Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin Method for Bending Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, Dawn R.; Raju, Ivatury S.
2002-01-01
Recent literature shows extensive research work on meshless or element-free methods as alternatives to the versatile Finite Element Method. One such meshless method is the Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method. In this report, the method is developed for bending of beams - C1 problems. A generalized moving least squares (GMLS) interpolation is used to construct the trial functions, and spline and power weight functions are used as the test functions. The method is applied to problems for which exact solutions are available to evaluate its effectiveness. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated for problems with load discontinuities and continuous beam problems. A Petrov-Galerkin implementation of the method is shown to greatly reduce computational time and effort and is thus preferable over the previously developed Galerkin approach. The MLPG method for beam problems yields very accurate deflections and slopes and continuous moment and shear forces without the need for elaborate post-processing techniques.
A toolbox for a class of discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin methods using trilinos.
Roberts, Nathaniel David; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Demkowicz, Leszek D.; Ridzal, Denis
2011-09-01
The class of discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin finite element methods (DPG) proposed by L. Demkowicz and J. Gopalakrishnan guarantees the optimality of the solution in an energy norm and produces a symmetric positive definite stiffness matrix, among other desirable properties. In this paper, we describe a toolbox, implemented atop Sandia's Trilinos library, for rapid development of solvers for DPG methods. We use this toolbox to develop solvers for the Poisson and Stokes problems.
Petrov-Galerkin's method hybrid with finite element into the Helmholtz equation solution. Part II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabadan Malda, Itzala; Salazar Cordero, Emigdio; Ortega Herrera, Jose Angel
2002-11-01
This work proposes a hybridization between Petrov-Galerkins numeric method and finite element method (FEM) to resolve Helmholtz equation when dominion is an open or semiopen tube-shaped configuration and with determinate number of holes over cylindrical surface. It's pretended to solve these kind of cavities, thereby it allows us to obtain very important design parameters like: cavity length, quantity, size and distance between toneholes, form and size of mouthpiece or outlet. These parameters are design basis into acoustic and musical instrumentation: baffles outlet pipes, diffusers, silencers, flutes, oboes, saxophones, trumpets, quenas, and many more. In this way it's expected to determine advantages of this numeric method above another using actually.
A Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin Method for Euler-Bernoulli Beam Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raju, I. S.; Phillips, D. R.
2002-01-01
An accurate and yet simple Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) formulation for analyzing beam problems is presented. In the formulation, simple weight functions are chosen as test functions. The use of these functions shows that the weak form can be integrated with conventional Gaussian integration. The MLPG method was evaluated by applying the formulation to a variety of patch test and thin beam problems. The formulation successfully reproduced exact solutions to machine accuracy when test functions with C2 continuity and an appropriate order of basis functions are used.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sladek, J.; Sladek, V.; Zhang, Ch.
2008-02-01
A meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) formulation is presented for analysis of shear deformable shallow shells with orthotropic material properties and continuously varying material properties through the shell thickness. Shear deformation of shells described by the Reissner theory is considered. Analyses of shells under static and dynamic loads are given here. For transient elastodynamic case the Laplace-transform is used to eliminate the time dependence of the field variables. A weak formulation with a unit test function transforms the set of the governing equations into local integral equations on local subdomains in the plane domain of the shell. The meshless approximation based on the Moving Least-Squares (MLS) method is employed for the implementation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, T.; Raju, I. S.
2002-01-01
A coupled finite element (FE) method and meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method for analyzing two-dimensional potential problems is presented in this paper. The analysis domain is subdivided into two regions, a finite element (FE) region and a meshless (MM) region. A single weighted residual form is written for the entire domain. Independent trial and test functions are assumed in the FE and MM regions. A transition region is created between the two regions. The transition region blends the trial and test functions of the FE and MM regions. The trial function blending is achieved using a technique similar to the 'Coons patch' method that is widely used in computer-aided geometric design. The test function blending is achieved by using either FE or MM test functions on the nodes in the transition element. The technique was evaluated by applying the coupled method to two potential problems governed by the Poisson equation. The coupled method passed all the patch test problems and gave accurate solutions for the problems studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Fei; Deng, Weibing; Wu, Haijun
2016-01-01
In this paper, we construct a combined finite element and oversampling multiscale Petrov-Galerkin method (FE-OMsPGM) to solve the multiscale problems which may have singularities in some special portions of the computational domain. For example, in the simulation of subsurface flow, singularities lie in the porous media with channelized features, or in near-well regions since the solution behaves like the Green function. The basic idea of FE-OMsPGM is to utilize the traditional finite element method (FEM) directly on a fine mesh of the problematic part of the domain and using the Petrov-Galerkin version of oversampling multiscale finite element method (OMsPGM) on a coarse mesh of the other part. The transmission condition across the FE-OMsPG interface is treated by the penalty technique. The FE-OMsPGM takes advantages of the FEM and OMsPGM, which uses much less DOFs than the standard FEM and may be more accurate than the OMsPGM for problems with singularities. Although the error analysis is carried out under the assumption that the oscillating coefficients are periodic, our method is not restrict to the periodic case. Numerical examples with periodic and random highly oscillating coefficients, as well as the multiscale problems on the L-shaped domain, and multiscale problems with high contrast channels or well-singularities are presented to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.
Petrov-galerkin finite element method for solving the neutron transport equation
Greenbaum, A.; Ferguson, J.M.
1986-05-01
A finite element using different trial and test spaces in introduced for solving the neutron transport equation in spherical geometry. It is shown that the widely used discrete ordinates method can also be thought of as such a finite element technique, in which integrals appearing in the difference equations are replaced by one-point Gauss quadrature formulas (midpoint rule). Comparison of accuracy between the new method and the discrete ordinates method is discussed, and numerical examples are given to illustrate the greater accuracy of the new technique.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veiskarami, Mehdi; Bahar, Arash; Zandi Lak, Erfan
2015-12-01
Dynamic earth pressure induced by machine foundations on a neighboring retaining wall is analyzed with emphasis on factors which control the intensity and location of the design forces. The meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method is used to analyze the problem for a variety of retaining wall and machine foundation geometries. The soil medium is assumed to be homogeneous and visco-elastic. The machine foundation is idealized as a harmonic sinusoidal dynamic force often encountered in practice. A number of analyses have been made to reveal the effect of the loading frequency, the location and size of the foundation and the soil shear wave velocity on the distribution and magnitude of the dynamic earth pressure. Results indicate that there is a critical frequency and a critical location for which the passive pressure takes the maxima in the entire duration of the dynamic load.
Roberts, Nathan V.; Demkowiz, Leszek; Moser, Robert
2015-11-15
The discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin methodology with optimal test functions (DPG) of Demkowicz and Gopalakrishnan [18, 20] guarantees the optimality of the solution in an energy norm, and provides several features facilitating adaptive schemes. Whereas Bubnov-Galerkin methods use identical trial and test spaces, Petrov-Galerkin methods allow these function spaces to differ. In DPG, test functions are computed on the fly and are chosen to realize the supremum in the inf-sup condition; the method is equivalent to a minimum residual method. For well-posed problems with sufficiently regular solutions, DPG can be shown to converge at optimal rates—the inf-sup constants governing the convergence are mesh-independent, and of the same order as those governing the continuous problem [48]. DPG also provides an accurate mechanism for measuring the error, and this can be used to drive adaptive mesh refinements. We employ DPG to solve the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions, building on previous work on the Stokes equations, and focusing particularly on the usefulness of the approach for automatic adaptivity starting from a coarse mesh. We apply our approach to a manufactured solution due to Kovasznay as well as the lid-driven cavity flow, backward-facing step, and flow past a cylinder problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, Nathan V.; Demkowicz, Leszek; Moser, Robert
2015-11-01
The discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin methodology with optimal test functions (DPG) of Demkowicz and Gopalakrishnan [18,20] guarantees the optimality of the solution in an energy norm, and provides several features facilitating adaptive schemes. Whereas Bubnov-Galerkin methods use identical trial and test spaces, Petrov-Galerkin methods allow these function spaces to differ. In DPG, test functions are computed on the fly and are chosen to realize the supremum in the inf-sup condition; the method is equivalent to a minimum residual method. For well-posed problems with sufficiently regular solutions, DPG can be shown to converge at optimal rates-the inf-sup constants governing the convergence are mesh-independent, and of the same order as those governing the continuous problem [48]. DPG also provides an accurate mechanism for measuring the error, and this can be used to drive adaptive mesh refinements. We employ DPG to solve the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions, building on previous work on the Stokes equations, and focusing particularly on the usefulness of the approach for automatic adaptivity starting from a coarse mesh. We apply our approach to a manufactured solution due to Kovasznay as well as the lid-driven cavity flow, backward-facing step, and flow past a cylinder problems.
Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin Euler-Bernoulli Beam Problems: A Radial Basis Function Approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raju, I. S.; Phillips, D. R.; Krishnamurthy, T.
2003-01-01
A radial basis function implementation of the meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method is presented to study Euler-Bernoulli beam problems. Radial basis functions, rather than generalized moving least squares (GMLS) interpolations, are used to develop the trial functions. This choice yields a computationally simpler method as fewer matrix inversions and multiplications are required than when GMLS interpolations are used. Test functions are chosen as simple weight functions as in the conventional MLPG method. Compactly and noncompactly supported radial basis functions are considered. The non-compactly supported cubic radial basis function is found to perform very well. Results obtained from the radial basis MLPG method are comparable to those obtained using the conventional MLPG method for mixed boundary value problems and problems with discontinuous loading conditions.
Shadid, John Nicolas; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Gunzburger, Max Donald
2003-09-01
Implicit time integration coupled with SUPG discretization in space leads to additional terms that provide consistency and improve the phase accuracy for convection dominated flows. Recently, it has been suggested that for small Courant numbers these terms may dominate the streamline diffusion term, ostensibly causing destabilization of the SUPG method. While consistent with a straightforward finite element stability analysis, this contention is not supported by computational experiments and contradicts earlier Von-Neumann stability analyses of the semidiscrete SUPG equations. This prompts us to re-examine finite element stability of the fully discrete SUPG equations. A careful analysis of the additional terms reveals that, regardless of the time step size, they are always dominated by the consistent mass matrix. Consequently, SUPG cannot be destabilized for small Courant numbers. Numerical results that illustrate our conclusions are reported.
Numerical simulation of fluid-structure interactions with stabilized finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sváček, Petr
2016-03-01
This paper is interested to the interactions of the incompressible flow with a flexibly supported airfoil. The bending and the torsion modes are considered. The problem is mathematically described. The numerical method is based on the finite element method. A combination of the streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin and pressure stabilizing/Petrov-Galerkin method is used for the stabilization of the finite element method. The numerical results for a three-dimensional problem of flow over an airfoil are shown.
A multidimensional finite element method for CFD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pepper, Darrell W.; Humphrey, Joseph W.
1991-01-01
A finite element method is used to solve the equations of motion for 2- and 3-D fluid flow. The time-dependent equations are solved explicitly using quadrilateral (2-D) and hexahedral (3-D) elements, mass lumping, and reduced integration. A Petrov-Galerkin technique is applied to the advection terms. The method requires a minimum of computational storage, executes quickly, and is scalable for execution on computer systems ranging from PCs to supercomputers.
A Local Coordinate Approach in the MLPG Method for Beam Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raju, Ivatury S.; Phillips, Dawn R.
2002-01-01
System matrices for Euler-Bernoulli beam problems for the meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method deteriorate as the number of nodes in the beam models are consistently increased. The reason for this behavior is explained. To overcome this difficulty and improve the accuracy of the solutions, a local coordinate approach for the evaluation of the generalized moving least squares shape functions and their derivatives is proposed. The proposed approach retains the accuracy of the MLPG methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burago, N. G.; Nikitin, I. S.; Yakushev, V. L.
2016-06-01
Techniques that improve the accuracy of numerical solutions and reduce their computational costs are discussed as applied to continuum mechanics problems with complex time-varying geometry. The approach combines shock-capturing computations with the following methods: (1) overlapping meshes for specifying complex geometry; (2) elastic arbitrarily moving adaptive meshes for minimizing the approximation errors near shock waves, boundary layers, contact discontinuities, and moving boundaries; (3) matrix-free implementation of efficient iterative and explicit-implicit finite element schemes; (4) balancing viscosity (version of the stabilized Petrov-Galerkin method); (5) exponential adjustment of physical viscosity coefficients; and (6) stepwise correction of solutions for providing their monotonicity and conservativeness.
Finite volume method for the Black-Scholes equation transformed on finite interval
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valkov, R.
2012-11-01
In this paper, we present a fitted FVM for the degenerate at the two ends parabolic equation, derived from the Black-Scholes equation after a transformation to a finite interval. For the case of European options we describe a fully discretization of the vertical method of lines, where the spatial discretization is formulated as a Petrov-Galerkin FEM. We show that the method is O(h) convergent and monotone. Numerical experiments are presented to verify the theoretical results. Experiments on a power-graded mesh demonstrate higher accuracy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jiang, Bo-Nan
1993-01-01
A comparative description is presented for the least-squares FEM (LSFEM) for 2D steady-state pure convection problems. In addition to exhibiting better control of the streamline derivative than the streamline upwinding Petrov-Galerkin method, numerical convergence rates are obtained which show the LSFEM to be virtually optimal. The LSFEM is used as a framework for an iteratively reweighted LSFEM yielding nonoscillatory and nondiffusive solutions for problems with contact discontinuities; this method is shown to convect contact discontinuities without error when using triangular and bilinear elements.
Advanced numerical methods and software approaches for semiconductor device simulation
CAREY,GRAHAM F.; PARDHANANI,A.L.; BOVA,STEVEN W.
2000-03-23
In this article the authors concisely present several modern strategies that are applicable to drift-dominated carrier transport in higher-order deterministic models such as the drift-diffusion, hydrodynamic, and quantum hydrodynamic systems. The approaches include extensions of upwind and artificial dissipation schemes, generalization of the traditional Scharfetter-Gummel approach, Petrov-Galerkin and streamline-upwind Petrov Galerkin (SUPG), entropy variables, transformations, least-squares mixed methods and other stabilized Galerkin schemes such as Galerkin least squares and discontinuous Galerkin schemes. The treatment is representative rather than an exhaustive review and several schemes are mentioned only briefly with appropriate reference to the literature. Some of the methods have been applied to the semiconductor device problem while others are still in the early stages of development for this class of applications. They have included numerical examples from the recent research tests with some of the methods. A second aspect of the work deals with algorithms that employ unstructured grids in conjunction with adaptive refinement strategies. The full benefits of such approaches have not yet been developed in this application area and they emphasize the need for further work on analysis, data structures and software to support adaptivity. Finally, they briefly consider some aspects of software frameworks. These include dial-an-operator approaches such as that used in the industrial simulator PROPHET, and object-oriented software support such as those in the SANDIA National Laboratory framework SIERRA.
A variational multiscale method for particle-cloud tracking in turbomachinery flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corsini, A.; Rispoli, F.; Sheard, A. G.; Takizawa, K.; Tezduyar, T. E.; Venturini, P.
2014-11-01
We present a computational method for simulation of particle-laden flows in turbomachinery. The method is based on a stabilized finite element fluid mechanics formulation and a finite element particle-cloud tracking method. We focus on induced-draft fans used in process industries to extract exhaust gases in the form of a two-phase fluid with a dispersed solid phase. The particle-laden flow causes material wear on the fan blades, degrading their aerodynamic performance, and therefore accurate simulation of the flow would be essential in reliable computational turbomachinery analysis and design. The turbulent-flow nature of the problem is dealt with a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes model and Streamline-Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin/Pressure-Stabilizing/Petrov-Galerkin stabilization, the particle-cloud trajectories are calculated based on the flow field and closure models for the turbulence-particle interaction, and one-way dependence is assumed between the flow field and particle dynamics. We propose a closure model utilizing the scale separation feature of the variational multiscale method, and compare that to the closure utilizing the eddy viscosity model. We present computations for axial- and centrifugal-fan configurations, and compare the computed data to those obtained from experiments, analytical approaches, and other computational methods.
Iterative and FEM methods to solve the 2-D Radiative Transfer Equation with specular reflexion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Hardy, David; Favennec, Yann; Rousseau, Benoît
2016-01-01
The present paper deals with iterative algorithms coupled with finite element methods (FEM) to solve the Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) within semi-transparent heterogenous materials where specular reflexions occur on their boundaries. As our intention is to use such solution for inversion, the forward model should be solved as fastly as possible. This communication compares, in terms of both accuracy and CPU, the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method with the Streamline Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) method, both being coupled with the Discrete Ordinate Method. Next, several iteratives methods used to accelerate the convergence are compared. These methods are the Gauss-Siedel (GS), the Source-Iteration (SI) and the Successive Over-Relaxation (SOR) methods.
A method for the spatial discretization of parabolic equations in one space variable
Skeel, R.D.; Berzins, M.
1987-02-01
The aim of this paper is to describe and analyze a new spatial discretization method for parabolic equations in one space variable: Ordinary and parabolic partial differential equations in one space variable x often have a singularity due to the use of polar cylindrical or spherical coordinates. The method we propose is a simple piecewise nonlinear Galerkin/Petrov-Galerkin method which is second order accurate in space. (It supersedes the method proposed by Skeel). The case m = 1 involves the use of the logarithm function, which is probably the only accurate way to model the logarithmic singularity present in the solution. A code based on a variant of the proposed method has already been included as part of the SPRINT package of Berzins, Dew, and Furzeland. The method that we propose here will be distributed in the next release of the D03P (parabolic equations) section of the NAG Library. 18 refs.
A Meshless Method Using Radial Basis Functions for Beam Bending Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raju, I. S.; Phillips, D. R.; Krishnamurthy, T.
2004-01-01
A meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method that uses radial basis functions (RBFs) as trial functions in the study of Euler-Bernoulli beam problems is presented. RBFs, rather than generalized moving least squares (GMLS) interpolations, are used to develop the trial functions. This choice yields a computationally simpler method as fewer matrix inversions and multiplications are required than when GMLS interpolations are used. Test functions are chosen as simple weight functions as they are in the conventional MLPG method. Compactly and noncompactly supported RBFs are considered. Noncompactly supported cubic RBFs are found to be preferable. Patch tests, mixed boundary value problems, and problems with complex loading conditions are considered. Results obtained from the radial basis MLPG method are either of comparable or better accuracy than those obtained when using the conventional MLPG method.
A numerical study of the European option by the MLPG method with moving kriging interpolation.
Phaochoo, P; Luadsong, A; Aschariyaphotha, N
2016-01-01
In this paper, the meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method is applied for solving a generalized Black-Scholes equation in financial problems. This equation is a PDE governing the price evolution of a European call or a European put under the Black-Scholes model. The θ-weighted method and MLPG are used for discretizing the governing equation in time variable and option pricing, respectively. We show that the spectral radius of amplification matrix with the discrete operator is less than 1. This ensures that this numerical scheme is stable. Numerical experiments are performed with time varying volatility and the results are compared with the analytical and the numerical results of other methods. PMID:27064892
Projection methods for incompressible flow problems with WENO finite difference schemes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Frutos, Javier; John, Volker; Novo, Julia
2016-03-01
Weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) finite difference schemes have been recommended in a competitive study of discretizations for scalar evolutionary convection-diffusion equations [20]. This paper explores the applicability of these schemes for the simulation of incompressible flows. To this end, WENO schemes are used in several non-incremental and incremental projection methods for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Velocity and pressure are discretized on the same grid. A pressure stabilization Petrov-Galerkin (PSPG) type of stabilization is introduced in the incremental schemes to account for the violation of the discrete inf-sup condition. Algorithmic aspects of the proposed schemes are discussed. The schemes are studied on several examples with different features. It is shown that the WENO finite difference idea can be transferred to the simulation of incompressible flows. Some shortcomings of the methods, which are due to the splitting in projection schemes, become also obvious.
Shadid, J.N.; Tuminaro, R.S.; Walker, H.F.
1997-02-01
The solution of the governing steady transport equations for momentum, heat and mass transfer in flowing fluids can be very difficult. These difficulties arise from the nonlinear, coupled, nonsymmetric nature of the system of algebraic equations that results from spatial discretization of the PDEs. In this manuscript the authors focus on evaluating a proposed nonlinear solution method based on an inexact Newton method with backtracking. In this context they use a particular spatial discretization based on a pressure stabilized Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation of the low Mach number Navier-Stokes equations with heat and mass transport. The discussion considers computational efficiency, robustness and some implementation issues related to the proposed nonlinear solution scheme. Computational results are presented for several challenging CFD benchmark problems as well as two large scale 3D flow simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sátor, Ladislav; Sládek, Vladimír; Sládek, Ján
2014-03-01
A numerical analysis based on the meshless local Petrov- Galerkin (MLPG) method is proposed for a functionally graded material FGM (FGMfunctionally graded material) beam. The planar bending of the beam is considered with a transversal gradation of Young's modulus and a variable depth of the beam. The collocation formulation is constructed from the equilibrium equations for the mechanical fields. Dirac's delta function is employed as a test function in the derivation of a strong formulation. The Moving Least Squares (MLS) approximation technique is applied for an approximation of the spatial variations of all the physical quantities. An investigation of the accuracy, the convergence of the accuracy, the computational efficiency and the effect of the level of the gradation of Young's modulus on the behaviour of coupled mechanical fields is presented in various boundary value problems for a rectangular beam with a functionally graded Young's modulus.
Advanced Numerical Methods and Software Approaches for Semiconductor Device Simulation
Carey, Graham F.; Pardhanani, A. L.; Bova, S. W.
2000-01-01
In this article we concisely present several modern strategies that are applicable to driftdominated carrier transport in higher-order deterministic models such as the driftdiffusion, hydrodynamic, and quantum hydrodynamic systems. The approaches include extensions of “upwind” and artificial dissipation schemes, generalization of the traditional Scharfetter – Gummel approach, Petrov – Galerkin and streamline-upwind Petrov Galerkin (SUPG), “entropy” variables, transformations, least-squares mixed methods and other stabilized Galerkin schemes such as Galerkin least squares and discontinuous Galerkin schemes. The treatment is representative rather than an exhaustive review and several schemes are mentioned only briefly with appropriate reference to the literature. Some of themore » methods have been applied to the semiconductor device problem while others are still in the early stages of development for this class of applications. We have included numerical examples from our recent research tests with some of the methods. A second aspect of the work deals with algorithms that employ unstructured grids in conjunction with adaptive refinement strategies. The full benefits of such approaches have not yet been developed in this application area and we emphasize the need for further work on analysis, data structures and software to support adaptivity. Finally, we briefly consider some aspects of software frameworks. These include dial-an-operator approaches such as that used in the industrial simulator PROPHET, and object-oriented software support such as those in the SANDIA National Laboratory framework SIERRA.« less
A hybrid method for modelling two dimensional non-breaking and breaking waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sriram, V.; Ma, Q. W.; Schlurmann, T.
2014-09-01
This is the first paper to present a hybrid method coupling an Improved Meshless Local Petrov Galerkin method with Rankine source solution (IMLPG_R) based on the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations, with a finite element method (FEM) based on the fully nonlinear potential flow theory (FNPT) in order to efficiently simulate the violent waves and their interaction with marine structures. The two models are strongly coupled in space and time domains using a moving overlapping zone, wherein the information from both the solvers is exchanged. In the time domain, the Runge-Kutta 2nd order method is nested with a predictor-corrector scheme. In the space domain, numerical techniques including ‘Feeding Particles’ and two-layer particle interpolation with relaxation coefficients are introduced to achieve the robust coupling of the two models. The properties and behaviours of the new hybrid model are tested by modelling a regular wave, solitary wave and Cnoidal wave including breaking and overtopping. It is validated by comparing the results of the method with analytical solutions, results from other methods and experimental data. The paper demonstrates that the method can produce satisfactory results but uses much less computational time compared with a method based on the full NS model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kirk, Benjamin S.; Bova, Stephen W.; Bond, Ryan B.
2011-01-01
Presentation topics include background and motivation; physical modeling including governing equations and thermochemistry; finite element formulation; results of inviscid thermal nonequilibrium chemically reacting flow and viscous thermal equilibrium chemical reacting flow; and near-term effort.
An h-adaptive finite element method for turbulent heat transfer
Carriington, David B
2009-01-01
A two-equation turbulence closure model (k-{omega}) using an h-adaptive grid technique and finite element method (FEM) has been developed to simulate low Mach flow and heat transfer. These flows are applicable to many flows in engineering and environmental sciences. Of particular interest in the engineering modeling areas are: combustion, solidification, and heat exchanger design. Flows for indoor air quality modeling and atmospheric pollution transport are typical types of environmental flows modeled with this method. The numerical method is based on a hybrid finite element model using an equal-order projection process. The model includes thermal and species transport, localized mesh refinement (h-adaptive) and Petrov-Galerkin weighting for the stabilizing the advection. This work develops the continuum model of a two-equation turbulence closure method. The fractional step solution method is stated along with the h-adaptive grid method (Carrington and Pepper, 2002). Solutions are presented for 2d flow over a backward-facing step.
Development of MLPG and LBIE Methods for Nonlinear Problems of Fracture
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atluri, Satya N.; Raju, Ivatury S. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The truly meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method holds a great promise in solving boundary value problems, using a local symmetric weak form as a natural approach. In the present paper, in the context of MLPG and the meshless interpolation of a moving least squares (MLS) type, a method which uses primary and secondary nodes in the domain and on the global boundary is introduced, in order to improve the accuracy of solution. The secondary nodes can be placed at any location where one needs to obtain a better resolution. The sub-domains for the shape functions in the MLS approximation are defined only from the primary nodes, and the secondary nodes use the same sub-domains. The shape functions based on the MLS approximation, in an integration domain, have a single type of a rational function, which reduces the difficulty of numerical integration to evaluate the weak form. The present method is very useful in an adaptive calculation, because the secondary nodes can be easily added and/or moved without an additional mesh. The essential boundary conditions can be imposed exactly, and non-convex boundaries can be treated without special techniques. Several numerical examples are presented to illustrate the performance of the present method.
Wang, H.; Man, S.; Ewing, R.E.; Qin, G.; Lyons, S.L.; Al-Lawatia, M.
1999-06-10
Many difficult problems arise in the numerical simulation of fluid flow processes within porous media in petroleum reservoir simulation and in subsurface contaminant transport and remediation. The authors develop a family of Eulerian-Lagrangian localized adjoint methods for the solution of the initial-boundary value problems for first-order advection-reaction equations on general multi-dimensional domains. Different tracking algorithms, including the Euler and Runge-Kutta algorithms, are used. The derived schemes, which are full mass conservative, naturally incorporate inflow boundary conditions into their formulations and do not need any artificial outflow boundary conditions. Moreover, they have regularly structured, well-conditioned, symmetric, and positive-definite coefficient matrices, which can be efficiently solved by the conjugate gradient method in an optimal order number of iterations without any preconditioning needed. Numerical results are presented to compare the performance of the ELLAM schemes with many well studied and widely used methods, including the upwind finite difference method, the Galerkin and the Petrov-Galerkin finite element methods with backward-Euler or Crank-Nicolson temporal discretization, the streamline diffusion finite element methods, the monotonic upstream-centered scheme for conservation laws (MUSCL), and the Minmod scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papadopoulos, Vissarion; Kalogeris, Ioannis
2016-05-01
The present paper proposes a Galerkin finite element projection scheme for the solution of the partial differential equations (pde's) involved in the probability density evolution method, for the linear and nonlinear static analysis of stochastic systems. According to the principle of preservation of probability, the probability density evolution of a stochastic system is expressed by its corresponding Fokker-Planck (FP) stochastic partial differential equation. Direct integration of the FP equation is feasible only for simple systems with a small number of degrees of freedom, due to analytical and/or numerical intractability. However, rewriting the FP equation conditioned to the random event description, a generalized density evolution equation (GDEE) can be obtained, which can be reduced to a one dimensional pde. Two Galerkin finite element method schemes are proposed for the numerical solution of the resulting pde's, namely a time-marching discontinuous Galerkin scheme and the StreamlineUpwind/Petrov Galerkin (SUPG) scheme. In addition, a reformulation of the classical GDEE is proposed, which implements the principle of probability preservation in space instead of time, making this approach suitable for the stochastic analysis of finite element systems. The advantages of the FE Galerkin methods and in particular the SUPG over finite difference schemes, like the modified Lax-Wendroff, which is the most frequently used method for the solution of the GDEE, are illustrated with numerical examples and explored further.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enjilela, Vali; Salimi, Davood; Tavasoli, Ali; Lotfi, Mohsen
2016-02-01
In the present work, the meshless local Petrov-Galerkin vorticity-stream function (MLPG-VF) method is extended to solve two-dimensional laminar fluid flow and heat transfer equations for high Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers. The characteristic-based split (CBS) scheme which uses unity test function is employed for discretization, and the moving least square (MLS) method is used for interpolation of the field variables. Four test cases are considered to evaluate the present algorithm, namely lid-driven cavity flow with Reynolds numbers up to and including 104, flow over a backward-facing step at Reynolds number of 800, natural convection in a square cavity for Rayleigh numbers up to and including 108, and natural convection in a concentric square outer cylinder and circular inner cylinder annulus for Rayleigh numbers up to and including 107. In each case, the result obtained using the proposed algorithm is either compared with the results from the literatures or with those obtained using conventional numerical techniques. The present algorithm shows stable results at lower or equal computational cost compared to the other upwinding schemes usually employed in the MLPG method. Close agreements between the compared results as well as higher accuracy of the proposed method show the ability of this stabilized algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacKinnon, Robert J.; Carey, Graham F.
2003-01-01
A new class of positivity-preserving, flux-limited finite-difference and Petrov-Galerkin (PG) finite-element methods are devised for reactive transport problems.The methods are similar to classical TVD flux-limited schemes with the main difference being that the flux-limiter constraint is designed to preserve positivity for problems involving diffusion and reaction. In the finite-element formulation, we also consider the effect of numerical quadrature in the lumped and consistent mass matrix forms on the positivity-preserving property. Analysis of the latter scheme shows that positivity-preserving solutions of the resulting difference equations can only be guaranteed if the flux-limited scheme is both implicit and satisfies an additional lower-bound condition on time-step size. We show that this condition also applies to standard Galerkin linear finite-element approximations to the linear diffusion equation. Numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the behavior of the methods and confirm the theoretical conditions on time-step size, mesh spacing, and flux limiting for transport problems with and without nonlinear reaction.
A hybrid incremental projection method for thermal-hydraulics applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christon, Mark A.; Bakosi, Jozsef; Nadiga, Balasubramanya T.; Berndt, Markus; Francois, Marianne M.; Stagg, Alan K.; Xia, Yidong; Luo, Hong
2016-07-01
A new second-order accurate, hybrid, incremental projection method for time-dependent incompressible viscous flow is introduced in this paper. The hybrid finite-element/finite-volume discretization circumvents the well-known Ladyzhenskaya-Babuška-Brezzi conditions for stability, and does not require special treatment to filter pressure modes by either Rhie-Chow interpolation or by using a Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation. The use of a co-velocity with a high-resolution advection method and a linearly consistent edge-based treatment of viscous/diffusive terms yields a robust algorithm for a broad spectrum of incompressible flows. The high-resolution advection method is shown to deliver second-order spatial convergence on mixed element topology meshes, and the implicit advective treatment significantly increases the stable time-step size. The algorithm is robust and extensible, permitting the incorporation of features such as porous media flow, RANS and LES turbulence models, and semi-/fully-implicit time stepping. A series of verification and validation problems are used to illustrate the convergence properties of the algorithm. The temporal stability properties are demonstrated on a range of problems with 2 ≤ CFL ≤ 100. The new flow solver is built using the Hydra multiphysics toolkit. The Hydra toolkit is written in C++ and provides a rich suite of extensible and fully-parallel components that permit rapid application development, supports multiple discretization techniques, provides I/O interfaces, dynamic run-time load balancing and data migration, and interfaces to scalable popular linear solvers, e.g., in open-source packages such as HYPRE, PETSc, and Trilinos.
Mechanics of cantilever beam: Implementation and comparison of FEM and MLPG approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trobec, Roman
2016-06-01
Two weak form solution approaches for partial differential equations, the well known meshbased finite element method and the newer meshless local Petrov Galerkin method are described and compared on a standard test case - mechanics of cantilever beam. The implementation, solution accuracy and calculation complexity are addressed for both approaches. We found out that FEM is superior in most standard criteria, but MLPG has some advantages because of its flexibility that results from its general formulation.
Lee, Barry
2010-05-01
This paper presents a new multigrid method applied to the most common Sn discretizations (Petrov-Galerkin, diamond-differenced, corner-balanced, and discontinuous Galerkin) of the mono-energetic Boltzmann transport equation in the optically thick and thin regimes, and with strong anisotropic scattering. Unlike methods that use scalar DSA diffusion preconditioners for the source iteration, this multigrid method is applied directly to an integral equation for the scalar flux. Thus, unlike the former methods that apply a multigrid strategy to the scalar DSA diffusion operator, this method applies a multigrid strategy to the integral source iteration operator, which is an operator for 5 independent variables in spatial 3-d (3 in space and 2 in angle) and 4 independent variables in spatial 2-d (2 in space and 2 in angle). The core smoother of this multigrid method involves applications of the integral operator. Since the kernel of this integral operator involves the transport sweeps, applying this integral operator requires a transport sweep (an inversion of an upper triagular matrix) for each of the angles used. As the equation is in 5-space or 4-space, the multigrid approach in this paper coarsens in both angle and space, effecting efficient applications of the coarse integral operators. Although each V-cycle of this method is more expensive than a V-cycle for the DSA preconditioner, since the DSA equation does not have angular dependence, the overall computational efficiency is about the same for problems where DSA preconditioning {\\it is} effective. This new method also appears to be more robust over all parameter regimes than DSA approaches. Moreover, this new method is applicable to a variety of Sn spatial discretizations, to problems involving a combination of optically thick and thin regimes, and more importantly, to problems with anisotropic scattering cross-sections, all of which DSA approaches perform poorly or not applicable at all. This multigrid approach
Quadratic Finite Element Method for 1D Deterministic Transport
Tolar, Jr., D R; Ferguson, J M
2004-01-06
In the discrete ordinates, or SN, numerical solution of the transport equation, both the spatial ({und r}) and angular ({und {Omega}}) dependences on the angular flux {psi}{und r},{und {Omega}}are modeled discretely. While significant effort has been devoted toward improving the spatial discretization of the angular flux, we focus on improving the angular discretization of {psi}{und r},{und {Omega}}. Specifically, we employ a Petrov-Galerkin quadratic finite element approximation for the differencing of the angular variable ({mu}) in developing the one-dimensional (1D) spherical geometry S{sub N} equations. We develop an algorithm that shows faster convergence with angular resolution than conventional S{sub N} algorithms.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vemaganti, Gururaja R.; Wieting, Allan R.
1990-01-01
A higher-order streamline upwinding Petrov-Galerkin finite element method is employed for high speed viscous flow analysis using structured and unstructured meshes. For a Mach 8.03 shock interference problem, successive mesh adaptation was performed using an adaptive remeshing method. Results from the finite element algorithm compare well with both experimental data and results from an upwind cell-centered method. Finite element results for a Mach 14.1 flow over a 24 degree compression corner compare well with experimental data and two other numerical algorithms for both structured and unstructured meshes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cochran, Robert James
behavior of the solutions. It is shown that the Streamline-Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) formulation provides stable solutions for the advection diffusion equation with biquadratic elements. However, when coupled with the Newton-Raphson linearization method, convergence behavior is reduced to less than first order, leading to unattainable computer time requirements. The high Reynolds number form of the k-epsilon and k-omega turbulence models are applied to flat channel and backward-facing step flows using a wall function element. This biquadratic element has continuous law-of-the-wall shape functions normal to the wall. It is shown that the k-epsilon and k-omega models work well for the flat channel flow. The k-epsilon model gave acceptable results for the backward-facing step flow, while the k-omega model gave erroneous results.
Linearized pipe flow to Reynolds number 10 7
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meseguer, Á.; Trefethen, L. N.
