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Sample records for petroleum skin carcinogens

  1. Experimental evaluation of skin carcinogenicity associated with chronic exposure to synthetic petroleums

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Most fossil liquids, whether natural or synthetic, possess some degree of skin carcinogenic activity if applied at high enough concentration for sufficient time to genetically responsive experimental animals. Whether a synthetic petroleum shown to be capable of eliciting skin cancer in the mouse will have similar capability in exposed humans depends upon the potency of the material, the dosage and the person's individual susceptibility. This presentation describes the approach being taken to quantitiate skin carcinogenic potency. In addition to potency estimation, exposure conditions that could have an important bearing upon extrapolation of experimental animal data are investigated. These factors include the capacity of the material to induce skin irritation, and physical-chemical characteristics that influence skin localization and persistence of potentially carcinogenic components.

  2. The carcinogenic potential of selected petroleum-derived products.

    PubMed

    Rothman, N; Emmett, E A

    1988-01-01

    In this chapter the authors examine the toxicologic and epidemiologic literature for a broad range of petroleum-derived products in order to assess the carcinogenic potential of these compounds. Types of evidence used, classes of compounds, and qualitative assessments of carcinogenicity are presented.

  3. Simple analytical test and a formula to predict the potential for dermal carcinogenicity from petroleum oils

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, J.M.; Dimeler, G.R.; Basil, E.W.; Wilkins, G.W.; Nutter, J.S.

    1987-11-01

    A correlation for predicting dermal carcinogenicity of petroleum oils in laboratory animals has been developed using two simple analytical tests. The tests are the Food and Drug Administration test (FDA) commonly used to measure white oil purity, and a viscosity test. In the correlation, FDA is a measure of aromaticity, and viscosity is used to account for molecular weight. The FDA test alone appears to be comparable to other predictors now in use, but incorporating viscosity significantly increases the accuracy of predicting dermal carcinogenicity. A formula is proposed, using both the FDA test results and viscosity, that predicts the percentage of mice which will develop neoplastic skin tumors.

  4. Carcinogenicity of petroleum lubricating oil distillates: effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, and blending.

    PubMed

    Halder, C A; Warne, T M; Little, R Q; Garvin, P J

    1984-01-01

    Certain refining processes were investigated to determine their influence on the dermal carcinogenic activity of petroleum-derived lubricating oil distillates. Specifically, the effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, a combination of both processes, and the blending of oils processed using each technique were evaluated in standard mouse skin-painting bioassays. The refining process used as well as the level or severity of treatment greatly influenced the carcinogenic outcome of processed lubricating oils. Solvent refining at severities normally used appeared to eliminate carcinogenicity. In contrast, hydroprocessing alone at mild levels of treatment was successful only in reducing the carcinogenic potency; severe hydroprocessing conditions were necessary to eliminate carcinogenic activity without the use of additional refining processes. Carcinogenic activity could also be eliminated by following moderate solvent refining with mild hydroprocessing. Blending of hydroprocessed oils with solvent-refined oils resulted in a substantial reduction or even elimination of carcinogenic activity. However, the degree of protection obtained varied with the particular distillates used and appeared largely dependent on the inherent biological activity of the hydroprocessed oil.

  5. Comparative carcinogenic and mutagenic activity of coal tar and petroleum asphalt paints used in potable water supply systems.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M; Bull, R J; Munch, J; Meier, J

    1984-02-01

    Coal tar and petroleum asphalt paints are among the products used as coatings for water pipes and storage tanks to retard corrosion. Formulations of these coatings were tested in the Ames mutagenesis and the mouse skin carcinogenesis bioassays. To test the mutagenicity of the paints, six doses ranging from 0.005 to 10 microliters per plate were assayed. In the mouse skin bioassay, doses of the coal tar paints ranging from 0.2 to 200 microliters were administered topically to 30 SENCAR mice per group. These initiating doses were followed by applications of 1.0 micrograms of 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in 0.2 ml acetone topically, three times weekly for 20 weeks. Petroleum asphalt paints were tested in groups of 40 animals at 200 and 600 microliters doses. All coal tar paints showed mutagenic activity after metabolic activation with S-9, with the highest response being in strains TA 98 and TA 100. None of the petroleum asphalt paints gave mutagenic responses. Both types of coatings resulted in positive responses in the initiation/promotion study. The coal tar paints gave rise to 1000-1800 times the tumor response observed with petroleum asphalt products. One coal tar product was positive when tested as a complete carcinogen in the mouse at 2 microliters per application once weekly for 30 weeks, whereas the asphalt paint was negative at 100 times the dose. The biological responses to the products were greater than expected from their polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. These findings suggest that the hazard posed by these coatings may not be fully explained by their PAH contents.

  6. Exposure to carcinogens for defined job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry, 1970 to 2005

    PubMed Central

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To identify and describe the exposure to selected known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for defined job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry from 1970 to 2005, in order to provide exposure information for a planned cohort study on cancer. Methods Background information on possible exposure was obtained through company visits, including interviewing key personnel (n = 83) and collecting monitoring reports (n = 118) and other relevant documents (n = 329). On the basis of a previous questionnaire administered to present and former offshore employees in 1998, 27 job categories were defined. Results This study indicated possible exposure to 18 known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures or exposure circumstances. Monitoring reports were obtained on seven agents (benzene, mineral oil mist and vapour, respirable and total dust, asbestos fibres, refractory ceramic fibres, formaldehyde and tetrachloroethylene). The mean exposure level of 367 personal samples of benzene was 0.037 ppm (range: less than the limit of detection to 2.6 ppm). Asbestos fibres were detected (0.03 fibres/cm3) when asbestos‐containing brake bands were used in drilling draw work in 1988. Personal samples of formaldehyde in the process area ranged from 0.06 to 0.29 mg/m3. Descriptions of products containing known and suspected carcinogens, exposure sources and processes were extracted from the collected documentation and the interviews of key personnel. Conclusions This study described exposure to 18 known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for 27 job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry. For a planned cohort study on cancer, quantitative estimates of exposure to benzene, and mineral oil mist and vapour might be developed. For the other agents, information in the present study can be used for further assessment of exposure, for instance, by expert judgement. More

  7. Inter‐rater agreement in the assessment of exposure to carcinogens in the offshore petroleum industry

    PubMed Central

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E; Kromhout, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the reliability of an expert team assessing exposure to carcinogens in the offshore petroleum industry and to study how the information provided influenced the agreement among raters. Methods Eight experts individually assessed the likelihood of exposure for combinations of 17 carcinogens, 27 job categories and four time periods (1970–1979, 1980–1989, 1990–1999 and 2000–2005). Each rater assessed 1836 combinations based on summary documents on carcinogenic agents, which included descriptions of sources of exposure and products, descriptions of work processes carried out within the different job categories, and monitoring data. Inter‐rater agreement was calculated using Cohen's kappa index and single and average score intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (ICC(2,1) and ICC(2,8), respectively). Differences in inter‐rater agreement for time periods, raters, International Agency for Research on Cancer groups and the amount of information provided were consequently studied. Results Overall, 18% of the combinations were denoted as possible exposure, and 14% scored probable exposure. Stratified by the 17 carcinogenic agents, the probable exposure prevalence ranged from 3.8% for refractory ceramic fibres to 30% for crude oil. Overall mean kappa was 0.42 (ICC(2,1) = 0.62 and ICC(2,8) = 0.93). Providing limited quantitative measurement data was associated with less agreement than for equally well described carcinogens without sampling data. Conclusion The overall κ and single‐score ICC indicate that the raters agree on exposure estimates well above the chance level. The levels of inter‐rater agreement were higher than in other comparable studies. The average score ICC indicates reliable mean estimates and implies that sufficient raters were involved. The raters seemed to have enough documentation on which to base their estimates, but provision of limited monitoring data leads to more incongruence among raters. Having real

  8. Evaluation of the dermal carcinogenicity of lubricant base oils by the mouse skin painting bioassay and other proposed methods.

    PubMed

    Chasey, K L; McKee, R H

    1993-01-01

    Lubricant base oils are petroleum products that are predominantly derived from the vacuum distillation of crude oil. Various types of refinement can be employed during the manufacturing process, and evidence suggests that certain of the associated process streams produce skin cancer. Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), some of which are considered as the causative agents, are removed, concentrated or chemically converted during the refinement process. In order to understand the effects of various types of refinement processes on carcinogenic potential, 94 oils were evaluated in the mouse epidermal cancer bioassay. This Exxon database is unique, because of the wide range of crude oils and processing histories represented. Seven processing history classifications are described, and conclusions concerning the impacts of each refinement process on dermal carcinogenicity are discussed. This research also included an evaluation of selected biological and chemical test methods for predicting carcinogenic potential. These included a modified version of the Ames test for mutagenicity, as well as analytical characterizations of the polycyclic aromatic structures in the oils. For classification purposes, a sample was considered to be carcinogenic if it resulted in the production of two or more tumor-bearing animals (in test groups of either 40 or 50 animals). The modified Ames test was considered to be positive if the mutagenicity index was > or = 2.0, and PAC analyses were similarly designated as positive or negative according to proposed guidelines. All of the alternative test methods showed similar agreement with dermal carcinogenicity bioassay data; concordance values were > or = 80%. However, each test was incorrect in ca. 10%-20% of the cases evaluated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Chk1 is essential for chemical carcinogen-induced mouse skin tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Tho, L M; Libertini, S; Rampling, R; Sansom, O; Gillespie, D A

    2012-03-15

    Chk1 is a key regulator of DNA damage checkpoint responses and genome stability in eukaryotes. To better understand how checkpoint proficiency relates to cancer development, we investigated the effects of genetic ablation of Chk1 in the mouse skin on tumors induced by chemical carcinogens. We found that homozygous deletion of Chk1 immediately before carcinogen exposure strongly suppressed benign tumor (papilloma) formation, and that the few, small lesions that formed in the ablated skin always retained Chk1 expression. Remarkably, Chk1 deletion rapidly triggered spontaneous cell proliferation, γ-H2AX staining and apoptosis within the hair follicle, a principal site of origin for carcinogen-induced tumors. At later times, the ablated skin was progressively repopulated by non-recombined Chk1-expressing cells and ultimately normal sensitivity to tumor induction was restored when carcinogen treatment was delayed. In marked contrast, papillomas formed normally in Chk1 hemizygous skin but showed an increased propensity to progress to carcinoma. Thus, complete loss of Chk1 is incompatible with epithelial tumorigenesis, whereas partial loss of function (haploinsufficiency) fosters benign malignant tumor progression.

  10. Development of a screening tool to prioritize testing for the carcinogenic hazard of residual aromatic extracts and related petroleum streams.

    PubMed

    Goyak, Katy O; Kung, Ming H; Chen, Min; Aldous, Keith K; Freeman, James J

    2016-12-15

    Residual aromatic extracts (RAE) are petroleum substances with variable composition predominantly containing aromatic hydrocarbons with carbon numbers greater than C25. Because of the high boiling nature of RAEs, the aromatics present are high molecular weight, with most above the range of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, refinery distillations are imperfect; some PAHs and their heteroatom-containing analogs (collectively referred to as polycyclic aromatic content or PAC) may remain in the parent stream and be extracted into the RAE, and overall PAC content is related to the carcinogenic potential of an RAE. We describe here a real-time analytical chemistry-based tool to assess the carcinogenic hazard of RAE via the development of a functional relationship between carcinogenicity and boiling point. Samples representative of steps along the RAE manufacturing process were obtained from five refineries to evaluate relationships between mutagenicity index (MI), PAC ring content and gas chromatographic distillation (GCD) curves. As expected, a positive linear relationship between MI and PAC ring content occurred, most specifically for 3-6 ring PAC (R(2)=0.68). A negative correlation was found between MI and temperature at 5% vaporization by GCD (R(2)=0.72), indicating that samples with greater amounts of lower boiling constituents were more likely to be carcinogenic. The inverse relationship between boiling range and carcinogenicity was further demonstrated by fractionation of select RAE samples (MI=0.50+0.07; PAC=1.70+0.51wt%; n=5) into low and high boiling fractions, where lower boiling fractions were both more carcinogenic than the higher boiling fractions (MI=2.36±0.55 and 0.17±0.11, respectively) and enriched in 3-6 ring PACs (5.20+0.70wt% and 0.97+0.35wt%, respectively). The criteria defining carcinogenicity was established as 479°C for the 5% vaporization points by GCD, with an approximate 95% probability of a future sample having

  11. Suppressive function of RKTG on chemical carcinogen-induced skin carcinogenesis in mouse.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaoduo; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Yuhui; Liu, Weizhong; Ma, Hong; Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yan

    2008-08-01

    Raf kinase trapping to Golgi (RKTG) is a newly characterized negative regulator of the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling pathway via sequestrating Raf-1 to the Golgi apparatus. However, little is known about the physiological functions of RKTG in mitogenic pathway and carcinogenesis. Here, we describe a suppressive role of RKTG in skin carcinogenesis by analyzing chemical carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis. Epidermis hyperplasia and proliferation are increased in RKTG-deficient mice (RKTG(-/-)) after acute treatment with 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Using a two-stage DMBA/TPA carcinogenesis protocol on mouse skin, the number and size of papillomas are increased in RKTG(-/-) mice, accompanied by shortened tumor latency and enhanced keratinocyte proliferation. The regression of the carcinogen-induced tumors is also prolonged in RKTG(-/-) mice. Consistently, the levels of Raf-1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in primary keratinocytes as well as skin tumors are elevated when RKTG is disrupted. Collectively, our results indicate that RKTG has a suppressive activity in chemical carcinogen-induced mitogenesis and tumor formation in mouse skin.

  12. Chronic Dermal Toxicity of Epoxy Resins I. Skin Carcinogenic Potency and General Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, J.M.

    2001-01-16

    Epoxy resins are a diverse class of chemicals that differ in structure, physical properties, and, presumably, biological activity. The purpose of these experiments was to compare the chronic dermal toxicity and carcinogenicity of selected commercial epoxy resins and to determine the potential for positive synergistic carcinogenic interactions between different resins. This work is an extension and continuation of a Department of Energy sponsored program to evaluate epoxy resins for potential occupational health risks. The materials examined were chosen on the basis of their interest to the U.S. government. They are representative of the manufacturer's production at the time, and therefore the data are completely valid only for the specific production period. Results of the experimental exposures will be reported in two parts. This report describes the test materials, their chemical and physical characteristics and the experimental design. General (systemic) toxicity will be evaluated and the skin carcinogenicity of the materials compared. A subsequent report will provide morphological descriptions of skin and significant internal pathology induced by the various treatments.

  13. Skin response to a carcinogen involves the xenobiotic receptor pregnane X receptor.

    PubMed

    Elentner, Andreas; Ortner, Daniela; Clausen, Björn; Gonzalez, Frank J; Fernández-Salguero, Pedro M; Schmuth, Matthias; Dubrac, Sandrine

    2015-11-01

    Skin is in daily contact with potentially harmful molecules from the environment such as cigarette smoke, automobile emissions, industrial soot and groundwater. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a transcription factor expressed in liver and intestine that is activated by xenobiotic chemicals including drugs and environmental pollutants. Topical application of the tumor initiator 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) enhances Pxr, Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1 and Cyp3a11, but not Ahr expression in the skin. Surprisingly, DMBA-induced Pxr upregulation is largely impaired in Langerin(+) cell-depleted skin, suggesting that DMBA mainly triggers Pxr in Langerin(+) cells. Furthermore, PXR deficiency protects from DNA damage in epidermal cells but to a lesser extent than aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) deficiency. Interestingly, skin exposure to low doses of DMBA induces migration of PXR-deficient but not of wild-type and AHR-deficient Langerhans cells (LCs). PXR-humanized mice show a marked increase in DNA damage to epidermal cells after topical application of DMBA, demonstrating relevance of these findings in human tissue. This is the first report suggesting that carcinogens might trigger PXR in epidermal cells, particularly in LCs, thus leading to DNA damage. Further studies are required to better delineate the role of PXR in cutaneous carcinogenesis.

  14. Tumorigenesis in athymic nude mouse skin by chemical carcinogens and ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.M.; Rice, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    A variety of established skin tumorigenesis protocols were tested for efficacy on athymic nu/nu mice (BALB/c background) and compared on euthymic nu/+ counterparts. Chemical carcinogens and UV light were applied to the ears of 10 mice of each sex and genotype for each group. Treatments were: 0.5 mg 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene ((DMBA) CAS: 57-97-6) to each ear; 0.125 mg DMBA to each ear, followed by 0.1 microgram 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate ((TPA) CAS: 16561-29-8) twice weekly for 56 weeks; 0.2 mg N-nitroso-N-methylurea ((NMU) CAS: 684-93-5; 1% in acetone, 20 microliter) to each ear; 0.1 mg NMU to each ear weekly for 30 weeks; 0.2 mg NMU to each ear, followed by TPA twice weekly for 56 weeks; two ip doses of N-nitroso-N-ethylurea ((NEU) CAS: 759-73-9; 25 mg/kg each), followed by TPA twice weekly topically for 56 weeks; and exposure to sunlamps (250- to 400-nm emission) two or three times per week for 20 weeks, for a total dose of 3.7 X 10(5) J/m2. The chemical treatments caused mainly squamous papillomas and carcinomas, sebaceous adenomas and adenocarcinomas, and basal cell tumors, which appeared both on the skin of the ears and elsewhere. UV light caused squamous tumors, basal cell tumors, and sarcomas. Ear skin of the nu/nu mice developed significantly more squamous tumors than those of nu/+ mice after DMBA-TPA, NMU-TPA, NEU-TPA, repeated NMU, or UV light. Similar results were obtained for the skin of the heads and bodies. Even a single dose of NMU caused a few tumors on the nude, but not the euthymic, mice. A single dose of DMBA caused primarily sebaceous adenomas, distributed at random over the entire bodies. These results show that, contrary to previous reports, nude mice are sensitive to skin tumorigenesis, more so than euthymic nu/+ mice similarly exposed to diverse types of carcinogen and treatment protocols.

  15. Carcinogenically relevant split dose repair increased with age in rat skin model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Fredric; Tang, Moon-Shong Eric; Wu, Feng; Uddin, Ahmed

    2012-07-01

    These experiments utilize cancer induction to evaluate cancer-relevant repair during the interval between dose fractions. Low LET electron radiation(LET ~ 0.34 keV/u) were utilized in experiments that involved exposing rat dorsal skin to 2 equal 8 Gy dose fractions separated at various intervals from 0.25 h to 24 h. Cancer onset was established for 80 weeks after the exposures and only histologically verified cancers were included in the analysis. This experiment involved a total of 540 rats and 880 induced cancers. In the youngest rats (irradiated at 28 days of age) the cancer yield declined with a halftime of approximately 3.5 hrs. In 113 day old rats the cancer yield halftime was shortened to 1.3 hrs. In the oldest rats (182 days of age), the halftime could not be established quantitatively, because it was less than the shortest interval (15 min) utilized in the protocol (best estimate ~5 min). In the oldest rats the cancer yields for all fractionated exposures dropped essentially to the expected level of 2 single fractions, below which theoretically no further reduction is possible. The follow-up times for obtaining cancer yields were the same for all exposure groups in spite of the differing ages at exposure. These results indicate that repair of carcinogenically-relevant damage accelerates with age of the rat. No information is available on the possible mechanistic basis for this finding, although the model might be useful for delineating which of the many postulated split dose repair pathways is the correct one. The finding indicates that older rats should be less susceptible to the carcinogenic action of single doses of low LET radiation in comparison to younger rats, which has been verified in separate studies.

  16. Exposure of mouse skin to organic peroxides: subchronic effects related to carcinogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Hanausek, Margaret; Walaszek, Zbigniew; Viaje, Aurora; LaBate, Michael; Spears, Erick; Farrell, David; Henrich, Richard; Tveit, Ann; Walborg, Earl F; Slaga, Thomas J

    2004-03-01

    Screening of newly synthesized organic peroxides for tumor initiating/promoting activity would be greatly facilitated if predictive methodologies could be developed using topical exposures shorter than those required for definitive tumor assessment in mouse skin models. Nine organic peroxides [benzoyl peroxide (BZP), di-t-butyl peroxide (DTBP), t-butyl peroxybenzoate (TBPB), p-t-butyl isopropylbenzene hydroperoxide (TBIBHP), cumene hydroperoxide (CHP), dicetyl peroxydicarbonate (DPD), dicumyl peroxide (DCP), methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) and O,O-t-butyl-O-(2-ethylhexyl) monoperoxycarbonate (TBEC)] were evaluated for their ability to increase biomarkers of tumor promotion in mouse skin, i.e. sustained epidermal hyperplasia, dermal inflammation and oxidative DNA damage. Evaluations were performed using SENCAR mice exposed topically for 4 weeks. The organic peroxides varied in their effects on these biomarkers. BZP, TBPB and TBIBHP exhibited significant increases in all three biomarkers associated with tumor promoting activity, CHP produced increases only in sustained epidermal hyperplasia and dermal inflammation, MEKP and DCP produced increases only in sustained epidermal hyperplasia and TBEC produced an increase only in dermal inflammation. DTBP and DPD had no effect on the three parameters studied. TBPB and TBIBHP were selected for further examination of their ability to produce mutations in codons 12, 13 and 61 of the c-Ha-ras protooncogene, i.e. those mutations known to be involved in the initiation of mouse skin tumors, because they were the only peroxides to exhibit significant positive results in all assays except the Ha-ras mutation following 4 weeks of exposure. Evaluations were performed using SENCAR mice dosed topically for 8 or 12 weeks in a complete carcinogenesis protocol or 16 weeks in an initiation/promotion protocol using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, urethane, benzo[a]pyrene and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine as positive controls

  17. Cutting fluids and their effects on the skin of mice. An experimental study with special reference to carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, J R; Stoyanov, S; Unger, M; Clausen, J; Christensen, H E

    1977-09-01

    Reports of skin malignancies due to occupational exposure have decreased since the introduction of solvent-refining of mineral oil fraction in the manufacture of oil based cutting fluids. Commercial mineral oil based cutting fluids caused local and general pathological changes after repeated application to the skin of mice in the present study. Forty-eight per cent of the mice exposed to oils showed severe dysplasia or malignancy of the skin on histological examination. The corresponding figure for the control group, where various additives were used was 8 per cent. The frequency of papillomas was also increased in the mice exposed to oils. The systemic lesions included focal necrosis of the liver, associated with amyloid deposition, as well as amyloidosis of the skin, spleen and kidneys. The substances responsible for these apparent carcinogenic properties of the complex mixtures may be polycyclic hydrocarbons; the latter are still present in the commercial products despite solvent refining; on the other hand the carcinogens may be additives to the cutting oils the composition of which is generally a trade secret.

  18. Relevance of the mouse skin initiation-promotion model for the classification of carcinogenic substances encountered at the workplace.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Michael; Thielmann, Heinz W; Meischner, Veronika; Fartasch, Manigé

    2015-06-01

    The Permanent Senate Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area (MAK Commission of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) evaluates chemical substances using scientific criteria to prevent adverse effects on health at the work place. As part of this task there is a need to evaluate tumor promoting activity of chemicals (enhancement of formation of squamous cell carcinomas via premalignant papillomas) obtained from two-stage initiation/promotion experiments using the mouse skin model. In the present communication we address this issue by comparing responses seen in mouse skin with those in humans. We conclude that tumor promotional effects seen in such animal models be carefully analyzed on a case by case basis. Substances that elicit a rather non-specific effect that is restricted to the high dose range are considered to be irrelevant to humans and thus do not require classification as carcinogens. In contrast, substances that might have both a mode of action and a potency similar to the specific effects seen with TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), the prototype tumor promoter in mouse skin, which triggers receptor-mediated signal cascades in the very low dose range, have to be classified in a category for carcinogens.

  19. Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  20. Prediction of mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, developmental toxicity, and skin sensitisation with Caesar program for a set of conazoles.

    PubMed

    Bolčič-Tavčar, Mateja; Vračko, Marjan

    2012-09-01

    This article presents models to predict mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, developmental toxicity, and skin sensitisation for a set of 27 conazoles. The predictions were performed with the program package CAESAR, which is available on the Internet. The CAESAR programs were developed to support the European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use (REACH) and follow the OECD principles for (Q)SAR models used for regulatory purposes. The programs provide a number of information, including a binary classification of a compound as toxic or non-toxic and information on similar compounds from the model's training sets (similarity sets). In this study we analysed conazole sets using principal component analysis (PCA). The predictions were compared to the currently valid classification of these substances in the European Union (EU) or to the classification proposed at expert meetings of the Pesticide Risk Assessment and Peer Review (PRAPeR) group. The predicted classification for mutagenicity was in good agreement with regulatory classification, the predictions for carcinogenicity and developmental toxicity showed some discrepancy in particular cases, while the predictions for skin sensitisation showed even greater discrepancy.

  1. North American Magazine Coverage of Skin Cancer and Recreational Tanning Before and After the WHO/IARC 2009 Classification of Indoor Tanning Devices as Carcinogenic.

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2015-09-01

    The mass media is an influential source of skin cancer information for the public. In 2009, the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer classified UV radiation from tanning devices as carcinogenic. Our objective was to determine if media coverage of skin cancer and recreational tanning increased in volume or changed in nature after this classification. We conducted a directed content analysis on 29 North American popular magazines (2007-2012) to investigate the overall volume of articles on skin cancer and recreational tanning and, more specifically, the presence of skin cancer risk factors, UV behaviors, and early detection information in article text (n = 410) and images (n = 714). The volume of coverage on skin cancer and recreational tanning did not increase significantly after the 2009 classification of tanning beds as carcinogenic. Key-related messages, including that UV exposure is a risk factor for skin cancer and that indoor tanning should be avoided, were not reported more frequently after the classification, but the promotion of the tanned look as attractive was conveyed more often in images afterwards (p < .01). Content promoting high-SPF sunscreen use increased after the classification (p < .01), but there were no significant positive changes in the frequency of coverage of skin cancer risk factors, other UV behaviors, or early detection information over time. The classification of indoor tanning beds as carcinogenic had no significant impact on the volume or nature of skin cancer and recreational tanning coverage in magazines.

  2. [Carcinogenic viruses in etiopathogenesis of skin cancers in patients after organ transplantation].

    PubMed

    Piesiaków, Maria Luiza; Imko-Walczuk, Beata; Osiecka, Karolina; Kiełbowicz, Marta; Dębska-Ślizień, Alicja

    2016-02-14

    The latest literature report specifies multifactoral etiology of skin cancer in population of patients after organs transplats. Carcirogenic viruses are one of etiopathogenesis components. Viruses of a vital meaning for skin oncogenesis are called Human papillomavirus - HPV, Human herpesvirus 8 - HHV8 i Merkel cell polyomavirus - MCV. Report on connections exisisting between viruses HPV and skin cancers in the population of patients after organs transplants confirms clinical connection between viruses papillas and cancers centres occuring in similar locations and more frequent appearance of attributes characteristic for HPV infection within the limits of changes in the type of Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). What's more, coexisting of viruses papillas and SCC is more often noticed in the population of organ recipients than in the population of healthy people. It is not confirmed yet that any specific correlation between subtypes of HPV and greater frequency of morbidity in skin cancers really exist. However, in the population of organ recipients infections of different types of HPV are found within the limits of cancers centres in the case of SCC (63%) as well as in basal cell carcinoma-BCC (55%). DNA of HPV was also fund in healthy parts of organ recipients skin (92-94%). HHV8 is also an oncogenic viruse that influences the development of lymphoma. Infection of that virus may cause ocuuring of Kaposi's sarkoma, which is one of the most frequent types of cancer appearing in population of patients treating by long-term immunosuppression in particular geographical zones. MCV, which belongs to the group called Polyomaviriade, owes a particular meaning in etiopathogenesis of Merkel cell carcinoma - MCC. It is a rare cancer derived from neuroendocrine cells of the basic layers of epidermie. For over 30 years it was supposed that correlation between viruses and skin cancers in population of organ recipient exist. Knowledge of the total viruses influence on skin cancers

  3. Effects of the co-carcinogen catechol on benzo(a)pyrene metabolism and DNA adduct formation in mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Melikian, A.A.; Leszczynska, J.M.; Hecht, S.S.; Hoffmann, D.

    1986-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the co-carcinogen catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) on the metabolic activation of (/sup 3/H) benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in mouse skin, in vivo and on the binding of BaP metabolites to DNA and protein at intervals from 0.5-24 h. Upon topical application of 0.015 mg (/sup 3/H)BaP and 0.25 or 0.5 mg catechol per mouse, catechol had little effect on the total amount of (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolized in mouse skin, but it affected the relative proportions of (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolites. Catechol (0.5 mg/mouse) decreased the proportion of water-soluble (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolites, ethyl acetate-soluble polar metabolites and quinones, but doubled the levels of unconjugated 3-hydroxy-BaP at all measured intervals after treatment. Catechol also caused a small increase in the levels of trans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydroBaP and trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydroBaP 0.5 h after treatment. Two hours after treatment, the levels of these metabolites subsided to those of the controls. Catechol did not affect the levels of glutathione conjugates of BaP. However, it caused a decrease in glucuronide and sulphate conjugate formation from BaP. Catechol caused an approximately 2-fold increase in the formation of anti-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydroBaP (BPDE) DNA adducts and elevated the ratio of anti-syn-BPDE-DNA adducts 1.6 to 2.9-fold. Catechol treatment increased the radioactivity associated with epidermal proteins after (/sup 3/H)BaP application. Because catechol increased levels of 3-hydroxyBaP, we considered the possibility that 3-hydroxyBaP might enhance the tumor initiating activities of BaP or BPDE in mouse skin; a bioassay demonstrated that this was not the case. The results of this study indicate that one important effect of catechol related to its co-carcinogenicity is its ability to enhance formation of anti-BPDE-DNA adducts in mouse skin.

  4. Prophylaxis of Diallyl Disulfide on Skin Carcinogenic Model via p21-dependent Nrf2 stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Yunlong; Wei, Zhonghong; Tao, Li; Wang, Siliang; Zhang, Feng; Shen, Cunsi; Wu, Hongyan; Liu, Zhaoguo; Zhu, Pingting; Wang, Aiyun; Chen, Wenxing; Lu, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Cancer prevention through intake of biologically active natural products appears to be an accessible way to reduce the risk of cancer. Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a major garlic derivative, has exhibited potential role in cancer therapy. The study is aimed to evaluate the prophylactic effect of DADS in chemically induced mouse skin carcinogenesis and investigate the molecular targets mediated by DADS. Two-stage chemically induced carcinogenesis model by cutaneous application of DMBA and subsequent TPA was established to study the prophylactic effect of DADS. As a result, we observed that DADS dose-dependently attenuated skin tumor incidence and multiplicity in the model mice, which was related to the up-regulation of a bunch of antioxidant enzymes activities and the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. Furthermore, we developed skin carcinogenesis in Nrf2 knockout mice which could reverse the activity of DADS. Finally, we uncovered the underlying mechanism that DADS promoted the endogenous interaction between p21 and Nrf2, which was critical for impairing the Keap1-mediated degradation of Nrf2. Based on the results, we concluded that DADS was a promising cancer chemoprevention agent and suggested a garlic-rich diet might be beneficial to reduce the cancer risk in our daily life. PMID:27759091

  5. Seasonal Variation in Exposure Level of Types A and B Ultraviolet Radiation: An Environmental Skin Carcinogen

    PubMed Central

    Rafieepour, A; Ghamari, F; Mohammadbeigi, A; Asghari, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main source of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the sun, affecting organs such as the skin, eyes, and immune system. According to American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH) reports, the amount of UVR reaching the Earth's surface is increasing yearly and is responsible for an increase in solar radiation-related diseases. Aims: To investigate the amount of UVR reaching the Earth's surface and understand the risk of UVR on disease among outdoor laborers in one of the central provinces of Iran. Materials and Methods: Arak city was divided into two geographic areas, and the weekly measurement of UVR was done in three locations) asphalt, grass and rooftop). To measure UVR, Hanger UV spectrometer, standard deviation (SD8-A), and SD8-B detectors were used. Amounts of UVR for a consecutive year and varying weather conditions were measured. Finally, values obtained were compared to ACGIH standards. Results: The minimum and maximum levels of UV type A radiation occurred in April 1.27 (0.724) W/m2 and September 7.147 (4.128) W/m2, these figures for UV type B were in March–April 0.005 (0.003) and September 0.083 (0.077). The maximum UVR is received between 11 and 15 o’clock. Conclusions: In the central cities of Iran, the minimum and maximum UV type A and B is received in March–April and in September, respectively. Based on the results, the angular position of the sun in the sky, cloud cover, and height from ground level affected the amount of UVR received, but the geographic locations studied did not. PMID:25861533

  6. The genotoxic air pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone and its reactive metabolite N-hydroxy-3-aminobenzanthrone lack initiating and complete carcinogenic activity in NMRI mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Schmeiser, Heinz H; Fürstenberger, Gerhard; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Phillips, David H; Arlt, Volker M

    2009-10-18

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), a genotoxic mutagen found in diesel exhaust and ambient air pollution and its active metabolite N-hydroxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-OH-3-ABA) were tested for initiating and complete carcinogenic activity in the NMRI mouse skin carcinogenesis model. Both compounds were found to be inactive as either tumour initiators or complete carcinogens in mouse skin over a dose range of 25-400nmol. Topical application of 3-NBA and N-OH-3-ABA produced DNA adduct patterns in epidermis, detected by (32)P-postlabelling, similar to those found previously in other organs of rats and mice. 24h after a single treatment of 100nmol DNA adduct levels produced by 3-NBA (18+/-4 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) were 6 times lower than those by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA; 114+/-37 adducts/10(8) nucleotides). In contrast, identical treatment with N-OH-3-ABA resulted in adduct levels in the same range as with DMBA (136+/-25 adducts/10(8) nucleotides), indicating that initial DNA adduct levels do not parallel tumour initiating activity. When compounds were tested for tumour initiating activity by a single treatment followed by twice-weekly applications of TPA, DNA adducts formed by DMBA, but not by 3-NBA or N-OH-3-ABA, were still detectable 40weeks after treatment. When tested for activity as complete carcinogens by twice-weekly topical application, 3-NBA and N-OH-3-ABA produced identical DNA adduct profiles in mouse skin, with adducts still detectable after 40weeks. Only 3-NBA produced detectable adducts in other organs.

  7. PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC.

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen in skin, lung, liver, urinary bladder and kidney. In contrast,
    there is no accepted experimental animal model of inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis.
    Proposed mechanisms/modes of action for a...

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse.

    PubMed

    Siddens, Lisbeth K; Larkin, Andrew; Krueger, Sharon K; Bradfield, Christopher A; Waters, Katrina M; Tilton, Susan C; Pereira, Cliff B; Löhr, Christiane V; Arlt, Volker M; Phillips, David H; Williams, David E; Baird, William M

    2012-11-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by ³²P post-labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH-dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p<0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and phase 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs).

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: Comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Larkin, Andrew; Krueger, Sharon K.; Bradfield, Christopher A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Pereira, Cliff B.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H.; Williams, David E.; and others

    2012-11-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4 nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by {sup 32}P post‐labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH‐dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p < 0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and phase 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs). -- Highlights: ► Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), 3 PAH mixtures, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were compared. ► DBC and 2 PAH mixtures were more potent than Relative Potency Factor estimates. ► Transcriptome profiles 12 hours post initiation were analyzed by microarray. ► Principle components analysis of alterations revealed treatment-based clustering. ► DBC gave a unique

  10. Chemomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera, Lam, on hepatic carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant parameters and skin papillomagenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Bharali, Rupjyoti; Tabassum, Jawahira; Azad, Mohammed Rekibul Haque

    2003-01-01

    The modulatory effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of drumsticks of Moringa oliefera Lam at doses of 125 mg/kg bodyweight and 250 mg/ kg body weight for 7 and 14 days, respectively, were investigated with reference to drug metabolising Phase I (Cytochrome b(5) and Cytochrome p(450) ) and Phase II (Glutathione-S- transferase) enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 6-8 week old female Swiss albino mice. Further, the chemopreventive efficacy of the extract was evaluated in a two stage model of 7,12 - dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin papillomagenesis. Significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the activities of hepatic cytochrome b(5), cytochrome p(450), catalase, glutathione peroxidase ( GPx ), glutathione reductase (GR), acid soluble sulfhydryl content (-SH ) and a significant decrease ( p<0.01 ) in the hepatic MDA level were observed at both dose levels of treatment when compared with the control values. Glutathione-S- transferase ( GST )activity was found to be significantly increased (p<0.01 ) only at the higher dose level. Butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA ) fed at a dose of 0.75% in the diet for 7 and 14 days (positive control ) caused a significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the levels of hepatic phase I and phase II enzymes, anti- oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and a decrease in lipid peroxidation. The skin papillomagenesis studies demonstrated a significant decrease (p<0.05 ) in the percentage of mice with papillomas, average number of papillomas per mouse and papillomas per papilloma bearing mouse when the animals received a topical application of the extract at a dose of 5mg/ kg body weight in the peri-initiation phase 7 days before and 7 days after DMBA application, Group II ), promotional phase (from the day of croton oil application and continued till the end of the experiment, Group III ) and both peri and post initiation stages (from 7 days prior to DMBA application and continued till the

  11. Carcinogen File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment, 1978

    1978-01-01

    First in a series of bulletins designed to provide information about the problem of carcinogens in the environment is on benzo(a)pyrine. Benzo(a)pyrine is a proven cancer-causing substance that has been known for over ten years to occur in broiled sausages, gas-broiled fish and beef steak, and charcoal-broiled meat. (Author/BB)

  12. The contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fractions with different boiling ranges to the carcinogenic impact of emission condensate from coal fired residential furnaces as evaluated by topical application to the skin of mice.

