A large number of in vitro assays for chemical carcinogenicity and mutagenicity have been developed. They have been validated to various extents with the use of known carcinogens and noncarcinogens. When applied to chemicals of unknown carcinogenicity, they must be used in a battery or a tiered testing protocol. This is necessary since false negatives may occur with any one assay. The size of the battery should depend upon the potential risk to humans. A chemical with high human exposure (e.g., food additives) should be tested with a larger number of assays than one with more limited human exposure. The tests should complement one another and detect different events. Thus, bacterial or mammalian mutation, cell transformation, DNA repair and chromosome assays should all be included in a test battery. Results form in vitro assay can be utilized to determine whether the chemical should also be tested in an animal bioassay. While negative results in all tests may indicate low risk, a chemical with widespread human exposure may still be worth evaluating in a long-term animal bioassay. It is impossible to prove a chemical safe and without risk. Short-term assays do, however, provide a means for quickly obtaining reasonable information about the genotoxic potential of large numbers of chemicals.27 references.

  9. Carcinogenicity testing and the evaluation of regulatory requirements for pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Contrera, J F; Jacobs, A C; DeGeorge, J J

    1997-04-01

    The results of rat and mouse carcinogenicity studies for 282 human pharmaceuticals in the FDA database were analyzed and compared as part of an International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) evaluation of rodent carcinogenicity studies and their utility for carcinogenicity testing. A majority of the carcinogenicity studies in the FDA database were carried out in Sprague-Dawley-derived rats and Swiss-Webster-derived CD-1 mice in contrast to Fisher 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice employed in National Toxicology Program (NTP) studies. Despite the differences in rodent strains, the relative proportion of compounds with positive findings (44.3%) and the degree of overall concordance between rats and mice (74.1%) in the FDA database were similar to the NTP rodent carcinogenicity database. Carcinogenicity studies in two rodent species are necessary primarily to identify trans-species tumorigens, which are considered to pose a relatively greater potential risk to humans than single species positive compounds. Two-year carcinogenicity studies in both rats and mice may not be the only means of identifying trans-species tumorigens. Sufficient experience is now available for some alternative in vivo carcinogenicity models to support their application as complementary studies in combination with a single 2-year carcinogenicity study to identify trans-species tumorigens. Our analysis of the rodent carcinogenicity studies supports such an approach for assessing carcinogenic potential without compromising the public health.

  10. Mechanism-based classification of PAH mixtures to predict carcinogenic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, Susan C.; Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Krueger, Sharon K.; Larkin, Andrew J.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Williams, David E.; Baird, William M.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2015-04-22

    We have previously shown that relative potency factors and DNA adduct measurements are inadequate for predicting carcinogenicity of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH mixtures, particularly those that function through alternate pathways or exhibit greater promotional activity compared to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Therefore, we developed a pathway based approach for classification of tumor outcome after dermal exposure to PAH/mixtures. FVB/N mice were exposed to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), BaP or environmental PAH mixtures (Mix 1-3) following a two-stage initiation/promotion skin tumor protocol. Resulting tumor incidence could be categorized by carcinogenic potency as DBC>>BaP=Mix2=Mix3>Mix1=Control, based on statistical significance. Gene expression profiles measured in skin of mice collected 12 h post-initiation were compared to tumor outcome for identification of short-term bioactivity profiles. A Bayesian integration model was utilized to identify biological pathways predictive of PAH carcinogenic potential during initiation. Integration of probability matrices from four enriched pathways (p<0.05) for DNA damage, apoptosis, response to chemical stimulus and interferon gamma signaling resulted in the highest classification accuracy with leave-one-out cross validation. This pathway-driven approach was successfully utilized to distinguish early regulatory events during initiation prognostic for tumor outcome and provides proof-of-concept for using short-term initiation studies to classify carcinogenic potential of environmental PAH mixtures. As a result, these data further provide a ‘source-to outcome’ model that could be used to predict PAH interactions during tumorigenesis and provide an example of how mode-of-action based risk assessment could be employed for environmental PAH mixtures.

  11. Mechanism-based classification of PAH mixtures to predict carcinogenic potential

    DOE PAGES

    Tilton, Susan C.; Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Krueger, Sharon K.; ...

    2015-04-22

    We have previously shown that relative potency factors and DNA adduct measurements are inadequate for predicting carcinogenicity of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH mixtures, particularly those that function through alternate pathways or exhibit greater promotional activity compared to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Therefore, we developed a pathway based approach for classification of tumor outcome after dermal exposure to PAH/mixtures. FVB/N mice were exposed to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), BaP or environmental PAH mixtures (Mix 1-3) following a two-stage initiation/promotion skin tumor protocol. Resulting tumor incidence could be categorized by carcinogenic potency as DBC>>BaP=Mix2=Mix3>Mix1=Control, based on statistical significance. Gene expression profiles measured inmore » skin of mice collected 12 h post-initiation were compared to tumor outcome for identification of short-term bioactivity profiles. A Bayesian integration model was utilized to identify biological pathways predictive of PAH carcinogenic potential during initiation. Integration of probability matrices from four enriched pathways (p<0.05) for DNA damage, apoptosis, response to chemical stimulus and interferon gamma signaling resulted in the highest classification accuracy with leave-one-out cross validation. This pathway-driven approach was successfully utilized to distinguish early regulatory events during initiation prognostic for tumor outcome and provides proof-of-concept for using short-term initiation studies to classify carcinogenic potential of environmental PAH mixtures. As a result, these data further provide a ‘source-to outcome’ model that could be used to predict PAH interactions during tumorigenesis and provide an example of how mode-of-action based risk assessment could be employed for environmental PAH mixtures.« less

  12. Mechanism-Based Classification of PAH Mixtures to Predict Carcinogenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Tilton, Susan C.; Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Krueger, Sharon K.; Larkin, Andrew J.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Williams, David E.; Baird, William M.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that relative potency factors and DNA adduct measurements are inadequate for predicting carcinogenicity of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH mixtures, particularly those that function through alternate pathways or exhibit greater promotional activity compared to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Therefore, we developed a pathway-based approach for classification of tumor outcome after dermal exposure to PAH/mixtures. FVB/N mice were exposed to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), BaP, or environmental PAH mixtures (Mix 1-3) following a 2-stage initiation/promotion skin tumor protocol. Resulting tumor incidence could be categorized by carcinogenic potency as DBC >> BaP = Mix2 = Mix3 > Mix1 = Control, based on statistical significance. Gene expression profiles measured in skin of mice collected 12 h post-initiation were compared with tumor outcome for identification of short-term bioactivity profiles. A Bayesian integration model was utilized to identify biological pathways predictive of PAH carcinogenic potential during initiation. Integration of probability matrices from four enriched pathways (P < .05) for DNA damage, apoptosis, response to chemical stimulus, and interferon gamma signaling resulted in the highest classification accuracy with leave-one-out cross validation. This pathway-driven approach was successfully utilized to distinguish early regulatory events during initiation prognostic for tumor outcome and provides proof-of-concept for using short-term initiation studies to classify carcinogenic potential of environmental PAH mixtures. These data further provide a ‘source-to-outcome’ model that could be used to predict PAH interactions during tumorigenesis and provide an example of how mode-of-action-based risk assessment could be employed for environmental PAH mixtures. PMID:25908611

  13. Mechanism-Based Classification of PAH Mixtures to Predict Carcinogenic Potential.

    PubMed

    Tilton, Susan C; Siddens, Lisbeth K; Krueger, Sharon K; Larkin, Andrew J; Löhr, Christiane V; Williams, David E; Baird, William M; Waters, Katrina M

    2015-07-01

    We have previously shown that relative potency factors and DNA adduct measurements are inadequate for predicting carcinogenicity of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH mixtures, particularly those that function through alternate pathways or exhibit greater promotional activity compared to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Therefore, we developed a pathway-based approach for classification of tumor outcome after dermal exposure to PAH/mixtures. FVB/N mice were exposed to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), BaP, or environmental PAH mixtures (Mix 1-3) following a 2-stage initiation/promotion skin tumor protocol. Resulting tumor incidence could be categorized by carcinogenic potency as DBC > BaP = Mix2 = Mix3 > Mix1 = Control, based on statistical significance. Gene expression profiles measured in skin of mice collected 12 h post-initiation were compared with tumor outcome for identification of short-term bioactivity profiles. A Bayesian integration model was utilized to identify biological pathways predictive of PAH carcinogenic potential during initiation. Integration of probability matrices from four enriched pathways (P < .05) for DNA damage, apoptosis, response to chemical stimulus, and interferon gamma signaling resulted in the highest classification accuracy with leave-one-out cross validation. This pathway-driven approach was successfully utilized to distinguish early regulatory events during initiation prognostic for tumor outcome and provides proof-of-concept for using short-term initiation studies to classify carcinogenic potential of environmental PAH mixtures. These data further provide a 'source-to-outcome' model that could be used to predict PAH interactions during tumorigenesis and provide an example of how mode-of-action-based risk assessment could be employed for environmental PAH mixtures. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity testing of pharmaceuticals: correlations between induction of DNA lesions and carcinogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Giovanni; Mattioli, Francesca; Robbiano, Luigi; Martelli, Antonietta

    2010-01-01

    This survey is a compendium of the results of DNA lesions assays (DNA adducts, DNA strand breaks, DNA repair synthesis) and of the results of carcinogenicity assays of 146 pharmaceuticals. Of these drugs, 55 (37.7%) tested negative in both DNA lesions assay(s) and in carcinogenicity assay(s); 65 (44.5%) tested negative in DNA lesions assay(s), but gave a positive response in at least one carcinogenicity assay; 6 (4.1%) tested positive in at least one DNA lesions assay, but negative in carcinogenicity assay(s); 20 (13.7%) tested positive in at least one DNA lesions assay and in at least one carcinogenicity assay. Concerning the predictivity of DNA lesions assays findings for the results of long-term carcinogenesis assays performed in mice, rats or other species, concordance was found to exist for the 46.2% of pharmaceuticals in the case of DNA adducts, for 63.1% in the case of DNA strand breaks, and for 47.3% in the case of DNA repair synthesis (UDS). 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-27

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  16. China's petroleum reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Perhaps because of declining yields inland, the People's Republic of China has moved to its storm-ridden coast to develop additional petroleum reserves. During 1979 and 1980, 44 foreign oil-exploration companies engaged in what has been termed the world's record “seismic shoot” over 411,000 km2 extending from the Yellow Sea through the South China Sea, and including Beibu Wan (Gulf of Tonkin), the bay lying east of Hanoi and west of Hainan Island. These offshore oil reserves are estimated to be 40-100 billion barrels.The seas off the mainland are relatively shallow (most drilling has been done in less than 100 m) but they are stormy. According to a recent description, “Typhoons can … occur in the area at almost any time of the year, and the strong winds (160 km h-1 or more) which they generate frequently wreak havoc in the Philippines, Vietnam, China, and occasionally, Hong Kong. Typhoon Vera, which hit southern China in late July, did immense damage and claimed dozens of lives. The main implications for oil operation naturally relate to rig design and safety measures but onshore facilities will also have to be designed accordingly” (New Scientist, Sept. 8, 1983).

  17. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  18. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1084 through 1994.

  19. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  20. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  1. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity of acrylonitrile.

    PubMed

    Léonard, A; Gerber, G B; Stecca, C; Rueff, J; Borba, H; Farmer, P B; Sram, R J; Czeizel, A E; Kalina, I

    1999-05-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN) is an important intermediary for the synthesis of a variety of organic products, such as artificial fibres, household articles and resins. Although acute effects are the primary concern for an exposure to AN, potential genotoxic, carcinogenic and teratogenic risks of AN have to be taken seriously in view of the large number of workers employed in such industries and the world-wide population using products containing and possibly liberating AN. An understanding of the effect of acrylonitrile must be based on a characterization of its metabolism as well as of the resulting products and their genotoxic properties. Tests for mutagenicity in bacteria have in general been positive, those in plants and on unscheduled DNA synthesis doubtful, and those on chromosome aberrations in vivo negative. Wherever positive results had been obtained, metabolic activation of AN appeared to be a prerequisite. The extent to which such mutagenic effects are significant in man depends, however, also on the conditions of exposure. It appears from the limited data that the ultimate mutagenic factor(s), such as 2-cyanoethylene oxide, may have little opportunity to act under conditions where people are exposed because it is formed only in small amounts and is rapidly degraded. The carcinogenic action of AN has been evaluated by various agencies and ranged from 'reasonably be anticipated to be a human carcinogen' to 'cannot be excluded', the most recent evaluation being 'possibly carcinogenic to humans'. Animal data that confirm the carcinogenic potential of AN have certain limitations with respect to the choice of species, type of tumors and length of follow up. Epidemiological studies which sometimes, but not always, yielded positive results, encounter the usual difficulties of confounding factors in chemical industries. Exposure of workers to AN should continue to be carefully monitored, but AN would not have to be considered a cancer risk to the population provided

  2. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  3. Increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among upstream petroleum workers

    PubMed Central

    Kirkeleit, Jorunn; Riise, Trond; Bjørge, Tone; Moen, Bente E; Bråtveit, Magne; Christiani, David C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate cancer risk, particularly oesophageal cancer, among male upstream petroleum workers offshore potentially exposed to various carcinogenic agents. Methods Using the Norwegian Registry of Employers and Employees, 24 765 male offshore workers registered from 1981 to 2003 was compared with 283 002 male referents from the general working population matched by age and community of residence. The historical cohort was linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Results Male offshore workers had excess risk of oesophageal cancer (RR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.8) compared with the reference population. Only the adenocarcinoma type had a significantly increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 7.0), mainly because of an increased risk among upstream operators (RR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 14.5). Upstream operators did not have significant excess of respiratory system or colon cancer or mortality from any other lifestyle-related diseases investigated. Conclusion We found a fourfold excess risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among male workers assumed to have had the most extensive contact with crude oil. Due to the small number of cases, and a lack of detailed data on occupational exposure and lifestyle factors associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, the results must be interpreted with caution. Nevertheless, given the low risk of lifestyle-related cancers and causes of death in this working group, the results add to the observations in other low-powered studies on oesophageal cancer, further suggesting that factors related to the petroleum stream or carcinogenic agents used in the production process might be associated with risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:19858535

  4. Benzene, an experimental multipotential carcinogen: results of the long-term bioassays performed at the Bologna Institute of Oncology.

    PubMed Central

    Maltoni, C; Ciliberti, A; Cotti, G; Conti, B; Belpoggi, F

    1989-01-01

    In 1976, a systematic and integrated project of long-term carcinogenicity bioassays began at the Bentivoglio Experimental Unit of the Bologna Institute of Oncology. The Bologna experiments proved for the first time that benzene is an experimental carcinogen. These experiments demonstrated that benzene is carcinogenic when administered by ingestion and by inhalation and that it cause tumors in the various tested animal models (Sprague-Dawley rats, Wistar rats, Swiss mice, and RF/J mice). They also showed that benzene is a multipotential carcinogen, as it produces a variety of neoplasias in one or more of the tested animal models, including Zymbal gland carcinomas, carcinomas of the oral cavity, nasal cavities, skin, forestomach, and mammary glands, as well as angiosarcomas of the liver, hemolymphoreticular neoplasias, tumors of the lung, and possibly hepatomas. The Bologna experiments also indicated a clear-cut dose-response relationship in benzene carcinogenesis. This report presents the up-to-date results of the Bologna project. The need for more experimental research aimed at assessing the carcinogenic effects of low doses of benzene, of chemical mixtures containing benzene, and of benzene substitutes is emphasized. Also recommended are more comprehensive epidemiological investigations, extended to all types of malignancies, with particular regard to lung carcinomas. PMID:2792037

  5. Petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Harayama, S; Kishira, H; Kasai, Y; Shutsubo, K

    1999-08-01

    Petroleum-based products are the major source of energy for industry and daily life. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products such as plastics, paints, and cosmetics. The transport of petroleum across the world is frequent, and the amounts of petroleum stocks in developed countries are enormous. Consequently, the potential for oil spills is significant, and research on the fate of petroleum in a marine environment is important to evaluate the environmental threat of oil spills, and to develop biotechnology to cope with them. Crude oil is constituted from thousands of components which are separated into saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. Upon discharge into the sea, crude oil is subjected to weathering, the process caused by the combined effects of physical, chemical and biological modification. Saturates, especially those of smaller molecular weight, are readily biodegraded in marine environments. Aromatics with one, two or three aromatic rings are also efficiently biodegraded; however, those with four or more aromatic ring are quite resistant to biodegradation. The asphaltene and resin fractions contain higher molecular weight compounds whose chemical structures have not yet been resolved. The biodegradability of these compounds is not yet known. It is known that the concentrations of available nitrogen and phosphorus in seawater limit the growth and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in a marine environment. In other words, the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers to an oil-contaminated marine environment can stimulate the biodegradation of spilled oil. This notion was confirmed in the large-scale operation for bioremediation after the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Alaska. Many microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum components have been isolated. However, few of them seem to be important for petroleum biodegradation in natural environments. One group of bacteria belonging to the genus

  6. Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity studies of bronchodilators and antiasthma drugs.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Giovanni; Mattioli, Francesca; Robbiano, Luigi; Martelli, Antonietta

    2013-05-01

    This survey is a compendium of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity information of bronchodilators and antiasthma drugs. Data from 46 marketed drugs were collected. Of these 46 drugs, 25 (54.3%) did not have retrievable genotoxicity or carcinogenicity data. The remaining 21 (45.7%) had at least one genotoxicity or carcinogenicity test result. Of these 21 drugs, 10 had at least one positive finding: three tested positive in at least one genotoxicity assay, eight in at least one carcinogenicity assay, and one of them gave positive results in both genotoxicity assay and carcinogenicity assay. Concerning the predictivity of genetic toxicology findings for the result(s) of long-term carcinogenesis assays, 15 drugs had both genotoxicity and carcinogenicity data: seven of them (46.6%) were neither genotoxic nor carcinogenic, 6 (40.0%) were carcinogenic in at least one sex of mice or rats but tested negative in genotoxicity assays, 1 (6.7%) tested positive in genotoxicity assay but was non-carcinogenic, and 1 (6.7%) gave positive responses in both genotoxicity and carcinogenicity assay. Only 11 (23.9%) of the 46 drugs considered had all data required by current guidelines for testing of pharmaceuticals, but a large fraction of them were developed and marketed prior to the present regulatory climate.