2003-03-01
A Fourier-Chebyshev Petrov-Galerkin spectral method is described for high-accuracy computation of linearized dynamics for flow in an infinite circular pipe. Our code is unusual in being based on solenoidal velocity variables and in being written in MATLAB. Systematic studies are presented of the dependence of eigenvalues, transient growth factors, and other quantities on the axial and azimuthal wave numbers and the Reynolds number R for R ranging from 10 2 to the idealized (physically unrealizable) value 10 7. Implications for transition to turbulence are considered in the light of recent theoretical results of S.J. Chapman.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Hardy, D.; Favennec, Y.; Rousseau, B.
2016-08-01
The 2D radiative transfer equation coupled with specular reflection boundary conditions is solved using finite element schemes. Both Discontinuous Galerkin and Streamline-Upwind Petrov-Galerkin variational formulations are fully developed. These two schemes are validated step-by-step for all involved operators (transport, scattering, reflection) using analytical formulations. Numerical comparisons of the two schemes, in terms of convergence rate, reveal that the quadratic SUPG scheme proves efficient for solving such problems. This comparison constitutes the main issue of the paper. Moreover, the solution process is accelerated using block SOR-type iterative methods, for which the determination of the optimal parameter is found in a very cheap way.
Numerical simulation of fluid flow around a scramaccelerator projectile
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pepper, Darrell W.; Humphrey, Joseph W.; Sobota, Thomas H.
1991-01-01
Numerical simulations of the fluid motion and temperature distribution around a 'scramaccelerator' projectile are obtained for Mach numbers in the 5-10 range. A finite element method is used to solve the equations of motion for inviscid and viscous two-dimensional or axisymmetric compressible flow. The time-dependent equations are solved explicitly, using bilinear isoparametric quadrilateral elements, mass lumping, and a shock-capturing Petrov-Galerkin formulation. Computed results indicate that maintaining on-design performance for controlling and stabilizing oblique detonation waves is critically dependent on projectile shape and Mach number.
Supercomputer implementation of finite element algorithms for high speed compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thornton, E. A.; Ramakrishnan, R.
1986-01-01
Prediction of compressible flow phenomena using the finite element method is of recent origin and considerable interest. Two shock capturing finite element formulations for high speed compressible flows are described. A Taylor-Galerkin formulation uses a Taylor series expansion in time coupled with a Galerkin weighted residual statement. The Taylor-Galerkin algorithms use explicit artificial dissipation, and the performance of three dissipation models are compared. A Petrov-Galerkin algorithm has as its basis the concepts of streamline upwinding. Vectorization strategies are developed to implement the finite element formulations on the NASA Langley VPS-32. The vectorization scheme results in finite element programs that use vectors of length of the order of the number of nodes or elements. The use of the vectorization procedure speeds up processing rates by over two orders of magnitude. The Taylor-Galerkin and Petrov-Galerkin algorithms are evaluated for 2D inviscid flows on criteria such as solution accuracy, shock resolution, computational speed and storage requirements. The convergence rates for both algorithms are enhanced by local time-stepping schemes. Extension of the vectorization procedure for predicting 2D viscous and 3D inviscid flows are demonstrated. Conclusions are drawn regarding the applicability of the finite element procedures for realistic problems that require hundreds of thousands of nodes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corsini, A.; Rispoli, F.; Sheard, A. G.; Tezduyar, T. E.
2012-12-01
The paper illustrates how a computational fluid mechanic technique, based on stabilized finite element formulations, can be used in analysis of noise reduction devices in axial fans. Among the noise control alternatives, the study focuses on the use of end-plates fitted at the blade tips to control the leakage flow and the related aeroacoustic sources. The end-plate shape is configured to govern the momentum transfer to the swirling flow at the blade tip. This flow control mechanism has been found to have a positive link to the fan aeroacoustics. The complex physics of the swirling flow at the tip, developing under the influence of the end-plate, is governed by the rolling up of the jet-like leakage flow. The RANS modelling used in the computations is based on the streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin and pressure-stabilizing/Petrov-Galerkin methods, supplemented with the DRDJ stabilization. Judicious determination of the stabilization parameters involved is also a part of our computational technique and is described for each component of the stabilized formulation. We describe the flow physics underlying the design of the noise control device and illustrate the aerodynamic performance. Then we investigate the numerical performance of the formulation by analysing the inner workings of the stabilization operators and of their interaction with the turbulence model.
POD/DEIM reduced-order strategies for efficient four dimensional variational data assimilation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ştefănescu, R.; Sandu, A.; Navon, I. M.
2015-08-01
This work studies reduced order modeling (ROM) approaches to speed up the solution of variational data assimilation problems with large scale nonlinear dynamical models. It is shown that a key requirement for a successful reduced order solution is that reduced order Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions accurately represent their full order counterparts. In particular, accurate reduced order approximations are needed for the forward and adjoint dynamical models, as well as for the reduced gradient. New strategies to construct reduced order based are developed for proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) ROM data assimilation using both Galerkin and Petrov-Galerkin projections. For the first time POD, tensorial POD, and discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM) are employed to develop reduced data assimilation systems for a geophysical flow model, namely, the two dimensional shallow water equations. Numerical experiments confirm the theoretical framework for Galerkin projection. In the case of Petrov-Galerkin projection, stabilization strategies must be considered for the reduced order models. The new reduced order shallow water data assimilation system provides analyses similar to those produced by the full resolution data assimilation system in one tenth of the computational time.
Numerically Tracking Contact Discontinuities with an Introduction for GPU Programming
Davis, Sean L
2012-08-17
We review some of the classic numerical techniques used to analyze contact discontinuities and compare their effectiveness. Several finite difference methods (the Lax-Wendroff method, a Multidimensional Positive Definite Advection Transport Algorithm (MPDATA) method and a Monotone Upstream Scheme for Conservation Laws (MUSCL) scheme with an Artificial Compression Method (ACM)) as well as the finite element Streamlined Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) method were considered. These methods were applied to solve the 2D advection equation. Based on our results we concluded that the MUSCL scheme produces the sharpest interfaces but can inappropriately steepen the solution. The SUPG method seems to represent a good balance between stability and interface sharpness without any inappropriate steepening. However, for solutions with discontinuities, the MUSCL scheme is superior. In addition, a preliminary implementation in a GPU program is discussed.
A DRD finite element formulation for computing turbulent reacting flows in gas turbine combustors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corsini, A.; Iossa, C.; Rispoli, F.; Tezduyar, T. E.
2009-11-01
An effective multiscale treatment of turbulent reacting flows is presented with the use of a stabilized finite element formulation. The method proposed is developed based on the streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) formulation, and includes discontinuity capturing in the form of a new generation “DRD” method, namely the “DRDJ” technique. The stabilized formulation is applied to finite-rate chemistry modelling based on mixture-fraction approaches with the so-called presumed-PDF technique. The turbulent combustion process is simulated for an aero-engine combustor configuration of RQL concept in non-premixed flame regime. The comparative analysis of the temperature and velocity fields demonstrate that the proposed SUPG+DRDJ formulation outperforms the stand-alone SUPG method. The improved accuracy is demonstrated in terms of the combustor overall performance, and the mechanisms involved in the distribution of the numerical diffusivity are also discussed.
Turbulent combustion analysis with various probability density functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Yongmo; Chung, T. J.
A finite element method for the computation of confined, axisymmetric, turbulent diffusion flames is developed. This algorithm adopts the coupled velocity-pressure formulation to improve the covergence rate in variable-viscosity/variable-density flows. In order to minimize the numerical diffusion, the streamline upwind/Petrov-Galerkin formulation is employed. Turbulence is represented by the k-epsilon model, and the combustion process involves an irreversible one-step reaction at an infinite rate. The mean mixture properties were obtained by three methods based on the diffusion flame concept; without using a pdf, with a double-delta pdf, and with a beta pdf. A comparison is made between the combustion models with and without the pdf application, and the effect of turbulence on combustion are discussed. The numerical results are compared with available experimental data.
Introduction to COFFE: The Next-Generation HPCMP CREATE-AV CFD Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glasby, Ryan S.; Erwin, J. Taylor; Stefanski, Douglas L.; Allmaras, Steven R.; Galbraith, Marshall C.; Anderson, W. Kyle; Nichols, Robert H.
2016-01-01
HPCMP CREATE-AV Conservative Field Finite Element (COFFE) is a modular, extensible, robust numerical solver for the Navier-Stokes equations that invokes modularity and extensibility from its first principles. COFFE implores a flexible, class-based hierarchy that provides a modular approach consisting of discretization, physics, parallelization, and linear algebra components. These components are developed with modern software engineering principles to ensure ease of uptake from a user's or developer's perspective. The Streamwise Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SU/PG) method is utilized to discretize the compressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations tightly coupled with a variety of turbulence models. The mathematics and the philosophy of the methodology that makes up COFFE are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adornato, Peter M.; Brown, Robert A.
1987-01-01
A Petrov-Galerkin/finite-element method is used to analyze the effect of furnace configuration and ampoule design on the temperature field, the convection in the melt, the shape of the melt-solid interface, and the segregation of solute in the crystal, in the directional solidification of several dilute and nondilute binary semiconductor alloys. The vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger system leads to a two-cell flow structure, and the constant gradient furnace has only a single cell near the interface. Radial temperature gradients interact with the solute field to cause the previously predicted sideways diffusive instability, and addition of a solute that is less dense than the bulk melt and that is incorporated upon solidification decreases the intensity of the flow near the interface by increasing the melt density there. The present results have application to understanding of the effects on solute segregation of microgavity solidification and of applied magnetic fields.
A Hybrid URANS/LES Approach Used for Simulations of Turbulent Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fraňa, Karel; Stiller, Jörg
A hybrid model based on the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes approach represented by the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras model and the Large Eddy Simulation called Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) was applied for turbulent flow simulations. This turbulent approach was implemented into the flow solver based on the Finite-Element Method with pressure stabilized and streamlines upwind Petrov-Galerkin stabilization techniques. The effectiveness and robustness of this updated solver is successfully demonstrated at benchmark calculation represented by an unsteady turbulent flow past a cylinder at Reynolds number 3900. Results such as velocity fields and the flow periodicity, Reynolds stress tensor and eddy viscosity and pressure coefficient distributions are discussed and relatively good agreement was found to direct numerical simulations and experiments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glaisner, F.; Tezduyar, T. E.
1987-01-01
Finite element procedures for the Navier-Stokes equations in the primitive variable formulation and the vorticity stream-function formulation have been implemented. For both formulations, streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin techniques are used for the discretization of the transport equations. The main problem associated with the vorticity stream-function formulation is the lack of boundary conditions for vorticity at solid surfaces. Here an implicit treatment of the vorticity at no-slip boundaries is incorporated in a predictor-multicorrector time integration scheme. For the primitive variable formulation, mixed finite-element approximations are used. A nine-node element and a four-node + bubble element have been implemented. The latter is shown to exhibit a checkerboard pressure mode and a numerical treatment for this spurious pressure mode is proposed. The two methods are compared from the points of view of simulating internal and external flows and the possibilities of extensions to three dimensions.
Vibration, buckling and impact of carbon nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pentaras, Demetris
Natural frequencies of the double and triple-walled carbon nanotubes are determined exactly and approximately for both types. Approximate solutions are found by using Bubnov-Galerkin and Petrov-Galerkin methods. For the first time explicit expressions are obtained for the natural frequencies of double and triple-walled carbon nanotubes for different combinations of boundary conditions. Comparison of the results with recent studies shows that the above methods constitute quick and effective alternative techniques to exact solution for studying the vibration properties of carbon nanotubes. The natural frequencies of the clamped-clamped double-walled carbon nanotubes are obtained; exact solution is provided and compared with the solution reported in the literature. In contrast to earlier investigation, an analytical criterion is derived to establish the behavior of the roots of the characteristic equation. Approximate Bubnov-Galerkin solution is also obtained to compare natural frequencies at the lower end of the spectrum. Simplified version of the Bresse-Timoshenko theory that incorporates the shear deformation and the rotary inertia is proposed for free vibration study of double-walled carbon nanotubes. It is demonstrated that the suggested set yields extremely accurate results for the lower spectrum of double-walled carbon nanotube. The natural frequencies of double-walled carbon nanotubes based on simplified versions of Donnell shell theory are also obtained. The buckling behavior of the double-walled carbon nanotubes under various boundary conditions is studied. First, the case of the simply supported double-walled carbon nanotubes at both ends is considered which is amenable to exact solution. Then, approximate methods of Bubnov-Galerkin and Petrov-Galerkin are utilized to check the efficacy of these approximations for the simply supported double-walled carbon nanotubes. Once the extreme accuracy is demonstrated for simply supported conditions, the approximate
Finite element analysis of flowfield in the single hole film cooling technique.
Bazdidi-Tehrani, F; Mahmoodi, A A
2001-05-01
Film cooling is currently used in gas turbine hot sections, such as the combustor wall and the turbine blades, to prevent those sections from failing at elevated temperatures. In the single hole film cooling method, coolant air is injected from a hole into the mainstream and thus the flow is naturally three dimensional. In this paper, the Navier-Stokes and the energy equations are solved on a flat plate by the Finite Element Method (FEM) using brick elements. Algebraic equations are obtained by use of the Petrov-Galerkin method. The pressure term is removed from the momentum equations, by employing the Penalty method. The governing equations are transient and the flow is incompressible and turbulent. The model of turbulence in the near wall region is the wall function method, and in the fully turbulent region is the k-epsilon model. The system of the algebraic equations are solved by the Frontal method. The coolant injection angle and the blowing rate are among the parameters which are studied. In order to examine the present computer code, the results are compared with the Blasius (exact) solution and also with the empirical 1/7th power-law and good agreement is shown. Also, the optimum cooling performance is shown to be at 35 degree angle of coolant injection and the optimum blowing rate is 0.5. The film cooling effectiveness data, at the optimum conditions, is directly compared with the experimental results of Goldstein et al. and good agreement is demonstrated. PMID:11460653
Dynamic stall simulation including turbulence modeling
Allet, A.; Halle, S.; Paraschivoiu, I.
1995-09-01
The objective of this study is to investigate the two-dimensional unsteady flow around an airfoil undergoing a Darrieus motion in dynamic stall conditions. For this purpose, a numerical solver based on the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations expressed in a streamfunction-vorticity formulation in a non-inertial frame of reference was developed. The governing equations are solved by the streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin finite element method (FEM). Temporal discretization is achieved by second-order-accurate finite differences. The resulting global matrix system is linearized by the Newton method and solved by the generalized minimum residual method (GMRES) with an incomplete triangular factorization preconditioning (ILU). Turbulence effects are introduced in the solver by an eddy viscosity model. The investigation centers on an evaluation of the possibilities of several turbulence models, including the algebraic Cebeci-Smith model (CSM) and the nonequilibrium Johnson-King model (JKM). In an effort to predict dynamic stall features on rotating airfoils, first the authors present some testing results concerning the performance of both turbulence models for the flat plate case. Then, computed flow structure together with aerodynamic coefficients for a NACA 0015 airfoil in Darrieus motion under stall conditions are presented.
Oran, Omer Faruk; Ider, Yusuf Ziya
2012-08-21
Most algorithms for magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) concentrate on reconstructing the internal conductivity distribution of a conductive object from the Laplacian of only one component of the magnetic flux density (∇²B(z)) generated by the internal current distribution. In this study, a new algorithm is proposed to solve this ∇²B(z)-based MREIT problem which is mathematically formulated as the steady-state scalar pure convection equation. Numerical methods developed for the solution of the more general convection-diffusion equation are utilized. It is known that the solution of the pure convection equation is numerically unstable if sharp variations of the field variable (in this case conductivity) exist or if there are inconsistent boundary conditions. Various stabilization techniques, based on introducing artificial diffusion, are developed to handle such cases and in this study the streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) stabilization method is incorporated into the Galerkin weighted residual finite element method (FEM) to numerically solve the MREIT problem. The proposed algorithm is tested with simulated and also experimental data from phantoms. Successful conductivity reconstructions are obtained by solving the related convection equation using the Galerkin weighted residual FEM when there are no sharp variations in the actual conductivity distribution. However, when there is noise in the magnetic flux density data or when there are sharp variations in conductivity, it is found that SUPG stabilization is beneficial. PMID:22837046
Navier-Stokes simulation of the flow around an airfoil in Darrieus motion
Tchon, K.F.; Paraschivoiu, I. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)
1994-12-01
In order to study the dynamic stall phenomenon on a Darrieus wind turbine, the incompressible flow field around a moving airfoil is simulated using a noninertial stream function-vorticity formulation of the two-dimensional unsteady navier-Stokes equations. Spatial discretization is achieved by the streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin finite element method on a hybrid mesh composed of a structured region of quadrilateral elements in the vicinity of solid boundaries, an unstructured region of triangular elements elsewhere, and a layer of infinite elements surrounding the domain and projecting the external boundary to infinity. Temporal discretization is achieved by an implicit second order finite difference scheme. At each time step, a nonlinear algebraic system is solved by a Newton method. To accelerate computations, the generalized minimum residual method with an incomplete triangular factorization preconditioning is used to solve the linearized Newton systems. The solver is applied to simulate the flow around a NACA 0015 airfoil in Darrieus motion and the results are compared to experimental observations. To the authors' knowledge, it is the first time that the simulation of such a motion has been performed using the Navier-Stokes equations.
Multiphysics modeling of non-linear laser-matter interactions for optically active semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraczek, Brent; Kanp, Jaroslaw
Development of photonic devices for sensors and communications devices has been significantly enhanced by computational modeling. We present a new computational method for modelling laser propagation in optically-active semiconductors within the paraxial wave approximation (PWA). Light propagation is modeled using the Streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin finite element method (FEM). Material response enters through the non-linear polarization, which serves as the right-hand side of the FEM calculation. Maxwell's equations for classical light propagation within the PWA can be written solely in terms of the electric field, producing a wave equation that is a form of the advection-diffusion-reaction equations (ADREs). This allows adaptation of the computational machinery developed for solving ADREs in fluid dynamics to light-propagation modeling. The non-linear polarization is incorporated using a flexible framework to enable the use of multiple methods for carrier-carrier interactions (e.g. relaxation-time-based or Monte Carlo) to enter through the non-linear polarization, as appropriate to the material type. We demonstrate using a simple carrier-carrier model approximating the response of GaN. Supported by ARL Materials Enterprise.
Numerical simulation of dynamic stall around an airfoil in Darrieus motion
Allet, A.; Halle, S.; Paraschivoiu, I.
1999-02-01
The objective of this study is to investigate the two-dimensional unsteady flow around an airfoil undergoing a Darrieus motion in dynamic stall conditions. For this purpose, a numerical solver based on the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations expressed in a streamfunction-vorticity formulation in a non-inertial frame of reference was developed. The governing equations are solved by the streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin finite element method (FEM). Temporal discretization is achieved by second-order-accurate finite differences. The resulting global matrix system is linearized by the Newton method and solved by the generalized minimum residual method (GMRES) with an incomplete triangular factorization preconditioning (ILU). Turbulence effects are introduced in the solver by an eddy viscosity model. The investigation centers on an evaluation of the algebraic Cebeci-Smith model (CSM) and the nonequilibrium Johnson-King model (JKM). In an effort to predict dynamic stall features on rotating airfoils, first the authors present some testing results concerning the performance of both turbulence models for the flat plate case. Then, computed flow structure together with aerodynamic coefficients for a NACA 0015 airfoil in Darrieus motion under dynamic stall conditions are presented.
Multilevel first-order system least squares for PDEs
McCormick, S.
1994-12-31
The purpose of this talk is to analyze the least-squares finite element method for second-order convection-diffusion equations written as a first-order system. In general, standard Galerkin finite element methods applied to non-self-adjoint elliptic equations with significant convection terms exhibit a variety of deficiencies, including oscillations or nonmonotonicity of the solution and poor approximation of its derivatives, A variety of stabilization techniques, such as up-winding, Petrov-Galerkin, and stream-line diffusion approximations, have been introduced to eliminate these and other drawbacks of standard Galerkin methods. Yet, although significant progress has been made, convection-diffusion problems remain among the more difficult problems to solve numerically. The first-order system least-squares approach promises to overcome these deficiencies. This talk develops ellipticity estimates and discretization error bounds for elliptic equations (with lower order terms) that are reformulated as a least-squares problem for an equivalent first-order system. The main results are the proofs of ellipticity and optimal convergence of multiplicative and additive solvers of the discrete systems.
Devine, K.D.; Hennigan, G.L.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Moffat, H.K.; Salinger, A.G.; Schmidt, R.C.; Shadid, J.N.; Smith, T.M.
1999-01-01
The theoretical background for the finite element computer program, MPSalsa Version 1.5, is presented in detail. MPSalsa is designed to solve laminar or turbulent low Mach number, two- or three-dimensional incompressible and variable density reacting fluid flows on massively parallel computers, using a Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation. The code has the capability to solve coupled fluid flow (with auxiliary turbulence equations), heat transport, multicomponent species transport, and finite-rate chemical reactions, and to solve coupled multiple Poisson or advection-diffusion-reaction equations. The program employs the CHEMKIN library to provide a rigorous treatment of multicomponent ideal gas kinetics and transport. Chemical reactions occurring in the gas phase and on surfaces are treated by calls to CHEMKIN and SURFACE CHEMK3N, respectively. The code employs unstructured meshes, using the EXODUS II finite element database suite of programs for its input and output files. MPSalsa solves both transient and steady flows by using fully implicit time integration, an inexact Newton method and iterative solvers based on preconditioned Krylov methods as implemented in the Aztec. solver library.
Shadid, J.N.; Moffat, H.K.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Hennigan, G.L.; Devine, K.D.; Salinger, A.G.
1996-05-01
The theoretical background for the finite element computer program, MPSalsa, is presented in detail. MPSalsa is designed to solve laminar, low Mach number, two- or three-dimensional incompressible and variable density reacting fluid flows on massively parallel computers, using a Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation. The code has the capability to solve coupled fluid flow, heat transport, multicomponent species transport, and finite-rate chemical reactions, and to solver coupled multiple Poisson or advection-diffusion- reaction equations. The program employs the CHEMKIN library to provide a rigorous treatment of multicomponent ideal gas kinetics and transport. Chemical reactions occurring in the gas phase and on surfaces are treated by calls to CHEMKIN and SURFACE CHEMKIN, respectively. The code employs unstructured meshes, using the EXODUS II finite element data base suite of programs for its input and output files. MPSalsa solves both transient and steady flows by using fully implicit time integration, an inexact Newton method and iterative solvers based on preconditioned Krylov methods as implemented in the Aztec solver library.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouchelaghem, F.; Vulliet, L.
2001-10-01
The development of a predictive model of behaviour of porous media during injection of miscible grout, taking into account convection, dilution and filtration of grout solution with interstitial water, as well as consolidation aspects, is presented. Model assumptions are reviewed and discussed first. During the establishment of the model, we insist on surface terms and their physical relevance in expressing adsorption effects. Constitutive laws such as Fick's law for diffusive mass transport, hydrodynamic dispersion tensor dealing with miscibility, are modified by taking into account filtration effects. A new surface term appears in mass balance equations as a consequence of filtration. According to the filtration laws used, an initial filtration rate is estimated on the basis of a one-dimensional experimental campaign. The field equations are discretized by using Galerkin finite element and -scheme standard method. For transport equation, Streamline Upwind Petrov Galerkin method is employed to prevent numerical oscillations. Lastly, confrontation of numerical results with laboratory experiments constitutes a first step to validate the model on a realistic basis.
Study on Transient Properties of Levitated Object in Near-Field Acoustic Levitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Bing; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Chun-Sheng
2011-12-01
A new approach to the study on the transient properties of the levitated object in near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL) is presented. In this article, the transient response characteristics, including the levitated height of an object with radius of 24 mm and thickness of 5 mm, the radial velocity and pressure difference of gas at the boundary of clearance between the levitated object and radiating surface (squeeze film), is calculated according to several velocity amplitudes of radiating surface. First, the basic equations in fluid areas on Arbitrary Lagrange—Euler (ALE) form are numerically solved by using streamline upwind petrov galerkin (SUPG) finite elements method. Second, the formed algebraic equations and solid control equations are solved by using synchronous alternating method to gain the transient messages of the levitated object and gas in the squeeze film. Through theoretical and numerical analyses, it is found that there is a oscillation time in the transient process and that the response time does not simply increase with the increasing of velocity amplitudes of radiating surface. More investigations in this paper are helpful for the understanding of the transient properties of levitated object in NFAL, which are in favor of enhancing stabilities and responsiveness of levitated object.
Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Analysis of Turbulent Jet Impingement on Rib-roughened Surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lam, Prasanth Anand Kumar; Karaiyan, Arul Prakash; Thermo-Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Team
2015-11-01
A Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) analysis on turbulent flow dynamics of confined slot jet impinging on rib-roughened surface is numerically investigated. The data for POD analysis has been obtained by solving mass, momentum and energy equations in Cartesian framework using Streamline Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin Finite element method. Further, turbulent kinetic energy (k) and its dissipation rate (ɛ) are modeled using standard k- ɛ turbulence model with standard wall functions. POD is applied to computational data for a wide range of Reynolds number (Re) = 5000 - 30000 and non-dimensional channel height (H/L) = 0.5 - 4.0 to reveal large scale vortical structures in the flow field. The simulated results demonstrate a better understanding on effect of turbulence and its influence on individual vortical structures for enhancement of heat transfer. The enhancement of heat transfer in stagnation region due to combined effect of oscillation in impingement position caused by large vortical structures and strong acceleration of fluid during impingement is quantified. Furthermore, non-dimensional correlations have been derived for pressure drop and Surface averaged Nusselt number.
Adiabatic Shock Capturing in Perfect Gas Hypersonic Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kirk, Benjamin S.
2009-01-01
This paper considers the streamline-upwind Petrov/Galerkin (SUPG) method applied to the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations in conservation-variable form. The spatial discretization, including a modified approach for interpolating the inviscid flux terms in the SUPG finite element formulation, is briefly reviewed. Of particular interest is the behavior of the shock capturing operator, which is required to regularize the scheme in the presence of strong, shock-induced gradients. A standard shock capturing operator which has been widely used in previous studies by several authors is presented and discussed. Specific modifications are then made to this standard operator which are designed to produce a more physically consistent discretization in the presence of strong shock waves. The actual implementation of the term in a finite dimensional approximation is also discussed. The behavior of the standard and modified scheme is then compared for several supersonic/hypersonic flows. The modified shock capturing operator is found to preserve enthalpy in the inviscid portion of the flowfield substantially better than the standard operator.
A numerical study of the target system of an ADSS with different flow guides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prakash, K. Arul; Rathis Kumar, B. V.; Biswas, G.
2007-02-01
The mechanical design of the target module of an accelerator driven sub- critical nuclear reactor system (ADSS) calls for an analysis of the related thermal-hydraulic issues because of large amount of heat deposition in the spallation region during the course of nuclear interactions with the molten lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) target. The LBE also should carry the entire heat generated as a consequence of the spallation reaction. The problem of heat removal by the LBE is a challenging thermal-hydraulic issue. For this, one has to examine the flows of low Prandtl number fluids (LBE) in a complex ADSS geometry. In this study, the equations governing the laminar flow and thermal energy are solved numerically using the streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) finite element (FE) method. The target systems with a straight and a nozzle guide have been considered. The principal purpose of the analysis is to trace the flow and temperature distribution and thereby to check the suitability of the flow guide in avoiding the recirculation or stagnation zones in the flow space that may lead to hot spots.
SUPG Finite Element Simulations of Compressible Flows for Aerothermodynamic Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kirk, Benjamin S.
2007-01-01
This viewgraph presentation reviews the Streamline-Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) Finite Element Simulation. It covers the background, governing equations, weak formulation, shock capturing, inviscid flux discretization, time discretization, linearization, and implicit solution strategies. It also reviews some applications such as Type IV Shock Interaction, Forward-Facing Cavity and AEDC Sharp Double Cone.
Sparse-grid, reduced-basis Bayesian inversion: Nonaffine-parametric nonlinear equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Peng; Schwab, Christoph
2016-07-01
We extend the reduced basis (RB) accelerated Bayesian inversion methods for affine-parametric, linear operator equations which are considered in [16,17] to non-affine, nonlinear parametric operator equations. We generalize the analysis of sparsity of parametric forward solution maps in [20] and of Bayesian inversion in [48,49] to the fully discrete setting, including Petrov-Galerkin high-fidelity ("HiFi") discretization of the forward maps. We develop adaptive, stochastic collocation based reduction methods for the efficient computation of reduced bases on the parametric solution manifold. The nonaffinity and nonlinearity with respect to (w.r.t.) the distributed, uncertain parameters and the unknown solution is collocated; specifically, by the so-called Empirical Interpolation Method (EIM). For the corresponding Bayesian inversion problems, computational efficiency is enhanced in two ways: first, expectations w.r.t. the posterior are computed by adaptive quadratures with dimension-independent convergence rates proposed in [49]; the present work generalizes [49] to account for the impact of the PG discretization in the forward maps on the convergence rates of the Quantities of Interest (QoI for short). Second, we propose to perform the Bayesian estimation only w.r.t. a parsimonious, RB approximation of the posterior density. Based on the approximation results in [49], the infinite-dimensional parametric, deterministic forward map and operator admit N-term RB and EIM approximations which converge at rates which depend only on the sparsity of the parametric forward map. In several numerical experiments, the proposed algorithms exhibit dimension-independent convergence rates which equal, at least, the currently known rate estimates for N-term approximation. We propose to accelerate Bayesian estimation by first offline construction of reduced basis surrogates of the Bayesian posterior density. The parsimonious surrogates can then be employed for online data assimilation
A 3-D nonisothermal flow simulation and pulling force model for injection pultrusion processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mustafa, Ibrahim
1998-12-01
Injected Pultrusion (IP) is an efficient way of producing high quality, low cost, high volume and constant cross-section polymeric composites. This process has been developed recently, and the efforts to optimize it are still underway. This work is related to the development of a 3-D non-isothermal flow model for the IP processes. The governing equations for transport of mass, momentum and, energy are formulated by using a local volume averaging approach, and the Finite Element/Control Volume method is used to solve the system of equations numerically. The chemical species balance equation is solved in the Lagrangian frame of reference whereas the energy equation is solved using Galerkin, SU (Streamline Upwind), and SUPG (Streamline Upwind Petrov Galerkin) approaches. By varying degrees of freedom and the flow rates of the resin, it is shown that at high Peclet numbers the SUPG formulation performs better than the SU and the Galerkin methods in all cases. The 3-D model predictions for degree of cure and temperature are compared with a one dimensional analytical solution and the results are found satisfactory. Moreover, by varying the Brinkman Number, it is shown that the effect of viscous dissipation is insignificant. The 3-D flow simulations have been carried out for both thin and thick parts and the results are compared with the 2-D model. It is shown that for thick parts 2-D simulations render erroneous results. The effect of changing permeability on the flow fronts is also addressed. The effect of increasing taper angle on the model prediction is also investigated. A parametric study is conducted to isolate optimum conditions for both isothermal and non-isothermal cases using a straight rectangular die and a die with a tapered inlet. Finally, a simple pulling force model is developed and the pulling force required to pull the carbon-epoxy fiber resin system is estimated for dies of varying tapered inlet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Español, Pep; Donev, Aleksandar
2015-12-01
We derive a coarse-grained description of the dynamics of a nanoparticle immersed in an isothermal simple fluid by performing a systematic coarse graining of the underlying microscopic dynamics. As coarse-grained or relevant variables, we select the position of the nanoparticle and the total mass and momentum density field of the fluid, which are locally conserved slow variables because they are defined to include the contribution of the nanoparticle. The theory of coarse graining based on the Zwanzing projection operator leads us to a system of stochastic ordinary differential equations that are closed in the relevant variables. We demonstrate that our discrete coarse-grained equations are consistent with a Petrov-Galerkin finite-element discretization of a system of formal stochastic partial differential equations which resemble previously used phenomenological models based on fluctuating hydrodynamics. Key to this connection between our "bottom-up" and previous "top-down" approaches is the use of the same dual orthogonal set of linear basis functions familiar from finite element methods (FEMs), both as a way to coarse-grain the microscopic degrees of freedom and as a way to discretize the equations of fluctuating hydrodynamics. Another key ingredient is the use of a "linear for spiky" weak approximation which replaces microscopic "fields" with a linear FE interpolant inside expectation values. For the irreversible or dissipative dynamics, we approximate the constrained Green-Kubo expressions for the dissipation coefficients with their equilibrium averages. Under suitable approximations, we obtain closed approximations of the coarse-grained dynamics in a manner which gives them a clear physical interpretation and provides explicit microscopic expressions for all of the coefficients appearing in the closure. Our work leads to a model for dilute nanocolloidal suspensions that can be simulated effectively using feasibly short molecular dynamics simulations as input
Español, Pep; Donev, Aleksandar
2015-12-21
We derive a coarse-grained description of the dynamics of a nanoparticle immersed in an isothermal simple fluid by performing a systematic coarse graining of the underlying microscopic dynamics. As coarse-grained or relevant variables, we select the position of the nanoparticle and the total mass and momentum density field of the fluid, which are locally conserved slow variables because they are defined to include the contribution of the nanoparticle. The theory of coarse graining based on the Zwanzing projection operator leads us to a system of stochastic ordinary differential equations that are closed in the relevant variables. We demonstrate that our discrete coarse-grained equations are consistent with a Petrov-Galerkin finite-element discretization of a system of formal stochastic partial differential equations which resemble previously used phenomenological models based on fluctuating hydrodynamics. Key to this connection between our “bottom-up” and previous “top-down” approaches is the use of the same dual orthogonal set of linear basis functions familiar from finite element methods (FEMs), both as a way to coarse-grain the microscopic degrees of freedom and as a way to discretize the equations of fluctuating hydrodynamics. Another key ingredient is the use of a “linear for spiky” weak approximation which replaces microscopic “fields” with a linear FE interpolant inside expectation values. For the irreversible or dissipative dynamics, we approximate the constrained Green-Kubo expressions for the dissipation coefficients with their equilibrium averages. Under suitable approximations, we obtain closed approximations of the coarse-grained dynamics in a manner which gives them a clear physical interpretation and provides explicit microscopic expressions for all of the coefficients appearing in the closure. Our work leads to a model for dilute nanocolloidal suspensions that can be simulated effectively using feasibly short molecular dynamics
Español, Pep; Donev, Aleksandar
2015-12-21
We derive a coarse-grained description of the dynamics of a nanoparticle immersed in an isothermal simple fluid by performing a systematic coarse graining of the underlying microscopic dynamics. As coarse-grained or relevant variables, we select the position of the nanoparticle and the total mass and momentum density field of the fluid, which are locally conserved slow variables because they are defined to include the contribution of the nanoparticle. The theory of coarse graining based on the Zwanzing projection operator leads us to a system of stochastic ordinary differential equations that are closed in the relevant variables. We demonstrate that our discrete coarse-grained equations are consistent with a Petrov-Galerkin finite-element discretization of a system of formal stochastic partial differential equations which resemble previously used phenomenological models based on fluctuating hydrodynamics. Key to this connection between our "bottom-up" and previous "top-down" approaches is the use of the same dual orthogonal set of linear basis functions familiar from finite element methods (FEMs), both as a way to coarse-grain the microscopic degrees of freedom and as a way to discretize the equations of fluctuating hydrodynamics. Another key ingredient is the use of a "linear for spiky" weak approximation which replaces microscopic "fields" with a linear FE interpolant inside expectation values. For the irreversible or dissipative dynamics, we approximate the constrained Green-Kubo expressions for the dissipation coefficients with their equilibrium averages. Under suitable approximations, we obtain closed approximations of the coarse-grained dynamics in a manner which gives them a clear physical interpretation and provides explicit microscopic expressions for all of the coefficients appearing in the closure. Our work leads to a model for dilute nanocolloidal suspensions that can be simulated effectively using feasibly short molecular dynamics simulations as input
Numerical simulation of electrophoresis separation processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ganjoo, D. K.; Tezduyar, T. E.