    PubMed

    Grimmer, G; Brune, H; Deutsch-Wenzel, R; Dettbarn, G; Misfeld, J; Abel, U; Timm, J

    1985-09-15

    Flue gas condensate from briquet-fired residential furnaces was separated into a polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC)-free and a PAC-containing part, followed by a subfractionation of the PAC-containing fraction into 3 parts: PAC consisting predominantly of (a) 2 and 3 rings, (b) 4 and 5 rings and (c) 6 and more rings. To evaluate the carcinogenic potency of the condensate and its fractions, local application onto skin of mice in 2 or 3 doses was used. Since it was known from an earlier investigation that both the PAC-free fraction and the fraction containing PAC with 2 and 3 rings were almost ineffective, only PAC-fractions containing more than 3 rings were tested. The probit and Weibull analysis of the results showed that the condensate and the fractions containing PAC with 4 and 5 rings as well as 6 and more rings provoke local tumors after repeated application to the dorsal skin of mice. The tumor incidence exhibited a clear cut dose-response relationship. Fractions (b) and (c) were almost equally active, each contributing by about 50% to the total carcinogenicity. The content of benzo[a]pyrene (0.72 mg/g condensate) contributed by 10-11% to the total carcinogenicity of the emission.

  13. Mutagenic, carcinogenic and cocarcinogenic activity of cashewnut shell liquid.

    PubMed

    George, J; Kuttan, R

    1997-01-15

    The petroleum ether extract of cashewnut shell (Anacardium occidentale) was tested for its mutagenic, carcinogenic and cocarcinogenic potency. Mutagenicity tests using Salmonella typhimurium (Ame's test) Strains TA 1535, TA 100 and TA 98 showed that cashewnut shell liquid is non-mutagenic up to a concentration of 0.003% (in 0.1 ml DMSO) with and without metabolic activation (S 9 mixture). Carcinogenicity testing using murine (female Swiss albino mice) two stage skin tumourigenesis model revealed that cashewnut shell liquid has no tumour initiating potency at a concentration of 10% (in 0.2 ml acetone) while it may act as weak promoter (P < 0.05) at a concentration of 5% (in 0.2 ml acetone). Testing for cocarcinogenic potency of cashewnut shell liquid (2% and 5% in 0.2 ml acetone) demonstrated that it has no cocarcinogenic potency on mouse skin tumour model when applied along with 2 x 10(-6)% benzo(a)pyrene in acetone up to a period of 20 weeks.

  14. Carcinogens in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, J. Bradford

    1976-01-01

    Reports the presence and use of known carcinogens in Kentucky colleges, junior colleges, and high schools. Includes a listing of known carcinogens and the synonym names under which each may be labeled. (SL)

  15. Regulation of carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Crouch, E.; Wilson, R.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure, suitable for regulatory use, is proposed for estimating individual and societal risks of carcinogenic materials by using information on interspecies comparisons of carcinogenic potency. The consistent treatment of uncertainties allows evaluation of confidence limits and hence regulatory measures of risk which incorporate safety factors and incentives for better information. Numerical examples are given, together with discussion of the treatment of undetected carcinogens. Applications of the procedure to setting priorities for carcinogenicity testing and to product substitution are mentioned.

  16. Listing Occupational Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Siemiatycki, Jack; Richardson, Lesley; Straif, Kurt; Latreille, Benoit; Lakhani, Ramzan; Campbell, Sally; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Boffetta, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The occupational environment has been a most fruitful one for investigating the etiology of human cancer. Many recognized human carcinogens are occupational carcinogens. There is a large volume of epidemiologic and experimental data concerning cancer risks in different work environments. It is important to synthesize this information for both scientific and public health purposes. Various organizations and individuals have published lists of occupational carcinogens. However, such lists have been limited by unclear criteria for which recognized carcinogens should be considered occupational carcinogens, and by inconsistent and incomplete information on the occupations and industries in which the carcinogenic substances may be found and on their target sites of cancer. Based largely on the evaluations published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and augmented with additional information, the present article represents an attempt to summarize, in tabular form, current knowledge on occupational carcinogens, the occupations and industries in which they are found, and their target organs. We have considered 28 agents as definite occupational carcinogens, 27 agents as probable occupational carcinogens, and 113 agents as possible occupational carcinogens. These tables should be useful for regulatory or preventive purposes and for scientific purposes in research priority setting and in understanding carcinogenesis. PMID:15531427

  17. Rodent carcinogens: Setting priorities

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, L.S.; Slone, T.H.; Stern, B.R.; Manley, N.B.; Ames, B.N. )

    1992-10-09

    The human diet contains an enormous background of natural chemicals, such as plant pesticides and the products of cooking, that have not been a focus of carcinogenicity testing. A broadened perspective that includes these natural chemicals is necessary. A comparison of possible hazards for 80 daily exposures to rodent carcinogens from a variety of sources is presented, using an index (HERP) that relates human exposure to carcinogenic potency in rodents. A similar ordering would be expected with the use of standard risk assessment methodology for the same human exposure values. Results indicate that, when viewed against the large background of naturally occurring carcinogens in typical portions of common foods, the residues of synthetic pesticides or environmental pollutants rank low. A similar result is obtained in a separate comparison of 32 average daily exposures to natural pesticides and synthetic pesticides residues in the diet. Although the findings do not indicate that these natural dietary carcinogens are important in human cancer, they cast doubt on the relative importance for human cancer of low-dose exposures to synthetic chemicals.

  18. Petroleum mineral oil refining and evaluation of cancer hazard.

    PubMed

    Mackerer, Carl R; Griffis, Larry C; Grabowski Jr, John S; Reitman, Fred A

    2003-11-01

    Petroleum base oils (petroleum mineral oils) are manufactured from crude oils by vacuum distillation to produce several distillates and a residual oil that are then further refined. Aromatics including alkylated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) are undesirable constituents of base oils because they are deleterious to product performance and are potentially carcinogenic. In modern base oil refining, aromatics are reduced by solvent extraction, catalytic hydrotreating, or hydrocracking. Chronic exposure to poorly refined base oils has the potential to cause skin cancer. A chronic mouse dermal bioassay has been the standard test for estimating carcinogenic potential of mineral oils. The level of alkylated 3-7-ring PAC in raw streams from the vacuum tower must be greatly reduced to render the base oil noncarcinogenic. The processes that can reduce PAC levels are known, but the operating conditions for the processing units (e.g., temperature, pressure, catalyst type, residence time in the unit, unit engineering design, etc.) needed to achieve adequate PAC reduction are refinery specific. Chronic dermal bioassays provide information about whether conditions applied can make a noncarcinogenic oil, but cannot be used to monitor current production for quality control or for conducting research or developing new processes since this test takes at least 78 weeks to conduct. Three short-term, non-animal assays all involving extraction of oil with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) have been validated for predicting potential carcinogenic activity of petroleum base oils: a modified Ames assay of a DMSO extract, a gravimetric assay (IP 346) for wt. percent of oil extracted into DMSO, and a GC-FID assay measuring 3-7-ring PAC content in a DMSO extract of oil, expressed as percent of the oil. Extraction with DMSO concentrates PAC in a manner that mimics the extraction method used in the solvent refining of noncarcinogenic oils. The three assays are described, data demonstrating the

  19. The carcinogenicity of chromium

    PubMed Central

    Norseth, Tor

    1981-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of chromium compounds is reviewed with specific attention to the gaps in knowledge for risk estimation and research needs. The most important problems at present are whether trivalent chromium compounds cause cancer, and whether there is a difference in cancer causing effects between the soluble and the slightly soluble hexavalent compounds in the practical exposure situation. Dose estimates for risk estimation based on epidemiological investigations are also lacking. Present evidence indicates that the trivalent chromium compounds do not cause cancer although high concentrations in some in vitro systems have shown genetic toxicity. Hexavalent chromium compounds cause cancer in humans, in experimental animals and exert genetic toxicity in bacteria and in mammalian cells in vitro. Epidemiological evidence and animal experiments indicate that the slightly soluble hexavalent salts are the most potent carcinogens, but proper identification and characterization of exposure patterns in epidemiological work are lacking. Workers also tend to have mixed exposures. Soluble and slightly soluble salts are equally potent genotoxic agents in vitro. Further work for establishing dose estimates for risk evaluation in epidemiological work is important. In vitro systems should be applied for further identification of the mechanism of the carcinogenic effects, and animal experiments are urgent for comparison of the carcinogenic potency of the different hexavalent salts. Hexavalent chromium salts must be regarded as established carcinogens, and proper action should be taken in all industries with regard to such exposure. At present the carcinogenic risk to the general population caused by chromium compounds seems to be negligible, chromium in cigarettes, however, is an uncertainty in this respect. The amount of chromium and the type of chromium compounds inhaled from cigarettes is not known. PMID:7023928

  20. General preventive measures against carcinogenic exposure in the external environment.

    PubMed

    Keiding, L M

    1993-01-01

    Different measures are used to prevent unacceptable carcinogenic exposure from different sources in the external environment, be it accumulated carcinogens from previous pollution, exposure related to life-style, and exposure related to living standards and the organization of the community as a whole. A precondition for goal-directed prevention is knowledge of exposures to carcinogens and measures to minimize or substitute carcinogens in products and in emissions. One of the most significant sources of carcinogens in the outdoor air in many Western countries is the traffic, especially diesel-powered vehicles. Necessary preventive measures include restriction of carcinogenic exhaust from the individual vehicle, plans for the community to diminish transportation needs, as well as to changing the usual behaviour of the individual. Unlike exposure to carcinogens in the surrounding air, exposure to accumulated carcinogens in ground-water and in soil at polluted sites may be diminished by the pattern of use. International aspects are involved in for instance minimizing the risk of getting skin cancer from sunlight. Besides protecting vulnerable individuals there should be a global preservation of the ozone layer. Lowering the risk of long transported air pollution, like radioactivity from accidents at nuclear power stations, demands international efforts to increase safety measures and information about accidents.

  1. Beryllium: genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Terry; Bowser, Darlene

    2003-12-10

    Beryllium (Be) has physical-chemical properties, including low density and high tensile strength, which make it useful in the manufacture of products ranging from space shuttles to golf clubs. Despite its utility, a number of standard setting agencies have determined that beryllium is a carcinogen. Only a limited number of studies, however, have addressed the underlying mechanisms of the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of beryllium. Importantly, mutation and chromosomal aberration assays have yielded somewhat contradictory results for beryllium compounds and whereas bacterial tests were largely negative, mammalian test systems showed evidence of beryllium-induced mutations, chromosomal aberrations, and cell transformation. Although inter-laboratory differences may play a role in the variability observed in genotoxicity assays, it is more likely that the different chemical forms of beryllium have a significant effect on mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because workers are predominantly exposed to airborne particles which are generated during the machining of beryllium metal, ceramics, or alloys, testing of the mechanisms of the mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of beryllium should be performed with relevant chemical forms of beryllium.

  2. Dietary Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Bruce N.

    1983-01-01

    Describes 16 mutagens/carcinogens found in plant food and coffee as well as several anticarcinogens also found in such food. Speculates on relevant biochemical mechanisms, particularly the role of oxygen radicals and their inhibitors in the fat/cancer relationship, promotion, anticarcinogenesis, and aging. (JN)

  3. Evaluating Pesticides for Carcinogenic Potential

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA reviews pesticides for potential carcinogenicity. Learn about EPA's guidelines for evaluating a chemical's potential carcinogenicity and updates to EPA's guidelines to reflect increased understanding of ways chemicals may cause cancer.

  4. Are genotoxic carcinogens more potent than nongenotoxic carcinogens?

    PubMed Central

    Parodi, S; Malacarne, D; Romano, P; Taningher, M

    1991-01-01

    In this report we have raised the question whether genotoxic carcinogens are more potent than nongenotoxic carcinogens when studied in long-term carcinogenicity assays in rodents. To build a large database of compounds for which both carcinogenicity and genotoxicity had been investigated, we have used a database produced by Gold and co-workers for carcinogenic potency data (975 chemicals) and a database produced by Würgler for genotoxicity data (2834 chemicals). Considering compounds positive or negative in at least three short-term tests and in at least 75% of available tests, we could define 67 genotoxic carcinogens and 46 nongenotoxic carcinogens. Carcinogenic potency of genotoxic carcinogens was about 50 times higher than carcinogenic potency of nongenotoxic carcinogens. Our results are different from the results of Tennant et al.; their database (24 genotoxic carcinogens and 12 nongenotoxic carcinogens compatible with our definition) seems to suggest that there is practically no difference in potency between genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens. The two databases have only four compounds in common and are also different in terms of number of elements for different chemical classes. Nitrosocompounds, nitrogen mustards, hydrazine derivatives, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are not represented in the database of Tennant. The overall impression from our analysis is that the usefulness of short-term tests of genotoxicity could be significantly better than what has been suggested by the previous work of Tennant et al. because these tests tend to detect, at least for many important chemical classes, the most potent carcinogens. This consideration may not be valid for certain classes of chemicals. PMID:1821372

  5. Treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environment through bioremediation: a review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kriti; Chandra, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation play key role in the treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated environment. Exposure of petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment occurs either due to human activities or accidentally and cause environmental pollution. Petroleum hydrocarbon cause many toxic compounds which are potent immunotoxicants and carcinogenic to human being. Remedial methods for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment include various physiochemical and biological methods. Due to the negative consequences caused by the physiochemical methods, the bioremediation technology is widely adapted and considered as one of the best technology for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment. Bioremediation utilizes the natural ability of microorganism to degrade the hazardous compound into simpler and non hazardous form. This paper provides a review on the role of bioremediation in the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment, discuss various hazardous effects of petroleum hydrocarbon, various factors influencing biodegradation, role of various enzymes in biodegradation and genetic engineering in bioremediation.

  6. Contact dermatitis and related dermatoses associated with petroleum recovery and use

    SciTech Connect

    Birmingham, D.J.

    1988-07-01

    The author reviews the skin's structural and functional protections, and causal factors and clinical patterns of occupational skin disease. He then examines the literature concerning petroleum industry operations and petroleum-derived product use as they relate to skin disease. The chapter concludes with commentary on prevention and treatment of related skin disease. 22 references.

  7. Techniques for carcinogenicity studies.

    PubMed

    Weisburger, E K

    1981-09-01

    Short-term tests to detect genetic, chromosomal, or DNA damage are now required by regulatory agencies for any new compound proposed for commercial production. Furthermore, full-scale carcinogenicity tests may be required for certain compounds. In this circumstance, the compound-related factors including stability, purity, physical properties, and chemical structure and reactivity must be considered. Animal factors include species and strain of test animal, route of administration, age, sex, diet, and spontaneous tumor incidence. A team of qualified investigators with experience in various disciplines is required to conduct the studies properly. Quality control measures and adherence to the code of good laboratory practice are also necessary during all phases of the study. The investment in a carcinogenicity study therefore becomes fairly substantial in terms of both time and money.

  8. Carcinogen risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hazelwoold, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    This article describes the methods by which risk factors for carcinogenic hazards are determined and the limitations inherent in the process. From statistical and epidemiological studies, the major identifiable factors related to cancer in the United States were determined to be cigarette smoking, diet, reproductive and sexual behavior, infections, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, and alcohol consumption. The incidence of lung cancer due to air pollutants was estimated to be less than 2%. Research needs were discussed.

  9. Carcinogenic human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Mark; Doorbar, John; Wentzensen, Nicolas; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Fakhry, Carole; Monk, Bradley J; Stanley, Margaret A; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    Infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) are common and transmitted by direct contact. Although the great majority of infections resolve within 2 years, 13 phylogenetically related, sexually transmitted HPV genotypes, notably HPV16, cause - if not controlled immunologically or by screening - virtually all cervical cancers worldwide, a large fraction of other anogenital cancers and an increasing proportion of oropharyngeal cancers. The carcinogenicity of these HPV types results primarily from the activity of the oncoproteins E6 and E7, which impair growth regulatory pathways. Persistent high-risk HPVs can transition from a productive (virion-producing) to an abortive or transforming infection, after which cancer can result after typically slow accumulation of host genetic mutations. However, which precancerous lesions progress and which do not is unclear; the majority of screening-detected precancers are treated, leading to overtreatment. The discovery of HPV as a carcinogen led to the development of effective preventive vaccines and sensitive HPV DNA and RNA tests. Together, vaccination programmes (the ultimate long-term preventive strategy) and screening using HPV tests could dramatically alter the landscape of HPV-related cancers. HPV testing will probably replace cytology-based cervical screening owing to greater reassurance when the test is negative. However, the effective implementation of HPV vaccination and screening globally remains a challenge.

  10. Prebiotic Petroleum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that " the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process.

  11. Prebiotic petroleum.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that "the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process.

  12. Report on carcinogens monograph on 1-bromopropane.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program conducted a cancer evaluation on 1 bromopropane for possible listing in the Report on Carcinogens (RoC). The cancer evaluation is captured in the RoC monograph, which was peer reviewed in a public forum. The monograph consists of two components: (Part 1) the cancer evaluation, which reviews the relevant scientific information, assesses its quality, applies the RoC listing criteria to the scientific information, and provides the NTP recommendation for listing status for 1 bromopropane in the RoC, and (Part 2) the substance profile proposed for the RoC, containing the NTP's listing status recommendation, a summary of the scientific evidence considered key to reaching that decision, and data on properties, use, production, exposure, and Federal regulations and guidelines to reduce exposure to 1-bromopropane. This monograph provides an assessment of the available scientific information on 1 bromopropane, including human exposure and properties, disposition and toxicokinetics, cancer studies in experimental animals, and studies of mechanisms and other related effects, including relevant toxicological effects, genetic toxicology, and mechanisms of carcinogenicity. From this assessment, the NTP recommended that 1 bromopropane be listed as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the RoC based on sufficient evidence from studies in experimental animals, which found inhalation exposure to 1-bromopropane caused skin tumors in male rats, large intestine tumors in female and male rats, and lung tumors in female mice. Also noted was that 1 bromopropane, either directly or via reactive metabolites, caused molecular alterations that typically are associated with carcinogenesis, including genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and glutathione depletion. These alterations, observed in mainly in vitro and toxicity studies in rodents, are relevant to possible mechanisms of human carcinogenicity and support the relevance of the cancer studies in

  13. Carcinogenicity of chloroform.

    PubMed Central

    Reuber, M D

    1979-01-01

    Chloroform is carcinogenic in rats, mice, and probably in dogs. Chloroform induced carcinomas of the liver and kidney and malignant tumors in other organs in rats and mice. Liver neoplasms have been described in three strains of mice. Carcinomas of the kidney were found in a first study in mice and in the repeat of that study. Dogs given chloroform developed neoplasms of the liver as well as in other organs. Rats given chloroform also developed toxic changes, particularly male rats, as a result of treatment. These lesions included interstitial fibrosis of the kidney; polyarteritis of the mesenteric, pancreatic, and other arterioles and arteries; and atrophy of the testes. These toxic changes may have interfered with the development of neoplasms in male rats. PMID:227668

  14. Low-Dose Carcinogenicity Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the major deficiencies of cancer risk assessments is the lack of low-dose carcinogenicity data. Most assessments require extrapolation from high to low doses, which is subject to various uncertainties. Only 4 low-dose carcinogenicity studies and 5 low-dose biomarker/pre-n...

  15. Arsenic Is A Genotoxic Carcinogen

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is a recognized human carcinogen; however, there is controversy over whether or not it should be considered a genotoxic carcinogen. Many possible modes of action have been proposed on how arsenic induces cancer, including inhibiting DNA repair, altering methylation patter...

  16. Carcinogenicity and drinking water.

    PubMed

    Dayan, A D

    1993-01-01

    Water is a powerful solvent that readily dissolves many natural and synthetic substances from the environment (e.g. inorganic salts, humic acids and pesticide residues). The processes of purification, disinfection and preparation and storage necessary to provide and distribute drinking water may introduce further chemicals, including some used for these purposes and others derived by interaction between them and the compounds of natural origin. The composition of drinking water, therefore, is complex and varies between sites and with the seasons. Modern technology is employed to minimise the amounts of many of these substances, but some may persist, including derivatives generated by halogenation and ozonation for disinfection. Some of the substances are genotoxic in the laboratory and a few are proven experimental carcinogens--all at much higher concentrations than those normally found in a drinking water supply. Many ecological and epidemiological surveys have been done to compare the occurrence of various types of tumour in man with exposure to different types of drinking, but no consistent or reliable association has been found. There are serious and probably irremediable methodological weaknesses in these attempts, because of the difficulty of defining the nature of the waters consumed over a major part of life, and the variable composition of waters. The surveys do not permit even a realistic assessment of the upper confidence limit of the exclusion of the risk. Thus, although there is some experimental indication of the possible presence of carcinogenic substances in most or all drinking waters, and of how they are formed, the concentrations are very low and there is no realistic evidence that they have caused harm to man.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Carcinogen Control in the Chemical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents general and specific guidelines for handling carcinogens. Additional topics include: definition of potential occupational carcinogens; classification of carcinogens; inventory requirements; signs and labels for materials and laboratories; decontamination and disposal procedures; medical surveillance for employees working with controlled…

  18. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  19. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  20. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  1. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  2. The mammalian toxicological hazards of petroleum-derived substances: an overview of the petroleum industry response to the high production volume challenge program.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; White, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum-derived substances are complex and composed of aliphatic (normal-, iso-, and cycloparaffins), olefinic, and/or aromatic constituents. Approximately 400 of these complex substances were evaluated as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency voluntary High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge program. The substances were separated into 13 groups (categories), and all available data were assessed. Toxicology testing was conducted as necessary to fully address the end points encompassed by the HPV initiative. In a broad sense, volatile hydrocarbons may cause acute central nervous system effects, and those that are liquids at room temperature pose aspiration hazards if taken into the lungs as liquids and may also cause skin irritation. Higher boiling substances may contain polycyclic aromatic constituents (PACs) that can be mutagenic and carcinogenic and may also cause developmental effects. Substances containing PACs can also cause target organ and developmental effects. The effects of aliphatic constituents include liver enlargement and/or renal effects in male rats via an α-2u-globulin-mediated process and, in some cases, small but statistically significant reductions in hematological parameters. Crude oils may contain other constituents, particularly sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds, which are removed during refining. Aside from these more generic considerations, some specific petroleum substances may contain unusually toxic constituents including benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and/or n-hexane, which should also be taken into account if present at toxicologically relevant levels.

  3. Acrylonitrile: a suspected human carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Koerselman, W; van der Graaf, M

    1984-01-01

    The literature on carcinogenicity of acrylonitrile (an important intermediate in the chemical industry) is reviewed. The three main conclusions are: (1) Acrylonitrile has genotoxic effects in various tests in microorganisms and in mammal cells. (2) Chronic exposure to acrylonitrile causes tumours in rats. (3) Results of epidemiological studies indicate that acrylonitrile may be a human carcinogen. From this it is clear that acrylonitrile is very probably carcinogenic to humans. Therefore the authors plead for a reduction of acrylonitrile standards to the lowest practicable limit.

  4. Carcinogen testing. Fact and fallacy.

    PubMed

    Moore, J A

    1988-10-15

    In the absence of human information on the carcinogenicity of chemical substances, one must rely primarily on information from long-term animal testing. Although far from perfect, animal studies seem to be reasonable predictors of the human experience, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Short-term tests for genotoxicity may be helpful for establishing priorities for chemical testing, but they are not as strong indicators of potential carcinogenicity as had been previously thought. New directions in toxicologic research hold the promise for scientists being able to perform more reasoned assessments of carcinogenic risk.

  5. Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment provide EPA staff with guidance for developing and using risk assessments. They also provide basic information to the public about the Agency's risk assessment methods.

  6. Carcinogenicity of methyl-tertiary butyl ether in gasoline.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, Myron A

    2002-12-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) was added to gasoline on a nationwide scale in 1992 without prior testing of adverse, toxic, or carcinogenic effects. Since that time, numerous reports have appeared describing adverse health effects of individuals exposed to MTBE, both from inhalation of fumes in the workplace and while pumping gasoline. Leakage of MTBE, a highly water-soluble compound, from underground storage tanks has led to contamination of the water supply in many areas of the United States. Legislation has been passed by many states to prohibit the addition of MTBE to gasoline. The addition of MTBE to gasoline has not accomplished its stated goal of decreasing air pollution, and it has posed serious health risks to a large portion of the population, particularly the elderly and those with respiratory problems, asthma, and skin sensitivity. Reports of animal studies of carcinogenicity of MTBE began to appear in the 1990s, prior to the widespread introduction of MTBE into gasoline. These reports were largely ignored. In ensuing years, further studies have shown that MTBE causes various types of malignant tumors in mice and rats. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors' Report on Carcinogens Subcommittee met in December 1998 to consider listing MTBE as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen." In spite of recommendations from Dr. Bailer, the primary reviewer, and other scientists on the committee, the motion to list MTBE in the report was defeated by a six to five vote, with one abstention. On the basis of animal studies, it is widely accepted that if a chemical is carcinogenic in appropriate laboratory animal test systems, it must be treated as though it were carcinogenic in humans. In the face of compelling evidence, NTP Committee members who voted not to list MTBE as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" did a disservice to the general public; this action may cause needless exposure of many to health risks

  7. Metabolic activation and inactivation of chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Pelkonen, O.; Vaehaekangas, K.

    1980-09-01

    Chemical carcinogens are metabolized by numerous pathways catalyzed by enzymes in endoplasmic reticulum and other parts of the cell. Reactions in which functional groups are created are especially important in the activation of polycyclic hydrocarbon carcinogens to ultimate carcinogenic forms, although other enzymes may also participate in the activation of other chemical carcinogens. The reasons why carcinogens act on specific target tissues are incompletely understood, although differences in enzyme profiles between tissues certainly contribute to the target tissue variability. The concept of metabolic activation of carcinogens by body's own enzymes has led to the development of short-term assay systems, which essentially measure the production of biologically active metabolites from potential carcinogens.

  8. Summary of carcinogenic potency and positivity for 492 rodent carcinogens in the carcinogenic potency database.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, L S; Slone, T H; Bernstein, L

    1989-01-01

    A tabulation of carcinogenic potency (TD50) by species for 492 chemicals that induce tumors in rats or mice is presented. With the use of the Carcinogenic Potency Database, experimental results are summarized by indicating in which sex-species groups the chemical was tested and the respective evaluations of carcinogenicity. A comparison of three summary measures of TD50 for chemicals with more than one positive experiment per species shows that the most potent TD50 value is similar to measures that average values or functions of values. This tabulation can be used to investigate associations between rodent potency and other factors such as mutagenicity, teratogenicity, chemical structure, and human exposure. PMID:2707207

  9. Comparative carcinogenicity of the PAHs as a basis for acceptable exposure levels (AELs) in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Rugen, P.J.; Stern, C.D.; Lamm, S.H. )

    1989-06-01

    The carcinogenicity of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has generally been demonstrated by their ability to act as complete carcinogens in the development of cancers in rodent skin tests. In order to develop proposed acceptable concentration levels for various PAHs in drinking water, we reviewed the studies that formed the basis for determining that these specific PAHs were carcinogenic in animals. We found that the relative potency of these PAHs varied over a range of many orders of magnitude. For example, the carcinogenic strength of benz(a)anthracene (BaA) is found to be about 1/2000th that of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). We have used the calculated carcinogenic potency of the various PAHs relative to that of BaP as a means for proposing specific acceptable concentration levels in drinking water for each of the specific PAHs. BaP is the only carcinogenic PAH for which EPA has published an acceptable concentration level based on carcinogenicity. Based on the level EPA set for BaP (0.028 micrograms/liter), this methodology has provided for the specific PAHs a determination of proposed acceptable concentration levels quantitatively based on the same data that were used to qualitatively determine them to be animal carcinogens. We have proposed acceptable concentration levels for the carcinogenic PAHs in drinking water that range from 0.03 micrograms/liter for BaP to 6.5 micrograms/liter for BaA. We recommend that acceptable concentration levels for the various PAHs be based on their relative carcinogenic potencies rather than the EPA method of using the potency of only one specific PAH, BaP, to serve as the exposure level determinant for all PAHs. We further suggest that this methodology may be applicable to other classes of carcinogenic compounds.

  10. Chemical structure and carcinogenicity relationships of some chloroalkene oxides and their parent olefins.

    PubMed

    Van Duuren, B L; Kline, S A; Melchionne, S; Seidman, I

    1983-01-01

    Six epoxides of structurally related chloroalkenes were examined for their carcinogenicity by chronic testing in female ICR/Ha Swiss mice, 30/group. Repeated skin application three times weekly or s.c. injection once weekly were used for the life spans of the mice. The epoxides were: cis-1-chloropropene oxide, trans-1-chloropropene oxide, cis-1,3-dichloropropene oxide, trans-1,3-dichloropropene oxide, trichloroethylene oxide (TCEO), and tetrachloroethylene oxide (PCEO). In mouse skin, cis-1-chloropropene oxide, trans-1-chloropropene oxide, cis-1-,3-dichloropropene oxide, and trans-1,3-dichloropropene oxide induced statistically significant incidences of squamous carcinomas of the skin; TCEO did not cause any skin tumors; and PCEO resulted in three mice with benign skin tumors and one with a squamous carcinoma of the skin. Repeated s.c. injection of the four propene oxides induced statistically significant incidences of local tumors, mostly fibrosarcomas. This was not the case with TCEO and PCEO. The data are consistent with the carcinogenicity findings on the parent chloropropenes and suggest that the epoxides function as their activated carcinogenic intermediates. The essentially negative findings with TCEO and PCEO suggest further studies on the carcinogenicity of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene.

  11. Petroleum Sector (NAICS 324)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find relevant environmental regulations for the petroleum industry (NAICS 324), including National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)s for petroleum refineries and gasoline dispensing & effluent guidelines for oil and gas extraction

  12. Petroleum Processing Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the petroleum processing wastes, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as the use of activated carbon in petroleum and petrochemical waste treatment. A list of 15 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. The Regulation of Carcinogenic Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gori, Gio Batta

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested that a system of relative standards be formulated which would compare utility of substances to their relative risk as carcinogens. This would define a range of use restrictions. Substances intended for specific uses would then be regulated according to these standards. (Author/RE)

  14. Health effects of coal mining and combustion: carcinogens and cofactors.

    PubMed

    Falk, H L; Jurgelski, W

    1979-12-01

    Some polynuclear aromatics (PNA) have been found to be potent carcinogens for all tissues and organs of experimental animals that have been exposed to them, but different dose levels are needed for these effects. They have been known for decades to cause cancer at the site of application but also at certain sites distant from the area of contact. Although some hydrocarbons are potent and complete carcinogens, the majority of related hydrocarbons was originally found to be inactive. Since they generally appear together, it was important to know more about their interaction, particularly whether they would synergize, or antagonize. The polycyclic hydrocarbons have been studied by subcutaneous injection, where they prove very potent carcinogens. They are also very active on the skin of mice where they produce cancer on prolonged application. Inhalation studies, require larger doses yielded negative results until particulate matter was introduced which facilitated the development of lung tumors. Although iron oxide dust was used initially, other dusts were also capable of enhancing the response of the tissue to benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenesis. This point is of importance, particularly since the inhalation of PNA in situations of air pollution or coal mining involves particulates, although of a different type. Soot is not a homogenous substance and several factors determine its properties. Soots will lose some of the absorbed chemicals during their residence in air, but they retain their PNAs for long periods of time when they reach the soil. The carcinogenicity of PNAs in the adsorbed state may be completely absent, depending on particle size of the soot and availability of eluting capability of the tissues or cells in contact with the soot. Whenever the carcinogenic polynuclear aromatics can be eluted they will be active in producing cancer if their residence is adequate. There seems to be no reason to assume that a large increase in coal combustion in the future will

  15. The dermal carcinogenic potential of unrefined and hydrotreated lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    McKee, R H; Daughtrey, W C; Freeman, J J; Federici, T M; Phillips, R D; Plutnick, R T

    1989-08-01

    Unrefined lubricating oils contain relatively high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and have been shown to induce tumors in mouse skin. Exxon has developed a new method of refining these materials, a severe hydrotreatment process that is optimized for PAH removal. The specific objectives of the current study were to assess PAH reduction and then to evaluate directly the dermal carcinogenic potential of the materials that spanned the range of products produced by this method. The test samples included unrefined light and heavy vacuum distillates from a naphthenic crude oil, as well as the corresponding severely hydrotreated products. Two sets of samples were prepared to assess the effects of various operating parameters in the reactor. Additionally, positive (benzo[a]pyrene), negative (white mineral oil) and vehicle (toluene) control groups were included to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the bioassay. Each sample was applied in twice-weekly aliquots to the backs of 40 male C3H mice. In the analytical studies, significant reductions in the levels of several specific PAH were demonstrated. In the dermal carcinogenesis studies, the unrefined oils and the positive control induced tumors and also significantly reduced survival. None of the mice treated with severely hydrotreated oils or with the negative or vehicle controls developed skin tumors, and survival of these mice was not significantly different from the control. Thus, the data demonstrated that this new, severe hydrotreatment process was an effective means of converting carcinogenic feedstocks to non-carcinogenic products.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  17. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    PubMed

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios.

  18. Asphalt fume dermal carcinogenicity potential: I. dermal carcinogenicity evaluation of asphalt (bitumen) fume condensates.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charles R; Burnett, Donald M; Parker, Craig M; Arp, Earl W; Swanson, Mark S; Minsavage, Gary D; Kriech, Anthony J; Osborn, Linda V; Freeman, James J; Barter, Robert A; Newton, Paul E; Beazley, Shelley L; Stewart, Christopher W

    2011-10-01

    Asphalt (bitumen) fume condensates collected from the headspace above paving and Type III built up roofing asphalt (BURA) tanks were evaluated in two-year dermal carcinogenicity assays in male C3H/HeNCrl mice. A third sample was generated from the BURA using a NIOSH laboratory generation method. Similar to earlier NIOSH studies, the BURA fume condensates were applied dermally in mineral oil twice per week; the paving sample was applied 7 days/week for a total weekly dose of 50 mg/wk in both studies. A single benign papilloma was observed in a group of 80 mice exposed to paving fume condensate at the end of the two-year study and only mild skin irritation was observed. The lab generated BURA fume condensate resulted in statistically significant (P<0.0001) increases in squamous cell carcinomas (35 animals or 55% of animals at risk). The field-matched BURA condensate showed a weaker but significant (P=0.0063) increase (8 carcinomas or 13% of animals) and a longer average latency (90 weeks vs. 76 for the lab fume). Significant irritation was observed in both BURA condensates. It is concluded that the paving fume condensate was not carcinogenic under the test conditions and that the field-matched BURA fume condensate produced a weak tumor response compared to the lab generated sample.

  19. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  1. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  2. Dietary Carcinogens and Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    bile acid sulfotransferase also referred to as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfotransferase (70). The two phenol sulfotransferase (PST) can be...distinguished from each other on the basis of thermal sensitivity and resistance to 2.6- dichloro-4- nitrophenol (DCNP) (70). Carcinogenic arylamines and...arachidonic acid -dependent peroxidase, is known to be present in the microsomal fraction of several tissues. PHS is a bifunctional enzyme that initiates

  3. Application of the Salmonella mutagenicity assay and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in workplaces exposed to petroleum pitch and petroleum coke.

    PubMed

    Monarca, S; Pasquini, R; Sforzolini, G S; Viola, V; Fagioli, F

    1982-02-01

    Workplaces of an Italian carbon electrode factory, exposed to petroleum pitch and petroleum coke, were studied using a coupled chemical and biological approach to evaluate occupational mutagenic/carcinogenic hazards. Analytical procedures for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity tests (with TA98 and TA100 strains) were performed on both industrial ingredients (pitch and coke) and airborne particulate matter of the working environment, after fractionating by sequential Soxhlet extractions with four organic solvents of increasing polarity (benzene, chloroform, methanol and acetone). The results showed: (a) the presence of extraordinarily high PAH (carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic) contents in the benzene extracts of petroleum pitch (3.6 wt% of total PAH) and of airborne particulate samples (up to 0.35 wt% of total PAH), in correlation with very high indirect (after metabolic activation) mutagenic responses of benzene extracts with strain TA98; (b) very high indirect mutagenic responses in the other extracts of the airborne particulate samples (especially with strain TA98); (c) the production during the processing at high temperatures of directly acting mutagens (without metabolic activation) which were absent in the starting materials and their release in the air of workplaces. The comparison of chemical analytical and mutagenicity data has proved to be an interesting approach for better defining the relative health hazards due to occupational exposure to potentially mutagenic/carcinogenic petroleum products.

  4. Carcinogens show comedogenic activity: a potential animal screen for tumorigenic substances.

    PubMed

    Kligman, A M; Kligman, L H

    1994-12-09

    Formation of a comedo, an impaction of horny cells in sebaceous follicles, entails a metaplastic change in the differentiation patterns of the follicular epithelium. Since metaplasia is a requisite early stage in carcinogenesis, we postulated that carcinogens might be comedogenic. The rabbit ear was used to assay the comedogenic potentialities of an array of known tumorigens. Complete carcinogens and some tumor promotors were invariably strongly comedogenic at concentrations of 1.0% and below. Comedogenic chemicals commonly found in skin care products usually required concentrations of 40% and greater to induce comedones which were small in comparison to carcinogen induced comedones. We suggest that the rabbit ear model might be an easy and reliable way to screen for carcinogenicity.

  5. Skin Dictionary

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  6. Carcinogens in estuaries, their monitoring and possible hazard to man.

    PubMed

    Stich, H F; Acton, A B; Dunn, B P

    1976-01-01

    Bottom-dwelling flatfish and their skin tumors can be used as an early-warning-system for the pollution by chemical carcinogens in sub- and inter-tidal waters. A trial in British Columbia and the State of Washington showed a link between tumor prevalence and urban activity. The possible use of marine accumulator organisms (mussels) in the estimation of benzo(a)pyrene levels of harbours is considered. The combination of biological and chemical assays could provide the basis for a large-scale routine surveillance of the marine environment.