  7. Determination of Trace Water Content in Petroleum and Petroleum Products.

    PubMed

    Frink, Lillian A; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2016-08-16

    Measurement of water in petroleum and petroleum-based products is of industrial and economic importance; however, the varied and complex matrixes make the analyses difficult. These samples tend to have low amounts of water and contain many compounds which react with iodine, causing Karl Fischer titration (KFT) to give inaccurate, typically higher, results. A simple, rapid, automated headspace gas chromatography (HSGC) method which requires modified instrumentation and ionic liquid stationary phases was developed. Measurement of water in 12 petroleum products along with 3 National Institute of Standards and Technology reference materials was performed with the developed method. The range of water found in these samples was ∼12-3300 ppm. This approach appeared to be unaffected by complicated matrixes. The solvent-free nature of the HSGC method also negates the solubility limitations which are common with KFT.

  8. Carcinogenic Aspects of Protein Phosphatase 1 and 2A Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiki, Hirota; Suganuma, Masami

    Okadaic acid is functionally a potent tumor promoter working through inhibition of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A), resulting in sustained phosphorylation of proteins in cells. The mechanism of tumor promotion with oka-daic acid is thus completely different from that of the classic tumor promoter phorbol ester. Other potent inhibitors of PP1 and PP2A - such as dinophysistoxin-1, calyculins A-H, microcystin-LR and its derivatives, and nodularin - were isolated from marine organisms, and their structural features including the crystal structure of the PP1-inhibitor complex, tumor promoting activities, and biochemical and biological effects, are here reviewed. The compounds induced tumor promoting activity in three different organs, including mouse skin, rat glandular stomach and rat liver, initiated with three different carcinogens. The results indicate that inhibition of PP1 and PP2A is a general mechanism of tumor promotion applicable to various organs. This study supports the concept of endogenous tumor promoters in human cancer development.

  9. Petroleum and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, Peter H.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    1995-01-01

    Crude petroleum, refined-petroleum products, and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained within petroleum are found throughout the world. their presence has been detected in living and nonliving components of ecosystems. Petroleum can be an environmental hazard for wild animals and plants. Individual PAHs are also hazardous to wildlife, but they are most commonly associated with human illnesses. Because petroleum is a major environmental source of these PAHs, petroleum and PAHs are jointly presented in this chapter. Composition, sources, environmental fate, and toxic effects on all living components of aquatic and terrestrial environments are addessed.

  10. Glyphosate rodent carcinogenicity bioassay expert panel review.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gary M; Berry, Colin; Burns, Michele; de Camargo, Joao Lauro Viana; Greim, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    Glyphosate has been rigorously and extensively tested for carcinogenicity by administration to mice (five studies) and to rats (nine studies). Most authorities have concluded that the evidence does not indicate a cancer risk to humans. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), however, evaluated some of the available data and concluded that glyphosate probably is carcinogenic to humans. The expert panel convened by Intertek assessed the findings used by IARC, as well as the full body of evidence and found the following: (1) the renal neoplastic effects in males of one mouse study are not associated with glyphosate exposure, because they lack statistical significance, strength, consistency, specificity, lack a dose-response pattern, plausibility, and coherence; (2) the strength of association of liver hemangiosarcomas in a different mouse study is absent, lacking consistency, and a dose-response effect and having in high dose males only a significant incidence increase which is within the historical control range; (3) pancreatic islet-cell adenomas (non-significant incidence increase), in two studies of male SD rats did not progress to carcinomas and lacked a dose-response pattern (the highest incidence is in the low dose followed by the high dose); (4) in one of two studies, a non-significant positive trend in the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas in male rats did not lead to progression to carcinomas; (5) in one of two studies, the non-significant positive trend in the incidence of thyroid C-cell adenomas in female rats was not present and there was no progression of adenomas to carcinomas at the end of the study. Application of criteria for causality considerations to the above mentioned tumor types and given the overall weight-of-evidence (WoE), the expert panel concluded that glyphosate is not a carcinogen in laboratory animals.

  11. Carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, R L; Shackelford, C C; Huff, J

    1993-01-01

    1,3-Butadiene, a high-production volume chemical used largely in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, is a multiple organ carcinogen in rats and mice. In inhalation studies conducted in mice by the National Toxicology Program, high rates of early lethal lymphomas occurring at exposure levels of 625 ppm or higher reduced the development and expression of later developing tumors at other sites. Use of survival-adjusted tumor rates to account for competing risk factors provided a clearer indication of the dose responses for 1,3-butadiene-induced neoplasms. An increase in lung tumors in female mice was observed at exposure concentrations as low as 6.25 ppm, the lowest concentration ever used in a long-term carcinogenicity study of this gas. Human exposures to 1,3-butadiene by workers employed at facilities that produce this chemical and at facilities that produce styrene-butadiene rubber have been measured at levels higher than those that cause cancer in animals. Furthermore, epidemiology studies have consistently revealed associations between occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene and excess mortality due to lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers. In response to the carcinogenicity findings for 1,3-butadiene in animals and in humans, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration has proposed lowering the occupational exposure standard for this chemical from 1000 ppm to 2 ppm. Future work is needed to understand the mechanisms of tumor induction by 1,3-butadiene; however, the pursuit of this research should not delay the reduction of human exposure to this chemical. PMID:8354171

  12. Report on carcinogens monograph on cumene.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program conducted a cancer evaluation on cumene for possible listing in the Report on Carcinogens (RoC). The cancer evaluation is captured in the RoC monograph, which was peer reviewed in a public forum. The monograph consists of two components: (Part 1) the cancer evaluation, which reviews the relevant scientific information, assesses its quality, applies the RoC listing criteria to the scientific information, and provides the NTP recommendation for listing status for cumene in the RoC, and (Part 2) the substance profile proposed for the RoC, containing the NTP's listing status recommendation, a summary of the scientific evidence considered key to reaching that decision, and data on properties, use, production, exposure, and Federal regulations and guidelines to reduce exposure to cumene. This monograph provides an assessment of the available scientific information on cumene, including human exposure and properties, disposition and toxicokinetics, cancer studies in experimental animals, and studies of mechanisms and other related effects, including relevant toxicological effects, genetic toxicology, and mechanisms of carcinogenicity. From this assessment, the NTP recommended that cumene be listed as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the RoC based on sufficient evidence from studies in experimental animals, which found that cumene exposure caused lung tumors in male and female mice and liver tumors in female mice. Several proposed mechanisms of carcinogenesis support the relevance to humans of the lung and liver tumors observed in experimental animals. Specifically, there is evidence that humans and experimental animals metabolize cumene through similar metabolic pathways. In addition, mutations of the K-ras oncogene and p53 tumor-suppressor gene observed in cumene-induced lung tumors in mice, along with altered expression of many other genes, resemble molecular alterations found in human lung and other cancers.

  13. Erionite series minerals: mineralogical and carcinogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Dogan, A Umran; Dogan, Meral; Hoskins, John A

    2008-08-01

    Erionite is a human and animal carcinogen and one of the most toxic minerals known. Erionite deposits have been reported in many countries; however, it is only in the area of three villages of Cappadocia, Turkey, that environmental exposure to erionite has been demonstrated to be the cause of an epidemic of the disease mesothelioma. In the USA, no cases of mesothelioma have been reliably proven to be the result of erionite exposure, though the possibility exists. Erionite samples from three villages of the Cappadocia region were characterized mineralogically and compared with three different standards from the USA. Micro morphological details of erionite minerals using a high-resolution field-emission SEM showed that microstructures of "bundles", "fibers", and "fibrils" are important physical properties of fibrous erionite minerals. Typical lung burden of erionite and asbestos fibers were compared in terms of number of fibers. Assuming the lung burden of fibers in a human mesothelioma victim is about 1 mg, and the hazardous fibers are approximately 1 mum in diameter and 10 mum long, that milligram contains approximately 40 million asbestos and 50 million erionite fibers. These microstructures of erionite minerals draw attention to the concepts of surface area or surface-area-to-volume ratio and their relationship to the carcinogenicity of the mineral. The larger surface area creates a wider platform for mineral-cell interaction and thus more possibilities of proliferative transformation of mesothelial cells. Consequently, understanding the exact mineralogical properties will help determination of the true carcinogenic mechanism(s) of the mineral for prevention and possibly treatment of malignant mesothelioma.

  14. Sex differences in susceptibility to carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Ramchandran, Kavitha; Patel, Jyoti D

    2009-12-01

    Lung cancer has reached epidemic proportions in women, and is now the most common cause of cancer death among both men and women in the United States. While smoking rates have declined marginally in women, the rising impact of lung cancer in women may imply that women are at higher risk from carcinogens secondary to underlying factors related to sex. These factors include differences in female physiology such as bronchial responsiveness and airway size, sex-based differences in nicotine metabolism via the cytochrome p450 system driven by hormones, and differences in DNA repair capacity, as well as the evolution of cigarettes. These hypotheses will be explored in depth in this article.

  15. Indoor air-assessment: Indoor concentrations of environmental carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, K.W.; Naugle, D.F.; Berry, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    In the report, indoor concentration data are presented for the following general categories of air pollutants: radon-222, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), asbestos, gas phase organic compounds, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), pesticides, and inorganic compounds. These pollutants are either known or suspect carcinogens (i.e., radon-222, asbestos) or more complex mixtures or classes of compounds which contain known or suspect carcinogens. Concentration data for individual carcinogenic compounds in complex mixtures are usually far from complete. The data presented for complex mixtures often include compounds which are not carcinogenic or for which data are insufficient to evaluate carcinogenicity. Their inclusion is justified, however, by the possibility that further work may show them to be carcinogens, cocarcinogens, initiators or promotors, or that they may be employed as markers (e.g., nicotine, acrolein) for the estimation of exposure to complex mixtures.

  16. Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nilanjana; Chandran, Preethy

    2011-01-01

    One of the major environmental problems today is hydrocarbon contamination resulting from the activities related to the petrochemical industry. Accidental releases of petroleum products are of particular concern in the environment. Hydrocarbon components have been known to belong to the family of carcinogens and neurotoxic organic pollutants. Currently accepted disposal methods of incineration or burial insecure landfills can become prohibitively expensive when amounts of contaminants are large. Mechanical and chemical methods generally used to remove hydrocarbons from contaminated sites have limited effectiveness and can be expensive. Bioremediation is the promising technology for the treatment of these contaminated sites since it is cost-effective and will lead to complete mineralization. Bioremediation functions basically on biodegradation, which may refer to complete mineralization of organic contaminants into carbon dioxide, water, inorganic compounds, and cell protein or transformation of complex organic contaminants to other simpler organic compounds by biological agents like microorganisms. Many indigenous microorganisms in water and soil are capable of degrading hydrocarbon contaminants. This paper presents an updated overview of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms under different ecosystems. PMID:21350672

  17. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of potassium bromate--a new renal carcinogen

    SciTech Connect

    Kurokawa, Y.; Maekawa, A.; Takahashi, M.; Hayashi, Y. )

    1990-07-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is an oxidizing agent that has been used as a food additive, mainly in the bread-making process. Although adverse effects are not evident in animals fed bread-based diets made from flour treated with KBrO3, the agent is carcinogenic in rats and nephrotoxic in both man and experimental animals when given orally. It has been demonstrated that KBrO3 induces renal cell tumors, mesotheliomas of the peritoneum, and follicular cell tumors of the thyroid. In addition, experiments aimed at elucidating the mode of carcinogenic action have revealed that KBrO3 is a complete carcinogen, possessing both initiating and promoting activities for rat renal tumorigenesis. However, the potential seems to be weak in mice and hamsters. In contrast to its weak mutagenic activity in microbial assays, KBrO3 showed relatively strong potential inducing chromosome aberrations both in vitro and in vivo. Glutathione and cysteine degrade KBrO3 in vitro; in turn, the KBrO3 has inhibitory effects on inducing lipid peroxidation in the rat kidney. Active oxygen radicals generated from KBrO3 were implicated in its toxic and carcinogenic effects, especially because KBrO3 produced 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in the rat kidney. A wide range of data from applications of various analytical methods are now available for risk assessment purposes.111 references.

  18. No-observed effect levels for carcinogenicity and for in vivo mutagenicity of a genotoxic carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Manabu; Morimura, Keiichirou; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Wei, Min; Okochi, Eriko; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Takaoka, Kunio; Fukushima, Shoji

    2004-10-01

    To elucidate the relationship between in vivo carcinogenic and mutagenic potentials of genotoxic carcinogens, low doses were tested in the livers of Big Blue transgenic rats with 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx). Male Big Blue rats were fed a diet containing 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 ppm of MeIQx for 16 weeks, and the frequencies of lacI mutants and glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci in the liver were determined. The mutation frequencies significantly increased at doses of 10 and 100 ppm, and GST-P positive foci significantly increased at a dose of 100 ppm. However, no statistical increases in both frequencies were observed at lower doses. MeIQx most frequently induced G frameshifts, followed by G to T transversions. Thus, no observed effect level (NOEL) was demonstrated for both carcinogenicity in terms of preneoplastic lesion induction and in vivo mutagenicity of MeIQx, and the NOEL for in vivo mutagenicity was lower than that for carcinogenicity.

  19. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  20. Petroleum 1996 - issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Increasingly, users of the Energy Information Administration`s petroleum data and analytical reports have expressed an interest in a recurring report that takes a broad view of the petroleum sector. What is sought is some perspective on the complex interrelationships that comprise an industry and markets accounting for 40 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and ranging from the drilling rig in the oil field to the pump at the local gasoline station. This report comprehensively examines historical trends, and selectively focuses on major issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to a common theme, in this case, the volatility in petroleum markets.

  1. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the touch may have yellow drainage Of cellulitis: a red, inflamed area on the skin that is tender to the touch may occur in an area of a scratch or cut redness often spreads rapidly over the skin's surface ...

  2. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and Drug ...

  3. Skin Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Better Breakfast Ensure a healthy start to your day with this guide. » « Connect With Us Register for ...