1986-01-01
A new Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation has been proposed for transient convection-diffusion problems. Most Petrov-Galerkin formulations take into account the spatial discretization, and the weighting functions so developed give satisfactory solutions for steady state problems. Though these schemes can be used for transient problems, there is scope for improvement. The schemes proposed here, which consider temporal as well as spatial discretization, provide improved solutions. Electrophoresis, which involves the motion of charged entities under the influence of an applied electric field, is governed by equations similiar to those encountered in fluid flow problems, i.e., transient convection-diffusion equations. Test problems are solved in electrophoresis and fluid flow. The results obtained are satisfactory. It is also expected that these schemes, suitably adapted, will improve the numerical solutions of the compressible Euler and the Navier-Stokes equations.
Numerical Schemes for the Hamilton-Jacobi and Level Set Equations on Triangulated Domains
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy J.; Sethian, James A.
1997-01-01
Borrowing from techniques developed for conservation law equations, numerical schemes which discretize the Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J), level set, and Eikonal equations on triangulated domains are presented. The first scheme is a provably monotone discretization for certain forms of the H-J equations. Unfortunately, the basic scheme lacks proper Lipschitz continuity of the numerical Hamiltonian. By employing a virtual edge flipping technique, Lipschitz continuity of the numerical flux is restored on acute triangulations. Next, schemes are introduced and developed based on the weaker concept of positive coefficient approximations for homogeneous Hamiltonians. These schemes possess a discrete maximum principle on arbitrary triangulations and naturally exhibit proper Lipschitz continuity of the numerical Hamiltonian. Finally, a class of Petrov-Galerkin approximations are considered. These schemes are stabilized via a least-squares bilinear form. The Petrov-Galerkin schemes do not possess a discrete maximum principle but generalize to high order accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corsini, A.; Rispoli, F.; Santoriello, A.; Tezduyar, T. E.
2006-09-01
Recent advances in turbulence modeling brought more and more sophisticated turbulence closures (e.g. k-ɛ, k-ɛ - v 2- f, Second Moment Closures), where the governing equations for the model parameters involve advection, diffusion and reaction terms. Numerical instabilities can be generated by the dominant advection or reaction terms. Classical stabilized formulations such as the Streamline Upwind/Petrov Galerkin (SUPG) formulation (Brook and Hughes, comput methods Appl Mech Eng 32:199 255, 1982; Hughes and Tezduyar, comput methods Appl Mech Eng 45: 217 284, 1984) are very well suited for preventing the numerical instabilities generated by the dominant advection terms. A different stabilization however is needed for instabilities due to the dominant reaction terms. An additional stabilization term, called the diffusion for reaction-dominated (DRD) term, was introduced by Tezduyar and Park (comput methods Appl Mech Eng 59:307 325, 1986) for that purpose and improves the SUPG performance. In recent years a new class of variational multi-scale (VMS) stabilization (Hughes, comput methods Appl Mech Eng 127:387 401, 1995) has been introduced, and this approach, in principle, can deal with advection diffusion reaction equations. However, it was pointed out in Hanke (comput methods Appl Mech Eng 191:2925 2947) that this class of methods also need some improvement in the presence of high reaction rates. In this work we show the benefits of using the DRD operator to enhance the core stabilization techniques such as the SUPG and VMS formulations. We also propose a new operator called the DRDJ (DRD with the local variation jump) term, targeting the reduction of numerical oscillations in the presence of both high reaction rates and sharp solution gradients. The methods are evaluated in the context of two stabilized methods: the classical SUPG formulation and a recently-developed VMS formulation called the V-SGS (Corsini et al. comput methods Appl Mech Eng 194:4797 4823, 2005
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meade, Andrew James, Jr.
1989-01-01
A numerical study of the laminar and compressible boundary layer, about a circular cone in a supersonic free stream, is presented. It is thought that if accurate and efficient numerical schemes can be produced to solve the boundary layer equations, they can be joined to numerical codes that solve the inviscid outer flow. The combination of these numerical codes is competitive with the accurate, but computationally expensive, Navier-Stokes schemes. The primary goal is to develop a finite element method for the calculation of 3-D compressible laminar boundary layer about a yawed cone. The proposed method can, in principle, be extended to apply to the 3-D boundary layer of pointed bodies of arbitrary cross section. The 3-D boundary layer equations governing supersonic free stream flow about a cone are examined. The 3-D partial differential equations are reduced to 2-D integral equations by applying the Howarth, Mangler, Crocco transformations, a linear relation between viscosity, and a Blasius-type of similarity variable. This is equivalent to a Dorodnitsyn-type formulation. The reduced equations are independent of density and curvature effects, and resemble the weak form of the 2-D incompressible boundary layer equations in Cartesian coordinates. In addition the coordinate normal to the wall has been stretched, which reduces the gradients across the layer and provides high resolution near the surface. Utilizing the parabolic nature of the boundary layer equations, a finite element method is applied to the Dorodnitsyn formulation. The formulation is presented in a Petrov-Galerkin finite element form and discretized across the layer using linear interpolation functions. The finite element discretization yields a system of ordinary differential equations in the circumferential direction. The circumferential derivatives are solved by an implicit and noniterative finite difference marching scheme. Solutions are presented for a 15 deg half angle cone at angles of attack of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aggelidis, Costas Nickolaos
2007-12-01
nip. Two-dimensional modeling of calendering elasto-visco-plastic materials with a slight modification of the discrete elasto-viscous split stress, independent velocity gradient interpolation, streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin (DEVSS-G/SUPG) method, predicts distributions of the departure of the current material state in the nip from the elastic stress-free state in a warped material space and of stresses in the calendering nip.
Vortex-induced vibration of a circular cylinder of finite length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Ming; Cheng, Liang
2014-01-01
Vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a rigid circular cylinder of finite length subject to uniform steady flow is investigated numerically. The study is focused on the effect of the free end on the response of the cylinder. The vibration of the cylinder is confined only in the cross-flow direction. Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the Petrov-Galerkin finite element method and the equation of the motion is solved for the cylinder displacement. Simulations are conducted for a constant mass ratio of 2, a constant Reynolds number of 300 and cylinder length to diameter ratios of L/D = 1, 2, 5 10, and 20. It is found that the vortex shedding in the wake of a fixed cylinder is suppressed if the cylinder length is less than 2 cylinder diameters. However, if the cylinder is allowed to vibrate, VIV happens at L/D = 1 and 2 and the response amplitudes at these two cylinder lengths are comparable with that of a 2D-cylinder. The vortices that are shed from a short cylinder of L/D = 1 and 2 are found to be generated from the free-end of the cylinder and convected toward the top end of the cylinder by the upwash velocity. They are found to be nearly perpendicular to the cylinder span. The wake flow in a vibrating cylinder with L/D greater than 5 includes the vortex shedding flow at the top part of the cylinder and the end-induced vortex shedding near the free-end of the cylinder. The phase difference between the sectional lift coefficient and the vibration displacement near the free-end of the cylinder changes from 0° to 180° at higher reduced velocity than that near the top end. Strong variation of the flow along the cylinder span occurs at reduced velocities where the lift coefficient near the free-end and that near the top end are in anti-phase with each other.
Inversion of geothermal heat flux in a thermomechanically coupled nonlinear Stokes ice sheet model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Hongyu; Petra, Noemi; Stadler, Georg; Isaac, Tobin; Hughes, Thomas J. R.; Ghattas, Omar
2016-07-01
We address the inverse problem of inferring the basal geothermal heat flux from surface velocity observations using a steady-state thermomechanically coupled nonlinear Stokes ice flow model. This is a challenging inverse problem since the map from basal heat flux to surface velocity observables is indirect: the heat flux is a boundary condition for the thermal advection-diffusion equation, which couples to the nonlinear Stokes ice flow equations; together they determine the surface ice flow velocity. This multiphysics inverse problem is formulated as a nonlinear least-squares optimization problem with a cost functional that includes the data misfit between surface velocity observations and model predictions. A Tikhonov regularization term is added to render the problem well posed. We derive adjoint-based gradient and Hessian expressions for the resulting partial differential equation (PDE)-constrained optimization problem and propose an inexact Newton method for its solution. As a consequence of the Petrov-Galerkin discretization of the energy equation, we show that discretization and differentiation do not commute; that is, the order in which we discretize the cost functional and differentiate it affects the correctness of the gradient. Using two- and three-dimensional model problems, we study the prospects for and limitations of the inference of the geothermal heat flux field from surface velocity observations. The results show that the reconstruction improves as the noise level in the observations decreases and that short-wavelength variations in the geothermal heat flux are difficult to recover. We analyze the ill-posedness of the inverse problem as a function of the number of observations by examining the spectrum of the Hessian of the cost functional. Motivated by the popularity of operator-split or staggered solvers for forward multiphysics problems - i.e., those that drop two-way coupling terms to yield a one-way coupled forward Jacobian - we study the
Finite element procedures for time-dependent convection-diffusion-reaction systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tezduyar, T. E.; Park, Y. J.; Deans, H. A.
1988-01-01
New finite element procedures based on the streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin formulations are developed for time-dependent convection-diffusion-reaction equations. These procedures minimize spurious oscillations for convection-dominated and reaction-dominated problems. The results obtained for representative numerical examples are accurate with minimal oscillations. As a special application problem, the single-well chemical tracer test (a procedure for measuring oil remaining in a depleted field) is simulated numerically. The results show the importance of temperature effects on the interpreted value of residual oil saturation from such tests.
More, J. J.; Sorensen, D. C.
1982-02-01
Newton's method plays a central role in the development of numerical techniques for optimization. In fact, most of the current practical methods for optimization can be viewed as variations on Newton's method. It is therefore important to understand Newton's method as an algorithm in its own right and as a key introduction to the most recent ideas in this area. One of the aims of this expository paper is to present and analyze two main approaches to Newton's method for unconstrained minimization: the line search approach and the trust region approach. The other aim is to present some of the recent developments in the optimization field which are related to Newton's method. In particular, we explore several variations on Newton's method which are appropriate for large scale problems, and we also show how quasi-Newton methods can be derived quite naturally from Newton's method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Huamao
1998-11-01
In this paper, a new sonofluorescence method is proposed. Based upon the method, the author has obtained the sonofluorescence emission spectrum of an aqueous luminol- NaOH solution, and displayed the cavitation field distribution in a sonochemical glass reactor.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Resistivity methods were among the first geophysical techniques developed. The basic concept originated with Conrad Schlumberger, who conducted the initial resistivity field tests in Normandy, France during 1912. The resistivity method, employed in its earliest and most conventional form, uses an ex...
Lin, YuPo J.; Hestekin, Jamie; Arora, Michelle; St. Martin, Edward J.
2004-09-28
An electrodeionization method for continuously producing and or separating and/or concentrating ionizable organics present in dilute concentrations in an ionic solution while controlling the pH to within one to one-half pH unit method for continuously producing and or separating and/or concentrating ionizable organics present in dilute concentrations in an ionic solution while controlling the pH to within one to one-half pH unit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio
2012-03-01
Ensemble methods are statistical and computational learning procedures reminiscent of the human social learning behavior of seeking several opinions before making any crucial decision. The idea of combining the opinions of different "experts" to obtain an overall “ensemble” decision is rooted in our culture at least from the classical age of ancient Greece, and it has been formalized during the Enlightenment with the Condorcet Jury Theorem[45]), which proved that the judgment of a committee is superior to those of individuals, provided the individuals have reasonable competence. Ensembles are sets of learning machines that combine in some way their decisions, or their learning algorithms, or different views of data, or other specific characteristics to obtain more reliable and more accurate predictions in supervised and unsupervised learning problems [48,116]. A simple example is represented by the majority vote ensemble, by which the decisions of different learning machines are combined, and the class that receives the majority of “votes” (i.e., the class predicted by the majority of the learning machines) is the class predicted by the overall ensemble [158]. In the literature, a plethora of terms other than ensembles has been used, such as fusion, combination, aggregation, and committee, to indicate sets of learning machines that work together to solve a machine learning problem [19,40,56,66,99,108,123], but in this chapter we maintain the term ensemble in its widest meaning, in order to include the whole range of combination methods. Nowadays, ensemble methods represent one of the main current research lines in machine learning [48,116], and the interest of the research community on ensemble methods is witnessed by conferences and workshops specifically devoted to ensembles, first of all the multiple classifier systems (MCS) conference organized by Roli, Kittler, Windeatt, and other researchers of this area [14,62,85,149,173]. Several theories have been
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio
2012-03-01
Ensemble methods are statistical and computational learning procedures reminiscent of the human social learning behavior of seeking several opinions before making any crucial decision. The idea of combining the opinions of different "experts" to obtain an overall “ensemble” decision is rooted in our culture at least from the classical age of ancient Greece, and it has been formalized during the Enlightenment with the Condorcet Jury Theorem[45]), which proved that the judgment of a committee is superior to those of individuals, provided the individuals have reasonable competence. Ensembles are sets of learning machines that combine in some way their decisions, or their learning algorithms, or different views of data, or other specific characteristics to obtain more reliable and more accurate predictions in supervised and unsupervised learning problems [48,116]. A simple example is represented by the majority vote ensemble, by which the decisions of different learning machines are combined, and the class that receives the majority of “votes” (i.e., the class predicted by the majority of the learning machines) is the class predicted by the overall ensemble [158]. In the literature, a plethora of terms other than ensembles has been used, such as fusion, combination, aggregation, and committee, to indicate sets of learning machines that work together to solve a machine learning problem [19,40,56,66,99,108,123], but in this chapter we maintain the term ensemble in its widest meaning, in order to include the whole range of combination methods. Nowadays, ensemble methods represent one of the main current research lines in machine learning [48,116], and the interest of the research community on ensemble methods is witnessed by conferences and workshops specifically devoted to ensembles, first of all the multiple classifier systems (MCS) conference organized by Roli, Kittler, Windeatt, and other researchers of this area [14,62,85,149,173]. Several theories have been
Glass, J.T.
1993-01-01
Methods discussed in this compilation of notes and diagrams are Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and other surface analysis techniques (auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and scanning tunnelling microscopy). A comparative evaluation of different techniques is performed. In-vacuo and in-situ analyses are described.
Stokley, C.O.; Haas, R.C.
1991-04-30
This patent describes a drilling method. It includes: rotating a drill bit in a well head to drill a well in an earth formation while circulating drilling fluid consisting essentially of a liquid; conducting the returning drilling fluid, and oil and gas from the formation to a flow rate control valve and to a pressure control valve; and conducting fluid from the flow rate control valve and the pressure control valve to a separator vessel maintained under pressure.
Googin, J.M.
1963-11-01
Methods of making articles by powder metallurgy techniques are presented. An article is made by packing a metal powder into a desired shape, raising the temperature of the powder compact to a sintering temperature in the presence of a reducing gas, and alternately increasing and decreasing the pressure of the gas while the temperatume is being raised. The product has a greater density than can be achieved by sintering for the same length of time at a constant gas pressure. (AEC)
Townsend, R.G.
1959-08-25
A method is described for protectively coating beryllium metal by etching the metal in an acid bath, immersing the etched beryllium in a solution of sodium zincate for a brief period of time, immersing the beryllium in concentrated nitric acid, immersing the beryhlium in a second solution of sodium zincate, electroplating a thin layer of copper over the beryllium, and finally electroplating a layer of chromium over the copper layer.
Tümmler, Burkhard
2014-01-01
Genotyping allows for the identification of bacterial isolates to the strain level and provides basic information about the evolutionary biology, population biology, taxonomy, ecology, and genetics of bacteria. Depending on the underlying question and available resources, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains may be typed by anonymous fingerprinting techniques or electronically portable sequence-based typing methods such as multiple locus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA), multilocus sequence typing, or oligonucleotide microarray. Macrorestriction fragment pattern analysis is a genotyping method that is globally applicable to all bacteria and hence has been and still is the reference method for strain typing in bacteriology. Agarose-embedded chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a rare-cutting restriction endonuclease and the generated 20-70 fragments are then separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The chapter provides a detailed step-by-step manual for SpeI genome fingerprinting of Pseudomonas chromosomes that has been optimized for SpeI fragment pattern analysis of P. aeruginosa. PMID:24818895
Walls, Claudia A.; Kirby, Glen H.; Janney, Mark A.; Omatete, Ogbemi O.; Nunn, Stephen D.; McMillan, April D.
2000-01-01
A method of gelcasting includes the steps of providing a solution of at least hydroxymethylacrylamide (HMAM) and water. At least one inorganic powder is added to the mixture. At least one initiator system is provided to polymerize the HMAM. The initiator polymerizes the HMAM and water, to form a firm hydrogel that contains the inorganic powder. One or more comonomers can be polymerized with the HMAM monomer, to alter the final properties of the gelcast material. Additionally, one or more additives can be included in the polymerization mixture, to alter the properties of the gelcast material.
Gini, Giuseppina
2016-01-01
In this chapter, we introduce the basis of computational chemistry and discuss how computational methods have been extended to some biological properties and toxicology, in particular. Since about 20 years, chemical experimentation is more and more replaced by modeling and virtual experimentation, using a large core of mathematics, chemistry, physics, and algorithms. Then we see how animal experiments, aimed at providing a standardized result about a biological property, can be mimicked by new in silico methods. Our emphasis here is on toxicology and on predicting properties through chemical structures. Two main streams of such models are available: models that consider the whole molecular structure to predict a value, namely QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships), and models that find relevant substructures to predict a class, namely SAR. The term in silico discovery is applied to chemical design, to computational toxicology, and to drug discovery. We discuss how the experimental practice in biological science is moving more and more toward modeling and simulation. Such virtual experiments confirm hypotheses, provide data for regulation, and help in designing new chemicals. PMID:27311459
Grover, Blair K.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.; Casper, William L.
2005-12-20
A method for collecting data regarding a matric potential of a media includes providing a tensiometer having a stainless steel tensiometer casing, the stainless steel tensiometer casing comprising a tip portion which includes a wetted porous stainless steel membrane through which a matric potential of a media is sensed; driving the tensiometer into the media using an insertion tube comprising a plurality of probe casing which are selectively coupled to form the insertion tube as the tensiometer is progressively driven deeper into the media, wherein the wetted porous stainless steel membrane is in contact with the media; and sensing the matric potential the media exerts on the wetted porous stainless steel membrane by a pressure sensor in fluid hydraulic connection with the porous stainless steel membrane. A tensiometer includes a stainless steel casing.
Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.
2012-12-18
A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.
Cornell, A.A.; Dunbar, J.V.; Ruffner, J.H.
1959-09-29
A semi-automatic method is described for the weld joining of pipes and fittings which utilizes the inert gasshielded consumable electrode electric arc welding technique, comprising laying down the root pass at a first peripheral velocity and thereafter laying down the filler passes over the root pass necessary to complete the weld by revolving the pipes and fittings at a second peripheral velocity different from the first peripheral velocity, maintaining the welding head in a fixed position as to the specific direction of revolution, while the longitudinal axis of the welding head is disposed angularly in the direction of revolution at amounts between twenty minutas and about four degrees from the first position.
Lung effect on the hemodynamics in pulmonary artery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, S. F.; Sheu, Tony W. H.; Chang, T. M.
2001-06-01
The present study investigates blood flow in a pulmonary artery. The aim is to gain a better understanding of offset value in vascular circulation through a two-dimensional analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations. In this study, the hemodynamics in a blood vessel with truncated outlets at which constant pressure is specified is examined. To simplify the analysis, the vessel walls are regarded as being rigid. In quadratic elements, the streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin finite element model is employed to simulate the incompressible Newtonian blood flow. The adopted finite element model introduces artificial damping terms solely in the streamline direction. With these terms added to the formulation, the discrete system is enhanced while solution accuracy is maintained without deterioration due to numerical diffusion errors. Copyright
Asymptotic behavior of linearized pipe flow and implications for transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meseguer, Alvaro; Trefethen, Lloyd N.
2000-11-01
A solenoidal Petrov-Galerkin MATLAB spectral code is described for high-accuracy computation of linearized dynamics for Hagen-Poiseuille flow in an infinite circular pipe. Systematic studies are presented of the dependence of eigenvalues, transient growth factors, and other quantities on the discretization parameters, the axial and azimuthal wave numbers, and the Reynolds number Re for Re ranging from 10^2 to the idealized (physically unrealizable) value 10^7. Implications for transition to turbulence are considered in the light of the recent theoretical results of S. J. Chapman. Our computations are in agreement with Chapman's predicted threshold amplitude for transition of order Re-3/2 as Re --> ∞.
From Method to Post Method: A Panacea!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Masouleh, Nima Shakouri
2012-01-01
The foundation of language teaching has undergone many changes. The rise and fall of language teaching methods depends upon a variety of factors extrinsic to a method itself and often reflects the influence of profit-seekers and promoters, as well as the forces of the intellectual marketplace. There was always a source of contention among people…
The Multidimensional WKB Method.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knudson, Stephen K.; Noid, D. W.
1989-01-01
Discusses a new method for determining the eigenvalues of the Schroedinger equation when the potential energy function does not have a simple form. Describes the mathematical methods and provides an application. Lists limitations to the method. (MVL)
Uranium price forecasting methods
Fuller, D.M.
1994-03-01
This article reviews a number of forecasting methods that have been applied to uranium prices and compares their relative strengths and weaknesses. The methods reviewed are: (1) judgemental methods, (2) technical analysis, (3) time-series methods, (4) fundamental analysis, and (5) econometric methods. Historically, none of these methods has performed very well, but a well-thought-out model is still useful as a basis from which to adjust to new circumstances and try again.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, F. Burton
1977-01-01
The Moore methods, in which college mathematics students prove theorems for themselves, is described. Difficulties and drawbacks to this method, appropriate areas of mathematics in which the Moore method can be used, and techniques in using the method are discussed. (DT)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Freed, Alan D.
1996-01-01
There are many aspects to consider when designing a Rosenbrock-Wanner-Wolfbrandt (ROW) method for the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations (ODE's) solving initial value problems (IVP's). The process can be simplified by constructing ROW methods around good Runge-Kutta (RK) methods. The formulation of a new, simple, embedded, third-order, ROW method demonstrates this design approach.
Hedin, F.; Le Coguiec, A.; Le Floch, C.; Llory, M.; Villemeur, A.
1981-01-01
The method described in this paper is an inductive method for combining failures (called the Failure Combination Method (FCM)). It is based on a preliminary analysis of the systems performed with an FMEA. As a study has been undertaken to test the method, the organization of the study as well as its first results from a methodological point of view are stressed. 8 refs.
Radiochemical method development
Erickson, M.D.; Aldstadt, J.H.; Alvarado, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Smith, L.L.
1994-09-01
The authors have developed methods for chemical characterization of the environment under a multitask project that focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. The authors have developed improved methods for separation of environmental levels of technetium-99, radium, and actinides from soil and water; separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences; and isolation of strontium. They are also developing methods for simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes (including nonradionuclides) by using a new instrumental technique, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The new ICP-MS methods have greater sensitivity and efficiency and could replace many radiometric techniques. They are using flow injection analysis to integrate and automate the separation methods with the ICP-MS methodology. The final product of all activities will be methods that are available (published in the U.S. Department of Energy`s analytical methods compendium) and acceptable for use in regulatory situations.
Selecting Needs Analysis Methods.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Newstrom, John W.; Lilyquist, John M.
1979-01-01
Presents a contingency model for decision making with regard to needs analysis methods. Focus is on 12 methods with brief discussion of their defining characteristics and some operational guidelines for their use. (JOW)
Electromagnetic induction methods
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Electromagnetic induction geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use for agricultural purposes. Electromagnetic induction methods measure the electrical conductivity (or resistivity) for a bulk volume of soil directly beneath the surface. An instrument called a ground conductivity meter...
Geobacteraceae strains and methods
Lovley, Derek R.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Yi, Hana
2015-07-07
Embodiments of the present invention provide a method of producing genetically modified strains of electricigenic microbes that are specifically adapted for the production of electrical current in microbial fuel cells, as well as strains produced by such methods and fuel cells using such strains. In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides genetically modified strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and methods of using such strains.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bolshakov, A. A.
1985-01-01
The study of Earth from space with specialized satellites, and from manned orbiting stations, has become important in the space programs. The broad complex of methods used for probing Earth from space are different methods of the study of ocean, dynamics. The different methods of ocean observation are described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1977-01-01
Basic differential equations governing compressible turbulent boundary layer flow are reviewed, including conservation of mass and energy, momentum equations derived from Navier-Stokes equations, and equations of state. Closure procedures were broken down into: (1) simple or zeroth-order methods, (2) first-order or mean field closure methods, and (3) second-order or mean turbulence field methods.
1993-12-31
Chapter 4, discusses the various techniques used in the study human cytogenetics. The methods are discussed in historical order, from direct methods to tissue culture techniques, prenatal studies, meiotic studies, sex chromatin techniques, banding techniques, prophase banding and replication studies. Nomenclature of human chromosomes and quantitative methods are also mentioned. 60 refs., 3 figs.
Redefining the "Scientific Method".
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spiece, Kelly R.; Colosi, Joseph
2000-01-01
Surveys 15 introductory biology textbooks for their presentation of the scientific method. Teaching the scientific method involves more than simplified steps and subjectivity--human politics, cultural influences, and chance are all a part of science. Presents an activity for students to experience the scientific method. (Contains 34 references.)…
Accelerated molecular dynamics methods
Perez, Danny
2011-01-04
The molecular dynamics method, although extremely powerful for materials simulations, is limited to times scales of roughly one microsecond or less. On longer time scales, dynamical evolution typically consists of infrequent events, which are usually activated processes. This course is focused on understanding infrequent-event dynamics, on methods for characterizing infrequent-event mechanisms and rate constants, and on methods for simulating long time scales in infrequent-event systems, emphasizing the recently developed accelerated molecular dynamics methods (hyperdynamics, parallel replica dynamics, and temperature accelerated dynamics). Some familiarity with basic statistical mechanics and molecular dynamics methods will be assumed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, Meng-Sing
1992-01-01
A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended Lagrangian method', is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. Meanwhile, it also avoids the inaccuracy incurred due to geometry and variable interpolations used by the previous Lagrangian methods. Unlike the Lagrangian method previously imposed which is valid only for supersonic flows, the present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows as well as supersonic flows. The method proposed in this paper is robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multi-dimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in one-dimensional problems.
[Medical Equipment Maintenance Methods].
Liu, Hongbin
2015-09-01
Due to the high technology and the complexity of medical equipment, as well as to the safety and effectiveness, it determines the high requirements of the medical equipment maintenance work. This paper introduces some basic methods of medical instrument maintenance, including fault tree analysis, node method and exclusive method which are the three important methods in the medical equipment maintenance, through using these three methods for the instruments that have circuit drawings, hardware breakdown maintenance can be done easily. And this paper introduces the processing methods of some special fault conditions, in order to reduce little detours in meeting the same problems. Learning is very important for stuff just engaged in this area. PMID:26904890
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, Meng-Sing
1993-01-01
A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended Lagrangian method', is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. Meanwhile, it also avoids the inaccuracy incurred due to geometry and variable interpolations used by the previous Lagrangian methods. The present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows as well as supersonic flows. The method proposed in this paper is robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multidimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in 1D problems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McKay, David S.; Cooper, Bonnie L.
2010-01-01
This slide presentation describes new fractionation methods that are used to create dust that is respirable for testing the effects of inhalation of lunar dust in preparation for future manned lunar exploration. Because lunar dust is a very limited commodity, a method that does not result in loss of the material had to be developed. The dust separation system that is described incorporates some traditional methods, while preventing the dust from being contaminated or changed in reactivity properties while also limiting losses.
The Schwinger Variational Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huo, Winifred M.
1995-01-01
Variational methods have proven invaluable in theoretical physics and chemistry, both for bound state problems and for the study of collision phenomena. For collisional problems they can be grouped into two types: those based on the Schroedinger equation and those based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. The application of the Schwinger variational (SV) method to e-molecule collisions and photoionization has been reviewed previously. The present chapter discusses the implementation of the SV method as applied to e-molecule collisions.
Methods of Voice Reconstruction
Chen, Hung-Chi; Kim Evans, Karen F.; Salgado, Christopher J.; Mardini, Samir
2010-01-01
This article reviews methods of voice reconstruction. Nonsurgical methods of voice reconstruction include electrolarynx, pneumatic artificial larynx, and esophageal speech. Surgical methods of voice reconstruction include neoglottis, tracheoesophageal puncture, and prosthesis. Tracheoesophageal puncture can be performed in patients with pedicled flaps such as colon interposition, jejunum, or gastric pull-up or in free flaps such as perforator flaps, jejunum, and colon flaps. Other flaps for voice reconstruction include the ileocolon flap and jejunum. Laryngeal transplantation is also reviewed. PMID:22550443
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zang, Thomas A.; Streett, Craig L.; Hussaini, M. Yousuff
1989-01-01
One of the objectives of these notes is to provide a basic introduction to spectral methods with a particular emphasis on applications to computational fluid dynamics. Another objective is to summarize some of the most important developments in spectral methods in the last two years. The fundamentals of spectral methods for simple problems will be covered in depth, and the essential elements of several fluid dynamical applications will be sketched.
Multigrid contact detection method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Kejing; Dong, Shoubin; Zhou, Zhaoyao
2007-03-01
Contact detection is a general problem of many physical simulations. This work presents a O(N) multigrid method for general contact detection problems (MGCD). The multigrid idea is integrated with contact detection problems. Both the time complexity and memory consumption of the MGCD are O(N) . Unlike other methods, whose efficiencies are influenced strongly by the object size distribution, the performance of MGCD is insensitive to the object size distribution. We compare the MGCD with the no binary search (NBS) method and the multilevel boxing method in three dimensions for both time complexity and memory consumption. For objects with similar size, the MGCD is as good as the NBS method, both of which outperform the multilevel boxing method regarding memory consumption. For objects with diverse size, the MGCD outperform both the NBS method and the multilevel boxing method. We use the MGCD to solve the contact detection problem for a granular simulation system based on the discrete element method. From this granular simulation, we get the density property of monosize packing and binary packing with size ratio equal to 10. The packing density for monosize particles is 0.636. For binary packing with size ratio equal to 10, when the number of small particles is 300 times as the number of big particles, the maximal packing density 0.824 is achieved.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, Meng-Sing
1995-01-01
A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended Lagrangian method,' is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. The present method and the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method have a similarity in spirit-eliminating the cross-streamline numerical diffusion. For this purpose, we suggest a simple grid constraint condition and utilize an accurate discretization procedure. This grid constraint is only applied to the transverse cell face parallel to the local stream velocity, and hence our method for the steady state problems naturally reduces to the streamline-curvature method, without explicitly solving the steady stream-coordinate equations formulated a priori. Unlike the Lagrangian method proposed by Loh and Hui which is valid only for steady supersonic flows, the present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows and supersonic flows as well as unsteady flows, simply by invoking in the same code an appropriate grid constraint suggested in this paper. The approach is found to be robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multi-dimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in one-dimensional problems.
Lindley, C; Mackowiak, J
1985-01-01
Various methods for controlling inventory are described, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. The open-to-buy (OTB) budget method limits purchases to a specific amount of funds available for purchasing pharmaceuticals during a specified period. The emphasis of the OTB method is financial control of the pharmacy inventory. Although it is useful in monitoring and adjusting the dollar value of the inventory, it should be combined with other methods for a total inventory control system. The primary emphasis of the short-list method is to provide accurate and timely inventory information to the person responsible for order placement. The short list identifies the items that are in short supply. It is the most common feedback and control mechanism in use, but it is best suited for settings where duplicate or reserve stock is maintained and monitored by more rigorous methods. The main objective of the minimum and maximum method is to determine when and how much to order of each item. It also provides limited dollar control. The major disadvantage of this method is the time it requires to establish the minimum and maximum levels and to update them regularly to reflect changes in demand. The stock record card method is used to record information on the movement of goods in and out of the storage area. Stock cards can also be used to monitor inventory levels and facilitate order initiation. It is probably the optimum method to be used alone. The most effective system of inventory control is one employing a combination of these methods tailored to meet the institution's needs and available resources. PMID:3970028
Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
BOUCHER, JOHN G.
THE AUTHOR STATES THAT BEFORE PRESENT FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS CAN BE DISCUSSED INTELLIGENTLY, THE RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY AND LINGUISTICS WHICH HAS INFLUENCED THE DEVELOPMENT OF THESE METHODS MUST BE CONSIDERED. MANY FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS WERE BEGINNING TO FEEL COMFORTABLE WITH THE AUDIOLINGUAL APPROACH WHEN NOAM CHOMSKY, IN HIS 1966…
Method of forming nanodielectrics
Tuncer, Enis [Knoxville, TN; Polyzos, Georgios [Oak Ridge, TN
2014-01-07
A method of making a nanoparticle filled dielectric material. The method includes mixing nanoparticle precursors with a polymer material and reacting the nanoparticle mixed with the polymer material to form nanoparticles dispersed within the polymer material to form a dielectric composite.
Martin, Frank S.; Silver, Gary L.
1991-04-30
A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.
Improved nonlinear prediction method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi
2014-06-01
The analysis and prediction of time series data have been addressed by researchers. Many techniques have been developed to be applied in various areas, such as weather forecasting, financial markets and hydrological phenomena involving data that are contaminated by noise. Therefore, various techniques to improve the method have been introduced to analyze and predict time series data. In respect of the importance of analysis and the accuracy of the prediction result, a study was undertaken to test the effectiveness of the improved nonlinear prediction method for data that contain noise. The improved nonlinear prediction method involves the formation of composite serial data based on the successive differences of the time series. Then, the phase space reconstruction was performed on the composite data (one-dimensional) to reconstruct a number of space dimensions. Finally the local linear approximation method was employed to make a prediction based on the phase space. This improved method was tested with data series Logistics that contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of noise. The results show that by using the improved method, the predictions were found to be in close agreement with the observed ones. The correlation coefficient was close to one when the improved method was applied on data with up to 10% noise. Thus, an improvement to analyze data with noise without involving any noise reduction method was introduced to predict the time series data.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.
2011-01-01
"Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin
2006-01-01
The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…
Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.
1991-04-30
A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boulton, L. H.
1973-01-01
Discusses application of Schoniger's method of quantitative organic elemental analysis in teaching of qualitative analysis of the halogens, nitrogen, sulphur, and phosphorus. Indicates that the oxygen flask method is safe and suitable for both high school and college courses because of simple apparatus requirements. (CC)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.
2011-01-01
"Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions. It weaves…
Methods for data classification
Garrity, George; Lilburn, Timothy G.
2011-10-11
The present invention provides methods for classifying data and uncovering and correcting annotation errors. In particular, the present invention provides a self-organizing, self-correcting algorithm for use in classifying data. Additionally, the present invention provides a method for classifying biological taxa.
Methods of Motivational Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Malouff, John M.; Rooke, Sally E.; Schutte, Nicola S.; Foster, Roxanne M.; Bhullar, Navjot
2008-01-01
As teachers, we want to motivate our students to learn during a unit and to continue learning about the topic after the unit ends. This article describes about a hundred methods we use to help motivate students to learn. The methods form 12 categories: (1) making content relevant to student values and goals; (2) helping students achieve their…
Chainer, Timothy J.; Dang, Hien P.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.; Sharma, Arun
2015-08-11
A method aspect for removing heat from a data center may use liquid coolant cooled without vapor compression refrigeration on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack. The method may also include regulating liquid coolant flow to the data center through a range of liquid coolant flow values with a controller-apparatus based upon information technology equipment temperature threshold of the data center.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Del Grande, John
1993-01-01
Describes the method that Archimedes utilized to calculate the volumes of spheres and other solids. The method found the volume of a sphere by comparing the mass of parallel slices of a sphere and a cone with that of a cylinder of known mass. (MDH)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duval, A
1922-01-01
Different maps and scales are discussed with particular emphasis on their use in aviation. The author makes the observation that current navigation methods are slow and dangerous and should be replaced by scientific methods of navigation based on loxodromy and the use of the compass.
Sessler, A.M.