  7. The carcinogenicity of chrysotile asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Harington, J.S. )

    1991-12-31

    In in vitro test systems, chrysotile is markedly toxic, causes chromosomal aberrations, and is capable of inducing morphological and preneoplastic transformation. In carefully designed animal experiments, chrysotile produces lung cancer and mesothelioma as effectively as do the amphiboles tested. Human population studies do not refute these experimental results. Chrysotile asbestos is carcinogenic to humans, especially for the induction of lung cancer and mesothelioma in exposed populations. For cancers of other sites, with the exception of laryngeal and possibly gastrointestinal cancer, the evidence for association with exposure to all forms of asbestos, including chrysotile, is not yet adequate for evaluation.48 references.

  8. Inter-species comparisons of carcinogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Purchase, I. F.

    1980-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of 250 chemicals in 2 species, usually the rat and the mouse, was obtained from the published literature through 3 independent sources. Of the 250 compounds listed, 38% were non-carcinogenic in both rats and mice, and 44% were carcinogenic in both species. A total of 43 compounds had different results in the two species, 21 (8%) being carcinogenic in mice only, 17 (7%) in rats only and 5 (2%) having differing results from other species. A comparison of the major target organs affected by chemicals carcinogenic in both species revealed that 64% of the chemicals studied produced cancer at the same site. This comparison of carcinogenic activity in 2 species suggests that extrapolation from results in a single-animal study to man may be subject to substantial errors. PMID:7387835

  9. Petroleum: An Energy Profile 1999

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    Explains in layman's terms the major components and operations of the U.S. petroleum industry that include: petroleum products, resources and reserves, drilling and exploration, refining, storage and transportation, imports, exports, and petroleum marketing.

  10. Petroleum 1996: Issues and Trends

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Examines historical trends and focuses on major petroleum issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the petroleum industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to the volatility in petroleum markets.

  11. Prediction of rodent carcinogenicity for 30 chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, J.

    1996-10-01

    Predictions of carcinogenic activity are made for 30 chemicals currently being assessed for rodent carcinogenicity by the U.S. National Toxicology Program. The predictions are based upon the chemical structure, the anticipated or reported mutagenicity, and the reported sub-chronic toxicity of each chemical. It is predicted that 13 chemicals will be noncarcinogenic to rodents, that 7 will be genotoxic carcinogens, and that 10 may show some evidence of presumed nongenotoxic rodent carcinogenesis. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity studies of antihistamines.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Giovanni; Mattioli, Francesca; Robbiano, Luigi; Martelli, Antonietta

    2011-10-01

    This review provides a compendium of the results of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity assays performed on marketed antihistamines. Of the 70 drugs examined, 29 (41.4%) have at least one genotoxicity and/or carcinogenicity test result: 12 tested positive in at least one genotoxicity assay, six in at least one carcinogenicity assay, and four gave a positive response in both at least one genotoxicity assay and at least one carcinogenicity assay. Of 19 drugs with both genotoxicity and carcinogenicity data, eight were neither genotoxic nor carcinogenic, two were carcinogenic in at least one sex of mice or rats but tested negative in genotoxicity assays, five tested positive in at least one genotoxicity assay but were non-carcinogenic, and four gave a positive response in at least one genotoxicity assay and in at least one carcinogenicity assay. Only 12 (17.1%) of the 70 drugs examined have all data required by present guidelines for testing of pharmaceuticals, but it should be considered that a large fraction of them were developed and marketed prior the present regulatory climate.

  13. Fundamentals of Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic information on petroleum is presented in this book prepared for naval logistics officers. Petroleum in national defense is discussed in connection with consumption statistics, productive capacity, world's resources, and steps in logistics. Chemical and geological analyses are made in efforts to familiarize methods of refining, measuring,…

  14. Geostatistics and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Hohn, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The book reviewed is designed as a practical guide to geostatistics or kriging for the petroleum geologists. The author's aim in the book is to explain geostatistics as a working tool for petroleum geologists through extensive use of case-study material mostly drawn from his own research in gas potential evaluation in West Virginia. Theory and mathematics are pared down to immediate needs.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  16. World petroleum supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A number of conclusions by political conservatives about the fate of world petroleum supplies have been emerging lately. Among the most recent of them arose from discussions, held at the 1983 spring meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), which focused on the environment and resource study entitled “The Global 2000 Report” (New Scientist, June 9, 1983). Fred Singer, representing the Heritage Foundation of Washington, D.C., criticized the report, which predicted shortages in the near future, saying that the current world-wide oil glut will continue beyond the year 2000. Alternatives to the use of petroleum are a part of the cause. Singer argued that conservation, nuclear energy, and other petroleum substitutes will continue to suppress the demand for petroleum. In addition, according to other evaluations, exploration for petroleum and natural gas has not really begun.

  17. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  18. A computational method for the identification of new candidate carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Chu, Chen; Lu, Jing; Kong, Xiangyin; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of human death. Based on current knowledge, one of the causes of cancer is exposure to toxic chemical compounds, including radioactive compounds, dioxin, and arsenic. The identification of new carcinogenic chemicals may warn us of potential danger and help to identify new ways to prevent cancer. In this study, a computational method was proposed to identify potential carcinogenic chemicals, as well as non-carcinogenic chemicals. According to the current validated carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic chemicals from the CPDB (Carcinogenic Potency Database), the candidate chemicals were searched in a weighted chemical network constructed according to chemical-chemical interactions. Then, the obtained candidate chemicals were further selected by a randomization test and information on chemical interactions and structures. The analyses identified several candidate carcinogenic chemicals, while those candidates identified as non-carcinogenic were supported by a literature search. In addition, several candidate carcinogenic/non-carcinogenic chemicals exhibit structural dissimilarity with validated carcinogenic/non-carcinogenic chemicals.

  19. Carcinogenic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Faroon, O M; Keith, S; Jones, D; De Rosa, C

    2001-03-01

    As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) sites that have the greatest public health impact. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article constitutes the release of an important section of the Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls [ATSDR. 2000: Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.] into the scientific literature. This article focuses on the carcinogenic effects of this group of synthetic organic chemicals (polychlorinated biphenyls) in humans and animals. Information on other health effects, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, biomarkers, interactions, chemical and physical properties, potential for human exposure, and regulations and advisories is detailed in the profile.

  20. Risk assessment of carcinogens in food

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, Susan

    2010-03-01

    Approaches for the risk assessment of carcinogens in food have evolved as scientific knowledge has advanced. Early methods allowed little more than hazard identification and an indication of carcinogenic potency. Evaluation of the modes of action of carcinogens and their broad division into genotoxic and epigenetic (non-genotoxic, non-DNA reactive) carcinogens have played an increasing role in determining the approach followed and provide possibilities for more detailed risk characterisation, including provision of quantitative estimates of risk. Reliance on experimental animal data for the majority of risk assessments and the fact that human exposures to dietary carcinogens are often orders of magnitude below doses used in experimental studies has provided a fertile ground for discussion and diverging views on the most appropriate way to offer risk assessment advice. Approaches used by national and international bodies differ, with some offering numerical estimates of potential risks to human health, while others express considerable reservations about the validity of quantitative approaches requiring extrapolation of dose-response data below the observed range and instead offer qualitative advice. Recognising that qualitative advice alone does not provide risk managers with information on which to prioritise the need for risk management actions, a 'margin of exposure' approach for substances that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic has been developed, which is now being used by the World Health Organization and the European Food Safety Authority. This review describes the evolution of risk assessment advice on carcinogens and discusses examples of ways in which carcinogens in food have been assessed in Europe.

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW: MUTAGENICITY AND CARCINOGENICITY OF AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although both outdoor and indoor airs provide exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, this review shows that the level of hazard is highly variable. Outdoor air was first shown to be carcinogenic in 1942 and mutagenic in 1975; and studies examining the genotoxicity of indoor air so...

  2. Markers of exposure to carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Wogan, G.N. )

    1989-05-01

    Methods have been developed for the detection of exposure to carcinogens and other DNA damaging agents in experimental animals and man through the detection of carcinogens or their metabolic derivatives in body fluids, or through adducts bound covalently to DNA or hemoglobin. The successful use of urinary markers of genotoxic exposures has been reported with respect to nitrosoproline as an indicator of exposure to N-nitroso compounds. The same approach has been used to detect AFB1 and AFB1-N7-Gua as markers of exposure to aflatoxin B1; of 3-methyladenine produced as a result of exposure to methylating agents; and thymine glycol as an indicator of exposure to agents causing oxidative damage to DNA. Detection of adducts formed between genotoxic agents and hemoglobin has been reported in studies of populations occupationally exposed to ethylene oxide, in which 3-hydroxyhistidine and 3-hydroxyvaline have been measured, and in smokers, whose hemoglobin has been found to contain levels of 4-aminobiphenyl and 3-hydroxyvaline that were correlated with the frequency of cigarette smoking. Detection of DNA adducts of genotoxic agents in the cells and tissues of exposed individuals has also been accomplished through the use of several types of analytical methods. Immunoassays and physicochemical methods have been applied to detect adducts formed through the major intermediate in the activation of benzo(a)pyrene, the 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE). This adduct has been found in the DNA of peripheral leukocytes of workers in foundries, aluminum manufacturing plants, roofers, and coke oven plants, and also in cigarette smokers. 36 references.

  3. Comparative hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity of sodium arsenite and three petroleum products in experimental Swiss Albino Mice: the modulatory effects of Aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Gbadegesin, Michael A; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Akinwumi, Kazeem A; Osifeso, Olabode O

    2009-10-01

    Petroleum products (PPs) consist of complex chemical mixtures, mainly hydrocarbons. Their composition varies considerably with source and use. Inappropriate manual handling and use of PPs, in countries like Nigeria, results in excessive skin contact with the possibility of hazard to health. There has been inadequate evidence to classify diesel, kerosene and hydraulic oil as human carcinogens and there is limited evidence for their toxicity and carcinogenicity in experimental animals. We compared the hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity of diesel, petrol or hydraulic oil with that of sodium arsenite (Na(2)AsO(2)) in mice. Our findings showed that these PPs are capable of inducing gamma-glutamyl transferase (gammaGT) activity in the serum and liver to levels comparable with that induced by Na(2)AsO(2). Mice treated with individual PPs have elevated mean liver and serum gammaGT at levels that are significantly different from the values observed for the negative control group. Also, the individual PPs alone have micronuclei formation induction activity similar to Na(2)AsO(2). We found that treatment with Aloe vera gel before the PPs significantly reduced mean liver and serum gammaGT, and the mean number of micronuclei scored when compared with groups administered each of the PPs alone, supporting the presence of hepatoprotective components in Aloe vera.

  4. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and skin manifestations.

    PubMed

    Ju, Qiang; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2016-09-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous compounds that have the ability to disrupt the production and actions of hormones through direct or indirect interaction with hormone receptors, thus acting as agonists or antagonists. Human health is affected after either individual occupation or dietary and environmental exposure to EDCs. On the other hand, skin is one of the largest organs of the body and its main function is protection from noxious substances. EDCs perturb the endocrine system, and they are also carcinogenic, immunotoxic, and hepatotoxic to human skin. In addition, their effects on keratinocytes, melanocytes, sebocytes, inflammatory and immunological cells, and skin stem cells produce inflammatory and allergic skin diseases, chloracne, disorders of skin pigmentation, skin cancer, and skin aging. Mechanisms, which EDCs use to induce these skin disorders are complicated, and involve the interference of endogenous hormones and most importantly the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor signal pathway. Further studies on EDCs and skin diseases are necessary to elucidate these mechanisms.

  5. A comprehensive evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of middle distillate fuels.

    PubMed

    Nessel, C S

    1999-02-01

    Middle distillate fuels (MDFs), which include jet fuel, kerosene, and diesel fuel, are a class of hydrocarbons distilled from crude oil at approximately 350-700 degrees F (176-371 degrees C). Although MDFs generally do not contain appreciable levels of potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), they have produced weak tumorigenic responses in mouse skin characterized by low tumor yield and long latency. Recent studies demonstrated that the tumorigenic effects of these MDFs were dependent upon chronic dermal irritation. In the absence of skin irritation, tumors did not develop. Mechanistic studies suggest that straight-run MDFs containing low levels of PACs cause skin tumors through a nongenotoxic mechanism. MDFs cause chronic skin irritation and injury with repeated application to the skin. They have been found to have little or no activity in the modified Ames mutagenicity assay, lack tumor initiating activity, and are active skin tumor promoters. It has been hypothesized that the tumorigenic response to MDFs results from the promotion of preexisting, spontaneously initiated cells. Two recent studies, a one-year tumor promotion study and a two-year skin painting study, evaluated the role of skin irritation on the tumorigenic activity of MDFs in mice. MDFs were applied in pure and diluted forms to assess the effect of equal weekly doses of irritating and nonirritating test materials. The tumorigenicity of straight-run MDFs correlated to the level of skin irritation. No significant increase in tumor incidence occurred under conditions that resulted in minimal skin irritation and injury. These studies indicate that the tumorigenic activity of MDFs containing low levels of PACs is secondary to chronic skin irritation. These materials should not present a carcinogenic hazard in the absence of prolonged skin irritation.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  9. Carbonate petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Roehl, P.O.; Choquette, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the geology of petroleum deposits. Topics considered include diagenesis, porosity, dolomite reservoirs, deposition, reservoir rock, reefs, morphology, fracture-controlled production, Cenozoic reservoirs, Mesozoic reservoirs, and Paleozoic reservoirs.

  10. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  11. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates.

  12. NAFTA opportunities: Petroleum refining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) creates a more transparent environment for the sale of refined petroleum products to Mexico, and locks in access to Canada's relatively open market for these products. Canada and Mexico are sizable United States export markets for refined petroleum products, with exports of $556 million and $864 million, respectively, in 1992. These markets represent approximately 24 percent of total U.S. exports of these goods.

  13. Fundamentals of petroleum maps

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Elroy, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    It's a complete guide to the fundamentals of reading, using, and making petroleum maps. The topics covered are well spotting, lease posting, contouring, hanging cross sections, and ink drafting. This book not only tells the how of petroleum mapping, but it also tells the why to better understand the principles and techniques. The books does not teach ''drafting,'' but does describe the proper care and use of drafting equipment for those who are totally new to the task.

  14. 1991 international petroleum encyclopedia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    There is no other petroleum industry publication quite like the International Petroleum Encyclopedia. With a timely, accurate combination of global industry coverage and analysis, detailed statistical surveys, cutting-edge reports on technological advancements and the ever-popular atlas maps, the 1991 International Petroleum Encyclopedia is a smart buy for professionals whose business is oil and gas, as well as for those whose business is affected by the industry's trends and developments. Written by a professional staff of Oil and Gas Journal petroleum experts, the 1991 IPE gives you the all important global perspective for constructing sound business strategies for the 90's. The petroleum industry is scrambling for information that will help it survive this volitile period. This book reports on the topics in the petroleum industry the latest developments in horizontal drilling, world refining (the latest information on reformulated fuels), and predictions about the post-war Persian Gulf industry. PULS, discussions on changes in the Gulf of Mexico, developments in the LNG trade, and crude oil tanker supply/.demand curves.

  15. Carcinogenicity of antineoplastic agents in man.

    PubMed

    Rieche, K

    1984-03-01

    Review of the literature shows that: Anticancer drugs are in all probability mostly also carcinogenic. Alkylating agents such as melphalan, chlorambucil and cyclophosphamide seem to lead to the highest rate of second malignancies. Second malignancies after antitumour drugs are mostly acute leukaemias. Conditions which could influence the carcinogenicity of an antitumour drug are (a) its carcinogenic potency; (b) long-term administration; (c) the total dose used and (d) long-term survival of the patient. Irradiation and chemotherapy seem to have the greatest carcinogenic potential, e.g. in malignant lymphomas. The role of immunosuppression as a co-carcinogenic factor is difficult to estimate. Although transplant patients on anticancer drugs for immunosuppression have a higher risk of reticulosarcomas, but not of solid tumours, there is no evidence to suppose that in general immunosuppression and carcinogenicity are directly related. There is no reason to abandon intensive chemotherapy regimes if they lead to significant therapeutic results on the grounds of possible carcinogenicity of these drugs.

  16. Survey of animal drugs with carcinogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, A

    1984-01-01

    Residues of animal drugs with carcinogenic potential cannot always be avoided in food. The risk/benefit evaluation of carcinogenic drugs used in food-producing animals is a scientifically unresolved problem. Nonetheless, a pragmatic solution taking into account such drugs' putative mechanisms of action, their relative potency, and their significance in the prevention and therapy of disease must and can be achieved. While it is unlikely that a new animal drug possessing overt carcinogenic properties would pass the approval process practiced in most countries today, a number of carcinogenic drugs for use in food-producing animals are currently on the market. Their re-evaluation from the viewpoint of human food safety is necessary, particularly if they are genotoxic (for example nitrofurans, nitroimidazoles, quinoxaline-di-N-oxides). The carcinogenicity of hormonally active animal drugs, none of which has genotoxic potential, is believed to be related to their hormonal action. Thus, the establishment of a threshold level for these drugs and their residues appears possible. It is difficult to evaluate certain other nongenotoxic animal drugs which are carcinogenic at very high dose levels and in one species only. No carcinogenic substance, regardless of its hypothetical mechanism of action, should be used in food-producing animals for which a very significant therapeutic benefit has not been demonstrated.

  17. Identification of chemicals carcinogenic to man

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbourn, J.D.; Haroun, L.; Vainio, H.; Montesano, R.

    1984-01-01

    Although both the epidemiologic and experimental studies have led to the identification of chemical carcinogens, the limitations in epidemiologic approaches and the need for primary prevention of cancer require a greater reliance on experimental studies. Long-term carcinogenicity studies in experimental animals have been instrumental in identifying chemicals with carcinogenic activity, and, in some cases, the experimental evidence has preceded the epidemiologic evidence (for 4-aminobiphenyl, aflatoxin B1, diethylstilbestrol, melphalan, mustard gas, and vinyl chloride). A better understanding of the multistage process of carcinogenesis and the findings from various short-term tests available more recently may provide a more solid basis for extrapolating experimental findings to man.

  18. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Cancer What is Skin Cancer? Skin cancer is the most common type ... of approximately 9,480 Americans in 2013. Can Skin Cancer Be Treated? Most basal cell and squamous ...

  19. Combining QSAR Modeling and Text-Mining Techniques to Link Chemical Structures and Carcinogenic Modes of Action

    PubMed Central

    Papamokos, George; Silins, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for new reliable non-animal based methods to predict and test toxicity of chemicals. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), a computer-based method linking chemical structures with biological activities, is used in predictive toxicology. In this study, we tested the approach to combine QSAR data with literature profiles of carcinogenic modes of action automatically generated by a text-mining tool. The aim was to generate data patterns to identify associations between chemical structures and biological mechanisms related to carcinogenesis. Using these two methods, individually and combined, we evaluated 96 rat carcinogens of the hematopoietic system, liver, lung, and skin. We found that skin and lung rat carcinogens were mainly mutagenic, while the group of carcinogens affecting the hematopoietic system and the liver also included a large proportion of non-mutagens. The automatic literature analysis showed that mutagenicity was a frequently reported endpoint in the literature of these carcinogens, however, less common endpoints such as immunosuppression and hormonal receptor-mediated effects were also found in connection with some of the carcinogens, results of potential importance for certain target organs. The combined approach, using QSAR and text-mining techniques, could be useful for identifying more detailed information on biological mechanisms and the relation with chemical structures. The method can be particularly useful in increasing the understanding of structure and activity relationships for non-mutagens. PMID:27625608

  20. 31 CFR 542.314 - Petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum or petroleum products of... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 542.314 Petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. The term petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin means petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

  1. Contributions of human enzymes in carcinogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rendic, Slobodan; Guengerich, F Peter

    2012-07-16

    Considerable support exists for the roles of metabolism in modulating the carcinogenic properties of chemicals. In particular, many of these compounds are pro-carcinogens that require activation to electrophilic forms to exert genotoxic effects. We systematically analyzed the existing literature on the metabolism of carcinogens by human enzymes, which has been developed largely in the past 25 years. The metabolism and especially bioactivation of carcinogens are dominated by cytochrome P450 enzymes (66% of bioactivations). Within this group, six P450s--1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2E1, and 3A4--accounted for 77% of the P450 activation reactions. The roles of these P450s can be compared with those estimated for drug metabolism and should be considered in issues involving enzyme induction, chemoprevention, molecular epidemiology, interindividual variations, and risk assessment.

  2. Quantifying the carcinogenicity of antineoplastic drugs.

    PubMed

    Kaldor, J M; Day, N E; Hemminki, K

    1988-04-01

    It has been well established that many of the drugs used in cancer therapy are themselves potentially carcinogenic. It is therefore important to quantify the carcinogenic risk associated with specific agents, and to investigate ways of predicting their risk from animal and in vitro studies. In this paper, an index of carcinogenic potency is defined, and applied to published data on acute non-lymphocytic leukemia following therapy with cytotoxic drugs used as single agents. Carcinogenic potency estimates for rats and mice are also obtained for 15 antineoplastic drugs, and the potency correlation between humans and rodents is examined for the five agents for which there are data in common. The broader implications for quantitative cancer risk prediction are discussed.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  4. Carbonization of petroleum feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Eser, S.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of the petroleum cokes are determined by their crystalline structure, which principally depends on the nature of the mesophase formed during the liquid-phase carbonization of the precursors. This study was aimed at investigating the relationships between the chemical nature of the petroleum feedstocks and the mesophase development during carbonization. Ashland 240 pitch and a range of petroleum heavy residua were characterized by solvent fractionation, elemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, H and TC Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. The semi-coke (pyridine insolubles) formation from the feedstocks and their asphaltene fractions was found to be first-order with respect to the concentration of pyridine solubles over a wide conversion range. An inverse relationship was observed between the rate of carbonization of the asphaltenes and the degree of mesophase development. The degree of mesophase development during the carbonization of the feedstock asphaltenes increased consistently with the increasing hydrogen aromaticity over the whole range of the feedstocks used. The principal conclusion from this study is that the mesophase development during carbonization critically depends on the chemical constitution of the petroleum feedstocks. The molecular nature of the asphaltene fractions determines the extent of mesophase development during the carbonization of the petroleum heavy residua. In this respect, the hydrogen aromaticity of the asphaltenes appears to be a good measure for the feedstock quality in terms of resulting coke structure and properties.

  5. Predictive Models for Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are endpoints of major environmental and regulatory concern. These endpoints are also important targets for development of alternative methods for screening and prediction due to the large number of chemicals of potential concern and the tremendous cost (in time, money, animals) of rodent carcinogenicity bioassays. Both mutagenicity and carcinogenicity involve complex, cellular processes that are only partially understood. Advances in technologies and generation of new data will permit a much deeper understanding. In silico methods for predicting mutagenicity and rodent carcinogenicity based on chemical structural features, along with current mutagenicity and carcinogenicity data sets, have performed well for local prediction (i.e., within specific chemical classes), but are less successful for global prediction (i.e., for a broad range of chemicals). The predictivity of in silico methods can be improved by improving the quality of the data base and endpoints used for modelling. In particular, in vitro assays for clastogenicity need to be improved to reduce false positives (relative to rodent carcinogenicity) and to detect compounds that do not interact directly with DNA or have epigenetic activities. New assays emerging to complement or replace some of the standard assays include VitotoxTM, GreenScreenGC, and RadarScreen. The needs of industry and regulators to assess thousands of compounds necessitate the development of high-t

  6. Carcinogen adducts as an indicator for the public health risks of consuming carcinogen-exposed fish and shellfish.

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, B P

    1991-01-01

    A large variety of environmental carcinogens are metabolically activated to electrophilic metabolites that can bind to nucleic acids and protein, forming covalent adducts. The formation of DNA-carcinogen adducts is thought to be a necessary step in the action of most carcinogens. Recently, a variety of new fluorescence, immunochemical, and radioactive-postlabeling procedures have been developed that allow the sensitive measurement of DNA-carcinogen adducts in organisms exposed to environmental carcinogens. In some cases, similar procedures have been developed for protein-carcinogen adducts. In an organism with active metabolic systems for a given carcinogen, adducts are generally much longer lived than the carcinogens that formed them. Thus, the detection of DNA- or protein-carcinogen adducts in aquatic foodstuffs can act as an indicator of prior carcinogen exposure. The presence of DNA adducts would, in addition, suggest a mutagenic/carcinogenic risk to the aquatic organism itself. Vertebrate fish are characterized by high levels of carcinogen metabolism, low body burdens of carcinogen, the formation of carcinogen-macromolecule adducts, and the occurrence of pollution-related tumors. Shellfish, on the other hand, have low levels of carcinogen metabolism, high body burdens of carcinogen, and have little or no evidence of carcinogen-macromolecule adducts or tumors. The consumption of carcinogen adducts in aquatic foodstuffs is unlikely to represent a human health hazard. There are no metabolic pathways by which protein-carcinogen or DNA-carcinogen adducts could reform carcinogens. Incorporation via salvage pathways of preformed nucleoside-carcinogen adducts from foodstuffs into newly synthesized human DNA is theoretically possible.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. PMID:2050048

  7. Carcinogen adducts as an indicator for the public health risks of consuming carcinogen-exposed fish and shellfish

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, B.P. )

    1991-01-01

    A large variety of environmental carcinogens are metabolically activated to electrophilic metabolites that can bind to nucleic acids and protein, forming covalent adducts. The formation of DNA-carcinogen adducts is thought to be a necessary step in the action of most carcinogens. Recently, a variety of new fluorescence, immunochemical, and radioactive-postlabeling procedures have been developed that allow the sensitive measurement of DNA-carcinogen adducts in organisms exposed to environmental carcinogens. In some cases, similar procedures have been developed for protein-carcinogen adducts. In an organism with active metabolic systems for a given carcinogen, adducts are generally much longer lived than the carcinogens that formed them. Thus, the detection of DNA- or protein-carcinogen adducts in aquatic foodstuffs can act as an indicator of prior carcinogen exposure. The presence of DNA adducts would, in addition, suggest a mutagenic/carcinogenic risk to the aquatic organism itself. Vertebrate fish are characterized by high levels of carcinogen metabolism, low body burdens of carcinogen, the formation of carcinogen-macromolecule adducts, and the occurrence of pollution-related tumors. Shellfish, on the other hand, have low levels of carcinogen metabolism, high body burdens of carcinogen, and have little or no evidence of carcinogen-macromolecule adducts or tumors. The consumption of carcinogen adducts in aquatic foodstuffs is unlikely to represent a human health hazard. There are no metabolic pathways by which protein-carcinogen or DNA-carcinogen adducts could reform carcinogens. Incorporation via salvage pathways of preformed nucleoside-carcinogen adducts from foodstuffs into newly synthesized human DNA is theoretically possible.

  8. 29 CFR 1990.112 - Classification of potential carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification of potential carcinogens. 1990.112 Section... CARCINOGENS The Osha Cancer Policy § 1990.112 Classification of potential carcinogens. The following criteria for identification, classification and regulation of potential occupational carcinogens will...

  9. 29 CFR 1990.112 - Classification of potential carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification of potential carcinogens. 1990.112 Section... CARCINOGENS The Osha Cancer Policy § 1990.112 Classification of potential carcinogens. The following criteria for identification, classification and regulation of potential occupational carcinogens will...

  10. 29 CFR 1990.112 - Classification of potential carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification of potential carcinogens. 1990.112 Section... CARCINOGENS The Osha Cancer Policy § 1990.112 Classification of potential carcinogens. The following criteria for identification, classification and regulation of potential occupational carcinogens will...

  11. 29 CFR 1990.112 - Classification of potential carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification of potential carcinogens. 1990.112 Section... CARCINOGENS The Osha Cancer Policy § 1990.112 Classification of potential carcinogens. The following criteria for identification, classification and regulation of potential occupational carcinogens will...

  12. 29 CFR 1990.112 - Classification of potential carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification of potential carcinogens. 1990.112 Section... CARCINOGENS The Osha Cancer Policy § 1990.112 Classification of potential carcinogens. The following criteria for identification, classification and regulation of potential occupational carcinogens will...

  13. Experimental studies on betel nut and tobacco carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Ranadive, K J; Gothoskar, S V; Rao, A R; Tezabwalla, B U; Ambaye, R Y

    1976-04-15

    Sun-dried Mangalore betel nut extracts in water and in DMSO, and sun-cured Vadakkan tobacco extract in DMSO, were tested for their carcinogenic potency. Inbred Swiss and C17 mice and golden hamsters were used for the experiments. Control animals treated with either DMSO or water did not show any changes at the sites of administration. On subcutaneous administration of betel nut extract, 60% of Swiss mice developed transplantable fibrosarcomas at the site of injection. Skin application of DMSO extracts of tobacco and of betel nut separately did not result in skin lesions in C17 mice; but when a mixed DMSO extract of tobacco and betel nut was used, skin papilloma and epidermoid carcinoma developed in some animals. Similarly, hamster cheek pouches painted with a DMSO extract of tobacco alone did not develop malignant atypia whereas those painted with a DMSO extract of betel nut showed early malignant changes. DMSO extract of a mixture of tobacco and betel nut positively increased the incidence of early malignant changes in the hamster cheek pouch, indicating the enhancing effect of betel nut in carcinogenesis.

  14. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  15. Skin cancer in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, S.V.

    1987-11-01

    Skin cancer is a major concern in geriatric populations. Cumulative exposure to carcinogens and age-related factors both contribute to the high prevalence of cutaneous malignancy in the elderly. Although mortality rates from skin cancer are relatively low, morbidity can be significant, particularly if lesions are neglected. Physicians can have a major impact on the course of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma by nurturing a high index of suspicion for malignancy when unexplained cutaneous lesions are encountered. 56 references.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  20. Cutaneous HPV and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Accardi, Rosita; Gheit, Tarik

    2014-12-01

    Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small non-enveloped icosahedral viruses that infect the keratinocytes of skin and mucosa. The cutaneous HPV types are represented mainly by the beta and gamma genera, which are widely present in the skin of normal individuals. More than 40 beta-HPV types and 50 gamma-HPV types have been isolated, and these numbers are continuously growing. The main cause of non-melanoma skin cancer is exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, cutaneous HPVs that belong to the beta genus may act as a co-carcinogen with UVR. The association between beta-HPVs and skin cancer was first reported in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), who frequently develop cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) on sun-exposed areas. Isolation of HPVs from the lesions suggested that HPVs might act as a co-carcinogen with UVR in EV patients. Beta-HPVs may also play a role in cutaneous SCC in immunocompromised non-EV and in immunocompetent individuals. Several studies have reported an association of viral DNA and/or antibodies to beta HPV types with SCC. Interestingly, HPV prevalence and viral load decrease during skin carcinogenesis, being significantly higher in actinic keratosis than in SCC, suggesting that the virus may play a role in the early stages of tumour development (the "hit-and-run" hypothesis). Concordantly, in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that E6 and E7 from certain cutaneous HPV types display transforming activities, further confirming their potential role in carcinogenesis.

  1. National Standard Petroleum Oil Tables

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1936-03-04

    largely according to the recommendations of a committee appointed by the American Petroleum Institute to represent the petroleum industry. In order to... Petroleum Institute , the U. S. Bureau of Mines, and the National Bureau of Standards, in December 1921, agreed to recommend that in the future only...overcome the confusion that has existed in the petroleum-oil industry by reason of the use of two so-called Baume scales for light liquids, the American

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  3. Chemical Principles Revisited: Petroleum Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an historical review of the role of petroleum in world history and information on the chemistry of petroleum. It is suggested that petroleum chemistry be discussed since within the next two decades oil and gas will provide the major portion of U.S. energy. (Author/SA)

  4. Petroleum lands and leasing

    SciTech Connect

    Burk, J.

    1984-01-01

    This is a reference book for the lessor, lessee, royalty owner, PLM student and landman. Contents: A historical background; Rights of ownership; Instruments of conveyance; Who owns this land. The oil and gas lease and leasing procedures; Curing titles; Pooling and utilization; Contracts and agreements; Lease maintenance; Land measurements and descriptions; Code of ethics; American Association of Petroleum Landmen; Glossary.

  5. Petroleum-derived carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Bacha, J.D.; Newman, J.W.; White, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on petroleum coke. Topics considered at the symposium included mesophase formation, thermal analysis, rheology, microstructure, carbon fibers, electron microscopy, residual oil processing, synthetic aromatic pitch, delayed coking, calcination, desulfurization, graphite, metallurgical coke, carbon black, natural gas pyrolysis, liquid impregnation, and carbon-carbon composites.

  6. Non-Petroleum Oils

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  7. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    EPA Science Inventory

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  8. [Possible carcinogenic risk associated with production and use of creosote-treated wood].

    PubMed

    Holme, J A; Refsnes, M; Dybing, E

    1999-08-10

    Creosote is a coal tar product which contains varying amounts of mutagenic and carcinogenic substances such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene. Marketing and use of creosote and preparations containing creosote, as well as creosote-treated wood, are regulated by a EU Directive. According to the EU classification of such mixtures, inclusion of a warning against creosote as a carcinogen is not necessary if the contents of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and benzene are lower than 50 ppm (parts per million) and 1000 ppm, respectively. A recent well designed skin painting study in mice clearly indicates that the creosote preparations had a five-fold higher potency to induce skin cancer than the potency based on BaP content. Furthermore, it was estimated that creosote containing 50 ppm BaP would induce a significant incidence of skin cancer. Preliminary results from determination of concentrations of various carcinogens (BaP and benzene) in the air close to creosote impregnation plants as well as the crudely estimated exposure of children to dermal contact with creosote-treated wood, indicate that the life-time cancer risk from such exposures is in the order of one per 10,000. Despite the uncertainty related to such estimates, these risk levels give reasons for some concern. A further reduction in the content of PAH and benzene in creosote preparations should be considered.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF GENOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON-BIOREMEDIATED SOIL

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGMON, ROBIN

    2004-10-20

    The relationship between toxicity and soil contamination must be understood to develop reliable indicators of environmental restoration for bioremediation. Two bacterial rapid bioassays: SOS chromotest and umu-test with and without metabolic activation (S-9 mixture) were used to evaluate genotoxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil following bioremediation treatment. The soil was taken from an engineered biopile at the Czor Polish oil refinery. The bioremediation process in the biopile lasted 4 years, and the toxicity measurements were done after this treatment. Carcinogens detected in the soil, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were reduced to low concentrations (2 mg/kg dry wt) by the bioremediation process. Genotoxicity was not observed for soils tested with and without metabolic activation by a liver homogenate (S-9 mixture). However, umu-test was more sensitive than SOS-chromotest in the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon-bioremediated soil. Analytical results of soil used in the bioassays confirmed that the bioremediation process reduced 81 percent of the petroleum hydrocarbons including PAHs. We conclude that the combined test systems employed in this study are useful tools for the genotoxic examination of remediated petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

  10. The multitude and diversity of environmental carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Belpomme, D. Irigaray, P.; Hardell, L.; Clapp, R.; Montagnier, L.; Epstein, S.; Sasco, A.J.

    2007-11-15

    We have recently proposed that lifestyle-related factors, screening and aging cannot fully account for the present overall growing incidence of cancer. In order to propose the concept that in addition to lifestyle related factors, exogenous environmental factors may play a more important role in carcinogenesis than it is expected, and may therefore account for the growing incidence of cancer, we overview herein environmental factors, rated as certainly or potentially carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). We thus analyze the carcinogenic effect of microorganisms (including viruses), radiations (including radioactivity, UV and pulsed electromagnetic fields) and xenochemicals. Chemicals related to environmental pollution appear to be of critical importance, since they can induce occupational cancers as well as other cancers. Of major concerns are: outdoor air pollution by carbon particles associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; indoor air pollution by environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds such as benzene and 1,3 butadiene, which may particularly affect children, and food pollution by food additives and by carcinogenic contaminants such as nitrates, pesticides, dioxins and other organochlorines. In addition, carcinogenic metals and metalloids, pharmaceutical medicines and cosmetics may be involved. Although the risk fraction attributable to environmental factors is still unknown, this long list of carcinogenic and especially mutagenic factors supports our working hypothesis according to which numerous cancers may in fact be caused by the recent modification of our environment.

  11. Model carcinogen adsorption dynamics of DNA gel.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Naoko; Naito, Daisuke; Rokugawa, Isamu; Yamamoto, Takao; Dobashi, Toshiaki

    2014-09-01

    We have derived theoretical equations describing the adsorption of carcinogen to gels in an immersion medium containing carcinogens. The theory was developed for a cylindrical boundary condition under the assumption of a carcinogen diffusion-limited process combined with the "moving boundary picture (Furusawa et al., 2007)". The time course of the adsorbed carcinogen layer thickness and that of the carcinogen concentration in an immersion medium were expressed by a set of scaled variables, and the asymptotic behavior in the initial stage was derived. Experiments based on the theory were performed using a DNA gel sandwiched between a set of coverglasses in a medium containing acridine orange (AO). The boundary between the AO-adsorbed gel layer and AO-nonadsorbed gel layer was traced during the immersion. The time courses of the AO-adsorbed gel layer thickness and the AO concentration in the immersion medium were well explained by the theory, and the number ratio of the total AO molecules to the adsorption sites in the DNA gel was determined.

  12. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  13. Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  14. Known occupational carcinogens and their significance.

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, P.; Thériault, G.

    1984-01-01

    Although rates of occupational cancer can be excessive in certain industries, less than 5% of all cancers seem attributable to exposure to carcinogens in the workplace. For example, workers in hard-rock mining and the woodworking industries are at increased risk; cigarette smoking has a synergistic effect. There is conclusive evidence of carcinogenicity for fewer than 20 substances, including asbestos, arsenic, chromium, nickel, cadmium, radon, several aromatic hydrocarbons and certain herbicides. Most of the hundreds of organic compounds known to be mutagenic in in-vitro tests have not been shown to be carcinogenic in epidemiologic studies. Both laboratory and epidemiologic approaches, however, can identify probable causes of cancer and permit the application of effective preventive measures. In addition, it is still possible for the alert individual clinician to make the initial discovery of an occupational hazard. PMID:6367918

  15. The ISS Carcinogens Data Bank (BDC).

    PubMed

    Binetti, Roberto; Ceccarelli, Federica; Costamagna, Francesca Marina; D'Angiolini, Antonella; Fabri, Alessandra; Ferri, Maurizio; Riva, Giovanni; Roazzi, Paolo; Trucchi, Daniela; Marcello, Ida

    2008-01-01

    The Data Bank on Carcinogens (Banca Dati Cancerogeni, BDC) is a factual data bank, available on the Istituto Superiore di Sanità website, aimed at supporting the risk management decision making of central and local administrators. It can also represent a valuable tool for industry. The available information on carcinogenicity evaluations/classifications produced by European Union and by other institutions (IARC, USEPA, NTP, CCTN) is presented in a concise form accompanied by bibliographic references enabling the users to consult the original sources and, in some cases, to be directly connected to the relevant website. The classifications carried out by each organization in accordance with its own criteria assign the examined agents to specific qualitative categories and do not include quantitative assessment. BDC intends to provide an easy tool for experts, researchers and risk managers dealing with carcinogenic agents.