  4. The redundancy of mouse carcinogenicity bioassays.

    PubMed

    Schach von Wittenau, M; Estes, P C

    1983-01-01

    Testing of chemicals for carcinogenic potential usually involves studies in rats and mice. The approaches followed in recent years often were limited to assessing tumor incidences and rarely viewed such information from the perspective of other kinds of toxicity. This practice supports the notion that certain chemicals possess the inherent characteristic of carcinogenic activity, which once identified in one species must be regarded as potential oncogenic hazard to all, including man. As long as public policy is based upon that premise, the classification of chemicals depends upon the worst results obtained in any species. It is not obvious why substances must be tested in both rats and mice when confirmatory or contradictory responses have little impact. Recent experience was examined to build a basis for an alternate approach. Review of oncogenicity information obtained for 273 chemicals fed to rats and mice shows that both species responded similarly to the majority of the substances tested. This "redundancy" probably would be higher had modern protocols been used. In view of the high cost in scientific resources of chronic studies, tests in only one rodent would be more cost effective. Reasons are presented for favoring the rat as the species to be used. Some of the savings thus achieved should be expended to improve the design of the experiments to yield toxicology data more comprehensive than mere tumor counts, so that the proper perspective can be obtained on the results.

  5. Carcinogenic PAH in waterpipe charcoal products

    PubMed Central

    Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Because narghile waterpipe (shisha, hooka) smoking normally involves the use of burning charcoal, smoke inhaled by the user contains constituents originating from the charcoal in addition to those from the tobacco. We have previously found that charcoal accounts for most of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and carbon monoxide in the smoke of the waterpipe, both of which are present in alarming quantities. Because charcoal manufacturing conditions favor formation of PAH, it is reasonable to assume that charcoal sold off the shelf may be contaminated by PAH residues. These residues may constitute a significant fraction of the PAH inhaled by the waterpipe user and those in her/his vicinity. We measured PAH residues on three kinds of raw waterpipe charcoal sampled from Beirut stores and cafés. We found that PAH residues in raw charcoal can account for more than half of the total PAH emitted in the mainstream and sidestream smoke, and about one sixth of the carcinogenic 5- and 6-ring PAH compounds. Total PAH content of the three charcoal types varied systematically by a factor of six from the charcoal with the least to the greatest PAH residue. These findings indicate the possibility of regulating charcoal carcinogen content. PMID:20807559

  6. Evaluation of the potential carcinogenicity of DDD. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD) is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B2 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. Evidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is Sufficient, and the evidence from human studies is Inadequate. The potency factor (F) for DDD is estimated to be 1.30 (mg/kg/day)(-1), placing it in potency group 2 according to the CAG's methodology for evaluating potential carcinogens. Combining the weight-of-evidence group and the potency group, DDD is assigned a MEDIUM hazard ranking.

  7. Tobacco carcinogens, their biomarkers and tobacco-induced cancer.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S

    2003-10-01

    The devastating link between tobacco products and human cancers results from a powerful alliance of two factors - nicotine and carcinogens. Without either one of these, tobacco would be just another commodity, instead of being the single greatest cause of death due to preventable cancer. Nicotine is addictive and toxic, but it is not carcinogenic. This addiction, however, causes people to use tobacco products continually, and these products contain many carcinogens. What are the mechanisms by which this deadly combination leads to 30% of cancer-related deaths in developed countries, and how can carcinogen biomarkers help to reveal these mechanisms?

  8. Target organs in chronic bioassays of 533 chemical carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, L S; Slone, T H; Manley, N B; Bernstein, L

    1991-01-01

    A compendium of carcinogenesis bioassay results organized by target organ is presented for 533 chemicals that are carcinogenic in at least one species. This compendium is based primarily on experiments in rats or mice; results in hamsters, nonhuman primates, and dogs are also reported. The compendium can be used to identify chemicals that induce tumors at particular sites, and to determine whether target sites are the same for chemicals positive in more than one species. The Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB), which includes results of 3969 experiments, is used in the analysis. The published CPDB includes details on each test, and literature references. Chemical carcinogens are reported for 35 different target organs in rats or mice. More than 80% of the carcinogens in each of these species are positive in at least one of the 8 most frequent target sites: liver, lung, mammary gland, stomach, vascular system, kidney, hematopoietic system, and urinary bladder. An analysis is presented of how well one can predict the carcinogenic response in mice from results in rats, or vice versa. Among chemicals tested in both species, 76% of rat carcinogens are positive in mice, and 71% of mouse carcinogens are positive in rats. Prediction is less accurate to the same target site: 52% of rat carcinogens are positive in the same site in mice, and 48% of mouse carcinogens are positive in the same site in rats. The liver is the most frequent site in common between rats and mice. PMID:1773795

  9. Data quality in predictive toxicology: reproducibility of rodent carcinogenicity experiments.

    PubMed Central

    Gottmann, E; Kramer, S; Pfahringer, B; Helma, C

    2001-01-01

    We compared 121 replicate rodent carcinogenicity assays from the two parts (National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology Program and literature) of the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) to estimate the reliability of these experiments. We estimated a concordance of 57% between the overall rodent carcinogenicity classifications from both sources. This value did not improve substantially when additional biologic information (species, sex, strain, target organs) was considered. These results indicate that rodent carcinogenicity assays are much less reproducible than previously expected, an effect that should be considered in the development of structure-activity relationship models and the risk assessment process. PMID:11401763

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-10

    This publication is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-14

    This document designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and for the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  12. Practical Advances in Petroleum Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chang S.; Robinson, Paul R.

    "This comprehensive book by Robinson and Hsu will certainly become the standard text book for the oil refining business...[A] must read for all who are associated with oil refining." - Dr. Walter Fritsch, Senior Vice President Refining, OMV "This book covers a very advanced horizon of petroleum processing technology. For all refiners facing regional and global environmental concerns, and for those who seek a more sophisticated understanding of the refining of petroleum resources, this book has been long in coming." - Mr. Naomasa Kondo, Cosmo Oil Company, Ltd.

  13. Experimental studies on benzene carcinogenicity at the Bologna Institute of Oncology: current results and ongoing research.

    PubMed

    Maltoni, C; Conti, B; Cotti, G; Belpoggi, F

    1985-01-01

    In 1977 Maltoni and Scarnato were the first to demonstrate that benzene is an experimental carcinogen in rats. With that and other experiments, Maltoni et al have shown that benzene administered by ingestion (stomach tube) or inhalation is a multipotential carcinogen in rats (of two different strains) and mice and produces a variety of tumors, namely: Zymbal gland carcinomas, oral and nasal cavity carcinomas, skin carcinomas, acanthomas, dysplasias and carcinomas of forestomach, mammary malignant tumors, hepatomas, liver angiosarcomas, hemolymphoreticular neoplasias, and pulmonary tumors. The incidence of Zymbal gland carcinomas and carcinomas of the oral and nasal cavities is affected by the length of treatment by inhalation and by the age of animals. However, the available epidemiological and experimental data at present do not provide precise information on the risk of doses around or below 10 ppm. Long-term carcinogenicity bioassays at 50, 25, 10, 5 and 1 ppm may be helpful for scientific risk assessment. In addition, these experiments have shown that toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene, at high concentrations, cause an increase in the number of total malignant tumors.

  14. Petroleum pollution in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Botello, A V; Villanueva, S; Díaz, G

    1997-01-01

    In 1976, IOC-UNESCO and UNEP convened a meeting in Port of Spain to analyze the marine pollution problems in the region, noting that petroleum pollution was of regionwide concern and recommended initiating a research and monitoring program to determine the severity of the problem and monitor its effects. The Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil-producing areas in the world. Major production sites include Louisiana and Texas in the U.S.; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad. All these are classified as high-risk production accident zones. Main sources of petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean are production, exploitation, transportation, urban and municipal discharges, refining and chemical wastes, normal loading and unloading operations, and accidental spills. About 5 million barrels of crude oil are transported daily in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 million barrels/yr. The results of the Caribbean Pollution Regional Program (CARIPOL) conducted between 1980 and 1987 pointed out that significant levels of petroleum pollution exist throughout the Wider Caribbean, including serious tar contamination of windward exposed beaches, high levels of floating tar within the major current systems, and very high levels of dissolved and dispersed hydrocarbons in surface waters. Major adverse effects of this type of pollution include: high tar levels on many beaches that either prevent their recreational use or require very expensive cleanup operations, distress and death for marine life, and responses in the enzyme systems of marine organisms that have been correlated with declines in reproductive success. Finally, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tissues of important economic species has been reported, creating a risk for public health because of

  15. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  16. Petroleum Jelly: Safe for a Dry Nose?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe for a dry nose? I've put petroleum jelly on the inside of my nose for years ... safe? Answers from Lawrence E. Gibson, M.D. Petroleum jelly is generally safe to use. Rarely, however, inhaling ...

  17. 46 CFR 148.04-15 - Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture). 148.04-15 Section 148.04-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-15 Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined...

  18. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The {ital Petroleum Supply Annual} contains information on supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. It reflects data collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys, and it is divided into 2 volumes. This volume contains three sections: summary statistics, detailed statistics, and selected refinery statistics, each with final annual data. (The other volume contains final statistics for each month and replaces data previously published in the {ital Petroleum Supply Monthly}).

  19. The Second Colloquium on Petroleum Engineering Education

    SciTech Connect

    Willhite, G.P.; Forney, R.H.

    1993-11-30

    This paper describes findings from the Second Colloquium on Petroleum engineering Education. The purpose of this colloquium was to provide a forum for petroleum engineering educators and representatives from industry and government to explore critical issues facing petroleum engineering education as we move into the 21st Century. It was expected that the colloquium would identify areas where changes are needed in petroleum engineering education, to best prepare students for careers in the oil and gas industry or other, related industries.

  20. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    different from that of gas displacement processes. The work is of experimental nature and clarifies several misconceptions in the literature. Based on experimental results, it is established that the main reason for high efficiency of solution gas drive from heavy oil reservoirs is due to low gas mobility. Chapter III presents the concept of the alteration of porous media wettability from liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting. The idea is novel and has not been introduced in the petroleum literature before. There are significant implications from such as proposal. The most direct application of intermediate gas wetting is wettability alteration around the wellbore. Such an alteration can significantly improve well deliverability in gas condensate reservoirs where gas well deliverability decreases below dewpoint pressure. Part I of Chapter III studies the effect of gravity, viscous forces, interfacial tension, and wettability on the critical condensate saturation and relative permeability of gas condensate systems. A simple phenomenological network model is used for this study, The theoretical results reveal that wettability significantly affects both the critical gas saturation and gas relative permeability. Gas relative permeability may increase ten times as contact angle is altered from 0{sup o} (strongly liquid wet) to 85{sup o} (intermediate gas-wetting). The results from the theoretical study motivated the experimental investigation described in Part II. In Part II we demonstrate that the wettability of porous media can be altered from liquid-wetting to gas-wetting. This part describes our attempt to find appropriate chemicals for wettability alteration of various substrates including rock matrix. Chapter IV provides a comprehensive treatment of molecular, pressure, and thermal diffusion and convection in porous media Basic theoretical analysis is presented using irreversible thermodynamics.

  1. Unit: Petroleum, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on petroleum developed for the Australian Science Education Project. The package contains the teacher's edition of the written material and a script for a film entitled "The Extraordinary Experience of Nicholas Nodwell" emphasizing the uses of petroleum and petroleum products in daily life and…

  2. Unit: Petroleum, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on petroleum developed for the Australian Science Education Project. The package contains the teacher's edition of the written material and a script for a film entitled "The Extraordinary Experience of Nicholas Nodwell" emphasizing the uses of petroleum and petroleum products in daily life and…

  3. 31 CFR 561.318 - Petroleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum. 561.318 Section 561.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 561.318 Petroleum. The term petroleum (also known as crude oil) means a mixture of hydrocarbons...

  4. 78 FR 40131 - National Petroleum Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory... Business Properly Brought Before the National Petroleum Council Adjournment Public Participation:...

  5. 77 FR 42297 - National Petroleum Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. ] SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal... Brought Before the National Petroleum Council Adjournment Public Participation: The meeting is open to...

  6. 31 CFR 561.318 - Petroleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petroleum. 561.318 Section 561.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 561.318 Petroleum. The term petroleum (also known as crude oil) means a mixture of hydrocarbons...

  7. 76 FR 53889 - National Petroleum Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory... National, Petroleum Council, Adjournment. Public Participation: The meeting is open to the public....

  8. Vegetable oils as a petroleum replacement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The current dependence of the world economy on petroleum cannot be sustained in the long run. Petroleum is expected to be depleted in the foreseeable future. In addition, the use of petroleum causes carbon dioxide emissions leading to global warming. Renewable sources need to be explored. One of the...

  9. Chemical composition and genotoxic activity of petroleum derivatives collected in two working environments

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquini, R.; Taningher, M.; Monarca, S.; Pala, M.; Angeli, G.

    1989-01-01

    Pitch and bitumen, two complex petroleum derivative mixtures, were studied for both their chemical composition and their mutagenic/DNA damaging activity. While bitumen revealed no genotoxic effect and low polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentration, petroleum pitch showed a high concentration of mutagenic/carcinogenic PAHs, and also an elevated mutagenic activity when assayed by the Ames test, in the presence of postmitochondrial rat liver fractions. The in vitro mutagenic activity was detectable as frameshift mutation by assaying the pitch both as an in toto mixture and after HPLC fractionation, the most polar fractions being the most active. In contrast, both derivatives showed no in vivo DNA damage in rat liver, using the DNA alkaline elution technique and the fluorometric assay of DNA unwinding.

  10. Prediction of rodent carcinogenicity for 44 chemicals: results.

    PubMed

    Ashby, J; Tennant, R W

    1994-01-01

    Methods by which rodent carcinogenicity can be predicted have been prospectively validated for 40 chemicals evaluated for carcinogenicity by the US National Toxicology Program. It is concluded that a chemical of unknown carcinogenicity can be predicted to be in one of three possible categories--probably carcinogenic, probably non-carcinogenic or of uncertain activity. The last category is unlikely to contain genotoxic trans-species and/or multiple-site carcinogens. The component parameters of such predictions are one or more of several aspects of chemical structure, genotoxicity and rodent toxicity. Each of these parameters requires refinement but all are developed to the point that they can be integrated to make assessment of possible carcinogenicity. Carcinogenicity tends to be overpredicted by this integrated technique, each part of which has already been simulated by computer modelling. Improvements in predictive methodology will flow from three assumptions: (i) that emphasis must be placed equally on the properties of the test chemical and the responses it elicits in tissues for which carcinogenicity is to be predicted, (ii) that the integration of different predictive technique is preferable to the exclusive use of a single technique, and (iii) that the general predictivity of any technique or combination of techniques appears to be limited to < or = 80%, imposed by inadequate knowledge, and uncertainties in the experimental evaluation and classification of carcinogenic responses for diverse chemicals. This last statement does not preclude the attainment of higher accuracy within a congeneric series of chemicals. Foreknowledge of the likely outcome of a rodent carcinogenicity bioassay is now possible and will contribute to the focusing of animal testing resources.

  11. [The role of oxidative stress in skin aging].

    PubMed

    Kozina, L S; Borzova, I V; Arutiunov, V A; Ryzhak, G A

    2012-01-01

    The review covers the literature proving that ROS formation in aging overbalances the antioxidant defense system potential of the skin structure (horny layer, epidermis and dermis). It has been shown that ROS are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory processes and allergic responses in the skin. The role of ROS and antioxidant systems in the cell-mediated responses associated with the MAP kinase activity in the skin is discussed. Special attention is paid to the ultraviolet irradiation exposure, which accounts for its genotoxic, immunosuppressive and carcinogenic effects on the skin.

  12. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin.

  13. Synthetic crude oils carcinogenicity screening tests. Final report, October 16, 1978-August 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, W.H.; Deye, J.F.; Hartgrove, R.W.; King, C.F.; Krahn, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    Eight crude oils (Southern Louisiana Petroleum, H Coal Syncrude, H Coal Fuel Oil, SRC II, Exxon Donor Solvent Liquid, Occidental in situ Shale Oil, Paraho Shale Oil and Geokinetics in situ Shale Oil) were distilled into, or have been received, as four fractions for analysis and screening for biological (mutagenicity and tumor initiating) activity. Results of selected analytical tests have been obtained on the undistilled crude oils and the fractions. Salmonella typhimurium mutation assay and an accelerated tumor initiation-promotion test have been run on the undistilled crude oils and the fractions. Low boiling (naphtha) fractions of all eight materials showed little or no mutagenicity or skin tumor initiating activity by the two tests used. The higher boiling fractions (gas oils and residues) and the crude oils themselves were mutagenic and exhibited tumor initiation activity. The coal derived fractions were more active by both tests than the shale oil samples, the latter were similar to the petroleum controls. Few differences were apparent in biological activity between coal derived samples of equivalent boiling range among the various coal liquefaction processes, except that the SRC II naphtha sample showed a degree of acute toxicity through skin absorption not exhibited by the other samples. Generally the results agreed closely for the various samples between the salmonella mutation assay with activation and the skin tumor initiation test.