1996-02-01
Diverse methods which are available for particle beam cooling are reviewed. They consist of some highly developed techniques such as radiation damping, electron cooling, stochastic cooling and the more recently developed, laser cooling. Methods which have been theoretically developed, but not yet achieved experimentally, are also reviewed. They consist of ionization cooling, laser cooling in three dimensions and stimulated radiation cooling.
Geopositional Statistical Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ross, Kenton
2006-01-01
RMSE based methods distort circular error estimates (up to 50% overestimation). The empirical approach is the only statistically unbiased estimator offered. Ager modification to Shultz approach is nearly unbiased, but cumbersome. All methods hover around 20% uncertainty (@ 95% confidence) for low geopositional bias error estimates. This requires careful consideration in assessment of higher accuracy products.
The core of the research effort in the Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program (ReVA) is a set of data integration methods ranging from simple overlays to complex multivariate statistics. These methods are described in the EPA publication titled, "Regional Vulnerability Assess...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ember, Lois R.
1977-01-01
The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Montgomery, Joel R.
2008-01-01
This working paper explores contemporary research related to methods for teaching reading in Spanish and English in bilingual, foreign language, and English as a second language (ESL) classrooms. Changes stemming from innovations in research and learning are identified and a table is provided to compare methods of teaching reading in Spanish and…
Decker, David L; Lyles, Brad F; Purcell, Richard G; Hershey, Ronald Lee
2014-05-20
An apparatus and method for supporting a tubing bundle during installation or removal. The apparatus includes a clamp for securing the tubing bundle to an external wireline. The method includes deploying the tubing bundle and wireline together, The tubing bundle is periodically secured to the wireline using a clamp.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wankat, Phillip C.
1984-01-01
Discusses a simple method for following the movement of a solute in an adsorption or ion exchange system. This movement is used to study a variety of operational methods, including continuous flow and pulsed flow counter-current operations and simulated counter-current systems. Effect of changing thermodynamic variables is also considered. (JM)
The Schwinger Variational Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huo, Winifred M.
1995-01-01
Variational methods have proven invaluable in theoretical physics and chemistry, both for bound state problems and for the study of collision phenomena. The application of the Schwinger variational (SV) method to e-molecule collisions and molecular photoionization has been reviewed previously. The present chapter discusses the implementation of the SV method as applied to e-molecule collisions. Since this is not a review of cross section data, cross sections are presented only to server as illustrative examples. In the SV method, the correct boundary condition is automatically incorporated through the use of Green's function. Thus SV calculations can employ basis functions with arbitrary boundary conditions. The iterative Schwinger method has been used extensively to study molecular photoionization. For e-molecule collisions, it is used at the static exchange level to study elastic scattering and coupled with the distorted wave approximation to study electronically inelastic scattering.
Probabilistic boundary element method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cruse, T. A.; Raveendra, S. T.
1989-01-01
The purpose of the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Method (PSAM) project is to develop structural analysis capabilities for the design analysis of advanced space propulsion system hardware. The boundary element method (BEM) is used as the basis of the Probabilistic Advanced Analysis Methods (PADAM) which is discussed. The probabilistic BEM code (PBEM) is used to obtain the structural response and sensitivity results to a set of random variables. As such, PBEM performs analogous to other structural analysis codes such as finite elements in the PSAM system. For linear problems, unlike the finite element method (FEM), the BEM governing equations are written at the boundary of the body only, thus, the method eliminates the need to model the volume of the body. However, for general body force problems, a direct condensation of the governing equations to the boundary of the body is not possible and therefore volume modeling is generally required.
John Herschel's Graphical Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hankins, Thomas L.
2011-01-01
In 1833 John Herschel published an account of his graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He had hoped to be the first to determine such orbits, but Felix Savary in France and Johann Franz Encke in Germany beat him to the punch using analytical methods. Herschel was convinced, however, that his graphical method was much superior to analytical methods, because it used the judgment of the hand and eye to correct the inevitable errors of observation. Line graphs of the kind used by Herschel became common only in the 1830s, so Herschel was introducing a new method. He also found computation fatiguing and devised a "wheeled machine" to help him out. Encke was skeptical of Herschel's methods. He said that he lived for calculation and that the English would be better astronomers if they calculated more. It is difficult to believe that the entire Scientific Revolution of the 17th century took place without graphs and that only a few examples appeared in the 18th century. Herschel promoted the use of graphs, not only in astronomy, but also in the study of meteorology and terrestrial magnetism. Because he was the most prominent scientist in England, Herschel's advocacy greatly advanced graphical methods.
Raj, Rishi; Cologna, Marco; Francis, John S.
2016-05-10
This disclosure provides methods of flash sintering and compositions created by these methods. Methods for sintering multilayered bodies are provided in which a sintered body is produced in less than one minute. In one aspect, each layer is of a different composition, and may be constituted wholly from a ceramic or from a combination of ceramic and metallic particles. When the body includes a layer of an anode composition, a layer of an electrolyte composition and a layer of a cathode composition, the sintered body can be used to produce a solid oxide fuel cell.
Mourant, Judith R.; Anderson, Gerhard D.; Bigio, Irving J.; Johnson, Tamara M.
1996-01-01
Method for fusing bone. The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.
Miner, Nadine E.; Caudell, Thomas P.
2004-06-08
A sound synthesis method for modeling and synthesizing dynamic, parameterized sounds. The sound synthesis method yields perceptually convincing sounds and provides flexibility through model parameterization. By manipulating model parameters, a variety of related, but perceptually different sounds can be generated. The result is subtle changes in sounds, in addition to synthesis of a variety of sounds, all from a small set of models. The sound models can change dynamically according to changes in the simulation environment. The method is applicable to both stochastic (impulse-based) and non-stochastic (pitched) sounds.
Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.
1981-02-27
A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.
Introduction to multigrid methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wesseling, P.
1995-01-01
These notes were written for an introductory course on the application of multigrid methods to elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations for engineers, physicists and applied mathematicians. The use of more advanced mathematical tools, such as functional analysis, is avoided. The course is intended to be accessible to a wide audience of users of computational methods. We restrict ourselves to finite volume and finite difference discretization. The basic principles are given. Smoothing methods and Fourier smoothing analysis are reviewed. The fundamental multigrid algorithm is studied. The smoothing and coarse grid approximation properties are discussed. Multigrid schedules and structured programming of multigrid algorithms are treated. Robustness and efficiency are considered.
Method for inducing hypothermia
Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.
2003-04-15
Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.
Method for inducing hypothermia
Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.
2005-11-08
Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.
Method for inducing hypothermia
Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.
2008-09-09
Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.
Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes
2013-05-14
A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seeber, F
1939-01-01
After a brief survey of the commonly used single-value test methods, the importance of the determination of the incipient knock for the octane number is discussed and improvements suggested for the knock testing in the CFR engine. The DVL supercharge test method with its superiority of direct determination of fuel knock in each single cylinder of an airplane engine without involving structural changes, is described and the advantages of a multiple-value method enumerated. A diagrammatic presentation of the knock characteristics is presented.
Generalized subspace correction methods
Kolm, P.; Arbenz, P.; Gander, W.
1996-12-31
A fundamental problem in scientific computing is the solution of large sparse systems of linear equations. Often these systems arise from the discretization of differential equations by finite difference, finite volume or finite element methods. Iterative methods exploiting these sparse structures have proven to be very effective on conventional computers for a wide area of applications. Due to the rapid development and increasing demand for the large computing powers of parallel computers, it has become important to design iterative methods specialized for these new architectures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zahorik, John A.
1973-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to examine a problem that exists in relation to teaching methods and which has quite possibly served to limit the value of many promising methodologies that have been developed. (Author)
Concrete compositions and methods
Chen, Irvin; Lee, Patricia Tung; Patterson, Joshua
2015-06-23
Provided herein are compositions, methods, and systems for cementitious compositions containing calcium carbonate compositions and aggregate. The compositions find use in a variety of applications, including use in a variety of building materials and building applications.
Method for synthesizing boracities
Wolf, Gary A [Kennewick, WA
1982-01-01
A method for producing boracites is disclosed in which a solution of divalent metal acetate, boric acid, and halogen acid is evaporated to dryness and the resulting solid is heated in an inert atmosphere under pressure.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dolan, Thomas G.
2003-01-01
Describes project delivery methods that are replacing the traditional Design/Bid/Build linear approach to the management, design, and construction of new facilities. These variations can enhance construction management and teamwork. (SLD)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.
1989-01-01
To overcome serious weaknesses in determining the performance of initiating devices, a novel 'ignitability test method', representing actual design interfaces and ignition materials, has been developed. Ignition device output consists of heat, light, gas an burning particles. Past research methods have evaluated these parameters individually. This paper describes the development and demonstration of an ignitability test method combining all these parameters, and the quantitative assessment of the ignition performance of two widely used percussion primers, the M42C1-PA101 and the M42C2-793. The ignition materials used for this evaluation were several powder, granule and pellet sizes of black powder and boron-potassium nitrate. This test method should be useful for performance evaluation of all initiator types, quality assurance, evaluation of ignition interfaces, and service life studies of initiators and ignition materials.
Patriarca, P.; Slaughter, G.M.
1962-11-27
A method of joining metal surfaces is given. Surfaces having nickel or iron as the base metal are joined together with a brazing composition consisting of 80% nickel, 10% phosphorus, and 10% chromium. (AEC)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oza, Nikunj C.
2004-01-01
Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve better prediction accuracy than any of the individual models could on their own. The basic goal when designing an ensemble is the same as when establishing a committee of people: each member of the committee should be as competent as possible, but the members should be complementary to one another. If the members are not complementary, Le., if they always agree, then the committee is unnecessary---any one member is sufficient. If the members are complementary, then when one or a few members make an error, the probability is high that the remaining members can correct this error. Research in ensemble methods has largely revolved around designing ensembles consisting of competent yet complementary models.
Method for making organooxysilanes
Schattenmann, Florian Johannes
2003-12-23
A method for the preparation of organooxysilanes containing at least one silicon-carbon bond is provided which comprises reacting at least one tetraorganooxysilane with at least one transition metal organo compound.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heinemann, Allen W.; Shontz, Franklin C.
1985-01-01
Describes a method that permits answering research questions of general importance by examining individuals in a comprehensive, whole-person manner. Discusses their use in two studies of persons with spinal cord injuries. (LLL)
Anderson, N.G.
1963-01-29
An improved method of sedimentation is described. A series of spaced surfaces of powdered material positioned normal to the centrifugal field concentrates the larger, slower moving molecules of a liquid and hastens sedimentation. (AEC)
Iii. Sleep assessment methods.
Sadeh, Avi
2015-03-01
Sleep is a complex phenomenon that could be understood and assessed at many levels. Sleep could be described at the behavioral level (relative lack of movements and awareness and responsiveness) and at the brain level (based on EEG activity). Sleep could be characterized by its duration, by its distribution during the 24-hr day period, and by its quality (e.g., consolidated versus fragmented). Different methods have been developed to assess various aspects of sleep. This chapter covers the most established and common methods used to assess sleep in infants and children. These methods include polysomnography, videosomnography, actigraphy, direct observations, sleep diaries, and questionnaires. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are highlighted. PMID:25704734
Mathematics Case Methods Project.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barnett, Carne S.
1998-01-01
Presents an overview and analysis of the Mathematics Case Methods Project, which uses cases in order to examine and reflect upon teaching. Focuses on a special kind of teacher knowledge, coined pedagogical-content knowledge. (ASK)
Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid Methods
Brezina, M; Falgout, R; MacLachlan, S; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J
2004-04-09
Our ability to simulate physical processes numerically is constrained by our ability to solve the resulting linear systems, prompting substantial research into the development of multiscale iterative methods capable of solving these linear systems with an optimal amount of effort. Overcoming the limitations of geometric multigrid methods to simple geometries and differential equations, algebraic multigrid methods construct the multigrid hierarchy based only on the given matrix. While this allows for efficient black-box solution of the linear systems associated with discretizations of many elliptic differential equations, it also results in a lack of robustness due to assumptions made on the near-null spaces of these matrices. This paper introduces an extension to algebraic multigrid methods that removes the need to make such assumptions by utilizing an adaptive process. The principles which guide the adaptivity are highlighted, as well as their application to algebraic multigrid solution of certain symmetric positive-definite linear systems.
Method for making organyltriorganooxysilanes
Schattenmann, Florian Johannes
2002-01-01
A method for the preparation of organyltriorganooxysilanes containing at least one silicon-carbon bond is provided comprising reacting at least one tetraorganooxysilane with an activated carbon and at least one base.
McAdams, Wm.A.; Foss, M.H.
1958-08-12
A method of testing containers for leaks is described, particularly the testing of containers or cans in which the uranium slugs for nuelear reactors are jacketed. This method involves the immersion of the can in water under l50 pounds of pressure, then removing, drying, and coating the can with anhydrous copper sulfate. Amy water absorbed by the can under pressure will exude and discolor the copper sulfate in the area about the leak.
Method of saccharifying cellulose
Johnson, Eric A.; Demain, Arnold L.; Madia, Ashwin
1985-09-10
A method of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of a reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.
Henn, Fritz
2013-04-09
Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.
Henn, Fritz
2012-01-24
Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.
Improved radioanalytical methods
Erickson, M.D.; Aldstadt, J.H.; Alvarado, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Smith, L.L.
1995-12-31
Methods for the chemical characterization of the environment are being developed under a multitask project for the Analytical Services Division (EM-263) within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management. This project focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. We have developed improved methods, for separation of environmental levels of technetium-99 and strontium-89/90, radium, and actinides from soil and water; and for separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences. Among the novel separation techniques being used are element- and class-specific resins and membranes. (The 3M Corporation is commercializing Empore {trademark} membranes under a cooperative research and development agreement [CRADA] initiated under this project). We have also developed methods for simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ICP-MS method requires less rigorous chemical separations than traditional radiochemical analyses because of its mass-selective mode of detection. Actinides and their progeny have been isolated and concentrated from a variety of natural water matrices by using automated batch separation incorporating selective resins prior to ICP-MS analyses. In addition, improvements in detection limits, sample volume, and time of analysis were obtained by using other sample introduction techniques, such as ultrasonic nebulization and electrothermal vaporization. Integration and automation of the separation methods with the ICP-MS methodology by using flow injection analysis is underway, with an objective of automating methods to achieve more reproducible results, reduce labor costs, cut analysis time, and minimize secondary waste generation through miniaturization of the process.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berkowitz, J. B.; Emerson, N. H.
1972-01-01
Results are presented of a comprehensive search of the literature available, much of which has been generated by the research centers of NASA and its contractors, on plating and coating methods and techniques. Methods covered included: (1) electroplating from aqueous solutions; (2) electroplating from nonaqueous solutions; (3) electroplating from fused-salt baths; (4) electroforming; (5) electroless plating, immersion plating, and mirroring; (6) electroplating from gaseous plasmas; and (7) anodized films and conversion coatings.
Legrain, G; Delvoye, P; Salami, L
1992-05-01
The Togolese National Family Welfare Programme introduced a visit card system for method selection in 1989 developed several years earlier in Burundi. Thereby the health worker is aided in choosing the best contraceptive method for each client on the basis of personal data, medical history, and a general and gynecological examination. the card is also used makes the selection by taking into account contraindications and considering them in conjunction with the client's individual profile. At this stage the innovative aspect of the visit card is that the contraindications are grouped together under 3 headings; those identified by asking questions (e.g., a mother breast feeding for less than 6 weeks),those identified by looking at the client's history (e.g., a recent liver ailment), and those revealed by the general and gynecological examination (e.g., a blood pressure of more than 14/10). The 2nd part of the card concerns the search for the recommended contraceptive method. It includes a list of the methods: rhythm, barrier, IUD, combination pill, low-dose progestogen pill, and injection. A plus sign indicates that the method is recommended, a minus sign indicates that the method is not recommended, and a double minus sign indicates that the method is relatively recommended. A relative contraindication becomes an absolute contraindication if associated with another relative contraindication. After the acceptance of the method, the health worker prescribes it, and advises the client about the follow-up program, any possible side effects, and any warning signs which necessitate another appointment. PMID:12222226
Multiscale methods for nanoengineering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jolley, Kenny
This project is presented in two sections. Two different multiscale models are developed in order to increase the computational speed of two well known atomistic algorithms, Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC). In Section I, the MD method is introduced. Following this, a multiscale method of linking an MD simulation of heat conduction to a finite element (FE) simulation is presented. The method is simple to implement into a conventional MD code and is independent of the atomistic model employed. This bridge between the FE and MD simulations works by ensuring that energy is conserved across the FE/MD boundary. The multiscale simulation allows for the investigation of large systems which are beyond the range of MD. The method is tested extensively in the steady state and transient regimes, and is shown to agree with well with large scale MD and FE simulations. Furthermore, the method removes the artificial boundary effects due to the thermostats and hence allows exact temperatures and temperature gradients to be imposed on to an MD simulation. This allows for better study of temperature gradients on crystal defects etc.. In Section II, the KMC method is introduced. A continuum model for the KMC method is presented and compared to the standard KMC model of surface diffusion. This method replaces the many discrete back and forth atom jumps performed by a standard KMC algorithm with a single flux that can evolve in time. Elastic strain is then incorporated into both algorithms and used to simulate atom deposition upon a substrate by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. Quantum dot formation due to a mismatch in the lattice spacing between a substrate and a deposited film is readily observed in both models. Furthermore, by depositing alternating layers of substrate and deposit, self-organised quantum dot super-lattices are observed in both models..
Method of saccharifying cellulose
Johnson, E.A.; Demain, A.L.; Madia, A.
1983-05-13
A method is disclosed of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of thiol reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.
Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R
1975-06-01
In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. PMID:1100671
Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R
1975-01-01
In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. Images PMID:1100671
Methods in Molecular Biophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serdyuk, Igor N.; Zaccai, Nathan R.; Zaccai, Joseph
2001-12-01
Our knowledge of biological macromolecules and their interactions is based on the application of physical methods, ranging from classical thermodynamics to recently developed techniques for the detection and manipulation of single molecules. These methods, which include mass spectrometry, hydrodynamics, microscopy, diffraction and crystallography, electron microscopy, molecular dynamics simulations, and nuclear magnetic resonance, are complementary; each has its specific advantages and limitations. Organised by method, this textbook provides descriptions and examples of applications for the key physical methods in modern biology. It is an invaluable resource for undergraduate and graduate students of molecular biophysics in science and medical schools, as well as research scientists looking for an introduction to techniques beyond their specialty. As appropriate for this interdisciplinary field, the book includes short asides to explain physics aspects to biologists and biology aspects to physicists. Comprehensive coverage and up-to-date treatment of the latest physical methods in modern biology Each method includes a brief historical introduction, theoretical principles, applications, advantages and limitations, and concludes with a checklist of key ideas Interdisciplinary and accessible to biologists, physicists, and those with medical backgrounds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henke, Luke
2010-01-01
The ICARE method is a flexible, widely applicable method for systems engineers to solve problems and resolve issues in a complete and comprehensive manner. The method can be tailored by diverse users for direct application to their function (e.g. system integrators, design engineers, technical discipline leads, analysts, etc.). The clever acronym, ICARE, instills the attitude of accountability, safety, technical rigor and engagement in the problem resolution: Identify, Communicate, Assess, Report, Execute (ICARE). This method was developed through observation of Space Shuttle Propulsion Systems Engineering and Integration (PSE&I) office personnel approach in an attempt to succinctly describe the actions of an effective systems engineer. Additionally it evolved from an effort to make a broadly-defined checklist for a PSE&I worker to perform their responsibilities in an iterative and recursive manner. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Systems Engineering Handbook states, engineering of NASA systems requires a systematic and disciplined set of processes that are applied recursively and iteratively for the design, development, operation, maintenance, and closeout of systems throughout the life cycle of the programs and projects. ICARE is a method that can be applied within the boundaries and requirements of NASA s systems engineering set of processes to provide an elevated sense of duty and responsibility to crew and vehicle safety. The importance of a disciplined set of processes and a safety-conscious mindset increases with the complexity of the system. Moreover, the larger the system and the larger the workforce, the more important it is to encourage the usage of the ICARE method as widely as possible. According to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook, elements of a system can include people, hardware, software, facilities, policies and documents; all things required to produce system-level results, qualities, properties, characteristics
1981-05-01
The World Health Organization (WHO) has financed a study of the Billings method of family planning in 3 developing and 2 developed countries to obtain objective data on the effectiveness of the method. Although 40% of the 870 couples had previously used another abstinence method and all were highly motivated to use the technique, the life-table pregnancy rate for the year following training in the method reached 20%. 11 studies of the cervical mucus method have been carried out in India, Tonga, Colombia, and Chile and in the US and Australia, often in new programs which did not employ uniform teaching methods. 2 Indian studies showed pregnancy rates of under 6/100 woman years, while 2 studies in developed countries showed rates under 15 and 2 showed rates over 30/100 woman years. Most of the studies have attributed the high pregnancy rates to the failure of couples to observe abstinence. Pregnancy occurred in the 5 countries partcipating in the WHO studies primarily as a result of the failure of couples to abstain from sexual relations during periods identified as fertile, despite active promotion of natural family planning and assistance from instructors at monthly intervals. Other reasons for the high failure rate were late occurrance of mucus flow relative to the time of ovulation, overly early appearance of mucus, and failure to observe or to interpret correctly the mucus symptom. Mucus patterns and facility of interpretation can be affected by various physiological or psychological factors, such as vaginal or cervical infection, vaginal secretion due to sexual stimulation, medicines, tension, and illness. The common observation of higher pregnancy rates among couples who wish to postpone rather than prevent a birth appears to be particularly important in the case of abstinence methods. PMID:12311398
Methods for Neutron Spectrometry
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Brockhouse, Bertram N.
1961-01-09
The appropriate theories and the general philosophy of methods of measurement and treatment of data neutron spectrometry are discussed. Methods of analysis of results for liquids using the Van Hove formulation, and for crystals using the Born-von Karman theory, are reviewed. The most useful of the available methods of measurement are considered to be the crystal spectrometer methods and the pulsed monoenergetic beam/time-of-flight method. Pulsed-beam spectrometers have the advantage of higher counting rates than crystal spectrometers, especially in view of the fact that simultaneous measurements in several counters at different angles of scattering are possible in pulsed-beam spectrometers. The crystal spectrometer permits several valuable new types of specialized experiments to be performed, especially energy distribution measurements at constant momentum transfer. The Chalk River triple-axis crystal-spectrometer is discussed, with reference to its use in making the specialized experiments. The Chalk River rotating crystal (pulsed-beam) spectrometer is described, and a comparison of this type instrument with other pulsed-beam spectrometers is made. A partial outline of the theory of operation of rotating-crystal spectrometers is presented. The use of quartz-crystal filters for fast neutron elimination and for order elimination is discussed. (auth)
Optimization Methods in Sherpa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siemiginowska, Aneta; Nguyen, Dan T.; Doe, Stephen M.; Refsdal, Brian L.
2009-09-01
Forward fitting is a standard technique used to model X-ray data. A statistic, usually assumed weighted chi^2 or Poisson likelihood (e.g. Cash), is minimized in the fitting process to obtain a set of the best model parameters. Astronomical models often have complex forms with many parameters that can be correlated (e.g. an absorbed power law). Minimization is not trivial in such setting, as the statistical parameter space becomes multimodal and finding the global minimum is hard. Standard minimization algorithms can be found in many libraries of scientific functions, but they are usually focused on specific functions. However, Sherpa designed as general fitting and modeling application requires very robust optimization methods that can be applied to variety of astronomical data (X-ray spectra, images, timing, optical data etc.). We developed several optimization algorithms in Sherpa targeting a wide range of minimization problems. Two local minimization methods were built: Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was obtained from MINPACK subroutine LMDIF and modified to achieve the required robustness; and Nelder-Mead simplex method has been implemented in-house based on variations of the algorithm described in the literature. A global search Monte-Carlo method has been implemented following a differential evolution algorithm presented by Storn and Price (1997). We will present the methods in Sherpa and discuss their usage cases. We will focus on the application to Chandra data showing both 1D and 2D examples. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).
Panel methods: An introduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erickson, Larry L.
1990-01-01
Panel methods are numerical schemes for solving (the Prandtl-Glauert equation) for linear, inviscid, irrotational flow about aircraft flying at subsonic or supersonic speeds. The tools at the panel-method user's disposal are (1) surface panels of source-doublet-vorticity distributions that can represent nearly arbitrary geometry, and (2) extremely versatile boundary condition capabilities that can frequently be used for creative modeling. Panel-method capabilities and limitations, basic concepts common to all panel-method codes, different choices that were made in the implementation of these concepts into working computer programs, and various modeling techniques involving boundary conditions, jump properties, and trailing wakes are discussed. An approach for extending the method to nonlinear transonic flow is also presented. Three appendices supplement the main test. In appendix 1, additional detail is provided on how the basic concepts are implemented into a specific computer program (PANAIR). In appendix 2, it is shown how to evaluate analytically the fundamental surface integral that arises in the expressions for influence-coefficients, and evaluate its jump property. In appendix 3, a simple example is used to illustrate the so-called finite part of the improper integrals.
Methods of Melanoma Detection.
Leachman, Sancy A; Cassidy, Pamela B; Chen, Suephy C; Curiel, Clara; Geller, Alan; Gareau, Daniel; Pellacani, Giovanni; Grichnik, James M; Malvehy, Josep; North, Jeffrey; Jacques, Steven L; Petrie, Tracy; Puig, Susana; Swetter, Susan M; Tofte, Susan; Weinstock, Martin A
2016-01-01
Detection and removal of melanoma, before it has metastasized, dramatically improves prognosis and survival. The purpose of this chapter is to (1) summarize current methods of melanoma detection and (2) review state-of-the-art detection methods and technologies that have the potential to reduce melanoma mortality. Current strategies for the detection of melanoma range from population-based educational campaigns and screening to the use of algorithm-driven imaging technologies and performance of assays that identify markers of transformation. This chapter will begin by describing state-of-the-art methods for educating and increasing awareness of at-risk individuals and for performing comprehensive screening examinations. Standard and advanced photographic methods designed to improve reliability and reproducibility of the clinical examination will also be reviewed. Devices that magnify and/or enhance malignant features of individual melanocytic lesions (and algorithms that are available to interpret the results obtained from these devices) will be compared and contrasted. In vivo confocal microscopy and other cellular-level in vivo technologies will be compared to traditional tissue biopsy, and the role of a noninvasive "optical biopsy" in the clinical setting will be discussed. Finally, cellular and molecular methods that have been applied to the diagnosis of melanoma, such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), will be discussed. PMID:26601859
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, David N.
2004-01-01
This manual reviews the derivation of the similitude relationships believed to be important to ice accretion and examines ice-accretion data to evaluate their importance. Both size scaling and test-condition scaling methods employing the resulting similarity parameters are described, and experimental icing tests performed to evaluate scaling methods are reviewed with results. The material included applies primarily to unprotected, unswept geometries, but some discussion of how to approach other situations is included as well. The studies given here and scaling methods considered are applicable only to Appendix-C icing conditions. Nearly all of the experimental results presented have been obtained in sea-level tunnels. Recommendations are given regarding which scaling methods to use for both size scaling and test-condition scaling, and icing test results are described to support those recommendations. Facility limitations and size-scaling restrictions are discussed. Finally, appendices summarize the air, water and ice properties used in NASA scaling studies, give expressions for each of the similarity parameters used and provide sample calculations for the size-scaling and test-condition scaling methods advocated.
Battery equalization active methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.
2014-01-01
Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.
Multiple detectors "Influence Method".
Rios, I J; Mayer, R E
2016-05-01
The "Influence Method" is conceived for the absolute determination of a nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency and without the need to register coincidences of any kind. This method exploits the influence of the presence of one detector in the count rate of another detector, when they are placed one behind the other and define statistical estimators for the absolute number of incident particles and for the efficiency (Rios and Mayer, 2015a). Its detailed mathematical description was recently published (Rios and Mayer, 2015b) and its practical implementation in the measurement of a moderated neutron flux arising from an isotopic neutron source was exemplified in (Rios and Mayer, 2016). With the objective of further reducing the measurement uncertainties, in this article we extend the method for the case of multiple detectors placed one behind the other. The new estimators for the number of particles and the detection efficiency are herein derived. PMID:26943904
Branagan, Daniel J.; Burch, Joseph V.
2001-01-01
In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.
Barnette, Daniel W.
2002-01-01
The present invention provides a method of grid generation that uses the geometry of the problem space and the governing relations to generate a grid. The method can generate a grid with minimized discretization errors, and with minimal user interaction. The method of the present invention comprises assigning grid cell locations so that, when the governing relations are discretized using the grid, at least some of the discretization errors are substantially zero. Conventional grid generation is driven by the problem space geometry; grid generation according to the present invention is driven by problem space geometry and by governing relations. The present invention accordingly can provide two significant benefits: more efficient and accurate modeling since discretization errors are minimized, and reduced cost grid generation since less human interaction is required.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pontius, James T. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
The present invention is directed to a method of bonding at least two surfaces together. The methods step of the present invention include applying a strip of adhesive to a first surface along a predefined outer boundary of a bond area and thereby defining a remaining open area there within. A second surface, or gusset plate, is affixed onto the adhesive before the adhesive cures. The strip of adhesive is allowed to cure and then a second amount of adhesive is applied to cover the remaining open area and substantially fill a void between said first and second surfaces about said bond area. A stencil may be used to precisely apply the strip of adhesive. When the strip cures, it acts as a dam to prevent overflow of the subsequent application of adhesive to undesired areas. The method results in a precise bond area free of undesired shapes and of a preferred profile which eliminate the drawbacks of the prior art bonds.
Peterman, Dean R [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D [Pocatello, ID
2010-09-21
Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hobson, Michael P.; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David
2014-02-01
Preface; Part I. Methods: 1. Foundations and algorithms John Skilling; 2. Simple applications of Bayesian methods D. S. Sivia and Steve Rawlings; 3. Parameter estimation using Monte Carlo sampling Antony Lewis and Sarah Bridle; 4. Model selection and multi-model interference Andrew R. Liddle, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 5. Bayesian experimental design and model selection forecasting Roberto Trotta, Martin Kunz, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 6. Signal separation in cosmology M. P. Hobson, M. A. J. Ashdown and V. Stolyarov; Part II. Applications: 7. Bayesian source extraction M. P. Hobson, Graça Rocha and R. Savage; 8. Flux measurement Daniel Mortlock; 9. Gravitational wave astronomy Neil Cornish; 10. Bayesian analysis of cosmic microwave background data Andrew H. Jaffe; 11. Bayesian multilevel modelling of cosmological populations Thomas J. Loredo and Martin A. Hendry; 12. A Bayesian approach to galaxy evolution studies Stefano Andreon; 13. Photometric redshift estimation: methods and applications Ofer Lahav, Filipe B. Abdalla and Manda Banerji; Index.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hobson, Michael P.; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David
2009-12-01
Preface; Part I. Methods: 1. Foundations and algorithms John Skilling; 2. Simple applications of Bayesian methods D. S. Sivia and Steve Rawlings; 3. Parameter estimation using Monte Carlo sampling Antony Lewis and Sarah Bridle; 4. Model selection and multi-model interference Andrew R. Liddle, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 5. Bayesian experimental design and model selection forecasting Roberto Trotta, Martin Kunz, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 6. Signal separation in cosmology M. P. Hobson, M. A. J. Ashdown and V. Stolyarov; Part II. Applications: 7. Bayesian source extraction M. P. Hobson, Graça Rocha and R. Savage; 8. Flux measurement Daniel Mortlock; 9. Gravitational wave astronomy Neil Cornish; 10. Bayesian analysis of cosmic microwave background data Andrew H. Jaffe; 11. Bayesian multilevel modelling of cosmological populations Thomas J. Loredo and Martin A. Hendry; 12. A Bayesian approach to galaxy evolution studies Stefano Andreon; 13. Photometric redshift estimation: methods and applications Ofer Lahav, Filipe B. Abdalla and Manda Banerji; Index.
Saadd, Y.
1994-12-31
In spite of the tremendous progress achieved in recent years in the general area of iterative solution techniques, there are still a few obstacles to the acceptance of iterative methods in a number of applications. These applications give rise to very indefinite or highly ill-conditioned non Hermitian matrices. Trying to solve these systems with the simple-minded standard preconditioned Krylov subspace methods can be a frustrating experience. With the mathematical and physical models becoming more sophisticated, the typical linear systems which we encounter today are far more difficult to solve than those of just a few years ago. This trend is likely to accentuate. This workshop will discuss (1) these applications and the types of problems that they give rise to; and (2) recent progress in solving these problems with iterative methods. The workshop will end with a hopefully stimulating panel discussion with the speakers.
Membrane Protein Prediction Methods
Punta, Marco; Forrest, Lucy R.; Bigelow, Henry; Kernytsky, Andrew; Liu, Jinfeng; Rost, Burkhard
2007-01-01
We survey computational approaches that tackle membrane protein structure and function prediction. While describing the main ideas that have led to the development of the most relevant and novel methods, we also discuss pitfalls, provide practical hints and highlight the challenges that remain. The methods covered include: sequence alignment, motif search, functional residue identification, transmembrane segment and protein topology predictions, homology and ab initio modeling. Overall, predictions of functional and structural features of membrane proteins are improving, although progress is hampered by the limited amount of high-resolution experimental information available. While predictions of transmembrane segments and protein topology rank among the most accurate methods in computational biology, more attention and effort will be required in the future to ameliorate database search, homology and ab initio modeling. PMID:17367718
Unorthodox theoretical methods
Nedd, Sean
2012-01-01
The use of the ReaxFF force field to correlate with NMR mobilities of amine catalytic substituents on a mesoporous silica nanosphere surface is considered. The interfacing of the ReaxFF force field within the Surface Integrated Molecular Orbital/Molecular Mechanics (SIMOMM) method, in order to replicate earlier SIMOMM published data and to compare with the ReaxFF data, is discussed. The development of a new correlation consistent Composite Approach (ccCA) is presented, which incorporates the completely renormalized coupled cluster method with singles, doubles and non-iterative triples corrections towards the determination of heats of formations and reaction pathways which contain biradical species.
Shapiro, Andrew Philip; Thornton, Roy Fred; Salvo, Joseph James
2003-01-01
The present invention provides a method for treating contaminated media. The method comprises introducing remediating ions consisting essentially of ferrous ions, and being peroxide-free, in the contaminated media; applying a potential difference across the contaminated media to cause the remediating ions to migrate into contact with contaminants in the contaminated media; chemically degrading contaminants in the contaminated media by contact with the remediating ions; monitoring the contaminated media for degradation products of the contaminants; and controlling the step of applying the potential difference across the contaminated media in response to the step of monitoring.
Spacecraft Attitude Determination Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
This document is presentation in viewgraph form, which outlines the methods of determining spacecraft attitude. The presentation reviews several parameterizations relating to spacecraft attitude, such as Euler's Theorem, Rodriques parameters, and Euler-Rodriques parameters or Quaternion. Onboard attitude determination is the norm, using either single frame or filtering methods. The presentation reviews several mathematical representations of attitude. The mechanisms for determining attitude on board the Hubble Space Telescope, the Tropical Rainfall and Measuring Mission and the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer are reviewed. Wahba's problem, Procrustes Problem, and some solutions are also summarized.
Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.
1964-01-14
This patent relates to a method of producing neutrons in which there is produced a heated plasma containing heavy hydrogen isotope ions wherein heated ions are injected and confined in an elongated axially symmetric magnetic field having at least one magnetic field gradient region. In accordance with the method herein, the amplitude of the field and gradients are varied at an oscillatory periodic frequency to effect confinement by providing proper ratios of rotational to axial velocity components in the motion of said particles. The energetic neutrons may then be used as in a blanket zone containing a moderator and a source fissionable material to produce heat and thermal neutron fissionable materials. (AEC)
FUEL ELEMENT FABRICATION METHOD
Hix, J.N.; Cooley, G.E.; Cunningham, J.E.