  16. Contributions of Human Enzymes in Carcinogen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rendic, Slobodan; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2012-01-01

    Considerable support exists for roles of metabolism in modulating the carcinogenic properties of chemicals. In particular, many of these compounds are procarcinogens that require activation to electrophilic forms to exert genotoxic effects. We systematically analyzed the existing literature on metabolism of carcinogens by human enzymes, which has been developed largely in the past 25 years. The metabolism and especially bioactivation of carcinogens are dominated by cytochrome P450 enzymes (66% of bioactivations). Within this group, six P450s—1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2E1, and 3A4—accounted for 77% of the P450 activation reactions. The roles of these P450s can be compared with those estimated for drug metabolism and should be considered in issues involving enzyme induction, chemoprevention, molecular epidemiology, inter-individual variations, and risk assessment. PMID:22531028

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  2. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  4. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  5. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  6. Skin abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... Skin abscesses are common and affect people of all ages. They occur when an infection causes pus ...

  7. Tumors of the skin and soft tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    The majority of the body surface is covered by the skin. Many internal disorders are reflected in the condition of the skin. One of the major functions of the skin is protection of the other organ systems from a variety of environmental insults. In this role, the skin itself is exposed to factors that can ultimately cause chronic diseases and cancer. Since it is relatively easy to recognize skin abnormalities, most skin cancers are brought to professional attention sooner than other types of cancer. However, due to the close resemblance between many skin neoplasms and noncancerous dermatologic disorders, these neoplasms may be mistreated for months or even years. In veterinary oncology, as in human medicine, most cancers can be effectively treated or cured following an accurate diagnosis. Once diagnosed, skin neoplasms should be aggressively treated. If causal factors are known, exposure to these factors should be limited through removal of the agent (for chemical carcinogens) or limiting exposure to the agent (for other carcinogens such as sunlight). 10 tabs. (MHB)

  8. Norwegian petroleum guide

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    This is about the comprehensive guide to Norwegian oil and gas activities, very useful to anyone in the industry. Material includes political guidelines, control institutions, work possibilities and licenses, working environment law, employer and employee organizations, national insurance, taxes, communication, rescue operations and standby. Contents: Oil and the economy; Petroleum technology research; Responsibilities of different authorities; The Labour Inspection Directorate; The Health Directorate Offshore Office; The Coastal Directorate; Helicopter traffic; The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate; The Maritime Directorate; Det norske Veritas; The Norwegian Waterways and Electricity Board; The State Institute for Radiation Hygiene; The State Explosive Inspection; Work possibilities in the North Sea; Working environment legislation on the Continental Shelf; Collective bargaining agreements, labor conflicts and the right to organize; Taxation Rules; National health insurance and the petroleum activity; Occupational injuries on the Norwegian Continental Shelf; Company insurances; The private pension scheme; Other types of insuracne common among oil companies; The rescue service in Norway; Oganizations within the oil industry offshore and onshore; and Law of aliens admission to the Kindgom.

  9. Immunologic methods for monitoring carcinogen exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santella, Regina M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Zhang, Yu J.; Chen, Chen J.; Young, Tie L.

    1993-03-01

    Immunologic methods have been developed for monitoring human exposure to environmental and occupational carcinogens. These methods involve the development of monoclonal and polyclonal antisera which specifically recognize the carcinogens themselves or their DNA or protein adducts. Antisera recognizing the DNA adducts of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol epoxides have been used in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to monitor adducts in tissue or blood samples. Elevated levels of DNA adducts have been seen in mononuclear cells of smokers and in total white blood cells of foundry and coke oven workers. Environmental exposure to PAH has been measured in individuals living in a highly polluted region of Poland. Antisera recognizing PAH-DNA adducts have also been used in immunohistochemical studies to monitor adducts in specific cells of biopsy samples. The DNA adducts of aflatoxin B1 have been monitored in liver tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma patients in Taiwan. Detectable adducts were seen in 50 - 70% of the patients suggesting that dietary exposure to this carcinogen may be a risk factor for cancer induction. Thus, immunoassays for monitoring exposure to carcinogens are an important tool in epidemiologic studies.

  10. Iron in asbestos chemistry and carcinogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.A.; Aust, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the various aspects regarding the carcinogenicity of asbestos and associated reactions catalyzed by iron. Attention is focused on the following: structure of asbestos; physical properties of asbestos involved in carcinogenesis; reactions catalyzed by iron; reactions catalyzed by asbestos; fiber inactivation; physiological effects; and mutations and cancer. 183 refs.

  11. Evaluation of the carcinogenicity of gallium arsenide.

    PubMed

    Bomhard, Ernst M; Gelbke, Heinz-Peter; Schenk, Hermann; Williams, Gary M; Cohen, Samuel M

    2013-05-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is an important semiconductor material. In 2-year inhalation studies, GaAs increased the incidence of lung tumors in female rats, but not in male rats or male and female mice. Alveolar proteinosis followed by chronic active inflammation was the predominant non-neoplastic pulmonary findings. IARC classified GaAs as carcinogenic to humans (group 1) based on the assumption that As and Ga ions are bioavailable. The European Chemical Agency Risk Assessment Committee concluded that GaAs should be classified into Carcinogenicity Category 1B (presumed to have carcinogenic potential for humans; ECHA). We evaluate whether these classifications are justified. Physico-chemical properties of GaAs particles and the degree of mechanical treatment are critical in this evaluation. The available data on mode of action (MOA), genotoxicity and bioavailability do not support the contribution of As or Ga ions to the lung tumors in female rats. Most toxicological studies utilized small particles produced by strong mechanical treatment, destroying the crystalline structure. The resulting amorphous GaAs is not relevant to crystalline GaAs at production and processing sites. The likely tumorigenic MOA is lung toxicity related to particulate-induced inflammation and increased proliferation. It is concluded that there is no evidence for a primary carcinogenic effect of GaAs.

  12. Carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages: an update.

    PubMed

    Pflaum, Tabea; Hausler, Thomas; Baumung, Claudia; Ackermann, Svenja; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-10-01

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages.

  13. New public QSAR model for carcinogenicity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background One of the main goals of the new chemical regulation REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals) is to fulfill the gaps in data concerned with properties of chemicals affecting the human health. (Q)SAR models are accepted as a suitable source of information. The EU funded CAESAR project aimed to develop models for prediction of 5 endpoints for regulatory purposes. Carcinogenicity is one of the endpoints under consideration. Results Models for prediction of carcinogenic potency according to specific requirements of Chemical regulation were developed. The dataset of 805 non-congeneric chemicals extracted from Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDBAS) was used. Counter Propagation Artificial Neural Network (CP ANN) algorithm was implemented. In the article two alternative models for prediction carcinogenicity are described. The first model employed eight MDL descriptors (model A) and the second one twelve Dragon descriptors (model B). CAESAR's models have been assessed according to the OECD principles for the validation of QSAR. For the model validity we used a wide series of statistical checks. Models A and B yielded accuracy of training set (644 compounds) equal to 91% and 89% correspondingly; the accuracy of the test set (161 compounds) was 73% and 69%, while the specificity was 69% and 61%, respectively. Sensitivity in both cases was equal to 75%. The accuracy of the leave 20% out cross validation for the training set of models A and B was equal to 66% and 62% respectively. To verify if the models perform correctly on new compounds the external validation was carried out. The external test set was composed of 738 compounds. We obtained accuracy of external validation equal to 61.4% and 60.0%, sensitivity 64.0% and 61.8% and specificity equal to 58.9% and 58.4% respectively for models A and B. Conclusion Carcinogenicity is a particularly important endpoint and it is expected that QSAR models will not replace the human experts opinions

  14. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  15. Carcinogens formed when Meat is Cooked

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J S; Salmon, C P; Knize, M G

    2003-05-30

    Diet has been associated with varying cancer rates in human populations for many years, yet the causes of the observed variation in cancer patterns have not been adequately explained (Wynder et al. 1977). Along with the effect of diet on human cancer incidence is the strong evidence that mutations are the initiating events in the cancer process (Vogelstein et al. 1992). Foods, when heated, are a good source of genotoxic carcinogens that very likely are a cause for some of these events(Doll et al. 1981). These carcinogens fall into two chemical classes: heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). There is ample evidence that many of these compounds are complete carcinogens in rodents(El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991). Heterocyclic aromatic amines are among the most potent mutagenic substances ever tested in the Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity test (Wakabayashi et al. 1992). Both classes of carcinogen cause tumors in rodents at multiple sites, (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991) many of which are common tumor sites in people on a Western diet. An HAA, PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and a PAH, B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene), of comparable carcinogenic potency caused mammary gland tumors in a feeding study in female rats (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995). In addition, PhIP has recently been shown to cause carcinomas in the prostate of the male rat (Shirai et al. 1997). Complementing the rodent cancer studies are numerous human case-control and prospective studies suggesting a relationship between overheated beef, chicken, and lamb, and cancer of the colon, breast, prostate, and stomach (Sinha et al. 1999; Ward et al. 1997; Zheng et al. 1998).

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  17. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Varjani, Sunita J

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are recalcitrant compounds and are classified as priority pollutants. Cleaning up of these pollutants from environment is a real world problem. Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradation activity. Petroleum hydrocarbons utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in environment. They naturally biodegrade pollutants and thereby remove them from the environment. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from environment by applying oleophilic microorganisms (individual isolate/consortium of microorganisms) is ecofriendly and economic. Microbial biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants employs the enzyme catalytic activities of microorganisms to enhance the rate of pollutants degradation. This article provides an overview about bioremediation for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. It also includes explanation about hydrocarbon metabolism in microorganisms with a special focus on new insights obtained during past couple of years.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  19. Prediction of the carcinogenicity of a second group of organic chemicals undergoing carcinogenicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.P.; Sussman, N.; Macina, O.T.

    1996-10-01

    Twenty-four organic compounds currently undergoing testing within cancer bioassays under the aegis of the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) were submitted to the computer automated structure evaluation (CASE) and multiple computer automated structure evaluation (MULTICASE) system for predictions of activity. Individual predictions resulting from the NTP combined rodent, NTP mouse, Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) combined rodent, and CPDB mouse databases were combined using Bayes` theorem to yield an overall probability of rodent carcinogenicity. 17 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on Activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This August 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1990, through June 30, 1990. 3 tabs.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-05

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. It presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include domestic first purchase price, f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude, and refiners` acquisition cost of crude. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  2. Effects of chemical carcinogens on bacteria and yeast: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, R.L.; Gerritsen, N.; Meadows, H.

    1981-03-01

    Early studies and reviews of the effects of carcinogens on bacteria and yeast are noted, after which a brief discussion deals specifically with chemical carcinogens and their relations with mutagenesis, deficiencies in DNA repair, RNA synthesis and function, and respiration-deficient mutants. Specific chemical carcinogens are then reviewed as to their mode of action, mutagenic and carcinogenic potency, and biochemical effects, including induced biological alterations such as cytogenetic variants. Structure-function relations are discussed for some types of compounds.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Data are presented which describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. Data are presented in two sections: Summary Statistics, presenting a time series of selected petroleum data on a U.S. level, and Detailed Statistics, presenting statistics for the most current month available as well as year to date.

  4. Cutaneously applied 4-hydroxytamoxifen is not carcinogenic in female rats.

    PubMed

    Sauvez, F; Drouin, D S; Attia, M; Bertheux, H; Forster, R

    1999-05-01

    Tamoxifen is widely used to treat oestrogen-dependent carcinoma of the breast. Previous long-term studies have shown that oral administration of tamoxifen induces hepatoproliferative lesions and hepatocellular tumours in rats. 4-hydroxytamoxifen is an active metabolite of tamoxifen undergoing clinical evaluation for the treatment of various non-malignant breast diseases by topical application. In the present study, 4-hydroxytamoxifen was administered daily by cutaneous application for 101 weeks to groups of 50 female Sprague-Dawley rats at 20, 140 or 1000 microg/kg/day. The product was applied with no occlusive bandage and oral ingestion was avoided by application of an Elizabethan collar for 6 h after administration. Treatment with 4-hydroxytamoxifen was clinically well tolerated and induced changes such as decreased food consumption and body weight gain, uterine and ovarian atrophy, mucification of vaginal epithelium and reduced mammary development, all of which were attributed to its pharmacological action. Mortality was significantly lower in the treated animals. The number of animals with palpable masses was similarly reduced. The incidence of mammary tumours and hypophyseal tumours was markedly lower in 4-hydroxytamoxifen-treated animals. The incidence of chronic tubulo-interstitial nephropathies, a common cause of mortality, was also lowered. There was no evidence of a carcinogenic action of 4-hydroxytamoxifen on the liver, genital organs or skin. Plasma levels of 4-hydroxytamoxifen were stable over the duration of the study and were proportional to the administered dose, exceeding clinical plasma levels by 60-fold at the high dose-level. In conclusion, 4-hydroxytamoxifen is not carcinogenic in the rat and reduces the incidence of spontaneous mammary and hypophyseal tumours.

  5. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has finalized its Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide. This assessment addresses the potential carcinogenicity from long-term inhalation exposure to ethylene oxide. Now final, this assessment updates the carcinogenicity information in EPA’s 1985 Hea...

  6. 31 CFR 542.412 - Transactions relating to Syrian petroleum or petroleum products from third countries...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum or petroleum products from third countries; transshipments. 542.412 Section 542.412 Money and... Syrian petroleum or petroleum products from third countries; transshipments. (a) Transactions relating to goods containing petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin are not prohibited by § 542.208...

  7. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  8. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710...

  9. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  10. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710...

  11. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  12. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710...

  14. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710...

  15. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  16. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710...

  17. Dangerous properties of petroleum-refining products: carcinogenicity of motor fuels (gasoline).

    PubMed

    Mehlman, M A

    1990-01-01

    Gasoline contains large numbers of dangerous and cancer-causing chemicals such as benzene, butadiene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, trimethyl pentane, methyltertbutylether (MTBE) and many others. For the U.S. alone approximately 140 billion gallons of gasoline were consumed in 1989. An increase in only ten cents per gallon in price of gasoline generates 14 billion dollars in extra profit per year for oil industry cartel. Laboratory animals exposed to gasoline developed cancers in different tissues and organs. A number of epidemiological studies in humans provide evidence of increased cancer risk of leukemia, kidney, liver, brain, lymphosarcoma, lymphatic tissue pancreas and other tissues and organs.

  18. Underground petroleum tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This book presents the results of a survey of 46 state underground storage tank program officials. The survey covers: Whether petroleum tank insurance (mandated by the EPA) is available in each state and whether category 3 and 4 owners can obtain it; state programs that help owners meet the financial responsibility and/or technical requirements of such insurance; and lending institutions' attitudes towards providing loans to storage tank owners. A survey of the number and terms of insurance policies offered to tank owners is also presented.

  19. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  2. Congenital Fibrosarcoma and History of Prenatal Exposure to Petroleum Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie P.; López-Hernández, Fernando A.; Trasande, Leonardo; Ferrís-Tortajada, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Congenital fibrosarcoma (CFS) is a rare fibrous tissue malignancy that usually presents in the first few years of life. It is unique among human sarcomas in that it has an excellent prognosis. We describe a temporal clustering of a number of cases of CFS and investigate the possible associated prenatal risk factors. The Pediatric Environmental History, a questionnaire developed in our clinic that is instrumental in determining environmental risk factors for tumor-related disease, was essential in documenting the presence or absence of risk factors considered as human carcinogens. We found a history of exposure to petroleum products in four cases of CFS that occurred at a greater than expected rate in a short time frame–an apparent cancer cluster. We call attention to the possibility that exposure to petroleum products raises the risk of developing CFS. While future studies should focus on systematic investigation of CFS and its underlying mechanisms, this report suggests the need for proactive measures to avoid exposure to solvents and petroleum products during pregnancy. PMID:22945410

  3. Interactions of carcinogens with DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

    SciTech Connect

    Broyde, S.; Shapiro, R.

    1989-10-01

    The principal goal of this research has been the determination of the conformational changes produced in DNA by the covalent binding of a carcinogenic aromatic amine, and the correlation of these changes with the mutations and carcinogenic effects initiated by the same substances. To this end, we have devised new synthetic methods for the preparation of oligonucleotides modified by derivatives af 4-aminobiphenyl and aniline. We have also performed potential energy minimization studies on the above substances and on single and double stranded DNA fragments bearing the above amines as well as acetylaminofluorene, aminofluorene, aminopyrene and the antibiotic mitomycin. Our computations have been carried out on DOE supercomputers using our program, DUPLEX. We have defined a number of novel structures for these modified DNAs, including Hoogsteen, wedge'' (see below) denatured, cross-linked and intercalated forms. Some suggestions have been made about the relation of these forms to mutagenesis. 7 refs.

  4. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  5. Indigenous Precambrian petroleum revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, G.E.; Kaczor, M.J.; McArthur, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    Irrefutable evidence of fossil remains from Precambrian sediments and proved petroleum reserves in upper Proterozoic (Riphean-Vendian) strata of the Irkutsk basin, USSR, suggest that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks should be a focus for hydrocarbon exploration. Since 1965, a dramatic increase in publications which document worldwide occurrences of Precambrian life forms discloses that, by the end of the Proterozoic, organic evolution had produced diversified assemblages of relatively highly developed macroorganisms and microorganisms. Some of these organisms have generated crude oil in the Nonesuch Shale of northern Michigan and kerogen in stromatolitic carbonate rocks in Africa Kerogen has been extracted from approx. 2300-m.y. old Transvaal (Africa) stromatolitic limestone containing coccoid and complex filamentous cyanophytes. Also, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons have been obtained from the approx. 2800-m.y. old Bulawayan stromatolitic limestone of Rhodesia. Additional evidence indicates that commercial reserves of petroleum from Precambrian strata are possible. An oil discovery in Lower Cambrian rocks in 1962, at Markovo in the Irkutsk basin of the Siberian platform area, led to four noncommercial and eight commercial fields producing from Lower Cambrian and Upper Proterozoic strata.

  6. Cobalt and antimony: genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Marlies; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Lison, Dominique

    2003-12-10

    The purpose of this review is to summarise the data concerning genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of Co and Sb. Both metals have multiple industrial and/or therapeutical applications, depending on the considered species. Cobalt is used for the production of alloys and hard metal (cemented carbide), diamond polishing, drying agents, pigments and catalysts. Occupational exposure to cobalt may result in adverse health effects in different organs or tissues. Antimony trioxide is primarily used as a flame retardant in rubber, plastics, pigments, adhesives, textiles, and paper. Antimony potassium tartrate has been used worldwide as an anti-shistosomal drug. Pentavalent antimony compounds have been used for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Co(II) ions are genotoxic in vitro and in vivo, and carcinogenic in rodents. Co metal is genotoxic in vitro. Hard metal dust, of which occupational exposure is linked to an increased lung cancer risk, is proven to be genotoxic in vitro and in vivo. Possibly, production of active oxygen species and/or DNA repair inhibition are mechanisms involved. Given the recently provided proof for in vitro and in vivo genotoxic potential of hard metal dust, the mechanistic evidence of elevated production of active oxygen species and the epidemiological data on increased cancer risk, it may be advisable to consider the possibility of a new evaluation by IARC. Both trivalent and pentavalent antimony compounds are generally negative in non-mammalian genotoxicity tests, while mammalian test systems usually give positive results for Sb(III) and negative results for Sb(V) compounds. Assessment of the in vivo potential of Sb2O3 to induce chromosome aberrations (CA) gave conflicting results. Animal carcinogenicity data were concluded sufficient for Sb2O3 by IARC. Human carcinogenicity data is difficult to evaluate given the frequent co-exposure to arsenic. Possible mechanisms of action, including potential to produce active oxygen species and to interfere with

  7. Carcinogenicity of Embedded Tungsten Alloys in Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    out a two-year protocol in mice based upon NTP guidelines. The uses the B6C3F1 hybrid mouse , a strain commonly used in carcinogenicity and toxicity...the same percentages present in the alloys). Aim 2: Sacrifice mice at various times after alloy implantation to detect early signs of tumor...Alloys in Mice PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David E. McClain, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the

  8. Development of toxicity criteria for petroleum hydrocarbon fractions in the Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group approach for risk-based management of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Twerdok, L E

    1999-02-01

    The Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Croup (TPHCWG) was formed in 1993 based on the observation that widely different clean-up requirements were being used by states at sites that were contaminated with hydrocarbon materials such as fuels, lubricating oils, and crude oils. These requirements were usually presented as concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and ranged from 10 to over 10,000 mg TPH/kg soil. Members of this multi-disciplinary group, consisting of representatives from industry, government and academia, jointly recognized that the numerical standard was not based on a scientific assessment of human health risk and established the following goal for the effort: To develop scientifically defensible information for establishing soil cleanup levels that are protective of human health at hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The approach developed by the TPHCWG for TPH hazard assessment consisted of dividing the petroleum hydrocarbon material into multichemical-containing fractions with similar fate and transport characteristics. These fractions were then assigned fate and transport properties (volatilization factor, soil leaching factor, etc.) and toxicity values (RfDs/RfCs) representative of the fraction. The actual site specific hazard assessment and derivation of cleanup levels is accomplished by analyzing sites to determine which fraction(s) is present and applying the appropriate fate, transport and toxicity factors. The method used by this group to determine TPH Faction specific toxicity criteria is a surrogate approach intended to supplement the indicator approach. Indicators are single, carcinogenic hydrocarbon compounds which are evaluated/regulated individually at either the federal or state level. The TPHCWG surrogate approach utilized all appropriate fraction specific toxicity data (single compound and mixture/product), minus the carcinogenic indicator compounds, to derive the fraction specific RfDs and RfCs. This hazard

  9. Mechanism-Based Classification of PAH Mixtures to Predict Carcinogenic Potential.

    PubMed

    Tilton, Susan C; Siddens, Lisbeth K; Krueger, Sharon K; Larkin, Andrew J; Löhr, Christiane V; Williams, David E; Baird, William M; Waters, Katrina M

    2015-07-01

    We have previously shown that relative potency factors and DNA adduct measurements are inadequate for predicting carcinogenicity of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH mixtures, particularly those that function through alternate pathways or exhibit greater promotional activity compared to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Therefore, we developed a pathway-based approach for classification of tumor outcome after dermal exposure to PAH/mixtures. FVB/N mice were exposed to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), BaP, or environmental PAH mixtures (Mix 1-3) following a 2-stage initiation/promotion skin tumor protocol. Resulting tumor incidence could be categorized by carcinogenic potency as DBC > BaP = Mix2 = Mix3 > Mix1 = Control, based on statistical significance. Gene expression profiles measured in skin of mice collected 12 h post-initiation were compared with tumor outcome for identification of short-term bioactivity profiles. A Bayesian integration model was utilized to identify biological pathways predictive of PAH carcinogenic potential during initiation. Integration of probability matrices from four enriched pathways (P < .05) for DNA damage, apoptosis, response to chemical stimulus, and interferon gamma signaling resulted in the highest classification accuracy with leave-one-out cross validation. This pathway-driven approach was successfully utilized to distinguish early regulatory events during initiation prognostic for tumor outcome and provides proof-of-concept for using short-term initiation studies to classify carcinogenic potential of environmental PAH mixtures. These data further provide a 'source-to-outcome' model that could be used to predict PAH interactions during tumorigenesis and provide an example of how mode-of-action-based risk assessment could be employed for environmental PAH mixtures.

  10. Mechanism-Based Classification of PAH Mixtures to Predict Carcinogenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Tilton, Susan C.; Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Krueger, Sharon K.; Larkin, Andrew J.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Williams, David E.; Baird, William M.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that relative potency factors and DNA adduct measurements are inadequate for predicting carcinogenicity of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH mixtures, particularly those that function through alternate pathways or exhibit greater promotional activity compared to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Therefore, we developed a pathway-based approach for classification of tumor outcome after dermal exposure to PAH/mixtures. FVB/N mice were exposed to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), BaP, or environmental PAH mixtures (Mix 1-3) following a 2-stage initiation/promotion skin tumor protocol. Resulting tumor incidence could be categorized by carcinogenic potency as DBC >> BaP = Mix2 = Mix3 > Mix1 = Control, based on statistical significance. Gene expression profiles measured in skin of mice collected 12 h post-initiation were compared with tumor outcome for identification of short-term bioactivity profiles. A Bayesian integration model was utilized to identify biological pathways predictive of PAH carcinogenic potential during initiation. Integration of probability matrices from four enriched pathways (P < .05) for DNA damage, apoptosis, response to chemical stimulus, and interferon gamma signaling resulted in the highest classification accuracy with leave-one-out cross validation. This pathway-driven approach was successfully utilized to distinguish early regulatory events during initiation prognostic for tumor outcome and provides proof-of-concept for using short-term initiation studies to classify carcinogenic potential of environmental PAH mixtures. These data further provide a ‘source-to-outcome’ model that could be used to predict PAH interactions during tumorigenesis and provide an example of how mode-of-action-based risk assessment could be employed for environmental PAH mixtures. PMID:25908611

  11. Mechanism-based classification of PAH mixtures to predict carcinogenic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, Susan C.; Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Krueger, Sharon K.; Larkin, Andrew J.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Williams, David E.; Baird, William M.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2015-04-22

    We have previously shown that relative potency factors and DNA adduct measurements are inadequate for predicting carcinogenicity of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH mixtures, particularly those that function through alternate pathways or exhibit greater promotional activity compared to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Therefore, we developed a pathway based approach for classification of tumor outcome after dermal exposure to PAH/mixtures. FVB/N mice were exposed to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), BaP or environmental PAH mixtures (Mix 1-3) following a two-stage initiation/promotion skin tumor protocol. Resulting tumor incidence could be categorized by carcinogenic potency as DBC>>BaP=Mix2=Mix3>Mix1=Control, based on statistical significance. Gene expression profiles measured in skin of mice collected 12 h post-initiation were compared to tumor outcome for identification of short-term bioactivity profiles. A Bayesian integration model was utilized to identify biological pathways predictive of PAH carcinogenic potential during initiation. Integration of probability matrices from four enriched pathways (p<0.05) for DNA damage, apoptosis, response to chemical stimulus and interferon gamma signaling resulted in the highest classification accuracy with leave-one-out cross validation. This pathway-driven approach was successfully utilized to distinguish early regulatory events during initiation prognostic for tumor outcome and provides proof-of-concept for using short-term initiation studies to classify carcinogenic potential of environmental PAH mixtures. As a result, these data further provide a ‘source-to outcome’ model that could be used to predict PAH interactions during tumorigenesis and provide an example of how mode-of-action based risk assessment could be employed for environmental PAH mixtures.

  12. Mechanism-based classification of PAH mixtures to predict carcinogenic potential

    DOE PAGES

    Tilton, Susan C.; Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Krueger, Sharon K.; ...

    2015-04-22

    We have previously shown that relative potency factors and DNA adduct measurements are inadequate for predicting carcinogenicity of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH mixtures, particularly those that function through alternate pathways or exhibit greater promotional activity compared to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Therefore, we developed a pathway based approach for classification of tumor outcome after dermal exposure to PAH/mixtures. FVB/N mice were exposed to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), BaP or environmental PAH mixtures (Mix 1-3) following a two-stage initiation/promotion skin tumor protocol. Resulting tumor incidence could be categorized by carcinogenic potency as DBC>>BaP=Mix2=Mix3>Mix1=Control, based on statistical significance. Gene expression profiles measured inmore » skin of mice collected 12 h post-initiation were compared to tumor outcome for identification of short-term bioactivity profiles. A Bayesian integration model was utilized to identify biological pathways predictive of PAH carcinogenic potential during initiation. Integration of probability matrices from four enriched pathways (p<0.05) for DNA damage, apoptosis, response to chemical stimulus and interferon gamma signaling resulted in the highest classification accuracy with leave-one-out cross validation. This pathway-driven approach was successfully utilized to distinguish early regulatory events during initiation prognostic for tumor outcome and provides proof-of-concept for using short-term initiation studies to classify carcinogenic potential of environmental PAH mixtures. As a result, these data further provide a ‘source-to outcome’ model that could be used to predict PAH interactions during tumorigenesis and provide an example of how mode-of-action based risk assessment could be employed for environmental PAH mixtures.« less

  13. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Petroleum occurrences and plate tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Olenin, V.B.; Sokolov, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the mechanisms of petroleum formation and petroleum accumulation proposed in recent years by some Russian and foreign investigators from the viewpoint of the new global or plate tectonics. On the basis of discussion and the facts, the authors conclude that the mechanisms proposed are in contradiction to reality and their use in practical application is at least premature.

  15. Discrimination of petroleum fluorescence spectra.

    PubMed

    Stelmaszewski, Adam

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents studies of the total spectra (fluorescence-excitation matrix) of petroleum with regard to the utilization of fluorescence for determining petroleum pollutants. Thorough testing of one group, comprising almost forty lubricating oils in the form of their hexane solutions, points out their discrimination.

  16. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  17. Job Prospects for Petroleum Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Describes petroleum engineering as one area in industry where job opportunities are few but where the worst of the declines has been seen. Discusses the causes of the decline. Lists several areas where petroleum engineers have found alternatives including environmental projects, water supply projects, and computer applications. (CW)

  18. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the touch may have yellow drainage Of cellulitis: a red, inflamed area on the skin that is tender to the touch may occur in an area of a scratch or cut redness often spreads rapidly over the skin's surface ...

  19. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy (News) Health Tip: Use Caution When Applying Hair Dye Additional ... Skin Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy THURSDAY, March 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Skin diseases ...

  20. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkles Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory ... Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkles Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory ...

  1. Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity risk of carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Toyokuni, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    Novel materials are often commercialized without a complete assessment of the risks they pose to human health because such assessments are costly and time-consuming; additionally, sometimes the methodology needed for such an assessment does not exist. Carbon nanotubes have the potential for widespread application in engineering, materials science and medicine. However, due to the needle-like shape and high durability of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), concerns have been raised that they may induce asbestos-like pathogenicity when inhaled. Indeed, experiments in rodents supported this hypothesis. Notably, the genetic alterations in MWCNT-induced rat malignant mesothelioma were similar to those induced by asbestos. Single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) cause mitotic disturbances in cultured cells, but thus far, there has been no report that SWCNTs are carcinogenic. This review summarizes the recent noteworthy publications on the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of CNTs and explains the possible molecular mechanisms responsible for this carcinogenicity. The nanoscale size and needle-like rigid structure of CNTs appear to be associated with their pathogenicity in mammalian cells, where carbon atoms are major components in the backbone of many biomolecules. Publishing adverse events associated with novel materials is critically important for alerting people exposed to such materials. CNTs still have a bright future with superb economic and medical merits. However, appropriate regulation of the production, distribution and secondary manufacturing processes is required, at least to protect the workers.

  2. Industry viewpoint on thresholds for genotoxic carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Morelli, M A

    2000-01-01

    Modern chemical control of pests has contributed to a dramatic improvement in public welfare since its introduction 50 years ago. Millions of lives have been saved through the control of disease vectors, and millions more have been improved by the use of chemicals to produce an inexpensive and abundant food supply. Hundreds of pesticidally active ingredients are in commercial use today, and among these are found genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency regulates carcinogens using threshold and nonthreshold approaches depending upon the outcome of a weight-of-evidence determination. More than one-half of all pesticides with some evidence of carcinogenic potential are regulated by the nonthreshold approach. The limitations on product use imposed by this approach have restricted the number of products available to growers and to the public. This restriction has had a direct impact on industry with respect to commercial success and financial returns on investment as well as an indirect impact on the industry's ability to fund the discovery and development of new compounds. This paper explores the question of how well regulation by the nonthreshold approach has achieved the goal of protecting public health, whether it does this better than the alternative use of the threshold approach, and whether the incremental protection it affords is a meaningful public benefit that justifies the aforementioned impacts on industry.

  3. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-15

    This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  4. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  5. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity of acrylonitrile.

    PubMed

    Léonard, A; Gerber, G B; Stecca, C; Rueff, J; Borba, H; Farmer, P B; Sram, R J; Czeizel, A E; Kalina, I

    1999-05-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN) is an important intermediary for the synthesis of a variety of organic products, such as artificial fibres, household articles and resins. Although acute effects are the primary concern for an exposure to AN, potential genotoxic, carcinogenic and teratogenic risks of AN have to be taken seriously in view of the large number of workers employed in such industries and the world-wide population using products containing and possibly liberating AN. An understanding of the effect of acrylonitrile must be based on a characterization of its metabolism as well as of the resulting products and their genotoxic properties. Tests for mutagenicity in bacteria have in general been positive, those in plants and on unscheduled DNA synthesis doubtful, and those on chromosome aberrations in vivo negative. Wherever positive results had been obtained, metabolic activation of AN appeared to be a prerequisite. The extent to which such mutagenic effects are significant in man depends, however, also on the conditions of exposure. It appears from the limited data that the ultimate mutagenic factor(s), such as 2-cyanoethylene oxide, may have little opportunity to act under conditions where people are exposed because it is formed only in small amounts and is rapidly degraded. The carcinogenic action of AN has been evaluated by various agencies and ranged from 'reasonably be anticipated to be a human carcinogen' to 'cannot be excluded', the most recent evaluation being 'possibly carcinogenic to humans'. Animal data that confirm the carcinogenic potential of AN have certain limitations with respect to the choice of species, type of tumors and length of follow up. Epidemiological studies which sometimes, but not always, yielded positive results, encounter the usual difficulties of confounding factors in chemical industries. Exposure of workers to AN should continue to be carefully monitored, but AN would not have to be considered a cancer risk to the population provided

  6. Benzene, an experimental multipotential carcinogen: results of the long-term bioassays performed at the Bologna Institute of Oncology.

    PubMed Central

    Maltoni, C; Ciliberti, A; Cotti, G; Conti, B; Belpoggi, F

    1989-01-01

    In 1976, a systematic and integrated project of long-term carcinogenicity bioassays began at the Bentivoglio Experimental Unit of the Bologna Institute of Oncology. The Bologna experiments proved for the first time that benzene is an experimental carcinogen. These experiments demonstrated that benzene is carcinogenic when administered by ingestion and by inhalation and that it cause tumors in the various tested animal models (Sprague-Dawley rats, Wistar rats, Swiss mice, and RF/J mice). They also showed that benzene is a multipotential carcinogen, as it produces a variety of neoplasias in one or more of the tested animal models, including Zymbal gland carcinomas, carcinomas of the oral cavity, nasal cavities, skin, forestomach, and mammary glands, as well as angiosarcomas of the liver, hemolymphoreticular neoplasias, tumors of the lung, and possibly hepatomas. The Bologna experiments also indicated a clear-cut dose-response relationship in benzene carcinogenesis. This report presents the up-to-date results of the Bologna project. The need for more experimental research aimed at assessing the carcinogenic effects of low doses of benzene, of chemical mixtures containing benzene, and of benzene substitutes is emphasized. Also recommended are more comprehensive epidemiological investigations, extended to all types of malignancies, with particular regard to lung carcinomas. PMID:2792037

  7. Strategic Petroleum Reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    GAO examined approximately 40 alternative, nontraditional methods of acquiring oil for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The alternatives identified were compared to the current method of acquiring and financing SPR oil through congressional appropriations that are reported in the budget. When compared to the conventional method of financing oil, most of the proposals have certain benefits or advantages, but all of them have economic or other disadvantages. For example, some proposals would reduce the budget deficit by increasing government revenues but would raise prices to the consumer. Other proposals would reduce short-term expenditures (asset sales, leasing oil or indexed bonds). However, the proposals might increase long-term expenditures by more than the initial reduction in outlays.

  8. Strategic petroleum reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This report has examined approximately 40 alternative, nontraditional methods of acquiring oil for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The alternatives identified are compared to the current method of acquiring and financing SPR oil through congressional appropriations that are reported in the budget. When compared to the conventional method of financing oil, most of the proposals have certain benefits or advantages, but all of them have economic or other disadvantages. For example, some proposals would reduce the budget deficit by increasing government revenues but would raise prices to the consumer. Other proposals would reduce short-term expenditures (asset sales, leasing oil or indexed bonds). However, the proposals might increase long-term expenditures by more than the initial reduction in outlays.

  9. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin.

  10. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve reduces the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument and an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current and projected storage capacity, analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  11. Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity studies of bronchodilators and antiasthma drugs.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Giovanni; Mattioli, Francesca; Robbiano, Luigi; Martelli, Antonietta

    2013-05-01

    This survey is a compendium of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity information of bronchodilators and antiasthma drugs. Data from 46 marketed drugs were collected. Of these 46 drugs, 25 (54.3%) did not have retrievable genotoxicity or carcinogenicity data. The remaining 21 (45.7%) had at least one genotoxicity or carcinogenicity test result. Of these 21 drugs, 10 had at least one positive finding: three tested positive in at least one genotoxicity assay, eight in at least one carcinogenicity assay, and one of them gave positive results in both genotoxicity assay and carcinogenicity assay. Concerning the predictivity of genetic toxicology findings for the result(s) of long-term carcinogenesis assays, 15 drugs had both genotoxicity and carcinogenicity data: seven of them (46.6%) were neither genotoxic nor carcinogenic, 6 (40.0%) were carcinogenic in at least one sex of mice or rats but tested negative in genotoxicity assays, 1 (6.7%) tested positive in genotoxicity assay but was non-carcinogenic, and 1 (6.7%) gave positive responses in both genotoxicity and carcinogenicity assay. Only 11 (23.9%) of the 46 drugs considered had all data required by current guidelines for testing of pharmaceuticals, but a large fraction of them were developed and marketed prior to the present regulatory climate.