  14. Strategic petroleum reserve annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.

  15. Petroleum geology of marine evaporites

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M. )

    1994-08-01

    The conditions necessary for evaporite deposition are also important with respect to genesis of source beds for petroleum. In a restricted basin marked by large-scale salt successions, it is presumed that the basin proper is separated from the open sea either by structural or physiographic barriers. These barriers may elevate the effective wave base so that much of the basin is in the stagnant zone or in reducing environment, where sediments rich in organic matter may be deposited. Such shallow barriers increase the conditions favorable for the generation of petroleum. Since marine evaporitic basins are not ideally closed systems, but are subject to influxes and perhaps refluxes of sea water or brine, much petroleum associated with evaporites is generated from dissolved and particulate organic matter swept from the normal marine into the evaporitic environments. Only carbonates precipitate in the mesosaline part (4-12% salinity) of such evaporitic environments. They are of great significance in source rock origin. The huge reserves of petroleum in the Mesozoic of the Middle East, and many other areas including the Michigan, Paradox, and Delaware basins, owe their origin to the thick sequences of carbonates and evaporites of the mesosaline environments. Repeated cycles of oil and gas formation in the stratigraphic record are related to tectonic, climatic, or eustatic events or both, and to increasing sedimentary overburden.

  16. A Computerized Petroleum Geology Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Louise E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a package of computer programs developed to implement an oil exploration game that gives undergraduate students practical experience in applying theoretical principles of petroleum geology. The programs facilitate management of the game by the instructor and enhance the learning experience. (Author/MBR)

  17. Coke from coal and petroleum

    DOEpatents

    Wynne, Jr., Francis E.; Lopez, Jaime; Zaborowsky, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

  18. PETROLEUM BIOREFINING FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    SciTech Connect

    John J. Kilbane II

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this project was to isolate and characterize thermophilic bacterial cultures that can be used for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur, and/or metals in the biorefining of petroleum. The project was completed on schedule and no major difficulties were encountered. Significant progress was made on multiple topics relevant to the development of a petroleum biorefining process capable of operating at thermophilic temperatures. New cultures capable of selectively cleaving C-N or C-S bonds in molecules relevant to petroleum were obtained, and the genes encoding the enzymes for these unique biochemical reactions were cloned and sequenced. Genetic tools were developed that enable the use of Thermus thermophilus as a host to express any gene of interest, and information was obtained regarding the optimum conditions for the growth of T. thermophilus. The development of a practical biorefining process still requires further research and the future research needs identified in this project include the development of new enzymes and pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N or C-S bonds that have higher specific activities, increased substrate range, and are capable of functioning at thermophilic temperatures. Additionally, there is a need for process engineering research to determine the maximum yield of biomass and cloned gene products that can be obtained in fed-batch cultures using T. thermophilus, and to determine the best configuration for a process employing biocatalysts to treat petroleum.

  19. Bioassay of diarylanilide yellow for possible carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    1978-01-01

    A bioassay of technical-grade diarylanilide yellow for possible carcinogenicity was conducted using Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. Diarylanilide yellow was administered in the feed, at either of two concentrations, to groups of 50 male and 50 female animals of each species. The high and low dietary concentrations used in the chronic study for the male and female rats and mice were 5.0 and 2.5 percent, respectively, of the chemical in the feed. After a 78-week treatment period, observation of the rats continued for an additional 28 weeks and observation of the mice continued for an additional 19 weeks for high dose males and low and high dose females and 18 weeks for low dose males. For each species, 50 animals of each sex were placed on test as controls, and fed only the basal diet. The high concentration administered to both species in this study was the maximum recommended in the Guidelines for Carcinogen Bioassay in Small Rodents. These guidelines indicate that a chronic dietary level of 5 percent, or 50,000 ppm, should not be exceeded even when no signs of toxicity are observed during subchronic testing, except under special circumstances (e.g., when the compound is a major component of the human diet). No toxic effects were reported during subchronic testing and diarylanilide yellow did not qualify for exception; therefore, the highest permissible concentration (5 percent) was utilized in the chronic bioassay. The dietary concentrations of diarylanilide yellow administered during the chronic bioassay had no significant effect on survival or body weight gain in either species. Except for yellow staining and some isolated neoplasms, the only adverse clinical sign or pathologic lesion observed in treated rats or mice was basophilic cytoplasm changes in hepatocytes of treated rats. In both species the survival in all groups was adequate for statistical analysis of late-appearing tumors. No treatment-related increase in the incidence of neoplasms or

  20. Recent Advances in Petroleum Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Singh, Ajay; Ward, Owen P.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have extended our understanding of the metabolic processes related to microbial transformation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The physiological responses of microorganisms to the presence of hydrocarbons, including cell surface alterations and adaptive mechanisms for uptake and efflux of these substrates, have been characterized. New molecular techniques have enhanced our ability to investigate the dynamics of microbial communities in petroleum-impacted ecosystems. By establishing conditions which maximize rates and extents of microbial growth, hydrocarbon access, and transformation, highly accelerated and bioreactor-based petroleum waste degradation processes have been implemented. Biofilters capable of removing and biodegrading volatile petroleum contaminants in air streams with short substrate-microbe contact times (<60 s) are being used effectively. Microbes are being injected into partially spent petroleum reservoirs to enhance oil recovery. However, these microbial processes have not exhibited consistent and effective performance, primarily because of our inability to control conditions in the subsurface environment. Microbes may be exploited to break stable oilfield emulsions to produce pipeline quality oil. There is interest in replacing physical oil desulfurization processes with biodesulfurization methods through promotion of selective sulfur removal without degradation of associated carbon moieties. However, since microbes require an environment containing some water, a two-phase oil-water system must be established to optimize contact between the microbes and the hydrocarbon, and such an emulsion is not easily created with viscous crude oil. This challenge may be circumvented by application of the technology to more refined gasoline and diesel substrates, where aqueous-hydrocarbon emulsions are more easily generated. Molecular approaches are being used to broaden the substrate specificity and increase the rates and

  1. Mouse Genetic Models Reveal Surprising Functions of IκB Kinase Alpha in Skin Development and Skin Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiaojun; Park, Eunmi; Fischer, Susan M.; Hu, Yinling

    2013-01-01

    Gene knockout studies unexpectedly reveal a pivotal role for IκB kinase alpha (IKKα) in mouse embryonic skin development. Skin carcinogenesis experiments show that Ikkα heterozygous mice are highly susceptible to chemical carcinogen or ultraviolet B light (UVB) induced benign and malignant skin tumors in comparison to wild-type mice. IKKα deletion mediated by keratin 5 (K5).Cre or K15.Cre in keratinocytes induces epidermal hyperplasia and spontaneous skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in Ikkα floxed mice. On the other hand, transgenic mice overexpressing IKKα in the epidermis, under the control of a truncated loricrin promoter or K5 promoter, develop normal skin and show no defects in the formation of the epidermis and other epithelial organs, and the transgenic IKKα represses chemical carcinogen or UVB induced skin carcinogenesis. Moreover, IKKα deletion mediated by a mutation, which generates a stop codon in the Ikkα gene, has been reported in a human autosomal recessive lethal syndrome. Downregulated IKKα and Ikkα mutations and deletions are found in human skin SCCs. The collective evidence not only highlights the importance of IKKα in skin development, maintaining skin homeostasis, and preventing skin carcinogenesis, but also demonstrates that mouse models are extremely valuable tools for revealing the mechanisms underlying these biological events, leading our studies from bench side to bedside. PMID:24216703

  2. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  3. 31 CFR 542.209 - Prohibited transactions or dealings in or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. 542.209 Section 542.209 Money and... dealings in or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. Except as otherwise authorized... petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin is prohibited....

  4. 31 CFR 542.529 - Policy on activities related to petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit of the National Coalition of Syrian... activities related to petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit of the National... the purchase, trade, export, import, or production of petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

  5. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  6. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  7. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  8. Pediatric Exposures to Ionizing Radiation: Carcinogenic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Kutanzi, Kristy R.; Lumen, Annie; Koturbash, Igor; Miousse, Isabelle R.

    2016-01-01

    Children are at a greater risk than adults of developing cancer after being exposed to ionizing radiation. Because of their developing bodies and long life expectancy post-exposure, children require specific attention in the aftermath of nuclear accidents and when radiation is used for diagnosis or treatment purposes. In this review, we discuss the carcinogenic potential of pediatric exposures to ionizing radiation from accidental, diagnostic, and therapeutic modalities. Particular emphasis is given to leukemia and thyroid cancers as consequences of accidental exposures. We further discuss the evidence of cancers that arise as a result of radiotherapy and conclude the review with a summary on the available literature on the links between computer tomography (CT) and carcinogenesis. Appropriate actions taken to mitigate or minimize the negative health effects of pediatric exposures to ionizing radiation and future considerations are discussed. PMID:27801855

  9. Cage allocation designs for rodent carcinogenicity experiments

    PubMed Central

    Herzberg, Agnes M.; Lagakos, Stephen W.

    1991-01-01

    Cage allocation designs for rodent carcinogenicity experiments are discussed and presented with the goal of avoiding dosage group biases related to cage location. Considerations in selecting a cage design are first discussed in general terms. Specific designs are presented for use in experiments involving three, four, and five dose groups and with one, four, and five rodents per cage. Priorities for balancing treatment groups include horizontal position on shelf and shelf of rack, nearest neighbor balance, and male–female balance. It is proposed that these balance criteria be considered together with practical issues, such as the ability to accurately conform to a design and to determine a sensible and efficient design for each experiment. PMID:17539183

  10. Cage allocation designs for rodent carcinogenicity experiments.

    PubMed Central

    Herzberg, A M; Lagakos, S W

    1992-01-01

    Cage allocation designs for rodent carcinogenicity experiments are discussed and presented with the goal of avoiding dosage group biases related to cage location. Considerations in selecting a cage design are first discussed in general terms. Specific designs are presented for use in experiments involving three, four, and five dose groups and with one, four, and five rodents per cage. Priorities for balancing treatment groups include horizontal position on shelf and shelf of rack, nearest neighbor balance, and male-female balance. It is proposed that these balance criteria be considered together with practical issues, such as the ability to accurately conform to a design and to determine a sensible and efficient design for each experiment. PMID:1295494

  11. Method for converting asbestos to non-carcinogenic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Selby, Thomas W.

    1996-01-01

    Hazardous and carcinogenic asbestos waste characterized by a crystalline fibrous structure is transformed into non-carcinogenic, relatively nonhazardous, and non-crystalline solid compounds and gaseous compounds which have commercial utilization. The asbestos waste is so transformed by the complete fluorination of the crystalline fibrous silicate mineral defining the asbestos.

  12. Method for converting asbestos to non-carcinogenic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Selby, T.W.

    1996-08-06

    Hazardous and carcinogenic asbestos waste characterized by a crystalline fibrous structure is transformed into non-carcinogenic, relatively nonhazardous, and non-crystalline solid compounds and gaseous compounds which have commercial utilization. The asbestos waste is so transformed by the complete fluorination of the crystalline fibrous silicate mineral defining the asbestos. 7 figs.

  13. 29 CFR 1915.1003 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1915.1003 Section 1915.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Hazardous Substances § 1915.1003 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.1103 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1926.1103 Section 1926.1103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... § 1926.1103 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.1003 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1915.1003 Section 1915.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Hazardous Substances § 1915.1003 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.1103 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1926.1103 Section 1926.1103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... § 1926.1103 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.1103 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1926.1103 Section 1926.1103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... § 1926.1103 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.1003 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1915.1003 Section 1915.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Hazardous Substances § 1915.1003 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.1003 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1915.1003 Section 1915.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Hazardous Substances § 1915.1003 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.1003 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1915.1003 Section 1915.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Hazardous Substances § 1915.1003 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1103 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1926.1103 Section 1926.1103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... § 1926.1103 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.1103 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1926.1103 Section 1926.1103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... § 1926.1103 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  3. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  4. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  5. Multicomponent criteria for predicting carcinogenicity: dataset of 30 NTP chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Huff, J; Weisburger, E; Fung, V A

    1996-01-01

    This article is in response to the challenge issued to the scientific community by the National Toxicology Program to predict the carcinogenicity potential of 30 chemicals previously selected for long-term carcinogenicity testing. Utilizing the available toxicologic, genetic, and structural information on 30 chemicals previously selected for long-term carcinogenicity testing, we predict that 16 chemicals (53%) would induce some indication of carcinogenic activity in rodents; we further predict that 10 chemicals (33%) would be associated with weak or equivocal carcinogenic responses, and another 4 (13%) would give no indication of carcinogenicity. Our level of certainty is indicated for many of these predictions. Nonetheless, we believe that most instances of guessing whether a chemical would eventually induce cancer in experimental animals and hence represent a carcinogenic hazard to humans are fraught with considerable uncertainty: uncertainty that can only be relieved by long-term testing for carcinogenicity in animals or by conducting an epidemiologic investigation of exposed individuals or groups. We further believe that the day may come when our predictive acumen will be upgraded to such an extent that we might eventually obviate cancer testing. Until then, and in the best interests of public health, however, we urge long term testing of chemicals in animals be continued, at increased pace. PMID:8933061

  6. 29 CFR 1910.1003 - 13 Carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... required in this section. Closed system means an operation involving a carcinogen addressed by this section... means any environment external to regulated and nonregulated areas. Isolated system means a fully... nor controlled. Open-vessel system means an operation involving a carcinogen addressed by this...

  7. 29 CFR 1910.1003 - 13 Carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... required in this section. Closed system means an operation involving a carcinogen addressed by this section... means any environment external to regulated and nonregulated areas. Isolated system means a fully... nor controlled. Open-vessel system means an operation involving a carcinogen addressed by this...

  8. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  9. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  10. Method for converting asbestos to non-carcinogenic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, T.W.

    1996-08-06

    Hazardous and carcinogenic asbestos waste characterized by a crystalline fibrous structure is transformed into non-carcinogenic, relatively nonhazardous, and non-crystalline solid compounds and gaseous compounds which have commercial utilization. The asbestos waste is so transformed by the complete fluorination of the crystalline fibrous silicate mineral defining the asbestos. 7 figs.

  11. Workshop on problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    A workshop was conducted to discuss problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines. Session topics included (1) definition of a carcinogen for regulatory purposes; (2) potency; (3) risk assessment; (4) uncertainties; (5) de minimis quantity; and (6) legal and regulatory issues. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  12. Immunoaffinity purification of dietary heterocyclic amine carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderlaan, M.; Hwang, M.; Djanegara, T. )

    1993-03-01

    Cooking meats produces a family of heterocyclic aromatic amines that are carcinogens in rodents and genotoxic in many short-term assays. Concern that these compounds may be human carcinogens has prompted us to develop immunochemical methods for quantifying these compounds in the human diet and for identifying the parent compounds and metabolites in urine and feces. Previously reported monoclonal antibodies to 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 6-phenyl-2-amino-1-methylimidazo[4,5-f]pyridine (PhIP) were used to purify by immunoaffinity these known mutagens and cross-reacting structural analogs from well-done cooked beef and urine samples. Materials recovered from the immunoaffinity columns were subsequently separated by HPLC to purify the known mutagens from cross-reacting chemicals that co-purify by immunoaffinity. Immunoaffinity chromatography was found to be a rapid means of quantifying individual known mutagens, with a minimum of precolumn sample clean-up required. In addition, this procedure has yielded several new mutagens present in cooked meats that are apparently structural analogs of PhIP. Immunoaffinity techniques were also used to purify metabolites from the urine of rats and humans exposed to MeIQx or PhIP. For MeIQx-exposed rats, the combination antibodies immunoconcentrated 75% of the total urinary radioactivity. Analysis of PhIP metabolites recovered from antibody columns is facilitated by the intrinsic fluorescence of PhIP and its metabolites, providing sufficient sensitivity to monitor individuals for the levels of PhIP excreted following consumption of typical western diets. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Basic petroleum geology, 2nd ed. , revised

    SciTech Connect

    Link.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains revised and updated material, including approximately 200 additional illustrations and an extensive glossary of terms. A valuable reference for geology students and petroleum professionals, the text presents fundamental concepts of geology in terms of sedimentary deposition, petroleum occurrence, exploration, and recovery. This book contains information on geologic time, historical geology and stratigraphy; Minerals and rocks; Weathering erosion, and deposition; Marine erosion and deposition; Depositional basins; Lacustrine, desert and glacial environments; Subsurface water and diagenesis; Structural geology; petroleum traps; Petroleum and reservoirs; Geological considerations and engineering practices; Rocks, reservoirs, and recovery techniques; Exploration techniques for petroleum; Bibliography Glossary; Index.