1960-05-31
A method is given for assembling and fabricating a fuel element comprising a plurality of spaced parallel fuel plates of a bowed configuration supported by and between a pair of transperse aluminum side plates. In this method, a brasing alloy is preplated on one surface of the aluminum side plates in the form of a cladding or layer-of uniform thickness. Grooves are then cut into the side plates through the alloy layer and into the base aluminum which results in the utilization of thinner aluminum side plates since a portion of the necessary groove depth is supplied by the brazing alloy.
Oermann, M H
1990-01-01
Research on teaching methods in nursing education was categorized into studies on media, CAI, and other nontraditional instructional strategies. While the research differed, some generalizations may be made from the findings. Multimedia, whether it is used for individual or group instruction, is at least as effective as traditional instruction (lecture and lecture-discussion) in promoting cognitive learning, retention of knowledge, and performance. Further study is needed to identify variables that may influence learning and retention. While learner attitudes toward mediated instruction tended to be positive, investigators failed to control for the effect of novelty. Control over intervening variables was lacking in the majority of studies as well. Research indicated that CAI is as effective as other teaching methods in terms of knowledge gain and retention. Attitudes toward CAI tended to be favorable, with similar problems in measurement as those evidenced in studies of media. Chang (1986) also recommends that future research examine the impact of computer-video interactive instruction on students, faculty, and settings. Research is needed on experimental teaching methods, strategies for teaching problem solving and clinical judgment, and ways of improving the traditional lecture and discussion. Limited research in these areas makes generalizations impossible. There is a particular need for research on how to teach students the diagnostic reasoning process and encourage critical thinking, both in terms of appropriate teaching methods and the way in which those strategies should be used. It is interesting that few researchers studied lecture and lecture-discussion except as comparable teaching methods for research on other strategies. Additional research questions may be generated on lecture and discussion in relation to promoting concept learning, an understanding of nursing and other theories, transfer of knowledge, and development of cognitive skills. Few
Mourant, J.R.; Anderson, G.D.; Bigio, I.J.; Johnson, T.M.
1996-03-12
The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.
Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Perrine, Kenneth A.; Foote, Harlan P.; Thomas, James J.
2008-12-23
Methods for visualizing a graph by automatically drawing elements of the graph as labels are disclosed. In one embodiment, the method comprises receiving node information and edge information from an input device and/or communication interface, constructing a graph layout based at least in part on that information, wherein the edges are automatically drawn as labels, and displaying the graph on a display device according to the graph layout. In some embodiments, the nodes are automatically drawn as labels instead of, or in addition to, the label-edges.
Smith, C.S.
1959-08-01
A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.
Electrorheological fluids and methods
Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.
2015-06-02
Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.
On Galerkin difference methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banks, J. W.; Hagstrom, T.
2016-05-01
Energy-stable difference methods for hyperbolic initial-boundary value problems are constructed using a Galerkin framework. The underlying basis functions are Lagrange functions associated with continuous piecewise polynomial approximation on a computational grid. Both theoretical and computational evidence shows that the resulting methods possess excellent dispersion properties. In the absence of boundaries the spectral radii of the operators for the first and second derivative matrices are bounded independent of discretization order. With boundaries the spectral radius of the first order derivative matrix appears to be bounded independent of discretization order, and grows only slowly with discretization order for problems in second-order form.
2012-08-01
Interatomic force and energy calculation subroutine to be used with the molecular dynamics simulation code LAMMPS (Ref a.). The code evaluated the total energy and atomic forces (energy gradient) according to a cubic spline-based variant (Ref b.) of the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) with a additional Stillinger-Weber (SW) contribution.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pearce, Cathie; MacLure, Maggie
2009-01-01
Postmodern and deconstructionist approaches are necessarily concerned with "making visible" and working with marginalized "others". This article explores how theory as method might enable us to revisit methodological approaches that have conventionally relied upon semantic readings of the text. Deconstruction clears the way for such approaches…
Keller, D.V.; Smith, C.D.
1980-09-23
Methods of and apparatus for cleaning coal in which halogenated hydrocarbons are used as parting liquids are disclosed. Various novel techniques, components, and combinations thereof are employed to maximize efficiency; to minimize costs and adverse environmental impacts; to make it possible to recover coal of a character which has heretofore been economically unrecoverable; to produce a superior product; and to reach other worthwhile goals.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Travis, R. B.; Lamar, D. L.
1987-01-01
Reviews methods of determining apparent dip and highlights the use of a device which consists of a nomogram printed on a protractor. Explains how the apparent-dip calculator-protractor can be constructed and outlines the steps for its operation. (ML)
METHOD OF CENTRIFUGE OPERATION
Cohen, K.
1960-05-10
A method of isotope separation is described in which two streams are flowed axially of, and countercurrently through, a cylindrical centrifuge bowl. Under the influence of a centrifugal field, the light fraction is concentrated in a stream flowing through the central portion of the bowl, whereas the heavy fraction is concentrated in a stream at the periphery thereof.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gayman, W. H.
1974-01-01
Test method and apparatus determine fluid effective mass and damping in frequency range where effective mass may be considered as total mass less sum of slosh masses. Apparatus is designed so test tank and its mounting yoke are supported from structural test wall by series of flexures.
Methods Of Making Pyrrolidones
Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.
2003-12-30
The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.
Hydrocarbonaceous material upgrading method
Brecher, Lee E.; Mones, Charles G.; Guffey, Frank D.
2015-06-02
A hydrocarbonaceous material upgrading method may involve a novel combination of heating, vaporizing and chemically reacting hydrocarbonaceous feedstock that is substantially unpumpable at pipeline conditions, and condensation of vapors yielded thereby, in order to upgrade that feedstock to a hydrocarbonaceous material condensate that meets crude oil pipeline specification.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herrick, James A.
1989-01-01
Explores how argumentation in the eighteenth-century miracles controversy (a century-long debate in Britain over the reasonableness of revealed religion) exhibited a controlling concern for procedural considerations. Discusses how the Deists and the Orthodox apologists used their argumentative force to advance rival methods for evaluating miracle…
Kacewicz, M.
1987-11-01
An approach for the description of uncertainty in geology using fuzzy-set theory and an example of slope stability problem is presented. Soil parameters may be described by fuzzy sets. The fuzzy method of slope stability estimation is considered and verified in the case of one of Warsaw's (Poland) slopes.
Projecting the Scientific Method.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Uthe, R. E.
2000-01-01
Describes how the gas laws are an excellent vehicle for introducing the steps of the scientific method. Students can use balloons and a simple apparatus to observe changes in various gas parameters, develop ideas about the changes they see, collect numerical data, test their ideas, derive simple equations for the relationships, and use the…
Hutter, G.
1994-01-04
A method of processing contaminated soil is disclosed whereby the soil in the form of feed stock is heated in a combustion chamber of a processor with the hydrocarbons being evacuated to a condensing system resulting in a petroleum product while the soil feed stock is detoxified in an afterburner to form clean soil for general use. 1 fig.
Lipp, G. Daniel
1994-05-03
A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of triangular cell cross-section and high cell density, the die having a combination of (i) feedholes feeding slot intersections and (ii) feedholes feeding slot segments not supplied from slot intersections, whereby a reduction in feedhole count is achieved while still retaining good extrusion efficiency and extrudate uniformity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuksin, Sergei; Maiocchi, Alberto
In this chapter we present a general method of constructing the effective equation which describes the behavior of small-amplitude solutions for a nonlinear PDE in finite volume, provided that the linear part of the equation is a hamiltonian system with a pure imaginary discrete spectrum. The effective equation is obtained by retaining only the resonant terms of the nonlinearity (which may be hamiltonian, or may be not); the assertion that it describes the limiting behavior of small-amplitude solutions is a rigorous mathematical theorem. In particular, the method applies to the three- and four-wave systems. We demonstrate that different possible types of energy transport are covered by this method, depending on whether the set of resonances splits into finite clusters (this happens, e.g. in case of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation), or is connected (this happens, e.g. in the case of the NLS equation if the space-dimension is at least two). For equations of the first type the energy transition to high frequencies does not hold, while for equations of the second type it may take place. Our method applies to various weakly nonlinear wave systems, appearing in plasma, meteorology and oceanography.
Collins, H. Dale; Gribble, R. Parks; Busse, Lawrence J.
1991-01-01
A method for providing an image of the human heart's electrical system derives time-of-flight data from an array of EKG electrodes and this data is transformed into phase information. The phase information, treated as a hologram, is reconstructed to provide an image in one or two dimensions of the electrical system of the functioning heart.
Photovoltaic device and method
Cleereman, Robert J; Lesniak, Michael J; Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joe A; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K; Boven, Michelle L
2015-01-27
The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.
Methods of making pyrrolidones
Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.
2003-10-14
The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.
Methods of making pyrrolidones
Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.
2004-03-16
The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.
Methods of making pyrrolidones
Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.
2003-08-05
The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.
Method of purifying isosaccharinate
Rai, Dhanpat; Moore, Robert C.; Tucker, Mark D.
2010-09-07
A method of purifying isosaccharinate by mixing sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide with calcium isosaccharinate, removing the precipitated calcium carbonate and adjusting the pH to between approximately 4.5 to 5.0 thereby removing excess carbonate and hydroxide to provide an acidic solution containing isosaccharinate.
Method of photocatalytic nanotagging
Shelnutt, John A.; Medforth, Craig J.; Song, Yujiang
2010-04-27
A nanotagged chemical structure comprising a chemical structure with an associated photocatalyst and a tagging nanoparticle (a nanotag) grown in proximity to the photocatalyst, and a method for making the nanotagged chemical structure. The nanoparticle is grown in proximity to the photocatalyst by using a photocatalytic reduction reaction.
Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.
2008-08-19
A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.
Weissmann, Charles
2013-11-01
Major advances in science are usually launched by new methods or techniques. Because this essay is not intended as a history of science, I shall not invoke the invention of the microscope or telescope as the gateways to inner and outer space, but will restrict myself to developments I have witnessed, or almost witnessed, during my scientific lifetime. PMID:24055872
Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.
2010-10-26
A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.
1973-01-01
Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.
Nevanlinna, O.
1994-12-31
This note summarizes some results on (a monitored version of) the Arnoldi method in Hilbert spaces. The interest in working in infinite dimensional spaces comes partly from the fact that only then can one have meaningful asymptotical statements (which hopefully give some light to the convergence of Arnoldi in large dimensional problems with iteration indices far less than the dimension).
Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.
1989-01-01
Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream processing-bioseparations.…
Photovoltaic device and method
Cleereman, Robert; Lesniak, Michael J.; Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K.; Boven, Michelle L.
2015-11-24
The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.
Nonparametric Methods in Reliability
Hollander, Myles; Peña, Edsel A.
2005-01-01
Probabilistic and statistical models for the occurrence of a recurrent event over time are described. These models have applicability in the reliability, engineering, biomedical and other areas where a series of events occurs for an experimental unit as time progresses. Nonparametric inference methods, in particular, the estimation of a relevant distribution function, are described. PMID:16710444
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schechter, Abraham A.
This book addresses some common preservation techniques that invariably become necessary in library and archival collections of any size. The procedures are described in chronological sequence, and photographs show the techniques from the viewpoint of the person actually doing the work. The recommended repair methods can be accomplished using…
Teaching Materials and Methods.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Physiologist, 1982
1982-01-01
Twelve abstracts of papers presented at the 33rd Annual Fall Meeting of the American Physiological Society are listed, focusing on teaching materials/methods. Topics, among others, include trends in physiology laboratory programs, cardiovascular system model, cardiovascular computer simulation with didactic feedback, and computer generated figures…
Ferrari's Method and Technology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Althoen, Steve
2005-01-01
Some tips that combine knowledge of mathematics history and technology for adapting Ferrar's method to factor quintics with a TI-83 graphing calculator are presented. A demonstration on the use of the root finder and regression capabilities of the graphing calculator are presented, so that the tips can be easily adapted for any graphing calculator…
Teaching Materials and Methods.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Physiologist, 1987
1987-01-01
Contains abstracts of presented papers which deal with teaching materials and methods in physiology. Includes papers on preconceptual notions in physiology, somatosensory activity recorded in the dorsal root ganglion of the bull frog, and the use of the Apple Macintosh microcomputer in teaching human anatomy and physiology. (TW)
Selection: Evaluation and methods
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Procedures to collect and to analyze data for genetic improvement of dairy cattle are described. Methods of identification and milk recording are presented. Selection traits include production (milk, fat, and protein yields and component percentages), conformation (final score and linear type traits...
Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee
2013-04-16
The present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit.
Banker, John G.; Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.
1977-01-01
A method of limiting carbon contamination from graphite ware used in induction melting of uranium alloys is provided comprising coating the graphite surface with a suspension of Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 particles in water containing about 1.5 to 4% by weight sodium carboxymethylcellulose.
Banker, J.G.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.
1975-11-06
A method of limiting carbon contamination from graphite ware used in induction melting of uranium alloys is provided. The graphite surface is coated with a suspension of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ particles in water containing about 1.5 to 4 percent by weight sodium carboxymethylcellulose.
Research Methods in Sociolinguistics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel
2014-01-01
The development of Sociolinguistics has been qualitatively and quantitatively outstanding within Linguistic Science since its beginning in the 1950s, with a steady growth in both theoretical and methodological developments as well as in its interdisciplinary directions within the spectrum of language and society. Field methods in sociolinguistic…
Neurological Impress Method plus
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Flood, James; Lapp, Diane; Fisher, Douglas
2005-01-01
The purpose of these two studies was to redirect interest to the Neurological Impress Method, a multisensory approach to reading instruction that occurs between a teacher and a student, which has been largely forgotten in mainstream and special education circles over the past decades. In addition to its emphasis on oral reading, we included a…
Jackiewicz, Jason
2009-09-16
With the rapid advances in sophisticated solar modeling and the abundance of high-quality solar pulsation data, efficient and robust inversion techniques are crucial for seismic studies. We present some aspects of an efficient Fourier Optimally Localized Averaging (OLA) inversion method with an example applied to time-distance helioseismology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dasenbrock, Reed Way
1995-01-01
Examines literary theory's displacing of "method" in the New Historicist criticism. Argues that Stephen Greenblatt and Lee Paterson imply that no objective historical truth is possible and as a result do not give methodology its due weight in their criticism. Questions the theory of "truth" advanced in this vein of literary criticism. (TB)
Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.
2012-01-01
A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering
Motor degradation prediction methods
Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.
1996-12-01
Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.
Proximal Point Methods Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boikanyo, Oganeditse A.; Moroşanu, Gheorghe
2011-09-01
The proximal point methods have been widely used in the last decades to approximate the solutions of nonlinear equations associated with monotone operators. Inspired by the iterative procedure defined by B. Martinet (1970), R.T. Rockafellar introduced in 1976 the so-called proximal point algorithm (PPA) for a general maximal monotone operator. The sequence generated by this iterative method is weakly convergent under appropriate conditions, but not necessarily strongly convergent, as proved by O. Güler (1991). This fact explains the introduction of different modified versions of the PPA which generate strongly convergent sequences under appropriate conditions, including the contraction-PPA defined by H.K. Xu in 2002. Here we discuss Xu's modified PPA as well as some of its generalizations. Special attention is paid to the computational errors, in particular the original Rockafellar summability assumption is replaced by the condition that the error sequence converges to zero strongly.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J. (Inventor)
1983-01-01
A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.
Strong-Gunderson, Janet M.; Palumbo, Anthony V.
1998-01-01
The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer.
Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; Palumbo, A.V.
1998-09-15
The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. 2 figs.
Implementation of Rosenbrock methods
Shampine, L. F.
1980-11-01
Rosenbrock formulas have shown promise in research codes for the solution of initial-value problems for stiff systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). To help assess their practical value, the author wrote an item of mathematical software based on such a formula. This required a variety of algorithmic and software developments. Those of general interest are reported in this paper. Among them is a way to select automatically, at every step, an explicit Runge-Kutta formula or a Rosenbrock formula according to the stiffness of the problem. Solving linear systems is important to methods for stiff ODEs, and is rather special for Rosenbrock methods. A cheap, effective estimate of the condition of the linear systems is derived. Some numerical results are presented to illustrate the developments.
Chen, Jack C.; Stawisuck, Valerie M.; Prasad, Ravi
2003-01-01
A cold isopressing method in which two or more layers of material are formed within an isopressing mold. One of the layers consists of a tape-cast film. The layers are isopressed within the isopressing mold, thereby to laminate the layers and to compact the tape-cast film. The isopressing mold can be of cylindrical configuration with the layers being coaxial cylindrical layers. The materials used in forming the layers can contain green ceramic materials and the resultant structure can be fired and sintered as necessary and in accordance with known methods to produce a finished composite, ceramic structure. Further, such green ceramic materials can be of the type that are capable of conducting hydrogen or oxygen ions at high temperature with the object of utilizing the finished composite ceramic structure as a ceramic membrane element.
Swiler, Thomas P; Garcia, Ernest J; Francis, Kathryn M
2014-01-07
A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with a HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.
Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.
2013-06-11
A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.
Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin
2016-06-21
Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.
Smith, Richard Harding; Martin, Glenn Brian
2004-05-18
The present invention allows the determination of trace levels of ionic substances in a sample solution (ions, metal ions, and other electrically charged molecules) by coupling a separation method, such as liquid chromatography, with ion selective electrodes (ISE) prepared so as to allow detection at activities below 10.sup.-6 M. The separation method distributes constituent molecules into fractions due to unique chemical and physical properties, such as charge, hydrophobicity, specific binding interactions, or movement in an electrical field. The separated fractions are detected by means of the ISE(s). These ISEs can be used singly or in an array. Accordingly, modifications in the ISEs are used to permit detection of low activities, specifically, below 10.sup.-6 M, by using low activities of the primary analyte (the molecular species which is specifically detected) in the inner filling solution of the ISE. Arrays constructed in various ways allow flow-through sensing for multiple ions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zavarise, Giorgio
2015-07-01
The method presented here is a variation of the classical penalty one, suited to reduce penetration of the contacting surfaces. The slight but crucial modification concerns the introduction of a shift parameter that moves the minimum point of the constrained potential toward the exact value, without any penalty increase. With respect to the classical augmentation procedures, the solution improvement is embedded within the original penalty contribution. The problem is almost consistently linearized, and the shift is updated before each Newton's iteration. However, adding few iterations, with respect to the original penalty method, a reduction of the penetration of several orders of magnitude can be achieved. The numerical tests have shown very attractive characteristics and very stable solution paths. This permits to foresee a wide area of applications, not only in contact mechanics, but for any problem, like e.g. incompressible materials, where a penalty contribution is required.
Groundwater contamination field methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Ivan
Half of the drinking water in the United States comes from groundwater; 75% of the nation's cities obtain all or part of their supplies from groundwater; and the rural areas are 95% dependent upon groundwater. Therefore it is imperative that every possible precaution be taken to protect the purity of the groundwater.Because of the increasing interest in prevention of groundwater contamination and the need for nationally recognized methods for investigation of contamination, a symposium entitled “Field Methods for Groundwater Contamination Studies and Their Standardization” was held February 2-7, 1986, in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The symposium was sponsored and organized by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee D18 on Soil and Rock and Committee D19 on Water. Gene Collins of the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (Bartlesville, Okla.) was symposium chair, and Ivan Johnson (A. Ivan Johnson, Inc., Consulting, Arvada, Colo.) was vice chair.
Bertozzi, Carolyn; Yarema, Kevin J.; Mahal, Lara K.
2000-01-01
Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.
Bertozzi, Carolyn C.; Yarema, Kevin J.; Mahal, Lara K.
2008-04-01
Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.
Bertozzi, Carolyn; Yarema, Kevin J.; Mahal, Lara K.
2005-08-30
Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.
Bertozzi, Carolyn; Yarema, Kevin J.; Mahal, Lara K.
2002-10-01
Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.
Barrier methods of contraception.
Skrine, R L
1985-05-01
Barrier methods of contraception make up an essential part of the present contraceptive range, and doctors need to know in detail how to choose and fit them as well as how to instruct patients in their use. This discussion reviews the mode of action of the barrier method and then focuses on the vaginal diaphragm, the cervical or vault cap, the collatex (Today) sponge, condoms, emotionl problems associated with the use of barrier methods, advantages of barrier methods, and future developments. Barrier methods of contraception are only effective if used consistently and carefully. Failure rates vary greatly between studies, but in selected populations the failure rate for the diaphragm with spermicide can be as low as 1.9/100 woman years (wy) and for the condom 3.6 per 100wy (Vessey et al., 1982). If known user failures are removed, the figure for the condom can drop to as low as 0.4 per 100wy (John, 1973), which compares favorably with that of the combined oral contraceptive. Other studies quote failure rates of 10 per 100wy or more. These methods call for considerable participation by the patient at or before each act of intercourse and there is, therefore, great scope for inefficient use, either as a result of poor instruction or because couples find that they interfere with happy, relaxed sexual activity -- or fear that they may do so. Doctors need to understand the feelings of their patients before recommending them. The aim of a barrier method is to prevent live sperm from meeting the ovum. This is accomplished by the combination of a physical barrier with a spermicide. In the case of the condom, the integrity of the physical barrier is the most important factor, although some patients feel more secure with an additional spermicide. The vaginal barriers used at present do not produce a "water-tight" fit, and the principle is that the spermicide is held over the cervix by the barrier. It is also possible that the device acts partially by holding the alkaline
Comprehensive rotorcraft analysis methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stephens, Wendell B.; Austin, Edward E.
1988-01-01
The development and application of comprehensive rotorcraft analysis methods in the field of rotorcraft technology are described. These large scale analyses and the resulting computer programs are intended to treat the complex aeromechanical phenomena that describe the behavior of rotorcraft. They may be used to predict rotor aerodynamics, acoustic, performance, stability and control, handling qualities, loads and vibrations, structures, dynamics, and aeroelastic stability characteristics for a variety of applications including research, preliminary and detail design, and evaluation and treatment of field problems. The principal comprehensive methods developed or under development in recent years and generally available to the rotorcraft community because of US Army Aviation Research and Technology Activity (ARTA) sponsorship of all or part of the software systems are the Rotorcraft Flight Simulation (C81), Dynamic System Coupler (DYSCO), Coupled Rotor/Airframe Vibration Analysis Program (SIMVIB), Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD), General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program (GRASP), and Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System (2GCHAS).
Inspection system calibration methods
Deason, Vance A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.
2004-12-28
An inspection system calibration method includes producing two sideband signals of a first wavefront; interfering the two sideband signals in a photorefractive material, producing an output signal therefrom having a frequency and a magnitude; and producing a phase modulated operational signal having a frequency different from the output signal frequency, a magnitude, and a phase modulation amplitude. The method includes determining a ratio of the operational signal magnitude to the output signal magnitude, determining a ratio of a 1st order Bessel function of the operational signal phase modulation amplitude to a 0th order Bessel function of the operational signal phase modulation amplitude, and comparing the magnitude ratio to the Bessel function ratio.
Method for making nanomaterials
Fan, Hongyou; Wu, Huimeng
2013-06-04
A method of making a nanostructure by preparing a face centered cubic-ordered metal nanoparticle film from metal nanoparticles, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, exerting a hydrostatic pressure upon the film at pressures of several gigapascals, followed by applying a non-hydrostatic stress perpendicularly at a pressure greater than approximately 10 GPA to form an array of nanowires with individual nanowires having a relatively uniform length, average diameter and density.
Kertesz, F.; Buttram, H.J.
1962-04-24
ABS>A method for impregnating a refractory material by filling its pores with a first salt having a high melting temperature is described. The salt is mixed with another, more volatile salt, giving the mixture a much lower melting temperature than that of the first salt. The material is coated with the mixture, then heated to drive off the volatile salt, leaving the first salt in place. (AEC)
Method for detecting biomolecules
Huo, Qisheng; Liu, Jun
2008-08-12
A method for detecting and measuring the concentration of biomolecules in solution, utilizing a conducting electrode in contact with a solution containing target biomolecules, with a film with controllable pore size distribution characteristics applied to at least one surface of the conducting electrode. The film is functionalized with probe molecules that chemically interact with the target biomolecules at the film surface, blocking indicator molecules present in solution from diffusing from the solution to the electrode, thereby changing the electrochemical response of the electrode
Thermal coupling measurement method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosenthal, L. A.; Menichelli, V. J.
1974-01-01
Heat flow from an embedded heated wire responds to a change in the ambient environment. The wire is part of a self-balancing bridge system, and heat flow is measured directly in watts. Steady-state and transient thermal coupling can be measured directly and is an indication of the thermal resistance and diffusivity for the system under study. The method is applied to an aerospace electroexplosive component.
RUTHENIUM DECONTAMINATION METHOD
Gresky, A.T.
1960-07-19
A liquid-liquid extraction method of separating uranium from fission products is given. A small amount of a low molecular weight ketone is added to an acidic aqueous solution containing neutron-irradiated uranium and its associated fission products. The resulting solution is digested and then contacted with an organic liquid that extracts uranium values. The purpose of the step of digesting the aqueous solution in the presence of the ketone is to suppress the extractability of ruthenium.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holt, Maurice
1996-01-01
In this paper, second order Godunov methods are reviewed. The early versions by Colella and Woodward (PPM) and van Leer (MUSCL) are described in their original form. The simplification of these by Roe, based on approximate Riemann solver, is then presented. Attention is next given to the improvement in MUSCL due to Hancock and van Leer leading to a fuller paper by Huynh. Finally, brief reference is made to TVD and ENO schemes due to Harten.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.
Lipp, G. Daniel
1994-04-26
A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of rhombic cell cross-section by extrusion through an extrusion die of triangular cell discharge slot configuration, the die incorporating feedholes at selected slot intersections only, such that slot segments communicating directly with the feedholes discharge web material and slot segments not so connected do not discharge web material, whereby a rhombic cell cross-section in the extruded body is provided.
Sithambaram, Shanthakumar; Son, Young-Chan; Suib, Steven L.
2008-04-08
A method for forming an imine comprises reacting a first reactant comprising a hydroxyl functionality, a carbonyl functionality, or both a hydroxyl functionality and a carbonyl functionality with a second reactant having an amine functionality in the presence of ordered porous manganese-based octahedral molecular sieves and an oxygen containing gas at a temperature and for a time sufficient for the imine to be produced.
Chang, Shih-ger; Liu, Shou-heng; Liu, Zhao-rong; Yan, Naiqiang
2009-01-20
Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.
Chang, Shih-ger; Liu, Shou-heng; Liu, Zhao-rong; Yan, Naiqiang
2010-07-13
Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.
Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, Shou-Heng; Liu, Zhao-Rong; Yan, Naiqiang
2011-08-30
Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.
Poco, J.F.
1993-09-07
The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.
Poco, John F.
1993-01-01
The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.
Kato, Akio
2006-11-14
The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, J.-Y.
1992-01-01
Viewgraphs are presented on the following topics: the grand challenge of combustion engineering; research of probability density function (PDF) methods at Sandia; experiments of turbulent jet flames (Masri and Dibble, 1988); departures from chemical equilibrium; modeling turbulent reacting flows; superequilibrium OH radical; pdf modeling of turbulent jet flames; scatter plot for CH4 (methane) and O2 (oxygen); methanol turbulent jet flames; comparisons between predictions and experimental data; and turbulent C2H4 jet flames.
Underground mining methods handbook
Hustrulid, W.A.
1982-01-01
Sections discuss: mine design considerations; stopes requiring minimum support (includes room-and-pillar mining and sublevel stoping); stopes requiring some additional support other than pillars (includes shrinkage stoping, cut-and-fill stoping, undercut-and-fill mining, timber-supported system, top-slice mining, longwall mining and shortwall mining); caving methods (sublevel and block caving); underground equipment; financial considerations; design; and mine ventilation.
METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM
Heal, H.G.
1960-02-16
BS>A method of separating plutonium from aqueous nitrate solutions of plutonium, uranium. and high beta activity fission products is given. The pH of the aqueous solution is adjusted between 3.0 to 6.0 with ammonium acetate, ferric nitrate is added, and the solution is heated to 80 to 100 deg C to selectively form a basic ferric plutonium-carrying precipitate.
Bianchini, Gregory M.; McRae, Thomas G.
1985-01-01
Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.
Kinesimetric method and apparatus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thornton, W. E. (Inventor)
1980-01-01
Apparatus and method for the determination of functional capability of bodies are disclosed. Reach as well as velocity, acceleration and force generation at various positions may be determined for a body by a three dimensional kinesimeter equipped with an ergometer. A general data package indicative of performance potential of a subject body or collection of bodies is provided for interfacing with data characteristics of various environments.
Johns, I.B.; Newton, A.S.
1958-09-01
A method is described for detecting pin hole imperfections in coatings on uranium-metal objects. Such coated objects are contacted with a heated atmosphere of gaseous hydrogen and imperfections present in the coatings will allow the uranlum to react with the hydrogen to form uranium hydride. Since uranium hydride is less dense than uranium metal it will swell, causing enlargement of the coating defeot and rendering it visible.
Innovative sludge stabilization method
Riggenbach, J.D.
1995-06-01
Sludge is generated in many water and wastewater treatment processes, both biological and physical/chemical. Examples include biological sludges from sanitary and industrial wastewater treatment operations and chemical sludges such as those produced when metals are removed from metal plating wastewater. Even some potable water plants produce sludge, such as when alum is used as a flocculating agent to clarify turbid water. Because sludge is produced from such a variety of operations, different techniques have been developed to remove water from sludges and reduce the sludge volume and mass, thus making the sludge more suitable for recovery or disposal. These techniques include mechanical (e.g., filter presses), solar (sludge drying beds), and thermal. The least expensive of these methods, neglecting land costs, involves sludge drying beds and lagoons. The solar method was widely used in sewage treatment plants for many years, but has fallen in disfavor in the US; mechanical and thermal methods have been preferred. Since environmental remediation often requires managing sludges, this article presents a discussion of a variation of sludge lagoons known as evaporative sludge stabilization. Application of this process to the closure of two 2.5 acre (10117 m{sup 2}) hazardous waste surface impoundments will be discussed. 1 ref., 2 figs.
The Configuration Interaction Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sherrill, C. David; Schaefer, Henry F., III
Highly correlated configuration interaction (CI) wavefunctions going beyond the simple singles and doubles (CISD) model space can provide very reliable potential energy surfaces, describe electronic excited states, and yield benchmark energies and molecular properties for use in calibrating more approximate methods. Unfortunately, such wavefunctions are also notoriously difficult to evaluate due to their extreme computational demands. The dimension of a full CI procedure, which represents the exact solution of the electronic Schrödinger equation for a fixed one-particle basis set, grows factorially with the number of electrons and basis functions. For very large configuration spaces, the number of CI coupling coefficients becomes prohibitively large to store on disk; these coefficients must be evaluated as needed in a so-called direct CI procedure. Work done by several groups since 1980 has focused on using Slater determinants rather than spin (S2) eigenfunctions because coupling coefficients are easier to compute with the former. We review the fundamentals of the configuration interaction method and discuss various determinant-based CI algorithms. Additionally, we consider some applications of highly correlated CI methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hjorth, Jens
The unique feature of MEM is that C(-1)(z) = exp(z) amplifies all scales equally. Narayan & Nityananda (1986) have shown that this leads to Gaussian deconvolved peaks. In MMM different scales are treated differently, depending on the choice of C. This gives different peak shapes, but also allows one to experiment with the degree of peak sharpening as a function of peak height. In fact, despite its strong information-theoretic background, MEM is known to redistribute flux incorrectly during deconvolution, thus making the method problematic if the goal is to get correct intensities out. MMM could remedy this problem by using an alternative to the entropy. In conclusion, some ideas connecting the physics of blurring with a proposed reconstruction scheme, dubbed Maximum Mixing Method, have been presented. It has been shown that this physically motivated, non-information theoretic, non-probabilistic, non-Bayesian approach can be turned into a powerful deconvolution technique, competitive with, and having as a special case, the Maximum Entropy Method. Further work within the proposed framework is required to fully explore the consequences of the theory. A paper including proofs and examples is in preparation.
Generalization of the Engineering Method to the UNIVERSAL METHOD.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koen, Billy Vaughn
1987-01-01
Proposes that there is a universal method for all realms of knowledge. Reviews Descartes's definition of the universal method, the engineering definition, and the philosophical basis for the universal method. Contends that the engineering method best represents the universal method. (ML)
Sandford, M.T. II; Bradley, J.N.; Handel, T.G.
1996-06-01
Data embedding is a new steganographic method for combining digital information sets. This paper describes the data embedding method and gives examples of its application using software written in the C-programming language. Sandford and Handel produced a computer program (BMPEMBED, Ver. 1.51 written for IBM PC/AT or compatible, MS/DOS Ver. 3.3 or later) that implements data embedding in an application for digital imagery. Information is embedded into, and extracted from, Truecolor or color-pallet images in Microsoft{reg_sign} bitmap (.BMP) format. Hiding data in the noise component of a host, by means of an algorithm that modifies or replaces the noise bits, is termed {open_quote}steganography.{close_quote} Data embedding differs markedly from conventional steganography, because it uses the noise component of the host to insert information with few or no modifications to the host data values or their statistical properties. Consequently, the entropy of the host data is affected little by using data embedding to add information. The data embedding method applies to host data compressed with transform, or {open_quote}lossy{close_quote} compression algorithms, as for example ones based on discrete cosine transform and wavelet functions. Analysis of the host noise generates a key required for embedding and extracting the auxiliary data from the combined data. The key is stored easily in the combined data. Images without the key cannot be processed to extract the embedded information. To provide security for the embedded data, one can remove the key from the combined data and manage it separately. The image key can be encrypted and stored in the combined data or transmitted separately as a ciphertext much smaller in size than the embedded data. The key size is typically ten to one-hundred bytes, and it is in data an analysis algorithm.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, Ye (Inventor); Wu, Honglu (Inventor)
2015-01-01
Systems and methods for preparing a sample for further analysis are provided. The system can include an enclosure. A membrane can be disposed within the enclosure. First and second reservoirs can be disposed within the enclosure, and at least one of the first and second reservoirs can be adapted to have a reagent disposed therein. A valve can be disposed within the enclosure and in fluid communication with the first or second reservoirs or both. The valve can also be in fluid communication with the membrane. The valve can be adapted to selectively regulate the flow of the reagent from the first reservoir, through the membrane, and into the second reservoir.
Moses, Edward I.
1992-01-01
A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter.
ZIRCONIUM PHOSPHATE ADSORPTION METHOD
Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.S.; Schubert, J.; Boyd, G.E.
1958-11-01
A method is presented for separating plutonium values from fission product values in aqueous acidic solution. This is accomplished by flowing the solutlon containing such values through a bed of zirconium orthophosphate. Any fission products adsorbed can subsequently be eluted by washing the column with a solution of 2N HNO/sub 3/ and O.lN H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. Plutonium values may subsequently be desorbed by contacting the column with a solution of 7N HNO/sub 3/ .
Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.
1999-03-23
A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.
Follstaedt, David M.; Moran, Michael P.
2005-03-15
A method for thinning (such as in grinding and polishing) a material surface using an instrument means for moving an article with a discontinuous surface with an abrasive material dispersed between the material surface and the discontinuous surface where the discontinuous surface of the moving article provides an efficient means for maintaining contact of the abrasive with the material surface. When used to dimple specimens for microscopy analysis, a wheel with a surface that has been modified to produce a uniform or random discontinuous surface significantly improves the speed of the dimpling process without loss of quality of finish.
Powell, J.; Reich, M.; Danby, G.
1997-07-22
A magnetic imager includes a generator for practicing a method of applying a background magnetic field over a concealed object, with the object being effective to locally perturb the background field. The imager also includes a sensor for measuring perturbations of the background field to detect the object. In one embodiment, the background field is applied quasi-statically. And, the magnitude or rate of change of the perturbations may be measured for determining location, size, and/or condition of the object. 25 figs.
Lysimeter methods and apparatus
Clark, Don T.; Erickson, Eugene E.; Casper, William L.; Everett, David M.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.
2004-12-07
A suction lysimeter for sampling subsurface liquids includes a lysimeter casing having a drive portion, a reservoir portion, and a tip portion, the tip portion including a membrane through which subsurface liquids may be sampled; a fluid conduit coupled in fluid flowing relation relative to the membrane, and which in operation facilitates the delivery of the sampled subsurface liquids from the membrane to the reservoir portion; and a plurality of tubes coupled in fluid flowing relation relative to the reservoir portion, the tubes in operation facilitating delivery of the sampled subsurface liquids from the reservoir portion for testing. A method of sampling subsurface liquids comprises using this lysimeter.
Powell, James; Reich, Morris; Danby, Gordon
1997-07-22
A magnetic imager 10 includes a generator 18 for practicing a method of applying a background magnetic field over a concealed object, with the object being effective to locally perturb the background field. The imager 10 also includes a sensor 20 for measuring perturbations of the background field to detect the object. In one embodiment, the background field is applied quasi-statically. And, the magnitude or rate of change of the perturbations may be measured for determining location, size, and/or condition of the object.
Acoustic bubble removal method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trinh, E. H.; Elleman, D. D.; Wang, T. G. (Inventor)
1983-01-01
A method is described for removing bubbles from a liquid bath such as a bath of molten glass to be used for optical elements. Larger bubbles are first removed by applying acoustic energy resonant to a bath dimension to drive the larger bubbles toward a pressure well where the bubbles can coalesce and then be more easily removed. Thereafter, submillimeter bubbles are removed by applying acoustic energy of frequencies resonant to the small bubbles to oscillate them and thereby stir liquid immediately about the bubbles to facilitate their breakup and absorption into the liquid.
Method for resonant measurement
Rhodes, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Dixon, R.D.
1996-03-05
A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson`s ratio ({sigma}) and shear modulus ({mu}) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson`s ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson`s ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson`s ratio. 1 fig.
Revett, L. W.
1985-09-17
A well completion method comprising suspending NaCl crystals in the interval of the well bore to be perforated where the NaCl crystals are sized to bridge the perforations when the hydraulic pressure in the well bore exceeds the hydraulic pressure in the earth formation. The perforator is arranged to produce penetrations in the well bore in a radial pattern about the circumference of the well bore so as to effectively penetrate the entire circumference over a short interval. This enhances the perforation of vertical fractures in the earth formations.
SULFIDE METHOD PLUTONIUM SEPARATION
Duffield, R.B.
1958-08-12
A process is described for the recovery of plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium solutions. Such a solution is first treated with a soluble sullide, causing precipitation of the plutoniunn and uraniunn values present, along with those impurities which form insoluble sulfides. The precipitate is then treated with a solution of carbonate ions, which will dissolve the uranium and plutonium present while the fission product sulfides remain unaffected. After separation from the residue, this solution may then be treated by any of the usual methods, such as formation of a lanthanum fluoride precipitate, to effect separation of plutoniunn from uranium.
Dixon, Raymond D.; Smith, Frank M.; O'Leary, Richard F.
1997-01-01
A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon.
Alford, Kentin L.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Samuels, William D.; Zemanian, Thomas S.; Liu, Jun; Shin, Yongsoon; Fryxell, Glen E.
2009-09-15
The invention pertains to methods of forming monolayers on various surfaces. The surfaces can be selected from a wide array of materials, including, for example, aluminum dioxide, silicon dioxide, carbon and SiC. The substrates can be planar or porous. The monolayer is formed under enhanced pressure conditions. The monolayer contains functionalized molecules, and accordingly functionalizes a surface of the substrate. The properties of the functionalized substrate can enhance the substrate's applicability for numerous purposes including, for example, utilization in extracting contaminants, or incorporation into a polymeric matrix.
Alford, Kentin L.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Samuels, William D.; Zemanian, Thomas S.; Liu, Jun; Shin, Yongsoon; Fryxell, Glen E.
2009-12-08
The invention pertains to methods of forming monolayers on various surfaces. The surfaces can be selected from a wide array of materials, including, for example, aluminum dioxide, silicon dioxide, carbon and SiC. The substrates can be planar or porous. The monolayer is formed under enhanced pressure conditions. The monolayer contains functionalized molecules, and accordingly functionalizes a surface of the substrate. The properties of the functionalized substrate can enhance the substrate's applicability for numerous purposes including, for example, utilization in extracting contaminants, or incorporation into a polymeric matrix.
Method for resonant measurement
Rhodes, George W.; Migliori, Albert; Dixon, Raymond D.
1996-01-01
A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson's ratio (.sigma.) and shear modulus (.mu.) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson's ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson's ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson's ratio.
Langston, Cathy; Gisselman, Kelly; Palma, Douglas; McCue, John
2010-06-01
Multiple techniques exist to remove uroliths from each section of the urinary tract. Minimally invasive methods for removing lower urinary tract stones include voiding urohydropropulsion, retrograde urohydropropulsion followed by dissolution or removal, catheter retrieval, cystoscopic removal, and cystoscopy-assisted laser lithotripsy and surgery. Laparoscopic cystotomy is less invasive than surgical cystotomy. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy can be used for nephroliths and ureteroliths. Nephrotomy, pyelotomy, or urethrotomy may be recommended in certain situations. This article discusses each technique and gives guidance for selecting the most appropriate technique for an individual patient. PMID:20949423
Methods of Telomerase Inhibition
Andrews, Lucy G.; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.
2008-01-01
Summary Telomerase is central to cellular immortality and is a key component of most cancer cells although this enzyme is rarely expressed to significant levels in normal cells. Therefore, the inhibition of telomerase has garnered considerable attention as a possible anticancer approach. Many of the methods applied to telomerase inhibition focus on either of the two major components of the ribonucleoprotein holoenzyme, that is, the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) catalytic subunit or the telomerase RNA (TR) component. Other protocols have been developed to target the proteins, such as tankyrase, that are associated with telomerase at the ends of chromosomes. This chapter summarizes some of these recent advances in telomerase inhibition. PMID:18369812
METHOD OF ISOTOPE CONCENTRATION
Taylor, T.I.; Spindel, W.
1960-02-01
A method of concentrating N/sup 15/ in a liquid is described. Gaseous nitric oxide and at least one liquid selected from the group consisting of the aqueous oxyacids and oxides of nitrogen, wherein the atomic ratio of oxygen to nitrogen is greater than unity, are brought into intimate contact to cause an enrichment of the liquid and a depletion of the gas in N/sup 15/. The liquid is, thereafter, reacted with sulfur dioxide to produce a gas contuining nitric oxide. The gas contuining nitric oxide is then continuously passed in countercurrent contact with the liquid to cause further enrichment of the liquid.
METHOD OF ELECTROPOLISHING URANIUM
Walker, D.E.; Noland, R.A.
1959-07-14
A method of electropolishing the surface of uranium articles is presented. The process of this invention is carried out by immersing the uranium anticle into an electrolyte which contains from 35 to 65% by volume sulfuric acid, 1 to 20% by volume glycerine and 25 to 50% by volume of water. The article is made the anode in the cell and polished by electrolyzing at a voltage of from 10 to 15 volts. Discontinuing the electrolysis by intermittently withdrawing the anode from the electrolyte and removing any polarized film formed therein results in an especially bright surface.
Computational Methods for Crashworthiness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Carden, Huey D. (Compiler)
1993-01-01
Presentations and discussions from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Computational Methods for Crashworthiness held at Langley Research Center on 2-3 Sep. 1992 are included. The presentations addressed activities in the area of impact dynamics. Workshop attendees represented NASA, the Army and Air Force, the Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories, the aircraft and automotive industries, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the state-of-technology in the numerical simulation of crash and to provide guidelines for future research.
Moses, E.I.
1992-12-01
A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.
Henager, Jr., Charles H.; Brimhall, John L.
2000-01-01
According to the method of the present invention, joining a first bi-element carbide to a second bi-element carbide, has the steps of: (a) forming a bond agent containing a metal carbide and silicon; (b) placing the bond agent between the first and second bi-element carbides to form a pre-assembly; and (c) pressing and heating the pre-assembly in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature effective to induce a displacement reaction creating a metal silicon phase bonding the first and second bi-element carbides.
Janney, Mark A.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.
1999-01-01
A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.
Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.
2012-02-21
A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.
Construction Material And Method
Wagh, Arun S.; Antink, Allison L.
2006-02-21
A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic. The ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.
Mayes, James C.
2009-05-05
A device and method provide for cooling of a system having an energy source, one or more devices that actively consume energy, and one or more devices that generate heat. The device may include one or more thermoelectric coolers ("TECs") in conductive engagement with at least one of the heat-generating devices, and an energy diverter for diverting at least a portion of the energy from the energy source that is not consumed by the active energy-consuming devices to the TECs.
Recurrent fuzzy ranking methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hajjari, Tayebeh
2012-11-01
With the increasing development of fuzzy set theory in various scientific fields and the need to compare fuzzy numbers in different areas. Therefore, Ranking of fuzzy numbers plays a very important role in linguistic decision-making, engineering, business and some other fuzzy application systems. Several strategies have been proposed for ranking of fuzzy numbers. Each of these techniques has been shown to produce non-intuitive results in certain case. In this paper, we reviewed some recent ranking methods, which will be useful for the researchers who are interested in this area.
Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.
1985-08-20
A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.
Accelerated adaptive integration method.
Kaus, Joseph W; Arrar, Mehrnoosh; McCammon, J Andrew
2014-05-15
Conformational changes that occur upon ligand binding may be too slow to observe on the time scales routinely accessible using molecular dynamics simulations. The adaptive integration method (AIM) leverages the notion that when a ligand is either fully coupled or decoupled, according to λ, barrier heights may change, making some conformational transitions more accessible at certain λ values. AIM adaptively changes the value of λ in a single simulation so that conformations sampled at one value of λ seed the conformational space sampled at another λ value. Adapting the value of λ throughout a simulation, however, does not resolve issues in sampling when barriers remain high regardless of the λ value. In this work, we introduce a new method, called Accelerated AIM (AcclAIM), in which the potential energy function is flattened at intermediate values of λ, promoting the exploration of conformational space as the ligand is decoupled from its receptor. We show, with both a simple model system (Bromocyclohexane) and the more complex biomolecule Thrombin, that AcclAIM is a promising approach to overcome high barriers in the calculation of free energies, without the need for any statistical reweighting or additional processors. PMID:24780083
Statistical methods in microbiology.
Ilstrup, D M
1990-01-01
Statistical methodology is viewed by the average laboratory scientist, or physician, sometimes with fear and trepidation, occasionally with loathing, and seldom with fondness. Statistics may never be loved by the medical community, but it does not have to be hated by them. It is true that statistical science is sometimes highly mathematical, always philosophical, and occasionally obtuse, but for the majority of medical studies it can be made palatable. The goal of this article has been to outline a finite set of methods of analysis that investigators should choose based on the nature of the variable being studied and the design of the experiment. The reader is encouraged to seek the advice of a professional statistician when there is any doubt about the appropriate method of analysis. A statistician can also help the investigator with problems that have nothing to do with statistical tests, such as quality control, choice of response variable and comparison groups, randomization, and blinding of assessment of response variables. PMID:2200604
Woerner, Robert L.
1979-01-01
Method for cryoinduced uniform deposition of cryogenic materials, such as deuterium-tritium (DT) mixtures, on the inner surface of hollow spherical members, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on the inner surface of the spherical member. Heating of the cryogenic material, located within a non-isothermal compact freezing cell, is accomplished by an electrical heat pulse, whereafter the material is quickly frozen forming a uniform layer on the inner surface of the spherical member. The method is not restricted to producing a frozen layer on only the inner surface of the innermost hollow member, but where multiple concentric hollow spheres are involved, such as in multiple shell targets for lasers, electron beams, etc., layers of cryogenic material may also be formed on the inner surface of intermediate or outer spherical members, thus providing the capability of forming targets having multiple concentric layers or shells of frozen DT.
Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method.
Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh
2016-01-01
Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows. PMID:27251098
Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method
Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh
2016-01-01
Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows. PMID:27251098
Accelerated Adaptive Integration Method
2015-01-01
Conformational changes that occur upon ligand binding may be too slow to observe on the time scales routinely accessible using molecular dynamics simulations. The adaptive integration method (AIM) leverages the notion that when a ligand is either fully coupled or decoupled, according to λ, barrier heights may change, making some conformational transitions more accessible at certain λ values. AIM adaptively changes the value of λ in a single simulation so that conformations sampled at one value of λ seed the conformational space sampled at another λ value. Adapting the value of λ throughout a simulation, however, does not resolve issues in sampling when barriers remain high regardless of the λ value. In this work, we introduce a new method, called Accelerated AIM (AcclAIM), in which the potential energy function is flattened at intermediate values of λ, promoting the exploration of conformational space as the ligand is decoupled from its receptor. We show, with both a simple model system (Bromocyclohexane) and the more complex biomolecule Thrombin, that AcclAIM is a promising approach to overcome high barriers in the calculation of free energies, without the need for any statistical reweighting or additional processors. PMID:24780083
Young, G.J.; Ohlinger, L.A.
1958-06-24
A nuclear reactor of the type which uses a liquid fuel and a method of controlling such a reactor are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of a tank for containing the liquid fuel such as a slurry of discrete particles of fissionnble material suspended in a heavy water moderator, and a control means in the form of a disc of neutron absorbirg material disposed below the top surface of the slurry and parallel thereto. The diameter of the disc is slightly smaller than the diameter of the tank and the disc is perforated to permit a flow of the slurry therethrough. The function of the disc is to divide the body of slurry into two separate portions, the lower portion being of a critical size to sustain a nuclear chain reaction and the upper portion between the top surface of the slurry and the top surface of the disc being of a non-critical size. The method of operation is to raise the disc in the reactor until the lower portion of the slurry has reached a critical size when it is desired to initiate the reaction, and to lower the disc in the reactor to reduce the size of the lower active portion the slurry to below criticality when it is desired to stop the reaction.
Methods of Endotoxin Detection.
Su, Wenqiong; Ding, Xianting
2015-08-01
Endotoxin, present in the outer membrane of all gram-negative bacteria, can pose serious risks to human health, from irreversible shock to death. Therefore, it is essential to develop sensitive, accurate, and rapid methods for its detection. The rabbit pyrogen test is the first standard technique for endotoxin detection and, nowadays, has been replaced by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate test, which is the most popular detection technique for endotoxin. With in-depth understanding of endotoxin, biosensors based on endotoxin-sensing components are promising alternatives to pursue in developing low-cost, easy-operation, and fast-response endotoxin detection techniques. This article summarizes the recent advances of endotoxin detection methods with a particular emphasis on optical and electrochemical biosensors based on various sensing elements ranging from nature biomolecules to artificial materials. As the research and technological revolution continues, the highly integrated and miniaturized commercial devices for sensitively and reliably detecting endotoxin will provide a wide range of applications in people's daily life. PMID:25720597
Macleish, K.G.
1958-02-11
ABS>This patent presents a method for locating a ground in a d-c circult having a number of parallel branches connected across a d-c source or generator. The complete method comprises the steps of locating the ground with reference to the mildpoint of the parallel branches by connecting a potentiometer across the terminals of the circuit and connecting the slider of the potentiometer to ground through a current indicating instrument, adjusting the slider to right or left of the mildpoint so as to cause the instrument to indicate zero, connecting the terminal of the network which is farthest from the ground as thus indicated by the potentiometer to ground through a condenser, impressing a ripple voltage on the circuit, and then measuring the ripple voltage at the midpoint of each parallel branch to find the branch in which is the lowest value of ripple voltage, and then measuring the distribution of the ripple voltage along this branch to determine the point at which the ripple voltage drops off to zero or substantially zero due to the existence of a ground. The invention has particular application where a circuit ground is present which will disappear if the normal circuit voltage is removed.
Nucleic acid detection methods
Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.
1998-05-19
The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.
Nucleic Acid Detection Methods
Smith, Cassandra L.; Yaar, Ron; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Cantor, Charles R.
1998-05-19
The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.
Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh
2016-06-01
Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows.
Extractive distillation method
Ogura, Sh.; Miyamoto, M.
1984-05-08
A method is disclosed for separating a hydrocarbon mixture into relatively difficulty soluble hydrocarbons and relatively easily soluble hydrocarbons by extractive distillation using a polar solvent. The method comprises feeding the starting hydrocarbon mixture to at least two evaporators, an extractive distillation column, a stripping column and a rectifying column; the improvement wherein (1) the polar solvent discharged at a high temperature from the bottom of the stripping column is recycled to the extractive distillation column after it has been cooled to a suitable temperature by giving up heat to a reboiler of the extractive distillation column, a reboiler of the rectifying column and successively to the two or more evaporators, and (2) the starting hydrocarbon mixture is divided into two or more streams and heated in two or more evaporators, one stream being evaporated in a first evaporator to a pressure necessary for introduction into the extractive distillation column and then fed to the extractive distillation column, and the other stream, after evaporation in a second and subsequent evaporators, being pressurized to a pressure required for introduction into the extractive distillation column by means of a compressor and then fed into the extractive distillation column.
Taylor, Charles E.; Noceti, Richard P.
1991-01-01
An improved catlayst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HC1 and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.
Ponzetto, Federico; Giraud, Sylvain; Leuenberger, Nicolas; Boccard, Julien; Nicoli, Raul; Baume, Norbert; Rudaz, Serge; Saugy, Martial
2016-01-01
Over the past few years, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has focused its efforts on detecting not only small prohibited molecules, but also larger endogenous molecules such as hormones, in the view of implementing an endocrinological module in the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP). In this chapter, the detection of two major types of hormones used for doping, growth hormone (GH) and endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (EAASs), will be discussed: a brief historical background followed by a description of state-of-the-art methods applied by accredited anti-doping laboratories will be provided and then current research trends outlined. In addition, microRNAs (miRNAs) will also be presented as a new class of biomarkers for doping detection. PMID:27348309
Myers, J. D.
1985-06-25
A simplified, relatively inexpensive laser device, wherein the laser elements are fixed in a body exoskeleton of electrical insulating material having a low coefficient of thermal expansion. The preferred embodiment includes a shotgun type laser filter having parallel bores which receive the laser flashlamp and laser rod in fixed relation in a body chamber. The reflector surrounds the laser filter and retains the filter within the body chamber. In the preferred method of this invention, several controlled lasing pulses are generated with each illumination pulse of the flashlamp, substantially increasing the efficiency of the laser device. The number of pulses is generally controlled by increasing the voltage to the flashlamp. The rapid multiple lasing pulses generate an elongated plasma in a fluid medium, such as the vitreous fluid body of an eye which makes the laser device extemely efficient for treating glaucoma and other medical treatments.
Olson, Eric J.
2013-06-11
An apparatus, program product, and method that run an algorithm on a hardware based processor, generate a hardware error as a result of running the algorithm, generate an algorithm output for the algorithm, compare the algorithm output to another output for the algorithm, and detect the hardware error from the comparison. The algorithm is designed to cause the hardware based processor to heat to a degree that increases the likelihood of hardware errors to manifest, and the hardware error is observable in the algorithm output. As such, electronic components may be sufficiently heated and/or sufficiently stressed to create better conditions for generating hardware errors, and the output of the algorithm may be compared at the end of the run to detect a hardware error that occurred anywhere during the run that may otherwise not be detected by traditional methodologies (e.g., due to cooling, insufficient heat and/or stress, etc.).
Tensiometer methods and apparatus
Grover, Blair K.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.; Casper, William L.
2004-08-10
A method for collecting data regarding a matric potential of a media includes providing a tensiometer having a stainless steel tensiometer casing, the stainless steel tensiometer casing comprising a tip portion which includes a wetted porous stainless steel membrane through which a matric potential of a media is sensed; driving the tensiometer into the media using an insertion tube comprising a plurality of probe casing which are selectively coupled to form the insertion tube as the tensiometer is progressively driven deeper into the media, wherein the wetted porous stainless steel membrane is in contact with the media; and sensing the matric potential the media exerts on the wetted porous stainless steel membrane by a pressure sensor in fluid hydraulic connection with the porous stainless steel membrane. A tensiometer includes a stainless steel casing.
Magnesium fluoride recovery method
Gay, Richard L.; McKenzie, Donald E.
1989-01-01
A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.
Gambill, W.R.; Greene, N.D.
1960-08-30
A method is given for increasing burn-out heat fluxes under nucleate boiling conditions in heat exchanger tubes without incurring an increase in pumping power requirements. This increase is achieved by utilizing a spinning flow having a rotational velocity sufficient to produce a centrifugal acceleration of at least 10,000 g at the tube wall. At this acceleration the heat-transfer rate at burn out is nearly twice the rate which can be achieved in a similar tube utilizing axial flow at the same pumping power. At higher accelerations the improvement over axial flow is greater, and heat fluxes in excess of 50 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr/sq ft can be achieved.
Geophysical Methods: an Overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, A.; Goldstein, N. E.; Lee, K. H.; Majer, E. L.; Morrison, H. F.; Myer, L.
1992-01-01
Geophysics is expected to have a major role in lunar resource assessment when manned systems return to the Moon. Geophysical measurements made from a lunar rover will contribute to a number of key studies: estimating regolith thickness, detection of possible large-diameter lava tubes within maria basalts, detection of possible subsurface ice in polar regions, detection of conductive minerals that formed directly from a melt (orthomagmatic sulfides of Cu, Ni, Co), and mapping lunar geology beneath the regolith. The techniques that can be used are dictated both by objectives and by our abilities to adapt current technology to lunar conditions. Instrument size, weight, power requirements, and freedom from orientation errors are factors we have considered. Among the geophysical methods we believe to be appropriate for a lunar resource assessment are magnetics, including gradiometry, time-domain magnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, seismic reflection, and gravimetry.
Ophthalmic method and apparatus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evvard, J. C.; Mcgannon, W. J.; Vargo, D. J. (Inventor)
1973-01-01
A method and apparatus for removing material and components such as the lens from an eye is described. High speed rotary cutting members at one end of a rod macerate the lens while an annular tubing disposed around the cutting members vibrates ultrasonically to coact with the cutting members in macerating the lens. At the same time, a liquid is supplied to the chamber behind the cornea of the eye. Spiral grooves extending along the rotating rod from the cutting members evacuate the liquid and the macerated material from the eye. An alternate embodiment of the apparatus includes a tube through which liquid is supplied to the operative site of the ultrasonically vibrating tube and the cutting members in the area of the lens.
Waveguide disturbance detection method
Korneev, Valeri A.; Nihei, Kurt T.; Myer, Larry R.
2000-01-01
A method for detection of a disturbance in a waveguide comprising transmitting a wavefield having symmetric and antisymmetric components from a horizontally and/or vertically polarized source and/or pressure source disposed symmetrically with respect to the longitudinal central axis of the waveguide at one end of the waveguide, recording the horizontal and/or vertical component or a pressure of the wavefield with a vertical array of receivers disposed at the opposite end of the waveguide, separating the wavenumber transform of the wavefield into the symmetric and antisymmetric components, integrating the symmetric and antisymmetric components over a broad frequency range, and comparing the magnitude of the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components to an expected magnitude for the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components for a waveguide of uniform thickness and properties thereby determining whether or not a disturbance is present inside the waveguide.
Radiofrequency attenuator and method
Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.; Agrawal, Anoop; Hall, Simon B.
2009-01-20
Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.
Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto
1999-01-01
The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.
McGuire, R.R.; Coon, C.L.; Harrar, J.E.; Pearson, R.K.
1984-02-21
A method and apparatus for electrochemically synthesizing N/sub 2/O/sub 5/ includes oxidizing a solution of N/sub 2/O/sub 4//HNO/sub 3/ at an anode, while maintaining a controlled potential between the N/sub 2/O/sub 4//HNO/sub 3/ solution and the anode. A potential of about 1.35 to 2.0 V vs. SCE is preferred, while a potential of about 1.80 V vs. SCE is most preferred. Thereafter, the N/sub 2/O/sub 5/ is reacted with either 1.5-diacetyl-3,7-dinitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (DADN) or 1,3,5,7-tetraacetyl-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (TAT) to form cyclotetramethylenetetraamine (HMX).
Johnson, K.J.; Coats, E.A.
1991-07-23
This patent describes a method of producing methane gas from a coalbed. It includes drilling a well into an earth formation to a depth penetrating a coalbed seam; setting a casing in the well extending through the coalbed seam; perforating the casing at the coalbed seam; installing a production tubing string in the well casing, the string extending in spaced relation in the casing to the coalbed seam and defining a continuous annulus in the well between the production tubing string and the casing between a surface end of the well and the coalbed seam, the production tubing string including a side pocket mandrel and a tubing removable gas lift valve installed in the side pocket mandrel; installing a tubing lift gas injection line in the well annulus along with the production tubing string the lift gas injection line being connected into the side pocket mandrel to communicate into the gas lift valve; installing a wellhead on the well having separate flow line.
Davis Jr., L. A.; Brost, D. F.; Haskin, H. K.
1984-11-13
A method of testing a chemical for use in an enhanced recovery of oil from an earth formation includes obtaining a test core of an earth formation. The test core is cleaned and then subjected to a predetermined sequence of events similar to that which the reservoir has experienced. The test core is flooded with a chemical to be tested and the chemical is then driven from the test core with a drive liquid. The test core is irradiated with a beam of electromagnetic energy at a microwave frequency. An indication representative of the effectiveness of the chemical in the test core is derived in accordance with the electromagnetic energy that has passed through the test core.
METHOD FOR PREPARING NORMORPHINE
Rapoport, H.; Look, M.
1959-06-01
An improved method is presented for producing normorphine from morphine. Morphine as the starting material is acetylated by treatment with acetylating agents to produce di-acetyl morphine (heroin). The acetylated compound is reacted with cyanating agents to produce di-acetyl-cyanonormorphine (cyanonorheroin). The di-acetyl-cyanonormorphine compound is then treated in accordance with the improved hydrolysis reactions of the present invention in which concentrated hydrochloric acid is employed for a limited time period to hydrolyze the acetyl group therefrom forming cyanonormorphine. Subsequently, the reaction mixture is diluted and hydrolysis of the cyano groups from the cyanonormorphine is effected with a longer contact time with dilute hydrochloric acid thereby producing normorphine. A high over-all conversion and production of a high purity product which may be radioactlvely labeled, if desired, is obtained by operation of the process.
Steinberg, Meyer; Manowitz, Bernard; Waide, Charles H.
1976-01-06
Method and apparatus for producing rockbolts in the roof of a subterranean cavity in which two components of an ambient temperature curable resin system are premixed and then inserted into a bore hole. The mixture is permitted to polymerize in situ and then the hardened material is cut off at the entrance to the hole leaving a hardened portion for insertion into the next hole as a precursor. In a preferred embodiment a flexible glass roving is employed to reinforce the material in the hole and a metal tube inserted to support the roving while it is fed into the hole and also to provide venting. The roving and tube is then cut off and left in the hole.
Hydroforming device and method
Guza, David E.
2007-09-11
An apparatus (10, 110) and method to form a workpiece (32, 132) into a useful product (28, 128) using a pressurized fluid (14), also termed as "hydroforming". The workpiece may be a tube or may be one or a plurality of sheets of a material. The apparatus has a chamber (12) adapted to contain a quantity of a fluid, a hydroforming means positioned within the chamber, and means for substantially immersing the workpiece in the fluid before, during and after the hydroforming operation. Dies (16, 18) enclose the workpiece and provide a cavity of desired shape against which the workpiece is expanded by the pressurized fluid. The chamber may be open or closed to the atmosphere during operation and the fluid temperature and/or level may be controlled.
Kennedy, J.W.; Segre, E.G.
1958-08-26
A method is presented for obtaining a compound of uranium in an extremely pure state and in such a condition that it can be used in determinations of the isotopic composition of uranium. Uranium deposited in calutron receivers is removed therefrom by washing with cold nitric acid and the resulting solution, coataining uranium and trace amounts of various impurities, such as Fe, Ag, Zn, Pb, and Ni, is then subjected to various analytical manipulations to obtain an impurity-free uranium containing solution. This solution is then evaporated on a platinum disk and the residue is ignited converting it to U2/sub 3//sub 8/. The platinum disk having such a thin film of pure U/sub 2/O/sub 8/ is suitable for use with isotopic determination techaiques.
Method for radioactivity monitoring
Umbarger, C. John; Cowder, Leo R.
1976-10-26
The disclosure relates to a method for analyzing uranium and/or thorium contents of liquid effluents preferably utilizing a sample containing counting chamber. Basically, 185.7-keV gamma rays following .sup.235 U alpha decay to .sup.231 Th which indicate .sup.235 U content and a 63-keV gamma ray doublet found in the nucleus of .sup.234 Pa, a granddaughter of .sup.238 U, are monitored and the ratio thereof taken to derive uranium content and isotopic enrichment .sup.235 U/.sup.235 U + .sup.238 U) in the liquid effluent. Thorium content is determined by monitoring the intensity of 238-keV gamma rays from the nucleus of .sup.212 Bi in the decay chain of .sup.232 Th.
Taylor, C.E.; Noceti, R.P.
1990-12-31
An improved catalyst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HCl and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride. 8 figs., 3 tabs.
Electrochemical catalyst recovery method
Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.
1995-05-30
A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.
Electrochemical catalyst recovery method
Silva, Laura J.; Bray, Lane A.
1995-01-01
A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.
DeNardo, Sally J.; Burke, Patricia A.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Goodman, Simon; Matzku, legal representative, Kerstin; Matzku, Siegfried
2006-04-18
A method of treating tumors, such as prostate tumors, breast tumors, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and the like, includes the sequential steps of administering to the patient at least one dose of an antiangiogenic cyclo-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing pentapeptide (cRGD pentapeptide); administering to the patient an anti-tumor effective amount of a radioimmunotherapeutic agent (RIT); and then administering to the patient at least one additional dose of cRGD pentapeptide. The cRGD pentapeptide is preferably cyclo-(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-[N-Me]-Val), and the RIT is preferably a radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complex in which chelating agent is chemically bonded to a tumor-targeting molecule, such as a monoclonal antibody.
Boyd, G.E.
1958-08-26
A process is presented fer separating uranium, plutonium, and fission products ions from uranyl nitrate solutions having a pH value between 1 and 3 obtained by dissolving neutron irradiated uranium. The method consists in passing such solutions through a bed of cation exchange resin, which may be a sulfonated phenol formaidehyde type. Following the adsorption step the resin is first treated with a solution of 0.2M to 0.3M sulfuric acid to desorb the uranium. Fission product ions are then desorbed by treating the resin in phosphoric acid and 1M in nitric acid. Lastly, the plutonium may be desorbed by treating the resin with a solution approximately 0.8M in phosphoric acid and 1M in nitric acid.
METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM
Brown, H.S.; Hill, O.F.
1958-02-01
Plutonium hexafluoride is a satisfactory fluorinating agent and may be reacted with various materials capable of forming fluorides, such as copper, iron, zinc, etc., with consequent formation of the metal fluoride and reduction of the plutonium to the form of a lower fluoride. In accordance with the present invention, it has been found that the reactivity of plutonium hexafluoride with other fluoridizable materials is so great that the process may be used as a method of separating plutonium from mixures containing plutonium hexafluoride and other vaporized fluorides even though the plutonium is present in but minute quantities. This process may be carried out by treating a mixture of fluoride vapors comprising plutonium hexafluoride and fluoride of uranium to selectively reduce the plutonium hexafluoride and convert it to a less volatile fluoride, and then recovering said less volatile fluoride from the vapor by condensation.
McGuire, Raymond R.; Coon, Clifford L.; Harrar, Jackson E.; Pearson, Richard K.
1984-01-01
A method and apparatus for electrochemically synthesizing N.sub.2 O.sub.5 cludes oxidizing a solution of N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /HNO.sub.3 at an anode, while maintaining a controlled potential between the N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /HNO.sub.3 solution and the anode. A potential of about 1.35 to 2.0 V vs. SCE is preferred, while a potential of about 1.80 V vs. SCE is most preferred. Thereafter, the N.sub.2 O.sub.5 is reacted with either 1.5-diacetyl-3,7-dinitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (DADN) or 1,3,5,7-tetraacetyl-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (TAT) to form cyclotetramethylenetetraamine (HMX).
Compressor surge control method
Dziubakowski, D.J.; Keys, M.A.I.V.; Shaffer, J.J.
1990-02-13
This patent describes a method of controlling surge in a centrifugal compressor having a predetermined surge condition line and providing a combined output with a base load means. It comprises: establishing a main surge control line offset from the centrifugal compressor surge condition line according to a function of pressure differentials across the centrifugal compressor and across an orifice in the inlet line of the centrifugal compressor; establishing a feed forward control signal which is a function of a variable associated with the base load means which may cause the surge condition in the centrifugal compressor; and establishing an anticipatory surge control line offset from the main surge control line as a function of the established main surge control line and the established feed forward control signal.
Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.
1997-04-01
A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.
Lamarre, B.L.
1989-09-26
This patent describes a method of removing radon from water without recycling. It comprises: distributing radon-laden water in the upper portion of a vertically oriented hollow column containing mass transfer packing material, forcing air through the column to evaporate radon gas out of the radon-laden water as the water splashes through the packing material, venting air laden with radon evaporated from the radon-laden water out of the column, collecting water significantly purified by removal of radon as the water falls to the lower portion of the column, and pumping the collected water into a water storage container remote from the source of the radon-laden water. Thereby the collected and stored water is available for immediate residential use without recycling through the mass transfer packing material.
Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.
1964-02-01
A method for producing neutrons is described in which there is employed a confinement zone defined between longitudinally spaced localized gradient regions of an elongated magnetic field. Changed particles and neutralizing electrons, more specifically deuterons and tritons and neutralizng electrons, are injected into the confinement field from ion sources located outside the field. The rotational energy of the parrticles is increased at the gradients by imposing an oscillating transverse electrical field thereacross. The imposition of such oscillating transverse electrical fields improves the reflection capability of such gradient fielda so that the reactive particles are retained more effectively within the zone. With the attainment of appropriate densities of plasma particles and provided that such particles are at a sufficiently high temperature, neutron-producing reactions ensue and large quantities of neutrons emerge from the containment zone. (AEC)
Method for controlling brazing
Hosking, F. Michael; Hall, Aaron C.; Givler, Richard C.; Walker, Charles A.
2006-08-01
A method for making a braze joint across a discontinuity in a work piece using alternating current. A filler metal is pre-placed at a location sufficiently close to the discontinuity such that, when an alternating current is applied across a work piece to heat the work piece and melt the filler metal, the filler metal is drawn into the discontinuity. The alternating current is maintained for a set residence time, generally less than 10 seconds and more particularly less than 3 seconds. The alternating current is then altered, generally by reducing the current and/or voltage such that the filler metal can solidify to form a braze joint of desired quality and thickness.
Bone, W.H.; Schmidt, W.W.
1958-11-01
A method is presented for forming refractory liners in cylindrical reaction vessels used for the reductlon of uranium tetrafluoride to metallic uranium. A preliminary form, having positioning lugs attached thereto, is inserted into the reaction vessel and the refractory powder, usually CaO, is put in the annular space between the form and the inner wall of the reaction vessel. A jolting table is used to compact this charge of liner material ln place, and after thls has been done, the preliminary form is removed and the flnal form or plug is lnserted without disturbing the partially completed lining. The remainder of the lining charge is then introduced and compacted by jolting, after which the form is removed.
DNA sequencing: chemical methods
Ambrose, B.J.B.; Pless, R.C.
1987-01-01
Limited base-specific or base-selective cleavage of a defined DNA fragment yields polynucleotide products, the length of which correlates with the positions of the particular base (or bases) in the original fragment. Sverdlov and co-workers recognized the possibility of using this principle for the determination of DNA sequences. In 1977 a fully elaborated method was introduced based on this principle, which allowed routine analysis of DNA sequences over distances greater than 100 nucleotide unite from a defined, radiolabeled terminus. Six procedures for partial cleavage were described. Simultaneous parallel resolution of an appropriate set of partial cleavage mixtures by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by visualization of the radioactive bands by autoradiography, allows the deduction of nucleotide sequence.
Standard environmental test methods
Schafer, D R
1983-12-01
This guide to uniformity in testing is intended primarily as an aid to persons responsible for designing, developing, and performing environmental tests. It will also be of use to those concerned with production, evaluation, and quality control and assurance. Checklists for preparing the environmental testing portion of product specifications are included, as are copies of Process Standards covering the instrumentation, equipment, and methods for use in environmental testing of Sandia National Laboratories components. Techniques and equipment are constantly improving. This version of SC-4452 reflects current state-of-the-art and practice in environmental testing. Previously existing sections of the document have ben updated and new ones have been added, e.g., Transient Testing on Vibration Machines.
Microencapsulation system and method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)
2006-01-01
A microencapsulation apparatus is provided which is configured to form co-axial multi-lamellar microcapsules from materials discharged from first and second microsphere dispensers of the apparatus. A method of fabricating and processing microcapsules is also provided which includes forming distinct droplets comprising one or more materials and introducing the droplets directly into a solution bath to form a membrane around the droplets such that a plurality of microcapsules are formed. A microencapsulation system is provided which includes a microcapsule production unit, a fluidized passage for washing and harvesting microcapsules dispensed from the microcapsule production unit and a flow sensor for sizing and counting the microcapsules. In some embodiments, the microencapsulation system may further include a controller configured to simultaneously operate the microcapsule production unit, fluidized passage and flow sensor to process the microcapsules in a continuous manner.
Microencapsulation system and method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A microencapsulation apparatus is provided which is configured to form co-axial multi-lamellar microcapsules from materials discharged from first and second microsphere dispensers of the apparatus. A method of fabricating and processing microcapsules is also provided which includes forming distinct droplets comprising one or more materials and introducing the droplets directly into a solution bath to form a membrane around the droplets such that a plurality of microcapsules are formed. A microencapsulation system is provided which includes a microcapsule production unit, a fluidized passage for washing and harvesting microcapsules dispensed from the microcapsule production unit and a flow sensor for sizing and counting the microcapsules. In some embodiments, the microencapsulation system may further include a controller configured to simultaneously operate the microcapsule production unit, fluidized passage and flow sensor to process the microcapsules in a continuous manner.
Predictive spark timing method
Tang, D.L.; Chang, M.F.; Sultan, M.C.
1990-01-09
This patent describes a method of determining spark time in a spark timing system of an internal combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders and a spark period for each cylinder in which a spark occurs. It comprises: generating at least one crankshaft position reference pulse for each spark firing event, the reference pulse nearest the next spark being set to occur within a same cylinder event as the next spark; measuring at least two reference periods between recent reference pulses; calculating the spark timing synchronously with crankshaft position by performing the calculation upon receipt of the reference pulse nearest the next spark; predicting the engine speed for the next spark period from at least two reference periods including the most recent reference period; and based on the predicted speed, calculating a spark time measured from the the reference pulse nearest the next spark.
Acoustophoresis separation method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heyman, Joseph S. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
A method and apparatus are provided for acoustophoresis, i.e., the separation of species via acoustic waves. An ultrasonic transducer applies an acoustic wave to one end of a sample container containing at least two species having different acoustic absorptions. The wave has a frequency tuned to or harmonized with the point of resonance of the species to be separated. This wave causes the species to be driven to an opposite end of the sample container for removal. A second ultrasonic transducer may be provided to apply a second, oppositely directed acoustic wave to prevent undesired streaming. In addition, a radio frequency tuned to the mechanical resonance and coupled with a magnetic field can serve to identify a species in a medium comprising species with similar absorption coefficients, whereby an acoustic wave having a frequency corresponding to this gyrational rate can then be applied to sweep the identified species to one end of the container for removal.
Radiofrequency attenuator and method
Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.; Agrawal, Anoop; Hall, Simon B.
2009-11-10
Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.
Unconventional methods for clustering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotyrba, Martin
2016-06-01
Cluster analysis or clustering is a task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar (in some sense or another) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters). It is the main task of exploratory data mining and a common technique for statistical data analysis used in many fields, including machine learning, pattern recognition, image analysis, information retrieval, and bioinformatics. The topic of this paper is one of the modern methods of clustering namely SOM (Self Organising Map). The paper describes the theory needed to understand the principle of clustering and descriptions of algorithm used with clustering in our experiments.
Kellerman, Peter
2013-12-21
The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.
Sainsbury, G.M.
1987-10-20
A method is described of sinking shafts comprising excavating a series of lifts wherein each lift is excavated by drilling a pattern of blast holes for the full depth of the lift boring a large diameter hole for the full depth of the lift. Then creating a chamber only at the lower end of the large diameter hole, blasting a portion of the walls of the chamber to deposit rock material into the chamber, extracting at least a portion of the rock material created by the blast and repeating the blasting and extraction step throughout the length of the lift from the bottom to the top and when the volume of the lift is blasted extracting the remaining rock broken material.
Tolle, Charles R.; Clark, Denis E.; Smartt, Herschel B.; Miller, Karen S.
2009-10-06
A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.
Fisher, R.W.
1957-12-10
A method is described for recovering thorium from impurities found in a slag containing thorium and said impurities, comprising leaching a composition containing thorium with water, removing the water solution, treating the residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting its acidity to 1 to 3 normal, adding oxalic acid, and thereafter separating the precipitated thorium oxalate digesting the residue from the hydrochloric acid treatment with a strong solution of sodium hydroxide at an elevated temperature, removing said solution and treating the insoluble residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting the acidity of this solution to 1 to 3 normal, adding nitric acid to oxidize the iron present, adding oxalic acid and thereafter separating the thorium oxalate thus precipitated.
Methods for studying oogenesis
Hudson, Andrew M.; Cooley, Lynn
2014-01-01
Drosophila oogenesis is an excellent system for the study of developmental cell biology. Active areas of research include stem cell maintenance, gamete development, pattern formation, cytoskeletal regulation, intercellular communication, intercellular transport, cell polarity, cell migration, cell death, morphogenesis, cell cycle control, and many more. The large size and relatively simple organization of egg chambers make them ideally suited for microscopy of both living and fixed whole mount tissue. A wide range of tools is available for oogenesis research. Newly available shRNA transgenic lines provide an alternative to classic loss-of-function F2 screens and clonal screens. Gene expression can be specifically controlled in either germline or somatic cells using the Gal4/UAS system. Protein trap lines provide fluorescent tags of proteins expressed at endogenous levels for live imaging and screening backgrounds. This review provides information on many available reagents and key methods for research in oogenesis. PMID:24440745
Characterization Methods of Encapsulates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhibing; Law, Daniel; Lian, Guoping
, reliable methods which can be used to characterize these properties of encapsulates are vital. In this chapter, the state-of-art of these methods, their principles and applications, and release mechanisms are described as follows.
Theurich, Gordon R.
1976-01-01
1. In a method of separating isotopes in a high speed gas centrifuge wherein a vertically oriented cylindrical rotor bowl is adapted to rotate about its axis within an evacuated chamber, and wherein an annular molecular pump having an intake end and a discharge end encircles the uppermost portion of said rotor bowl, said molecular pump being attached along its periphery in a leak-tight manner to said evacuated chamber, and wherein end cap closure means are affixed to the upper end of said rotor bowl, and a process gas withdrawal and insertion system enters said bowl through said end cap closure means, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and end cap defining an upper zone at the discharge end of said molecular pump, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and rotor bowl defining a lower annular zone at the intake end of said molecular pump, a method for removing gases from said upper and lower zones during centrifuge operation with a minimum loss of process gas from said rotor bowl, comprising, in combination: continuously measuring the pressure in said upper zone, pumping gas from said lower zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a first preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a second preselected value, said first preselected value being greater than said second preselected value, and continuously pumping gas from said upper zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a third preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a fourth preselected value, said third preselected value being greater than said first, second and fourth preselected values.
Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)
The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.
Birth control - slow release methods
Contraception - hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...
Schwartz, J L
1992-03-01
Smoking-cessation treatment consists of three phases: preparation, intervention, and maintenance. Preparation aims to increase the smoker's motivation to quit and to build confidence that he or she can be successful. Intervention can take any number of forms (or a combination of them) to help smokers to achieve abstinence. Maintenance, including support, coping strategies, and substitute behaviors, is necessary for permanent abstinence. Although most smokers who successfully quit do so on their own, many use cessation programs at some point during their smoking history. Moreover, many people act on the advice of a health professional in deciding to quit. Some are also aided by a smoking-cessation kit from a public or voluntary agency, a book, a tape, or an over-the-counter product. Still others receive help from mass-media campaigns, such as the Great American Smokeout, or community programs. Counseling, voluntary and commercial clinics, nicotine replacement strategies, hypnosis, acupuncture, and behavioral programs are other methods used by smokers to break the habit. Programs that include multiple treatments are more successful than single interventions. The most cost-effective strategy for smoking cessation for most smokers is self-care, which includes quitting on one's own and might also include acting on the advice of a health profession or using an aid such as a quit-smoking guide. Heavier, more addicted smokers are more likely to seek out formal programs after several attempts to quit. Many people can quit smoking, but staying off cigarettes requires maintenance, support, and additional techniques, such as relapse prevention. Physicians, dentists, and other health professionals can provide important assistance to their patients who smoke. Quit rates can be improved if clinicians provide more help (e.g., counseling, support) than just simple advice and warnings. Clinicians also play an important role in providing nicotine replacement products such as nicotine
Backus, S.; Kapteyn, H.C.; Murnane, M.M.
1997-07-01
Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask. The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethrough. The third mirror reflects the laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam. The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate. 7 figs.
Backus, Sterling; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.
1997-01-01
Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask. The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethough. The third mirror reflects the laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam. The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate.
Jones, Jr., Edward M.
1985-01-01
A method for producing tertiary ethers from C.sub.4 or C.sub.5 streams containing isobutene and isoamylene respectively in a process wherein a acidic cation exchange resin is used as the catalyst and as a distillation structure in a distillation reactor column, wherein the improvement is the operation of the catalytic distillation in two zones at different pressures, the first zone containing the catalyst packing and operated a higher pressure in the range of 100 to 200 psig in the case of C.sub.4 's and 15 to 100 psig in the case of C.sub.5 's which favors the etherification reaction and the second zone being a distillation operated at a lower pressure in the range of 0 to 100 psig in the case of C.sub.4 's and 0 to 15 psig in the case of C.sub.5 's wherein a first overhead from the first zone is fractionated to remove a portion of the unreacted alcohol from the first overhead and to return a condensed portion containing said alcohol to the first zone and to produce a second overhead having less alcohol than said first overhead.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riggs, Lloyd Stephen
In this work the transient currents induced on an arbitrary system of thin linear scatterers by an electromagnetic plane wave are solved by using an electric field integral equation (EFIE) formulation. The transient analysis is carried out using the singularity expansion method (SEM). The general analysis developed here is useful for assessing the vulnerability of military aircraft to a nuclear generated electromagnetic pulse (EMP). It is also useful as a modal synthesis tool in the analysis and design of frequency selective surfaces (FSS). SEM parameters for a variety of thin cylindrical geometries have been computed. Specifically, SEM poles, modes, coupling coefficients, and transient currents are given for the two and three element planar array. Poles and modes for planar arrays with a larger number (as many as eight) of identical equally spaced elements are also considered. SEM pole-mode results are given for identical parallel elements with ends located at the vertices of a regular N-agon. Pole-mode patterns are found for symmetric (and slightly perturbed) single junction N-arm elements and for the five junction Jerusalem cross. The Jerusalem cross element has been used extensively in FSS.
Music acupuncture stimulation method.
Brătilă, F; Moldovan, C
2007-01-01
Harmonic Medicine is the model using the theory that the body rhythms synchronize to an outer rhythm applied for therapeutic purpose, can restores the energy balance in acupuncture channels and organs and the condition of well-being. The purpose of this scientific work was to demonstrate the role played by harmonic sounds in the stimulation of the Lung (LU) Meridian (Shoutaiyin Feijing) and of the Kidney (KI) Meridian (Zushaoyin Shenjing). It was used an original method that included: measurement and electronic sound stimulation of the Meridian Entry Point, measurement of Meridian Exit Point, computer data processing, bio feed-back adjustment of the music stimulation parameters. After data processing, it was found that the sound stimulation of the Lung Meridian Frequency is optimal between 122 Hz and 128 Hz, with an average of 124 Hz (87% of the subjects) and for Kidney Meridian from 118 Hz to 121 Hz, with an average of 120 Hz (67% of the subjects). The acupuncture stimulation was more intense for female subjects (> 7%) than for the male ones. We preliminarily consider that an informational resonance phenomenon can be developed between the acupuncture music stimulation frequency and the cellular dipole frequency, being a really "resonant frequency signature" of an acupoint. The harmonic generation and the electronic excitation or low-excitation status of an acupuncture point may be considered as a resonance mechanism. By this kind of acupunctural stimulation, a symphony may act and play a healer role. PMID:18767418
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Byerly, Kent A. (Inventor); Dusl, John (Inventor)
2003-01-01
Transceiver and methods are included that are especially suitable for detecting metallic materials, such as metallic mines, within an environment. The transceiver includes a digital waveform generator used to transmit a signal into the environment and a receiver that produces a digital received signal. A tracking module preferably compares an in-phase and quadrature transmitted signal with an in-phase and quadrature received signal to produce a spectral transfer function of the magnetic transceiver over a selected range of frequencies. The transceiver initially preferably creates a reference transfer function which is then stored in a memory. Subsequently measured transfer functions will vary depending on the presence of metal in the environment which was not in the environment when the reference transfer function was determined. The system may be utilized in the presence of other antennas, metal, and electronics which may comprise a plastic mine detector for detecting plastic mines. Despite the additional antennas and other metallic materials that may be in the environment due to the plastic mine detector, the magnetic transceiver remains highly sensitive to metallic material which may be located in various portions of the environment and which may be detected by sweeping the detector over ground that may contain metals or mines.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Byerly, Kent A. (Inventor)
2003-01-01
System and methods are disclosed for fluid measurements which may be utilized to determine mass flow rates such as instantaneous mass flow of a fluid stream. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention may be utilized to compare an input mass flow to an output mass flow of a drilling fluid circulation stream. In one embodiment, a fluid flow rate is determined by utilizing a microwave detector in combination with an acoustic sensor. The acoustic signal is utilized to eliminate 2pi phase ambiguities in a reflected microwave signal. In another embodiment, a fluid flow rate may be determined by detecting a phase shift of an acoustic signal across two different predetermined transmission paths. A fluid density may be determined by detecting a calibrated phase shift of an acoustic signal through the fluid. In another embodiment, a second acoustic signal may be transmitted through the fluid to define a particular 2pi phase range which defines the phase shift. The present invention may comprise multiple transmitters/receivers operating at different frequencies to measure instantaneous fuel levels of cryogenic fuels within containers positioned in zero or near zero gravity environments. In one embodiment, a moveable flexible collar of transmitter/receivers may be utilized to determine inhomogenuities within solid rocket fuel tubes.
Bray, L.A.; DesChane, J.R.
1998-05-05
A method is described for separating {sup 213}Bi from a solution of radionuclides wherein the solution contains a concentration of the chloride ions and hydrogen ions adjusted to allow the formation of a chloride complex. The solution is then brought into contact with an anion exchange resin, whereupon {sup 213}Bi is absorbed from the solution and adhered onto the anion exchange resin in the chloride complex. Other non-absorbing radionuclides such as {sup 225}Ra, {sup 225}Ac, and {sup 221}Fr, along with HCl are removed from the anion exchange resin with a scrub solution. The {sup 213}Bi is removed from the anion exchange resin by washing the anion exchange resin with a stripping solution free of chloride ions and with a reduced hydrogen ion concentration which breaks the chloride anionic complex, releasing the {sup 213}Bi as a cation. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the anion exchange resin is provided as a thin membrane, allowing for extremely rapid adherence and stripping of the {sup 213}Bi. A preferred stripping solution for purification of {sup 213}Bi for use in medical applications includes sodium acetate, pH 5.5. A protein conjugated with bifunctional chelating agents in vivo with the NaOAc receives the {sup 213}Bi as it is being released from the anion exchange resin. 10 figs.
Bray, Lane Allan; DesChane, Jaquetta R.
1998-01-01
A method for separating .sup.213 Bi from a solution of radionuclides wherein the solution contains a concentration of the chloride ions and hydrogen ions adjusted to allow the formation of a chloride complex. The solution is then brought into contact with an anion exchange resin, whereupon .sup.213 Bi is absorbed from the solution and adhered onto the anion exchange resin in the chloride complex. Other non-absorbing radionuclides such as .sup.225 Ra, .sup.225 Ac, and .sup.221 Fr, along with HCl are removed from the anion exchange resin with a scrub solution. The .sup.213 Bi is removed from the anion exchange resin by washing the anion exchange resin with a stripping solution free of chloride ions and with a reduced hydrogen ion concentration which breaks the chloride anionic complex, releasing the .sup.213 Bi as a cation. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the anion exchange resin is provided as a thin membrane, allowing for extremely rapid adherence and stripping of the .sup.213 Bi. A preferred stripping solution for purification of .sup.213 Bi for use in medical applications includes sodium acetate, pH 5.5. A protein conjugated with bifunctional chelating agents in vivo with the NaOAc, to receive the .sup.213 Bi as it is being released from the anion exchange resin.
Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang
2005-01-01
This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.
Jones, E.M. Jr.
1985-03-12
A method is described for producing tertiary ethers from C[sub 4] or C[sub 5] streams containing isobutene and isoamylene respectively in a process wherein a acidic cation exchange resin is used as the catalyst and as a distillation structure in a distillation reactor column, wherein the improvement is the operation of the catalytic distillation in two zones at different pressures, the first zone containing the catalyst packing and operated a higher pressure in the range of 100 to 200 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 15 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 5] which favors the etherification reaction and the second zone being a distillation operated at a lower pressure in the range of 0 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 0 to 15 psig in the case of C[sub 5] wherein a first overhead from the first zone is fractionated to remove a portion of the unreacted alcohol from the first overhead and to return a condensed portion containing said alcohol to the first zone and to produce a second overhead having less alcohol than said first overhead. 3 figs.
Generalized Multicoincidence Analysis Methods
Warren, Glen A.; Smith, Leon E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Ellis, J. E.; Valsan, Andrei B.; Mengesha, Wondwosen
2005-10-01
The ability to conduct automated trace radionuclide analysis at or near the sample collection point would provide a valuable tool for emergency response, nuclear forensics and environmental monitoring. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing systems for this purpose based on dual gamma-ray spectrometers, e.g. NaI(TI) or HPGe, combined with thin organic scintillator sensors to detect light charged particles. Translating the coincident signatures recorded by these systems, which include , and , into the concentration of detectable radionuclides in the sample requires generalized multicoincidence analysis tools. The development and validation of the Coincidence Lookup Library, which currently contains the probabilities of single and coincidence signatures from more than 420 isotopes, is described. Also discussed is a method to calculate the probability of observing a coincidence signature which incorporates true coincidence summing effects. These effects are particularly important for high-geometric-efficiency detection systems. Finally, a process for validating the integrated analysis software package is demonstrated using GEANT 4 simulations of the prototype detector systems.
Generalized Multicoincidence Analysis Methods
Warren, Glen A.; Smith, Leon E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Ellis, J. E.; Valsan, Andrei B.; Mengesha, Wondwosen
2006-02-01
The ability to conduct automated trace radionuclide analysis at or near the sample collection point would provide a valuable tool for emergency response, environmental monitoring, and verification of treaties and agreements. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing systems for this purpose based on dual gamma-ray spectrometers, e.g. NaI(TI) or HPGe, combined with thin organic scintillator sensors to detect light charged particles. Translating the coincident signatures recorded by these systems, which include beta-gamma, gamma-gamma and beta-gamma-gamma, into the concentration of detectable radionuclides in the sample requires generalized multicoincidence analysis tools. The development and validation of the Coincidence Lookup Library, which currently contains the probabilities of single and coincidence signatures from more than 420 isotopes, is described. Also discussed is a method to calculate the probability of observing a coincidence signature which incorporates true coincidence summing effects. These effects are particularly important for high-geometric-efficiency detection systems. Finally, a process for verifying the integrated analysis software package is demonstrated using GEANT 4 simulations of the prototype detector systems.
Mimetic finite difference method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipnikov, Konstantin; Manzini, Gianmarco; Shashkov, Mikhail
2014-01-01
The mimetic finite difference (MFD) method mimics fundamental properties of mathematical and physical systems including conservation laws, symmetry and positivity of solutions, duality and self-adjointness of differential operators, and exact mathematical identities of the vector and tensor calculus. This article is the first comprehensive review of the 50-year long history of the mimetic methodology and describes in a systematic way the major mimetic ideas and their relevance to academic and real-life problems. The supporting applications include diffusion, electromagnetics, fluid flow, and Lagrangian hydrodynamics problems. The article provides enough details to build various discrete operators on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes and summarizes the major convergence results for the mimetic approximations. Most of these theoretical results, which are presented here as lemmas, propositions and theorems, are either original or an extension of existing results to a more general formulation using polyhedral meshes. Finally, flexibility and extensibility of the mimetic methodology are shown by deriving higher-order approximations, enforcing discrete maximum principles for diffusion problems, and ensuring the numerical stability for saddle-point systems.
Method for biological purification
Lucido, John A.; Keenan, Daniel; Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.; Shelenkova, Ludmila
2001-03-27
An apparatus is disclosed for containing a microorganism culture in an active exponential growth and delivering a supply of microorganisms to an environment containing wastes for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of the wastes. The apparatus comprises a bioreactor and an operably connected controller. The bioreactor has a bioreactor chamber for containing a supply of microorganisms, a second chamber for containing a supply of water and inorganic nutrients, and a third chamber for containing a supply of organic nutrients. The bioreactor is operably connected to the controller in which a first pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the second chamber and third chamber, and a second pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the environment containing wastes to be biodegraded. The controller further includes a timer and regulator operably connected to the first and second pumps to effectively maintain the microorganisms in exponential growth in the bioreactor chamber and to deliver microorganisms to an environment to be treated. Also, disclosed is a method for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of wastes.
Methods of channeling simulation
Barrett, J.H.
1989-06-01
Many computer simulation programs have been used to interpret experiments almost since the first channeling measurements were made. Certain aspects of these programs are important in how accurately they simulate ions in crystals; among these are the manner in which the structure of the crystal is incorporated, how any quantity of interest is computed, what ion-atom potential is used, how deflections are computed from the potential, incorporation of thermal vibrations of the lattice atoms, correlations of thermal vibrations, and form of stopping power. Other aspects of the programs are included to improve the speed; among these are table lookup, importance sampling, and the multiparameter method. It is desirable for programs to facilitate incorporation of special features of interest in special situations; examples are relaxations and enhanced vibrations of surface atoms, easy substitution of an alternate potential for comparison, change of row directions from layer to layer in strained-layer lattices, and different vibration amplitudes for substitutional solute or impurity atoms. Ways of implementing all of these aspects and features and the consequences of them will be discussed. 30 refs., 3 figs.
Desulfurization apparatus and method
Rong, Charles; Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn
2013-06-18
A method and system for desulfurization comprising first and second metal oxides; a walled enclosure having an inlet and an exhaust for the passage of gas to be treated; the first and second metal oxide being combinable with hydrogen sulfide to produce a reaction comprising a sulfide and water; the first metal oxide forming a first layer and the second metal oxide forming a second layer within the walled surroundings; the first and second layers being positioned so the first layer removes the bulk amount of the hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas prior to passage through the second layer, and the second layer removes substantially all of the remaining hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas; the first metal oxide producing a stoichiometrical capacity in excess of 500 mg sulfur/gram; the second metal oxide reacts with the hydrogen sulfide more favorably but has a stoichometrical capacity which is less than the first reactant; whereby the optimal amount by weight of the first and second metal oxides is achieved by utilizing two to three units by weight of the first metal oxide for every unit of the second metal oxide.
Diggs, R.E.
1982-08-10
An apparatus and method are disclosed for removing contaminants from water having solid contaminants dissolved therein. Contaminated water flows across a grid and into a storage tank. The grid utilizes solar energy to heat that water to a predetermined temperature. A heat transfer structure which is dome-shaped and receives water from the storage tank and a preheater means utilizing solar energy heats the water to a further predetermined temperature. An evaporator means receives the heated water and exposes it to a vacuum condition so that the temperature of the water is above the saturation temperature. The water is thus vaporized, and solid contaminants dissolved therein are separated therefrom. The solids are deposited on a plurality of moving belts and are then moved into a solids removal system. The solids removal system comprises a plurality of trap door pairs upon which the solids are deposited and which are sequentially opened so that the vacuum conditions existing in the evaporator are not disturbed. Vapor transferring means removes the water vapor from the evaporator and transfers it to the heat transfer structure wherein it is condensed to form distillate which is free of solid contaminants. Distillate removal means then removes the distillate from the heat transfer structure to collection or usage means.
Hathaway, Thomas J.
1979-01-01
This invention provides a housing containing a rotatable coal bucket that is sealed at its ends in the housing with a reciprocal plunger that is sealed in the bucket at one end and has an opposite cone-shaped end that wedges up against a closed end of the bucket, and a method for feeding dry, variable size coal from an ambient atmosphere at low pressure into a high temperature, high pressure reactor between the seals for producing fuel gas substantially without losing any high pressure gas from the reactor or excessively wearing the seals. To this end, the piston biases the plunger back and forth for loading and unloading the bucket with coal along an axis that is separated from the seals, the bucket is rotated to unload the coal into the reactor so as to fill the bucket with trapped high pressure gas from the reactor while preventing the gas from escaping therefrom, and then the cone-shaped plunger end is wedged into mating engagement with the closed end of the bucket to displace this high pressure bucket gas by expelling it back into the reactor whereby the bucket can be re-rotated for filling it with coal again substantially without losing any of the high pressure gas or excessively wearing the seals.
Züttel, Andreas
2004-04-01
Hydrogen exhibits the highest heating value per mass of all chemical fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is regenerative and environmentally friendly. There are two reasons why hydrogen is not the major fuel of today's energy consumption. First of all, hydrogen is just an energy carrier. And, although it is the most abundant element in the universe, it has to be produced, since on earth it only occurs in the form of water and hydrocarbons. This implies that we have to pay for the energy, which results in a difficult economic dilemma because ever since the industrial revolution we have become used to consuming energy for free. The second difficulty with hydrogen as an energy carrier is its low critical temperature of 33 K (i.e. hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperature). For mobile and in many cases also for stationary applications the volumetric and gravimetric density of hydrogen in a storage material is crucial. Hydrogen can be stored using six different methods and phenomena: (1) high-pressure gas cylinders (up to 800 bar), (2) liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks (at 21 K), (3) adsorbed hydrogen on materials with a large specific surface area (at T<100 K), (4) absorbed on interstitial sites in a host metal (at ambient pressure and temperature), (5) chemically bonded in covalent and ionic compounds (at ambient pressure), or (6) through oxidation of reactive metals, e.g. Li, Na, Mg, Al, Zn with water. The most common storage systems are high-pressure gas cylinders with a maximum pressure of 20 MPa (200 bar). New lightweight composite cylinders have been developed which are able to withstand pressures up to 80 MPa (800 bar) and therefore the hydrogen gas can reach a volumetric density of 36 kg.m(-3), approximately half as much as in its liquid state. Liquid hydrogen is stored in cryogenic tanks at 21.2 K and ambient pressure. Due to the low critical temperature of hydrogen (33 K), liquid hydrogen can only be stored in open systems. The volumetric density of liquid hydrogen
H.W. Kugel; D. Spong; R. Majeski; M. Zarnstorff
2003-02-28
The NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral-beam injection, and radio-frequency. Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The plan is to provide 3 MW of 50 keV balanced neutral-beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 msec for initial experiments, and to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 sec. Subsequent upgrades will add 3 MW of neutral-beam injection. This Chapter discusses the NCSX neutral-beam injection requirements and design issues, and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M (Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification) neutral-beam injection system. In addition, estimations are given for beam-heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size an d magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam-injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of radio-frequency heating by mode-conversion ion-Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron-cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the radio-frequency system lend themselves to current drive, so that if current drive became desirable for any reason only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The radio-frequency system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possibly ion-Bernstein-wave-generated sheared flows.
Kugel, H. W.; Spong, D.; Majeski, R.; Zarnstorff, M.
2008-01-18
The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral beam injection, and radio-frequency (rf). Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, neutral beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The experimental plan requires 3 MW of 50-keV balanced neutral beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 ms for initial experiments, to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 s. Subsequent upgrades will add 3MW of neutral beam injection (NBI). This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M NBI system. In addition, estimations are given for beam heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size and magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of rf heating by mode conversion ion Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the rf system lend themselves to current drive, so if current drive became desirable for any reason, only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The rf system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possiblyIBW-generated sheared flows.
Slope stability and stabilization methods
Abramson, L.W.; Lee, T.S.; Boyce, G.M.; Sharma, S.S.
1995-12-01
Slope stability can be a major problem during the construction of surface facilities. Cutting into existing ground disturbs the mechanics of the surrounding area, which can result in landslides and rock falls. This practical reference gives you the comprehensive information you need for slope stability analysis, suitable methods of analysis with and without the use of computers, and examples of common stability problems and stabilization methods for cuts and fills. It includes detailed discussions of methods used in slope stability analysis, including the Ordinary Method of Slices, Simplified Janbu Method, Simplified Bishop Method, Spencer`s Method, other limit equilibrium methods, numerical methods, total stress analysis, effective stress analysis, and the use of computer programs to solve problems. Chapters include: General Slope Stability Concepts; Engineering Geology Principles; Groundwater Conditions; Geologic Site Exploration; Laboratory Testing Interpretation; Slope Stability Concepts; Slope Stabilization Methods; and Design, Construction and Maintenance.
An Extended Method of SIRMs Connected Fuzzy Inference Method Using Kernel Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seki, Hirosato; Mizuguchi, Fuhito; Watanabe, Satoshi; Ishii, Hiroaki; Mizumoto, Masaharu
The single input rule modules connected fuzzy inference method (SIRMs method) by Yubazaki et al. can decrease the number of fuzzy rules drastically in comparison with the conventional fuzzy inference methods. Moreover, Seki et al. have proposed a functional-type SIRMs method which generalizes the consequent part of the SIRMs method to function. However, these SIRMs methods can not be applied to XOR (Exclusive OR). In this paper, we propose a “kernel-type SIRMs method” which uses the kernel trick to the SIRMs method, and show that this method can treat XOR. Further, a learning algorithm of the proposed SIRMs method is derived by using the steepest descent method, and compared with the one of conventional SIRMs method and kernel perceptron by applying to identification of nonlinear functions, medical diagnostic system and discriminant analysis of Iris data.
Variable metric conjugate gradient methods
Barth, T.; Manteuffel, T.
1994-07-01
1.1 Motivation. In this paper we present a framework that includes many well known iterative methods for the solution of nonsymmetric linear systems of equations, Ax = b. Section 2 begins with a brief review of the conjugate gradient method. Next, we describe a broader class of methods, known as projection methods, to which the conjugate gradient (CG) method and most conjugate gradient-like methods belong. The concept of a method having either a fixed or a variable metric is introduced. Methods that have a metric are referred to as either fixed or variable metric methods. Some relationships between projection methods and fixed (variable) metric methods are discussed. The main emphasis of the remainder of this paper is on variable metric methods. In Section 3 we show how the biconjugate gradient (BCG), and the quasi-minimal residual (QMR) methods fit into this framework as variable metric methods. By modifying the underlying Lanczos biorthogonalization process used in the implementation of BCG and QMR, we obtain other variable metric methods. These, we refer to as generalizations of BCG and QMR.
Sessler, A.M.
1984-07-01
But a glance at the Livingston chart, Fig. 1, of accelerator particle energy as a function of time shows that the energy has steadily, exponentially, increased. Equally significant is the fact that this increase is the envelope of diverse technologies. If one is to stay on, or even near, the Livingston curve in future years then new acceleration techniques need to be developed. What are the new acceleration methods? In these two lectures I would like to sketch some of these new ideas. I am well aware that they will probably not result in high energy accelerators within this or the next decade, but conversely, it is likely that these ideas will form the basis for the accelerators of the next century. Anyway, the ideas are stimulating and suffice to show that accelerator physicists are not just 'engineers', but genuine scientists deserving to be welcomed into the company of high energy physicists. I believe that outsiders will find this field surprisingly fertile and, certainly fun. To put it more personally, I very much enjoy working in this field and lecturing on it. There are a number of review articles which should be consulted for references to the original literature. In addition there are three books on the subject. Given this material, I feel free to not completely reference the material in the remainder of this article; consultation of the review articles and books will be adequate as an introduction to the literature for references abound (hundreds are given). At last, by way of introduction, I should like to quote from the end of Ref. 2 for I think the remarks made there are most germane. Remember that the talk was addressed to accelerator physicists: 'Finally, it is often said, I think by physicists who are not well-informed, that accelerator builders have used up their capital and now are bereft of ideas, and as a result, high energy physics will eventually--rather soon, in fact--come to a halt. After all, one can't build too many machines greater than
Correlation of Two Anthocyanin Quantification Methods: HPLC and Spectrophotometric Methods
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The pH differential method and HPLC are methods that are commonly used by researchers and the food industry for quantifying anthocyanins in a sample. This study was conducted to establish a relationship between the two analytical methods. Seven juice samples containing an array of different individu...
Trojan Horse Method: Recent Experiments
Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R.; Rolfs, C.; Typel, S.
2006-07-12
The Trojan Horse Method allows for the measurements of cross sections in nuclear reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic features of the method are discussed and recent applications are presented.
Ethnographic Analysis of Instructional Method.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brooks, Douglas M.
1980-01-01
Instructional methods are operational exchanges between participants within environments that attempt to produce a learning outcome. The classroom teacher's ability to produce a learning outcome is the measure of instructional competence within that learning method. (JN)
Analytic Methods in Investigative Geometry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dobbs, David E.
2001-01-01
Suggests an alternative proof by analytic methods, which is more accessible than rigorous proof based on Euclid's Elements, in which students need only apply standard methods of trigonometry to the data without introducing new points or lines. (KHR)
Production Methods in Industrial Microbiology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gaden, Elmer L., Jr.
1981-01-01
Compares two methods (batch and continuous) in which microorganisms are used to produce industrial chemicals. Describes batch and continuous stirred-tank reactors and offers reasons why the batch method may be preferred. (JN)
Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan
2004-01-01
Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared. Each method is described and numerical solutions to test problems are conducted. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, and robustness is given.
Integrated force method versus displacement method for finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, S. N.; Berke, L.; Gallagher, R. H.
1991-01-01
A novel formulation termed the integrated force method (IFM) has been developed in recent years for analyzing structures. In this method all the internal forces are taken as independent variables, and the system equilibrium equations (EEs) are integrated with the global compatibility conditions (CCs) to form the governing set of equations. In IFM the CCs are obtained from the strain formulation of St. Venant, and no choices of redundant load systems have to be made, in constrast to the standard force method (SFM). This property of IFM allows the generation of the governing equation to be automated straightforwardly, as it is in the popular stiffness method (SM). In this report IFM and SM are compared relative to the structure of their respective equations, their conditioning, required solution methods, overall computational requirements, and convergence properties as these factors influence the accuracy of the results. Overall, this new version of the force method produces more accurate results than the stiffness method for comparable computational cost.
Integrated force method versus displacement method for finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, Surya N.; Berke, Laszlo; Gallagher, Richard H.
1990-01-01
A novel formulation termed the integrated force method (IFM) has been developed in recent years for analyzing structures. In this method all the internal forces are taken as independent variables, and the system equilibrium equations (EE's) are integrated with the global compatibility conditions (CC's) to form the governing set of equations. In IFM the CC's are obtained from the strain formulation of St. Venant, and no choices of redundant load systems have to be made, in constrast to the standard force method (SFM). This property of IFM allows the generation of the governing equation to be automated straightforwardly, as it is in the popular stiffness method (SM). In this report IFM and SM are compared relative to the structure of their respective equations, their conditioning, required solution methods, overall computational requirements, and convergence properties as these factors influence the accuracy of the results. Overall, this new version of the force method produces more accurate results than the stiffness method for comparable computational cost.
Optical measurement methods in thermogasdynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stursberg, K.; Erhardt, K.; Krahr, W.; Becker, M.
1978-01-01
A review is presented of a number of optical methods of flow measurements. Consideration is given to such spectroscopic methods as emission and absorption techniques, electron beam-stimulated fluorescence, and light scattering - Rayleigh, Raman and Mie - methods. The following visualization methods are also discussed: shadow photography, schlieren photography, interferometry, holographic interferometry, laser anemometry, particle holography, and electron-excitation imaging. A large bibliography is presented and the work is copiously illustrated with figures and photographs.
Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan
2003-01-01
Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating three-dimensional, steady and unsteady, laminar and turbulent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared in this work. Each method is described in detail along with appropriate physical and numerical boundary conditions. Analysis of well-posedness and numerical solutions to test problems for each method are provided. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, stability and robustness is used to establish the relative positive and negative characteristics of each method.
Probabilistic methods for rotordynamics analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Y.-T.; Torng, T. Y.; Millwater, H. R.; Fossum, A. F.; Rheinfurth, M. H.
1991-01-01
This paper summarizes the development of the methods and a computer program to compute the probability of instability of dynamic systems that can be represented by a system of second-order ordinary linear differential equations. Two instability criteria based upon the eigenvalues or Routh-Hurwitz test functions are investigated. Computational methods based on a fast probability integration concept and an efficient adaptive importance sampling method are proposed to perform efficient probabilistic analysis. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the methods.
Improved method for coliform verification.
Diehl, J D
1991-02-01
Modification of a method for coliform verification presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater is described. Modification of the method, which is based on beta-galactosidase production, involves incorporation of a lactose operon inducer in medium upon which presumptive coliform isolates are cultured prior to beta-galactosidase assay. PMID:1901712
Improved method for coliform verification.
Diehl, J D
1991-01-01
Modification of a method for coliform verification presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater is described. Modification of the method, which is based on beta-galactosidase production, involves incorporation of a lactose operon inducer in medium upon which presumptive coliform isolates are cultured prior to beta-galactosidase assay. PMID:1901712
The Discovery Method in Training.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Belbin, R. M.
In the form of a discussion between faceless people, this booklet concerns discovery learning and its advantages. Subjects covered in the discussions are: Introducing the Discovery Method; An Experiment with British Railways; The OECD Research Projects in U.S.A., Austria, and Sweden; How the Discovery Method Differs from Other Methods; Discovery…
Spectral methods on arbitrary grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, Mark H.; Gottlieb, David
1995-01-01
Stable and spectrally accurate numerical methods are constructed on arbitrary grids for partial differential equations. These new methods are equivalent to conventional spectral methods but do not rely on specific grid distributions. Specifically, we show how to implement Legendre Galerkin, Legendre collocation, and Laguerre Galerkin methodology on arbitrary grids.
Generalized high order compact methods.
Spotz, William F.; Kominiarczuk, Jakub
2010-09-01
The fundamental ideas of the high order compact method are combined with the generalized finite difference method. The result is a finite difference method that works on unstructured, nonuniform grids, and is more accurate than one would classically expect from the number of grid points employed.
Alternate Methods of Teaching Psychopharmacology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zisook, Sidney; Benjamin, Sheldon; Balon, Richard; Glick, Ira; Louie, Alan; Moutier, Christine; Moyer, Trenton; Santos, Cynthia; Servis, Mark
2005-01-01
Objective: This article reviews methods used to teach psychopharmacology to psychiatry residents that utilize principles of adult learning, enlist active participation of residents, and provide faculty with skills to seek, analyze, and use new information over the course of their careers. Methods: The pros and cons of five "nonlecture" methods of…
Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertulani, C. A.; Shubhchintak; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Kruppa, A.; Pang, D. Y.
2016-04-01
We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions.
Methods of making textured catalysts
Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.
2010-08-17
A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.
Novel Approach to Job's Method.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Zachary D.; Macarthy, Patrick
1986-01-01
Job's method of continuous variations is a commonly used procedure for determining the composition of complexes in solution. Presents: (1) a review of the method; (2) theory of a new procedure for measuring Job's plots; and (3) an undergraduate experiment using the new method. (JN)
Legault, M; Goulet, C
1993-01-01
This study compared two methods of holding preterm infants: 1) the kangaroo, or skin-to-skin method (K) and 2) the traditional method, or normal handling (T). Skin temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were monitored during both the kangaroo and the traditional handling methods. After testing with the two methods, the mothers indicated their satisfaction and preference. Sixty-one pairs of mothers and babies were tested once with the K method and once with the T method. The first method tested was determined at random: 50% began with K and 50% with T. Skin temperature, heart rate and respiratory rate were similar with both K and T methods. Whereas oxygen saturation was significantly lower (92.8% vs 90.5%, p < 0.0001) under the T method, time of testing was longer (29.5 min vs 25.3 min, p = 0.02) for the K method than for T method. In summary, the findings suggested that mothers preferred the K method because the cold stress factor was avoided, oxygenation was better maintained, and mothers felt closer to their infants. PMID:10603808
Bias between enzymatic methods and the reference method for cholesterol.
Kroll, M H; Lindsey, H; Greene, J; Sliva, C; Hainline, A; Elin, R J
1988-01-01
Assaying 312 serum samples, we compared four enzymatic methods for serum cholesterol with the Reference Method (modified Abell-Kendall) of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The means for the aca, TDx, and SMAC methods (2.27, 2.27, and 2.24 g/L, respectively) were significantly higher (P less than 0.05) than those of the Reference Method and the RA-1000 method (2.19 and 2.18 g/L, respectively). The biased methods had positive proportional and (or) systematic biases. Results with these methods were 2.6% to 4.9% higher than with the Reference Method. The assigned concentrations of cholesterol in the calibration materials for the SMAC and aca agreed with those obtained by the Reference Method, but were lower for the TDx and higher for the RA-1000. These findings document positive biases for cholesterol with three enzymatic methods and suggest that misassignment of calibrators is not primarily responsible for the biases found with the aca and SMAC. It may, however, to be a significant factor for the TDx. PMID:3338142
Immersed interface methods. Final report
LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.
1996-11-01
Cartesian grid methods encompass a wide variety of techniques used to solve partial differential equations in more than one space dimension on uniform Cartesian grids even when the underlying geometry is complex and not aligned with the grid. The authors` groups work on Immersed Interface Methods (IIM) was originally motivated by the desire to understand and improve the ``Immersed Boundary Method``, developed by Charles Peskin to solve incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in complicated geometries with moving elastic boundaries. This report briefly discusses the development of the Immersed Interface Methods and gives examples of application of the method in solving several partial differential equations.
Method for isolating nucleic acids
Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.
2015-09-29
The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.
Excitation Methods for Bridge Structures
Farrar, C.R.; Duffy, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Doebling, S.W.
1999-02-08
This paper summarizes the various methods that have been used to excited bridge structures during dynamic testing. The excitation methods fall into the general categories of ambient excitation methods and measured-input excitation methods. During ambient excitation the input to the bridge is not directly measured. In contrast, as the category label implies, measured-input excitations are usually applied at a single location where the force input to the structure can be monitored. Issues associated with using these various types of measurements are discussed along with a general description of the various excitation methods.
Evaluation of modal testing methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, J.-C.
1984-01-01
Modal tests are playing an increasingly important role in structural dynamics efforts which are in need of analytical model verification or trouble shootings. In the meantime, the existing modal testing methods are undergoing great changes as well as new methods are being created. Although devoted advocates of each method can be found to argue the relative advantages and disadvantages, the general superiority, if any, of one or the other is not yet evident. The Galileo spacecraft, a realistic, complex structural system, will be used as a test article for performing modal tests by various methods. The results will be used to evaluate the relative merits of the various modal testing methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abidin, Zubai'ah Zainal; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd; Mohd, Ismail
2014-06-01
The classical steepest descent (SD) method is known as one of the earliest and the best method to minimize a function. Even though the convergence rate is quite slow, but its simplicity has made it one of the easiest methods to be used and applied especially in the form of computer codes. In this paper, a new modification of SD method is proposed using a new search direction (dk) in the form of two parameters. Numerical results shows that this new SD has far superior convergence rate and more efficient than the classical SD method.
Methods for purifying carbon materials
Dailly, Anne; Ahn, Channing; Yazami, Rachid; Fultz, Brent T.
2009-05-26
Methods of purifying samples are provided that are capable of removing carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous impurities from a sample containing a carbon material having a selected structure. Purification methods are provided for removing residual metal catalyst particles enclosed in multilayer carbonaceous impurities in samples generate by catalytic synthesis methods. Purification methods are provided wherein carbonaceous impurities in a sample are at least partially exfoliated, thereby facilitating subsequent removal of carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous impurities from the sample. Methods of purifying carbon nanotube-containing samples are provided wherein an intercalant is added to the sample and subsequently reacted with an exfoliation initiator to achieve exfoliation of carbonaceous impurities.
Computational Methods in Drug Discovery
Sliwoski, Gregory; Kothiwale, Sandeepkumar; Meiler, Jens
2014-01-01
Computer-aided drug discovery/design methods have played a major role in the development of therapeutically important small molecules for over three decades. These methods are broadly classified as either structure-based or ligand-based methods. Structure-based methods are in principle analogous to high-throughput screening in that both target and ligand structure information is imperative. Structure-based approaches include ligand docking, pharmacophore, and ligand design methods. The article discusses theory behind the most important methods and recent successful applications. Ligand-based methods use only ligand information for predicting activity depending on its similarity/dissimilarity to previously known active ligands. We review widely used ligand-based methods such as ligand-based pharmacophores, molecular descriptors, and quantitative structure-activity relationships. In addition, important tools such as target/ligand data bases, homology modeling, ligand fingerprint methods, etc., necessary for successful implementation of various computer-aided drug discovery/design methods in a drug discovery campaign are discussed. Finally, computational methods for toxicity prediction and optimization for favorable physiologic properties are discussed with successful examples from literature. PMID:24381236
An Extended Keyword Extraction Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng
Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.
Differentiation method for phase recovery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Özcan, Meriç
2015-03-01
Here we consider a derivative based method for phase recovery and demonstrate a numerical method that can be described as differentiate and cross multiply operation to obtain the phase gradient. This method uses quadrature phase data that is in sine and cosine form, which is a natural outcome many interferometric measurements including that of digital holographic reconstruction. Since the differentiation is performed on trigonometric functions which are discrete, it is shown that the method of differentiation and the sampling rate are important considerations especially for the noise corrupt signals. The method is initially developed for 1D phase signals, and then later extended to 2D. Noise performance of the method is also investigated, and it is shown that for extremely noisy signals the method can be adapted to an iteration routine which recovers the phase successfully. We present simulations and the experimental results which show the validity of the approach.
Elliott, Brian
2010-09-14
Methods of making alkyl esters are described herein. The methods are capable of using raw, unprocessed, low-cost feedstocks and waste grease. Generally, the method involves converting a glyceride source to a fatty acid composition and esterifying the fatty acid composition to make alkyl esters. In an embodiment, a method of making alkyl esters comprises providing a glyceride source. The method further comprises converting the glyceride source to a fatty acid composition comprising free fatty acids and less than about 1% glyceride by mass. Moreover, the method comprises esterifying the fatty acid composition in the presence of a solid acid catalyst at a temperature ranging firm about 70.degree. C. to about 120.degree. C. to produce alkyl esters, such that at least 85% of the free fatty acids are converted to alkyl esters. The method also incorporates the use of packed bed reactors for glyceride conversion and/or fatty acid esterification to make alkyl esters.
Modeling radium and radon transport through soil and vegetation
Kozak, J.A.; Reeves, H.W.; Lewis, B.A.
2003-01-01
A one-dimensional flow and transport model was developed to describe the movement of two fluid phases, gas and water, within a porous medium and the transport of 226Ra and 222Rn within and between these two phases. Included in this model is the vegetative uptake of water and aqueous 226Ra and 222Rn that can be extracted from the soil via the transpiration stream. The mathematical model is formulated through a set of phase balance equations and a set of species balance equations. Mass exchange, sink terms and the dependence of physical properties upon phase composition couple the two sets of equations. Numerical solution of each set, with iteration between the sets, is carried out leading to a set-iterative compositional model. The Petrov-Galerkin finite element approach is used to allow for upstream weighting if required for a given simulation. Mass lumping improves solution convergence and stability behavior. The resulting numerical model was applied to four problems and was found to produce accurate, mass conservative solutions when compared to published experimental and numerical results and theoretical column experiments. Preliminary results suggest that the model can be used as an investigative tool to determine the feasibility of phytoremediating radium and radon-contaminated soil. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Thermosolutal convection and macrosegregation in dendritic alloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poirier, David R.; Heinrich, J. C.
1993-01-01
A mathematical model of solidification, that simulates the formation of channel segregates or freckles, is presented. The model simulates the entire solidification process, starting with the initial melt to the solidified cast, and the resulting segregation is predicted. Emphasis is given to the initial transient, when the dendritic zone begins to develop and the conditions for the possible nucleation of channels are established. The mechanisms that lead to the creation and eventual growth or termination of channels are explained in detail and illustrated by several numerical examples. A finite element model is used for the simulations. It uses a single system of equations to deal with the all-liquid region, the dendritic region, and the all-solid region. The dendritic region is treated as an anisotropic porous medium. The algorithm uses the bilinear isoparametric element, with a penalty function approximation and a Petrov-Galerkin formulation. The major task was to develop the solidification model. In addition, other tasks that were performed in conjunction with the modeling of dendritic solidification are briefly described.
Asymmetric quadrilateral shell elements for finite strains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Areias, P.; Dias-da-Costa, D.; Pires, E. B.; Van Goethem, N.
2013-07-01
Very good results in infinitesimal and finite strain analysis of shells are achieved by combining either the enhanced-metric technique or the selective-reduced integration for the in-plane shear energy and an assumed natural strain technique (ANS) in a non-symmetric Petrov-Galerkin arrangement which complies with the patch-test. A recovery of the original Wilson incompatible mode element is shown for the trial functions in the in-plane components. As a beneficial side-effect, Newton-Raphson convergence behavior for non-linear problems is improved with respect to symmetric formulations. Transverse-shear and in-plane patch tests are satisfied while distorted-mesh accuracy is higher than with symmetric formulations. Classical test functions with assumed-metric components are required for compatibility reasons. Verification tests are performed with advantageous comparisons being observed in all of them. Applications to large displacement elasticity and finite strain plasticity are shown with both low sensitivity to mesh distortion and (relatively) high accuracy. A equilibrium-consistent (and consistently linearized) updated-Lagrangian algorithm is proposed and tested. Concerning the time-step dependency, it was found that the consistent updated-Lagrangian algorithm is nearly time-step independent and can replace the multiplicative plasticity approach if only moderate elastic strains are present, as is the case of most metals.
Simulation of pressure-tooling wire-coating flow with Phan-Thien/Tanner models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ngamaramvaranggul, V.; Webster, M. F.
2002-03-01
Annular pressure-tooling extrusion is simulated for a low density polymer melt using a Taylor-Petrov-Galerkin finite element scheme. This represents industrial-scale wire-coating. Viscoelastic fluids are modeled via three forms of Phan-Thien/Tanner (PTT) constitutive laws employed for short-die and full specification pressure-tooling. Effects of variation in Weissenberg number (We) and polymeric viscosity are investigated. Particular attention is paid to mesh refinement to predict accurate results. The impact of variation in shear-thinning and strain-softening properties is considered upon the modelling predictions. For the short-die flow, the influence of the lack of strain softening is identified. For the full-die flow and more severe deformation rates, the linear PTT model failed to converge. In contrast, the exponential PTT model is found to be more stable numerically and to adequately reflect the material response. Comparing short-die and full-die pressure-tooling results, shear rates increase 10-fold, while strain rates increase one hundred times. Copyright
Glimm's Method for Relativistic Hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cannizzo, J. K.; Gehrels, N.; Vishniac, E. T.
2008-06-01
We present the results of standard one-dimensional test problems in relativistic hydrodynamics using Glimm's (random choice) method and compare them to results obtained using finite differencing methods. For problems containing profiles with sharp edges, such as shocks, we find Glimm's method yields global errors ~1-3 orders of magnitude smaller than the traditional techniques. The strongest differences are seen for problems in which a shear field is superposed. For smooth flows, Glimm's method is inferior to standard methods. The location of specific features can be off by up to two grid points with respect to an exact solution in Glimm's method, and furthermore, curved states are not modeled optimally, since the method idealizes solutions as being composed of piecewise constant states. Thus, although Glimm's method is superior at correctly resolving sharp features, especially in the presence of shear, for realistic applications in which one typically finds smooth flows plus strong gradients or discontinuities, standard finite-difference methods yield smaller global errors. Glimm's method may prove useful in certain applications such as GRB afterglow shock propagation into a uniform medium.
Traditional Methods for Mineral Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ward, Robert E.; Carpenter, Charles E.
This chapter describes traditional methods for analysis of minerals involving titrimetric and colorimetric procedures, and the use of ion selective electrodes. Other traditional methods of mineral analysis include gravimetric titration (i.e., insoluble forms of minerals are precipitated, rinse, dried, and weighed) and redox reactions (i.e., mineral is part of an oxidation-reduction reaction, and product is quantitated). However, these latter two methods will not be covered because they currently are used little in the food industry. The traditional methods that will be described have maintained widespread usage in the food industry despite the development of more modern instrumentation such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (Chap. 24). Traditional methods generally require chemicals and equipment that are routinely available in an analytical laboratory and are within the experience of most laboratory technicians. Additionally, traditional methods often form the basis for rapid analysis kits (e.g., Quantab®; for salt determination) that are increasingly in demand. Procedures for analysis of minerals of major nutritional or food processing concern are used for illustrative purposes. For additional examples of traditional methods refer to references (1-6). Slight modifications of these traditional methods are often needed for specific foodstuffs to minimize interferences or to be in the range of analytical performance. For analytical requirements for specific foods see the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (5) and related official methods (6).
Aircraft digital control design methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Powell, J. D.; Parsons, E.; Tashker, M. G.
1976-01-01
Variations in design methods for aircraft digital flight control are evaluated and compared. The methods fall into two categories; those where the design is done in the continuous domain (or s plane) and those where the design is done in the discrete domain (or z plane). Design method fidelity is evaluated by examining closed loop root movement and the frequency response of the discretely controlled continuous aircraft. It was found that all methods provided acceptable performance for sample rates greater than 10 cps except the uncompensated s plane design method which was acceptable above 20 cps. A design procedure based on optimal control methods was proposed that provided the best fidelity at very slow sample rates and required no design iterations for changing sample rates.
Microencapsulation and Electrostatic Processing Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)
2000-01-01
Methods are provided for forming spherical multilamellar microcapsules having alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic liquid layers, surrounded by flexible, semi-permeable hydrophobic or hydrophilic outer membranes which can be tailored specifically to control the diffusion rate. The methods of the invention rely on low shear mixing and liquid-liquid diffusion process and are particularly well suited for forming microcapsules containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. These methods can be carried out in the absence of gravity and do not rely on density-driven phase separation, mechanical mixing or solvent evaporation phases. The methods include the process of forming, washing and filtering microcapsules. In addition, the methods contemplate coating microcapsules with ancillary coatings using an electrostatic field and free fluid electrophoresis of the microcapsules. The microcapsules produced by such methods are particularly useful in the delivery of pharmaceutical compositions.
Structural Embeddings: Mechanization with Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Munoz, Cesar; Rushby, John
1999-01-01
The most powerful tools for analysis of formal specifications are general-purpose theorem provers and model checkers, but these tools provide scant methodological support. Conversely, those approaches that do provide a well-developed method generally have less powerful automation. It is natural, therefore, to try to combine the better-developed methods with the more powerful general-purpose tools. An obstacle is that the methods and the tools often employ very different logics. We argue that methods are separable from their logics and are largely concerned with the structure and organization of specifications. We, propose a technique called structural embedding that allows the structural elements of a method to be supported by a general-purpose tool, while substituting the logic of the tool for that of the method. We have found this technique quite effective and we provide some examples of its application. We also suggest how general-purpose systems could be restructured to support this activity better.
Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wheeldon, J.
2010-01-01
This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…
Regression methods for spatial data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yakowitz, S. J.; Szidarovszky, F.
1982-01-01
The kriging approach, a parametric regression method used by hydrologists and mining engineers, among others also provides an error estimate the integral of the regression function. The kriging method is explored and some of its statistical characteristics are described. The Watson method and theory are extended so that the kriging features are displayed. Theoretical and computational comparisons of the kriging and Watson approaches are offered.
Methods of manipulating stressed epistructures
Wanlass, Mark W
2014-04-08
A method of processing an epistructure or processing a semiconductor device including associating a conformal and flexible handle with the epistructure and removing the epistructure and handle as a unit from the parent substrate. The method further includes causing the epistructure and handle unit to conform to a shape that differs from the shape the epistructure otherwise inherently assumes upon removal from the parent substrate. A device prepared according to the disclosed methods.
Method of manufacturing superconductor wire
Motowidlo, Leszek
2014-09-16
A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.
Method of producing cyclohexasilane compounds
Elangovan, Arumugasamy; Anderson, Kenneth; Boudjouk, Philip R; Schulz, Douglas L
2015-03-10
A method of preparing a cyclohexasilane compound from trichlorosilane is provided. The method includes contacting trichlorosilane with a reagent composition to produce a compound containing a tetradecahalocyclohexasilane dianion, such as a tetradecachlorocyclohexasilane dianion. The reagent composition typically includes (a) tertiary polyamine ligand; and (b) a deprotonating reagent, such as a tertiary amine having a pKa of at least about 10.5. Methods of converting the tetradecahalocyclohexasilane dianion-containing compound to cyclohexasilane or a dodecaorganocyclohexasilane are also provided.
An efficient method to evaluate energy variances for extrapolation methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puddu, G.
2012-08-01
The energy variance extrapolation method consists of relating the approximate energies in many-body calculations to the corresponding energy variances and inferring eigenvalues by extrapolating to zero variance. The method needs a fast evaluation of the energy variances. For many-body methods that expand the nuclear wavefunctions in terms of deformed Slater determinants, the best available method for the evaluation of energy variances scales with the sixth power of the number of single-particle states. We propose a new method which depends on the number of single-particle orbits and the number of particles rather than the number of single-particle states. We discuss as an example the case of 4He using the chiral N3LO interaction in a basis consisting up to 184 single-particle states.
Spectral methods in fluid dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hussaini, M. Y.; Zang, T. A.
1986-01-01
Fundamental aspects of spectral methods are introduced. Recent developments in spectral methods are reviewed with an emphasis on collocation techniques. Their applications to both compressible and incompressible flows, to viscous as well as inviscid flows, and also to chemically reacting flows are surveyed. The key role that these methods play in the simulation of stability, transition, and turbulence is brought out. A perspective is provided on some of the obstacles that prohibit a wider use of these methods, and how these obstacles are being overcome.
Unidirectional Fabric Drape Testing Method
Mei, Zaihuan; Yang, Jingzhi; Zhou, Ting; Zhou, Hua
2015-01-01
In most cases, fabrics such as curtains, skirts, suit pants and so on are draped under their own gravity parallel to fabric plane while the gravity is perpendicular to fabric plane in traditional drape testing method. As a result, it does not conform to actual situation and the test data is not convincing enough. To overcome this problem, this paper presents a novel method which simulates the real mechanical conditions and ensures the gravity is parallel to the fabric plane. This method applied a low-cost Kinect Sensor device to capture the 3-dimensional (3D) drape profile, thus we obtained the drape degree parameters and aesthetic parameters by 3D reconstruction and image processing and analysis techniques. The experiment was conducted on our self-devised drape-testing instrument by choosing different kinds of weave structure fabrics as our testing samples and the results were compared with those of traditional method and subjective evaluation. Through regression and correlation analysis we found that this novel testing method was significantly correlated with the traditional and subjective evaluation method. We achieved a new, non-contact 3D measurement method for drape testing, namely unidirectional fabric drape testing method. This method is more suitable for evaluating drape behavior because it is more in line with actual mechanical conditions of draped fabrics and has a well consistency with the requirements of visual and aesthetic style of fabrics. PMID:26600387
Unidirectional Fabric Drape Testing Method.
Mei, Zaihuan; Shen, Wei; Wang, Yan; Yang, Jingzhi; Zhou, Ting; Zhou, Hua
2015-01-01
In most cases, fabrics such as curtains, skirts, suit pants and so on are draped under their own gravity parallel to fabric plane while the gravity is perpendicular to fabric plane in traditional drape testing method. As a result, it does not conform to actual situation and the test data is not convincing enough. To overcome this problem, this paper presents a novel method which simulates the real mechanical conditions and ensures the gravity is parallel to the fabric plane. This method applied a low-cost Kinect Sensor device to capture the 3-dimensional (3D) drape profile, thus we obtained the drape degree parameters and aesthetic parameters by 3D reconstruction and image processing and analysis techniques. The experiment was conducted on our self-devised drape-testing instrument by choosing different kinds of weave structure fabrics as our testing samples and the results were compared with those of traditional method and subjective evaluation. Through regression and correlation analysis we found that this novel testing method was significantly correlated with the traditional and subjective evaluation method. We achieved a new, non-contact 3D measurement method for drape testing, namely unidirectional fabric drape testing method. This method is more suitable for evaluating drape behavior because it is more in line with actual mechanical conditions of draped fabrics and has a well consistency with the requirements of visual and aesthetic style of fabrics. PMID:26600387
Projector Method: theory and examples
Dahl, E.D.
1985-01-01
The Projector Method technique for numerically analyzing lattice gauge theories was developed to take advantage of certain simplifying features of gauge theory models. Starting from a very general notion of what the Projector Method is, the techniques are applied to several model problems. After these examples have traced the development of the actual algorithm from the general principles of the Projector Method, a direct comparison between the Projector and the Euclidean Monte Carlo is made, followed by a discussion of the application to Periodic Quantum Electrodynamics in two and three spatial dimensions. Some methods for improving the efficiency of the Projector in various circumstances are outlined. 10 refs., 7 figs. (LEW)
Metathesis catalysts and methods thereof
Schrock, Richard Royce; Yuan, Jian
2016-04-19
The present application provides, among other things, novel compounds for metathesis reactions, and methods for preparing and using provided compounds. In some embodiments, the present invention provides compounds having the structure of formula I or II. In some embodiments, the present invention provides methods for preparing a compound of formula I or II. In some embodiments, the present invention provides methods for using a provided compound. In some embodiments, a provided compound is useful for stereoselective ring-opening metathesis polymerization. In some embodiments, a provided metathesis method provides cis and/or isotactic polymers.
Methods of component mode synthesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Craig, R. R., Jr.
1977-01-01
A generalized substructure coupling, or component mode synthesis, procedure is described. Specific methods, applications, and such special topics as damping and experimental verification are surveyed.
"Influence Method". Detailed mathematical description
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rios, I. J.; Mayer, R. E.
2015-07-01
A new method for the absolute determination of nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency, the "Influence Method", was recently published (I.J. Rios and R.E. Mayer, Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research A 775 (2015) 99-104). The method defines an estimator for the population and another estimator for the efficiency. In this article we present a detailed mathematical description which yields the conditions for its application, the probability distributions of the estimators and their characteristic parameters. An analysis of the different cases leads to expressions of the estimators and their uncertainties.
Method for protein structure alignment
Blankenbecler, Richard; Ohlsson, Mattias; Peterson, Carsten; Ringner, Markus
2005-02-22
This invention provides a method for protein structure alignment. More particularly, the present invention provides a method for identification, classification and prediction of protein structures. The present invention involves two key ingredients. First, an energy or cost function formulation of the problem simultaneously in terms of binary (Potts) assignment variables and real-valued atomic coordinates. Second, a minimization of the energy or cost function by an iterative method, where in each iteration (1) a mean field method is employed for the assignment variables and (2) exact rotation and/or translation of atomic coordinates is performed, weighted with the corresponding assignment variables.
EVALUATION OF IGNITABILITY METHODS (LIQUIDS)
The purpose of the research was to evaluate the ignitability Methods 1010 (Pensky-Martens) and 1020 (Setaflash) as described by OSW Manual SW846 (1). The effort was designed to provide information on accuracy and precision of the two methods. During Phase I of the task, six stand...
Laboratory method used for bioremediation
Carman, M. Leslie; Taylor, Robert T.
2000-01-01
An improved method for in situ microbial filter bioremediation having increasingly operational longevity of an in situ microbial filter emplaced into an aquifer. A method for generating a microbial filter of sufficient catalytic density and thickness, which has increased replenishment interval, improved bacteria attachment and detachment characteristics and the endogenous stability under in situ conditions. A system for in situ field water remediation.
METHOD OF DISINTEGRATING REFRACTORY BODIES
Larsen, R.P.; Vogel, R.C.
1959-08-18
A method is described for disintegrating uranium dioxide and other oxide fuel elements of the compacted type. The method consists of immersing them in liquid alkali metal long enough to form surface cracks, removing them from the metal bath, and immersing them in nitric or some other mineral acid.
Family planning methods: new guidance.
1996-10-01
Presented in this report are the recommendations of two expert groups, the Technical Guidance/Competence Working Group of the US Agency for International Development's Maximizing Access and Quality Initiative and the World Health Organization's Family Planning and Population Unit, regarding currently available family planning methods. The former group addressed key biomedical questions and formulated recommendations about 11 groups of family planning methods: combined oral contraceptives, progestin-only pills during breast feeding, progestin-only injectables, combined injectable contraceptives, Norplant implants, copper-bearing IUDs, tubal occlusion, vasectomy, lactational amenorrhea method, natural family planning, and barrier methods. A table presents the relative importance, by method, of procedures such as pelvic exam, blood pressure reading, breast exam, and screening for sexually transmitted diseases and cervical cancer. The medical eligibility recommendations for each method are also presented in tabular form, with four categories for temporary methods: 1) no restrictions on use, 2) advantages generally outweigh theoretical or proven risks, 3) theoretical or proven risks usually outweigh the advantages, and 4) unacceptable health risks. Included among the 41 conditions for which eligibility criteria are specified are age, smoking, thromboembolic disorder, headaches, irregular vaginal bleeding, family history of breast cancer, obesity, drug interactions, parity, breast feeding, postpartum, and postabortion. The new guidance presented in this report enables providers to give family planning clients expanded contraceptive choices while ensuring method safety and effectiveness. PMID:9342775
Droplet transport system and methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Neitzel, G. Paul (Inventor)
2010-01-01
Embodiments of droplet transport systems and methods are disclosed for levitating and transporting single or encapsulated droplets using thermocapillary convection. One method embodiment, among others comprises providing a droplet of a first liquid; and applying thermocapillary convection to the droplet to levitate and move the droplet.
Statistical Methods for Evolutionary Trees
Edwards, A. W. F.
2009-01-01
In 1963 and 1964, L. L. Cavalli-Sforza and A. W. F. Edwards introduced novel methods for computing evolutionary trees from genetical data, initially for human populations from blood-group gene frequencies. The most important development was their introduction of statistical methods of estimation applied to stochastic models of evolution. PMID:19797062
Ground-penetrating radar methods
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Ground-penetrating radar geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use in agriculture. With the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method, an electromagnetic radio energy (radar) pulse is directed into the subsurface, followed by measurement of the elapsed time taken by the radar signal as it ...
Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Terrell, Steven R.
2012-01-01
Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…
Method of producing polyalkylated oligoalkylenepolyamines
Elangovan, Arumugasamy
2014-02-25
A method of preparing polyalkylated oligoalkylenepolyamines is provided. The method includes contacting oligoalkylenepolyamine with a reagent composition comprising (a) alkyl bromide and/or alkyl chloride; (b) a basic agent; and (c) iodide salt. The alkylation reaction may be carried out in a polar, aprotic organic solvent.
Sometimes "Newton's Method" Always "Cycles"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Latulippe, Joe; Switkes, Jennifer
2012-01-01
Are there functions for which Newton's method cycles for all non-trivial initial guesses? We construct and solve a differential equation whose solution is a real-valued function that two-cycles under Newton iteration. Higher-order cycles of Newton's method iterates are explored in the complex plane using complex powers of "x." We find a class of…
Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Kondo, T.; Iwamoto, C.; Okamoto, A.; Goriely, S.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Toyokawa, H.; Yamada, K.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.
2011-10-28
The {gamma}-ray strength function ({gamma}SF) interconnects radiative neutron capture and photoneutron emission as a common ingredient in the statistical model. Outlined here is an indirect method of determining radiative neutron-capture cross sections for unstable nuclei based on the {gamma}-ray strength function. Application examples of the {gamma}SF method are demonstrated.
The Webster method of apportionment
Balinski, M. L.; Young, H. P.
1980-01-01
Several results concerning the problem of U.S. Congressional apportionment are given which, together, indicate that a method first proposed by Daniel Webster (also known as the “Major Fractions” method) seems fairest when judged on the basis of criteria suggested by common sense and precedent. PMID:16592744
Methods of Teaching Speech Recognition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rader, Martha H.; Bailey, Glenn A.
2010-01-01
Objective: This article introduces the history and development of speech recognition, addresses its role in the business curriculum, outlines related national and state standards, describes instructional strategies, and discusses the assessment of student achievement in speech recognition classes. Methods: Research methods included a synthesis of…
Method of making tantalum capacitors
McMillan, April D.; Clausing, Robert E.; Vierow, William F.
1998-01-01
A method for manufacturing tantalum capacitors includes preparing a tantalum compact by cold pressing tantalum powder, placing the compact, along with loose refractory metal powder, in a microwave-transparent casket to form an assembly, and heating the assembly for a time sufficient to effect at least partial sintering of the compact and the product made by the method.
Bioluminescence methods for enzymatic determinations
Bostick, W.D.; Denton, M.S.; Dinsmore, S.R.
1982-11-02
An enzymatic method for continuous, on-line and rapid detection of diagnostically useful biomarkers, which are symptomatic of disease or trauma-related tissue damage, is disclosed. The method is characterized by operability on authentic samples of complex biological fluids which contain the biomarkers.
Bioluminescence methods for enzymatic determinations
Bostick, William D.; Denton, Mark S.; Dinsmore, Stanley R.
1982-01-01
An enzymatic method for continuous, on-line and rapid detection of diagnostically useful biomarkers, which are symptomatic of disease or trauma-related tissue damage, is disclosed. The method is characterized by operability on authentic samples of complex biological fluids which contain the biomarkers.
Teaching Research Methods through Writing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marlow, Christine
Addressing the negative attitudes of social work students toward research, this paper describes a model for teaching research methods. The model, developed in the setting of a rural social work program, emphasizes participatory experience, "learning through writing." The method is based on the assumption that writing facilitates learning. The…
The Mapmark Standard Setting Method
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schulz, E. Matthew; Mitzel, Howard C.
2005-01-01
A new standard setting method, Mapmark, was recently developed by ACT Inc. in the course of a contract with the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB) to set achievement levels for the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Grade 12 mathematics. Mapmark includes elements of the bookmark method (Lewis, Mitzel, & Green, 1996;…
Methods of synthesizing thermoelectric materials
Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Wei-Shu; Wang, Hengzhi; Wang, Hui; Yu, Bo; Chen, Gang
2016-04-05
Methods for synthesis of thermoelectric materials are disclosed. In some embodiments, a method of fabricating a thermoelectric material includes generating a plurality of nanoparticles from a starting material comprising one or more chalcogens and one or more transition metals; and consolidating the nanoparticles under elevated pressure and temperature, wherein the nanoparticles are heated and cooled at a controlled rate.
Spatial methods for nonstationary fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nychka, D. W.
2012-12-01
Kriging is a non-parametric regression method used in geostatistics for estimating curves and surfaces and forms the core of most statistical methods for spatial data. In climate science these methods are very useful for estimating how climate varies over a geographic region when the observational data is sparse or the computer model runs are limited. A statistical challenge is to implement spatial methods for large sample sizes and also the heterogenity in the physical fields. Both common features of many geophysical problems. Equally important is to provide companion measures of uncertainty so that the estimated surfaces can be compared and interpreted in an objective way. Here we present a new statistical method that can represent nonstationary structure in a field and also scale to large numbers of spatial locations. A practical example is also presented for a subset of the North American Regional Climate Change and Assessment Program model data.