  12. Carcinogenic Aspects of Protein Phosphatase 1 and 2A Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiki, Hirota; Suganuma, Masami

    Okadaic acid is functionally a potent tumor promoter working through inhibition of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A), resulting in sustained phosphorylation of proteins in cells. The mechanism of tumor promotion with oka-daic acid is thus completely different from that of the classic tumor promoter phorbol ester. Other potent inhibitors of PP1 and PP2A - such as dinophysistoxin-1, calyculins A-H, microcystin-LR and its derivatives, and nodularin - were isolated from marine organisms, and their structural features including the crystal structure of the PP1-inhibitor complex, tumor promoting activities, and biochemical and biological effects, are here reviewed. The compounds induced tumor promoting activity in three different organs, including mouse skin, rat glandular stomach and rat liver, initiated with three different carcinogens. The results indicate that inhibition of PP1 and PP2A is a general mechanism of tumor promotion applicable to various organs. This study supports the concept of endogenous tumor promoters in human cancer development.

  13. Petroleum fingerprinting: Effective identification of petroleum products at contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Uhler, A.D.

    1997-07-01

    A critical issue in many environmental liability cases is the successful identification of the parties responsible for petroleum products that contaminate sites or properties. Identification of these parties is critical for owners of petroleum contaminated sites who are seeking to spread liability by identifying previous owners or operators of nearby properties who may be the source of, and thus be responsible for, the petroleum contamination at these sites. This issue is also critical for these potential defendants who will seek to demonstrate that the petroleum products associated with their activities could not be the source of the contamination in question. Finally, the issue is critical in situations where multiple responsible parties seek to equitably allocate among themselves shares of contamination and associated clean-up costs.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-22

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-25

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  18. Skin aging and dry skin.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2004-08-01

    Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth.

  19. Glyphosate rodent carcinogenicity bioassay expert panel review.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gary M; Berry, Colin; Burns, Michele; de Camargo, Joao Lauro Viana; Greim, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    Glyphosate has been rigorously and extensively tested for carcinogenicity by administration to mice (five studies) and to rats (nine studies). Most authorities have concluded that the evidence does not indicate a cancer risk to humans. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), however, evaluated some of the available data and concluded that glyphosate probably is carcinogenic to humans. The expert panel convened by Intertek assessed the findings used by IARC, as well as the full body of evidence and found the following: (1) the renal neoplastic effects in males of one mouse study are not associated with glyphosate exposure, because they lack statistical significance, strength, consistency, specificity, lack a dose-response pattern, plausibility, and coherence; (2) the strength of association of liver hemangiosarcomas in a different mouse study is absent, lacking consistency, and a dose-response effect and having in high dose males only a significant incidence increase which is within the historical control range; (3) pancreatic islet-cell adenomas (non-significant incidence increase), in two studies of male SD rats did not progress to carcinomas and lacked a dose-response pattern (the highest incidence is in the low dose followed by the high dose); (4) in one of two studies, a non-significant positive trend in the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas in male rats did not lead to progression to carcinomas; (5) in one of two studies, the non-significant positive trend in the incidence of thyroid C-cell adenomas in female rats was not present and there was no progression of adenomas to carcinomas at the end of the study. Application of criteria for causality considerations to the above mentioned tumor types and given the overall weight-of-evidence (WoE), the expert panel concluded that glyphosate is not a carcinogen in laboratory animals.

  20. Carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, R L; Shackelford, C C; Huff, J

    1993-01-01

    1,3-Butadiene, a high-production volume chemical used largely in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, is a multiple organ carcinogen in rats and mice. In inhalation studies conducted in mice by the National Toxicology Program, high rates of early lethal lymphomas occurring at exposure levels of 625 ppm or higher reduced the development and expression of later developing tumors at other sites. Use of survival-adjusted tumor rates to account for competing risk factors provided a clearer indication of the dose responses for 1,3-butadiene-induced neoplasms. An increase in lung tumors in female mice was observed at exposure concentrations as low as 6.25 ppm, the lowest concentration ever used in a long-term carcinogenicity study of this gas. Human exposures to 1,3-butadiene by workers employed at facilities that produce this chemical and at facilities that produce styrene-butadiene rubber have been measured at levels higher than those that cause cancer in animals. Furthermore, epidemiology studies have consistently revealed associations between occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene and excess mortality due to lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers. In response to the carcinogenicity findings for 1,3-butadiene in animals and in humans, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration has proposed lowering the occupational exposure standard for this chemical from 1000 ppm to 2 ppm. Future work is needed to understand the mechanisms of tumor induction by 1,3-butadiene; however, the pursuit of this research should not delay the reduction of human exposure to this chemical. PMID:8354171

  1. Report on carcinogens monograph on cumene.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program conducted a cancer evaluation on cumene for possible listing in the Report on Carcinogens (RoC). The cancer evaluation is captured in the RoC monograph, which was peer reviewed in a public forum. The monograph consists of two components: (Part 1) the cancer evaluation, which reviews the relevant scientific information, assesses its quality, applies the RoC listing criteria to the scientific information, and provides the NTP recommendation for listing status for cumene in the RoC, and (Part 2) the substance profile proposed for the RoC, containing the NTP's listing status recommendation, a summary of the scientific evidence considered key to reaching that decision, and data on properties, use, production, exposure, and Federal regulations and guidelines to reduce exposure to cumene. This monograph provides an assessment of the available scientific information on cumene, including human exposure and properties, disposition and toxicokinetics, cancer studies in experimental animals, and studies of mechanisms and other related effects, including relevant toxicological effects, genetic toxicology, and mechanisms of carcinogenicity. From this assessment, the NTP recommended that cumene be listed as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the RoC based on sufficient evidence from studies in experimental animals, which found that cumene exposure caused lung tumors in male and female mice and liver tumors in female mice. Several proposed mechanisms of carcinogenesis support the relevance to humans of the lung and liver tumors observed in experimental animals. Specifically, there is evidence that humans and experimental animals metabolize cumene through similar metabolic pathways. In addition, mutations of the K-ras oncogene and p53 tumor-suppressor gene observed in cumene-induced lung tumors in mice, along with altered expression of many other genes, resemble molecular alterations found in human lung and other cancers.

  2. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  3. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 172.886 Section 172.886 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.886 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used in or on food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  4. 21 CFR 172.250 - Petroleum naphtha.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum naphtha. 172.250 Section 172.250 Food... Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.250 Petroleum naphtha. Petroleum naphtha may be safely used in..., essentially paraffinic and naphthenic in nature obtained from petroleum, (b) The additive is refined to...

  5. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  6. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  7. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  8. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  9. 21 CFR 172.250 - Petroleum naphtha.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum naphtha. 172.250 Section 172.250 Food... Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.250 Petroleum naphtha. Petroleum naphtha may be safely used in..., essentially paraffinic and naphthenic in nature obtained from petroleum, (b) The additive is refined to...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  11. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  12. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 172.886 Section 172.886 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.886 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used in or on food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  13. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 172.886 Section 172.886 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.886 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used in or on food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  14. 21 CFR 172.250 - Petroleum naphtha.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum naphtha. 172.250 Section 172.250 Food... § 172.250 Petroleum naphtha. Petroleum naphtha may be safely used in food in accordance with the... naphthenic in nature obtained from petroleum, (b) The additive is refined to meet the...

  15. 21 CFR 172.250 - Petroleum naphtha.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum naphtha. 172.250 Section 172.250 Food and..., Films and Related Substances § 172.250 Petroleum naphtha. Petroleum naphtha may be safely used in food..., essentially paraffinic and naphthenic in nature obtained from petroleum, (b) The additive is refined to...

  16. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  17. 21 CFR 172.250 - Petroleum naphtha.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum naphtha. 172.250 Section 172.250 Food... Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.250 Petroleum naphtha. Petroleum naphtha may be safely used in..., essentially paraffinic and naphthenic in nature obtained from petroleum, (b) The additive is refined to...

  18. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 172.886 Section 172.886 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.886 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used in or on food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  19. Mouse Genetic Models Reveal Surprising Functions of IκB Kinase Alpha in Skin Development and Skin Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiaojun; Park, Eunmi; Fischer, Susan M.; Hu, Yinling

    2013-01-01

    Gene knockout studies unexpectedly reveal a pivotal role for IκB kinase alpha (IKKα) in mouse embryonic skin development. Skin carcinogenesis experiments show that Ikkα heterozygous mice are highly susceptible to chemical carcinogen or ultraviolet B light (UVB) induced benign and malignant skin tumors in comparison to wild-type mice. IKKα deletion mediated by keratin 5 (K5).Cre or K15.Cre in keratinocytes induces epidermal hyperplasia and spontaneous skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in Ikkα floxed mice. On the other hand, transgenic mice overexpressing IKKα in the epidermis, under the control of a truncated loricrin promoter or K5 promoter, develop normal skin and show no defects in the formation of the epidermis and other epithelial organs, and the transgenic IKKα represses chemical carcinogen or UVB induced skin carcinogenesis. Moreover, IKKα deletion mediated by a mutation, which generates a stop codon in the Ikkα gene, has been reported in a human autosomal recessive lethal syndrome. Downregulated IKKα and Ikkα mutations and deletions are found in human skin SCCs. The collective evidence not only highlights the importance of IKKα in skin development, maintaining skin homeostasis, and preventing skin carcinogenesis, but also demonstrates that mouse models are extremely valuable tools for revealing the mechanisms underlying these biological events, leading our studies from bench side to bedside. PMID:24216703

  20. No-observed effect levels for carcinogenicity and for in vivo mutagenicity of a genotoxic carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Manabu; Morimura, Keiichirou; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Wei, Min; Okochi, Eriko; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Takaoka, Kunio; Fukushima, Shoji

    2004-10-01

    To elucidate the relationship between in vivo carcinogenic and mutagenic potentials of genotoxic carcinogens, low doses were tested in the livers of Big Blue transgenic rats with 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx). Male Big Blue rats were fed a diet containing 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 ppm of MeIQx for 16 weeks, and the frequencies of lacI mutants and glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci in the liver were determined. The mutation frequencies significantly increased at doses of 10 and 100 ppm, and GST-P positive foci significantly increased at a dose of 100 ppm. However, no statistical increases in both frequencies were observed at lower doses. MeIQx most frequently induced G frameshifts, followed by G to T transversions. Thus, no observed effect level (NOEL) was demonstrated for both carcinogenicity in terms of preneoplastic lesion induction and in vivo mutagenicity of MeIQx, and the NOEL for in vivo mutagenicity was lower than that for carcinogenicity.

  1. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of potassium bromate--a new renal carcinogen

    SciTech Connect

    Kurokawa, Y.; Maekawa, A.; Takahashi, M.; Hayashi, Y. )

    1990-07-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is an oxidizing agent that has been used as a food additive, mainly in the bread-making process. Although adverse effects are not evident in animals fed bread-based diets made from flour treated with KBrO3, the agent is carcinogenic in rats and nephrotoxic in both man and experimental animals when given orally. It has been demonstrated that KBrO3 induces renal cell tumors, mesotheliomas of the peritoneum, and follicular cell tumors of the thyroid. In addition, experiments aimed at elucidating the mode of carcinogenic action have revealed that KBrO3 is a complete carcinogen, possessing both initiating and promoting activities for rat renal tumorigenesis. However, the potential seems to be weak in mice and hamsters. In contrast to its weak mutagenic activity in microbial assays, KBrO3 showed relatively strong potential inducing chromosome aberrations both in vitro and in vivo. Glutathione and cysteine degrade KBrO3 in vitro; in turn, the KBrO3 has inhibitory effects on inducing lipid peroxidation in the rat kidney. Active oxygen radicals generated from KBrO3 were implicated in its toxic and carcinogenic effects, especially because KBrO3 produced 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in the rat kidney. A wide range of data from applications of various analytical methods are now available for risk assessment purposes.111 references.

  2. PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, PROPERTIES, QUALITY, APPLICATION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The document contains Chapters 7-10 of a Russian handbook of petroleum products. These chapters discuss drive-train oils, lubricating oils for aviation gas-turbine engines, industrial oils, and insulating oils.

  3. Grenz ray-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Frentz, G.

    1989-09-01

    In 28 patients, nonmelanoma skin cancers developed in areas previously exposed to grenz rays. In 17 patients who did not have psoriasis, no other relevant carcinogenic exposure could be incriminated. Women were more often affected than men. Most of the tumors were basal cell cancers, and most of the patients had multiple tumors. No threshold dose could be established. The distribution of the latency time among patients without psoriasis was strictly normal (median 18 years). These observations suggest that usual therapeutic doses of grenz rays, as a single agent, are capable of causing skin cancer, but only in those persons who are abnormally sensitive to x-rays. 9 references.

  4. Skin optics

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Jacques, S.L.; Sterenborg, H.J.; Star, W.M.

    1989-12-01

    Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking.

  5. Experimental studies on benzene carcinogenicity at the Bologna Institute of Oncology: current results and ongoing research.

    PubMed

    Maltoni, C; Conti, B; Cotti, G; Belpoggi, F

    1985-01-01

    In 1977 Maltoni and Scarnato were the first to demonstrate that benzene is an experimental carcinogen in rats. With that and other experiments, Maltoni et al have shown that benzene administered by ingestion (stomach tube) or inhalation is a multipotential carcinogen in rats (of two different strains) and mice and produces a variety of tumors, namely: Zymbal gland carcinomas, oral and nasal cavity carcinomas, skin carcinomas, acanthomas, dysplasias and carcinomas of forestomach, mammary malignant tumors, hepatomas, liver angiosarcomas, hemolymphoreticular neoplasias, and pulmonary tumors. The incidence of Zymbal gland carcinomas and carcinomas of the oral and nasal cavities is affected by the length of treatment by inhalation and by the age of animals. However, the available epidemiological and experimental data at present do not provide precise information on the risk of doses around or below 10 ppm. Long-term carcinogenicity bioassays at 50, 25, 10, 5 and 1 ppm may be helpful for scientific risk assessment. In addition, these experiments have shown that toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene, at high concentrations, cause an increase in the number of total malignant tumors.

  6. Carcinogenic PAH in waterpipe charcoal products

    PubMed Central

    Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Because narghile waterpipe (shisha, hooka) smoking normally involves the use of burning charcoal, smoke inhaled by the user contains constituents originating from the charcoal in addition to those from the tobacco. We have previously found that charcoal accounts for most of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and carbon monoxide in the smoke of the waterpipe, both of which are present in alarming quantities. Because charcoal manufacturing conditions favor formation of PAH, it is reasonable to assume that charcoal sold off the shelf may be contaminated by PAH residues. These residues may constitute a significant fraction of the PAH inhaled by the waterpipe user and those in her/his vicinity. We measured PAH residues on three kinds of raw waterpipe charcoal sampled from Beirut stores and cafés. We found that PAH residues in raw charcoal can account for more than half of the total PAH emitted in the mainstream and sidestream smoke, and about one sixth of the carcinogenic 5- and 6-ring PAH compounds. Total PAH content of the three charcoal types varied systematically by a factor of six from the charcoal with the least to the greatest PAH residue. These findings indicate the possibility of regulating charcoal carcinogen content. PMID:20807559

  7. Tobacco carcinogens, their biomarkers and tobacco-induced cancer.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S

    2003-10-01

    The devastating link between tobacco products and human cancers results from a powerful alliance of two factors - nicotine and carcinogens. Without either one of these, tobacco would be just another commodity, instead of being the single greatest cause of death due to preventable cancer. Nicotine is addictive and toxic, but it is not carcinogenic. This addiction, however, causes people to use tobacco products continually, and these products contain many carcinogens. What are the mechanisms by which this deadly combination leads to 30% of cancer-related deaths in developed countries, and how can carcinogen biomarkers help to reveal these mechanisms?

  8. Evaluation of the national toxicology program report on carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Rodu, Brad; Cole, Philip; Mandel, Jack S

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluates the National Toxicology Program's Report on Carcinogens program (RoCP) and compares it with the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs Program (IMP). We tracked agents classified in the RoCP since 1983 as known human carcinogens (A-List), or as reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens (B-List). The first A-list included 24 agents, and twenty-four unique agents were added in the following 28years; twenty were listed by IMP as Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans) 7years before their A-list appearance. Group 1 also includes 30 or more agents eligible for, but not on, the A-list. The first B-list included 98 agents, and this increased to 185. Of these, 39 are in Group 2A (probably carcinogenic), and 122 are in Group 2B (possibly carcinogenic). Only 5% of the 204 agents ever on the B-list have been upgraded to the A-list. The RoCP is severely limited because it evaluates few agents and because its B-list does not distinguish between probable and possible human carcinogens. Further, it mislabels likely non-carcinogens as reasonably anticipated to be carcinogens. If the RoCP were terminated there would be no loss or delay of information available to scientific, public health and regulatory communities.

  9. Data quality in predictive toxicology: reproducibility of rodent carcinogenicity experiments.

    PubMed Central

    Gottmann, E; Kramer, S; Pfahringer, B; Helma, C

    2001-01-01

    We compared 121 replicate rodent carcinogenicity assays from the two parts (National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology Program and literature) of the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) to estimate the reliability of these experiments. We estimated a concordance of 57% between the overall rodent carcinogenicity classifications from both sources. This value did not improve substantially when additional biologic information (species, sex, strain, target organs) was considered. These results indicate that rodent carcinogenicity assays are much less reproducible than previously expected, an effect that should be considered in the development of structure-activity relationship models and the risk assessment process. PMID:11401763

  10. Target organs in chronic bioassays of 533 chemical carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, L S; Slone, T H; Manley, N B; Bernstein, L

    1991-01-01

    A compendium of carcinogenesis bioassay results organized by target organ is presented for 533 chemicals that are carcinogenic in at least one species. This compendium is based primarily on experiments in rats or mice; results in hamsters, nonhuman primates, and dogs are also reported. The compendium can be used to identify chemicals that induce tumors at particular sites, and to determine whether target sites are the same for chemicals positive in more than one species. The Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB), which includes results of 3969 experiments, is used in the analysis. The published CPDB includes details on each test, and literature references. Chemical carcinogens are reported for 35 different target organs in rats or mice. More than 80% of the carcinogens in each of these species are positive in at least one of the 8 most frequent target sites: liver, lung, mammary gland, stomach, vascular system, kidney, hematopoietic system, and urinary bladder. An analysis is presented of how well one can predict the carcinogenic response in mice from results in rats, or vice versa. Among chemicals tested in both species, 76% of rat carcinogens are positive in mice, and 71% of mouse carcinogens are positive in rats. Prediction is less accurate to the same target site: 52% of rat carcinogens are positive in the same site in mice, and 48% of mouse carcinogens are positive in the same site in rats. The liver is the most frequent site in common between rats and mice. PMID:1773795

  11. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1084 through 1994.

  12. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  13. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  14. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-27

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  15. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  16. Increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among upstream petroleum workers

    PubMed Central

    Kirkeleit, Jorunn; Riise, Trond; Bjørge, Tone; Moen, Bente E; Bråtveit, Magne; Christiani, David C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate cancer risk, particularly oesophageal cancer, among male upstream petroleum workers offshore potentially exposed to various carcinogenic agents. Methods Using the Norwegian Registry of Employers and Employees, 24 765 male offshore workers registered from 1981 to 2003 was compared with 283 002 male referents from the general working population matched by age and community of residence. The historical cohort was linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Results Male offshore workers had excess risk of oesophageal cancer (RR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.8) compared with the reference population. Only the adenocarcinoma type had a significantly increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 7.0), mainly because of an increased risk among upstream operators (RR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 14.5). Upstream operators did not have significant excess of respiratory system or colon cancer or mortality from any other lifestyle-related diseases investigated. Conclusion We found a fourfold excess risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among male workers assumed to have had the most extensive contact with crude oil. Due to the small number of cases, and a lack of detailed data on occupational exposure and lifestyle factors associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, the results must be interpreted with caution. Nevertheless, given the low risk of lifestyle-related cancers and causes of death in this working group, the results add to the observations in other low-powered studies on oesophageal cancer, further suggesting that factors related to the petroleum stream or carcinogenic agents used in the production process might be associated with risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:19858535

  17. Multistage skin tumor promotion: involvement of a protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Mamrack, M.; Slaga, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    Current information suggests that chemical carcinogenesis is a multistep process with one of the best studied models in this regard being the two-stage carcinogenesis system using mouse skin. The effects of several carcinogens and tumor promoters in various sequences of application were studied to examine the nature of the process. The actions of several tumor inhibitors were compared. (ACR)

  18. Skin findings in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics; Neonatal care - skin ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  19. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... it can get infected by them. Some common types of skin infections are Bacterial: Cellulitis and impetigo. Staphylococcal infections can also affect the skin. Viral: Shingles, warts, and herpes simplex Fungal: Athlete's foot and yeast infections Parasitic: Body lice, head lice, and scabies ...

  20. 29 CFR 1990.121 - Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens. 1990... OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS Priority Setting § 1990.121 Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens. (a... Potential Carcinogens or Category II Potential Carcinogens. For the purposes of this paragraph,...

  1. 29 CFR 1990.121 - Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens. 1990... OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS Priority Setting § 1990.121 Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens. (a... Potential Carcinogens or Category II Potential Carcinogens. For the purposes of this paragraph,...

  2. 29 CFR 1990.121 - Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens. 1990... OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS Priority Setting § 1990.121 Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens. (a... Potential Carcinogens or Category II Potential Carcinogens. For the purposes of this paragraph,...

  3. 29 CFR 1990.121 - Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens. 1990... OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS Priority Setting § 1990.121 Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens. (a... Potential Carcinogens or Category II Potential Carcinogens. For the purposes of this paragraph,...

  4. Petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Harayama, S; Kishira, H; Kasai, Y; Shutsubo, K

    1999-08-01

    Petroleum-based products are the major source of energy for industry and daily life. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products such as plastics, paints, and cosmetics. The transport of petroleum across the world is frequent, and the amounts of petroleum stocks in developed countries are enormous. Consequently, the potential for oil spills is significant, and research on the fate of petroleum in a marine environment is important to evaluate the environmental threat of oil spills, and to develop biotechnology to cope with them. Crude oil is constituted from thousands of components which are separated into saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. Upon discharge into the sea, crude oil is subjected to weathering, the process caused by the combined effects of physical, chemical and biological modification. Saturates, especially those of smaller molecular weight, are readily biodegraded in marine environments. Aromatics with one, two or three aromatic rings are also efficiently biodegraded; however, those with four or more aromatic ring are quite resistant to biodegradation. The asphaltene and resin fractions contain higher molecular weight compounds whose chemical structures have not yet been resolved. The biodegradability of these compounds is not yet known. It is known that the concentrations of available nitrogen and phosphorus in seawater limit the growth and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in a marine environment. In other words, the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers to an oil-contaminated marine environment can stimulate the biodegradation of spilled oil. This notion was confirmed in the large-scale operation for bioremediation after the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Alaska. Many microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum components have been isolated. However, few of them seem to be important for petroleum biodegradation in natural environments. One group of bacteria belonging to the genus

  5. Synthetic crude oils carcinogenicity screening tests. Final report, October 16, 1978-August 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, W.H.; Deye, J.F.; Hartgrove, R.W.; King, C.F.; Krahn, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    Eight crude oils (Southern Louisiana Petroleum, H Coal Syncrude, H Coal Fuel Oil, SRC II, Exxon Donor Solvent Liquid, Occidental in situ Shale Oil, Paraho Shale Oil and Geokinetics in situ Shale Oil) were distilled into, or have been received, as four fractions for analysis and screening for biological (mutagenicity and tumor initiating) activity. Results of selected analytical tests have been obtained on the undistilled crude oils and the fractions. Salmonella typhimurium mutation assay and an accelerated tumor initiation-promotion test have been run on the undistilled crude oils and the fractions. Low boiling (naphtha) fractions of all eight materials showed little or no mutagenicity or skin tumor initiating activity by the two tests used. The higher boiling fractions (gas oils and residues) and the crude oils themselves were mutagenic and exhibited tumor initiation activity. The coal derived fractions were more active by both tests than the shale oil samples, the latter were similar to the petroleum controls. Few differences were apparent in biological activity between coal derived samples of equivalent boiling range among the various coal liquefaction processes, except that the SRC II naphtha sample showed a degree of acute toxicity through skin absorption not exhibited by the other samples. Generally the results agreed closely for the various samples between the salmonella mutation assay with activation and the skin tumor initiation test.

  6. Pediatric Exposures to Ionizing Radiation: Carcinogenic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Kutanzi, Kristy R.; Lumen, Annie; Koturbash, Igor; Miousse, Isabelle R.

    2016-01-01

    Children are at a greater risk than adults of developing cancer after being exposed to ionizing radiation. Because of their developing bodies and long life expectancy post-exposure, children require specific attention in the aftermath of nuclear accidents and when radiation is used for diagnosis or treatment purposes. In this review, we discuss the carcinogenic potential of pediatric exposures to ionizing radiation from accidental, diagnostic, and therapeutic modalities. Particular emphasis is given to leukemia and thyroid cancers as consequences of accidental exposures. We further discuss the evidence of cancers that arise as a result of radiotherapy and conclude the review with a summary on the available literature on the links between computer tomography (CT) and carcinogenesis. Appropriate actions taken to mitigate or minimize the negative health effects of pediatric exposures to ionizing radiation and future considerations are discussed. PMID:27801855

  7. Cage allocation designs for rodent carcinogenicity experiments

    PubMed Central

    Herzberg, Agnes M.; Lagakos, Stephen W.

    1991-01-01

    Cage allocation designs for rodent carcinogenicity experiments are discussed and presented with the goal of avoiding dosage group biases related to cage location. Considerations in selecting a cage design are first discussed in general terms. Specific designs are presented for use in experiments involving three, four, and five dose groups and with one, four, and five rodents per cage. Priorities for balancing treatment groups include horizontal position on shelf and shelf of rack, nearest neighbor balance, and male–female balance. It is proposed that these balance criteria be considered together with practical issues, such as the ability to accurately conform to a design and to determine a sensible and efficient design for each experiment. PMID:17539183

  8. Cage allocation designs for rodent carcinogenicity experiments.

    PubMed Central

    Herzberg, A M; Lagakos, S W

    1992-01-01

    Cage allocation designs for rodent carcinogenicity experiments are discussed and presented with the goal of avoiding dosage group biases related to cage location. Considerations in selecting a cage design are first discussed in general terms. Specific designs are presented for use in experiments involving three, four, and five dose groups and with one, four, and five rodents per cage. Priorities for balancing treatment groups include horizontal position on shelf and shelf of rack, nearest neighbor balance, and male-female balance. It is proposed that these balance criteria be considered together with practical issues, such as the ability to accurately conform to a design and to determine a sensible and efficient design for each experiment. PMID:1295494

  9. Method for converting asbestos to non-carcinogenic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, T.W.

    1996-08-06

    Hazardous and carcinogenic asbestos waste characterized by a crystalline fibrous structure is transformed into non-carcinogenic, relatively nonhazardous, and non-crystalline solid compounds and gaseous compounds which have commercial utilization. The asbestos waste is so transformed by the complete fluorination of the crystalline fibrous silicate mineral defining the asbestos. 7 figs.

  10. Method for converting asbestos to non-carcinogenic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, Thomas W.

    1996-01-01

    Hazardous and carcinogenic asbestos waste characterized by a crystalline fibrous structure is transformed into non-carcinogenic, relatively nonhazardous, and non-crystalline solid compounds and gaseous compounds which have commercial utilization. The asbestos waste is so transformed by the complete fluorination of the crystalline fibrous silicate mineral defining the asbestos.

  11. Multicomponent criteria for predicting carcinogenicity: dataset of 30 NTP chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Huff, J; Weisburger, E; Fung, V A

    1996-01-01

    This article is in response to the challenge issued to the scientific community by the National Toxicology Program to predict the carcinogenicity potential of 30 chemicals previously selected for long-term carcinogenicity testing. Utilizing the available toxicologic, genetic, and structural information on 30 chemicals previously selected for long-term carcinogenicity testing, we predict that 16 chemicals (53%) would induce some indication of carcinogenic activity in rodents; we further predict that 10 chemicals (33%) would be associated with weak or equivocal carcinogenic responses, and another 4 (13%) would give no indication of carcinogenicity. Our level of certainty is indicated for many of these predictions. Nonetheless, we believe that most instances of guessing whether a chemical would eventually induce cancer in experimental animals and hence represent a carcinogenic hazard to humans are fraught with considerable uncertainty: uncertainty that can only be relieved by long-term testing for carcinogenicity in animals or by conducting an epidemiologic investigation of exposed individuals or groups. We further believe that the day may come when our predictive acumen will be upgraded to such an extent that we might eventually obviate cancer testing. Until then, and in the best interests of public health, however, we urge long term testing of chemicals in animals be continued, at increased pace. PMID:8933061

  12. Workshop on problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    A workshop was conducted to discuss problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines. Session topics included (1) definition of a carcinogen for regulatory purposes; (2) potency; (3) risk assessment; (4) uncertainties; (5) de minimis quantity; and (6) legal and regulatory issues. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  13. 29 CFR 1910.1003 - 13 Carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... required in this section. Closed system means an operation involving a carcinogen addressed by this section... means any environment external to regulated and nonregulated areas. Isolated system means a fully... nor controlled. Open-vessel system means an operation involving a carcinogen addressed by this...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.1003 - 13 Carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... required in this section. Closed system means an operation involving a carcinogen addressed by this section... means any environment external to regulated and nonregulated areas. Isolated system means a fully... nor controlled. Open-vessel system means an operation involving a carcinogen addressed by this...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.1003 - 13 Carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... required in this section. Closed system means an operation involving a carcinogen addressed by this section... means any environment external to regulated and nonregulated areas. Isolated system means a fully... nor controlled. Open-vessel system means an operation involving a carcinogen addressed by this...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.1003 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1915.1003 Section 1915.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Hazardous Substances § 1915.1003 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.1003 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1915.1003 Section 1915.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Hazardous Substances § 1915.1003 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1103 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1926.1103 Section 1926.1103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... § 1926.1103 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable to...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.1003 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1915.1003 Section 1915.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Hazardous Substances § 1915.1003 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1103 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1926.1103 Section 1926.1103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... § 1926.1103 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable to...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1103 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1926.1103 Section 1926.1103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... § 1926.1103 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable to...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.1103 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1926.1103 Section 1926.1103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... § 1926.1103 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable to...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.1103 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1926.1103 Section 1926.1103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... § 1926.1103 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable to...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.1003 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1915.1003 Section 1915.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Hazardous Substances § 1915.1003 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.1003 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1915.1003 Section 1915.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Hazardous Substances § 1915.1003 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements...

  6. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  7. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  8. Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nilanjana; Chandran, Preethy

    2011-01-01

    One of the major environmental problems today is hydrocarbon contamination resulting from the activities related to the petrochemical industry. Accidental releases of petroleum products are of particular concern in the environment. Hydrocarbon components have been known to belong to the family of carcinogens and neurotoxic organic pollutants. Currently accepted disposal methods of incineration or burial insecure landfills can become prohibitively expensive when amounts of contaminants are large. Mechanical and chemical methods generally used to remove hydrocarbons from contaminated sites have limited effectiveness and can be expensive. Bioremediation is the promising technology for the treatment of these contaminated sites since it is cost-effective and will lead to complete mineralization. Bioremediation functions basically on biodegradation, which may refer to complete mineralization of organic contaminants into carbon dioxide, water, inorganic compounds, and cell protein or transformation of complex organic contaminants to other simpler organic compounds by biological agents like microorganisms. Many indigenous microorganisms in water and soil are capable of degrading hydrocarbon contaminants. This paper presents an updated overview of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms under different ecosystems. PMID:21350672

  9. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of potassium bromate--a new renal carcinogen.

    PubMed Central

    Kurokawa, Y; Maekawa, A; Takahashi, M; Hayashi, Y

    1990-01-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is an oxidizing agent that has been used as a food additive, mainly in the bread-making process. Although adverse effects are not evident in animals fed bread-based diets made from flour treated with KBrO3, the agent is carcinogenic in rats and nephrotoxic in both man and experimental animals when given orally. It has been demonstrated that KBrO3 induces renal cell tumors, mesotheliomas of the peritoneum, and follicular cell tumors of the thyroid. In addition, experiments aimed at elucidating the mode of carcinogenic action have revealed that KBrO3 is a complete carcinogen, possessing both initiating and promoting activities for rat renal tumorigenesis. However, the potential seems to be weak in mice and hamsters. In contrast to its weak mutagenic activity in microbial assays, KBrO3 showed relatively strong potential inducing chromosome aberrations both in vitro and in vivo. Glutathione and cysteine degrade KBrO3 in vitro; in turn, the KBrO3 has inhibitory effects on inducing lipid peroxidation in the rat kidney. Active oxygen radicals generated from KBrO3 were implicated in its toxic and carcinogenic effects, especially because KBrO3 produced 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in the rat kidney. A wide range of data from applications of various analytical methods are now available for risk assessment purposes. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. PMID:2269236

  10. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  11. Petroleum 1996 - issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Increasingly, users of the Energy Information Administration`s petroleum data and analytical reports have expressed an interest in a recurring report that takes a broad view of the petroleum sector. What is sought is some perspective on the complex interrelationships that comprise an industry and markets accounting for 40 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and ranging from the drilling rig in the oil field to the pump at the local gasoline station. This report comprehensively examines historical trends, and selectively focuses on major issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to a common theme, in this case, the volatility in petroleum markets.

  12. 76 FR 52664 - Request for Information: Announcement of Carcinogen and Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) Policy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Carcinogen and Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) Policy Assessment AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational... review its approach to classifying carcinogens and establishing recommended exposure limits (RELs) for... carcinogen policy and REL policy regarding occupational hazards associated with cancer. NIOSH has...

  13. Petroleum pollution in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Botello, A V; Villanueva, S; Díaz, G

    1997-01-01

    In 1976, IOC-UNESCO and UNEP convened a meeting in Port of Spain to analyze the marine pollution problems in the region, noting that petroleum pollution was of regionwide concern and recommended initiating a research and monitoring program to determine the severity of the problem and monitor its effects. The Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil-producing areas in the world. Major production sites include Louisiana and Texas in the U.S.; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad. All these are classified as high-risk production accident zones. Main sources of petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean are production, exploitation, transportation, urban and municipal discharges, refining and chemical wastes, normal loading and unloading operations, and accidental spills. About 5 million barrels of crude oil are transported daily in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 million barrels/yr. The results of the Caribbean Pollution Regional Program (CARIPOL) conducted between 1980 and 1987 pointed out that significant levels of petroleum pollution exist throughout the Wider Caribbean, including serious tar contamination of windward exposed beaches, high levels of floating tar within the major current systems, and very high levels of dissolved and dispersed hydrocarbons in surface waters. Major adverse effects of this type of pollution include: high tar levels on many beaches that either prevent their recreational use or require very expensive cleanup operations, distress and death for marine life, and responses in the enzyme systems of marine organisms that have been correlated with declines in reproductive success. Finally, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tissues of important economic species has been reported, creating a risk for public health because of

  14. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons.What ... the safe-sun guidelines.1. Avoid the sun.Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

  15. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... that need skin grafts to heal Venous ulcers, pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that do not heal Very ... chap 17. Read More Burns Patient Instructions Preventing pressure ulcers Surgical wound care - open Review Date 3/13/ ...

  16. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... wear sunscreen and protective clothing, such as a hat, to prevent painful sunburns. Protecting your skin now ... happens in a split second, without you ever thinking about it. previous continue Dermis = Lots of Blood ...

  17. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  18. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-10

    This publication is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  20. The carcinogenicity of 15,16-dihydro-11-methyl-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one.

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, M. M.; Bhatt, T. S.; Young, S.

    1979-01-01

    Direct comparison of skin-tumour induction by 15,16-dihydro-11-methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one (I) and by benzo[a]pyrene on mouse skin, both by repeated application or by initiation with a single dose followed by promotion with croton oil, demonstrated that these two carcinogens have similar potency. After repeated application of (I) the mean latent period for skin-tumour induction was linearly related to the logarithm of the dose over a 10-fold dose range. Under these conditions, application of the aryl-hydrocarbon-hydroxylase inhibitor 7,8-benzoflavone together with (I) inhibited tumour induction by about 40%. By contrast, in the 2-stage experiment, little effect on tumour incidence or latent period was observed when this inhibitor was applied with the single initiating dose of (I). Co-administration of the epoxide-hydratase inhibitor 1,1,1-trichloropropene oxide caused enhancement by shortening the latent period. After s.c. injection of (I) into mice, a similar number of tumours was induced on skin remote from the site of injection by promotion with corton oil begun either one week or 6 months after initiation. Gastric instillation of (I) into female rats induced mammary adenocarcinomas. PMID:526432

  1. An estimation of the carcinogenic risk associated with the intake of multiple relevant carcinogens found in meat and charcuterie products.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ángel Rodríguez; Boada, Luis D; Almeida-González, Maira; Mendoza, Zenaida; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valeron, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated a link between excessive meat consumption and the incidence of various cancers, especially colorectal cancer, and it has been suggested that environmental carcinogens present in meat might be related to the increased risk of cancer associated with this food. However, there are no studies evaluating the carcinogenic potential of meat in relation to its content of carcinogens. Our purpose was to emphasize the relevance of environmental carcinogens existing in meat as a determinant of the association between cancer and meat consumption. Because within Europe, Spain shows high consumption of meat and charcuterie, we performed this study focusing on Spanish population. Based on the preferences of consumers we acquired 100 samples of meat and charcuterie that reflect the variety available in the European market. We quantified in these samples the concentration of 33 chemicals with calculated carcinogenic potential (PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, and dioxin-like PCBs). The carcinogenic risk of these contaminants was assessed for each food using a risk ratio based on the current consumption of meat and charcuterie and the maximum tolerable intake of these foods depending on the level of contamination by the carcinogens they contain. Our results indicate that the current consumption of beef, pork, lamb, chicken, and "chorizo", represents a relevant carcinogenic risk for consumers (carcinogenic risk quotient between 1.33 and 13.98). In order to reduce carcinogenic risk, the study population should halve the monthly consumption of these foods, and also not to surpass the number of 5 servings of beef/pork/chicken (considered together).