  14. Grenz ray-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Frentz, G.

    1989-09-01

    In 28 patients, nonmelanoma skin cancers developed in areas previously exposed to grenz rays. In 17 patients who did not have psoriasis, no other relevant carcinogenic exposure could be incriminated. Women were more often affected than men. Most of the tumors were basal cell cancers, and most of the patients had multiple tumors. No threshold dose could be established. The distribution of the latency time among patients without psoriasis was strictly normal (median 18 years). These observations suggest that usual therapeutic doses of grenz rays, as a single agent, are capable of causing skin cancer, but only in those persons who are abnormally sensitive to x-rays. 9 references.

  15. Immunogenicity of guinea pig cells transformed in culture by chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Ohanian, S.H.; McCabe, R.P.; Evans, C.H.

    1981-12-01

    The immunogenicity of inbred strain 2/N guinea pig fibroblasts transformed to the malignant state in vitro by chemical carcinogens was evaluated with the use of a variety of in vivo and in vitro methods including delayed-type hypersensitivity skin and tumor transplantation tests and analysis of antibody production by immunofluorescence, complement fixation, and staphylococcal protein A binding tests. Neoplastic transformation was induced by direct treatment of cells in culture with benzo(a)pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene, or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) or by the host-mediated method by which fetuses were exposed to diethylnitrosamine or MNNG in vivo prior to cell culture. Rabbits and syngeneic guinea pigs were inoculated with unirradiated and X-irradiated clonally derived cells. Delayed hypersensitivity skin reactions to immunizing or other cells were equivalent in immunized or control guinea pigs, and no protection to tumor outgrowth from a challenge inoculum of immunizing cells was observed. Antibody activity induced in the sera of immunized guinea pigs was cross-reactive and removed by absorption with nontumorigenic cells. Rabbit anitsera after absorption with fetal guinea pig cells were nonreactive with the specific immunizing or other cultured cells. Chemical carcinogen-induced neoplastic transformation of guinea pig cells can, therefore, occur without formation of detectable, individually distinct cell surface tumor-specific neoantigens.

  16. Immunogenicity of guinea pig cells transformed in culture by chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Ohanian, S.H.; McCabe, R.P.; Evans, C.H.

    1981-12-01

    The immunogenicity of inbred strain 2/N guinea pig fibroblasts transformed to the malignant state in vitro by chemical carcinogens was evaluated with the use of a variety of in vivo and in vitro methods including delayed-type hypersensitivity skin and tumor transplantation tests and analysis of antibody production by immunofluorescence, complement fixation, and staphylococcal protein A binding tests. Neoplastic transformation was induced by direct treatment of cells in culture with benzo(a)pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene, or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) or by the host-mediated method by which fetuses were exposed to diethylnitrosamine or MNNG in vivo prior to cell culture. Rabbits and syngeneic guinea pigs were inoculated with unirradiated and X-irradiated clonally derived cells. Delayed hypersensitivity skin reactions to immunizing or other cells were equivalent in immunized or control guinea pigs, and no protection to tumor outgrowth from a challenge inoculum of immunizing cells was observed. Antibody activity induced in the sera of immunized guinea pigs was cross-reactive and removed by absorption with nontumorigenic cells. Rabbit antisera after absorption with fetal guinea pig cells were nonreactive with the specific immunizing or other culture cells. Chemical carcinogen-induced neoplastic transformation of guinea pig cells can, therefore, occur without formation of detectable, individually distinct cell surface tumor-specific neoantigens.

  17. Skin aging and dry skin.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2004-08-01

    Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth.

  18. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of potassium bromate--a new renal carcinogen.

    PubMed Central

    Kurokawa, Y; Maekawa, A; Takahashi, M; Hayashi, Y

    1990-01-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is an oxidizing agent that has been used as a food additive, mainly in the bread-making process. Although adverse effects are not evident in animals fed bread-based diets made from flour treated with KBrO3, the agent is carcinogenic in rats and nephrotoxic in both man and experimental animals when given orally. It has been demonstrated that KBrO3 induces renal cell tumors, mesotheliomas of the peritoneum, and follicular cell tumors of the thyroid. In addition, experiments aimed at elucidating the mode of carcinogenic action have revealed that KBrO3 is a complete carcinogen, possessing both initiating and promoting activities for rat renal tumorigenesis. However, the potential seems to be weak in mice and hamsters. In contrast to its weak mutagenic activity in microbial assays, KBrO3 showed relatively strong potential inducing chromosome aberrations both in vitro and in vivo. Glutathione and cysteine degrade KBrO3 in vitro; in turn, the KBrO3 has inhibitory effects on inducing lipid peroxidation in the rat kidney. Active oxygen radicals generated from KBrO3 were implicated in its toxic and carcinogenic effects, especially because KBrO3 produced 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in the rat kidney. A wide range of data from applications of various analytical methods are now available for risk assessment purposes. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. PMID:2269236

  19. Multistage skin tumor promotion: involvement of a protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Mamrack, M.; Slaga, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    Current information suggests that chemical carcinogenesis is a multistep process with one of the best studied models in this regard being the two-stage carcinogenesis system using mouse skin. The effects of several carcinogens and tumor promoters in various sequences of application were studied to examine the nature of the process. The actions of several tumor inhibitors were compared. (ACR)

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-27

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 54 tabs.

  1. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Whited, D.; Jacobus, P.

    1990-11-28

    Data presented in this PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 46 tabs.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  3. Toxico-Cheminformatics and QSPR Modeling of the Carcinogenic Potency Database

    EPA Science Inventory

    Report on the development of a tiered, confirmatory scheme for prediction of chemical carcinogenicity based on QSAR studies of compounds with available mutagenic and carcinogenic data. For 693 such compounds from the Carcinogenic Potency Database characterized molecular topologic...

  4. Alaskan North Slope petroleum systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoon, L.B.; Lillis, P.G.; Bird, K.J.; Lampe, C.; Peters, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    Six North Slope petroleum systems are identified, described, and mapped using oil-to-oil and oil-to-source rock correlations, pods of active source rock, and overburden rock packages. To map these systems, we assumed that: a) petroleum source rocks contain 3.2 wt. % organic carbon (TOC); b) immature oil-prone source rocks have hydrogen indices (HI) >300 (mg HC/gm TOC); c) the top and bottom of the petroleum (oil plus gas) window occur at vitrinite reflectance values of 0.6 and 1.0% Ro, respectively; and d) most hydrocarbons are expelled within the petroleum window. The six petroleum systems we have identified and mapped are: a) a southern system involving the Kuna-Lisburne source rock unit that was active during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous; b) two western systems involving source rock in the Kingak-Blankenship, and GRZ-lower Torok source rock units that were active during the Albian; and c) three eastern systems involving the Shublik-Otuk, Hue Shale and Canning source rock units that were active during the Cenozoic. The GRZ-lower Torok in the west is correlative with the Hue Shale to the east. Four overburden rock packages controlled the time of expulsion and gross geometry of migration paths: a) a southern package of Early Cretaceous and older rocks structurally-thickened by early Brooks Range thrusting; b) a western package of Early Cretaceous rocks that filled the western part of the foreland basin; c) an eastern package of Late Cretaceous and Paleogene rocks that filled the eastern part of the foreland basin; and d) an offshore deltaic package of Neogene rocks deposited by the Colville, Canning, and Mackenzie rivers. This petroleum system poster is part of a series of Northern Alaska posters on modeling. The poster in this session by Saltus and Bird present gridded maps for the greater Northern Alaskan onshore and offshore that are used in the 3D modeling poster by Lampe and others. Posters on source rock units are by Keller and Bird as well as

  5. Skin optics

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Jacques, S.L.; Sterenborg, H.J.; Star, W.M.

    1989-12-01

    Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking.

  6. An estimation of the carcinogenic risk associated with the intake of multiple relevant carcinogens found in meat and charcuterie products.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ángel Rodríguez; Boada, Luis D; Almeida-González, Maira; Mendoza, Zenaida; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valeron, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated a link between excessive meat consumption and the incidence of various cancers, especially colorectal cancer, and it has been suggested that environmental carcinogens present in meat might be related to the increased risk of cancer associated with this food. However, there are no studies evaluating the carcinogenic potential of meat in relation to its content of carcinogens. Our purpose was to emphasize the relevance of environmental carcinogens existing in meat as a determinant of the association between cancer and meat consumption. Because within Europe, Spain shows high consumption of meat and charcuterie, we performed this study focusing on Spanish population. Based on the preferences of consumers we acquired 100 samples of meat and charcuterie that reflect the variety available in the European market. We quantified in these samples the concentration of 33 chemicals with calculated carcinogenic potential (PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, and dioxin-like PCBs). The carcinogenic risk of these contaminants was assessed for each food using a risk ratio based on the current consumption of meat and charcuterie and the maximum tolerable intake of these foods depending on the level of contamination by the carcinogens they contain. Our results indicate that the current consumption of beef, pork, lamb, chicken, and "chorizo", represents a relevant carcinogenic risk for consumers (carcinogenic risk quotient between 1.33 and 13.98). In order to reduce carcinogenic risk, the study population should halve the monthly consumption of these foods, and also not to surpass the number of 5 servings of beef/pork/chicken (considered together).

  7. [Skin cancer as occupational disease].

    PubMed

    Bauer, A

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of epithelial skin neoplasms, such as squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma is significantly increasing worldwide. Leisure time solar UV exposure is causative in the overwhelming majority of cases in the general population; however, occupational exposure is responsible for a certain percentage of cases. Employees with a relevant exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances, to sunlight in outdoor occupations as well as to arsenic and ionizing radiation have a significantly increased risk to develop occupational skin cancer compared to the general population. In the official occupational disease list in the appendix of the German by-law on occupational diseases, the following occupational diseases concerning skin cancer are listed: BK 5102 "skin cancer and carcinoma in situ caused by soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances" (e.g. various solid paraffins, asphalt and mazut as well as mineral oils, grease, cylinder and drilling oils), BK 5103 "squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratosis caused by natural UV radiation", BK 1108 "diseases caused by arsenic and its compounds" and BK 2402 "diseases caused by ionizing radiation". For further occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances and potential occupationally acquired skin tumors, no official lists are currently available. These cancers might be considered under a special opt out paragraph in the German Social Law (§ 9 para 2 SGB VII). Tumors in scars after occupational skin trauma or occupational burns are compensated as consequences of work accidents. The current official list of occupational skin cancers and new developments for expert opinions are described in this article.

  8. Petroleum geology of Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M.

    1982-05-01

    Petroleum activities in the Arabian Peninsula show new trends in the 1980s. Petroleum exploration is intensified and huge discoveries are anticipated. A giant Jurassic gas field along the coast of the Arabian Gulf discovered recently tops 150 tcf, the largest single reserve ever. Other giant oil fields in the area are undergoing expansion in development and productivity. Today, the Peninsula, with a total area that surpasses one million square miles, produces and exports more oil and gas and has greater reserves than any other area in the world. The excellent reservoir rocks are located in the Jurassic and Cretaceous formations between the Arabian Shield and the Tethyan Seaway. They represent porous and permeable marine cyclical beds sealed by impervious shales and anhydrites. Reservoir sedimentology was affected by 2 orogenies during late Cretaceous and Pliocene time portrayed by the Cratonic area to the southwest and the orthogeosynclinal area to the northeast. The eastern part was little deformed by these movements.

  9. Skin findings in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics; Neonatal care - skin ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  10. Conversion of heavy petroleum oils

    SciTech Connect

    Farcasiu, M.

    1982-03-02

    Heavy petroleum oils, such as vacuum resids, and heavy fractions of tar sands and shale oil, are partially converted to more volatile hydrocarbons by mixing with light aromatic hydrocarbons and treatment of the mixture with a friedel-crafts catalyst such as aluminum chloride. It is believed that the conversion found is essentially a transalkylation, I.E. The resid undergoes dealkylation with concurrent alkylation of the light aromatic hydrocarbon.

  11. Petroleum geology of western Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, J. )

    1990-05-01

    Antarctica's geology is mostly obscured by thick, moving ice that covers 95% of the land and continental shelf. Reconnaissance investigations of outcrops, shallow boreholes, and geophysical surveys are limited and peripheral owing to ice coverage. However, it is possible to outline substantial elements of the regional geology. Further insight is gained by comparison to analogous sedimentary provinces, especially provinces once adjoined within the framework of the Gondwana supercontinent until middle Cretaceous. The petroleum potential of Antarctica, as in the case of the other related high-standing Gondwana continental fragments, is in Early Cretaceous rifts associated with the Gondwana breakup and with the Pacific convergence in the west Antarctica back arc. The Pacific-facing western Antarctica includes two structural provinces: (1) the Cretaceous and younger interior rift system on the east side of the Weddell and Ross Sea embayment, which contain aulacogens that form the boundary with East Antarctica and (2) the back-arc and fore-arc basins adjoining the Antarctica Peninsula and extending into Marie Byrd Land and the Bellingshausen Sea which are associated with the eastward convergence of the Pacific plate. The petroleum potential of the rifts may be assessed by analogies with related rifts of Australia, India, and South Africa; assessment of the convergent basins of western Antarctica depends upon analogy with similar basins of South America, New Zealand, and Indonesia. An estimate of the petroleum potential of western Antarctica generally is comparable with oil and gas occurrences (both in overall quantity and in field sizes) in the other Gondwana continental fragments. However, in view of the thict moving ice cover, the remote locale, and severe climate, petroleum production is largely beyond technology at this time and probably is economically unfeasible.

  12. 76 FR 60500 - Request for Information: Announcement of Carcinogen and Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) Policy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Carcinogen and Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) Policy Assessment AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational...) announcing its intent to ``review its approach to classifying carcinogens and establishing recommended...

  13. 29 CFR 1990.131 - Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... occupational carcinogens. One list should include approximately ten (10) candidates for rulemaking as Category I Potential Carcinogens; the other approximately ten (10) candidates for rulemaking as Category II...

  14. Occupational exposure to carcinogens: Benzene, pesticides and fibers

    PubMed Central

    Falzone, Luca; Marconi, Andrea; Loreto, Carla; Franco, Sabrina; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Libra, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the occupational exposure to contaminants and carcinogens leads to the development of cancer in exposed workers. In the 18th century, Percivall Pott was the first to hypothesize that chronic exposure to dust in the London chimney sweeps was associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. Subsequently a growing body of evidence indicated that other physical factors were also responsible for oncogenic mutations. Over the past decades, many carcinogens have been found in the occupational environment and their presence is often associated with an increased incidence of cancer. Occupational exposure involves several factors and the association between carcinogens, occupational exposure and cancer is still unclear. Only a fraction of factors is recognized as occupational carcinogens and for each factor, there is an increased risk of cancer development associated with a specific work activity. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the majority of carcinogens are classified as ‘probable’ and ‘possible’ human carcinogens, while, direct evidence of carcinogenicity is provided in epidemiological and experimental studies. In the present review, exposures to benzene, pesticides and mineral fibers are discussed as the most important cancer risk factors during work activities. PMID:27748850

  15. Occupational exposure to carcinogens: Benzene, pesticides and fibers (Review).

    PubMed

    Falzone, Luca; Marconi, Andrea; Loreto, Carla; Franco, Sabrina; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Libra, Massimo

    2016-11-01

    It is well known that the occupational exposure to contaminants and carcinogens leads to the development of cancer in exposed workers. In the 18th century, Percivall Pott was the first to hypothesize that chronic exposure to dust in the London chimney sweeps was associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. Subsequently a growing body of evidence indicated that other physical factors were also responsible for oncogenic mutations. Over the past decades, many carcinogens have been found in the occupational environment and their presence is often associated with an increased incidence of cancer. Occupational exposure involves several factors and the association between carcinogens, occupational exposure and cancer is still unclear. Only a fraction of factors is recognized as occupational carcinogens and for each factor, there is an increased risk of cancer development associated with a specific work activity. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the majority of carcinogens are classified as 'probable' and 'possible' human carcinogens, while, direct evidence of carcinogenicity is provided in epidemiological and experimental studies. In the present review, exposures to benzene, pesticides and mineral fibers are discussed as the most important cancer risk factors during work activities.

  16. Overview of African petroleum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Perrodon, A. )

    1993-07-12

    Bordered by two large, still spreading oceans and subjected to tensional forces for more than 200 million years, continental Africa has now reached its largest surface expression ever. With a total sedimentary area of 15 million sq km distributed in about 80 basins, Africa possesses and produces circa 10% of the world's oil and 7% of the gas. More than 95% of these hydrocarbons are concentrated in seven petroleum provinces, ruled by three great petroleum systems that in turn are tightly controlled and determined by the geodynamic characteristics of the basins. From a stratigraphic standpoint, these three petroleum systems belong to three geological time periods: Silurian, Cretaceous, and Oligo-Miocene. Generally the Silurian system occurs in Saharan sag basins, the Cretaceous-Eocene systems in a continental rift complex of western and equatorial Africa, and the Cenozoic in two deltaic basins. The Upper Paleozoic and Jurassic, so rich in other continents, here play but a very minor part. The paper describes the Silurian system, the Cretaceous-Eocene system, and the Tertiary system.

  17. Pennsylvania's contribution to petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, P.A.

    1989-09-01

    John F. Carll of the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania laid the foundations of both petroleum geology and reservoir engineering. J. P. Lesley, director of the Second Survey, had introduced structure contours when he was working in the anthracite fields. He pointed out that the great oil fields of Pennsylvania were in the only part of the state where there were no anticlines. I. C. White, another geologist with the Second Survey, emphasized the anticlinal theory adopted as a method of prospecting until the discovery of the Cushing field in Oklahoma in 1912. George Ashley, state geologist of Pennsylvanian in the 1930s and 1940s, said that after the gas companies had drilled all the anticlines there would still be the synclines. David White in 1915 noticed the relation between the metamorphosis (rank) of coal and the occurrence of oil and gas. This method (vitrinite reflectance) is now widely applied in the evaluation of basins. In the late 1930s, the resurvey of the Pennsylvania oil regions showed that the reservoirs were shoreline sands, probably barrier islands. In the 1950s the AAPG recommended a study of the recent sediments of the Mississippi delta by Scripps Institute of Oceanography. The ability to recognize depositional environments has caused a revolution in petroleum geology, and recently has been recognized by petroleum engineers as the key to reservoir characterization.

  18. The carcinogenicity of 15,16-dihydro-11-methyl-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one.

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, M. M.; Bhatt, T. S.; Young, S.

    1979-01-01

    Direct comparison of skin-tumour induction by 15,16-dihydro-11-methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one (I) and by benzo[a]pyrene on mouse skin, both by repeated application or by initiation with a single dose followed by promotion with croton oil, demonstrated that these two carcinogens have similar potency. After repeated application of (I) the mean latent period for skin-tumour induction was linearly related to the logarithm of the dose over a 10-fold dose range. Under these conditions, application of the aryl-hydrocarbon-hydroxylase inhibitor 7,8-benzoflavone together with (I) inhibited tumour induction by about 40%. By contrast, in the 2-stage experiment, little effect on tumour incidence or latent period was observed when this inhibitor was applied with the single initiating dose of (I). Co-administration of the epoxide-hydratase inhibitor 1,1,1-trichloropropene oxide caused enhancement by shortening the latent period. After s.c. injection of (I) into mice, a similar number of tumours was induced on skin remote from the site of injection by promotion with corton oil begun either one week or 6 months after initiation. Gastric instillation of (I) into female rats induced mammary adenocarcinomas. PMID:526432

  19. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... it can get infected by them. Some common types of skin infections are Bacterial: Cellulitis and impetigo. Staphylococcal infections can also affect the skin. Viral: Shingles, warts, and herpes simplex Fungal: Athlete's foot and yeast infections Parasitic: Body lice, head lice, and scabies ...

  20. Towards incorporating epigenetic mechanisms into carcinogen identification and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Herceg, Zdenko; Lambert, Marie-Pierre; van Veldhoven, Karin; Demetriou, Christiana; Vineis, Paolo; Smith, Martyn T; Straif, Kurt; Wild, Christopher P

    2013-09-01

    Remarkable progress in the field of epigenetics has turned academic, medical and public attention to the potential applications of these new advances in medicine and various fields of biomedical research. The result is a broader appreciation of epigenetic phenomena in the a etiology of common human diseases, most notably cancer. These advances also represent an exciting opportunity to incorporate epigenetics and epigenomics into carcinogen identification and safety assessment. Current epigenetic studies, including major international sequencing projects, are expected to generate information for establishing the 'normal' epigenome of tissues and cell types as well as the physiological variability of the epigenome against which carcinogen exposure can be assessed. Recently, epigenetic events have emerged as key mechanisms in cancer development, and while our search of the Monograph Volume 100 revealed that epigenetics have played a modest role in evaluating human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs so far, epigenetic data might play a pivotal role in the future. Here, we review (i) the current status of incorporation of epigenetics in carcinogen evaluation in the IARC Monographs Programme, (ii) potential modes of action for epigenetic carcinogens, (iii) current in vivo and in vitro technologies to detect epigenetic carcinogens, (iv) genomic regions and epigenetic modifications and their biological consequences and (v) critical technological and biological issues in assessment of epigenetic carcinogens. We also discuss the issues related to opportunities and challenges in the application of epigenetic testing in carcinogen identification and evaluation. Although the application of epigenetic assays in carcinogen evaluation is still in its infancy, important data are being generated and valuable scientific resources are being established that should catalyse future applications of epigenetic testing.

  1. Towards incorporating epigenetic mechanisms into carcinogen identification and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Herceg, Zdenko

    2013-01-01

    Remarkable progress in the field of epigenetics has turned academic, medical and public attention to the potential applications of these new advances in medicine and various fields of biomedical research. The result is a broader appreciation of epigenetic phenomena in the a etiology of common human diseases, most notably cancer. These advances also represent an exciting opportunity to incorporate epigenetics and epigenomics into carcinogen identification and safety assessment. Current epigenetic studies, including major international sequencing projects, are expected to generate information for establishing the ‘normal’ epigenome of tissues and cell types as well as the physiological variability of the epigenome against which carcinogen exposure can be assessed. Recently, epigenetic events have emerged as key mechanisms in cancer development, and while our search of the Monograph Volume 100 revealed that epigenetics have played a modest role in evaluating human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs so far, epigenetic data might play a pivotal role in the future. Here, we review (i) the current status of incorporation of epigenetics in carcinogen evaluation in the IARC Monographs Programme, (ii) potential modes of action for epigenetic carcinogens, (iii) current in vivo and in vitro technologies to detect epigenetic carcinogens, (iv) genomic regions and epigenetic modifications and their biological consequences and (v) critical technological and biological issues in assessment of epigenetic carcinogens. We also discuss the issues related to opportunities and challenges in the application of epigenetic testing in carcinogen identification and evaluation. Although the application of epigenetic assays in carcinogen evaluation is still in its infancy, important data are being generated and valuable scientific resources are being established that should catalyse future applications of epigenetic testing. PMID:23749751

  2. Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

    2014-01-01

    In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

  3. Carcinogenic potency of alkylating agents in rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Dedrick, R L; Morrison, P F

    1992-05-01

    Alkylating agents are known to produce second tumors in cancer patients treated for their primary cancer. Since therapeutic doses are high and the pharmacokinetics of the drugs are thoroughly studied, these agents provide a unique opportunity to compare intrinsic carcinogenic potency between experimental animals and humans. We have examined the carcinogenicity of melphalan, chlorambucil, and cyclophosphamide in causing leukemia in patients treated for cancer or polycythemia vera and lymphosarcoma in rats and mice. A good correlation among species is observed when the carcinogenic potency is based on the total lifetime exposure to active species derived from these drugs.

  4. Study of Chemical Carcinogens by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivtsaev, A. A.; Razov, V. I.; Karasev, A. O.

    2013-11-01

    We have used positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy to study the carcinogens C21H20BrN3, C4H7Cl2O4P, CCl4, CHCl3, AlF3, C8H12N4O, C6H4Cl2 and the non-carcinogens H2O, AlCl3, CH2Cl2, C2H6OS. We have established a correlation between the annihilation characteristics of the studied compounds and their degree of carcinogenicity.

  5. The Science and Practice of Carcinogen Identification and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cogliano, Vincent James; Baan, Robert A.; Straif, Kurt; Grosse, Yann; Secretan, Marie Béatrice; Ghissassi, Fatiha El; Kleihues, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Several national and international health agencies have established programs with the aim of identifying agents and exposures that cause cancer in humans. Carcinogen identification is an activity grounded in the scientific evaluation of the results of human epidemiologic studies, long-term bioassays in experimental animals, and other data relevant to an evaluation of carcinogenicity and its mechanisms. In this commentary, after a brief discussion of the science basis common to the evaluation of carcinogens across different programs, we discuss in more detail the principles and procedures currently used by the IARC Monographs program. PMID:15345338

  6. [Hygienic assessment of the hazard of ambient air carcinogenic factors].

    PubMed

    Litvichenko, O N; Chernichenko, I A; Kovalenko, T V; Zinchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    The paper shows an extremely greater danger of aerogenic doses of carcinogenic substances entering with smoking products than that of an aerogenic load in the industrial centers. The individual and population risks of cancer due to smoking of the Ukraine's common cigarettes and the economic damage caused by the treatment of this number of patients to the country have been calculated. For a full assessment of the carcinogenic risk of tobacco smoke, it is necessary to determine all its carcinogenic constituents, their precursors, and possible transformation groups at high temperatures.

  7. Genotoxic and epigenetic mechanisms in arsenic carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Bustaffa, Elisa; Stoccoro, Andrea; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Migliore, Lucia

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen with weak mutagenic properties that induces tumors through mechanisms not yet completely understood. People worldwide are exposed to arsenic-contaminated drinking water, and epidemiological studies showed a high percentage of lung, bladder, liver, and kidney cancer in these populations. Several mechanisms by which arsenical compounds induce tumorigenesis were proposed including genotoxic damage and chromosomal abnormalities. Over the past decade, a growing body of evidence indicated that epigenetic modifications have a role in arsenic-inducing adverse effects on human health. The main epigenetic mechanisms are DNA methylation in gene promoter regions that regulate gene expression, histone tail modifications that regulate the accessibility of transcriptional machinery to genes, and microRNA activity (noncoding RNA able to modulate mRNA translation). The "double capacity" of arsenic to induce mutations and epimutations could be the main cause of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. The aim of this review is to better clarify the mechanisms of the initiation and/or the promotion of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis in order to understand the best way to perform an early diagnosis and a prompt prevention that is the key point for protecting arsenic-exposed population. Studies on arsenic-exposed population should be designed in order to examine more comprehensively the presence and consequences of these genetic/epigenetic alterations.

  8. Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloid Toxicity, Cytotoxicity, and Carcinogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Stegelmeier, Bryan L.; Colegate, Steven M.; Brown, Ammon W.

    2016-01-01

    Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA)-producing plants have a worldwide distribution amongst flowering plants and commonly cause poisoning of livestock, wildlife, and humans. Previous work has produced considerable understanding of DHPA metabolism, toxicity, species susceptibility, conditions, and routes of exposure, and pathogenesis of acute poisoning. Intoxication is generally caused by contaminated grains, feed, flour, and breads that result in acute, high-dose, short-duration poisoning. Acute poisoning produces hepatic necrosis that is usually confirmed histologically, epidemiologically, and chemically. Less is known about chronic poisoning that may result when plant populations are sporadic, used as tisanes or herbal preparations, or when DHPAs contaminate milk, honey, pollen, or other animal-derived products. Such subclinical exposures may contribute to the development of chronic disease in humans or may be cumulative and probably slowly progress until liver failure. Recent work using rodent models suggest increased neoplastic incidence even with very low DHPA doses of short durations. These concerns have moved some governments to prohibit or limit human exposure to DHPAs. The purpose of this review is to summarize some recent DHPA research, including in vitro and in vivo DHPA toxicity and carcinogenicity reports, and the implications of these findings with respect to diagnosis and prognosis for human and animal health. PMID:27916846

  9. Nitrosamine carcinogens also swim in chlorinated pools.

    PubMed

    Walse, Spencer S; Mitch, William A

    2008-02-15

    Highly carcinogenic N-nitrosodialkylamine (nitrosamine) disinfection byproducts were quantified in chlorinated swimming pools, hot tubs, and aquaria. N-Nitrosodimethylamine, the most abundant nitrosamine detected, was measured in swimming pools and hot tubs at levels up to 500-fold greater than the drinking water concentration of 0.7 ng/L associated with a one in one million lifetime cancer risk. Temperature, enclosure, amine and nitrite precursor loading, and the use of disinfection schemes with reduced chlorine doses contributed to statistically significant variability in its occurrence. N-Nitrosodibutylamine and N-nitrosopiperidine were also detected but together represented <5% of the total analyte distribution. The presence of N-nitrodimethylamine at levels comparable to N-nitrosodimethylamine points to a competition between the nitration and nitrosation of amines in chlorinated recreational waters. Since nitrosamines can cause bladder cancer, the significance of our measurements needs clarification with respect to recent epidemiological results that are suggestive of a link between swimming in chlorinated pools and bladder cancer.

  10. [Adiponectin: an anti-carcinogenic adipokine?].

    PubMed

    Fève, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    Adipose tissue has long been considered as an « organ » of energy storage. Although many works had previously identified the secretory nature of adipocyte, it was only in 1994, when the leptin gene was cloned, that adipose tissue earned the status of endocrine tissue. It was the first demonstration that an adipose tissue-derived hormone was able to communicate with the central nervous system to control satiety and energy balance. In fact, it is almost at the same time that another major adipokine produced by adipocytes, adiponectin, has been discovered. It took several years to identify the insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties of this hormone. More recently, several epidemiological, genetic and experimental findings suggest an anti-carcinogenic role for adiponectin. In this brief review we will present the arguments supporting a protective role of adiponectin in tumor progression, particularly in the context of breast cancer. Adiponectin deficiency commonly observed in obesity may contribute to the natural history of several cancers, as well as the elevation of leptin and other hormonal disturbances associated with excessive adiposity.

  11. Toxicity and Carcinogenicity of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Takanori; Takeda, Makio; Kojima, Sayuri; Tomiyama, Naruto

    2016-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is still used in certain areas of tropics and subtropics to control malaria and other insect-transmitted diseases. DDT and its metabolites have been extensively studied for their toxicity and carcinogenicity in animals and humans and shown to have an endocrine disrupting potential affecting reproductive system although the effects may vary among animal species in correlation with exposure levels. Epidemiologic studies revealed either positive or negative associations between exposure to DDT and tumor development, but there has been no clear evidence that DDT causes cancer in humans. In experimental animals, tumor induction by DDT has been shown in the liver, lung, and adrenals. The mechanisms of hepatic tumor development by DDT have been studied in rats and mice. DDT is known as a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen and has been shown to induce microsomal enzymes through activation of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and to inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in the rodent liver. The results from our previously conducted 4-week and 2-year feeding studies of p,p′-DDT in F344 rats indicate that DDT may induce hepatocellular eosinophilic foci as a result of oxidative DNA damage and leads them to hepatic neoplasia in combination with its mitogenic activity and inhibitory effect on GJIC. Oxidative stress could be a key factor in hepatocarcinogenesis by DDT. PMID:26977256

  12. Human Papillomaviruses: Genetic Basis of Carcinogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Burk, Robert D.; Chen, Zigui; Van Doorslaer, Koenraad

    2009-01-01

    Persistent infection by specific oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is established as the necessary cause of cervix cancer. DNA sequence differences between HPV genomes determine whether an HPV has the potential to cause cancer. Of the more than 100 HPV genotypes characterized at the genetic level, at least 15 are associated, to varying degrees, with cervical cancer. Classification based on nucleotide similarity places nearly all HPVs that infect the cervicovaginal area within the α-PV genus. Within this genus, phylogenetic trees inferred from the entire viral genome cluster all cancer-causing types together, suggesting the existence of a common ancestor for the oncogenic HPVs. However, in separate trees built from the early open reading frames (ORFs; i.e. E1, E2, E6, E7) or the late ORFs (i.e. L1, L2), the carcinogenic potential sorts with the early region of the genome, but not the late region. Thus, genetic differences within the early region specify the pathogenic potential of α-HPV infections. Since the HPV genomes are monophyletic and sites are highly correlated across the genome, diagnosis of oncogenic types and non-oncogenic types can be accomplished using any region across the genome. Here we review our current understanding of the evolutionary history of the oncogenic HPVs, in particular, we focus on the importance of viral genome heterogeneity and discuss the genetic basis for the oncogenic phenotype in some but not all α-PVs. PMID:19684441

  13. Asphalt fume dermal carcinogenicity potential: II. Initiation-promotion assay of Type III built-up roofing asphalt.

    PubMed

    Freeman, James J; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Beazley, S; Burnett, Donald M; Clark, Charles R; Mahagaokar, Suneeta; Parker, Craig M; Stewart, Christopher W; Swanson, Mark S; Arp, Earl W

    2011-10-01

    Clark et al. (accepted for publication) reported that a sample of field-matched fume condensate from a Type III built-up roofing asphalt (BURA) resulted in a carcinogenic response in a mouse skin bioassay, with relatively few tumor-bearing animals, long tumor latency and chronic skin irritation. This mouse skin initiation/promotion study was conducted to assess possible mechanisms, i.e., genotoxic initiation vs. tumor promotion subsequent to repeated skin injury and repair. The same Type III BURA fume condensate sample was evaluated in groups of 30 male Crl:CD1® mice by skin application twice per week (total dose of 50 mg/week) for 2 weeks during the initiation phase and for 26 weeks during the promotion phase. Positive control substances were 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA, 50 μg applied once) as an initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA, 5 μg, applied twice weekly) during the promotion phase. During the 6 months of study with the asphalt fume condensate, eight skin masses were observed when tested for initiation, five of which were confirmed microscopically to be benign squamous cell papillomas. Only two papillomas were observed when tested for promotion. There was no apparent relationship between skin irritation and tumor development in this study. These results are more indicative of genotoxicity rather than a non-genotoxic mode of action. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Enumeration of petroleum-degrading microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, J D; Colwell, R R

    1976-01-01

    A variety of factors, including concentration of oil, antibiotics, dyes, and inoculum washes, were examined to determine their effect on the total counts of microorganisms on oil-containing media. The media found to be best for enumerating petroleum-degrading microorganisms contained 0.5% (vol/vol) oil and 0.003% phenol red, with Fungizone added for isolating bacteria and streptomycin and tetracycline added for isolating yeasts and fungi. Washing the inoculum did not improve recovery of petroleum degraders. Specifically, silica gel-oil medium and a yeast medium are recommended for enumeration of petroleum-degrading bacteria and yeasts and fungi, respectively. It is suggested that counts of petroleum degraders be expressed as percentage of the total population rather than total numbers of petroleum degraders per se. Incubation temperature and presence of oil was found to influence the numbers of petroleum-degrading microorganisms at a given sampling site. PMID:999272

  15. Comparative carcinogenic potencies of particulates from diesel engine exhausts, coke oven emissions, roofing tar aerosols and cigarette smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, R E

    1983-01-01

    Mammalian cell mutagenesis, transformation and skin tumorigenesis assays show similar results in comparing the potencies of diesel, coke oven, roofing tar and cigarette smoke particulates. These assay results are reasonably consistent with the comparative carcinogenic potencies of coke oven and roofing tar emissions as determined by epidemiological studies. The bacterial mutagenesis assay tends to show disproportionately high potencies, particularly with diesel particulates. Results to date encourage the approach to the assessment for carcinogenic risks from diesel emissions based on the use of epidemiological data on cancer induced by coke oven emissions, roofing tar particulates and cigarette smoke with the comparative potencies of these materials determined by in vivo and in vitro bioassays. PMID:6186481

  16. World petroleum systems with Jurassic source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Klemme, H.D. )

    1993-11-08

    Fourteen petroleum systems with Upper Jurassic source rocks contain one quarter of the world's discovered oil and gas. Eleven other systems with Lower and Middle Jurassic source rocks presently have a minor but significant amount of discovered oil and gas. The purpose of this article is to review the systems geologically, describe their location in space and time on a continental scale, estimate their relative petroleum system recovery efficiencies, and outline the effect their essential elements and processes have on their petroleum plumbing.

  17. Optothermal skin-water concentration gradient measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Peng; Imhof, Robert E.

    1996-05-01

    Opto-Thermal Transient Emission Radiometry has been shown to be able to measure stratum corneum hydration in-vivo. We now present a study that shows how the technique can be extended to give information about the distribution of water within the stratum corneum. This depth profile measurement capability is based on a new theoretical expression for the opto- thermal signal that takes a gradient of water concentration explicitly into account. The technique is illustrated with measurements on untreated skin and skin treated with petroleum jelly and DMSO.

  18. Foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings.

    PubMed

    Myöhänen, Kirsi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to many different chemicals during pregnancy through maternal circulation is possible. Transplacental transfer of xenobiotics can be demonstrated using human placental perfusion. Also, placental perfusion can give information about the placental kinetics as well as metabolism and accumulation in the placenta because it retains the tissue structure and function. Although human placental perfusion has been used extensively to study the transplacental transfer of drugs, the information on food and environmental carcinogens is much more limited. This review deals with the foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings. In particular, human transplacental transfer of the food carcinogens such as acrylamide, glycidamide and nitrosodimethylamine are in focus. Because these carcinogens are genotoxic, the functional capacity of human placenta to induce DNA adduct formation or metabolize these above mentioned CYP2E1 substrates is of interest in this context. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  19. Carcinogens and mutagens in the environment. Volume 1. Food products

    SciTech Connect

    Stich, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    This work discusses epidemiological evidence, carcinogens and mutagens in food, and methodological and regulatory issues. Among more detailed topics covered are life-style and cancer etiology, dietary fat relationships to cancer, metabolic activation, mycotoxins, analysis, and regulatory approaches.

  20. Correlation between carcinogenic potency of chemicals in animals and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, B.C.; Crump, K.S.; Shipp, A.M.

    1988-12-01

    Twenty-three chemicals were selected for comparison of the carcinogenic potencies estimated from epidemiological data to those estimated from animal carcinogenesis bioassays. The chemicals were all those for which reasonably strong evidence of carcinogenicity could be found in humans or animals and for which suitable data could be obtained for quantifying carcinogenic potencies in both humans and animals. Many alternative methods of analyzing the bioassay data were investigated. Almost all of the methods yielded potency estimates that were highly correlated with potencies estimated from epidemiological data; correlations were highly statistically significant (p < 0.001), with the corresponding correlation coefficients ranging as high as 0.9. These findings provide support for the general use of animal data to evaluate carcinogenic potential in humans and also for the use of animal data to quantify human risk.

  1. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  2. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-22

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  3. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-16

    During 1992 the Department continued planning activities for the expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels. A draft Environmental Impact Statement for the five candidate sites was completed in October 1992, and a series of public hearings was held during December 1992. Conceptual design engineering activities, life cycle cost estimates and geotechnical studies to support the technical requirements for an Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan Amendment were essentially completed in December 1992. At the end of 1992, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 574.7 million barrels and an additional 1.7 million barrels was in transit to the Reserve. During 1992 approximately 6.2 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Reserve. A Department of Energy Tiger Team Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Assessment was conducted at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve from March 9 through April 10, 1992. In general, the Tiger Team found that Strategic Petroleum Reserve activities do not pose undue environmental, safety or health risks. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve`s Final Corrective Action Plan, prepared in response to the Tiger Team assessment, was submitted for Department approval in December 1992. On November 18, 1992, the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy selected DynMcDennott Petroleum Operations Company to provide management and operating services for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve for a period of 5 years commencing April 1, 1993. DynMcDermott will succeed Boeing Petroleum Services, Inc.

  4. Petroleum resource potential GIS of northern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinshouer, Douglas W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Wahl, Ronald R.; Hill, Ronald J.; Pribil, Michael J.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; King, J. David; Agena, Warren F.; Taylor, David J.; Amirzada, Abdulla; Selab, Amir Mohammad; Mutteh, Abdul-Salam; Haidari, Ghulam Naqshband; Wardak, Moeengul Gullabudeen

    2006-01-01

    The CD-ROM contains an ESRI ArcReader format GIS project presenting the results of a petroleum resource assessment of Northern Afghanistan, and other data used in the petroleum assessment. Geologic, structural, field, well, political, and other GIS layers covering Afghanistan, Northern Afghanistan and adjacent areas, along with associated geochemical and other data tables pertinent to a petroleum assessment are included. The purpose of this GIS is to provide the basic data layers and tables required to support the petroleum assessment, data for further exploration and development, and an index of known data.

  5. Petroleum geology of the state of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Lingley, William S.; Law, Ben E.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the potential petroleum resources of Washington State as recently summarized in the 1995 U.S. Geological Survey National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources. Eight conventional petroleum plays, three coal-bed gas plays, and two continuous-type gas plays are defined and characterized. Of these plays, the potential for significant petroleum accumulations appears greatest in the Columbia Plateau region of eastern Washington. Potential accumulations in western Washington are smaller but could have local economic significance. The absence of high-quality petroleum source rocks is probably the most important factor limiting development of large accumulations.

  6. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs.

  7. UCP2 knockout suppresses mouse skin carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjuan; Zhang, Chunjing; Jackson, Kasey; Shen, Xingui; Jin, Rong; Li, Guohong; Kevil, Christopher G; Gu, Xin; Shi, Runhua; Zhao, Yunfeng

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial uncoupling (uncouples electron transport from ATP production) has recently been proposed as a novel survival mechanism for cancer cells, and reduction in free radical generation is the accepted mechanism of action. However, there is no direct evidence supporting that uncoupling proteins promote carcinogenesis. Herein, we examined whether mitochondrial uncoupling affects mouse skin carcinogenesis using uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) homozygous knockout and wild-type mice. The results indicate that knockout of Ucp2 significantly reduced the formation of both benign (papilloma) and malignant (squamous cell carcinoma) tumors. UCP2 knockout did not cause increases in apoptosis during skin carcinogenesis. The rates of oxygen consumption were decreased only in the carcinogen-treated UCP2 knockout mice, whereas glycolysis was increased only in the carcinogen-treated wild-type mice. Finally, the levels of metabolites pyruvate, malate, and succinate showed different trends after carcinogen treatments between the wild-type and UCP2 knockout mice. Our study is the first to demonstrate that Ucp2 knockout suppresses carcinogenesis in vivo. Together with early studies showing that UCP2 is overexpressed in a number of human cancers, UCP2 could be a potential target for cancer prevention and/or therapy. Cancer Prev Res; 8(6); 487-91. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. 31 CFR 542.208 - Prohibited importation of petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibited importation of petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. 542.208 Section 542.208 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 542.208 Prohibited importation of petroleum or...

  9. Carcinogen-induced trans activation of gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinberger, T.; Flint, Y.B.; Blank, M.; Etkin, S.; Lavi, S.

    1988-03-01

    The authors report a new mechanism of carcinogen action by which the expression of several genes was concomitantly enhanced. This mechanism involved the altered activity of cellular factors which modulate the expression of genes under their control. The increased expression was regulated at least in part on the transcriptional level and did not require amplification of the overexpressed genes. This phenomenon was transient; it was apparent as early as 24 h after carcinogen treatment and declined a few days later.

  10. Carcinogen-induced trans activation of gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Kleinberger, T; Flint, Y B; Blank, M; Etkin, S; Lavi, S

    1988-01-01

    We report a new mechanism of carcinogen action by which the expression of several genes was concomitantly enhanced. This mechanism involved the altered activity of cellular factors which modulate the expression of genes under their control. The increased expression was regulated at least in part on the transcriptional level and did not require amplification of the overexpressed genes. This phenomenon was transient; it was apparent as early as 24 h after carcinogen treatment and declined a few days later. Images PMID:2835673

  11. Biomonitoring human exposure to environmental carcinogenic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Farmer, P B; Sepai, O; Lawrence, R; Autrup, H; Sabro Nielsen, P; Vestergård, A B; Waters, R; Leuratti, C; Jones, N J; Stone, J; Baan, R A; van Delft, J H; Steenwinkel, M J; Kyrtopoulos, S A; Souliotis, V L; Theodorakopoulos, N; Bacalis, N C; Natarajan, A T; Tates, A D; Haugen, A; Andreassen, A; Ovrebø, S; Shuker, D E; Amaning, K S; Castelain, P

    1996-07-01

    A coordinated study was carried out on the development, evaluation and application of biomonitoring procedures for populations exposed to environmental genotoxic pollutants. The procedures used involved both direct measurement of DNA or protein damage (adducts) and assessment of second biological effects (mutation and cytogenetic damage). Adduct detection at the level of DNA or protein (haemoglobin) was carried out by 32P-postlabelling, immunochemical, HPLC or mass spectrometric methods. Urinary excretion products resulting from DNA damage were also estimated (immunochemical assay, mass spectrometry). The measurement of adducts was focused on those from genotoxicants that result from petrochemical combustion or processing, e.g. low-molecular-weight alkylating agents, PAHs and compounds that cause oxidative DNA damage. Cytogenetic analysis of lymphocytes was undertaken (micronuclei, chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges) and mutation frequency was estimated at a number of loci including the hprt gene and genes involving in cancer development. Blood and urine samples from individuals exposed to urban pollution were collected. Populations exposed through occupational or medical sources to larger amounts of some of the genotoxic compounds present in the environmental samples were used as positive controls for the environmentally exposed population. Samples from rural areas were used as negative controls. The project has led to new, more sensitive and more selective approaches for detecting carcinogen-induced damage to DNA and proteins, and subsequent biological effects. These methods were validated with the occupational exposures, which showed evidence of DNA and/or protein and/or chromosome damage in workers in a coke oven plant, garage workers exposed to diesel exhaust and workers exposed to ethylene oxide in a sterilization plant. Dose reponse and adduct repair were studied for methylated adducts in patients treated with methylating cytostatic drugs

  12. Human exposure to dioxins through the diet in Catalonia, Spain: carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk.

    PubMed

    Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, Jose L; Bocio, Ana; Casas, Conrad; Teixidó, Angel; Müller, Lutz

    2003-03-01

    The main objectives of this study were to estimate the dietary intake of dioxins by the population of Catalonia, Spain, to determine which food groups showed the greatest contribution to this intake, and to assess the health risks potentially associated with the dietary dioxin intake. From June to August 2000, food samples were randomly acquired in seven cities of Catalonia. Dioxin concentrations were determined in 108 samples belonging to the following groups: vegetables, fruits, pulses, cereals, fish and shellfish, meats and meat products, eggs, milk and dairy products, and oils and fats. Estimates of average daily food consumption were obtained from recent studies. Total dietary intake of dioxins for the general population of Catalonia was estimated to be 95.4 pg WHO-TEQ/day (78.4 pg I-TEQ/day), with fish and shellfish (31%), diary products (25%), cereals (14%) and meat (13%) showing the greatest percentages of contribution to dioxin intake. The contribution of all the rest of food groups to the total dietary intake was under 20%. The non-carcinogenic risk index of dioxin intake through the diet was in the range 0.34-1.36, while the carcinogenic risk level was 1,360 excess cancer over a lifetime of 70 years. Our results corroborate the decreasing tendency in dietary intake of dioxins found in recent studies (2000-2001) from various countries.

  13. Examples of petroleum engineering objects

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, A.E.

    1995-06-01

    In recent years, object-oriented (OO) methods have gained prominence among software developers as a means of more closely modeling the real world. Most OO applications to date have their roots in the field of computer science, and this may deter people without a strong computing background from further investigating OO. However, OO methods can be applied to concepts that may be more familiar to petroleum engineers. The intention of this paper is to demonstrate that the power of OO can be used to simplify the solution of practical problems by engineers having only a limited background in computing. The author presents three such petroleum engineering applications in this paper, probabilistic reserves evaluation, a gas recycling scheme, and material-balance calculations. In the first of these examples, they use OO methods to model a simple gas recycling scheme, taking into account explicitly vapor/liquid equilibrium, both in the surface separation train and in the reservoir. In the second example, they use OO methods instead of the well-known Monte Carlo method to derive a reserves expectation curve. In the third example, they analyze the Schlithuis material-balance method and represent it using simple objects. A brief introduction to objects will prepare the ground for the more detailed analysis of these applications. In each case, they briefly review the underlying principles and analyze them in terms of objects. They will demonstrate the structure and implementation of each of the resulting object classes using short C++ programs. Finally, they apply these object classes to the solution of some real-life problems that have appeared in the petroleum engineering literature.

  14. Conformations of DNA adducts with polycyclic aromatic carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Broyde, S.; Hingerty, B.

    1984-01-01

    Minimized semi-empirical potential energy calculations for a number of carcinogen adducts with dCpdG have yielded molecular views of the adduct conformations. The base displaced and Z type conformations of acetylaminofluorene (AAF) adducts to guanine C-8 have been detailed. Model building shows that base displacement causes kinking and denaturation in the B helix, while the Z helix is largely unperturbed by modification with AAF, in agreement with experimental findings. The minor AAF adduct linked to quanine N/sup 2/ can reside at a B-Z junction, with the carcinogen buried in a groove in the Z direction, without causing denaturation. The syn guanine in these modified Z forms could be mutagenic, the lesion escaping repair because the helix is undeformed, while the distorted base-displaced conformers are repaired. Aminofluorene (AF) and 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP) linked to guanine N/sup 2/ are currently believed to be critical lesions. They all have a pair of A or B type low energy states, one of which has base-base stacking with carcinogen at the helix exterior, and a second with carcinogen-base stacking. The two states are easily interconvertible. It is possible that the carcinogen may reside primarily at the unperturbed helix exterior where it escapes repair, but that carcinogen-base stacking may occur at a critical time during replication, leading to a mutation. 49 references, 8 figures.

  15. CAREX Canada: an enhanced model for assessing occupational carcinogen exposure

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Cheryl E; Ge, Calvin B; Hall, Amy L; Davies, Hugh W; Demers, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the numbers of workers exposed to known and suspected occupational carcinogens in Canada, building on the methods of CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) projects in the European Union (EU). Methods CAREX Canada consists of estimates of the prevalence and level of exposure to occupational carcinogens. CAREX Canada includes occupational agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as known, probable or possible human carcinogens that were present and feasible to assess in Canadian workplaces. A Canadian Workplace Exposure Database was established to identify the potential for exposure in particular industries and occupations, and to create exposure level estimates among priority agents, where possible. CAREX EU data were reviewed for relevance to the Canadian context and the proportion of workers likely to be exposed by industry and occupation in Canada was assigned using expert assessment and agreement by a minimum of two occupational hygienists. These proportions were used to generate prevalence estimates by linkage with the Census of Population for 2006, and these estimates are available by industry, occupation, sex and province. Results CAREX Canada estimated the number of workers exposed to 44 known, probable and suspected carcinogens. Estimates of levels of exposure were further developed for 18 priority agents. Common exposures included night shift work (1.9 million exposed), solar ultraviolet radiation exposure (1.5 million exposed) and diesel engine exhaust (781 000 exposed). Conclusions A substantial proportion of Canadian workers are exposed to known and suspected carcinogens at work. PMID:24969047

  16. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, Epidemiologic and Other Supporting Evidence of Carcinogenic Hazard

    PubMed Central

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Lash, Lawrence H.; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2013-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including from hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. Strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE. PMID:23973663

  17. Update on the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of cobalt compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lison, D; De Boeck, M; Verougstraete, V; Kirsch-Volders, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To integrate recent understandings of the mechanisms of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of the different cobalt compounds.
METHOD—A narrative review of the studies published since the last IARC assessment in 1991 (genotoxicity, experimental carcinogenesis, and epidemiology).
RESULTS—Two different mechanisms of genotoxicity, DNA breakage induced by cobalt metal and especially hard metal particles, and inhibition of DNA repair by cobalt (II) ions contribute to the carcinogenic potential of cobalt compounds. There is evidence that soluble cobalt (II) cations exert a genotoxic and carcinogenic activity in vitro and in vivo in experimental systems but evidence in humans is lacking. Experimental data indicate some evidence of a genotoxic potential for cobalt metal in vitro in human lymphocytes but there is no evidence available of a carcinogenic potential. There is evidence that hard metal particles exert a genotoxic and carcinogenic activity in vitro and in human studies, respectively. There is insufficient information for cobalt oxides and other compounds.
CONCLUSION—Although many areas of uncertainty remain, an assessment of the carcinogenicity of cobalt and its compounds requires a clear distinction between the different compounds of the element and needs to take into account the different mechanisms involved.


Keywords: cobalt; DNA breakage; inhibition of DNA repair PMID:11555681

  18. Does the term carcinogen send the wrong message?

    PubMed

    Flamm, W G; Hughes, D

    1997-08-19

    The term carcinogen has been used by scientists and health regulatory officials for decades. During the last 20 years there have been attempts to redefine the term to make it more rigorous. But, as predicted two decades ago by a benchmark-setting subcommittee of the National Cancer Advisory Board, advances in scientific understanding have brought about dramatic changes in the way we are able to view the term carcinogen. These changes, their scientific bases and their effect on defining the term carcinogen are described. An alternative to the use of the term carcinogen is suggested by the recently proposed US Environmental Agency's guidelines for cancer risk assessment which appear to be in accord with current scientific understanding and the importance of considering the factors affecting the term carcinogen. The guidelines set forth four questions, the answers to which could, in our judgment, replace the need to define or use the term carcinogen which, in light of new scientific knowledge, has become more misleading than useful.

  19. Interactions of chemical carcinogens and genetic variation in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Jing

    2010-01-01

    In the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in addition to hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections, chemical carcinogens also play important roles. For example, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) epoxide reacts with guanine in DNA and can lead to genetic changes. In HCC, the tumor suppressor gene p53 codon 249 mutation is associated with AFB1 exposure and mutations in the K-ras oncogene are related to vinyl chloride exposure. Numerous genetic alterations accumulate during the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. Chemical carcinogen DNA-adduct formation is the basis for these genetic changes and also a molecular marker which reflects exposure level and biological effects. Metabolism of chemical carcinogens, including their activation and detoxification, also plays a key role in chemical hepatocarcinogenesis. Cytochrome p450 enzymes, N-acetyltransferases and glutathione S-transferases are involved in activating and detoxifying chemical carcinogens. These enzymes are polymorphic and genetic variation influences biological response to chemical carcinogens. This genetic variation has been postulated to influence the variability in risk for HCC observed both within and across populations. Ongoing studies seek to fully understand the mechanisms by which genetic variation in response to chemical carcinogens impacts on HCC risk. PMID:21160980

  20. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, epidemiologic and other supporting evidence of carcinogenic hazard.

    PubMed

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Lash, Lawrence H; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z

    2014-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. The strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE.

  1. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  2. Skin abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... have methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or another staph infection, follow instructions for self-care at home.

  3. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... from getting burned by the sun's ultraviolet, or UV, rays. That's why your skin gets tan if ... Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  4. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Professional Version Also of Interest Test your knowledge Impetigo is a bacterial skin infection. The infection ... Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge . Merck Manuals About Disclaimer Permissions Privacy Contributors Terms ...

  5. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... wear sunscreen and protective clothing, such as a hat, to prevent painful sunburns. Protecting your skin now ... happens in a split second, without you ever thinking about it. previous continue Dermis = Lots of Blood ...

  6. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons.What ... the safe-sun guidelines.1. Avoid the sun.Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

  7. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the touch may have yellow drainage Of cellulitis: a red, inflamed area on the skin that ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Erythema Multiforme Cellulitis Pityriasis Rosea Paronychia Molluscum Contagiosum Abscess Cellulitis Taking ...

  8. Petroleum fingerprinting with organic markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, Frances D.; Lorenson, T.D.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Petroleum fingerprinting is an invaluable tool in forensic geochemistry. This article summarizes applications of fingerprinting in several oil spills and natural oil seepages that we have studied during the last 25 years. It shows how each unique chemical fingerprint can be used to correlate or differentiate oils. Fingerprints can provide information about processes in the environment that impact oils such as weathering and microbial degradation. They can be used to evaluate organic matter that contributed to oils, and classify oils with regard to the geological framework of their source, such as evaluating geological facies, age, lithology, and depositional environment.

  9. Petroleum characterization by perfluorocarbon tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Senum, G.I.; Fajer, R.W. ); Harris, B.R. Jr. ); DeRose, W.E. ); Ottaviani, W.L. )

    1992-02-01

    Perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs), a class of six compounds, were used to help characterize the Shallow Oil Zone (SOZ) reservoir at the Naval Petroleum Reserve in California (NPRC) at Elk Hills. The SOZ reservoir is undergoing a pilot gas injection program to assess the technical feasibility and economic viability of injecting gas into the SOZ for improved oil recovery. PFTs were utilized in the pilot gas injection to qualitatively assess the extent of the pilot gas injection so as to determine the degree of gas containment within the SOZ reservoir.

  10. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  11. JOINT ACTION OF A CHEMICAL CARCINOGEN AND A NEOPLASTIC VIRUS TO INDUCE CANCER IN RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Stanfield; Rous, Peyton

    1951-01-01

    Areas of rabbit skin previously rendered hyperplastic with turpentine were scarified, inoculated with the Shope papilloma virus, and covered with a dressing that contained 20-methylcholanthrene (MC) or 9:10-dimethyl-1:2-benzanthracene (9:10). The dressing was left on until healing had been well completed, a matter of 5 to 7 days. The papillomas which subsequently arose often appeared later, were fewer, and remained less vigorous than those due to the action of virus alone, but throughout several months they appeared to differ from these in no other ways. Then, more or less abruptly, the large majority became carcinomatous, frequently at several situations, whereas with few exceptions the control growths underwent no such alteration. The cancers were of the sorts ordinarily deriving, by secondary change, from epidermal cells infected with the virus. Collateral data have made plain that the hydrocarbons acted in their carcinogenic capacity to bring on the cancers. Indeed in control tests 9: 10 sometimes conferred latent neoplastic potentialities on uninoculated epidermis exposed to it while healing after scarification, a fact disclosed months later by painting these expanses with chloroform until hyperplasia occurred. Under the promoting influence of this agent papillomas formed which had the distinctive morphology of those induced by the chemical carcinogens. So strong and enduring were the effects of MC and 9:10 as to cause cancers to arise from many virus papillomas which were retrogressing after months of proliferation, that is to say under circumstances ordinarily unfavorable to malignant change. The facts justify the conclusion that the virus and the hydrocarbons acted jointly and in their carcinogenic capacities. PMID:14832395

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the settled dust of automobile workshops, health and carcinogenic risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nadeem; Ismail, Iqbal Mohammad Ibrahim; Khoder, Mamdouh; Shamy, Magdy; Alghamdi, Mansour; Al Khalaf, Abdulrahman; Costa, Max

    2017-12-01

    There are studies available on the occurrence of PAHs in indoor settled dust from residential and different occupational settings in literature but limited data is available on their occurrence and potential health risk assessment in automobile workshops. In recent decades Saudi Arabia has experienced tremendous growth in the petroleum industry and as a result, the automobile industry is booming. People working in automobile workshops are at a greater risk of exposure to chemicals releasing from the petroleum products. The main objective of this study was to report PAHs in settled dust from different automobile workshops of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and evaluate health risk for workers through dust exposure. Pyrene (1585-13500ng/g), Benz[a]anthracene (carcinogenic power (BaPE), incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR), and daily exposure to PAHs via dust ingestion. The median concentration of BaPE was 285ng/g, ILCR was up to 6.78×10(-3) (exceeded reference values of USEPA (range between 1×10(-6) and 1×10(-4))), and worker's exposure via dust ingestion on daily bases reached up to 33ng/kgbw/day for ∑12PAHs. This study showed people working in automobile workshops in the studied area are getting expose to high levels of PAHs via dust ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. This is the first study reporting PAHs in automobile workshops settings from Middle East. The incremental lifetime cancer risk to workers via dust exposure exceeded set limits of USEPA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Can the chemical reactivity of an ultimate carcinogen be related to its carcinogenicity? An application to propylene oxide.

    PubMed

    Mavri, Janez

    2013-02-01

    In this article we report calculations of the activation free energy for a chemical reaction between propylene oxide and DNA, in particular with the guanine at the N7 position. Calculations were performed using Hartree-Fock and MP2 methods in conjunction with flexible basis sets. The effects of solvation were considered using the Langevin dipoles and solvent reaction field methods. The calculated activation free energies are in good agreement with the experimental value of 25.36 kcal/mol. Moreover, the reactivities of a series of ultimate carcinogens of the epoxy type toward DNA are shown to be related to their carcinogenicities. Higher reactivity is generally associated with higher carcinogenicity, although transport properties, reactions with ultimate carcinogen scavengers, and the DNA correction mechanism are also very important. It is very likely that the window of reactivity rather than a high reactivity value is the relevant measure of carcinogenicity, since highly reactive ultimate carcinogens interact with water and proteins before they reach DNA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Hung; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Chen, Pei-Jen

    2014-07-30

    Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor γ1 (rarγ1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish populations in the aquatic environment.

  15. Learning about Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancers Spread 2000 News Release Learning About Skin Cancer What are the most common forms of skin ... years. What are the most common forms of skin cancer? Three types of skin cancer are the most ...

  16. Relating rheological measurements to primary and secondary skin feeling when mineral-based and Fischer-Tropsch wax-based cosmetic emulsions and jellies are applied to the skin.

    PubMed

    Bekker, M; Webber, G V; Louw, N R

    2013-08-01

    Rheology measurements were correlated to skin sensations occurring when cream and petroleum jelly cosmetic products containing different amounts of synthetic Fischer-Tropsch wax were applied to the skin. A panel of 15 people with a background in cosmetic product development were asked to rate skin feelings when a range of petroleum jelly and cream samples are applied to the skin. Primary skin feel, or the spreadability of a cosmetic product, was correlated to the product's flow onset and maximum viscosity as measured by a Anton Paar rheometer, whereas secondary skin feel or the sensation occurring at the end of application when the product was completely rubbed into the skin was correlated to the product's viscosity measured at high shear rates. The cream samples prepared with a petroleum jelly containing 10% and 20% Fischer-Tropsch wax fell within the boundary of good primary skin feeling of cream products. Predominantly, synthetic petroleum jellies were given the best assessments in terms of primary skin feeling and were used with mineral-based petroleum jellies to determine the boundary of good primary skin feeling for petroleum jelly products. The further away a product falls from this rheological boundary the poorer the skin feeling assessment appears to be by the panel. Products containing Fischer-Tropsch waxes were given the best assessment by the panel for secondary skin feeling. Comments from the panel include that these products feel silky and light on the skin. The higher the Fischer-Tropsch wax content, the lower viscosity was at high shear rate (ϒ = 500 s(-1) ) and the higher the assessment by the panel. Rheological measurements can be used to objectively determine skin sensation when products are applied to the skin; this may shorten research and development times. A rheology boundary of certain product viscosity and shear stress applied is associated with good primary skin feeling for lotions, creams and petroleum jellies. Lower product viscosity

  17. Exploring the Molecular Mechanisms of Nickel-Induced Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Keyuna S.; Buchner, Virginia; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel, a naturally occurring element that exists in various mineral forms, is mainly found in soil and sediment, and its mobilization is influenced by the physicochemical properties of the soil. Industrial sources of nickel include metallurgical processes such as electroplating, alloy production, stainless steel, and nickel-cadmium batteries. Nickel industries, oil- and coal-burning power plants, and trash incinerators have been implicated in its release into the environment. In humans, nickel toxicity is influenced by the route of exposure, dose, and solubility of the nickel compound. Lung inhalation is the major route of exposure for nickel-induced toxicity. Nickel may also be ingested or absorbed through the skin. The primary target organs are the kidneys and lungs. Other organs such as the liver, spleen, heart and testes may also be affected to a lesser extent. Although the most common health effect is an allergic reaction, research has also demonstrated that nickel is carcinogenic to humans. The focus of the present review is on recent research concerning the molecular mechanisms of nickel-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. We first present a background on the occurrence of nickel in the environment, human exposure, and human health effects. PMID:21905451

  18. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This publication contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993.

  19. Fractals in petroleum geology and earth processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Christopher C.; La Pointe, Paul R.

    1995-01-01

    In this unique volume, renowned experts discuss the applications of fractals in petroleum research-offering an excellent introduction to the subject. Contributions cover a broad spectrum of applications from petroleum exploration to production. Papers also illustrate how fractal geometry can quantify the spatial heterogeneity of different aspects of geology and how this information can be used to improve exploration and production results.

  20. Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-02-01

    The petroleum refining industry defined a detailed R&D roadmap, Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry, to identify high-priority areas for technology R&D. Those priorities helped ITP target cost-shared solicitations and guide development of a balanced R&D portfolio to yield useful results in the near, mid, and long-term.