  2. Chemical composition and genotoxic activity of petroleum derivatives collected in two working environments

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquini, R.; Taningher, M.; Monarca, S.; Pala, M.; Angeli, G.

    1989-01-01

    Pitch and bitumen, two complex petroleum derivative mixtures, were studied for both their chemical composition and their mutagenic/DNA damaging activity. While bitumen revealed no genotoxic effect and low polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentration, petroleum pitch showed a high concentration of mutagenic/carcinogenic PAHs, and also an elevated mutagenic activity when assayed by the Ames test, in the presence of postmitochondrial rat liver fractions. The in vitro mutagenic activity was detectable as frameshift mutation by assaying the pitch both as an in toto mixture and after HPLC fractionation, the most polar fractions being the most active. In contrast, both derivatives showed no in vivo DNA damage in rat liver, using the DNA alkaline elution technique and the fluorometric assay of DNA unwinding.

  3. 46 CFR 148.04-15 - Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture). 148.04-15 Section 148.04-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-15 Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined...

  4. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The {ital Petroleum Supply Annual} contains information on supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. It reflects data collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys, and it is divided into 2 volumes. This volume contains three sections: summary statistics, detailed statistics, and selected refinery statistics, each with final annual data. (The other volume contains final statistics for each month and replaces data previously published in the {ital Petroleum Supply Monthly}).

  5. The Second Colloquium on Petroleum Engineering Education

    SciTech Connect

    Willhite, G.P.; Forney, R.H.

    1993-11-30

    This paper describes findings from the Second Colloquium on Petroleum engineering Education. The purpose of this colloquium was to provide a forum for petroleum engineering educators and representatives from industry and government to explore critical issues facing petroleum engineering education as we move into the 21st Century. It was expected that the colloquium would identify areas where changes are needed in petroleum engineering education, to best prepare students for careers in the oil and gas industry or other, related industries.

  6. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    different from that of gas displacement processes. The work is of experimental nature and clarifies several misconceptions in the literature. Based on experimental results, it is established that the main reason for high efficiency of solution gas drive from heavy oil reservoirs is due to low gas mobility. Chapter III presents the concept of the alteration of porous media wettability from liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting. The idea is novel and has not been introduced in the petroleum literature before. There are significant implications from such as proposal. The most direct application of intermediate gas wetting is wettability alteration around the wellbore. Such an alteration can significantly improve well deliverability in gas condensate reservoirs where gas well deliverability decreases below dewpoint pressure. Part I of Chapter III studies the effect of gravity, viscous forces, interfacial tension, and wettability on the critical condensate saturation and relative permeability of gas condensate systems. A simple phenomenological network model is used for this study, The theoretical results reveal that wettability significantly affects both the critical gas saturation and gas relative permeability. Gas relative permeability may increase ten times as contact angle is altered from 0{sup o} (strongly liquid wet) to 85{sup o} (intermediate gas-wetting). The results from the theoretical study motivated the experimental investigation described in Part II. In Part II we demonstrate that the wettability of porous media can be altered from liquid-wetting to gas-wetting. This part describes our attempt to find appropriate chemicals for wettability alteration of various substrates including rock matrix. Chapter IV provides a comprehensive treatment of molecular, pressure, and thermal diffusion and convection in porous media Basic theoretical analysis is presented using irreversible thermodynamics.

  7. 76 FR 60500 - Request for Information: Announcement of Carcinogen and Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) Policy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Carcinogen and Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) Policy Assessment AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational...) announcing its intent to ``review its approach to classifying carcinogens and establishing...

  8. Occupational exposure to carcinogens: Benzene, pesticides and fibers

    PubMed Central

    Falzone, Luca; Marconi, Andrea; Loreto, Carla; Franco, Sabrina; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Libra, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the occupational exposure to contaminants and carcinogens leads to the development of cancer in exposed workers. In the 18th century, Percivall Pott was the first to hypothesize that chronic exposure to dust in the London chimney sweeps was associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. Subsequently a growing body of evidence indicated that other physical factors were also responsible for oncogenic mutations. Over the past decades, many carcinogens have been found in the occupational environment and their presence is often associated with an increased incidence of cancer. Occupational exposure involves several factors and the association between carcinogens, occupational exposure and cancer is still unclear. Only a fraction of factors is recognized as occupational carcinogens and for each factor, there is an increased risk of cancer development associated with a specific work activity. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the majority of carcinogens are classified as ‘probable’ and ‘possible’ human carcinogens, while, direct evidence of carcinogenicity is provided in epidemiological and experimental studies. In the present review, exposures to benzene, pesticides and mineral fibers are discussed as the most important cancer risk factors during work activities. PMID:27748850

  9. Asphalt fume dermal carcinogenicity potential: II. Initiation-promotion assay of Type III built-up roofing asphalt.

    PubMed

    Freeman, James J; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Beazley, S; Burnett, Donald M; Clark, Charles R; Mahagaokar, Suneeta; Parker, Craig M; Stewart, Christopher W; Swanson, Mark S; Arp, Earl W

    2011-10-01

    Clark et al. (accepted for publication) reported that a sample of field-matched fume condensate from a Type III built-up roofing asphalt (BURA) resulted in a carcinogenic response in a mouse skin bioassay, with relatively few tumor-bearing animals, long tumor latency and chronic skin irritation. This mouse skin initiation/promotion study was conducted to assess possible mechanisms, i.e., genotoxic initiation vs. tumor promotion subsequent to repeated skin injury and repair. The same Type III BURA fume condensate sample was evaluated in groups of 30 male Crl:CD1® mice by skin application twice per week (total dose of 50 mg/week) for 2 weeks during the initiation phase and for 26 weeks during the promotion phase. Positive control substances were 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA, 50 μg applied once) as an initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA, 5 μg, applied twice weekly) during the promotion phase. During the 6 months of study with the asphalt fume condensate, eight skin masses were observed when tested for initiation, five of which were confirmed microscopically to be benign squamous cell papillomas. Only two papillomas were observed when tested for promotion. There was no apparent relationship between skin irritation and tumor development in this study. These results are more indicative of genotoxicity rather than a non-genotoxic mode of action.

  10. 31 CFR 561.318 - Petroleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum. 561.318 Section 561.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 561.318 Petroleum. The term petroleum (also known as crude oil) means a mixture of hydrocarbons...

  11. 78 FR 40131 - National Petroleum Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory... Business Properly Brought Before the National Petroleum Council Adjournment Public Participation:...

  12. 77 FR 42297 - National Petroleum Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. ] SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal... Brought Before the National Petroleum Council Adjournment Public Participation: The meeting is open to...

  13. 31 CFR 561.318 - Petroleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petroleum. 561.318 Section 561.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 561.318 Petroleum. The term petroleum (also known as crude oil) means a mixture of hydrocarbons...

  14. 76 FR 53889 - National Petroleum Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory... National, Petroleum Council, Adjournment. Public Participation: The meeting is open to the public....

  15. Unit: Petroleum, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on petroleum developed for the Australian Science Education Project. The package contains the teacher's edition of the written material and a script for a film entitled "The Extraordinary Experience of Nicholas Nodwell" emphasizing the uses of petroleum and petroleum products in daily life and…

  16. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 172.886 Section 172.886 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.886 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used in or on food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a)...

  17. Vegetable oils as a petroleum replacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current dependence of the world economy on petroleum cannot be sustained in the long run. Petroleum is expected to be depleted in the foreseeable future. In addition, the use of petroleum causes carbon dioxide emissions leading to global warming. Renewable sources need to be explored. One of the...

  18. Towards incorporating epigenetic mechanisms into carcinogen identification and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Herceg, Zdenko

    2013-01-01

    Remarkable progress in the field of epigenetics has turned academic, medical and public attention to the potential applications of these new advances in medicine and various fields of biomedical research. The result is a broader appreciation of epigenetic phenomena in the a etiology of common human diseases, most notably cancer. These advances also represent an exciting opportunity to incorporate epigenetics and epigenomics into carcinogen identification and safety assessment. Current epigenetic studies, including major international sequencing projects, are expected to generate information for establishing the ‘normal’ epigenome of tissues and cell types as well as the physiological variability of the epigenome against which carcinogen exposure can be assessed. Recently, epigenetic events have emerged as key mechanisms in cancer development, and while our search of the Monograph Volume 100 revealed that epigenetics have played a modest role in evaluating human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs so far, epigenetic data might play a pivotal role in the future. Here, we review (i) the current status of incorporation of epigenetics in carcinogen evaluation in the IARC Monographs Programme, (ii) potential modes of action for epigenetic carcinogens, (iii) current in vivo and in vitro technologies to detect epigenetic carcinogens, (iv) genomic regions and epigenetic modifications and their biological consequences and (v) critical technological and biological issues in assessment of epigenetic carcinogens. We also discuss the issues related to opportunities and challenges in the application of epigenetic testing in carcinogen identification and evaluation. Although the application of epigenetic assays in carcinogen evaluation is still in its infancy, important data are being generated and valuable scientific resources are being established that should catalyse future applications of epigenetic testing. PMID:23749751

  19. Towards incorporating epigenetic mechanisms into carcinogen identification and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Herceg, Zdenko; Lambert, Marie-Pierre; van Veldhoven, Karin; Demetriou, Christiana; Vineis, Paolo; Smith, Martyn T; Straif, Kurt; Wild, Christopher P

    2013-09-01

    Remarkable progress in the field of epigenetics has turned academic, medical and public attention to the potential applications of these new advances in medicine and various fields of biomedical research. The result is a broader appreciation of epigenetic phenomena in the a etiology of common human diseases, most notably cancer. These advances also represent an exciting opportunity to incorporate epigenetics and epigenomics into carcinogen identification and safety assessment. Current epigenetic studies, including major international sequencing projects, are expected to generate information for establishing the 'normal' epigenome of tissues and cell types as well as the physiological variability of the epigenome against which carcinogen exposure can be assessed. Recently, epigenetic events have emerged as key mechanisms in cancer development, and while our search of the Monograph Volume 100 revealed that epigenetics have played a modest role in evaluating human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs so far, epigenetic data might play a pivotal role in the future. Here, we review (i) the current status of incorporation of epigenetics in carcinogen evaluation in the IARC Monographs Programme, (ii) potential modes of action for epigenetic carcinogens, (iii) current in vivo and in vitro technologies to detect epigenetic carcinogens, (iv) genomic regions and epigenetic modifications and their biological consequences and (v) critical technological and biological issues in assessment of epigenetic carcinogens. We also discuss the issues related to opportunities and challenges in the application of epigenetic testing in carcinogen identification and evaluation. Although the application of epigenetic assays in carcinogen evaluation is still in its infancy, important data are being generated and valuable scientific resources are being established that should catalyse future applications of epigenetic testing.

  20. Strategic petroleum reserve annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.

  1. PETROLEUM BIOREFINING FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    SciTech Connect

    John J. Kilbane II

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this project was to isolate and characterize thermophilic bacterial cultures that can be used for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur, and/or metals in the biorefining of petroleum. The project was completed on schedule and no major difficulties were encountered. Significant progress was made on multiple topics relevant to the development of a petroleum biorefining process capable of operating at thermophilic temperatures. New cultures capable of selectively cleaving C-N or C-S bonds in molecules relevant to petroleum were obtained, and the genes encoding the enzymes for these unique biochemical reactions were cloned and sequenced. Genetic tools were developed that enable the use of Thermus thermophilus as a host to express any gene of interest, and information was obtained regarding the optimum conditions for the growth of T. thermophilus. The development of a practical biorefining process still requires further research and the future research needs identified in this project include the development of new enzymes and pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N or C-S bonds that have higher specific activities, increased substrate range, and are capable of functioning at thermophilic temperatures. Additionally, there is a need for process engineering research to determine the maximum yield of biomass and cloned gene products that can be obtained in fed-batch cultures using T. thermophilus, and to determine the best configuration for a process employing biocatalysts to treat petroleum.

  2. Petroleum geology of marine evaporites

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M. )

    1994-08-01

    The conditions necessary for evaporite deposition are also important with respect to genesis of source beds for petroleum. In a restricted basin marked by large-scale salt successions, it is presumed that the basin proper is separated from the open sea either by structural or physiographic barriers. These barriers may elevate the effective wave base so that much of the basin is in the stagnant zone or in reducing environment, where sediments rich in organic matter may be deposited. Such shallow barriers increase the conditions favorable for the generation of petroleum. Since marine evaporitic basins are not ideally closed systems, but are subject to influxes and perhaps refluxes of sea water or brine, much petroleum associated with evaporites is generated from dissolved and particulate organic matter swept from the normal marine into the evaporitic environments. Only carbonates precipitate in the mesosaline part (4-12% salinity) of such evaporitic environments. They are of great significance in source rock origin. The huge reserves of petroleum in the Mesozoic of the Middle East, and many other areas including the Michigan, Paradox, and Delaware basins, owe their origin to the thick sequences of carbonates and evaporites of the mesosaline environments. Repeated cycles of oil and gas formation in the stratigraphic record are related to tectonic, climatic, or eustatic events or both, and to increasing sedimentary overburden.

  3. Coke from coal and petroleum

    DOEpatents

    Wynne, Jr., Francis E.; Lopez, Jaime; Zaborowsky, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

  4. Study of Chemical Carcinogens by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivtsaev, A. A.; Razov, V. I.; Karasev, A. O.

    2013-11-01

    We have used positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy to study the carcinogens C21H20BrN3, C4H7Cl2O4P, CCl4, CHCl3, AlF3, C8H12N4O, C6H4Cl2 and the non-carcinogens H2O, AlCl3, CH2Cl2, C2H6OS. We have established a correlation between the annihilation characteristics of the studied compounds and their degree of carcinogenicity.

  5. Carcinogenic potency of alkylating agents in rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Dedrick, R L; Morrison, P F

    1992-05-01

    Alkylating agents are known to produce second tumors in cancer patients treated for their primary cancer. Since therapeutic doses are high and the pharmacokinetics of the drugs are thoroughly studied, these agents provide a unique opportunity to compare intrinsic carcinogenic potency between experimental animals and humans. We have examined the carcinogenicity of melphalan, chlorambucil, and cyclophosphamide in causing leukemia in patients treated for cancer or polycythemia vera and lymphosarcoma in rats and mice. A good correlation among species is observed when the carcinogenic potency is based on the total lifetime exposure to active species derived from these drugs.

  6. [Hygienic assessment of the hazard of ambient air carcinogenic factors].

    PubMed

    Litvichenko, O N; Chernichenko, I A; Kovalenko, T V; Zinchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    The paper shows an extremely greater danger of aerogenic doses of carcinogenic substances entering with smoking products than that of an aerogenic load in the industrial centers. The individual and population risks of cancer due to smoking of the Ukraine's common cigarettes and the economic damage caused by the treatment of this number of patients to the country have been calculated. For a full assessment of the carcinogenic risk of tobacco smoke, it is necessary to determine all its carcinogenic constituents, their precursors, and possible transformation groups at high temperatures.

  7. Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloid Toxicity, Cytotoxicity, and Carcinogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Stegelmeier, Bryan L.; Colegate, Steven M.; Brown, Ammon W.

    2016-01-01

    Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA)-producing plants have a worldwide distribution amongst flowering plants and commonly cause poisoning of livestock, wildlife, and humans. Previous work has produced considerable understanding of DHPA metabolism, toxicity, species susceptibility, conditions, and routes of exposure, and pathogenesis of acute poisoning. Intoxication is generally caused by contaminated grains, feed, flour, and breads that result in acute, high-dose, short-duration poisoning. Acute poisoning produces hepatic necrosis that is usually confirmed histologically, epidemiologically, and chemically. Less is known about chronic poisoning that may result when plant populations are sporadic, used as tisanes or herbal preparations, or when DHPAs contaminate milk, honey, pollen, or other animal-derived products. Such subclinical exposures may contribute to the development of chronic disease in humans or may be cumulative and probably slowly progress until liver failure. Recent work using rodent models suggest increased neoplastic incidence even with very low DHPA doses of short durations. These concerns have moved some governments to prohibit or limit human exposure to DHPAs. The purpose of this review is to summarize some recent DHPA research, including in vitro and in vivo DHPA toxicity and carcinogenicity reports, and the implications of these findings with respect to diagnosis and prognosis for human and animal health. PMID:27916846

  8. [Adiponectin: an anti-carcinogenic adipokine?].

    PubMed

    Fève, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    Adipose tissue has long been considered as an « organ » of energy storage. Although many works had previously identified the secretory nature of adipocyte, it was only in 1994, when the leptin gene was cloned, that adipose tissue earned the status of endocrine tissue. It was the first demonstration that an adipose tissue-derived hormone was able to communicate with the central nervous system to control satiety and energy balance. In fact, it is almost at the same time that another major adipokine produced by adipocytes, adiponectin, has been discovered. It took several years to identify the insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties of this hormone. More recently, several epidemiological, genetic and experimental findings suggest an anti-carcinogenic role for adiponectin. In this brief review we will present the arguments supporting a protective role of adiponectin in tumor progression, particularly in the context of breast cancer. Adiponectin deficiency commonly observed in obesity may contribute to the natural history of several cancers, as well as the elevation of leptin and other hormonal disturbances associated with excessive adiposity.

  9. Toxicity and Carcinogenicity of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Takanori; Takeda, Makio; Kojima, Sayuri; Tomiyama, Naruto

    2016-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is still used in certain areas of tropics and subtropics to control malaria and other insect-transmitted diseases. DDT and its metabolites have been extensively studied for their toxicity and carcinogenicity in animals and humans and shown to have an endocrine disrupting potential affecting reproductive system although the effects may vary among animal species in correlation with exposure levels. Epidemiologic studies revealed either positive or negative associations between exposure to DDT and tumor development, but there has been no clear evidence that DDT causes cancer in humans. In experimental animals, tumor induction by DDT has been shown in the liver, lung, and adrenals. The mechanisms of hepatic tumor development by DDT have been studied in rats and mice. DDT is known as a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen and has been shown to induce microsomal enzymes through activation of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and to inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in the rodent liver. The results from our previously conducted 4-week and 2-year feeding studies of p,p′-DDT in F344 rats indicate that DDT may induce hepatocellular eosinophilic foci as a result of oxidative DNA damage and leads them to hepatic neoplasia in combination with its mitogenic activity and inhibitory effect on GJIC. Oxidative stress could be a key factor in hepatocarcinogenesis by DDT. PMID:26977256

  10. Recent Advances in Petroleum Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Singh, Ajay; Ward, Owen P.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have extended our understanding of the metabolic processes related to microbial transformation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The physiological responses of microorganisms to the presence of hydrocarbons, including cell surface alterations and adaptive mechanisms for uptake and efflux of these substrates, have been characterized. New molecular techniques have enhanced our ability to investigate the dynamics of microbial communities in petroleum-impacted ecosystems. By establishing conditions which maximize rates and extents of microbial growth, hydrocarbon access, and transformation, highly accelerated and bioreactor-based petroleum waste degradation processes have been implemented. Biofilters capable of removing and biodegrading volatile petroleum contaminants in air streams with short substrate-microbe contact times (<60 s) are being used effectively. Microbes are being injected into partially spent petroleum reservoirs to enhance oil recovery. However, these microbial processes have not exhibited consistent and effective performance, primarily because of our inability to control conditions in the subsurface environment. Microbes may be exploited to break stable oilfield emulsions to produce pipeline quality oil. There is interest in replacing physical oil desulfurization processes with biodesulfurization methods through promotion of selective sulfur removal without degradation of associated carbon moieties. However, since microbes require an environment containing some water, a two-phase oil-water system must be established to optimize contact between the microbes and the hydrocarbon, and such an emulsion is not easily created with viscous crude oil. This challenge may be circumvented by application of the technology to more refined gasoline and diesel substrates, where aqueous-hydrocarbon emulsions are more easily generated. Molecular approaches are being used to broaden the substrate specificity and increase the rates and

  11. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  12. 31 CFR 542.209 - Prohibited transactions or dealings in or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. 542.209 Section 542.209 Money and... dealings in or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. Except as otherwise authorized... petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin is prohibited....

  13. 31 CFR 542.529 - Policy on activities related to petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit of the National Coalition of Syrian... activities related to petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit of the National... the purchase, trade, export, import, or production of petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

  14. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  15. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  16. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  17. Tobacco carcinogen NNK-induced lung cancer animal models and associated carcinogenic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ge, Guang-Zhe; Xu, Tian-Rui; Chen, Ceshi

    2015-07-01

    Tobacco usage is a major risk factor in the development, progression, and outcomes for lung cancer. Of the carcinogens associated with lung cancer, tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is among the most potent ones. The oncogenic mechanisms of NNK are not entirely understood, hindering the development of effective strategies for preventing and treating smoking-associated lung cancers. Here, we introduce the NNK-induced lung cancer animal models in different species and its potential mechanisms. Finally, we summarize several chemopreventive agents developed from these animal models.

  18. Basic petroleum geology, 2nd ed. , revised

    SciTech Connect

    Link.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains revised and updated material, including approximately 200 additional illustrations and an extensive glossary of terms. A valuable reference for geology students and petroleum professionals, the text presents fundamental concepts of geology in terms of sedimentary deposition, petroleum occurrence, exploration, and recovery. This book contains information on geologic time, historical geology and stratigraphy; Minerals and rocks; Weathering erosion, and deposition; Marine erosion and deposition; Depositional basins; Lacustrine, desert and glacial environments; Subsurface water and diagenesis; Structural geology; petroleum traps; Petroleum and reservoirs; Geological considerations and engineering practices; Rocks, reservoirs, and recovery techniques; Exploration techniques for petroleum; Bibliography Glossary; Index.

  19. Human papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Smola, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect squamous epithelia and can induce hyperproliferative lesions. More than 120 different HPV types have been characterized and classified into five different genera. While mucosal high-risk HPVs have a well-established causal role in anogenital carcinogenesis, the biology of cutaneous HPVs is less well understood. The clinical relevance of genus beta-PV infection has clearly been demonstrated in patients suffering from epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), a rare inherited disease associated with ahigh rate of skin cancer. In the normal population genus beta-PV are suspected to have an etiologic role in skin carcinogenesis as well but this is still controversially discussed. Their oncogenic potency has been investigated in mouse models and in vitro. In 2009, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified the genus beta HPV types 5 and 8 as "possible carcinogenic" biological agents (group 2B) in EV disease. This chapter will give an overview on the knowns and unknowns of infections with genus beta-PV and discuss their potential impact on skin carcinogenesis in the general population.

  20. Correlation between carcinogenic potency of chemicals in animals and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, B.C.; Crump, K.S.; Shipp, A.M.

    1988-12-01

    Twenty-three chemicals were selected for comparison of the carcinogenic potencies estimated from epidemiological data to those estimated from animal carcinogenesis bioassays. The chemicals were all those for which reasonably strong evidence of carcinogenicity could be found in humans or animals and for which suitable data could be obtained for quantifying carcinogenic potencies in both humans and animals. Many alternative methods of analyzing the bioassay data were investigated. Almost all of the methods yielded potency estimates that were highly correlated with potencies estimated from epidemiological data; correlations were highly statistically significant (p < 0.001), with the corresponding correlation coefficients ranging as high as 0.9. These findings provide support for the general use of animal data to evaluate carcinogenic potential in humans and also for the use of animal data to quantify human risk.

  1. Foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings.

    PubMed

    Myöhänen, Kirsi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to many different chemicals during pregnancy through maternal circulation is possible. Transplacental transfer of xenobiotics can be demonstrated using human placental perfusion. Also, placental perfusion can give information about the placental kinetics as well as metabolism and accumulation in the placenta because it retains the tissue structure and function. Although human placental perfusion has been used extensively to study the transplacental transfer of drugs, the information on food and environmental carcinogens is much more limited. This review deals with the foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings. In particular, human transplacental transfer of the food carcinogens such as acrylamide, glycidamide and nitrosodimethylamine are in focus. Because these carcinogens are genotoxic, the functional capacity of human placenta to induce DNA adduct formation or metabolize these above mentioned CYP2E1 substrates is of interest in this context.

  2. Carcinogens and mutagens in the environment. Volume 1. Food products

    SciTech Connect

    Stich, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    This work discusses epidemiological evidence, carcinogens and mutagens in food, and methodological and regulatory issues. Among more detailed topics covered are life-style and cancer etiology, dietary fat relationships to cancer, metabolic activation, mycotoxins, analysis, and regulatory approaches.

  3. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Whited, D.; Jacobus, P.

    1990-11-28

    Data presented in this PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 46 tabs.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-27

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 54 tabs.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  6. Molecular Analysis of Medaka Tumors: New Models for Carcinogenicity Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-07

    R.M., Lytle, T.F. and Lytle, J.S. (1988b) Dose-related carcinogenic effects of waterborne benzo[a]pyrene on livers of two small fish species. J... Ecotoxicology and Environ. Safety 16:219-236. Hoover, K. L. 1984. Use of small fish species in carcinogenicity testing. Natl. Cancer. Inst. Monogr. 65:5-128...51 A1 4 INTRODUCTION For over twenty years, tumors in fish and other lower vertebrates and invertebrates have been systematically

  7. Carcinogen-induced trans activation of gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Kleinberger, T; Flint, Y B; Blank, M; Etkin, S; Lavi, S

    1988-01-01

    We report a new mechanism of carcinogen action by which the expression of several genes was concomitantly enhanced. This mechanism involved the altered activity of cellular factors which modulate the expression of genes under their control. The increased expression was regulated at least in part on the transcriptional level and did not require amplification of the overexpressed genes. This phenomenon was transient; it was apparent as early as 24 h after carcinogen treatment and declined a few days later. Images PMID:2835673

  8. Carcinogen-induced trans activation of gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinberger, T.; Flint, Y.B.; Blank, M.; Etkin, S.; Lavi, S.

    1988-03-01

    The authors report a new mechanism of carcinogen action by which the expression of several genes was concomitantly enhanced. This mechanism involved the altered activity of cellular factors which modulate the expression of genes under their control. The increased expression was regulated at least in part on the transcriptional level and did not require amplification of the overexpressed genes. This phenomenon was transient; it was apparent as early as 24 h after carcinogen treatment and declined a few days later.

  9. Sunlight and skin cancer: lessons from the immune system.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Stephen E

    2007-08-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight induces skin cancer development. Skin cancer is the most common form of human neoplasia. Estimates suggest that in excess of 1.5 million new cases of skin cancer (www.cancer.org/statistics) will be diagnosed in the United States this year. Fortunately, because of their highly visible location, skin cancers are more rapidly diagnosed and more easily treated than other types of cancer. Be that as it may, approximately 10,000 Americans a year die from skin cancer, and the cost of treating skin cancer in the United States (both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer) is estimated to be in excess of $2.9 billion a year. In addition to causing skin cancer, UV radiation is also immune suppressive. In fact, data from studies with both experimental animals and biopsy proven skin cancer patients suggest that there is an association between the immune suppressive effects of UV radiation and its carcinogenic potential. Recent studies in my laboratory have focused on understanding the initial molecular events that induce immune suppression. We made two novel observations: first UV-induced keratinocyte-derived platelet activating factor plays a role in the induction of immune suppression. Second, cis-urocanic acid, a skin-derived immunosuppressive compound mediates immune suppression by binding to serotonin receptors on target cells. Recent findings suggest that blocking the binding of these compounds to their receptors not only inhibits UV-induced immune suppression but it also interferes with skin cancer induction.

  10. Human exposure to dioxins through the diet in Catalonia, Spain: carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk.

    PubMed

    Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, Jose L; Bocio, Ana; Casas, Conrad; Teixidó, Angel; Müller, Lutz

    2003-03-01

    The main objectives of this study were to estimate the dietary intake of dioxins by the population of Catalonia, Spain, to determine which food groups showed the greatest contribution to this intake, and to assess the health risks potentially associated with the dietary dioxin intake. From June to August 2000, food samples were randomly acquired in seven cities of Catalonia. Dioxin concentrations were determined in 108 samples belonging to the following groups: vegetables, fruits, pulses, cereals, fish and shellfish, meats and meat products, eggs, milk and dairy products, and oils and fats. Estimates of average daily food consumption were obtained from recent studies. Total dietary intake of dioxins for the general population of Catalonia was estimated to be 95.4 pg WHO-TEQ/day (78.4 pg I-TEQ/day), with fish and shellfish (31%), diary products (25%), cereals (14%) and meat (13%) showing the greatest percentages of contribution to dioxin intake. The contribution of all the rest of food groups to the total dietary intake was under 20%. The non-carcinogenic risk index of dioxin intake through the diet was in the range 0.34-1.36, while the carcinogenic risk level was 1,360 excess cancer over a lifetime of 70 years. Our results corroborate the decreasing tendency in dietary intake of dioxins found in recent studies (2000-2001) from various countries.

  11. Alaskan North Slope petroleum systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoon, L.B.; Lillis, P.G.; Bird, K.J.; Lampe, C.; Peters, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    Six North Slope petroleum systems are identified, described, and mapped using oil-to-oil and oil-to-source rock correlations, pods of active source rock, and overburden rock packages. To map these systems, we assumed that: a) petroleum source rocks contain 3.2 wt. % organic carbon (TOC); b) immature oil-prone source rocks have hydrogen indices (HI) >300 (mg HC/gm TOC); c) the top and bottom of the petroleum (oil plus gas) window occur at vitrinite reflectance values of 0.6 and 1.0% Ro, respectively; and d) most hydrocarbons are expelled within the petroleum window. The six petroleum systems we have identified and mapped are: a) a southern system involving the Kuna-Lisburne source rock unit that was active during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous; b) two western systems involving source rock in the Kingak-Blankenship, and GRZ-lower Torok source rock units that were active during the Albian; and c) three eastern systems involving the Shublik-Otuk, Hue Shale and Canning source rock units that were active during the Cenozoic. The GRZ-lower Torok in the west is correlative with the Hue Shale to the east. Four overburden rock packages controlled the time of expulsion and gross geometry of migration paths: a) a southern package of Early Cretaceous and older rocks structurally-thickened by early Brooks Range thrusting; b) a western package of Early Cretaceous rocks that filled the western part of the foreland basin; c) an eastern package of Late Cretaceous and Paleogene rocks that filled the eastern part of the foreland basin; and d) an offshore deltaic package of Neogene rocks deposited by the Colville, Canning, and Mackenzie rivers. This petroleum system poster is part of a series of Northern Alaska posters on modeling. The poster in this session by Saltus and Bird present gridded maps for the greater Northern Alaskan onshore and offshore that are used in the 3D modeling poster by Lampe and others. Posters on source rock units are by Keller and Bird as well as

  12. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, Epidemiologic and Other Supporting Evidence of Carcinogenic Hazard

    PubMed Central

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Lash, Lawrence H.; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2013-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including from hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. Strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE. PMID:23973663

  13. Interactions of chemical carcinogens and genetic variation in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Jing

    2010-01-01

    In the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in addition to hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections, chemical carcinogens also play important roles. For example, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) epoxide reacts with guanine in DNA and can lead to genetic changes. In HCC, the tumor suppressor gene p53 codon 249 mutation is associated with AFB1 exposure and mutations in the K-ras oncogene are related to vinyl chloride exposure. Numerous genetic alterations accumulate during the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. Chemical carcinogen DNA-adduct formation is the basis for these genetic changes and also a molecular marker which reflects exposure level and biological effects. Metabolism of chemical carcinogens, including their activation and detoxification, also plays a key role in chemical hepatocarcinogenesis. Cytochrome p450 enzymes, N-acetyltransferases and glutathione S-transferases are involved in activating and detoxifying chemical carcinogens. These enzymes are polymorphic and genetic variation influences biological response to chemical carcinogens. This genetic variation has been postulated to influence the variability in risk for HCC observed both within and across populations. Ongoing studies seek to fully understand the mechanisms by which genetic variation in response to chemical carcinogens impacts on HCC risk. PMID:21160980

  14. Conformations of DNA adducts with polycyclic aromatic carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Broyde, S.; Hingerty, B.

    1984-01-01

    Minimized semi-empirical potential energy calculations for a number of carcinogen adducts with dCpdG have yielded molecular views of the adduct conformations. The base displaced and Z type conformations of acetylaminofluorene (AAF) adducts to guanine C-8 have been detailed. Model building shows that base displacement causes kinking and denaturation in the B helix, while the Z helix is largely unperturbed by modification with AAF, in agreement with experimental findings. The minor AAF adduct linked to quanine N/sup 2/ can reside at a B-Z junction, with the carcinogen buried in a groove in the Z direction, without causing denaturation. The syn guanine in these modified Z forms could be mutagenic, the lesion escaping repair because the helix is undeformed, while the distorted base-displaced conformers are repaired. Aminofluorene (AF) and 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP) linked to guanine N/sup 2/ are currently believed to be critical lesions. They all have a pair of A or B type low energy states, one of which has base-base stacking with carcinogen at the helix exterior, and a second with carcinogen-base stacking. The two states are easily interconvertible. It is possible that the carcinogen may reside primarily at the unperturbed helix exterior where it escapes repair, but that carcinogen-base stacking may occur at a critical time during replication, leading to a mutation. 49 references, 8 figures.

  15. Does the term carcinogen send the wrong message?

    PubMed

    Flamm, W G; Hughes, D

    1997-08-19

    The term carcinogen has been used by scientists and health regulatory officials for decades. During the last 20 years there have been attempts to redefine the term to make it more rigorous. But, as predicted two decades ago by a benchmark-setting subcommittee of the National Cancer Advisory Board, advances in scientific understanding have brought about dramatic changes in the way we are able to view the term carcinogen. These changes, their scientific bases and their effect on defining the term carcinogen are described. An alternative to the use of the term carcinogen is suggested by the recently proposed US Environmental Agency's guidelines for cancer risk assessment which appear to be in accord with current scientific understanding and the importance of considering the factors affecting the term carcinogen. The guidelines set forth four questions, the answers to which could, in our judgment, replace the need to define or use the term carcinogen which, in light of new scientific knowledge, has become more misleading than useful.

  16. CAREX Canada: an enhanced model for assessing occupational carcinogen exposure

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Cheryl E; Ge, Calvin B; Hall, Amy L; Davies, Hugh W; Demers, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the numbers of workers exposed to known and suspected occupational carcinogens in Canada, building on the methods of CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) projects in the European Union (EU). Methods CAREX Canada consists of estimates of the prevalence and level of exposure to occupational carcinogens. CAREX Canada includes occupational agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as known, probable or possible human carcinogens that were present and feasible to assess in Canadian workplaces. A Canadian Workplace Exposure Database was established to identify the potential for exposure in particular industries and occupations, and to create exposure level estimates among priority agents, where possible. CAREX EU data were reviewed for relevance to the Canadian context and the proportion of workers likely to be exposed by industry and occupation in Canada was assigned using expert assessment and agreement by a minimum of two occupational hygienists. These proportions were used to generate prevalence estimates by linkage with the Census of Population for 2006, and these estimates are available by industry, occupation, sex and province. Results CAREX Canada estimated the number of workers exposed to 44 known, probable and suspected carcinogens. Estimates of levels of exposure were further developed for 18 priority agents. Common exposures included night shift work (1.9 million exposed), solar ultraviolet radiation exposure (1.5 million exposed) and diesel engine exhaust (781 000 exposed). Conclusions A substantial proportion of Canadian workers are exposed to known and suspected carcinogens at work. PMID:24969047

  17. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, epidemiologic and other supporting evidence of carcinogenic hazard.

    PubMed

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Lash, Lawrence H; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z

    2014-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. The strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE.

  18. Update on the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of cobalt compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lison, D; De Boeck, M; Verougstraete, V; Kirsch-Volders, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To integrate recent understandings of the mechanisms of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of the different cobalt compounds.
METHOD—A narrative review of the studies published since the last IARC assessment in 1991 (genotoxicity, experimental carcinogenesis, and epidemiology).
RESULTS—Two different mechanisms of genotoxicity, DNA breakage induced by cobalt metal and especially hard metal particles, and inhibition of DNA repair by cobalt (II) ions contribute to the carcinogenic potential of cobalt compounds. There is evidence that soluble cobalt (II) cations exert a genotoxic and carcinogenic activity in vitro and in vivo in experimental systems but evidence in humans is lacking. Experimental data indicate some evidence of a genotoxic potential for cobalt metal in vitro in human lymphocytes but there is no evidence available of a carcinogenic potential. There is evidence that hard metal particles exert a genotoxic and carcinogenic activity in vitro and in human studies, respectively. There is insufficient information for cobalt oxides and other compounds.
CONCLUSION—Although many areas of uncertainty remain, an assessment of the carcinogenicity of cobalt and its compounds requires a clear distinction between the different compounds of the element and needs to take into account the different mechanisms involved.


Keywords: cobalt; DNA breakage; inhibition of DNA repair PMID:11555681

  19. Skin lumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... DM. Dermal and subcutaneous tumors. In: James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical ... Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  20. JOINT ACTION OF A CHEMICAL CARCINOGEN AND A NEOPLASTIC VIRUS TO INDUCE CANCER IN RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Stanfield; Rous, Peyton

    1951-01-01

    Areas of rabbit skin previously rendered hyperplastic with turpentine were scarified, inoculated with the Shope papilloma virus, and covered with a dressing that contained 20-methylcholanthrene (MC) or 9:10-dimethyl-1:2-benzanthracene (9:10). The dressing was left on until healing had been well completed, a matter of 5 to 7 days. The papillomas which subsequently arose often appeared later, were fewer, and remained less vigorous than those due to the action of virus alone, but throughout several months they appeared to differ from these in no other ways. Then, more or less abruptly, the large majority became carcinomatous, frequently at several situations, whereas with few exceptions the control growths underwent no such alteration. The cancers were of the sorts ordinarily deriving, by secondary change, from epidermal cells infected with the virus. Collateral data have made plain that the hydrocarbons acted in their carcinogenic capacity to bring on the cancers. Indeed in control tests 9: 10 sometimes conferred latent neoplastic potentialities on uninoculated epidermis exposed to it while healing after scarification, a fact disclosed months later by painting these expanses with chloroform until hyperplasia occurred. Under the promoting influence of this agent papillomas formed which had the distinctive morphology of those induced by the chemical carcinogens. So strong and enduring were the effects of MC and 9:10 as to cause cancers to arise from many virus papillomas which were retrogressing after months of proliferation, that is to say under circumstances ordinarily unfavorable to malignant change. The facts justify the conclusion that the virus and the hydrocarbons acted jointly and in their carcinogenic capacities. PMID:14832395

  1. Prevention of carcinogen and inflammation-induced dermal cancer by oral rapamycin includes reducing genetic damage.

    PubMed

    Dao, Vinh; Pandeswara, Srilakshmi; Liu, Yang; Hurez, Vincent; Dodds, Sherry; Callaway, Danielle; Liu, Aijie; Hasty, Paul; Sharp, Zelton D; Curiel, Tyler J

    2015-05-01

    Cancer prevention is a cost-effective alternative to treatment. In mice, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin prevents distinct spontaneous, noninflammatory cancers, making it a candidate broad-spectrum cancer prevention agent. We now show that oral microencapsulated rapamycin (eRapa) prevents skin cancer in dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) carcinogen-induced, inflammation-driven carcinogenesis. eRapa given before DMBA/TPA exposure significantly increased tumor latency, reduced papilloma prevalence and numbers, and completely inhibited malignant degeneration into squamous cell carcinoma. Rapamycin is primarily an mTORC1-specific inhibitor, but eRapa did not reduce mTORC1 signaling in skin or papillomas, and did not reduce important proinflammatory factors in this model, including p-Stat3, IL17A, IL23, IL12, IL1β, IL6, or TNFα. In support of lack of mTORC1 inhibition, eRapa did not reduce numbers or proliferation of CD45(-)CD34(+)CD49f(mid) skin cancer initiating stem cells in vivo and marginally reduced epidermal hyperplasia. Interestingly, eRapa reduced DMBA/TPA-induced skin DNA damage and the hras codon 61 mutation that specifically drives carcinogenesis in this model, suggesting reduction of DNA damage as a cancer prevention mechanism. In support, cancer prevention and DNA damage reduction effects were lost when eRapa was given after DMBA-induced DNA damage in vivo. eRapa afforded picomolar concentrations of rapamycin in skin of DMBA/TPA-exposed mice, concentrations that also reduced DMBA-induced DNA damage in mouse and human fibroblasts in vitro. Thus, we have identified DNA damage reduction as a novel mechanism by which rapamycin can prevent cancer, which could lay the foundation for its use as a cancer prevention agent in selected human populations.

  2. Petroleum geology of Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M.

    1982-05-01

    Petroleum activities in the Arabian Peninsula show new trends in the 1980s. Petroleum exploration is intensified and huge discoveries are anticipated. A giant Jurassic gas field along the coast of the Arabian Gulf discovered recently tops 150 tcf, the largest single reserve ever. Other giant oil fields in the area are undergoing expansion in development and productivity. Today, the Peninsula, with a total area that surpasses one million square miles, produces and exports more oil and gas and has greater reserves than any other area in the world. The excellent reservoir rocks are located in the Jurassic and Cretaceous formations between the Arabian Shield and the Tethyan Seaway. They represent porous and permeable marine cyclical beds sealed by impervious shales and anhydrites. Reservoir sedimentology was affected by 2 orogenies during late Cretaceous and Pliocene time portrayed by the Cratonic area to the southwest and the orthogeosynclinal area to the northeast. The eastern part was little deformed by these movements.

  3. Investigating the Mechanism of Action and the Identification of Breast Carcinogens by Computational Analysis of Female Rodent Carcinogens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Toxicology Program rodent carcinogenicity bioassays, Quant. Struct.-Act. Rela. 16, (1997) 290-295. [21] L. Eriksson, E. Johansson and S. Wold, QSAR ...Chemical diversity approach for evaluating mechanistic relatedness among toxicological phenomena”, SAR QSAR Environ. Res. 10, 533–543. A.R. CUNNINGHAM...mechanistically insightful structure-activity relationship analysis of rat mammary carcinogens. Chemical Research in Toxicology (accepted pending revision

  4. Exploring the Molecular Mechanisms of Nickel-Induced Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Keyuna S.; Buchner, Virginia; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel, a naturally occurring element that exists in various mineral forms, is mainly found in soil and sediment, and its mobilization is influenced by the physicochemical properties of the soil. Industrial sources of nickel include metallurgical processes such as electroplating, alloy production, stainless steel, and nickel-cadmium batteries. Nickel industries, oil- and coal-burning power plants, and trash incinerators have been implicated in its release into the environment. In humans, nickel toxicity is influenced by the route of exposure, dose, and solubility of the nickel compound. Lung inhalation is the major route of exposure for nickel-induced toxicity. Nickel may also be ingested or absorbed through the skin. The primary target organs are the kidneys and lungs. Other organs such as the liver, spleen, heart and testes may also be affected to a lesser extent. Although the most common health effect is an allergic reaction, research has also demonstrated that nickel is carcinogenic to humans. The focus of the present review is on recent research concerning the molecular mechanisms of nickel-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. We first present a background on the occurrence of nickel in the environment, human exposure, and human health effects. PMID:21905451

  5. Petroleum geology of western Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, J. )

    1990-05-01

    Antarctica's geology is mostly obscured by thick, moving ice that covers 95% of the land and continental shelf. Reconnaissance investigations of outcrops, shallow boreholes, and geophysical surveys are limited and peripheral owing to ice coverage. However, it is possible to outline substantial elements of the regional geology. Further insight is gained by comparison to analogous sedimentary provinces, especially provinces once adjoined within the framework of the Gondwana supercontinent until middle Cretaceous. The petroleum potential of Antarctica, as in the case of the other related high-standing Gondwana continental fragments, is in Early Cretaceous rifts associated with the Gondwana breakup and with the Pacific convergence in the west Antarctica back arc. The Pacific-facing western Antarctica includes two structural provinces: (1) the Cretaceous and younger interior rift system on the east side of the Weddell and Ross Sea embayment, which contain aulacogens that form the boundary with East Antarctica and (2) the back-arc and fore-arc basins adjoining the Antarctica Peninsula and extending into Marie Byrd Land and the Bellingshausen Sea which are associated with the eastward convergence of the Pacific plate. The petroleum potential of the rifts may be assessed by analogies with related rifts of Australia, India, and South Africa; assessment of the convergent basins of western Antarctica depends upon analogy with similar basins of South America, New Zealand, and Indonesia. An estimate of the petroleum potential of western Antarctica generally is comparable with oil and gas occurrences (both in overall quantity and in field sizes) in the other Gondwana continental fragments. However, in view of the thict moving ice cover, the remote locale, and severe climate, petroleum production is largely beyond technology at this time and probably is economically unfeasible.

  6. Conversion of heavy petroleum oils

    SciTech Connect

    Farcasiu, M.

    1982-03-02

    Heavy petroleum oils, such as vacuum resids, and heavy fractions of tar sands and shale oil, are partially converted to more volatile hydrocarbons by mixing with light aromatic hydrocarbons and treatment of the mixture with a friedel-crafts catalyst such as aluminum chloride. It is believed that the conversion found is essentially a transalkylation, I.E. The resid undergoes dealkylation with concurrent alkylation of the light aromatic hydrocarbon.

  7. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Hung; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Chen, Pei-Jen

    2014-07-30

    Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor γ1 (rarγ1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish populations in the aquatic environment.

  8. Can the chemical reactivity of an ultimate carcinogen be related to its carcinogenicity? An application to propylene oxide.

    PubMed

    Mavri, Janez

    2013-02-01

    In this article we report calculations of the activation free energy for a chemical reaction between propylene oxide and DNA, in particular with the guanine at the N7 position. Calculations were performed using Hartree-Fock and MP2 methods in conjunction with flexible basis sets. The effects of solvation were considered using the Langevin dipoles and solvent reaction field methods. The calculated activation free energies are in good agreement with the experimental value of 25.36 kcal/mol. Moreover, the reactivities of a series of ultimate carcinogens of the epoxy type toward DNA are shown to be related to their carcinogenicities. Higher reactivity is generally associated with higher carcinogenicity, although transport properties, reactions with ultimate carcinogen scavengers, and the DNA correction mechanism are also very important. It is very likely that the window of reactivity rather than a high reactivity value is the relevant measure of carcinogenicity, since highly reactive ultimate carcinogens interact with water and proteins before they reach DNA.

  9. Pennsylvania's contribution to petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, P.A.

    1989-09-01

    John F. Carll of the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania laid the foundations of both petroleum geology and reservoir engineering. J. P. Lesley, director of the Second Survey, had introduced structure contours when he was working in the anthracite fields. He pointed out that the great oil fields of Pennsylvania were in the only part of the state where there were no anticlines. I. C. White, another geologist with the Second Survey, emphasized the anticlinal theory adopted as a method of prospecting until the discovery of the Cushing field in Oklahoma in 1912. George Ashley, state geologist of Pennsylvanian in the 1930s and 1940s, said that after the gas companies had drilled all the anticlines there would still be the synclines. David White in 1915 noticed the relation between the metamorphosis (rank) of coal and the occurrence of oil and gas. This method (vitrinite reflectance) is now widely applied in the evaluation of basins. In the late 1930s, the resurvey of the Pennsylvania oil regions showed that the reservoirs were shoreline sands, probably barrier islands. In the 1950s the AAPG recommended a study of the recent sediments of the Mississippi delta by Scripps Institute of Oceanography. The ability to recognize depositional environments has caused a revolution in petroleum geology, and recently has been recognized by petroleum engineers as the key to reservoir characterization.

  10. Overview of African petroleum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Perrodon, A. )

    1993-07-12

    Bordered by two large, still spreading oceans and subjected to tensional forces for more than 200 million years, continental Africa has now reached its largest surface expression ever. With a total sedimentary area of 15 million sq km distributed in about 80 basins, Africa possesses and produces circa 10% of the world's oil and 7% of the gas. More than 95% of these hydrocarbons are concentrated in seven petroleum provinces, ruled by three great petroleum systems that in turn are tightly controlled and determined by the geodynamic characteristics of the basins. From a stratigraphic standpoint, these three petroleum systems belong to three geological time periods: Silurian, Cretaceous, and Oligo-Miocene. Generally the Silurian system occurs in Saharan sag basins, the Cretaceous-Eocene systems in a continental rift complex of western and equatorial Africa, and the Cenozoic in two deltaic basins. The Upper Paleozoic and Jurassic, so rich in other continents, here play but a very minor part. The paper describes the Silurian system, the Cretaceous-Eocene system, and the Tertiary system.

  11. Carcinogenicity of azo dyes: Acid Black 52 and Yellow 3 in hamsters and rats. Volume 2. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Plankenhorn, L.J.

    1983-09-30

    This document is an appendix to a study concerning the carcinogenicity of the azo dyes acid-black-52 and yellow-3 in male and female hamsters and rats and contains individual histopathology studies of both dyes. Histopathological features were reported in tabular form for the skin, mammary gland, muscle, salivary gland, mandibular lymph node, sciatic nerve, thymus, larynx, thyroid, parathyroid, trachea, bronchus, esophagus, adrenal, stomach, duodenum, jejunem, ileum, cecum, colon, rectum, mesenteric lymph node, lung, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, kidney, heart, urinary bladder, seminal vesicle, prostate, testis, cerebrum, cerebellum, pituitary, sternabrae, femur, bone marrow, and nasal cavity.

  12. Eldercare at Home: Skin Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... body oil, or moisturizer that is high in petroleum (AquaphorTM, EucerinTM). Avoid moisturizers with perfume or alcohol ... or DoveTM. Make sure you rinse well. Use petroleum jelly For problem dry spots, apply petroleum jelly ...

  13. Skin Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures ...

  14. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  15. Bioassay of tetrachlorvinphos for possible carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    1978-01-01

    A bioassay of technical-grade tetrachlorvinphos for possible carcinogenicity was conducted by administering the test chemical in feed to Osborne-Mendel rats and B6C3F1 mice. Groups of 50 rats of each sex were administered tetrachlorvinphos at one of two doses for 80 weeks, then observed for 31 additional weeks. Time-weighted average doses were either 4,250 or 8,500 ppm. Matched controls consisted of groups of 10 untreated rats of each sex; pooled controls, used for statistical evaluation, consisted of the matched controls combined with 45 untreated male and 45 untreated female rats from similar bioassays of four other test chemicals. All surviving rats were killed at 111 weeks. Groups of 50 mice of each sex were administered tetrachlorvinphos at one of two doses, either 8,000 or 16,000 ppm, for 80 weeks, then observed for 12 additional weeks. Matched controls consisted of groups of 10 untreated mice of each sex; pooled controls, used for statistical evaluation, consisted of the matched controls combined with 40 untreated male and 40 untreated female mice from similar bioassays of four other test chemicals. All surviving mice were killed at 90-92 weeks. The mean body weights of the treated rats and mice were generally lower than those of the matched controls; however, the mortality rate was affected adversely by tetrachlorvinphos only in the male rats. Survival of all groups of rats and mice was adequate for meaningful statistical analyses of the incidence of tumors, except for a matched-control group of female rats for which the survival was abnormally low. In rats, C-cell adenoma of the thyroid showed a significant dose-related trend in the females, using pooled controls (controls 1/46, low-dose 2/50, high-dose 7/46, P=0.013), and by direct comparison, an increased incidence in the high-dose group (P=0.027). High incidences of C-cell hyperplasia in treated males and females further indicated a chemical-related effect on proliferative lesions of the thyroid

  16. Capsaicin in hot chili pepper: carcinogen, co-carcinogen or anticarcinogen?

    PubMed

    Surh, Y J; Lee, S S

    1996-03-01

    Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is a major pungent ingredient of the Capsicum fruits such as hot green and red peppers. Besides its use as a food additive in various spicy cuisines, capsaicin is currently utilized for therapeutic purposes to treat various peripheral painful conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and diabetic neuropathy. Considering consumption of capsaicin as a food additive and its current medicinal application in humans, correct evaluation and precise assessment of any harmful effects of this compound are essential from the public health standpoint. Numerous investigations have been conducted to determine the potential mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of capsaicin and chili pepper, but results are discordant. This review briefly examines findings in the literature of studies testing mutagenicity and tumorigenicity of capsaicin and presents a possible mechanistic basis for the dual effects exerted by the compound.

  17. Rapid growth of invasive metastatic melanoma in carcinogen-treated hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-transgenic mice carrying an oncogenic CDK4 mutation.

    PubMed

    Tormo, Damia; Ferrer, Aleix; Gaffal, Evelyn; Wenzel, Jörg; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena; Steitz, Julia; Heukamp, Lukas C; Gütgemann, Ines; Buettner, Reinhard; Malumbres, Marcos; Barbacid, Mariano; Merlino, Glenn; Tüting, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    Currently, novel mouse models of melanoma are being generated that recapitulate the histopathology and molecular pathogenesis observed in human disease. Impaired cell-cycle control, which is a hallmark of both familial and sporadic melanoma, promotes slowly growing carcinogen-induced melanomas in the skin of mice carrying a mutated cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4(R24C)). Deregulated receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, which is another important feature of human melanoma, leads to spontaneous development of metastatic melanoma after a long latency period in mice overexpressing hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF mice). Here we report that treatment with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induced metastatic melanomas in all HGF/SF mice on the C57BL/6 background, which histologically resemble human melanoma. Importantly, mutant CDK4 dramatically increased the number and the growth kinetics of carcinogen-induced primary melanomas in the skin and promoted the growth of spontaneous metastases in lymph nodes and lungs in all HGF/SF mice within the first 3 months of life. Apart from very few skin papillomas, we did not observe tumors of other histology in carcinogen-treated HGF/SF x CDK4(R24C) mice. This new experimental mouse model can now be exploited to study further the biology of melanoma and evaluate new treatment modalities.

  18. Cutaneous skin tag

    MedlinePlus

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  19. 21 CFR 172.884 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 172.884... § 172.884 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely... liquid hydrocarbons derived from petroleum or synthesized from petroleum gases. The additive is...

  20. 21 CFR 178.3650 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 178.3650... Production Aids § 178.3650 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons may... derived from petroleum or synthesized from petroleum gases. The additive is chiefly...

  1. Medium-term bioassays as alternative carcinogenicity test.

    PubMed

    Ito, N; Imaida, K; Tamano, S; Hagiwara, A; Shirai, T

    1998-07-01

    A medium-term liver bioassay system for rapid detection of carcinogenic agents using male F344 rats has been developed, in order to bridge the gap between long-term carcinogenicity tests and short-term screening assays. The system is fundamentally based on the two-stage hypothesis of carcinogenesis: initiation with diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg bw, i.p.) is followed by test chemical administration during the second, in combination with 2/3 partial hepatectomy. It requires only 8 weeks for animal experimental treatment and a further few weeks for quantitative analysis of immunohistochemically-demonstrated glutathione S-transferase placental form positive hepatic foci. A total of 291 chemicals/substances have already been analyzed in this laboratory and the efficacy of the system for hepatocarcinogens has thereby been well established. This bioassay is particularly useful for dose-response and chemical mixture studies, usually requiring large-scale experiments and also for evaluation of chemopreventive agents. Another bioassay, a medium-term multiorgan bioassay system, using 5 different chemical carcinogens, diethylnitrosamine (DEN), N-methylnitrosourea (MNU), N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and 2,2'-dihydroxy-di-n-propylnitrosamine (DHPN), has also been established for rapid detection of not only hepatocarcinogens, but also other organ-target carcinogens. Rats were initially treated with a single i.p. administration of 100 mg/kg DEN, 4 i.p. administrations of 20 mg/kg MNU, 4 s.c. doses of 40 mg/kg DMH for 2 weeks and then 0.1% DHPN for 2 weeks. Test chemicals are administered after the carcinogens exposure. Animals were sacrificed at the end of week 36, and major organs were examined histologically. Carcinogenic activities of test chemicals were compared between the test chemical treated group and carcinogen exposures group (control group). It is increasingly becoming regarded that these bioassays are useful methods and are

  2. World petroleum systems with Jurassic source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Klemme, H.D. )

    1993-11-08

    Fourteen petroleum systems with Upper Jurassic source rocks contain one quarter of the world's discovered oil and gas. Eleven other systems with Lower and Middle Jurassic source rocks presently have a minor but significant amount of discovered oil and gas. The purpose of this article is to review the systems geologically, describe their location in space and time on a continental scale, estimate their relative petroleum system recovery efficiencies, and outline the effect their essential elements and processes have on their petroleum plumbing.

  3. Comparative toxicity and carcinogenicity of soluble and insoluble cobalt compounds.

    PubMed

    Behl, Mamta; Stout, Matthew D; Herbert, Ronald A; Dill, Jeffrey A; Baker, Gregory L; Hayden, Barry K; Roycroft, Joseph H; Bucher, John R; Hooth, Michelle J

    2015-07-03

    Occupational exposure to cobalt is of widespread concern due to its use in a variety of industrial processes and the occurrence of occupational disease. Due to the lack of toxicity and carcinogenicity data following exposure to cobalt, and questions regarding bioavailability following exposure to different forms of cobalt, the NTP conducted two chronic inhalation exposure studies in rats and mice, one on soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate, and a more recent study on insoluble cobalt metal. Herein, we compare and contrast the toxicity profiles following whole-body inhalation exposures to these two forms of cobalt. In general, both forms were genotoxic in the Salmonella T98 strain in the absence of effects on micronuclei. The major sites of toxicity and carcinogenicity in both chronic inhalation studies were the respiratory tract in rats and mice, and the adrenal gland in rats. In addition, there were distinct sites of toxicity and carcinogenicity noted following exposure to cobalt metal. In rats, carcinogenicity was observed in the blood, and pancreas, and toxicity was observed in the testes of rats and mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that both forms of cobalt, soluble and insoluble, appear to be multi-site rodent carcinogens following inhalation exposure.

  4. Carcinogenicity prediction of noncongeneric chemicals by a support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Min; Nie, Xianglei; Yan, Aixia; Yuan, Qipeng

    2013-05-20

    The ability to identify carcinogenic compounds is of fundamental importance to the safe application of chemicals. In this study, we generated an array of in silico models allowing the classification of compounds into carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic agents based on a data set of 852 noncongeneric chemicals collected from the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDBAS). Twenty-four molecular descriptors were selected by Pearson correlation, F-score, and stepwise regression analysis. These descriptors cover a range of physicochemical properties, including electrophilicity, geometry, molecular weight, size, and solubility. The descriptor mutagenic showed the highest correlation coefficient with carcinogenicity. On the basis of these descriptors, a support vector machine-based (SVM) classification model was developed and fine-tuned by a 10-fold cross-validation approach. Both the SVM model (Model A1) and the best model from the 10-fold cross-validation (Model B3) runs gave good results on the test set with prediction accuracy over 80%, sensitivity over 76%, and specificity over 82%. In addition, extended connectivity fingerprints (ECFPs) and the Toxtree software were used to analyze the functional groups and substructures linked to carcinogenicity. It was found that the results of both methods are in good agreement.

  5. The sensitivity of rainbow trout and other fish to carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Bailey, G S; Hendricks, J D; Nixon, J E; Pawlowski, N E

    1984-01-01

    Systematic design of replacement chemicals with reduced toxicities will require knowledge of mechanisms of action of parent compounds, especially in species which occupy the environment of most likely exposure. For aquatic systems, the rainbow trout has proven a valuable model for studying mechanisms of carcinogenicity. By comparison, small aquarium species show great potential as in situ field monitors of aquatic contamination by toxic chemicals but are less developed for mechanism studies. Fish species, especially rainbow trout, have also proven useful alternatives to traditional rodent models for comparative studies on mechanisms of action of nonaquatic carcinogens. These kinds of comparative studies form an essential basis for extrapolation of animal studies to man. Carcinogenicity testing of individual compounds and their replacements can provide only limited information on the expected impact of such chemicals on natural populations, since these populations are unavoidably exposed to potent modulators of the carcinogenic response. Hence any program which aims at redesign of commercial chemicals with reduced toxicities must have as a prior aim the full understanding of the mechanisms of joint carcinogen-inhibitor-promotor interactions. Because of their high sensitivity, low cost per individual, and low background tumor incidences, fish models such as the rainbow trout may be the only vertebrate models in which it is economically practical to initiate such complex studies.

  6. Influence of the carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl on DNA conformation

    SciTech Connect

    Broyde, S.; Hingerty, B.E.; Srinivasan, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    The conformation of the deoxydinucleoside monophosphate dCpdG modified by the carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl has been elucidated by minimized semi-empirical potential energy calculations. The most important conformers relevant to A or B and Z helices are shown, and the structures of carcinogen-modified polymers, obtained from computer-generated models that incorporate the dimer conformations, are presented. Forms with carcinogen-base stacking and with base-base stacking are found, for both A-B type helices and Z-type helices. In random sequence DNA, the most favored state places the carcinogen at the A or B helix exterior, in the large groove, where it causes no distortion. In this position it might escape repair till a round of replication. At the replication fork, where the DNA is unwound, a low energy carcinogen-base stacked state, easily achieved by rotation primarily about the C5'-O5' bond, could occur. A mutagenic outcome resulting from this conformation might be envisioned. 37 references, 8 figures, 1 table.

  7. Petroleum resource potential GIS of northern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinshouer, Douglas W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Wahl, Ronald R.; Hill, Ronald J.; Pribil, Michael J.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; King, J. David; Agena, Warren F.; Taylor, David J.; Amirzada, Abdulla; Selab, Amir Mohammad; Mutteh, Abdul-Salam; Haidari, Ghulam Naqshband; Wardak, Moeengul Gullabudeen

    2006-01-01

    The CD-ROM contains an ESRI ArcReader format GIS project presenting the results of a petroleum resource assessment of Northern Afghanistan, and other data used in the petroleum assessment. Geologic, structural, field, well, political, and other GIS layers covering Afghanistan, Northern Afghanistan and adjacent areas, along with associated geochemical and other data tables pertinent to a petroleum assessment are included. The purpose of this GIS is to provide the basic data layers and tables required to support the petroleum assessment, data for further exploration and development, and an index of known data.

  8. Petroleum geology of the state of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Lingley, William S.; Law, Ben E.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the potential petroleum resources of Washington State as recently summarized in the 1995 U.S. Geological Survey National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources. Eight conventional petroleum plays, three coal-bed gas plays, and two continuous-type gas plays are defined and characterized. Of these plays, the potential for significant petroleum accumulations appears greatest in the Columbia Plateau region of eastern Washington. Potential accumulations in western Washington are smaller but could have local economic significance. The absence of high-quality petroleum source rocks is probably the most important factor limiting development of large accumulations.

  9. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs.

  10. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-22

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  11. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  12. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-16

    During 1992 the Department continued planning activities for the expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels. A draft Environmental Impact Statement for the five candidate sites was completed in October 1992, and a series of public hearings was held during December 1992. Conceptual design engineering activities, life cycle cost estimates and geotechnical studies to support the technical requirements for an Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan Amendment were essentially completed in December 1992. At the end of 1992, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 574.7 million barrels and an additional 1.7 million barrels was in transit to the Reserve. During 1992 approximately 6.2 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Reserve. A Department of Energy Tiger Team Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Assessment was conducted at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve from March 9 through April 10, 1992. In general, the Tiger Team found that Strategic Petroleum Reserve activities do not pose undue environmental, safety or health risks. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve`s Final Corrective Action Plan, prepared in response to the Tiger Team assessment, was submitted for Department approval in December 1992. On November 18, 1992, the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy selected DynMcDennott Petroleum Operations Company to provide management and operating services for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve for a period of 5 years commencing April 1, 1993. DynMcDermott will succeed Boeing Petroleum Services, Inc.

  13. 31 CFR 542.208 - Prohibited importation of petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibited importation of petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. 542.208 Section 542.208 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 542.208 Prohibited importation of petroleum or...

  14. Exposure risk to carcinogenic PAHs in indoor-air during biomass combustion whilst cooking in rural India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhargava, Anuj; Khanna, R. N.; Bhargava, S. K.; Kumar, Sushil

    In India, a vast majority of rural household burns unprocessed biomass, as an energy source, to cook food. The biomass is burnt indoors in conventionally homemade clay-stoves, called 'Chulha', which results in the generation of a variety of airborne products along with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an uncontrolled manner. We report here the concentrations and profile of carcinogenic PAHs, co-sampled with respirable suspended particulate matter, in rural indoors during burning of biomass vis-à-vis liquified petroleum gas as the energy source. There is a limited data on the subject in the literature. The seasonal variation has also been studied. Sampling was done in breathing zone and in surrounding areas concurrent with cooking on chulha. PAHs were extracted in methylene chloride and analyzed over HPLC after column clean up on silica gel. Our study revealed that the concentrations of carcinogenic PAHs were fairly high in breathing zone and in surrounding areas while cooking over chulha in rural India. PAHs concentrations increased substantially during biomass combustion. Concentrations were high during CDC combustion and low during LPG combustion or the non-cooking period. This trend was conserved in both the seasons. Concentrations of total PAHs were greater in winter as compared to summer and greatest in the breathing zone. Di-benz( a,h)anthracene, benzo( k)-fluoranthene and chrysene contributed maximum. Benzo( a)pyrene contributed moderately. Maximum concentrations of indoor air benzo( a)pyrene (>1.5 μg/m 3) were found in breathing zone in winter. The daily exposure to high concentrations of carcinogenic PAHs in indoor air environment while cooking food could be impacting for chronic pulmonary illnesses in rural Indian women.

  15. An Evaluation of the Human Carcinogenic Potential of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This position paper, An Evaluation of the Human Carcinogenic Potential of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether, was developed in support of the EPA's evaluation of a petition from the American Chemistry Council requesting to delist EGBE per the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), Title III, section 112(b)(1). The position paper was a key component of the Agency's recent determination to grant this petition. It will also be used in the Agency's IRIS assessment of ethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE). An NTP (1998; 2000) study has reported some evidence of carcinogenic activity in male B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidence of hemangiosarcomas of the liver, and some evidence of carcinogenic activity in female B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidence of forestomach squamous cell papillomas or carcinomas.

  16. Formaldehyde generators: relationship between stability, lipophilicity and carcinogenic potency.

    PubMed

    Ashby, J; Lefevre, P A

    1982-01-01

    The rate of hydrolysis to formaldehyde of methylenedimorpholine (MDM), hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and dinitrosopentamethylenetetramine (DNPT) have been compared with the enzyme-mediated formation of formaldehyde from hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA). The bio-distribution of [14C]HMPA following nasal instillation in rats has also been studied and compared with that of [14C]methyl methanesulphonate (MMS). These data are used to relate the several carcinogenic/genotoxic properties of the chemicals named above. It is concluded from these data and related considerations that three classes of formaldehyde-generators should be recognized (a) labile agents such as MDM (and formaldehyde) which are likely to be locally active as carcinogens, (b) lipophilic and relatively stable agents such as HMPA which may be both locally active (if bio-accumulated) and systemically active as carcinogens, and (c) agents such as HMT and DNPT, of intermediate stability, which are unlikely to be systemically active and to be of low or zero activity locally.

  17. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has finalized its Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide. This assessment addresses the potential carcinogenicity from long-term inhalation exposure to ethylene oxide. Now final, this assessment updates the carcinogenicity information in EPA’s 1985 Health Assessment Document. EPA’s program and regional offices may use this assessment to inform decisions to protect human health. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release. Consistent with the May 2009 IRIS assessment development process, all written comments on IRIS assessments submitted by other federal agencies and White House Offices are made publicly available. Accordingly, interagency comments and the interagency science consultation materials provided to other agencies, including interagency review drafts of the IRIS Toxicological Review of Ammonia and the charge to external peer reviewers, are posted on this site.

  18. Petroleum characterization by perfluorocarbon tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Senum, G.I.; Fajer, R.W. ); Harris, B.R. Jr. ); DeRose, W.E. ); Ottaviani, W.L. )

    1992-02-01

    Perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs), a class of six compounds, were used to help characterize the Shallow Oil Zone (SOZ) reservoir at the Naval Petroleum Reserve in California (NPRC) at Elk Hills. The SOZ reservoir is undergoing a pilot gas injection program to assess the technical feasibility and economic viability of injecting gas into the SOZ for improved oil recovery. PFTs were utilized in the pilot gas injection to qualitatively assess the extent of the pilot gas injection so as to determine the degree of gas containment within the SOZ reservoir.

  19. Petroleum fingerprinting with organic markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, Frances D.; Lorenson, T.D.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Petroleum fingerprinting is an invaluable tool in forensic geochemistry. This article summarizes applications of fingerprinting in several oil spills and natural oil seepages that we have studied during the last 25 years. It shows how each unique chemical fingerprint can be used to correlate or differentiate oils. Fingerprints can provide information about processes in the environment that impact oils such as weathering and microbial degradation. They can be used to evaluate organic matter that contributed to oils, and classify oils with regard to the geological framework of their source, such as evaluating geological facies, age, lithology, and depositional environment.

  20. Antisera specific for carcinogen-DNA adducts and carcinogen-modified DNA: applications for detection of xenobiotics in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Poirier, M C

    1993-07-01

    The development of immunoassays and immunoaffinity chromatography methods for determination of carcinogen-DNA adducts and carcinogen-modified DNA samples rests upon eliciting and characterizing polyclonal and monoclonal antisera against these haptens. The use of such antisera has widespread application in investigating chronic carcinogen administration in animal models and in monitoring human tissues for evidence of carcinogen exposure. Radioimmunoassays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays developed with carcinogen-DNA adduct antisera are exceedingly sensitive, measuring 1 adduct in 10(8) nucleotides. Not only can DNA damage be quantified directly by immunoassay, but the antisera have also been used to isolate DNA adducts of a particular chemical class by immunoaffinity chromatography before application of more chemically-specific end-points. Both of these methodological approaches have made seminal contributions to the newly-emerging field of molecular epidemiology. This chapter will focus on methods for preparing immunogens, the establishment of immunoassays, characterization of antisera and specific problems encountered with biological samples in addition, the use of immunoaffinity chromatography for preparative concentration of DNA adducts of a particular class will be included.

  1. A call to expand regulation to all carcinogenic fibrous minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, F.; Steele, I.; Ambrosi, J.; Carbone, M.

    2013-05-01

    The regulatory term "asbestos" groups only the six fibrous minerals that were commercially used among approximately 400. The carcinogenicity of these six regulated minerals has been largely demonstrated and is related to fiber structure, fiber length/diameter ratio, and bio-persistence. From a public perception, the generic term "asbestos" refers to the fibrous minerals that cause asbestosis, mesothelioma and other cancers. However, other non-regulated fibrous minerals are potentially as dangerous as the regulatory asbestos because they share similar physical and chemical properties, epidemiological studies have demonstrated their relationship with asbestos-related diseases, and both in vitro and in vivo experiments have established the toxicity of these minerals. For example, the non-regulated asbestiform winchite and richterite minerals that contaminated the vermiculite mined from Libby, Montana, (USA) were associated with mesothelioma, lung cancer and asbestosis observed among the area's residents and miners. Many other examples of non-regulated carcinogenic fibrous minerals include, but are not limited to, antigorite, arfvedsonite, balangeroite, carlosturanite, erionite, fluoro-edenite, hornblende, mordenite, palygorskite, and sepiolite. To propose a regulatory definition that would provide protection from all carcinogenic fibers, we have conducted an interdisciplinary literature review to compare the characteristics of "asbestos" and of non-regulated mineral fibers that relate to carcinogenicity. We specifically studied two non-regulated fibrous minerals that are associated with asbestos-related diseases: the serpentine antigorite and the zeolite erionite. Both examples underscore the problem of regulation based on commercial, rather than scientific principles: 1) the occurrence of fibrous antigorite in materials used to pave roads has been correlated with high mesothelioma rates in New Caledonia. Antigorite was also the cause of asbestosis in Poland, and in

  2. Induction of hepatocellular carcinoma in nonhuman primates by chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, R.H. )

    1989-01-01

    Several compounds were evaluated in nonhuman primates for their potential to induce neoplasms, especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The compounds can be classified into three groups: food contaminants, model rodent carcinogens, and nitrosamines. All three compounds in the food contaminants group, namely, aflatoxin B1, sterigmatocystin, and methylazoxymethanol acetate, induced HCC. None of the model rodent carcinogens tested consistently induced HCC in rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. Three of four nitrosamines evaluated induced HCC in rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. One nitrosamine, diethylnitrosamine, is a predictable and potent inducer of HCC and is useful for establishment of a nonhuman primate model for numerous oncologic studies.

  3. Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic.

    PubMed

    Melamede, Robert

    2005-10-18

    More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke. Cannabis smoke contains cannabinoids whereas tobacco smoke contains nicotine. Available scientific data, that examines the carcinogenic properties of inhaling smoke and its biological consequences, suggests reasons why tobacco smoke, but not cannabis smoke, may result in lung cancer.

  4. Skin Keratins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin. PMID:26795476

  5. Chemically induced skin carcinogenesis: Updates in experimental models (Review)

    PubMed Central

    NEAGU, MONICA; CARUNTU, CONSTANTIN; CONSTANTIN, CAROLINA; BODA, DANIEL; ZURAC, SABINA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2016-01-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting humans worldwide, and its incidence is rapidly increasing. The study of skin carcinogenesis is of major interest for both scientific research and clinical practice and the use of in vivo systems may facilitate the investigation of early alterations in the skin and of the mechanisms involved, and may also lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for skin cancer. This review outlines several aspects regarding the skin toxicity testing domain in mouse models of chemically induced skin carcinogenesis. There are important strain differences in view of the histological type, development and clinical evolution of the skin tumor, differences reported decades ago and confirmed by our hands-on experience. Using mouse models in preclinical testing is important due to the fact that, at the molecular level, common mechanisms with human cutaneous tumorigenesis are depicted. These animal models resemble human skin cancer development, in that genetic changes caused by carcinogens and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and simultaneous inflammation sustained by pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines favor tumor progression. Drugs and environmental conditions can be tested using these animal models. keeping in mind the differences between human and rodent skin physiology. PMID:26986013

  6. Investigation of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    to investigate Non-Petroleum Based Fuels and Lubricants for Advanced CIDI Automobile Engines, in two phases. The project began with a Planning...passenger car engine. Planning was to include defining the research necessary for future transitional non- petroleum fuel components that could also be

  7. Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-02-01

    The petroleum refining industry defined a detailed R&D roadmap, Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry, to identify high-priority areas for technology R&D. Those priorities helped ITP target cost-shared solicitations and guide development of a balanced R&D portfolio to yield useful results in the near, mid, and long-term.

  8. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This publication contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993.

  9. 75 FR 48320 - National Petroleum Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal...

  10. 77 FR 2714 - National Petroleum Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Renewal... that the National Petroleum Council has been renewed for a two-year period, beginning January 12,...

  11. 31 CFR 561.318 - Petroleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Petroleum. 561.318 Section 561.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 561.318 Petroleum. A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural...

  12. Detecting and discriminating petroleum and petroleum products from water on terrestrial backgrounds with hyperspectral remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. Scott

    Petroleum and petroleum product spills are frequent and as both Hurricane Katrina and the Deepwater Horizon accident demonstrated, they can be catastrophic. A prominent portion of the response is mapping the extent to which oil has reached both shoreline and inland areas. Yet, petroleum and water--when present on common substrates such as sand, concrete, and vegetation--are often difficult to distinguish in panchromatic and multispectral imagery. This research demonstrates how hyperspectral remote sensing, also known as imaging spectroscopy, provides petroleum detection and discrimination from water on terrestrial backgrounds. Utilizing spectral libraries, it also performs material identification and successfully discriminates some petroleum products from one another as a means of further classification and mapping spill extent. To achieve these goals, this effort collected spectral signatures of four crude oils and five refined petroleum products on ten common terrestrial substrates and compared them to water on the same backgrounds over a period of 1-90 days, depending on liquid volatility. The result is the first publicly available spectral library for petroleum and petroleum products on terrestrial substrates in the reflective portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (400-2500 nm) for use in petroleum spill detection and response. It also establishes a baseline for the use of imaging spectroscopy as a technique for confident, accurate petroleum detection in the terrestrial environment. Using common material identification algorithms, the spectra were successfully applied to airborne hyperspectral data from the Hurricane Katrina disaster in 2005 as a proof-of-concept for discriminating petroleum from water.

  13. Keratinocyte stem cells and the targets for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashok; Park, Heuijoon; Kangsamaksin, Thaned; Singh, Anupama; Readio, Nyssa; Morris, Rebecca J

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian skin is a complex dynamic organ composed of thin multilayered epidermis and a thick underlying connective tissue layer dermis. The epidermis undergoes continuous renewal throughout life. The stems cells uniquely express particular surface markers utilized for their identification, isolation and localization in specific niches in epidermis as well as hair follicles (HFs). The two stage skin carcinogenesis model involves stepwise accumulation of genetic alterations and ultimately leading to malignancy. Whereas early research on skin carcinogenesis focused on the molecular nature of carcinogens and tumor promoters, more recent studies have focused on the identification of the target cells and tumor promoting cells for both chemical and physical carcinogens and promoters. Recent studies support the hypothesis that keratinocyte stem cells are the targets in skin carcinogenesis. In this review, we discuss briefly the localization of stem cells in the epidermis and HFs, and review the possibility that skin papillomas and carcinomas are derived from stem cells, as well as from other cells in the cutaneous epithelium whose stem cell properties are not well known.

  14. Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase systems in aquatic species: carcinogen metabolism and biomarkers for carcinogen and pollutant exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Stegeman, J J; Lech, J J

    1991-01-01

    High levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) carcinogens commonly occur in aquatic systems where neoplasms arise in fish and other animals. Enzymes that transform PAHs can act in initiating these diseases and can indicate the contamination of fish by carcinogens and other pollutants. Cytochrome P-450 has similar roles in activating PAH carcinogens in fish and mammalian species. PAHs and many chlorinated hydrocarbons, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) induce a form of cytochrome P-450 in fish that is the primary catalyst of PAH metabolism. The induction of this P-450 in fish can accelerate the disposition of hydrocarbons, but can also enhance the formation of carcinogenic derivatives of PAHs. Invertebrates have lower rates of PAH metabolism than fish. These rates are not obviously inducible by exposure to PAHs or PCBs. The lower rates of foreign compound metabolism contribute to higher pollutant residue levels in bivalve mollusks (clams, mussels, etc.) than in fish and may limit the involvement of some procarcinogens (requiring activation) in disease processes in invertebrates. The induction of P-450 forms can indicate the exposure of fish to PAHs, PCBs, and other toxic compounds. This is not restricted to carcinogens. Environmental induction has been detected in fish from contaminated areas by use of catalytic assay, antibodies to fish P-450, and cDNA probes that hybridize with P-450 messenger RNA. Application of these methods can provide sensitive biological monitoring tools that can detect environmental contamination of fish by some carcinogens and tumor promoters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2050047

  15. Paving asphalt products exhibit a lack of carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.

    PubMed

    Goyak, Katy O; McKee, Richard H; Minsavage, Gary D; McGowan, Claude; Daughtrey, Wayne C; Freeman, James J

    2011-10-01

    A paving asphalt and a vacuum residuum (derived from crude oil by atmospheric and subsequent vacuum distillation and used as a blend stock for asphalt) were tested in skin carcinogenesis assays in mice and in optimized Ames assays for mutagenic activity. In the skin cancer tests, each substance was applied twice weekly for 104 weeks to the clipped backs of groups of 50 male C3H mice. Neither the paving asphalt nor the vacuum residuum (30% weight/volume and 75% weight/weight in US Pharmacopeia mineral oil, respectively) produced any tumors. The positive control benzo[a]pyrene (0.05% w/v in toluene) induced tumors in 46 of 50 mice, demonstrating the effectiveness of the test method. Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98 was used in the optimized Ames assay to evaluate mutagenic potential. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) extractions of the substances were not mutagenic when tested up to toxic limits. Thus, under the conditions of these studies, neither the paving asphalt nor the vacuum residuum was carcinogenic or mutagenic.

  16. Skin (Pressure) Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatments and Side Effects Managing Cancer-related Side Effects Skin Problems Pressure Sores A skin or pressure sore ... Content Usage Policy . Skin Problems Dry Skin Itching Skin Color Changes Pressure Sores Scars ... and Paying for Treatment Treatments and Side Effects Survivorship: During and After Treatment Caregivers and Family ...

  17. Structural alerts for estimating the carcinogenicity of pesticides and biocides.

    PubMed

    Devillers, J; Mombelli, E; Samsera, R

    2011-03-01

    More than 20 years ago, Ashby and Tennant showed the interest of structural alerts for the prediction of the carcinogenicity of chemicals. These structural alerts are functional groups or structural features of various sizes that are linked to the level of carcinogenicity of chemicals. Since this pioneering work it has been possible to refine the alerts over time, as more experimental results have become available and additional mechanistic insights have been gained. To date, one of the most advanced lists of structural alerts for evaluating the carcinogenic potential of chemicals is the list proposed by Benigni and Bossa and that is implemented as a rule-based system in Toxtree and in the OECD QSAR Application Toolbox. In order to gain insight into the applicability of this system to the detection of potential carcinogens we screened about 200 pesticides and biocides showing a high structural diversity. Prediction results were compared with experimental data retrieved from an extensive bibliographical review. The prediction correctness was only equal to 60.14%. Attempts were made to analyse the sources of mispredictions.

  18. Carcinogenic effects of ptaquiloside in bracken fern and related compounds

    PubMed Central

    Potter, D M; Baird, M S

    2000-01-01

    Consumption of the bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum by cattle has been shown to induce bladder and intestinal carcinomas in cattle and to cause a number of diseases in other farm animals. An unstable glucoside named ptaquiloside, containing a reactive cyclopropane ring, has been isolated from the fern and its potent carcinogenicity proven. Nineteen of 31 ferns tested by chemotaxonomic methods in Japan have been found to contain potentially carcinogenic ptaquilosides as have Cheilanthes sieberi and Pteridium esculentum. Hydrolysis of ptaquilosides leads to pterosins; under milder conditions a dienone which is believed to be the primary carcinogen is obtained. Hypacrone, a sesquiterpine containing a reactive cyclopropane ring, has been isolated from Hypolepis punctata and its structure proved by synthesis. Illudins, structurally similar to ptaquiloside, have been isolated from the basidiomycete Omphalotus illudens. These give anti-tumour activity and similar reactivity with nucleophiles to ptaquiloside. Compound CC-1065, a highly toxic antibiotic also containing a cyclopropane ring, has been isolated from Streptomyces zelensis. The mechanism of its reactivity with DNA has been compared to that of ptaquiloside and the small structural differences between carcinogenic and anti-tumour activity discussed. Both CC-1065 and adozelesin, a synthetic analogue with anti-tumour activity, have been shown to alkylate the N-3 atom of adenine in a certain sequence of DNA. The reactivity of cysteine with ptaquilosides and illudins is discussed, as is the role of cysteine alkylating agents in apoptosis. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10970694

  19. INSIGHTS INTO THE CARCINOGENIC MODE OF ACTION OF ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    That arsenic can induce cancer in humans has been known since the late 17th century, yet how arsenic induces cancer has been the subject of numerous scientific publications. Various modes of action (MOA) have been proposed for arsenic's carcinogenicity. In this paper we review o...

  20. Simulation Studies Examining Possible Mechanisms of Trichloroethylene Carcinogenicity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    biologically based dose - response (BBDR) models offer possible means of quantifying these risks. BBDR models have been used to evaluate the effects of...is used to fit parameters to simulated data sets assuming different carcinogenic mechanisms and low- dose response for TCE. Monte Carlo simulations

  1. Is There a Safe Level of Exposure to a Carcinogen?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrudey, Steve E.; Krewski, Daniel

    1995-01-01

    Presents an approach to estimating the "safe" levels of low-dose exposure to carcinogens that involves working upward from the smallest conceivable chronic dose instead of extrapolating downward from high exposures. Discusses expert and public opinion and other issues related to quantitative cancer risk assessment. (LZ)

  2. An Alternative to Formaldehyde. Avoiding the Carcinogenic Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ealy, Julie B.

    1991-01-01

    Demonstrations in which glyoxal may be substituted for formaldehyde, a known carcinogen, are presented. An acid-base clock reaction and a copper mirror on the inside of a test tube are described. Directions for the demonstrations and safety precautions are included. (KR)

  3. CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS OF LOW DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carcinogenic Effects of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation

    R Julian Preston, Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

    The form of the dose-response curve for radiation-induced cancers, particu...

  4. Toxicology of engineered nanomaterials - a review of carcinogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Xu, Jiegou; Sakai, Yuta; Futakuchi, Mitsuru; Fukamachi, Katsumi

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology has considerable socioeconomic potential. Benefits afforded by engineered nanoparticles (NP: defined as being less than 100 nm in diameter) are expected to be significant in fields such as plastics, energy, electronics, aerospace and medicine. However, NPs are being introduced into the market without adequate assessment of their potential toxicities. It is urgently important to conduct risk assessment of commercial NPs and establish a framework enabling risk management which is not subordinate to their commercial production. An overview of currently available carcinogenicity risk evaluation results of NP materials raises serious questions as to their safety. NP sized titanium dioxide (nTiO(2)) and carbon black (nCB) are carcinogenic to the lung of female rats, and the tumors preferentially include squamous cell morphology. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) induce mesotheliomas when applied intraperitoneally in rats and mice. Data for Fullerenes are insufficient to evaluate carcinogenic risk. Sub-chronic toxicity data indicate that, in general, NPs form aggregates and agglomerates and cause foreign body reactions at their applied sites with inflammatory cell, including macrophage, infiltration. These findings are similar to the biological effects of asbestos, a potent carcinogen, and indicate that careful assessment of NPs is indispensable.

  5. Lifetime carcinogenicity study of 1- and 2-naphthylamine in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Purchase, I. F.; Kalinowski, A. E.; Ishmael, J.; Wilson, J.; Gore, C. W.; Chart, I. S.

    1981-01-01

    Groups of male and female beagle dogs were given daily doses of 400 mg of various mixtures of naphthylamines for up to 109 months. Survivors were killed at 128 months. A variety of pathological conditions was diagnosed, but the only effect related to treatment was the induction of bladder neoplasms. All dogs which received pure 2-naphthylamine developed transitional-cell carcinomas of the bladder within 34 months. Two of 8 dogs receiving 6% 2-naphthylamine in 1-naphthylamine developed early carcinoma and 2/8 dogs receiving 0.5% 2-naphthylamine in 1-naphthylamine developed haemangioma of the bladder. Some of the dogs receiving 1-naphthylamine (total dose 950 g) and the controls had focal cystitis or hyperplasia, but no neoplasia of the bladder. These results confirm the carcinogenicity of 2-naphthylamine to dogs. No carcinogenic effect of 1-naphthylamine was observed, indicating that it is at least 200 times less potent as a carcinogen than 2-naphthylamine. The incidence of bladder cancer in dogs fed mixtures of both naphthylamines explains why previous experimental and epidemiological studies of impure 1-naphthylamine have revealed carcinogenicity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7326199

  6. Carcinogenicity of Disinfection By-products and Research Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review by S.D. Richardson et al. (Mutat. Res. 636:178, 2007) presents the first analysis of the 30-year literature on the genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and occurrence of 87 disinfection by-products (DBPs) identified in drinking water. Of these, 11 are regulated by the U.S. EP...

  7. Risk-based indicators of Canadians’ exposures to environmental carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tools for estimating population exposures to environmental carcinogens are required to support evidence-based policies to reduce chronic exposures and associated cancers. Our objective was to develop indicators of population exposure to selected environmental carcinogens that can be easily updated over time, and allow comparisons and prioritization between different carcinogens and exposure pathways. Methods We employed a risk assessment-based approach to produce screening-level estimates of lifetime excess cancer risk for selected substances listed as known carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Estimates of lifetime average daily intake were calculated using population characteristics combined with concentrations (circa 2006) in outdoor air, indoor air, dust, drinking water, and food and beverages from existing monitoring databases or comprehensive literature reviews. Intake estimates were then multiplied by cancer potency factors from Health Canada, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment to estimate lifetime excess cancer risks associated with each substance and exposure pathway. Lifetime excess cancer risks in excess of 1 per million people are identified as potential priorities for further attention. Results Based on data representing average conditions circa 2006, a total of 18 carcinogen-exposure pathways had potential lifetime excess cancer risks greater than 1 per million, based on varying data quality. Carcinogens with moderate to high data quality and lifetime excess cancer risk greater than 1 per million included benzene, 1,3-butadiene and radon in outdoor air; benzene and radon in indoor air; and arsenic and hexavalent chromium in drinking water. Important data gaps were identified for asbestos, hexavalent chromium and diesel exhaust in outdoor and indoor air, while little data were available to assess risk for substances in dust, food

  8. Occupational exposure to carcinogens in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, T.; Toikkanen, J.; Pedersen, D.; Young, R.; Ahrens, W.; Boffetta, P.; Hansen, J.; Kromhout, H.; Blasco, J. M.; Mirabelli, D.; de la Orden-River..., V.; Pannett, B.; Plato, N.; Savela, A.; Vincent, R.; Kogevinas, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To construct a computer assisted information system for the estimation of the numbers of workers exposed to established and suspected human carcinogens in the member states of the European Union (EU).
METHODS—A database called CAREX (carcinogen exposure) was designed to provide selected exposure data and documented estimates of the number of workers exposed to carcinogens by country, carcinogen, and industry. CAREX includes data on agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (all agents in groups 1 and 2A as of February 1995, and selected agents in group 2B) and on ionising radiation, displayed across the 55 industrial classes. The 1990-3 occupational exposure was estimated in two phases. Firstly, estimates were generated by the CAREX system on the basis of national labour force data and exposure prevalence estimates from two reference countries (Finland and the United States) which had the most comprehensive data available on exposures to these agents. For selected countries, these estimates were then refined by national experts in view of the perceived exposure patterns in their own countries compared with those of the reference countries.
RESULTS—About 32 million workers (23% of those employed) in the EU were exposed to agents covered by CAREX. At least 22 million workers were exposed to IARC group 1 carcinogens. The exposed workers had altogether 42 million exposures (1.3 mean exposures for each exposed worker). The most common exposures were solar radiation (9.1 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), environmental tobacco smoke (7.5 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), crystalline silica (3.2 million exposed), diesel exhaust (3.0 million), radon (2.7 million), and wood dust (2.6 million).
CONCLUSION—These preliminary estimates indicate that in the early 1990s, a substantial proportion of workers in the EU were exposed to carcinogens

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data on the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1995 with data for March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-16

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary Statistics Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption.

  11. Carcinogenicity of glycidamide in B6C3F1 mice and F344/N rats from a two-year drinking water exposure.

    PubMed

    Beland, Frederick A; Olson, Greg R; Mendoza, Maria C B; Marques, M Matilde; Doerge, Daniel R

    2015-12-01

    Acrylamide is a contaminant in baked and fried starchy foods, roasted coffee, and cigarette smoke. Previously we reported that acrylamide is a multi-organ carcinogen in B6C3F1 mice and F344/N rats, and hypothesized that acrylamide is activated to an ultimate carcinogen through metabolism to the epoxide glycidamide. We have now examined the carcinogenic effects of glycidamide administered at 0, 0.0875, 0.175, 0.35 and 0.70 mM in drinking water to the same strains of rodents for two years. In male and female mice, there were significant increases in tumors of the Harderian gland, lung, forestomach, and skin. Female mice also had an increased incidence of tumors of the mammary gland and ovary. In male and female rats, there were significant increases in thyroid gland and oral cavity neoplasms and mononuclear cell leukemia. Male rats also had increases in tumors of the epididymis/testes and heart, while female rats demonstrated increases in tumors of the mammary gland, clitoral gland, and forestomach. A similar spectrum of tumors was obtained in mice and rats administered acrylamide. These data indicate that, under the conditions of these bioassays, acrylamide is efficiently metabolized to glycidamide and that the carcinogenic activity of acrylamide is due to its conversion into glycidamide.

  12. First report on development of quantitative interspecies structure-carcinogenicity relationship models and exploring discriminatory features for rodent carcinogenicity of diverse organic chemicals using OECD guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kar, Supratik; Roy, Kunal

    2012-04-01

    Different regulatory agencies in food and drug administration and environmental protection worldwide are employing quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models to fill the data gaps related with properties of chemicals affecting the environment and human health. Carcinogenicity is a toxicity endpoint of major concern in recent times. Interspecies toxicity correlations may provide a tool for estimating sensitivity towards toxic chemical exposure with known levels of uncertainty for a diversity of wildlife species. In this background, we have developed quantitative interspecies structure-carcinogenicity correlation models for rat and mouse [rodent species according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines] based on the carcinogenic potential of 166 organic chemicals with wide diversity of molecular structures, spanning a large number of chemical classes and biological mechanisms. All the developed models have been assessed according to the OECD principles for the validation of QSAR models. Consensus predictions for carcinogenicity of the individual compounds are presented here for any one species when the data for the other species are available. Informative illustrations of the contributing structural fragments of chemicals which are responsible for specific carcinogenicity endpoints are identified by the developed models. The models have also been used to predict mouse carcinogenicities of 247 organic chemicals (for which rat carcinogenicities are present) and rat carcinogenicities of 150 chemicals (for which mouse carcinogenicities are present). Discriminatory features for rat and mouse carcinogenicity values have also been explored.

  13. Carcinogenicity of the insulation wools: reassessment of the IARC evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brown, R C; Davis, J M; Douglas, D; Gruber, U F; Hoskins, J A; Ilgren, E B; Johnson, N F; Rossiter, C E; Wagner, J C

    1991-08-01

    In assessing the health evidence concerning man-made mineral fibers, the chemical composition, surface activity, durability, and size of fibers have to be taken into account. Special-purpose fine glass fibers need to be separated from the insulation wools (glass, rock, and slag wool). The epidemiological evidence is sufficient to conclude that there has been no mesothelioma risk to workers producing or using glass wool, rock wool, or slag wool. The epidemiological studies have been large and powerful, and they show no evidence of a cause-effect relationship between lung cancer and exposure to glass wool, rock wool, or slag wool fibers. There is some evidence of a small cancer hazard attached to the manufacturing process in slag wool plants 20 to 50 years ago, when asbestos was used in some products and other carcinogenic substances were present. However, this hazard is not associated with any index of exposure to slag wool itself. Animal inhalation studies of ordinary insulation wools also show that there is no evidence of hazard associated with exposure to these relatively coarse, soluble fibers. The evidence of carcinogenicity is limited to experiments with special-purpose fine durable glass fibers or experimental fibers, and only when these fibers are injected directly into the pleural or peritoneal cavity. Multiple chronic inhalation studies of these same special-purpose fine glass fibers have not produced evidence of carcinogenicity. It is suggested that the present IARC evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of insulation wools should be revised to Category 3: not classifiable as to carcinogenicity to humans.

  14. Lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines.

    PubMed

    Gorlewska-Roberts, Katarzyna M; Teitel, Candee H; Lay, Jackson O; Roberts, Dean W; Kadlubar, Fred F

    2004-12-01

    Lactoperoxidase, an enzyme secreted from the human mammary gland, plays a host defensive role through antimicrobial activity. It has been implicated in mutagenic and carcinogenic activation in the human mammary gland. The potential role of heterocyclic and aromatic amines in the etiology of breast cancer led us to examination of the lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of the most commonly studied arylamine carcinogens: 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP), benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx). In vitro activation was performed with lactoperoxidase (partially purified from bovine milk or human milk) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and calf thymus DNA. Products formed during enzymatic activation were monitored by HPLC with ultraviolet and radiometric detection. Two of these products were characterized as hydrazo and azo derivatives by means of mass spectrometry. The DNA binding level of 3H- and 14C-radiolabeled amines after peroxidase-catalyzed activation was dependent on the hydrogen peroxide concentration, and the highest levels of carcinogen binding to DNA were observed at 100 microM H2O2. Carcinogen activation and the level of binding to DNA were in the order of benzidine > ABP > IQ > MeIQx > PhIP. One of the ABP adducts was identified, and the level at which it is formed was estimated to be six adducts/10(5) nucleotides. The susceptibility of aromatic and heterocyclic amines for lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation and the binding levels of activated products to DNA suggest a potential role of lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of carcinogens in the etiology of breast cancer.

  15. USING PROTEOMICS TO MONITOR PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN HUMAN CELLS EXPOSED TO CARCINOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    People are continuously exposed exogenously to varying amounts of chemicals that have been shown to have carcinogenic properties in experimental systems. It has been estimated that exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens in the environment may contribute significantly to t...

  16. Detection of carcinogens as mutagens in the Salmonella/microsome test: assay of 300 chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    McCann, J; Choi, E; Yamasaki, E; Ames, B N

    1975-01-01

    About 300 carcinogens and non-carcinogens of a wide variety of chemical types have been tested for mutagenicity in the simple Salmonella/microsome test. The test uses bacteria as sensitive indicators for DNA damage, and mammalian liver extracts for metabolic conversion of carcinogens to their active mutagenic forms. Quantitative mutagenicity data from linear dose-response curves are presented: potency varies over a 10(6)-fold range. There is a high correlation between carcinogenicity and mutagenicity: 90% (156/174) of carcinogens are mutagenic in the test and despite the severe limitations inherent in defining non-carcinogenicity, few "non-carcinogens" show any degree of mutagenicity. The results also demonstrate the great utility, and define the limitations, of the test in detecting environmental carcinogens. PMID:1061098

  17. Theoretical and experimental approaches to possible thresholds of response in carcinogenicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The determination and utilization of the actual low dose-response relationship for chemical carcinogens has long interested toxicologists, experimental pathologists, modelers and risk assessors. To date, no unequivocal examples of carcinogenic thresholds in humans are known. Ho...

  18. Drilling and general petroleum engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Forty-nine papers are included in the Drilling and General Petroleum Engineering Volume of the SPE Annual Conference and Exhibition proceedings. The conference was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, September 25-28, 1994. The papers cover such topics as: extended reach well drilling, development of marginal satellite fields, slim hole drilling, pressure loss predictions, models for cuttings transport, ester-based drilling fluid systems, borehole stability, cementing, operations, bit failures, roller core bits, well tracking techniques, nitrogen drilling systems, plug failures, drill bit and drillstring dynamics, slim hole vibrations, reserve estimates, enhanced recovery methods, waste disposal, and engineering salary trends. A separate abstract and indexing was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Petroleum resins and their production

    SciTech Connect

    Luvinh, Q.

    1989-04-25

    A process is described for the production of petroleum resins compatible with base polymers in hot melt formulations and having a softening point of from about 60/sup 0/C. to about 120/sup 0/C. and Gardner color of about 4 or less, comprising copolymerizing using a Friedel-Crafts catalyst. The mixture is substantially free form cyclopentadiene and dicyclopentadiene. This patent also describes a resin consisting essentially of a copolymer containing from 5 to 80 wt. % of units derived from an olefinically unsaturated aromatic compound form 5 to 80 wt. % of units derived from C/sub 5/ olefines or diolefines or C/sub 6/ olefines diolefines or a mixture of C/sub 5/ and C/sub 6/ olefines or diolefines and from 7 to 45 wt. % of units derived from a terpene.

  20. Stages of Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  1. Skin Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  2. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. This type of skin ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  3. Skin Condition Finder

    MedlinePlus

    ... SKIN CONDITIONS HEALTH TOPICS FOR PROFESSIONALS Rash and Skin Condition Finder 1 Select Age Group Infant Child ... Toe Toe Webspace Toe Nail CLOSE About the Skin Condition Finder Have a health question or concern? ...

  4. Skin Complications of IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Resources > Skin Complications of IBD Go Back Skin Complications of IBD Email Print + Share After arthritis, ... about 5% of people with inflammatory bowel disease. SKIN DISORDERS COMMONLY SEEN IN IBD ERHTHEMA NODOSUM The ...

  5. Scalded skin syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Ritter disease; Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSS) ... Scalded skin syndrome (SSS) is caused by infection with certain strains of Staphylococcus bacteria. The bacteria produce a toxin that causes the skin ...

  6. Skin Allergy Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... time. Some common medications that can cause skin allergy include penicillin, sulfa drugs, barbiturates and anticonvulsants just to mention a few. Some of the symptoms from drug allergies might be hives, skin rash, itchy skin or ...

  7. Learning about Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Why Deadly Skin Cancers Spread 2000 News Release Learning About Skin Cancer What are the most common ... skin surface. When a melanoma becomes thick and deep, the disease often spreads to other parts of ...

  8. Evaluation of carcinogenic potential of the herbicide glyphosate, drawing on tumor incidence data from fourteen chronic/carcinogenicity rodent studies.

    PubMed

    Greim, Helmut; Saltmiras, David; Mostert, Volker; Strupp, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Glyphosate, an herbicidal derivative of the amino acid glycine, was introduced to agriculture in the 1970s. Glyphosate targets and blocks a plant metabolic pathway not found in animals, the shikimate pathway, required for the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants. After almost forty years of commercial use, and multiple regulatory approvals including toxicology evaluations, literature reviews, and numerous human health risk assessments, the clear and consistent conclusions are that glyphosate is of low toxicological concern, and no concerns exist with respect to glyphosate use and cancer in humans. This manuscript discusses the basis for these conclusions. Most toxicological studies informing regulatory evaluations are of commercial interest and are proprietary in nature. Given the widespread attention to this molecule, the authors gained access to carcinogenicity data submitted to regulatory agencies and present overviews of each study, followed by a weight of evidence evaluation of tumor incidence data. Fourteen carcinogenicity studies (nine rat and five mouse) are evaluated for their individual reliability, and select neoplasms are identified for further evaluation across the data base. The original tumor incidence data from study reports are presented in the online data supplement. There was no evidence of a carcinogenic effect related to glyphosate treatment. The lack of a plausible mechanism, along with published epidemiology studies, which fail to demonstrate clear, statistically significant, unbiased and non-confounded associations between glyphosate and cancer of any single etiology, and a compelling weight of evidence, support the conclusion that glyphosate does not present concern with respect to carcinogenic potential in humans.

  9. Shikonin Suppresses Skin Carcinogenesis via Inhibiting Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjuan; Zhang, Chunjing; Ren, Amy; Li, Teena; Jin, Rong; Li, Guohong; Gu, Xin; Shi, Runhua; Zhao, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    The M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has been shown to be up-regulated in human skin cancers. To test whether PKM2 may be a target for chemoprevention, shikonin, a natural product from the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon and a specific inhibitor of PKM2, was used in a chemically-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis study. The results revealed that shikonin treatment suppressed skin tumor formation. Morphological examinations and immunohistochemical staining of the skin epidermal tissues suggested that shikonin inhibited cell proliferation without inducing apoptosis. Although shikonin alone suppressed PKM2 activity, it did not suppress tumor promoter-induced PKM2 activation in the skin epidermal tissues at the end of the skin carcinogenesis study. To reveal the potential chemopreventive mechanism of shikonin, an antibody microarray analysis was performed, and the results showed that the transcription factor ATF2 and its downstream target Cdk4 were up-regulated by chemical carcinogen treatment; whereas these up-regulations were suppressed by shikonin. In a promotable skin cell model, the nuclear levels of ATF2 were increased during tumor promotion, whereas this increase was inhibited by shikonin. Furthermore, knockdown of ATF2 decreased the expression levels of Cdk4 and Fra-1 (a key subunit of the activator protein 1. In summary, these results suggest that shikonin, rather than inhibiting PKM2 in vivo, suppresses the ATF2 pathway in skin carcinogenesis.

  10. Process for producing a petroleum wax composition

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a process for producing a wax composition. It comprises: vacuum distilling a petroleum feed to prepare a 650 distillate heavy intermediate petroleum wax, having a melting point range of from about 155{degrees}F. to about 185{degrees}F., subjecting the heavy intermediate petroleum wax to furfural/duosol solvent extraction, dissolving and crystallizing the heavy intermediate petroleum wax from a methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent, dissolving and recrystallizing the heavy intermediate petroleum wax from a methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent, percolating the recrystallized heavy intermediate petroleum wax in the molten state through a clay bed; and blending the recrystallized heavy intermediate petroleum wax from about 50 weight percent to about 90 weight percent with from about 10 weight percent to about 30 weight percent of a polymeric compound selected from the group consisting of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymer, polypropylene and mixtures there of and having a molecular weight of from about 2,000 to about 100,000 and a melt index of from about 1 to about 250{degrees} at 375{degrees}F.

  11. [Effect of carcinogenic nitrogen-containing compounds on cell metabolism].

    PubMed

    Antropov, V I; Samoĭlov, V O; Slepian, É I

    2012-01-01

    The brown frog (Rana temporaria) skin cells respiration, calcium metabolism and glycolysis, the tree frog (Hyla arborea) skin cells respiration and calcium metabolism were studied under short-term (first hours) and long-term (first days) exposure to nitrogenous compounds [N-nitroso-N-methyl urea (NMU) and thiourea (TU)]. The first direct effect of nitrogenous compounds exposure was cell breathing inhibition occurring in Rana temporaria skin cells after 28 days of exposure, and in Hyla arborea skin cells after 8 days of exposure. These changes were precided by decrease of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in Rana temporaria skin cells starting 16 days after NMU and TU introduction. The increase of intracellular calcium level was noted in tree frog skin cells 4-8 days after NMU and TU introduction, in brown frogs skin cells this parameter was unchanged.

  12. Activation of cellular oncogenes by chemical carcinogens in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, R.; Reiss, E.; Roellich, G.; Schiffmann, D. ); Barrett, J.C.; Wiseman, R.W. ); Pechan, R.

    1990-08-01

    Carcinogen-induced point mutations resulting in activation of ras oncogenes have been demonstrated in various experimental systems such as skin carcinogenesis, mammary, and liver carcinogenesis. In many cases, the data support the conclusion that these point mutations are critical changes in the initiation of these tumors. The Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation model system has been widely used to study the multistep process of chemically induced neoplastic transformation. Recent data suggest that activation of the Ha-ras gene via point mutation is one of the crucial events in the transformation of these cells. The authors have now cloned the c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene from SHE cDNA-libraries, and we have performed polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing to analyze tumor cell lines induced by different chemical carcinogens for the presence of point mutations. No changes were detectable at codons 12, 13, 59, 61, and 117 or adjacent regions in tumor cell lines induced by diethylstilbestrol, asbestos, benzo(a)pyrene, trenbolone, or aflatoxin B{sub 1}. Thus, it is not known whether point mutations in the Ha-ras proto-oncogene are essential for the acquisition of the neoplastic phenotype of SHE cells. Activation of other oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes may be responsible for the neoplastic progression of these cells. However, in SHE cells neoplastically transformed by diethylstilbestrol or trenbolone, a significant elevation of the c-Ha-ras expression was observed. Enhanced expression of c-myc was detected in SHE cells transformed by benzo(a)pyrene or trenbolone.

  13. 29 CFR 1990.131 - Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... carcinogens. 1990.131 Section 1990.131 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... POTENTIAL OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS Priority Setting § 1990.131 Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens. The Secretary shall establish two priority lists for regulating...

  14. 29 CFR 1990.131 - Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... carcinogens. 1990.131 Section 1990.131 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... POTENTIAL OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS Priority Setting § 1990.131 Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens. The Secretary shall establish two priority lists for regulating...

  15. 29 CFR 1990.131 - Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carcinogens. 1990.131 Section 1990.131 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... POTENTIAL OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS Priority Setting § 1990.131 Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens. The Secretary shall establish two priority lists for regulating...

  16. 29 CFR 1990.131 - Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... carcinogens. 1990.131 Section 1990.131 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... POTENTIAL OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS Priority Setting § 1990.131 Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens. The Secretary shall establish two priority lists for regulating...

  17. 76 FR 71346 - Public Meeting and Request for Information: Carcinogen and Recommended Exposure Limit (REL...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ...: Carcinogen and Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) Policy Assessment AGENCY: The National Institute for... review its approach to classifying carcinogens and establishing recommended exposure limits (RELs) for... carcinogen policy and the REL policy. NIOSH has also created a new NIOSH Cancer and REL Policy Web Topic...

  18. 78 FR 15020 - Report on Carcinogens Webinar on Pentachlorophenol; Notice of Public Webinar and Registration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Report on Carcinogens Webinar on Pentachlorophenol; Notice....'' The Office of the Report on Carcinogens (ORoC), Division of the NTP (DNTP), National Institute of.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background: The Report on Carcinogens (RoC) is a congressionally mandated,...

  19. 76 FR 67200 - Proposed National Toxicology Program (NTP) Review Process for the Report on Carcinogens: Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... for the Report on Carcinogens: Request for Public Comment and Listening Session AGENCY: Division of... session. SUMMARY: The NTP invites written public comment on the proposed Report on Carcinogens (RoC... comments should be sent to Dr. Ruth Lunn, Director, Office of the Report on Carcinogens, DNTP, NIEHS,...

  20. 78 FR 57868 - Nominations to the Report on Carcinogens; Request for Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Nominations to the Report on Carcinogens; Request for Information SUMMARY: National Toxicology Program (NTP) Office of the Report on Carcinogens (ORoC) requests...'') nominated for possible review for future editions of the Report on Carcinogens (RoC). DATES: The...

  1. 29 CFR 1990.131 - Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carcinogens. 1990.131 Section 1990.131 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... POTENTIAL OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS Priority Setting § 1990.131 Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens. The Secretary shall establish two priority lists for regulating...

  2. An examination of the potential "genotoxic" carcinogenicity of a biopesticide derived from the neem tree.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, H S; Klopman, G

    1995-01-01

    Structural analyses of azadirachtin, a promising biopesticide recently introduced into the United States, indicates that this natural product has the potential for acting as a "genotoxic" carcinogen. In view of the fact that genotoxic carcinogens are regarded as presenting a potential carcinogenic risk to humans, the present finding suggests that the possible metabolism of azadirachtin to DNA-reactive products be evaluated experimentally.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 53 tabs.

  4. Macros help solve common petroleum engineering calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Muchmore, D.

    1995-11-06

    A toolkit consisting of macros provides petroleum engineers an easy method for incorporating petroleum fluid properties into spreadsheets. Published correlations were used to write the macros, defined as Microsoft Excel functions. Engineers can call these functions when constructing spreadsheets and eliminate having to access external sources for many common fluid property correlations. The Excel functions also allow the correlations to be easily incorporated into existing spreadsheets. A collection of spreadsheets is included with the toolkit that use these functions for the solution of common petroleum engineering problems. Functions, terms, spreadsheets are listed in the accompany box. The article also explains how to obtain a diskette containing the macros.

  5. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The ``Petroleum Supply Annual`` (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the PSA. The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  6. Engineering salary trends in the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.C.; Terrant, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    To understand the changes that occur cyclically in engineering manpower supply/demand trends in the petroleum industry, it is desirable to have an awareness of some of the major activities and factors affecting such trends; of starting Petroleum Engineering salaries relating to that background; of the on-going engineering salary status which developed from these activities; and of the large effect that high starting and on-going salaries do have in attracting and retaining engineers within the petroleum industry. It is important to realize that changes in industry trends can be brought about both by economic and political decisions, in both domestic and international activities.

  7. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-16

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

  8. Petroleum Marketing Monthly, January 1991. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  9. Geology for petroleum exploration, drilling and production

    SciTech Connect

    Hyne, N.J.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides a non-technical introduction to the subject of oil. The author guides the readers in logical sequence: How oil and gas form and accumulate; how to explore for oil; and how to drill and complete a well and produce the petroleum. The contents are: The earth's crust; identification of common rocks and minerals; weathering, erosion, and unconformities; deformation; geologic time; sandstone reservoirs; limestone reservoirs; subsurface fluids; sedimentary rock patterns; surface and subsurface maps; ocean environment - plate tectonics; hydrocarbons source rocks, generation, migration and accumulation; well logs, traps; petroleum exploration; drilling a well; completing a well; and petroleum production.

  10. Analysis of soils contaminated with petroleum constituents

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shay, T.A. ); Hoddinott, K. )

    1994-01-01

    This symposium was held in Atlanta, Georgia on June 24, 1993. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for exchange of information on petroleum contaminated soils. When spilled on the ground, petroleum products can cause massive problems in the environment. In this Special Technical Publication (STP), papers were selected in two categories; the analytical procedures for soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and the behavior of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  11. Petroleum and Health Care: Evaluating and Managing Health Care's Vulnerability to Petroleum Supply Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Bednarz, Daniel; Bae, Jaeyong; Pierce, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum is used widely in health care—primarily as a transport fuel and feedstock for pharmaceuticals, plastics, and medical supplies—and few substitutes for it are available. This dependence theoretically makes health care vulnerable to petroleum supply shifts, but this vulnerability has not been empirically assessed. We quantify key aspects of petroleum use in health care and explore historical associations between petroleum supply shocks and health care prices. These analyses confirm that petroleum products are intrinsic to modern health care and that petroleum supply shifts can affect health care prices. In anticipation of future supply contractions lasting longer than previous shifts and potentially disrupting health care delivery, we propose an adaptive management approach and outline its application to the example of emergency medical services. PMID:21778473

  12. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic in...

  13. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum wax is permitted in subchapter B of...

  14. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum...

  15. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178.3720... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum wax...

  16. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is...

  17. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum...

  18. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is...

  19. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is...

  20. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum...