Science.gov

Sample records for pettai eveli illing

  1. Registration of 'Eve' winter hulless barley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Eve’ (Reg. No. CV- PI 659067 ), a six-row winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed and tested as VA01H-68 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in May 2007. Eve was derived from the cross SC860974 / VA94-42-13. Eve is widely adapted and provides producers with ...

  2. Bootstrapping white matter segmentation, Eve++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plassard, Andrew; Hinton, Kendra E.; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary.

  3. Apollo 8's Christmas Eve 1968 Message

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Apollo 8, the first manned mission to the moon, entered lunar orbit on Christmas Eve, Dec. 24, 1968. That evening, the astronauts--Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot Jim Lovell, and Lunar...

  4. After "Eve": whither proxy decision-making?

    PubMed Central

    Kluge, E H

    1987-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems facing physicians is how to approach proxy decisions made on behalf of congenitally incompetent patients. The author considers two recent court cases that attempt to provide guidelines: Re Stephen Dawson, which opts for a substituted-judgement approach, and Eve v. Mrs E.) which injoins best-interests considerations. The author explores the impact of Eve v. Mrs. E. as superseding Re Stephen Dawson, considers its ethical implications and attempts to clarify the best-interests criterion by sketching some guidelines for its interpretation. In so doing, he tries to reconcile the two decisions by laying bare their common underlying ethical rationale. The author concludes by pointing out some ethically questionable implications of Eve v. Mrs. E. in the area of allocation of health care resources. PMID:3651942

  5. Enceladus Environmental Explorer (EVE): A Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, M. J.; Amador, E. S.; Carrier, B. L.; Albuja, A.; Bapst, J.; Cahill, K. R. S.; Ebersohn, F.; Gainey, S.; Gartrelle, G.; Greenberger, R. N.; Hale, J. M.; Johnston, S.; Olivares, J.; Parcheta, C. E.; Sheehan, J. P.; Thorpe, A. K.; Zareh, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    Enceladus is an intriguing planetary body, which possibly has the ingredients needed for life. Further, it has numerous (over 100) continuously erupting geysers that eject material into the atmosphere which provide a unique opportunity to sample the body's internal chemistry from orbit. At JPL's Planetary Science Summer School, Team X and a group of students developed a mission concept to directly sample Enceladus' plumes. The mission, named Enceladus Environmental Explorer (EVE), follows NASA's Planetary Science Decadal survey and would assess the potential habitability of Saturn's icy satellite through analysis of the chemistry of the subsurface ocean and the nature of the organic chemistry in the plume. EVE would look at geological and geophysical surface processes of Enceladus by investigating the heat output of Enceladus, plumes' mechanics, the extent of the liquid subsurface reservoir(s), and gravitational variation. The EVE mission concept aimed for a January 2023 launch on an Atlas 551 class launch vehicle and would arrive at Saturn July 2031. A two-year-long Saturn moon tour would allow sufficient deceleration to permit a polar orbital insertion around Enceladus in March 2035, remaining stable for 54 weeks of observation. The proposed instrument payload includes: 1) SUb MilliMeter Enceladus Radiometer (SUMMER; equivalent to Rosetta MIRO), 2) Enceladus Dust and Gas Experiment (EDGE; an enhanced version of Rosetta COSIMA), 3) MAGnetometer for Ionic Concentration (MAGIC; equivalent to MMS/ InSIGHT magnetometer), 4) Visual Imaging Camera with Topographic Observational Resolution (VICTOR) and 5) Enceladus Radio Gravity Science (ERGS). Our suggested orbital timeline would allow the most comprehensive dataset yet collected of a moon in the outer solar system, mapping the entire surface twice with SUMMER and VICTOR, while sampling the plume directly 232 times with EDGE. MAGIC would also provide over a year of sampling of the magnetic field variations from orbit

  6. Wavelengths for EVE coronal dimming signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Simoes, P. J. D. A.; Kukstas, E.

    2014-12-01

    The EVE instrument on SDO detects post-flare dimmings, mainly in the spectral regions of Fe IX-XII in its MEGS-A range. We have shown that dimmings occurred in most of the 31 X-class flares that occurred between SDO launch and the end of April 2014. Based upon earlier X-ray observations, we interpret these dimmings as the result of CME mass ejections from the low corona. We can estimate the masses involved in these dimmings by deriving a best pre-event temperature and emission measure in the dimmed region from EVE, and a source volume from AIA images. The dimming for SOL2011-02-15, the first of these events, "peaked" at -3.4% in Fe IX in terms of the pre-event emission from the whole Sun, with smaller relative depletions in higher ionization states of Fe. Because of its high photon throughput, EVE data determine line centroids with precisions of a few km/s equivalent. In the present study we analyze the wavelengths of the dimmed regions, characterizing their displacements from the mean wavelengths as functions of heliographic position, time, event magnitude, and excitation state of Fe.

  7. The EVE Doppler Sensitivity and Flare Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Woods, T. N.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Didkovsky, L.; Del Zanna, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) obtains continuous EUV spectra of the Sun viewed as a star. Its primary objective is the characterization of solar spectral irradiance, but its sensitivity and stability make it extremely interesting for observations of variability on time scales down to the limit imposed by its basic 10 s sample interval. In this paper we characterize the Doppler sensitivity of the EVE data. We find that the 30.4 nm line of He II has a random Doppler error below 0.001 nm (1 pm, better than 10 km/s as a redshift), with ample stability to detect the orbital motion of its satellite, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Solar flares also displace the spectrum, both because of Doppler shifts and because of EVE's optical layout, which (as with a slitless spectrograph) confuses position and wavelength. As a flare develops, the centroid of the line displays variations that reflect Doppler shifts and therefore flare dynamics. For the impulsive phase of the flare SOL2010-06-12, we find the line centroid to have a redshift of 16.8 +/- 5.9 km/s relative to that of the flare gradual phase (statistical errors only). We find also that high-temperature lines, such as Fe XXIV 19.2 nm, have well-determined Doppler components for major flares, with decreasing apparent blueshifts as expected from chromospheric evaporation flows.

  8. The EVE Doppler Sensitivity and Flare Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Woods, T. N.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Didkovsky, L.; Del Zanna, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) obtains continuous EUV spectra of the Sun viewed as a star. Its primary objective is the characterization of solar spectral irradiance, but its sensitivity and stability make it extremely interesting for observations of variability on time scales down to the limit imposed by its basic 10 s sample interval. In this paper we characterize the Doppler sensitivity of the EVE data. We find that the 30.4 nm line of He II has a random Doppler error below 0.001 nm (1 pm, better than 10 km/s as a redshift), with ample stability to detect the orbital motion of its satellite, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Solar flares also displace the spectrum, both because of Doppler shifts and because of EVE's optical layout, which (as with a slitless spectrograph) confuses position and wavelength. As a flare develops, the centroid of the line displays variations that reflect Doppler shifts and therefore flare dynamics. For the impulsive phase of the flare SOL2010-06-12, we find the line centroid to have a redshift of 16.8 +/- 5.9 km/s relative to that of the flare gradual phase (statistical errors only). We find also that high-temperature lines, such as Fe XXIV 19.2 nm, have well-determined Doppler components for major flares, with decreasing apparent blueshifts as expected from chromospheric evaporation flows.

  9. The Drosophila eve insulator Homie promotes eve expression and protects the adjacent gene from repression by polycomb spreading.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Miki; Sun, Guizhi; Jaynes, James B

    2013-10-01

    Insulators can block the action of enhancers on promoters and the spreading of repressive chromatin, as well as facilitating specific enhancer-promoter interactions. However, recent studies have called into question whether the activities ascribed to insulators in model transgene assays actually reflect their functions in the genome. The Drosophila even skipped (eve) gene is a Polycomb (Pc) domain with a Pc-group response element (PRE) at one end, flanked by an insulator, an arrangement also seen in other genes. Here, we show that this insulator has three major functions. It blocks the spreading of the eve Pc domain, preventing repression of the adjacent gene, TER94. It prevents activation of TER94 by eve regulatory DNA. It also facilitates normal eve expression. When Homie is deleted in the context of a large transgene that mimics both eve and TER94 regulation, TER94 is repressed. This repression depends on the eve PRE. Ubiquitous TER94 expression is "replaced" by expression in an eve pattern when Homie is deleted, and this effect is reversed when the PRE is also removed. Repression of TER94 is attributable to spreading of the eve Pc domain into the TER94 locus, accompanied by an increase in histone H3 trimethylation at lysine 27. Other PREs can functionally replace the eve PRE, and other insulators can block PRE-dependent repression in this context. The full activity of the eve promoter is also dependent on Homie, and other insulators can promote normal eve enhancer-promoter communication. Our data suggest that this is not due to preventing promoter competition, but is likely the result of the insulator organizing a chromosomal conformation favorable to normal enhancer-promoter interactions. Thus, insulator activities in a native context include enhancer blocking and enhancer-promoter facilitation, as well as preventing the spread of repressive chromatin.

  10. The Drosophila eve Insulator Homie Promotes eve Expression and Protects the Adjacent Gene from Repression by Polycomb Spreading

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Miki; Sun, Guizhi; Jaynes, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Insulators can block the action of enhancers on promoters and the spreading of repressive chromatin, as well as facilitating specific enhancer-promoter interactions. However, recent studies have called into question whether the activities ascribed to insulators in model transgene assays actually reflect their functions in the genome. The Drosophila even skipped (eve) gene is a Polycomb (Pc) domain with a Pc-group response element (PRE) at one end, flanked by an insulator, an arrangement also seen in other genes. Here, we show that this insulator has three major functions. It blocks the spreading of the eve Pc domain, preventing repression of the adjacent gene, TER94. It prevents activation of TER94 by eve regulatory DNA. It also facilitates normal eve expression. When Homie is deleted in the context of a large transgene that mimics both eve and TER94 regulation, TER94 is repressed. This repression depends on the eve PRE. Ubiquitous TER94 expression is “replaced” by expression in an eve pattern when Homie is deleted, and this effect is reversed when the PRE is also removed. Repression of TER94 is attributable to spreading of the eve Pc domain into the TER94 locus, accompanied by an increase in histone H3 trimethylation at lysine 27. Other PREs can functionally replace the eve PRE, and other insulators can block PRE-dependent repression in this context. The full activity of the eve promoter is also dependent on Homie, and other insulators can promote normal eve enhancer-promoter communication. Our data suggest that this is not due to preventing promoter competition, but is likely the result of the insulator organizing a chromosomal conformation favorable to normal enhancer-promoter interactions. Thus, insulator activities in a native context include enhancer blocking and enhancer-promoter facilitation, as well as preventing the spread of repressive chromatin. PMID:24204298

  11. [A peaceful Christmas Eve at the hospital].

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Ramshanker; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars; Hallas, Peter

    2011-12-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate admittance rates and doctors workload during Christmas. In addition, we examined if admittance data supports the common notions that overeating during Christmas results in increased rate of admittances for abdominal problems and that there is an increase in admittance of the elderly at the end of Christmas (i.e. "granny dumping"). A retrospective study analyzing data from the database of the hospital units of Sydvestjysk Sygehus was performed. Data covered admittance in the months spanning from November through January in 1994-2010. Data from Christmas was compared with data from adjacent months. During Christmas more patients with abdominal complaints were admitted to the hospital (p < 0.001). However, there were no differences in mortality for patients with abdominal complaints or heart disease. There was a significant increase of patients admitted primarily because of lack of care at home during Christmas (p < 0.001). The number of admittance reached an absolute minimum on Christmas Eve. No increased admittance among the elderly at the end of Christmas was observed in our data. We conclude that overeating during the festivities of Christmas probably results in increased admittance rates in Danish hospitals. Christmas Eve is the day on which doctors can expect the lowest workload. Although the rate of admission due to lack of care at home was high, we could find no evidence of "granny dumping".

  12. Eve Bunting: She Loves To Tell a Story!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smuda, Janice; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1998-01-01

    Eve Bunting is an award-winning author of 167 books for children and young adults. After a series of interview questions and responses, activities are suggested to accompany several Bunting picture books. (AEF)

  13. Eve Bunting: She Loves To Tell a Story!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smuda, Janice; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1998-01-01

    Eve Bunting is an award-winning author of 167 books for children and young adults. After a series of interview questions and responses, activities are suggested to accompany several Bunting picture books. (AEF)

  14. Epiphyseal, vertebral, and ear (EVE) dysplasia: a new syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Amiel, J.; Cormier-Daire, V.; Journeau, P.; Mussat, P.; Munnich, A.; Lyonnet, S.

    1999-01-01

    We report on the association of epiphyseal, vertebral, and ear dysplasia in two sisters with normal stature and psychomotor development born to distantly related, healthy parents. This distinctive association has not been reported previously and is likely to represent a new condition with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. For this syndrome, we propose the acronym EVE standing for epiphyseal, vertebral, and ear dysplasia.


Keywords: epiphyseal; verterbal; and ear (EVE) dysplasia; new syndrome PMID:10424819

  15. "ADAM' or "EVE'?--a toxicological conundrum.

    PubMed

    Cox, D E; Williams, K R

    1996-01-12

    The 3,4-methylenedioxy ring-substituted amphetamines, including "ADAM' and "EVE', are currently popular drugs of abuse. Adverse reactions are reported in the clinical literature but few fatal cases are documented and little toxicological data is available to guide those determining the cause or manner of death in such cases. We report two deaths presenting in a similar manner and with similar clinical features. Various body fluid samples were analysed for amphetamines by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In one case, amphetamine alone was detected at levels of 1.54 mg/l and 1.47 mg/l in postmortem blood and admission serum, respectively. The other involved several 3,4-methylenedioxy ring-substituted amphetamines, namely MDA, MDMA and MDEA, at levels of 0.25 mg/l, 0.43 mg/l and 0.3 mg/l, respectively in postmortem femoral blood and 0.24 mg/l, 0.55 mg/l and 0.49 mg/l in admission blood. The interpretation of these toxicological results and some novel legal issues are discussed.

  16. 75 FR 80717 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Year's Eve, Fireworks Display, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sacramento New Year's Eve, Fireworks... is establishing a temporary safety zone in support of the Sacramento New Year's Eve Fireworks Display... Convention and Visitors Bureau will sponsor the Sacramento New Year's Eve Fireworks Displays from 8:45...

  17. 76 FR 78820 - Safety Zone; City of Beaufort's Tricentennial New Year's Eve Fireworks Display, Beaufort River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Eve Fireworks Display, Beaufort River, Beaufort, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final... Beaufort, South Carolina, during the City of Beaufort's Tricentennial New Year's Eve Fireworks Display. The... navigable waters of the United States. Discussion of Rule On New Year's Eve, a fireworks display will...

  18. Doppler-Shifted Flare Emissions Observed by SDO/EVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2012-01-01

    The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has been obtaining unprecedented observations of solar variation on times scales of seconds during flares and over the rising phase of Solar Cycle 24 since its start of normal operations in May 2010. Unexpectedly, as first pointed out in Hudson et. al., Ap.j. (2011), even with EVE's spectral resolution of 0.1 nm and 'irradiance' measurements, EVE has the ability to very accurately determine Doppler shifts in all emissions during solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The technique for deriving these absolute velocities is not straightforward, as the optical and instrumental effects must first be eliminated in order to separate the absolute plasma velocities from the instrument effects. This talk will discuss these efforts to eliminate the instrumental component, as well as show some of the first results of absolute velocities of multiple emissions at a wide range of temperatures during solar flares.

  19. Measuring and Modeling Solar Flares with SDO EVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Woods, Thomas N.; Wilson, Anne; Lindholm, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) currently provides estimations of the solar Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV; 0.1-190 nm) irradiance from 1947 to present at 1 nm bins and 60 second temporal resolution. The accuracy of FISM is limited to 1nm because the TIMED SEE Level 3 and Level 3A measurement, for which the FISM relationships were based on, were at Inm. With the launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) in Feb 2010, the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) will provide more accurate, increased spectral resolution (0.1 nm) measurements from 6 nm to 106 nm every 10-seconds and almost 100% duty cycle. EVE also observes additional broadband measurements for 0.1-7 nm, some EUV bands from 16 nm to 40 nm, and Hydrogen Lyman alpha at 121.6 nm. Along with the better spectral resolution of EVE leading to similar spectral resolution improvements in FISM, other significant improvements provide by SDO/EVE measurements will be multi-thermal gradual phase decay, impulsive phase center-to-limb variation characterization, non-flare sub-daily variations, and multi-thermal proxies. SDO/EVE observations of various solar flares with different characteristics will be presented, with the discussion theme focused on how EVE observations will help improve the accuracy of the FISM in the future. The final topic will present the updated FISM website that now has easier access to the FISM results and produce real-time updates that are useful for Space Weather studies.

  20. ADAM binding protein Eve-1 is required for ectodomain shedding of epidermal growth factor receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Motonari; Nanba, Daisuke; Mori, Seiji; Shiba, Fumio; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Yoshino, Koichiro; Matsuura, Nariaki; Higashiyama, Shigeki

    2004-10-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs) are implicated in the ectodomain shedding of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands in EGFR transactivation. However, the activation mechanisms of ADAMs remain elusive. To analyze the regulatory mechanisms of ADAM activation, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening using the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM12 as bait, and identified a protein that we designated Eve-1. Two cDNAs were cloned and characterized. They encode alternatively spliced isoforms of Eve-1, called Eve-1a and Eve-1b, that have four and five tandem Src homology 3 (SH3) domains in the carboxyl-terminal region, respectively, and seven proline-rich SH3 domain binding motifs in the amino-terminal region. The short forms of Eve-1, Eve-1c and Eve-1d, translated at Met-371 are human counterparts of mouse Sh3d19. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that Eve-1 is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart. Western blot analysis revealed the dominant production of Eve-1c in human cancer cell lines. Knockdown of Eve-1 by small interfering RNA in HT1080 cells reduced the shedding of proHB-EGF induced by angiotensin II and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, as well as the shedding of pro-transforming growth factor-alpha, promphiregulin, and proepiregulin by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, suggesting that Eve-1 plays a role in positively regulating the activity of ADAMs in the signaling of EGFR-ligand shedding.

  1. Satan's Temptation of Eve in "Paradise Lost": A Rhetorical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Dee Ann Duke

    John Milton employs classical rhetorical techniques in "Paradise Lost" to accomplish Satan's temptation of Eve which begins on line 524 and ends with line 732 of Book 9; however, Satan's oration resembles pejorative sophistry and Milton uses Ciceronian arrangement for Satan's argument. Milton envisions Satan as a clever, cunning creature…

  2. Satan's Temptation of Eve in "Paradise Lost": A Rhetorical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Dee Ann Duke

    John Milton employs classical rhetorical techniques in "Paradise Lost" to accomplish Satan's temptation of Eve which begins on line 524 and ends with line 732 of Book 9; however, Satan's oration resembles pejorative sophistry and Milton uses Ciceronian arrangement for Satan's argument. Milton envisions Satan as a clever, cunning creature…

  3. [Calling patients on the eve of their day surgery procedure].

    PubMed

    Boule, Marie; Darribère, Véronique; Derouard, Nathalie; Goyenetche, Maryline; Peyroulet, Christel; Coquet, Marie-Monique

    2015-01-01

    In day surgery, the call on the eve of the procedure is a key stage in the patient's care pathway. Systematically carried out by the nurse, it helps to establish a relationship of trust with the nursing team. Through this exchange, the nurse ensures various aspects of the patient management are taken care of and optimises the organisation of the following day's programme. A team from Pau shares its practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. CONSTRAINING SOLAR FLARE DIFFERENTIAL EMISSION MEASURES WITH EVE AND RHESSI

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, Amir; McTiernan, James M.; Warren, Harry P.

    2014-06-20

    Deriving a well-constrained differential emission measure (DEM) distribution for solar flares has historically been difficult, primarily because no single instrument is sensitive to the full range of coronal temperatures observed in flares, from ≲2 to ≳50 MK. We present a new technique, combining extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory with X-ray spectra from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), to derive, for the first time, a self-consistent, well-constrained DEM for jointly observed solar flares. EVE is sensitive to ∼2-25 MK thermal plasma emission, and RHESSI to ≳10 MK; together, the two instruments cover the full range of flare coronal plasma temperatures. We have validated the new technique on artificial test data, and apply it to two X-class flares from solar cycle 24 to determine the flare DEM and its temporal evolution; the constraints on the thermal emission derived from the EVE data also constrain the low energy cutoff of the non-thermal electrons, a crucial parameter for flare energetics. The DEM analysis can also be used to predict the soft X-ray flux in the poorly observed ∼0.4-5 nm range, with important applications for geospace science.

  5. Constraining Solar Flare Differential Emission Measures with EVE and RHESSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, Amir; McTiernan, James M.; Warren, Harry P.

    2014-06-01

    Deriving a well-constrained differential emission measure (DEM) distribution for solar flares has historically been difficult, primarily because no single instrument is sensitive to the full range of coronal temperatures observed in flares, from lsim2 to gsim50 MK. We present a new technique, combining extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory with X-ray spectra from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), to derive, for the first time, a self-consistent, well-constrained DEM for jointly observed solar flares. EVE is sensitive to ~2-25 MK thermal plasma emission, and RHESSI to gsim10 MK together, the two instruments cover the full range of flare coronal plasma temperatures. We have validated the new technique on artificial test data, and apply it to two X-class flares from solar cycle 24 to determine the flare DEM and its temporal evolution; the constraints on the thermal emission derived from the EVE data also constrain the low energy cutoff of the non-thermal electrons, a crucial parameter for flare energetics. The DEM analysis can also be used to predict the soft X-ray flux in the poorly observed ~0.4-5 nm range, with important applications for geospace science.

  6. Solar Flare Impulsive Phase Emission Observed with SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Michael B.; Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P.

    2013-12-01

    Differential emission measures (DEMs) during the impulsive phase of solar flares were constructed using observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method. Emission lines from ions formed over the temperature range log Te = 5.8-7.2 allow the evolution of the DEM to be studied over a wide temperature range at 10 s cadence. The technique was applied to several M- and X-class flares, where impulsive phase EUV emission is observable in the disk-integrated EVE spectra from emission lines formed up to 3-4 MK and we use spatially unresolved EVE observations to infer the thermal structure of the emitting region. For the nine events studied, the DEMs exhibited a two-component distribution during the impulsive phase, a low-temperature component with peak temperature of 1-2 MK, and a broad high-temperature component from 7 to 30 MK. A bimodal high-temperature component is also found for several events, with peaks at 8 and 25 MK during the impulsive phase. The origin of the emission was verified using Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images to be the flare ribbons and footpoints, indicating that the constructed DEMs represent the spatially average thermal structure of the chromospheric flare emission during the impulsive phase.

  7. Solar flare impulsive phase emission observed with SDO/EVE

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Michael B.; Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P.

    2013-12-10

    Differential emission measures (DEMs) during the impulsive phase of solar flares were constructed using observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method. Emission lines from ions formed over the temperature range log T{sub e} = 5.8-7.2 allow the evolution of the DEM to be studied over a wide temperature range at 10 s cadence. The technique was applied to several M- and X-class flares, where impulsive phase EUV emission is observable in the disk-integrated EVE spectra from emission lines formed up to 3-4 MK and we use spatially unresolved EVE observations to infer the thermal structure of the emitting region. For the nine events studied, the DEMs exhibited a two-component distribution during the impulsive phase, a low-temperature component with peak temperature of 1-2 MK, and a broad high-temperature component from 7 to 30 MK. A bimodal high-temperature component is also found for several events, with peaks at 8 and 25 MK during the impulsive phase. The origin of the emission was verified using Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images to be the flare ribbons and footpoints, indicating that the constructed DEMs represent the spatially average thermal structure of the chromospheric flare emission during the impulsive phase.

  8. Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... questionnaire to help answer these questions. Determining which mental illness you have Sometimes it's difficult to find out ... insurance companies to reimburse for treatment. Classes of mental illness The main classes of mental illness are: Neurodevelopmental ...

  9. SDO/EVE Data Product Improvements, Additions, and Algorithms Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodraska, Donald

    2016-10-01

    The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) provides full-disk integrated solar irradiance at high cadence and 0.1 nm resolution. Here we present improvements in data reduction for creation of the solar irradiance spectrum to improved routine data products. This includes improved degradation corrections to remove instrumental effects, 1-minute data products to accommodate longer integration times, and also a new data filtering technique to reduce the internal and external noise in the CCD detector measurements. We also demonstrate that new data products could be produced including higher resolution flare spectra with improved wavelength registration from the MEGS-A detector.

  10. Ecstasy overdoses at a New Year's Eve rave--Los Angeles, California, 2010.

    PubMed

    2010-06-11

    Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) is an illegal synthetic amphetamine used as a stimulant and hallucinogen. On January 4, 2010, the Los Angeles County (LAC) Department of Public Health (DPH) learned of six MDMA-related emergency department (ED) visits and one death, all linked to a New Year's Eve event attended by approximately 45,000 persons. LAC DPH conducted an investigation to search for additional MDMA-related ED visits, characterize the cases, and determine whether drug contamination was involved. This report summarizes the results of the investigation, which determined that 18 patients visited EDs in LAC for MDMA-related illness within 12 hours of the rave. All were aged 16-34 years, and nine were female. In addition to using MDMA, 10 of the 18 had used alcohol, and five had used other drugs. Three patients were admitted to the hospital, including one to intensive care. A tablet obtained from one of the patients contained MDMA and caffeine, without known toxic contaminants. The cluster of apparent ecstasy overdoses occurred in the context of likely increasing MDMA use in the county during 2005-2009, as indicated by increased identification of MDMA-containing forensic specimens and a large increase in LAC residents entering drug treatment programs for MDMA. Collaboration between public health, police, fire, and emergency medical service (EMS) officials on a comprehensive prevention strategy might reduce the number of overdoses at similar events.

  11. The New SDO/EVE Coronal Dimming Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, James

    2016-10-01

    Coronal dimmings are hours-long voids in the solar corona that can be indicative of plasma density depletion from CMEs. Much prior work has established the theoretical case for this link – tying the emission measure to the mass of the departing CME. These studies have always relied primarily on spectral images of the corona (e.g., SDO/AIA). Our recent work has demonstrated that coronal dimming is observable with irradiance data using SDO/EVE, which can provide higher temperature resolution than relatively broadband spectral imagers. We extend our prior studies which focused on a handful of events to the entire 4 history of SDO/EVE/MEGS-A data, which includes hundreds to thousands of events. We characterize the dimming light curves in terms of dimming depth and slope and compare this statistically sized sample to CME masses and speeds determined with SOHO/LASCO coronagraph data in the CDAW catalog. We will present preliminary statistics on this new extensive dimming catalog and its comparison to the CDAW CME catalog.

  12. Progress Report on Doppler Shift Results from SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2015-04-01

    The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has been obtaining unprecedented observations of solar variation on times scales of seconds during flares and over the rising phase of Solar Cycle 24 since its start of normal operations in May 2010. Unexpectedly, as first pointed out in Hudson et. al., Ap. J. (2011), even with EVE’s spectral resolution of 0.1 nm and ‘irradiance’ measurements, EVE has the ability to very accurately determine Doppler shifts in all emissions during solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The technique for deriving these absolute velocities is not straightforward, as the optical and instrumental effects must first be eliminated in order to separate the absolute plasma velocities from the instrument effects. Initial results were first presented at the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Meeting in Cambridge, MD in March 2013. This presentation will discuss the progress that has been made since then on the efforts to eliminate the instrumental component, as well as show some of the updated results of absolute velocities of multiple emissions at a wide range of temperatures during solar flares.

  13. Evaluation of Atlas-Based White Matter Segmentation with Eve.

    PubMed

    Plassard, Andrew J; Hinton, Kendra E; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M; Landman, Bennett A

    2015-03-20

    Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary.

  14. Evaluation of Atlas-Based White Matter Segmentation with Eve

    PubMed Central

    Plassard, Andrew J.; Hinton, Kendra E.; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary. PMID:25914503

  15. Ex-Vivo Uterine Environment (EVE) Therapy Induced Limited Fetal Inflammation in a Premature Lamb Model

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Yuichiro; Saito, Masatoshi; Usuda, Haruo; Woodward, Eleanor; Rittenschober-Böhm, Judith; Kannan, Paranthaman S.; Musk, Gabrielle C.; Matsuda, Tadashi; Newnham, John P.; Kemp, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ex-vivo uterine environment (EVE) therapy uses an artificial placenta to provide gas exchange and nutrient delivery to a fetus submerged in an amniotic fluid bath. Development of EVE may allow us to treat very premature neonates without mechanical ventilation. Meanwhile, elevations in fetal inflammation are associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. In the present study, we analysed fetal survival, inflammation and pulmonary maturation in preterm lambs maintained on EVE therapy using a parallelised umbilical circuit system with a low priming volume. Methods Ewes underwent surgical delivery at 115 days of gestation (term is 150 days), and fetuses were transferred to EVE therapy (EVE group; n = 5). Physiological parameters were continuously monitored; fetal blood samples were intermittently obtained to assess wellbeing and targeted to reference range values for 2 days. Age-matched animals (Control group; n = 6) were surgically delivered at 117 days of gestation. Fetal blood and tissue samples were analysed and compared between the two groups. Results Fetal survival time in the EVE group was 27.0 ± 15.5 (group mean ± SD) hours. Only one fetus completed the pre-determined study period with optimal physiological parameters, while the other 4 animals demonstrated physiological deterioration or death prior to the pre-determined study end point. Significant elevations (p<0.05) in: i) inflammatory proteins in fetal plasma; ii) selected cytokine/chemokine mRNA expression levels in fetal tissues; and iii) histological inflammatory score in fetal lung, were observed in the EVE group compared to the Control group. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in surfactant protein mRNA expression level between the two groups. Conclusion In this study, we achieved limited fetal survival using EVE therapy. Despite this, EVE therapy only induced a modest fetal inflammatory response and did not promote lung maturation. These data provide additional insight into

  16. Ex-Vivo Uterine Environment (EVE) Therapy Induced Limited Fetal Inflammation in a Premature Lamb Model.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yuichiro; Saito, Masatoshi; Usuda, Haruo; Woodward, Eleanor; Rittenschober-Böhm, Judith; Kannan, Paranthaman S; Musk, Gabrielle C; Matsuda, Tadashi; Newnham, John P; Kemp, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    Ex-vivo uterine environment (EVE) therapy uses an artificial placenta to provide gas exchange and nutrient delivery to a fetus submerged in an amniotic fluid bath. Development of EVE may allow us to treat very premature neonates without mechanical ventilation. Meanwhile, elevations in fetal inflammation are associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. In the present study, we analysed fetal survival, inflammation and pulmonary maturation in preterm lambs maintained on EVE therapy using a parallelised umbilical circuit system with a low priming volume. Ewes underwent surgical delivery at 115 days of gestation (term is 150 days), and fetuses were transferred to EVE therapy (EVE group; n = 5). Physiological parameters were continuously monitored; fetal blood samples were intermittently obtained to assess wellbeing and targeted to reference range values for 2 days. Age-matched animals (Control group; n = 6) were surgically delivered at 117 days of gestation. Fetal blood and tissue samples were analysed and compared between the two groups. Fetal survival time in the EVE group was 27.0 ± 15.5 (group mean ± SD) hours. Only one fetus completed the pre-determined study period with optimal physiological parameters, while the other 4 animals demonstrated physiological deterioration or death prior to the pre-determined study end point. Significant elevations (p<0.05) in: i) inflammatory proteins in fetal plasma; ii) selected cytokine/chemokine mRNA expression levels in fetal tissues; and iii) histological inflammatory score in fetal lung, were observed in the EVE group compared to the Control group. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in surfactant protein mRNA expression level between the two groups. In this study, we achieved limited fetal survival using EVE therapy. Despite this, EVE therapy only induced a modest fetal inflammatory response and did not promote lung maturation. These data provide additional insight into markers of treatment efficacy for the

  17. All About EVE: Education and Public Outreach for the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) of the NASA Solar Dynamic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eparvier, F. G.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.

    2008-12-01

    With the aim of meeting NASA goals for education and public outreach as well as support education reform efforts including the National Science Education Standards, a suite of education materials and strategies have been developed by the Cooperative Institute for Environmental Sciences (CIRES) with the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado for the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), which is an instrument aboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory. This paper will examine the education materials that have been developed for teachers in the classroom and scientists who are conducting outreach, including handouts, a website on space weather for teachers, a slideshow presentation about the overall Solar Dynamic Observatory mission, and a DVD with videos explaining the construction and goals of the EVE instrument, a tour of LASP, and an overview of space science careers. The results and potential transferability of a pilot project developed through this effort that engaged English Second Language learners in a semester-long course on space weather that incorporated the used of a Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) Monitor will be highlighted.

  18. Specification of motoneuron fate in Drosophila: integration of positive and negative transcription factor inputs by a minimal eve enhancer.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jocelyn A; Fujioka, Miki; Odden, Joanne P; Jaynes, James B; Doe, Chris Q

    2003-11-01

    We are interested in the mechanisms that generate neuronal diversity within the Drosophila central nervous system (CNS), and in particular in the development of a single identified motoneuron called RP2. Expression of the homeodomain transcription factor Even-skipped (Eve) is required for RP2 to establish proper connectivity with its muscle target. Here we investigate the mechanisms by which eve is specifically expressed within the RP2 motoneuron lineage. Within the NB4-2 lineage, expression of eve first occurs in the precursor of RP2, called GMC4-2a. We identify a small 500 base pair eve enhancer that mediates eve expression in GMC4-2a. We show that four different transcription factors (Prospero, Huckebein, Fushi tarazu, and Pdm1) are all expressed in GMC4-2a, and are required to activate eve via this minimal enhancer, and that one transcription factor (Klumpfuss) represses eve expression via this element. All four positively acting transcription factors act independently, regulating eve but not each other. Thus, the eve enhancer integrates multiple positive and negative transcription factor inputs to restrict eve expression to a single precursor cell (GMC4-2a) and its RP2 motoneuron progeny. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS): Radiometric Calibrations and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hock, R. A.; Woods, T. N.; Crotser, D.; Eparvier, F. G.; Woodraska, D. L.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, E. C.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2010, incorporates a suite of instruments including the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). EVE has multiple instruments including the Multiple Extreme ultraviolet Grating Spectrographs (MEGS) A, B, and P instruments, the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), and the Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP). The radiometric calibration of EVE, necessary to convert the instrument counts to physical units, was performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This paper presents the results and derived accuracy of this radiometric calibration for the MEGS A, B, P, and SAM instruments, while the calibration of the ESP instrument is addressed by Didkovsky et al. . In addition, solar measurements that were taken on 14 April 2008, during the NASA 36.240 sounding-rocket flight, are shown for the prototype EVE instruments.

  20. gEVE: a genome-based endogenous viral element database provides comprehensive viral protein-coding sequences in mammalian genomes.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, So; Takahashi, Mahoko Ueda

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, approximately 10% of genome sequences correspond to endogenous viral elements (EVEs), which are derived from ancient viral infections of germ cells. Although most EVEs have been inactivated, some open reading frames (ORFs) of EVEs obtained functions in the hosts. However, EVE ORFs usually remain unannotated in the genomes, and no databases are available for EVE ORFs. To investigate the function and evolution of EVEs in mammalian genomes, we developed EVE ORF databases for 20 genomes of 19 mammalian species. A total of 736,771 non-overlapping EVE ORFs were identified and archived in a database named gEVE (http://geve.med.u-tokai.ac.jp). The gEVE database provides nucleotide and amino acid sequences, genomic loci and functional annotations of EVE ORFs for all 20 genomes. In analyzing RNA-seq data with the gEVE database, we successfully identified the expressed EVE genes, suggesting that the gEVE database facilitates studies of the genomic analyses of various mammalian species.Database URL: http://geve.med.u-tokai.ac.jp.

  1. gEVE: a genome-based endogenous viral element database provides comprehensive viral protein-coding sequences in mammalian genomes

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, So; Takahashi, Mahoko Ueda

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, approximately 10% of genome sequences correspond to endogenous viral elements (EVEs), which are derived from ancient viral infections of germ cells. Although most EVEs have been inactivated, some open reading frames (ORFs) of EVEs obtained functions in the hosts. However, EVE ORFs usually remain unannotated in the genomes, and no databases are available for EVE ORFs. To investigate the function and evolution of EVEs in mammalian genomes, we developed EVE ORF databases for 20 genomes of 19 mammalian species. A total of 736,771 non-overlapping EVE ORFs were identified and archived in a database named gEVE (http://geve.med.u-tokai.ac.jp). The gEVE database provides nucleotide and amino acid sequences, genomic loci and functional annotations of EVE ORFs for all 20 genomes. In analyzing RNA-seq data with the gEVE database, we successfully identified the expressed EVE genes, suggesting that the gEVE database facilitates studies of the genomic analyses of various mammalian species. Database URL: http://geve.med.u-tokai.ac.jp PMID:27242033

  2. Transcriptional bursting in Drosophila development: Stochastic dynamics of eve stripe 2 expression.

    PubMed

    Holloway, David M; Spirov, Alexander V

    2017-01-01

    Anterior-posterior (AP) body segmentation of the fruit fly (Drosophila) is first seen in the 7-stripe spatial expression patterns of the pair-rule genes, which regulate downstream genes determining specific segment identities. Regulation of pair-rule expression has been extensively studied for the even-skipped (eve) gene. Recent live imaging, of a reporter for the 2nd eve stripe, has demonstrated the stochastic nature of this process, with 'bursts' in the number of RNA transcripts being made over time. We developed a stochastic model of the spatial and temporal expression of eve stripe 2 (binding by transcriptional activators (Bicoid and Hunchback proteins) and repressors (Giant and Krüppel proteins), transcriptional initiation and termination; with all rate parameters constrained by features of the experimental data) in order to analyze the noisy experimental time series and test hypotheses for how eve transcription is regulated. These include whether eve transcription is simply OFF or ON, with a single ON rate, or whether it proceeds by a more complex mechanism, with multiple ON rates. We find that both mechanisms can produce long (multi-minute) RNA bursts, but that the short-time (minute-to-minute) statistics of the data is indicative of eve being transcribed with at least two distinct ON rates, consistent with data on the joint activation of eve by Bicoid and Hunchback. We also predict distinct statistical signatures for cases in which eve is repressed (e.g. along the edges of the stripe) vs. cases in which activation is reduced (e.g. by mutagenesis of transcription factor binding sites). Fundamental developmental processes such as gene transcription are intrinsically noisy; our approach presents a new way to quantify and analyze time series data during developmental patterning in order to understand regulatory mechanisms and how they propagate noise and impact embryonic robustness.

  3. Overexpression of EVE1, a novel ubiquitin family protein, arrests inflorescence stem development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Hoyeun; Jeong, Young-Min; Choi, Monica Y; Lee, So-Young; Kim, Sang-Gu

    2011-08-01

    In Arabidopsis, inflorescence stem formation is a critical process in phase transition from the vegetative to the reproductive state. Although inflorescence stem development has been reported to depend on the expression of a variety of genes during floral induction and repression, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the control of inflorescence stem formation. By activation T-DNA tagging mutagenesis of Arabidopsis, a dominant gain-of-function mutation, eve1-D (eternally vegetative phase1-Dominant), which has lost the ability to form an inflorescence stem, was isolated. The eve1-D mutation exhibited a dome-shaped primary shoot apical meristem (SAM) in the early vegetative stage, similar to that seen in the wild-type SAM. However, the SAM in the eve1-D mutation failed to transition into an inflorescence meristem (IM) and eventually reached senescence without ever leaving the vegetative phase. The eve1-D mutation also displayed pleiotropic phenotypes, including lobed and wavy rosette leaves, short petioles, and an increased number of rosette leaves. Genetic analysis indicated that the genomic location of the EVE1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana corresponded to a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) F4C21 from chromosome IV at ∼17cM which encoded a novel ubiquitin family protein (At4g03350), consisting of a single exon. The EVE1 protein is composed of 263 amino acids, contains a 52 amino acid ubiquitin domain, and has no glycine residue related to ubiquitin activity at the C-terminus. The eve1-D mutation provides a way to study the regulatory mechanisms that control phase transition from the vegetative to the reproductive state. © 2011 The Author(s).

  4. EVE Doppler Signatures in X-class Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Chamberlin, P. C.; MacKinnon, A.; Woods, T. N.

    2016-12-01

    The MEGS-A spectroscopy of the Sun as a star has produced a greatdeal of interesting solar physics, but without much exploitationyet of its Doppler capabilities (see Chamberlin, 2016 for details).In this presentation we examine the He II 304 line specifically andin specifically on the database of X-class flares from MEGS-A'sactive lifetime (34 events). The gradual-phase emission allows usto obtain a local reference for the rest wavelength to good accuracy,and the impulsive-phase centroid wavelengths typically shift to thered with values consistent with those of Milligan and Dennis (2009),but with smaller uncertainties. The exception events include SOL2014-02-25 (X4.9), which we find to have a blueshifted He IIline at an apparent 105 +- 5 km/s relative to its rest value. Thisevent also includes an unusual coronal hard X-ray source and aFermi/LAT high-energy gamma-ray emission. The EVE Doppler shiftanalysis can also be done at many other emission lines, includingthose covered by MEGS-B in the 33-106 nm range.

  5. Birds flee en mass from New Year's Eve fireworks.

    PubMed

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Dokter, Adriaan M; van Gasteren, Hans; van Loon, E Emiel; Leijnse, Hidde; Bouten, Willem

    2011-11-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances of wildlife, such as noise, human presence, hunting activity, and motor vehicles, are becoming an increasing concern in conservation biology. Fireworks are an important part of celebrations worldwide, and although humans often find fireworks spectacular, fireworks are probably perceived quite differently by wild animals. Behavioral responses to fireworks are difficult to study at night, and little is known about the negative effects fireworks may have on wildlife. Every year, thousands of tons of fireworks are lit by civilians on New Year's Eve in the Netherlands. Using an operational weather radar, we quantified the reaction of birds to fireworks in 3 consecutive years. Thousands of birds took flight shortly after midnight, with high aerial movements lasting at least 45 min and peak densities measured at 500 m altitude. The highest densities were observed over grasslands and wetlands, including nature conservation sites, where thousands of waterfowl rest and feed. The Netherlands is the most important winter staging area for several species of waterfowl in Europe. We estimate that hundreds of thousands of birds in the Netherlands take flight due to fireworks. The spatial and temporal extent of disturbance is substantial, and potential consequences are discussed. Weather radar provides a unique opportunity to study the reaction of birds to fireworks, which has otherwise remained elusive.

  6. "Mitochondrial Eve", "Y Chromosome Adam", testosterone, and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Howard, James Michael

    2002-01-01

    I suggest primate evolution began as a consequence of increased testosterone in males which increased aggression and sexuality, therefore, reproduction and success. With time, negative effects of excessive testosterone reduced spermatogenesis and started a decline of the group. Approximately 30-40 million years ago, the gene DAZ (Deleted in AZoospermia) appeared on the Y chromosome, increased spermatogenesis, and rescued the early primates from extinction. (Note: DAZ is considered by some to specifically, positively affect spermatogenesis; others suggest it has no effect on spermatogenesis.) Hominid evolution continued with increasing testosterone. The advent of increased testosterone in females of Homo erectus (or Homo ergaster) increased the female-to-male body size ratio, and eventually produced another era of excessive testosterone. Excessive testosterone caused a reduction in population size (bottleneck) that produced the "Mitochondrial Eve" (ME) mechanism. (Only certain females continued during the bottleneck to transmit their mitochondrial DNA.) That is, the ME mechanism culminated, again, in excessive testosterone and reduced spermatogenesis in the hominid line. Approximately 50,000 to 200,000 years ago, a "doubling" of the DAZ gene occurred on the Y chromosome in hominid males which rescued the hominid line with increased spermatogenesis in certain males. This produced the "Y Chromosome Adam" event. The doubling of DAZ allowed further increases in testosterone in hominids that resulted in the increased size and development of the brain. Modern humans periodically fluctuate between the positive and negative consequences of increased levels of testosterone, currently identifiable as the secular trend, increased infections, and reduced spermatogenesis.

  7. Pathology of deaths associated with "ecstasy" and "eve" misuse.

    PubMed Central

    Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Forrest, A R

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To study the postmortem pathology associated with ring substituted amphetamine (amphetamine derivatives) misuse. METHODS: The postmortem findings in deaths associated with the ring substituted amphetamines 3,4-methylenedioxymethyl-amphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA, eve) were studied in seven young white men aged between 20 and 25 years. RESULTS: Striking changes were identified in the liver, which varied from foci of individual cell necrosis to centrilobular necrosis. In one case there was massive hepatic necrosis. Changes consistent with catecholamine induced myocardial damage were seen in five cases. In the brain perivascular haemorrhagic and hypoxic changes were identified in four cases. Overall, the changes in four cases were the same as those reported in heart stroke, although only two cases had a documented history of hyperthermia. Of these four cases, all had changes in their liver, three had changes in their brains, and three in their heart. Of the other three cases, one man died of fulminant liver failure, one of water intoxication and one probably from a cardiac arrhythmia associated with myocardial fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that there is more than one mechanism of damage in ring substituted amphetamine misuse, injury being caused by hyperthermia in some cases, but with ring substituted amphetamines also possibly having a toxic effect on the liver and other organs in the absence of hyperthermia. Images PMID:8655682

  8. Voodoo illness.

    PubMed

    Campinha-Bacote, J

    1992-01-01

    Healthcare providers must familiarize themselves with specific culture-bound syndromes and their manifestations in order to provide quality care to culturally diverse clients seeking healthcare services. Voodoo illness is one of several culture-bound syndromes that nurses need to be familiar with, for an inability to understand voodoo illness may result in the client's death (voodoo death).

  9. Repression activity of Tailless on h 1 and eve 1 pair-rule stripes.

    PubMed

    Andrioli, Luiz Paulo; Dos Santos, Wesley Silva; Aguiar, Francisco Dos Santos; Digiampietri, Luciano Antonio

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that several transcriptional repressors are necessary to set the boundaries of anterior pair-rule stripes in Drosophila. Specifically, we tested whether Tailless (Tll) is part of a repression mechanism that correctly sets the anterior boundaries of hairy 1 (h 1) and even-skipped 1 (eve 1) stripes. Single mutant tll embryos displayed subtle deviations from the normal positions of h 1 and eve 1 stripes. Moreover, we observed stronger stripe deviations in embryos lacking both Tll and Sloppy-paired 1 (Slp 1), a common repressor for anterior pair-rule stripes. Using h 1 and eve 1 reporter constructs in the genetic assays, we provided further evidence that interference with normal mechanisms of stripe expression is mediated by Tll repression. Indeed, Tll represses both h 1 and eve 1 reporter stripes when misexpressed. Investigating the expression of other anterior gap genes in different genetic backgrounds and in the misexpression assays strengthened Tll direct repression in the regulation of h 1 and eve 1. Our results are consistent with tll being a newly-identified component of a combinatorial network of repressor genes that control pair-rule stripe formation in the anterior blastoderm of Drosophila. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genome-wide analysis of EgEVE_1, a transcriptionally active endogenous viral element associated to small RNAs in Eucalyptus genomes.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Helena Sanches; Costa-Silva, Juliana; Lorenzetti, Alan Péricles Rodrigues; Marino, Celso Luis; Domingues, Douglas Silva

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are the result of heritable horizontal gene transfer from viruses to hosts. In the last years, several EVE integration events were reported in plants by the exponential availability of sequenced genomes. Eucalyptus grandis is a forest tree species with a sequenced genome that is poorly studied in terms of evolution and mobile genetic elements composition. Here we report the characterization of E. grandis endogenous viral element 1 (EgEVE_1), a transcriptionally active EVE with a size of 5,664 bp. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic distribution demonstrated that EgEVE_1 is a newly described member of the Caulimoviridae family, distinct from the recently characterized plant Florendoviruses. Genomic distribution of EgEVE_1 and Florendovirus is also distinct. EgEVE_1 qPCR quantification in Eucalyptus urophylla suggests that this genome has more EgEVE_1 copies than E. grandis. EgEVE_1 transcriptional activity was demonstrated by RT-qPCR in five Eucalyptus species and one intrageneric hybrid. We also identified that Eucalyptus EVEs can generate small RNAs (sRNAs),that might be involved in de novo DNA methylation and virus resistance. Our data suggest that EVE families in Eucalyptus have distinct properties, and we provide the first comparative analysis of EVEs in Eucalyptus genomes.

  11. Genome-wide analysis of EgEVE_1, a transcriptionally active endogenous viral element associated to small RNAs in Eucalyptus genomes

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Helena Sanches; Costa-Silva, Juliana; Lorenzetti, Alan Péricles Rodrigues; Marino, Celso Luis; Domingues, Douglas Silva

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are the result of heritable horizontal gene transfer from viruses to hosts. In the last years, several EVE integration events were reported in plants by the exponential availability of sequenced genomes. Eucalyptus grandis is a forest tree species with a sequenced genome that is poorly studied in terms of evolution and mobile genetic elements composition. Here we report the characterization of E. grandis endogenous viral element 1 (EgEVE_1), a transcriptionally active EVE with a size of 5,664 bp. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic distribution demonstrated that EgEVE_1 is a newly described member of the Caulimoviridae family, distinct from the recently characterized plant Florendoviruses. Genomic distribution of EgEVE_1 and Florendovirus is also distinct. EgEVE_1 qPCR quantification in Eucalyptus urophylla suggests that this genome has more EgEVE_1 copies than E. grandis. EgEVE_1 transcriptional activity was demonstrated by RT-qPCR in five Eucalyptus species and one intrageneric hybrid. We also identified that Eucalyptus EVEs can generate small RNAs (sRNAs),that might be involved in de novo DNA methylation and virus resistance. Our data suggest that EVE families in Eucalyptus have distinct properties, and we provide the first comparative analysis of EVEs in Eucalyptus genomes. PMID:28235127

  12. 78 FR 77359 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Celebration/City of Mobile...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Celebration/City of Mobile; Mobile Channel; Mobile, AL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the City of Mobile New Year's Eve Celebration...

  13. EUV irradiance observations from SDO/EVE as a diagnostic of solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Ryan O.

    For the past six years, the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory has been monitoring changes in the Sun's extreme ultraviolet output over a range of timescales. Its primary function is to provide measurements of the solar spectral irradiance that is responsible for driving fluctuations in Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere. However, despite its modest spectral resolution and lack of spatial information, the EVE spectral range contains many lines and continua that have become invaluable for diagnosing the response of the lower solar atmosphere itself to an injection of energy, particularly during a flare's impulsive phase. In addition, high temperature emission lines can also be used to track changes in temperature and density of flaring plasma in the corona. The high precision of EVE observations are therefore crucial in helping us understand particle acceleration and energy transport mechanisms during solar flares, as well as the origins of the Sun's most geoeffective emission.

  14. Dynamic regulation of eve stripe 2 expression reveals transcriptional bursts in living Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Bothma, Jacques P; Garcia, Hernan G; Esposito, Emilia; Schlissel, Gavin; Gregor, Thomas; Levine, Michael

    2014-07-22

    We present the use of recently developed live imaging methods to examine the dynamic regulation of even-skipped (eve) stripe 2 expression in the precellular Drosophila embryo. Nascent transcripts were visualized via MS2 RNA stem loops. The eve stripe 2 transgene exhibits a highly dynamic pattern of de novo transcription, beginning with a broad domain of expression during nuclear cycle 12 (nc12), and progressive refinement during nc13 and nc14. The mature stripe 2 pattern is surprisingly transient, constituting just ∼15 min of the ∼90-min period of expression. Nonetheless, this dynamic transcription profile faithfully predicts the limits of the mature stripe visualized by conventional in situ detection methods. Analysis of individual transcription foci reveals intermittent bursts of de novo transcription, with duration cycles of 4-10 min. We discuss a multistate model of transcription regulation and speculate on its role in the dynamic repression of the eve stripe 2 expression pattern during development.

  15. Foodborne illness.

    PubMed

    Pigott, David C

    2008-05-01

    While few patients with foodborne illness present with life-threatening symptoms, there are a number of foodborne infectious diseases and toxins that the emergency physician or other health care provider must consider in the evaluation of these patients. Given the frequency of international travel, as well as the risk associated with recurrent outbreaks of foodborne illness from commercial food sources, it is important to recognize various syndromes of foodborne illness, including those which may require specific evaluation and management strategies. This article reviews a number of the most common causes of foodborne illness, as well as several less common pathogens with the potential for causing significant morbidity and mortality if not promptly identified and treated.

  16. Heat Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... humidity, sweating just isn't enough. Your body temperature can rise to dangerous levels and you can ... Heatstroke - a life-threatening illness in which body temperature may rise above 106° F in minutes; symptoms ...

  17. Foodborne Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... get sick from contaminated food. Common culprits include bacteria, parasites and viruses. Symptoms range from mild to ... cramps Nausea and vomiting Diarrhea Fever Dehydration Harmful bacteria are the most common cause of foodborne illness. ...

  18. Foodborne Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some parasites and chemicals also cause foodborne illnesses. Bacteria Bacteria are tiny organisms that can cause infections of the GI tract. Not all bacteria are harmful to humans. Some harmful bacteria may ...

  19. 78 FR 75898 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ...The Coast Guard will enforce the 1,000 foot safety zone in the navigable waters of the Sacramento River in Sacramento, CA on December 31, 2013 during the Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display. The fireworks display will occur from 9 p.m. to 9:20 p.m. on December 31, 2013 for the annual Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display. This action is necessary to control vessel traffic and to help protect the safety of event participants and spectators. During the enforcement period, unauthorized persons or vessels are prohibited from entering into, transiting through, or anchoring in the safety zone, unless authorized by the Patrol Commander (PATCOM).

  20. An Innovative Aperture Cover Mechanism Used on SDO/EVE and MMS/SDP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steg, Stephen; Vermeer, William; Tucker, Scott; Passe, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an aperture cover mechanism that was successfully flown in four locations on SDO/EVE, and is awaiting launch in sixteen locations on MMS. This design uses a paraffin actuator and a latch that secures the cover closed and removes the actuator from the load path. This latch allows the assembly to operate both as a light weight contamination cover (SDO/EVE), and also as a high-strength sensor restraint mechanism (MMS/SDP). The paper provides design/analysis/test information about the mechanism.

  1. 78 FR 75248 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ...The Coast Guard will enforce the 1,000 foot safety zone in the navigable waters of the Sacramento River in Sacramento, CA on December 31, 2013 during the Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display. The fireworks display will occur from 9 p.m. to 9:20 p.m. on December 31, 2013 for the annual Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display. This action is necessary to control vessel traffic and to help protect the safety of event participants and spectators. During the enforcement period, unauthorized persons or vessels are prohibited from entering into, transiting through, or anchoring in the safety zone, unless authorized by the Patrol Commander (PATCOM).

  2. EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Learning Suite for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellagher, Emily; Scherrer, D. K.

    2013-07-01

    EVE Education and Public Outreach (EPO) promotes an understanding of the process of science and concepts within solar science and sun-earth connections. EVE EPO also features working scientists, current research and career awareness. One of the highlights for of this years projects is the digitization of solar lessons and the collaboration with the other instrument teams to develop new resources for students and educators. Digital lesson suite: EVE EPO has taken the best solar lessons and reworked then to make then more engaging, to reflect SDO data and made them SMARTboard compatible. We are creating a website that Students and teachers can access these lesson and use them online or download them. Project team collaboration: The SDO instruments (EVE, AIA and HMI) teams have created a comic book series for upper elementary and middle school students with the SDO mascot Camilla. These comics may be printed or read on mobile devices. Many teachers are looking for resources to use with their students via the Ipad so our collaboration helps supply teachers with a great resource that teachers about solar concepts and helps dispel solar misconceptions.Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): EVE Education and Public Outreach (EPO) promotes an understanding of the process of science and concepts within solar science and sun-earth connections. EVE EPO also features working scientists, current research and career awareness. One of the highlights for of this years projects is the digitization of solar lessons and the collaboration with the other instrument teams to develop new resources for students and educators. Digital lesson suite: EVE EPO has taken the best solar lessons and reworked then to make then more engaging, to reflect SDO data and made them SMARTboard compatible. We are creating a website that Students and teachers can access these lesson and use them online or download them. Project team collaboration: The SDO instruments (EVE, AIA and HMI) teams have created a

  3. Prominences in SDO/EVE spectra: contributions from large solar structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrosse, Nicolas; Hudson, Hugh; Kazachenko, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The EVE instrument on SDO is making accurate measurements of the solar spectral irradiance in the EUV between 30 and 1069 Å, with 1 Å spectral resolution and 10 s sampling rate. These data define solar variability in the ``Sun-as-a-star'' mode and reveal many interesting kinds of variation. Its high sensitivity also makes it suitable for spectroscopic diagnostics of solar features such as flares. Here we present EVE's potential contribution to the diagnostics of large-scale, slowly evolving features such as prominences and active regions, and what we can learn from this.

  4. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS): Radiometric Calibrations and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, R. A.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, T. N.; Crotser, D.; Eparvier, F. G.; Woodraska, D. L.; Woods, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2010, incorporates a suite of instruments including the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). EVE has multiple instruments including the Multiple Extreme ultraviolet Grating Spectrographs (MEGS) A, B, and P instruments, the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), and the Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP). The radiometric calibration of EVE, necessary to convert the instrument counts to physical units, was performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This paper presents the results and derived accuracy of this radiometric calibration for the MEGS A, B, P, and SAM instruments, while the calibration of the ESP instrument is addressed by Didkovsky et al. ( Solar Phys., 2010, doi:10.1007/s11207-009-9485-8). In addition, solar measurements that were taken on 14 April 2008, during the NASA 36.240 sounding-rocket flight, are shown for the prototype EVE instruments.

  5. A Young Researcher's Project on the Benefits of Early Language Learning: An Interview with Eve Wallwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Mary Lynn

    2007-01-01

    In this interview, Eve Wallwork, a junior at David W. Butler High School in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg (NC) School District, talks about her research project on the field of early language learning. Wallwork shares the most important findings of her research, the benefits of early language learning, and her plans in the future.

  6. The Right to Control One's Own Body: A Look at the "Eve" Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Marcia; Yarmol, Karen

    1987-01-01

    The article reviews the arguments and decision of the "Eve" sterilization case decided by the Supreme Court of Canada. The court held that no one, including the courts themselves, has the power to approve the sterilization, for contraceptive purposes, of any person, mentally handicapped or not, who does not give consent. (DB)

  7. A Young Researcher's Project on the Benefits of Early Language Learning: An Interview with Eve Wallwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Mary Lynn

    2007-01-01

    In this interview, Eve Wallwork, a junior at David W. Butler High School in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg (NC) School District, talks about her research project on the field of early language learning. Wallwork shares the most important findings of her research, the benefits of early language learning, and her plans in the future.

  8. Eve-3: a liver enriched suppressor of Ras/MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    King, James A J; Corcoran, Niall M; D'Abaco, Giovanna M; Straffon, Andrew F; Smith, Craig T; Poon, Carole L C; Buchert, Michael; I, Stacey; Hall, Nathan E; Lock, Peter; Hovens, Christopher M

    2006-04-01

    The developed liver is able to tightly control cellular proliferation, rapidly switching from quiescence to growth in response to specific stimuli. This suggests that growth inhibitors may be involved in the control of liver growth. We analyzed the role of the Spred-family of growth inhibitors in the liver. We screened human EST databases for Spred-related sequences. Clones were isolated, sequenced, epitope-tagged and expressed. Subcellular localization of clones were determined and their effects on cellular signaling pathways analysed using specific antibodies. Cell cycle progression assays and protein interaction studies were initiated. Organ distribution of transcripts and their expression throughout liver development and in primary hepatocytes were recorded. We have identified a new, liver-restricted protein, Eve-3, containing a single Ena Vasp homology (EVH1) domain that can potently block activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway. Eve-3 is specific in inhibiting the Ras/MAPK pathway. Eve-3 can block serum-mediated cell cycle progression and its expression is highly regulated during liver development. The liver is the only organ that can regulate its growth and mass. Eve-3 may act as an inhibitor of proliferation pathways in the mature liver and be involved in modulating the unique regenerative capacity of this organ.

  9. Foodborne Illness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    be subdivided into three major categories. The first category includes the traditional forms of food poisoning caused by preformed toxins that may...Infectious not all, kinds of food poisoning. In other forms, Diseases section. neurotoxicity may be the principal manifestation, and respiratory...foodborne illnesses PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT. Principles i’, are relatively innocuous and of short duration. A the overall management of food poisoning

  10. 75 FR 78726 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning the Fairplay Hoss and the Fairplay Eve...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ...This document provides notice that U.S. Customs and Border Protection (``CBP'') has issued a final determination concerning the country of origin of the Fairplay Hoss and the Fairplay Eve lines of electric vehicles. Based upon the facts presented, CBP has concluded in the final determination that the United States is the country of origin of the Fairplay Hoss and Eve lines of electric vehicles for purposes of U.S. Government procurement.

  11. Functional analysis of eve stripe 2 enhancer evolution in Drosophila: rules governing conservation and change.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, M Z; Patel, N H; Kreitman, M

    1998-03-01

    Experimental investigations of eukaryotic enhancers suggest that multiple binding sites and trans-acting regulatory factors are often required for wild-type enhancer function. Genetic analysis of the stripe 2 enhancer of even-skipped (eve), an important developmental gene in Drosophila, provides support for this view. Given the importance of even-skipped expression in early Drosophila development, it might be predicted that many structural features of the stripe 2 enhancer will be evolutionarily conserved, including the DNA sequences of protein binding sites and the spacing between them. To test this hypothesis, we compared sequences of the stripe 2 enhancer between four species of Drosophila: D. melanogaster, D. yakuba, D. erecta and D. pseudoobscura. Our analysis revealed a large number of nucleotide substitutions in regulatory protein binding sites for bicoid, hunchback, Kruppel and giant, as well as a systematic change in the size of the enhancer. Some of the binding sites in D. melanogaster are either absent or modified in other species. One functionally important bicoid-binding site in D. melanogaster appears to be recently evolved. We, therefore, investigated possible functional consequences of sequence differences among these stripe 2 enhancers by P-element-mediated transformation. This analysis revealed that the eve stripe 2 enhancer from each of the four species drove reporter gene expression at the identical time and location in D. melanogaster embryos. Double staining of native eve protein and transgene mRNA in early embryos showed that the reporter gene mimicked native eve expression and, in every case, produced sharply defined stripes at the blastoderm stage that were coincident with eve stripe 2 protein. We argue that stripe 2 eve expression in Drosophila evolution can be viewed as being under constant stabilizing selection with respect to the location of the anterior and posterior borders of the stripe. We further hypothesize that the stripe 2

  12. eveƒue2‚esv‚yeh2gy‚€y‚e„syx ivwixhy‚p2 es‚2py‚gi2feƒi ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-02-08

    ... xy‚„r2fv…pp2pegi e†i eve r2ƒtreet ‡rs„xi‰2‚yeh ieƒ„ QrdF2eveF ... iƒ„ Qrd p2ƒtreet gr‚sƒ„ixƒix ‡iƒ„ eve Pnd hrive eve ‡iƒ„ ieƒ„ eve ieƒ„ g‚iiu2eve ...

  13. On the possibility to diagnose a kappa-distribution from EVE flare spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzifcakova, Elena; Dudík, Jaroslav

    2015-08-01

    X-ray flare emission is strongly affected by the non-thermal part of the electron distribution. RHESSI observations and also recent theoretical derivations showed that the electron distribution function in coronal X-ray sources could be a kappa-distribution. An effect of kappa-distribution on the relative intensities of spectral lines of Fe XVIII - Fe XXIV observed in SDO/EVE flare spectra was calculated using KAPPA package based on the CHIANTI. Together with CHIANTI, this allows us to estimate the influence of the kappa-distributions on the diagnostics of electron density and temperature from the flare spectra. The possibility to diagnose parameters of the kappa-distribution from EVE flare spectra is discussed. The synthetic spectra for the kappa-distribution are compared with the observed flare spectra.

  14. 77 FR 75556 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Year's Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ...The Coast Guard will enforce the 1,000 foot safety zones during the Sacramento New Year's Eve Fireworks Display in the navigable waters of the Sacramento River on December 31, 2012 and January 1, 2013. The fireworks displays will occur from 9 p.m. to 9:15 p.m. on December 31, 2011 and from 11:59 p.m. on December 31, 2012 until 12:15 a.m. on January 1, 2013 for the annual Sacramento New Year's Eve Fireworks Display. During the enforcement period, unauthorized persons or vessels are prohibited from entering into, transiting through, or anchoring in the safety zone, unless authorized by the Patrol Commander (PATCOM).

  15. The slowly varying corona from DEMs with the EVE data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonfeld, Samuel J.; White, Stephen M.; Hock, Rachel A.; McAteer, James

    2016-05-01

    We present a differential emission measure (DEM) analysis of the slowly varying corona during the first half of solar cycle 24. Using the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) and the CHIANTI atomic line database we identify strong isolated iron emission lines present in the non-flaring spectrum with peak emissions covering the coronal temperature range of 5.7 < log(T) < 6.5. These lines are used to generate daily DEMs from EVE spectra to observe the long term variability of global coronal thermal properties. We discuss the choice of emission lines and the implications of this data set for the relationship between EUV and the F10.7 radio flux.

  16. 76 FR 81827 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ...The Coast Guard will enforce the 1,000 foot safety zones during the Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display in the navigable waters of the Sacramento River during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to control vessel traffic and to ensure the safety of event participants and spectators. During the enforcement period, unauthorized persons or vessels are prohibited from entering into, transiting through, or anchoring in the safety zone, unless authorized by the Patrol Commander (PATCOM).

  17. Treatment of diabetes mellitus-associated neuropathy with vitamin E and Eve primrose.

    PubMed

    Ogbera, Anthonia Okeoghene; Ezeobi, Emmanuel; Unachukwu, Chioma; Oshinaike, Olajumoke

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this report was to assess the efficacy and safety of a combination of vitamin E, an antioxidant, and Eve Primrose in the management of painful diabetes mellitus (DM) neuropathy. This was an interventional study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of a combination of vitamin E and Eve Primrose in the management of DM neuropathy. The study was conducted at the Diabetic Centre of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja. Eighty individuals with type 2 DM who had painful neuropathy were recruited for this study, which took place for a duration of 1 year. The study subjects underwent clinical and biochemical assessment at baseline and were given vitamin E in a dose of 400 mg in combination with Eve Primrose in doses ranging 500-1000 mg/day. They were afterward assessed for relief of symptoms and possible untoward effects after 2 weeks and, thereafter, monthly for 3 months. The main outcome measure was amelioration of symptoms of neuropathy. The mean age and age range of the study subjects were 58.2 years and 37-70 years, respectively. A total of 70 patients (88%) of the study population reported relief from neuropathic pains. Clinical parameters were comparable between the responders and non-responders. One characteristic feature of the non-responders was that they all had vibration perception threshold of ≥25 mV, which was indicative of severe neuropathy. The combination of vitamin E and Eve Primrose is beneficial in the management of mild to moderate diabetic neuropathy.

  18. Thermal Evolution and Radiative Output of Solar Flares Observed by the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, P. C.; Milligan, R. O.; Woods, T. N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used to obtain the thermal evolution and radiative output during solar flares as observed by the Extreme u ltraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Ob servatory (SDO). Presented and discussed in detail are how EVE measur ements, due to its temporal cadence, spectral resolution and spectral range, can be used to determine how the thermal plasma radiates at v arious temperatures throughout the impulsive and gradual phase of fla res. EVE can very accurately determine the radiative output of flares due to pre- and in-flight calibrations. Events are presented that sh ow the total radiated output of flares depends more on the flare duration than the typical GOES X-ray peak magnitude classification. With S DO observing every flare throughout its entire duration and over a la rge temperature range, new insights into flare heating and cooling as well as the radiative energy release in EUV wavelengths support exis ting research into understanding the evolution of solar flares.

  19. Overview of Key Results from SDO Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Tom

    2016-10-01

    The SDO Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) includes several channels to observe the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral irradiance from 1 to 106 nm. These channels include the Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph (MEGS) A, B, and P channels from the University of Colorado (CU) and the EUV SpectroPhometer (ESP) channels from the University of Southern California (USC). The solar EUV spectrum is rich in many different emission lines from the corona, transition region, and chromosphere. The EVE full-disk irradiance spectra are important for studying the solar impacts in Earth’s ionosphere and thermosphere and are useful for space weather operations. In addition, the EVE observations, with its high spectral resolution of 0.1 nm and in collaboration with AIA solar EUV images, have proven valuable for studying active region evolution and explosive energy release during flares and coronal eruptions. These SDO measurements have revealed interesting results such as understanding the flare variability over all wavelengths, discovering and classifying different flare phases, using coronal dimming measurements to predict CME properties of mass and velocity, and exploring the role of nano-flares in continual heating of active regions.

  20. Flare Comparisons of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) to Preliminary SDO EVE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlon, Phillip C.

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) launched February 11, 2010 from Kennedy Space Center and started normal science operations in April 2010. One of the instruments onboard SDO, the EUV Variability- Experiment (EVE), will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1-105 nm with 0.1 nm spectral resolution as well as a measure of the broad-band Lyman-Alpha emission (121.0 rim), all with less than 10 percent uncertainties. One of the biggest improvements of EVE over its predecessors is its ability to continuously measure the complete spectrum ever y 10 seconds, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This temporal coverage and cadence will greatly enhance the knowledge of the solar EUV variations during solar flares. This paper will present a comparison of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM), which can produce an estimated EUV spectrum at 10 seconds temporal resolution, to the preliminary flare observation results from SDO EVE. The discussion will focus on the short-term EUV flare variations and evolution.

  1. Comparisons of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) to Preliminary SDO EVE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) launched February 11,2010 from Kennedy Space Center and started normal science operations in April 2010. One of the instruments onboard SDO, the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE), will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1-105 nm with 0.1 nm spectral resolution as well as a measure of the broad-band Lyman-Alpha emission (121.6 nm), all with less than 10 percent uncertainties. One of the biggest improvements of EVE over its predecessors is its ability to continuously measure the complete spectrum every 10 seconds, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This temporal coverage and cadence will greatly enhance the knowledge of the solar EUV variations during solar flares. This paper will present a comparison of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM), which can produce an estimated EUV spectrum at 10 seconds temporal resolution, to the preliminary results from SDO EVE. The discussion will focus on the short-term EUV flare variations and evolution.

  2. CME Mass Estimates via EVE Coronal Dimmings for X-class Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Hugh S.; Hannah, Iain; Schrijver, Karel

    2014-06-01

    The EVE instrument on SDO detects post-flare dimmings, mainly in the spectral regions of Fe IX-XII in its MEGS-A range, which is available for most of the 29 X-class flares that have occurred between SDO launch and the end of April 2014. Based upon earlier X-ray observations we interpret these dimmings as the result of CME mass ejection from the low corona. We estimate the masses involved in these dimmings by deriving a best pre-event temperature and emission measure in the dimmed region from EVE, and a source volume from AIA images. The dimming for SOL2011-02-15, the first of these events, "peaked"at -3.4% in Fe IX in terms of the pre-event emission from the whole Sun, with smaller relative depletions in higher ionization states of Fe. The "maximum" occurred more than one hour after GOES peak. The dimming signature is generally cleanly measurable in the EVE/MEGS-A spectral samples at10 s cadence, with the dominant source of uncertainty stemming from the "sun-as-a-star" integrations; for example flare-related excess emission at a given wavelength tends to compensate for the dimming,and in this sense the mass estimate must be considered a lower limit. We address these uncertainties for the solar case by appealing to the AIA images, but for analogous processes in stellar flares one would not have this luxury.

  3. Comparisons of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) to Preliminary SDO EVE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) launched February 11,2010 from Kennedy Space Center and started normal science operations in April 2010. One of the instruments onboard SDO, the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE), will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1-105 nm with 0.1 nm spectral resolution as well as a measure of the broad-band Lyman-Alpha emission (121.6 nm), all with less than 10 percent uncertainties. One of the biggest improvements of EVE over its predecessors is its ability to continuously measure the complete spectrum every 10 seconds, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This temporal coverage and cadence will greatly enhance the knowledge of the solar EUV variations during solar flares. This paper will present a comparison of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM), which can produce an estimated EUV spectrum at 10 seconds temporal resolution, to the preliminary results from SDO EVE. The discussion will focus on the short-term EUV flare variations and evolution.

  4. Flare Comparisons of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) to Preliminary SDO EVE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlon, Phillip C.

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) launched February 11, 2010 from Kennedy Space Center and started normal science operations in April 2010. One of the instruments onboard SDO, the EUV Variability- Experiment (EVE), will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1-105 nm with 0.1 nm spectral resolution as well as a measure of the broad-band Lyman-Alpha emission (121.0 rim), all with less than 10 percent uncertainties. One of the biggest improvements of EVE over its predecessors is its ability to continuously measure the complete spectrum ever y 10 seconds, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This temporal coverage and cadence will greatly enhance the knowledge of the solar EUV variations during solar flares. This paper will present a comparison of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM), which can produce an estimated EUV spectrum at 10 seconds temporal resolution, to the preliminary flare observation results from SDO EVE. The discussion will focus on the short-term EUV flare variations and evolution.

  5. Structural genomics reveals EVE as a new ASCH/PUA-related domain

    PubMed Central

    Bertonati, Claudia; Punta, Marco; Fischer, Markus; Yachdav, Guy; Forouhar, Farhad; Zhou, Weihong; Kuzin, Alexander P.; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Abashidze, Mariam; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Kennedy, Michael A.; Cort, John R.; Belachew, Adam; Hunt, John F.; Tong, Liang; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Rost, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Summary We report on several proteins recently solved by structural genomics consortia, in particular by the Northeast Structural Genomics consortium (NESG). The proteins considered in this study differ substantially in their sequences but they share a similar structural core, characterized by a pseudobarrel five-stranded beta sheet. This core corresponds to the PUA domain-like architecture in the SCOP database. By connecting sequence information with structural knowledge, we characterize a new subgroup of these proteins that we propose to be distinctly different from previously described PUA domain-like domains such as PUA proper or ASCH. We refer to these newly defined domains as EVE. Although EVE may have retained the ability of PUA domains to bind RNA, the available experimental and computational data suggests that both the details of its molecular function and its cellular function differ from those of other PUA domain-like domains. This study of EVE and its relatives illustrates how the combination of structure and genomics creates new insights by connecting a cornucopia of structures that map to the same evolutionary potential. Primary sequence information alone would have not been sufficient to reveal these evolutionary links. PMID:19191354

  6. EVE (external variance estimation) increases statistical power for detecting differentially expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Wille, Anja; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bühlmann, Peter; Hennig, Lars

    2007-11-01

    Accurately identifying differentially expressed genes from microarray data is not a trivial task, partly because of poor variance estimates of gene expression signals. Here, after analyzing 380 replicated microarray experiments, we found that probesets have typical, distinct variances that can be estimated based on a large number of microarray experiments. These probeset-specific variances depend at least in part on the function of the probed gene: genes for ribosomal or structural proteins often have a small variance, while genes implicated in stress responses often have large variances. We used these variance estimates to develop a statistical test for differentially expressed genes called EVE (external variance estimation). The EVE algorithm performs better than the t-test and LIMMA on some real-world data, where external information from appropriate databases is available. Thus, EVE helps to maximize the information gained from a typical microarray experiment. Nonetheless, only a large number of replicates will guarantee to identify nearly all truly differentially expressed genes. However, our simulation studies suggest that even limited numbers of replicates will usually result in good coverage of strongly differentially expressed genes.

  7. Structural genomics reveals EVE as a new ASCH/PUA-related domain.

    PubMed

    Bertonati, Claudia; Punta, Marco; Fischer, Markus; Yachdav, Guy; Forouhar, Farhad; Zhou, Weihong; Kuzin, Alexander P; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Abashidze, Mariam; Ramelot, Theresa A; Kennedy, Michael A; Cort, John R; Belachew, Adam; Hunt, John F; Tong, Liang; Montelione, Gaetano T; Rost, Burkhard

    2009-05-15

    We report on several proteins recently solved by structural genomics consortia, in particular by the Northeast Structural Genomics consortium (NESG). The proteins considered in this study differ substantially in their sequences but they share a similar structural core, characterized by a pseudobarrel five-stranded beta sheet. This core corresponds to the PUA domain-like architecture in the SCOP database. By connecting sequence information with structural knowledge, we characterize a new subgroup of these proteins that we propose to be distinctly different from previously described PUA domain-like domains such as PUA proper or ASCH. We refer to these newly defined domains as EVE. Although EVE may have retained the ability of PUA domains to bind RNA, the available experimental and computational data suggests that both the details of its molecular function and its cellular function differ from those of other PUA domain-like domains. This study of EVE and its relatives illustrates how the combination of structure and genomics creates new insights by connecting a cornucopia of structures that map to the same evolutionary potential. Primary sequence information alone would have not been sufficient to reveal these evolutionary links.

  8. Measuring Solar Doppler Velocities in the He ii 30.38 nm Emission Using the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, P. C.

    2016-08-01

    The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory has provided unprecedented measurements of the solar EUV irradiance at high temporal cadence with good spectral resolution and range since May 2010. The main purpose of EVE was to connect the Sun to the Earth by providing measurements of the EUV irradiance as a driver for space weather and Living With a Star studies, but after launch the instrument has demonstrated the significance of its measurements in contributing to studies looking at the sources of solar variability for pure solar physics purposes. This paper expands upon previous findings that EVE can in fact measure wavelength shifts during solar eruptive events and therefore provide Doppler velocities for plasma at all temperatures throughout the solar atmosphere from the chromosphere to hot flaring temperatures. This process is not straightforward as EVE was not designed or optimized for these types of measurements. In this paper we describe the many detailed instrumental characterizations needed to eliminate the optical effects in order to provide an absolute baseline for the Doppler shift studies. An example is given of a solar eruption on 7 September 2011 (SOL2011-09-07), associated with an X1.2 flare, where EVE Doppler analysis shows plasma ejected from the Sun in the He ii 30.38 nm emission at a velocity of almost 120 km s^{-1} along the line-of-sight.

  9. Measuring Solar Doppler Velocities in the He II 30.38 nm Emission Using the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip Clyde

    2016-01-01

    The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory has provided unprecedented measurements of the solar EUV irradiance at high temporal cadence with good spectral resolution and range since May 2010. The main purpose of EVE was to connect the Sun to the Earth by providing measurements of the EUV irradianceas a driver for space weather and Living With a Star studies, but after launch the instrument has demonstrated the significance of its measurements in contributing to studies looking at the sources of solar variability for pure solar physics purposes. This paper expands upon previous findings that EVE can in fact measure wavelength shifts during solar eruptive events and therefore provide Doppler velocities for plasma at all temperatures throughout the solar atmosphere from the chromosphere to hot flaring temperatures. This process is not straightforward as EVE was not designed or optimized for these types of measurements. In this paper we describe the many detailed instrumental characterizations needed to eliminate the optical effects in order to provide an absolute baseline for the Doppler shift studies. An example is given of a solar eruption on 7 September 2011 (SOL2011-09-07), associated with an X1.2 flare, where EVE Doppler analysis shows plasma ejected from the Sun in the He II 30.38 nm emission at a velocity of almost 120 km s(exp -1) along the line-of-sight.

  10. Measuring Solar Doppler Velocities in the He II 30.38 nm Emission Using the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip Clyde

    2016-01-01

    The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory has provided unprecedented measurements of the solar EUV irradiance at high temporal cadence with good spectral resolution and range since May 2010. The main purpose of EVE was to connect the Sun to the Earth by providing measurements of the EUV irradianceas a driver for space weather and Living With a Star studies, but after launch the instrument has demonstrated the significance of its measurements in contributing to studies looking at the sources of solar variability for pure solar physics purposes. This paper expands upon previous findings that EVE can in fact measure wavelength shifts during solar eruptive events and therefore provide Doppler velocities for plasma at all temperatures throughout the solar atmosphere from the chromosphere to hot flaring temperatures. This process is not straightforward as EVE was not designed or optimized for these types of measurements. In this paper we describe the many detailed instrumental characterizations needed to eliminate the optical effects in order to provide an absolute baseline for the Doppler shift studies. An example is given of a solar eruption on 7 September 2011 (SOL2011-09-07), associated with an X1.2 flare, where EVE Doppler analysis shows plasma ejected from the Sun in the He II 30.38 nm emission at a velocity of almost 120 km s(exp -1) along the line-of-sight.

  11. The p-EVES study design and methodology: a randomised controlled trial to compare portable electronic vision enhancement systems (p-EVES) to optical magnifiers for near vision activities in visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John; Bambrick, Rachel; Dutton, Michelle; Harper, Robert; Ryan, Barbara; Tudor-Edwards, Rhiannon; Waterman, Heather; Whitaker, Chris; Dickinson, Chris

    2014-09-01

    To describe the study design and methodology for the p-EVES study, a trial designed to determine the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of portable Electronic Vision Enhancement System (p-EVES) devices and conventional optical low vision aids (LVAs) for near tasks in people with low vision. The p-EVES study is a prospective two-arm randomised cross-over trial to test the hypothesis that, in comparison to optical LVAs, p-EVES can be: used for longer duration; used for a wider range of tasks than a single optical LVA and/or enable users to do tasks that they were not able to do with optical LVAs; allow faster performance of instrumental activities of daily living; and allow faster reading. A total of 100 adult participants with visual impairment are currently being recruited from Manchester Royal Eye Hospital and randomised into either Group 1 (receiving the two interventions A and B in the order AB), or Group 2 (receiving the two interventions in the order BA). Intervention A is a 2-month period with conventional optical LVAs and a p-EVES device, and intervention B is a 2-month period with conventional optical LVAs only. The study adopts a mixed methods approach encompassing a broad range of outcome measures. The results will be obtained from the following primary outcome measures: Manchester Low Vision Questionnaire, capturing device 'usage' data (which devices are used, number of times, for what purposes, and for how long) and the MNRead test, measuring threshold print size, critical print size, and acuity reserve in addition to reading speed at high (≈90%) contrast. Results will also be obtained from a series of secondary outcome measures which include: assessment of timed instrumental activities of daily living and a 'near vision' visual functioning questionnaire. A companion qualitative study will permit comparison of results on how, where, and under what circumstances, p-EVES devices and LVAs are used in daily life. A health economic

  12. ["Should the staff's attitude towards the patients remain unchanged, I will not guarantee anything." Protest masculinity and coping of "rebellious patients" at the Heidelberg University Psychiatric Hospital on the eve of deinstitutionalization].

    PubMed

    Schwamm, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the illness experiences of male patients from the Heidelberg University Psychiatric Hospital during the protests against Psychiatry in the year 1973. Protest is one of the most important expressions of masculinity in socially disadvantaged men, such as men with mental disorders. The analysis of 100 medical records shows that some patients tried to construct themselves as men in a way that was explicitly motivated by antipsychiatric ideas: They questioned psychiatric authority, behaved "sexually inappropriate", or used drugs. On the eve of psychiatric reform in West Germany those patients were well aware that the alternative--complying with the treatment--would put them at considerable risk. In addition to the usual inference of hegemonic or normative masculinities as risk-factors, the behavior of those ,,rebellious patients" has to be interpreted as individual coping strategies.

  13. Ionospheric model-observation comparisons: E layer at Arecibo Incorporation of SDO-EVE solar irradiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, Jan J.; Jensen, Joseph B.; David, Michael; Schunk, Robert W.; Woods, Tom; Eparvier, Frank; Sulzer, Michael P.; Gonzalez, Sixto A.; Eccles, J. Vincent

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluates how the new irradiance observations from the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) can, with its high spectral resolution and 10 s cadence, improve the modeling of the E region. To demonstrate this a campaign combining EVE observations with that of the NSF Arecibo incoherent scatter radar (ISR) was conducted. The ISR provides E region electron density observations with high-altitude resolution, 300 m, and absolute densities using the plasma line technique. Two independent ionospheric models were used, the Utah State University Time-Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM) and Space Environment Corporation's Data-Driven D Region (DDDR) model. Each used the same EVE irradiance spectrum binned at 1 nm resolution from 0.1 to 106 nm. At the E region peak the modeled TDIM density is 20% lower and that of the DDDR is 6% higher than observed. These differences could correspond to a 36% lower (TDIM) and 12% higher (DDDR) production rate if the differences were entirely attributed to the solar irradiance source. The detailed profile shapes that included the E region altitude and that of the valley region were only qualitatively similar to observations. Differences on the order of a neutral-scale height were present. Neither model captured a distinct dawn to dusk tilt in the E region peak altitude. A model sensitivity study demonstrated how future improved spectral resolution of the 0.1 to 7 nm irradiance could account for some of these model shortcomings although other relevant processes are also poorly modeled.

  14. 76 FR 81371 - Safety Zone; San Francisco New Year's Eve Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ...The Coast Guard will enforce the safety zone for the annual San Francisco New Year's Eve Fireworks Display in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. During the enforcement period, unauthorized persons or vessels are prohibited from entering into, transiting through, or anchoring in the safety zone, unless authorized by the Patrol Commander (PATCOM).

  15. Primary and secondary coronary heart disease prevention using statins: is targeting Adam or Eve equally effective?

    PubMed

    Kakafika, Anna I; Athyros, Vasilios G; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Karagiannis, Asterios; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2008-06-01

    Women differ from men in terms of their cardiovascular disease risk. The existing data suggest that primary cardiovascular disease prevention treatment with a statin could be cost effective for women and men with a high cardiovascular disease risk. In secondary cardiovascular disease prevention both men and women seem to benefit equally from statin treatment. However, the relatively small number of women included in several statin trials has limited the evidence available. With regard to the question of whether Eve is becoming Adam, the answer is not yet: we need more evidence!

  16. Behavioral health services in separate CHIP programs on the eve of parity.

    PubMed

    Garfield, Rachel L; Beardslee, William R; Greenfield, Shelly F; Meara, Ellen

    2012-05-01

    The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) plays a vital role in financing behavioral health services for low-income children. This study examines behavioral health benefit design and management in separate CHIP programs on the eve of federal requirements for behavioral health parity. Even before parity implementation, many state CHIP programs did not impose service limits or cost sharing for behavioral health benefits. However, a substantial share of states imposed limits or cost sharing that might hinder access to care. The majority of states use managed care to administer behavioral health benefits. It is important to monitor how states adapt their programs to comply with parity.

  17. EUV variability experiment (EVE); multiple EUV grating spectrographs (MEGS), radiometric calibrations and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Hock, Rachel A.; Crotser, David A.; Eparvier, Francis G.; Furst, Mitch; Triplett, Matthew A.; Woodraska, Donald L.; Woods, Thomas N.

    2007-09-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2009, incorporates a suite of instruments including the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE). Two channels of EVE, the Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph (MEGS) A and B channels use concave reflection gratings to image solar spectra onto CCDs to measure the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance from 5 to 105 nm. MEGS provides these spectra at 0.1nm spectral resolution every 10 seconds with an absolute accuracy of better than 25% over the SDO 5-year mission. The calibration of the MEGS channels in order to convert the instrument counts in to physical units of W/m2/nm was performed at the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility III (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Although the final post-environmental calibrations have yet to be performed, preliminary results from the pre-environmental calibrations show very good agreement with the theoretical optical design given by Crotser et al. Further analysis is still needed in regards to the higher order contributions to determine the final first order QT for all channels, but two techniques are currently being analyzed and show promising results.

  18. Nemo phosphorylates Even-skipped and promotes Eve-mediated repression of odd-skipped in even parasegments during Drosophila embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Braid, Lorena R; Lee, Wendy; Uetrecht, Andrea C; Swarup, Sharan; Papaianni, Gina; Heiler, Amanda; Verheyen, Esther M

    2010-07-01

    Drosophila nemo (nmo) and other Nemo-like kinase family members (Nlks) are well-established key regulators of numerous conserved signaling pathways, such as Wg and BMP. nmo mutants display pleiotropic defects at different developmental stages, including the embryo. In this study we describe a detailed characterization of embryonic cuticle patterning defects associated with maternal loss of nmo. nmo mutant embryos consistently show segmentation defects, most frequently fusions of pairs of denticle belts in alternating segments. These phenotypes are reminiscent of those associated with defects in pair-rule patterning. Genetic interaction studies demonstrate that Nmo promotes Even-skipped (Eve) activity and is required to promote the expression of the Eve target, engrailed (en), in even numbered parasegments. We find that Nmo regulates a subset of Eve activities by stimulating Eve-mediated suppression of the odd-skipped (odd) repressor. Furthermore, we isolate Nmo in a protein complex with Eve and show that Nmo phosphorylates Eve in in vitro kinase assays. These studies reveal a novel role for the Nmo kinase in embryonic pattern formation through its regulation of the homeodomain-containing transcription factor Eve. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Variable RNA expression from recently acquired, endogenous viral elements (EVE) of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Utari, Heny Budi; Soowannayan, Chumporn; Flegel, Timothy W; Whityachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Kruatrachue, Maleeya

    2017-11-01

    The viral accommodation hypothesis proposes that endogenous viral elements (EVE) from both RNA and DNA viruses are being continually integrated into the shrimp genome by natural host processes and that they can result in tolerance to viral infection by fortuitous production of antisense, immunospecific RNA (imRNA). Thus, we hypothesized that previously reported microarray results for the presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) open reading frames (ORFs) formerly called 151, 366 and 427 in a domesticated giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) breeding stock might have represented expression from EVE, since the stock had shown uninterrupted freedom from white spot disease (WSD) for many generations. To test this hypothesis, 128 specimens from a current stock generation were confirmed for freedom from WSSV infection using two nested PCR detection methods. Subsequent nested-PCR testing revealed 33/128 specimens (26%) positive for at least one of the ORF at very high sequence identity (95-99%) to extant WSSV. Positive results for ORF 366 (now known to be a fragment of the WSSV capsid protein gene) dominated (28/33 = 84.8%), so 9 arbitrarily selected 366-positive specimens were tested by strand-specific, nested RT-PCR using DNase-treated RNA templates. This revealed variable RNA expression in individual shrimp including no RNA transcripts (n = 1), sense transcripts only (n = 1), antisense transcripts only (n = 2) or transcripts of both sense (n = 5). The latter 7 expression products indicated specimens producing putative imRNA. The variable types and numbers of the EVE and the variable RNA expression (including potential imRNA) support predictions of the viral accommodation hypothesis that EVE are randomly produced and expressed. Positive nested PCR test results for EVE of ORF 366 using DNA templates derived from shrimp sperm (germ cells), indicated that they were heritable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. dbx mediates neuronal specification and differentiation through cross-repressive, lineage-specific interactions with eve and hb9.

    PubMed

    Lacin, Haluk; Zhu, Yi; Wilson, Beth A; Skeath, James B

    2009-10-01

    Individual neurons adopt and maintain defined morphological and physiological phenotypes as a result of the expression of specific combinations of transcription factors. In particular, homeodomain-containing transcription factors play key roles in determining neuronal subtype identity in flies and vertebrates. dbx belongs to the highly divergent H2.0 family of homeobox genes. In vertebrates, Dbx1 and Dbx2 promote the development of a subset of interneurons, some of which help mediate left-right coordination of locomotor activity. Here, we identify and show that the single Drosophila ortholog of Dbx1/2 contributes to the development of specific subsets of interneurons via cross-repressive, lineage-specific interactions with the motoneuron-promoting factors eve and hb9 (exex). dbx is expressed primarily in interneurons of the embryonic, larval and adult central nervous system, and these interneurons tend to extend short axons and be GABAergic. Interestingly, many Dbx(+) interneurons share a sibling relationship with Eve(+) or Hb9(+) motoneurons. The non-overlapping expression of dbx and eve, or dbx and hb9, within pairs of sibling neurons is initially established as a result of Notch/Numb-mediated asymmetric divisions. Cross-repressive interactions between dbx and eve, and dbx and hb9, then help maintain the distinct expression profiles of these genes in their respective pairs of sibling neurons. Strict maintenance of the mutually exclusive expression of dbx relative to that of eve and hb9 in sibling neurons is crucial for proper neuronal specification, as misexpression of dbx in motoneurons dramatically hinders motor axon outgrowth.

  1. Illness as Teacher: Learning from Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    This article is a conceptual exploration into the value of illness, bodies and embodied practice in teacher education. It draws on my reflections and practitioner accounts of poor health to investigate the potential to learn from illness. I position myself in this discussion as a non-tenured academic who experiences the challenges of her uncertain…

  2. 8/9 February 2012 SDO-EVE and Arecibo ISR Ionospheric Capaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, J. J.; David, M.; Jensen, J.; Schunk, R. W.; Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F.; Sulzer, M. P.; Gonzalez, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA SDO-EVE solar irradiance observations provide unprecedented high resolution in both time cadence and wavelength. The irradiance wavelengths of the highest importance in driving the altitude structure of the E- and F1-regions lie in two bands, a short wavelength XUV, 2 to 20 nm, and an EUV band from about 80 to 103 nm. Because of the low altitude of the E-region, 100-120 km, only remote sensing techniques are able to observe this region. Two main observational techniques are ionosondes and incoherent scatter radars (ISR). However, only the ISR can distinguish the critical valley region between the E- and F1-regions. A first EVE Arecibo ISR campaign was held on 8/9 February 2012. During daylight hours in the Puerto Rico sector the NSF Arecibo ISR operated in a special high resolution altitude mode through the ionosphere's E- and F1-regions. A total of 22 altitude profiles were obtained. The SDO-EVE instrument also operated its full instrument complement during these daylight hours. In terms of geomagnetic activity and solar dynamics, the entire period was very quiet. This study uses the USU Time Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM) to explore the challenges of modeling the E- and F1-region under these quiet conditions. The full irradiance, with excellent wavelength resolution, defines the major input to the TDIM. The Arecibo ISR observations provide the ground truth with both excellent plasma line electron density calibration and better than 1 km altitude resolution. The major objective of this first study is to determine both the sensitivity of the model to various other drivers such as photoelectron secondary ionization, [NO], neutral winds, and the neutral atmosphere as represented by a standard thermosphere model, i.e. MSIS86 and determine what is a necessary ISR observation altitude resolution for the E- and F1-region studies. Additional complications are observed in this dataset including a descending layer and also occurrence of sporadic E. Neither of

  3. Illness anxiety disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001236.htm Illness anxiety disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Illness anxiety disorder (IAD) is a preoccupation that physical symptoms ...

  4. Help for Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... If you or someone you know has a mental illness, there are ways to get help. Use these ... Support Alliance Mental Health America National Alliance on Mental Illness University or medical school-affiliated programs may offer ...

  5. Polymer-based blood vessel models with micro-temperature sensors in EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizoshiri, Mizue; Ito, Yasuaki; Hayakawa, Takeshi; Maruyama, Hisataka; Sakurai, Junpei; Ikeda, Seiichi; Arai, Fumihito; Hata, Seiichi

    2017-04-01

    Cu-based micro-temperature sensors were directly fabricated on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) blood vessel models in EVE using a combined process of spray coating and femtosecond laser reduction of CuO nanoparticles. CuO nanoparticle solution coated on a PDMS blood vessel model are thermally reduced and sintered by focused femtosecond laser pulses in atmosphere to write the sensors. After removing the non-irradiated CuO nanoparticles, Cu-based microtemperature sensors are formed. The sensors are thermistor-type ones whose temperature dependences of the resistance are used for measuring temperature inside the blood vessel model. This fabrication technique is useful for direct-writing of Cu-based microsensors and actuators on arbitrary nonplanar substrates.

  6. Plant protection in Poland on the eve of obligatory integrated pest management implementation.

    PubMed

    Matyjaszczyk, Ewa

    2013-09-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) will be obligatory in all European Union (EU) member states from January 1, 2014. Successful IPM implementation will depend not only on the sound guidelines and goodwill of the farmers, but also on conditions in farmers' environment. This paper presents the most important factors influencing IPM implementation in Poland. The most favorable aspects on the eve of obligatory IPM implementation are the relatively low use of plant protection products and popularity of some non-chemical methods of pest control, such as sowing cereal in mixture. The most important challenges are the improvement of advisory service and the crop structure with almost three-quarters of sown area covered by cereals. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Thermodynamic Spectrum of Solar Flares Based on SDO/EVE Observations: Techniques and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuming; Zhou, Zhenjun; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Kai; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-03-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) provides rich information on the thermodynamic processes of solar activities, particularly on solar flares. Here, we develop a method to construct thermodynamic spectrum (TDS) charts based on the EVE spectral lines. This tool could potentially be useful for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) astronomy to learn about the eruptive activities on distant astronomical objects. Through several cases, we illustrate what we can learn from the TDS charts. Furthermore, we apply the TDS method to 74 flares equal to or greater than the M5.0 class, and reach the following statistical results. First, EUV peaks are always behind the soft X-ray (SXR) peaks and stronger flares tend to have faster cooling rates. There is a power-law correlation between the peak delay times and the cooling rates, suggesting a coherent cooling process of flares from SXR to EUV emissions. Second, there are two distinct temperature drift patterns, called Type I and Type II. For Type I flares, the enhanced emission drifts from high to low temperature like a quadrilateral, whereas for Type II flares the drift pattern looks like a triangle. Statistical analysis suggests that Type II flares are more impulsive than Type I flares. Third, for late-phase flares, the peak intensity ratio of the late phase to the main phase is roughly correlated with the flare class, and the flares with a strong late phase are all confined. We believe that the re-deposition of the energy carried by a flux rope, which unsuccessfully erupts out, into thermal emissions is responsible for the strong late phase found in a confined flare. Furthermore, we show the signatures of the flare thermodynamic process in the chromosphere and transition region in the TDS charts. These results provide new clues to advance our understanding of the thermodynamic processes of solar flares and associated solar eruptions, e.g., coronal mass ejections.

  8. EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) in Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE): Algorithms and Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, L.; Judge, D.; Wieman, S.; Woods, T.; Jones, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP) is one of five channels of the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The ESP channel design is based on a highly stable diffraction transmission grating and is an advanced version of the Solar Extreme ultraviolet Monitor (SEM), which has been successfully observing solar irradiance onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) since December 1995. ESP is designed to measure solar Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) irradiance in four first-order bands of the diffraction grating centered around 19 nm, 25 nm, 30 nm, and 36 nm, and in a soft X-ray band from 0.1 to 7.0 nm in the zeroth-order of the grating. Each band’s detector system converts the photo-current into a count rate (frequency). The count rates are integrated over 0.25-second increments and transmitted to the EVE Science and Operations Center for data processing. An algorithm for converting the measured count rates into solar irradiance and the ESP calibration parameters are described. The ESP pre-flight calibration was performed at the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Calibration parameters were used to calculate absolute solar irradiance from the sounding-rocket flight measurements on 14 April 2008. These irradiances for the ESP bands closely match the irradiance determined for two other EUV channels flown simultaneously: EVE’s Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph (MEGS) and SOHO’s Charge, Element and Isotope Analysis System/ Solar EUV Monitor (CELIAS/SEM).

  9. Thermodynamic Spectrum of Solar Flares Based on SDO/EVE Observations: Techniques and First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yuming; Zhou, Zhenjun; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Kai; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) provides rich information on the thermodynamic processes of solar activities, particularly on solar flares. Here, we develop a method to construct thermodynamic spectrum (TDS) charts based on the EVE spectral lines. This tool could potentially be useful for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) astronomy to learn about the eruptive activities on distant astronomical objects. Through several cases, we illustrate what we can learn from the TDS charts. Furthermore, we apply the TDS method to 74 flares equal to or greater than the M5.0 class, and reach the following statistical results. First, EUV peaks are always behind the soft X-ray (SXR) peaks and stronger flares tend to have faster cooling rates. There is a power-law correlation between the peak delay times and the cooling rates, suggesting a coherent cooling process of flares from SXR to EUV emissions. Second, there are two distinct temperature drift patterns, called Type I and Type II. For Type I flares, the enhanced emission drifts from high to low temperature like a quadrilateral, whereas for Type II flares the drift pattern looks like a triangle. Statistical analysis suggests that Type II flares are more impulsive than Type I flares. Third, for late-phase flares, the peak intensity ratio of the late phase to the main phase is roughly correlated with the flare class, and the flares with a strong late phase are all confined. We believe that the re-deposition of the energy carried by a flux rope, which unsuccessfully erupts out, into thermal emissions is responsible for the strong late phase found in a confined flare. Furthermore, we show the signatures of the flare thermodynamic process in the chromosphere and transition region in the TDS charts. These results provide new clues to advance our understanding of the thermodynamic processes of solar flares and associated solar eruptions, e.g., coronal mass ejections.

  10. Korean epithelial ovarian cancer study (Ko-EVE): protocols and interim report.

    PubMed

    Ma, Seung Hyun; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kim, Tae-Joong; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Jae Weon; Kang, Sokbom; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Sue K

    2012-01-01

    There have been few studies of Asian ovarian cancer and benign tumors. The primary aim of this paper was to report the protocol of the Ko-EVE study to examine epidemiological and molecular factors for ovarian cancer and benign neoplasms and to ascertain the major risk factors for ovarian cancer control in Korea. This case-control study covers incident epithelial ovarian cancers and benign neoplasms, four major centers participating in enrolling incident cases and 3 hospitals enrolling healthy controls among health examinees. Standardized questionnaires were administered by trained interviewers, including sections on socio-demographics characteristics, past medical history, medication usage, family history, lifetime consumption of alcohol and tobacco, diet, physical activity, and reproductive factors for women. Various biological specimens were collected in the biorepository according to the standardized protocol. Annual follow-up for cancer cases and follow-up at the 1st year for benign tumor cases are performing to evaluate treatment effect and progression. Passive follow to see long-term survival will be conducting using record linkage with national data. The total number recruited in 2010-2011 was 246 epithelial ovarian cancer cases, 362 benign epithelial tumors and 345 controls. We are planning to collect subjects for at least 1,500 sets of ovarian cancer, 2,000 benign tumors and 1,500 controls till 2018. The Ko-EVE will provide unique and important data to probe the etiology and natural history of Korean epithelial ovarian cancer. It will be continued by genomic and proteomic epidemiological analyses and future intervention studies for the prevention of ovarian cancer among Koreans.

  11. Coping with Chronic Illness

    MedlinePlus

    Having a long-term, or chronic, illness can disrupt your life in many ways. You may often be tired and in pain. Your illness might affect your ... able to work, causing financial problems. For children, chronic illnesses can be frightening, because they may not ...

  12. Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Flare Observations and Findings from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Mason, James; Eparvier, Francis; Jones, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    There have been more than six thousand flares observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) since it launched in February 2010. The SDO mission is ideal for studying flares with 24/7 operations from its geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and with some 7000 TeraBytes of data taken so far. These data include more than 100,000,000 images of coronal full-disk images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Dopplergrams and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and over 15,000,000 spectra of the solar EUV irradiance from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE). This presentation will focus primarily on the EVE flare observations and a couple key flare findings involving both AIA and EVE observations. One of these findings includes the discovery of the EUV late phase that occur in about 15% of flares. The EUV late phase is the brightening of warm coronal emissions in the EUV that starts much later after the main X-ray bright phase, lasts up to several hours, and can emit more total energy than the EUV radiation during the X-ray phase. The combination of EVE and AIA observations have revealed that the cause for the EUV late phase is a second set of post-flare coronal loops that form much higher than the primary post-flare loops near the source of the flare. This second set of loops is much longer and thus has a much slower cooling rate; consequently, the radiation from these loops appears much later after the main X-ray flare phase. Another key finding is that the EVE solar EUV irradiance observations in cool coronal emissions have dimming during and following eruptive flare events, which is often associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Furthermore, the magnitude of the EVE coronal dimming is consistent with the amount of mass lost, as observed near the flaring region by AIA. This result could be important for space weather operations because EVE’s near-realtime data products of its on-disk (Earth-facing) flare observations may provide an

  13. Solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flare observations and findings from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Eparvier, Francis G.; Mason, James P.

    New solar soft X-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance observations from NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) provide full coverage from 0.1 to 106 nm and continuously at a cadence of 10 seconds for spectra at 0.1 nm resolution. These observations during flares can usually be decomposed into four distinct characteristics: impulsive phase, gradual phase, coronal dimming, and EUV late phase. Over 6000 flares have been observed during the SDO mission; some flares show all four phases, and some only show the gradual phase. The focus is on the newer results about the EUV late phase and coronal dimming and its relationship to coronal mass ejections (CMEs). These EVE flare measurements are based on observing the sun-as-a-star, so these results could exemplify stellar flares. Of particular interest is that new coronal dimming measurements of stars could be used to estimate mass and velocity of stellar CMEs.

  14. 77 FR 75557 - Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Fireworks Displays Within the Captain of the Port Miami Zone, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing three temporary safety zones during New Year's Eve fireworks displays on certain navigable waterways in Biscayne Bay and Palm Beach, Florida. These safety zones are necessary to protect the public from the hazards associated with launching fireworks over navigable waters of the United States. Persons and vessels are prohibited from entering, transiting through, anchoring in, or remaining within any of the three safety zones unless authorized by the Captain of the Port Miami or a designated representative.

  15. Extent, nature and hospital costs of fireworks-related injuries during the Wednesday Eve festival in Iran.

    PubMed

    Alinia, Siros; Rezaei, Satar; Daroudi, Rajabali; Hadadi, Mashyaneh; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Fireworks are commonly used in local and national celebrations. The aim of this study is to explore the extent, nature and hospital costs of injuries related to the Persian Wednesday Eve festival in Iran. Data for injuries caused by fireworks during the 2009 Persian Wednesday Eve festival were collected from the national Ministry of Health database. Injuries were divided into nine groups and the average and total hospital costs were estimated for each group. The cost of care for patients with burns was estimated by reviewing a sample of 100 patients randomly selected from a large burn center in Tehran. Other costs were estimated by conducting semi structured interviews with expert managers at two large government hospitals. 1817 people were injured by fireworks during the 2009 Wednesday Eve festival. The most frequently injured sites were the hand (43.3%), eye (24.5%) and face (13.2%), and the most common types of injury were burns (39.9%), contusions/abrasions (24.6%) and lacerations (12.7%). The mean length of hospital stay was 8.15 days for patients with burns, 10.7 days for those with amputations, and 3 days for those with other types of injury. The total hospital cost of injuries was US$ 284 000 and the average cost per injury was US$ 156. The total hospital cost of patients with amputations was US$ 48 598. Most of the costs were related to burns (56.6%) followed by amputations (12.2%). Injuries related to the Persian Wednesday Eve festival are common and lead to extensive morbidity and medical costs. © 2013 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  16. OBSERVATIONS OF ENHANCED EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET CONTINUA DURING AN X-CLASS SOLAR FLARE USING SDO/EVE

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Woods, Thomas N.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Kowalski, Adam F.

    2012-03-20

    Observations of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from an X-class solar flare that occurred on 2011 February 15 at 01:44 UT are presented, obtained using the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The complete EVE spectral range covers the free-bound continua of H I (Lyman continuum), He I, and He II, with recombination edges at 91.2, 50.4, and 22.8 nm, respectively. By fitting the wavelength ranges blueward of each recombination edge with an exponential function, light curves of each of the integrated continua were generated over the course of the flare, as was emission from the free-free continuum (6.5-37 nm). The He II 30.4 nm and Ly{alpha} 121.6 nm lines, and soft X-ray (SXR; 0.1-0.8 nm) emission from GOES are also included for comparison. Each free-bound continuum was found to have a rapid rise phase at the flare onset similar to that seen in the 25-50 keV light curves from RHESSI, suggesting that they were formed by recombination with free electrons in the chromosphere. However, the free-free emission exhibited a slower rise phase seen also in the SXR emission from GOES, implying a predominantly coronal origin. By integrating over the entire flare the total energy emitted via each process was determined. We find that the flare energy in the EVE spectral range amounts to at most a few percent of the total flare energy, but EVE gives us a first comprehensive look at these diagnostically important continuum components.

  17. Extent, nature and hospital costs of fireworks-related injuries during the Wednesday Eve Festival in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Alinia, Siros; Rezaei, Satar; Daroudi, Rajabali; Hadadi, Mashyaneh; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Fireworks are commonly used in local and national celebrations. The aim of this study is to explore the extent, nature and hospital costs of injuries related to the Persian Wednesday Eve festival in Iran. Methods: Data for injuries caused by fireworks during the 2009 Persian Wednesday Eve festival were collected from the national Ministry of Health database. Injuries were divided into nine groups and the average and total hospital costs were estimated for each group. The cost of care for patients with burns was estimated by reviewing a sample of 100 patients randomly selected from a large burn center in Tehran. Other costs were estimated by conducting semi structured interviews with expert managers at two large government hospitals. Results: 1817 people were injured by fireworks during the 2009 Wednesday Eve festival. The most frequently injured sites were the hand (43.3%), eye (24.5%) and face (13.2%), and the most common types of injury were burns (39.9%), contusions/abrasions (24.6%) and lacerations (12.7%). The mean length of hospital stay was 8.15 days for patients with burns, 10.7 days for those with amputations, and 3 days for those with other types of injury. The total hospital cost of injuries was US$ 284 000 and the average cost per injury was US$ 156. The total hospital cost of patients with amputations was US$ 48 598. Most of the costs were related to burns (56.6%) followed by amputations (12.2%). Conclusions: Injuries related to the Persian Wednesday Eve festival are common and lead to extensive morbidity and medical costs. PMID:21964162

  18. Epidemiological voice health map of the teaching population of Granollers (Barcelona) developed from the EVES questionnaire and the VHI.

    PubMed

    Godall, Pere; Gassull, Cecília; Godoy, Anna; Amador, Miquel

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research project was to carry out an epidemiological study on the voice health of the teaching population in Granollers (Barcelona) using the EVES questionnaire and to relate the collected data to the VHI results. The study sample consisted of 233 teachers from Granollers (Barcelona). The EVES questionnaire, which includes the VHI-10, was conducted online. A high percentage of the teachers consulted suffered voice disorders, which ranged from minor to more serious cases. In regard to the data obtained using the VHI, in 28.77% of the cases there was a moderate or a serious perception of voice problems. Out of these cases only one person, who had a moderate perception of their problem, was undergoing voice therapy with a speech therapist. There are three questions in the EVES questionnaire that can efficiently indicate the existence of a voice disorder in a straightforward manner, and the results for these were similar to those recorded for the VHI group of questions. Therefore, it may be argued that questions that refer to the perception of the degree of pleasantness of one's own voice should be included, because they would provide a useful way to indicate whether there is a voice problem at a preliminary screening stage.

  19. THERMODYNAMIC SPECTRUM OF SOLAR FLARES BASED ON SDO/EVE OBSERVATIONS: TECHNIQUES AND FIRST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuming; Zhou, Zhenjun; Liu, Kai; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Zhang, Jie; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-03-15

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) provides rich information on the thermodynamic processes of solar activities, particularly on solar flares. Here, we develop a method to construct thermodynamic spectrum (TDS) charts based on the EVE spectral lines. This tool could potentially be useful for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) astronomy to learn about the eruptive activities on distant astronomical objects. Through several cases, we illustrate what we can learn from the TDS charts. Furthermore, we apply the TDS method to 74 flares equal to or greater than the M5.0 class, and reach the following statistical results. First, EUV peaks are always behind the soft X-ray (SXR) peaks and stronger flares tend to have faster cooling rates. There is a power-law correlation between the peak delay times and the cooling rates, suggesting a coherent cooling process of flares from SXR to EUV emissions. Second, there are two distinct temperature drift patterns, called Type I and Type II. For Type I flares, the enhanced emission drifts from high to low temperature like a quadrilateral, whereas for Type II flares the drift pattern looks like a triangle. Statistical analysis suggests that Type II flares are more impulsive than Type I flares. Third, for late-phase flares, the peak intensity ratio of the late phase to the main phase is roughly correlated with the flare class, and the flares with a strong late phase are all confined. We believe that the re-deposition of the energy carried by a flux rope, which unsuccessfully erupts out, into thermal emissions is responsible for the strong late phase found in a confined flare. Furthermore, we show the signatures of the flare thermodynamic process in the chromosphere and transition region in the TDS charts. These results provide new clues to advance our understanding of the thermodynamic processes of solar flares and associated solar eruptions, e.g., coronal mass ejections.

  20. Umbilical cord gases in relation to the neonatal condition: the EveREst plot.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Antoniya; Moulden, Mary; Redman, Christopher W G

    2013-06-01

    To validate umbilical arterial and venous pH and base deficit (pH(UA), pH(UV), BD(UA), and BD(UV), respectively), as well as venous-arterial pH differences, as measures of perinatal condition at birth (in relation to emergency intervention, resuscitation, facial mask, low Apgar, seizures, other cerebral problems or death); to investigate whether BD(UA) or pH(UA) better measures perinatal risk. A novel method (Event Rate Estimate (EveREst) plots) was used to analyze cord blood gases and perinatal outcomes of 34,510 term singleton deliveries: cord blood gas values were grouped into exclusive quantiles (containing equal proportions of cases); the quantiles were plotted against per cent rates (event rates) for perinatal outcomes; the event rates for the different blood gases were compared using the χ² test for difference of proportions. Low pH(UA) predicts poor perinatal outcome better than or comparably to high BD(UA): pH(UA) is significantly better than BD(UA) for predicting low Apgar, resuscitation and facial mask (p<0.001, p<0.05, and p<0.001, respectively). For seizures and other cerebral problems, low pH(UA) is better than high BD(UA) but the difference is not statistically significant. For death, both measures perform equally well. Interventions for the specific reason of "fetal distress" increased as pH(UA) decreased but only where electronic fetal monitoring was used. In acidemic neonates (pH(UA) ≤ 7.05, n=1752), significantly more cord prolapses and placenta abruptions were associated with large and small venous-arterial pH difference (pH(VAD)) respectively (p<0.01). EveREst plots display clearly the diagnostic value of cord gases. They allow for the easy identification of background rates and increases above background, thresholds of interest, and comparison of the blood gas measures. Overall pH(UA) is the best umbilical blood measure of perinatal outcome. BD(UA) is comparable or inferior. Extremes of pH(VAD) (large or small) identify higher proportions

  1. ABVD plus radiotherapy versus EVE plus radiotherapy in unfavorable stage IA and IIA Hodgkin's lymphoma: results from an Intergruppo Italiano Linfomi randomized study.

    PubMed

    Pavone, V; Ricardi, U; Luminari, S; Gobbi, P; Federico, M; Baldini, L; Iannitto, E; Ucci, G; Marcheselli, L; Orsucci, L; Angelucci, E; Liberati, M; Gavarotti, P; Levis, A

    2008-04-01

    In 1997, the Intergruppo Italiano Linfomi started a randomized trial to evaluate, in unfavorable stage IA and IIA Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) patients, the efficacy and toxicity of the low toxic epirubicin, vinblastine and etoposide (EVE) regimen followed by involved field radiotherapy in comparison to the gold standard doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD) regimen followed by the same radiotherapy program. Patients should be younger than 65 years with unfavorable stage IA and IIA HL (i.e. stage IA or IIA with bulky disease and/or subdiaphragmatic disease, erythrocyte sedimentation rate higher than 40, extranodal (E) involvement, hilar involvement and more than three involved lymph node areas). Ninety-two patients were allocated to the ABVD arm and 89 to the EVE arm. Complete remission (CR) rates at the end of treatment program [chemotherapy (CT) + RT] were 93% and 92% for ABVD and EVE arms, respectively (P = NS). The 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) rate was 95% for ABVD and 78% for EVE (P < 0.05). As a consequence of the different relapse rate, the 5-year failure-free survival (FFS) rate was significantly better for ABVD (90%) than for EVE (73%) arm (P < 0.05). No differences in terms of overall survival (OS) were observed for the two study arms. In unfavorable stage IA and IIA HL patients, no differences were observed between ABVD and EVE arms in terms of CR rate and OS. EVE CT, however, was significantly worse than ABVD in terms of RFS and FFS and cannot be recommended as initial treatment for HL.

  2. BioEve Search: A Novel Framework to Facilitate Interactive Literature Search

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Toufeeq; Davulcu, Hasan; Tikves, Sukru; Nair, Radhika; Zhao, Zhongming

    2012-01-01

    Background. Recent advances in computational and biological methods in last two decades have remarkably changed the scale of biomedical research and with it began the unprecedented growth in both the production of biomedical data and amount of published literature discussing it. An automated extraction system coupled with a cognitive search and navigation service over these document collections would not only save time and effort, but also pave the way to discover hitherto unknown information implicitly conveyed in the texts. Results. We developed a novel framework (named “BioEve”) that seamlessly integrates Faceted Search (Information Retrieval) with Information Extraction module to provide an interactive search experience for the researchers in life sciences. It enables guided step-by-step search query refinement, by suggesting concepts and entities (like genes, drugs, and diseases) to quickly filter and modify search direction, and thereby facilitating an enriched paradigm where user can discover related concepts and keywords to search while information seeking. Conclusions. The BioEve Search framework makes it easier to enable scalable interactive search over large collection of textual articles and to discover knowledge hidden in thousands of biomedical literature articles with ease. PMID:22693501

  3. Spatial and temporal distributions of contaminants emitted because of Chinese New Year's Eve celebrations in Wuhan.

    PubMed

    Han, Ge; Gong, Wei; Quan, J H; Li, Jun; Zhang, Miao

    2014-04-01

    Activities involving firecrackers and fireworks on Chinese New Year's Eve (NYE) are common in Chinese culture. Previous studies revealed that such human activities significantly influence the ambient air quality and negatively impact human health. However, both the academia and the public lack a deep understanding of the extent and consequences of such human-induced air pollution. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effects of these Spring Festival celebrations on ambient air quality at a large spatial scale and a fine temporal resolution. Data from ten monitoring stations distributed around Wuhan and a Lidar system provide a good opportunity to gain insight into spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants due to the NYE celebrations. Dramatic increases in PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ mass concentrations due to NYE celebrations were observed in this study. Moreover, the ratio of residential to total area was found to be a significant factor in predicting the geographic distributions of contaminants. The vertical distribution of such human-induced and culture-related contaminants was first shown using a Mie Lidar. Contaminants emitted by firecrackers on the ground spread to a distance of over 450 m in the atmosphere. The vertical influence began to fade two hours after celebrations because of dry deposition. Moreover, it took over 15 hours for the contaminant levels to return to pre-celebration levels. Finally, estimations of PM₂.₅ emissions from firecrackers in Wuhan were 39.57 and 43.51 tons, based on regression and time series analyses, respectively.

  4. The Slowly Varying Corona: Findings using DEMs from the EVE MEGS-A Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonfeld, Samuel J.; White, Stephen M.; Hock, Rachel A.; Henney, Carl John; McAteer, James

    2017-08-01

    We present analysis of the complete spectral dataset from the Extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) Variability Experiment (EVE) MEGS-A instrument. With these data we construct daily differential emission measures (DEMs) and use them to analyze the long-term variability of the global corona. We identify a discontinuity in the DEMs separating solar minimum and maximum conditions that suggests a fundamental change in the coronal temperature structure with solar activity. Using the DEMs, we also study the relationship between EUV and F10.7, the 10.7 cm (2.8 GHz) solar activity proxy. We compare the F10.7 predictions from the DEMs and photospheric magnetic field observations with irradiance microwave observations to constrain the source mechanisms of F10.7 and their relative contribution as a function of solar activity. This has serious implications for the use of F10.7 as an activity proxy in terrestrial atmospheric modeling and we discuss our results in the context of previous work. Comparing the DEMs with microwave observations also allows for a determination of the coronal iron abundance and a measurement of the FIP effect.

  5. The Temporal Behaviour of Lyman-alpha During Solar Flares Using SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Ryan

    2015-04-01

    The Lyα line of hydrogen at 1216Å is the strongest emission line in the solar spectrum. It is formed in the mid-to-upper chromosphere and is a primary driver of changes in terrestrial ionospheric density. It has also recently been shown to dominate the radiative losses during an X-class solar flare (Milligan et al. 2014). Despite the diagnostic potential of Lyα there are relatively few papers in the literature that discuss changes in Lyα emission during solar flares. The MEGS-P broadband (100Å) diode on SDO/EVE measures full-disk Lyα emission at 10s cadence making it ideal for studying such variations. Although formed in the chromosphere, the temporal variations in Lyα appear more gradual in nature, with rise times of tens of minutes, compared to just a few minutes in other chromospheric features, such as Hα, He II, Lyman continuum, C III, etc. In fact, in many large events, emission detected by MEGS-P appears to obey the Neupert Effect; i.e. the time derivate of Lyα closely matches that of impulsive chromospheric emission. Here I will discuss a number of conditions, both solar and instrumental, that may explain why this relationship seems to exist. I shall also compare MEGS-P observations with spectrally and temporally resolved Lyα measurements from SORCE/SOLSTICE.

  6. Birds flee en mass from New Year’s Eve fireworks

    PubMed Central

    Dokter, Adriaan M.; van Gasteren, Hans; van Loon, E. Emiel; Leijnse, Hidde; Bouten, Willem

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances of wildlife, such as noise, human presence, hunting activity, and motor vehicles, are becoming an increasing concern in conservation biology. Fireworks are an important part of celebrations worldwide, and although humans often find fireworks spectacular, fireworks are probably perceived quite differently by wild animals. Behavioral responses to fireworks are difficult to study at night, and little is known about the negative effects fireworks may have on wildlife. Every year, thousands of tons of fireworks are lit by civilians on New Year’s Eve in the Netherlands. Using an operational weather radar, we quantified the reaction of birds to fireworks in 3 consecutive years. Thousands of birds took flight shortly after midnight, with high aerial movements lasting at least 45 min and peak densities measured at 500 m altitude. The highest densities were observed over grasslands and wetlands, including nature conservation sites, where thousands of waterfowl rest and feed. The Netherlands is the most important winter staging area for several species of waterfowl in Europe. We estimate that hundreds of thousands of birds in the Netherlands take flight due to fireworks. The spatial and temporal extent of disturbance is substantial, and potential consequences are discussed. Weather radar provides a unique opportunity to study the reaction of birds to fireworks, which has otherwise remained elusive. PMID:22476363

  7. Injuries and deaths at a pub fire in Bangkok, Thailand on New Year's Eve 2009.

    PubMed

    Jongcherdchootrakul, Kanlaya; Henderson, A K; Jiraphongsa, C

    2011-05-01

    This investigation describes the 67 people who died and the 153 who were hospitalized from a New Years' Eve fire in a Bangkok pub. We interviewed survivors and reviewed medical charts and forensic reports of decedents. Survivors were young (median age 27 years), single (84.7%) and lived in Thailand (93.6%). Most were on the concert floor when the fire started (74.0%), became aware of danger when they saw flames (61.5%) and escaped through the main entry door (42.9%). Common injuries were burns (75.6%), smoke inhalation (47.4%) and open wounds (32.1%). The decedents' median age was 27 years and 88.1% lived in Thailand. Most of the dead bodies were found at or near the main entrance. The main causes of death were asphyxia (88.1%) or burn (10.4%). Soot was present in the trachea of 95.5% of the decedents. Carboxyhemoglobin level in 37.5% was in the toxic range. The average percent of body surface burned was 75.0%. Loss of consciousness in the pub (RR 3.5, 95% CI 1.7-7.3) was a risk factor for severe injury and smoke inhalation (RR 9.3, 95% CI 3.1-28.0) was a risk factor for death. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Alternatives to the Wright-Fisher model: the robustness of mitochondrial Eve dating.

    PubMed

    Cyran, Krzysztof A; Kimmel, Marek

    2010-11-01

    Methods of calculating the distributions of the time to coalescence depend on the underlying model of population demography. In particular, the models assuming deterministic evolution of population size may not be applicable to populations evolving stochastically. Therefore the study of coalescence models involving stochastic demography is important for applications. One interesting approach which includes stochasticity is the O'Connell limit theory of genealogy in branching processes. Our paper explores how many generations are needed for the limiting distributions of O'Connell to become adequate approximations of exact distributions. We perform extensive simulations of slightly supercritical branching processes and compare the results to the O'Connell limits. Coalescent computations under the Wright-Fisher model are compared with limiting O'Connell results and with full genealogy-based predictions. These results are used to estimate the age of the so-called mitochondrial Eve, i.e., the root of the mitochondrial polymorphisms of the modern humans based on the DNA from humans and Neanderthal fossils. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Critical illness myopathy.

    PubMed

    Latronico, Nicola; Tomelleri, Giuliano; Filosto, Massimiliano

    2012-11-01

    To describe the incidence, major risk factors, and the clinical, electrophysiological, and histological features of critical illness myopathy (CIM). Major pathogenetic mechanisms and long-term consequences of CIM are also reviewed. CIM is frequently associated with critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP), and may have a relevant impact on patients' outcome. CIM has an earlier onset than CIP, and recovery is faster. Loss of myosin filaments on muscle biopsy is important to diagnose CIM, and has a good prognosis. Critical illness, use of steroids, and immobility concur in causing CIM. A rationale diagnostic approach to CIM using clinical, electrophysiological, and muscle biopsy investigations is important to plan adequate therapy and to predict recovery.

  10. Abandoning the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Barton, R

    1975-12-01

    Mentally ill people have been avoided and abandoned by their families and public authorities for hundreds of years. Present day abandonment includes the deployment of professionals from patients to paper; the destruction of availability and effectiveness of institutional facilities; the obfuscation of mental illness by captious, sematic criticism; the aspirations of paramedical and paraprofessional groups; and the subordination of the primary purpose of institutions and physicians to other objectives. The nature of authority is discussed and the need for the treatment of mentally ill people to be based on the art and science of medicine, rather than the pretension and advocacy of the gullible, unqualified or unscrupulous, is noted.

  11. An assessment of Fe xx-Fe xxii emission lines in SDO/EVE data as diagnostics for high-density solar flare plasmas using EUVE stellar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, F. P.; Milligan, R. O.; Mathioudakis, M.; Christian, D. J.

    2017-06-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory obtains extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectra of the full-disc Sun at a spectral resolution of ˜1 Å and cadence of 10 s. Such a spectral resolution would normally be considered to be too low for the reliable determination of electron density (Ne) sensitive emission line intensity ratios, due to blending. However, previous work has shown that a limited number of Fe xxi features in the 90-160 Å wavelength region of EVE do provide useful Ne-diagnostics at relatively low flare densities (Ne ≃ 1011-1012 cm-3). Here, we investigate if additional highly ionized Fe line ratios in the EVE 90-160 Å range may be reliably employed as Ne-diagnostics. In particular, the potential for such diagnostics to provide density estimates for high Ne (˜1013 cm-3) flare plasmas is assessed. Our study employs EVE spectra for X-class flares, combined with observations of highly active late-type stars from the EUVE satellite plus experimental data for well-diagnosed tokamak plasmas, both of which are similar in wavelength coverage and spectral resolution to those from EVE. Several ratios are identified in EVE data, which yield consistent values of electron density, including Fe xx 113.35/121.85 and Fe xxii 114.41/135.79, with confidence in their reliability as Ne-diagnostics provided by the EUVE and tokamak results. These ratios also allow the determination of density in solar flare plasmas up to values of ˜1013 cm-3.

  12. Burden of Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Burden of Mental Illness Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Depression: According ... anxiety disorder, are the most common class of mental disorders present in the general population. 5 The estimated ...

  13. Serious Illnesses and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Serious Illnesses and Breastfeeding Ages & Stages ...

  14. Giardia: Illness & Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Giardia Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Giardia General Information Illness & Symptoms Diagnosis & Detection Treatment Sources ...

  15. Mass Psychogenic Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... been exposed to something harmful.An outbreak of mass psychogenic illness is a time of anxiety and worry. During an outbreak, a lot of media coverage and the presence of ambulances or emergency ...

  16. [Nonthyroidal illness (NTI)].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masami

    2012-11-01

    Thyroxine (T4), a major secretory product of thyroid gland, needs to be converted to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) by iodothyronine deiodinases to exert its biological effect. Nonthyroidal illness, also known as low T3 syndrome, is associated with low serum T3 concentrations, which are inversely correlated to the severity of the illness. The patients with nonthyroidal illness do not show compensatory rise in serum TSH concentrations, and sometimes develop low serum T4 and TSH concentrations. It has been postulated that decreased extrathyroidal conversion of T4 to T3 is a responsible mechanism underlying low T3 syndrome. The roles of three types of iodothyronine deiodinases (D1, D2, D3) in the pathophysiology of nonthyroidal illness are discussed.

  17. Symptoms of Tickborne Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms include headache, fatigue, and muscle aches. With Lyme disease you may also experience joint pain. The severity ... disease and the patient's personal tolerance level. Rash: Lyme disease , southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI) , Rocky Mountain ...

  18. Vaccines Stop Illness

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  19. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... your overall health and treatment issues. Recovery from depression takes time, but treatment can improve the quality of life even if you have a medical illness. Treatments for depression include: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), or talk therapy, ...

  20. Doppler speeds of the hydrogen Lyman lines in solar flares from EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Stephen A.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Labrosse, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    Aims: The hydrogen Lyman lines provide important diagnostic information about the dynamics of the chromosphere, but there have been few systematic studies of their variability during flares. We investigate Doppler shifts in these lines in several flares, and use these to calculate plasma speeds. Methods: We use spectral data from the Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph B (MEGS-B) detector of the Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. MEGS-B obtains full-disk spectra of the Sun at a resolution of 0.1 nm in the range 37-105 nm, which we analyse using three independent methods. The first method performs Gaussian fits to the lines, and compares the quiet-Sun centroids with the flaring ones to obtain the Doppler shifts. The second method uses cross-correlation to detect wavelength shifts between the quiet-Sun and flaring line profiles. The final method calculates the "center-of-mass" of the line profile, and compares the quiet-Sun and flaring centroids to obtain the shift. Results: In a study of 6 flares we find strong signatures of both upflow and downflow in the Lyman lines, with speeds measured in Sun-as-a-Star data of around 10 km s-1, and speeds in the flare excess signal of around 30 km s-1. Conclusions: All events showing upflows in Lyman lines are associated with some kind of eruption or coronal flow in imaging data, which may be responsible for the net blueshifts. Events showing downflows in the Lyman lines may be associated with loop contraction or faint downflows, but it is likely that chromospheric condensation flows are also contributing.

  1. Doppler speeds of the hydrogen Lyman lines in solar flares from EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    The hydrogen Lyman lines provide important diagnostic information about the dynamics of the chromosphere, but until recently there have been few systematic studies of their variability during flares. We investigate Doppler shifts in these lines in several flares, and use these to calculate plasma speeds. We use spectral data from the Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph B (MEGS-B) detector on board the Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. MEGS-B obtains full-disk spectra of the Sun at a resolution of 0.1nm in the range 37-105nm, which we analyse using three independent methods. The first method performs Gaussian fits to the lines, and compares the quiet-Sun centroids with the flaring ones to obtain the Doppler shifts. The second method uses cross-correlation to detect wavelength shifts between the quiet-Sun and flaring line profiles. The final method calculates the “center-of-mass" of the line profile, and compares the quiet-Sun and flaring centroids to obtain the shift. In a study of 6 flares we find signatures of both upflow and downflow in the Lyman lines, with speeds of around 10 km s^‑1 in the line profiles that have not undergone pre-flare subtraction, and speeds in the flare-excess profiles of around 30 km s^‑1 . We include analysis of AIA images of these events in order to understand potential contributions from material ejections, and find that not all upflows can be explained by ejecta. We discuss current and future attempts at modelling these line profiles.

  2. The Slowly Varying Corona. I. Daily Differential Emission Measure Distributions Derived from EVE Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonfeld, S. J.; White, S. M.; Hock-Mysliwiec, R. A.; McAteer, R. T. J.

    2017-08-01

    Daily differential emission measure (DEM) distributions of the solar corona are derived from spectra obtained by the Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) over a 4 yr period starting in 2010 near solar minimum and continuing through the maximum of solar cycle 24. The DEMs are calculated using six strong emission features dominated by Fe lines of charge states viii, ix, xi, xii, xiv, and xvi that sample the nonflaring coronal temperature range 0.3-5 MK. A proxy for the non-Fe xviii emission in the wavelength band around the 93.9 Å line is demonstrated. There is little variability in the cool component of the corona (T < 1.3 MK) over the 4 yr, suggesting that the quiet-Sun corona does not respond strongly to the solar cycle, whereas the hotter component (T > 2.0 MK) varies by more than an order of magnitude. A discontinuity in the behavior of coronal diagnostics in 2011 February-March, around the time of the first X-class flare of cycle 24, suggests fundamentally different behavior in the corona under solar minimum and maximum conditions. This global state transition occurs over a period of several months. The DEMs are used to estimate the thermal energy of the visible solar corona (of order 1031 erg), its radiative energy loss rate ((2.5-8) × {10}27 erg s-1), and the corresponding energy turnover timescale (about an hour). The uncertainties associated with the DEMs and these derived values are mostly due to the coronal Fe abundance and density and the CHIANTI atomic line database.

  3. Midsummer Eve in Sweden: a natural fluid challenge in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsson, Kristjan; Lyngå, Patrik; Karlsson, Helena; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Braunschweig, Frieder

    2011-11-01

    Volume overload exacerbations in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) are associated with a dismal prognosis and are often triggered by dietary incompliance. We aimed to describe the effects of dietary changes on measures of fluid retention in HF patients. Thirty-one HF patients with an implantable defibrillator (age 64 ± 11 years, ejection fraction 25 ± 12%, median NT-proBNP 2090 ng/L, resynchronization therapy: n= 25) were followed by daily body weight (BW) (telemonitoring) and intrathoracic impedance (by the implanted device) around Swedish Midsummer 2009, a holiday traditionally celebrated with meals including salty fish dishes and ample intake of fluids. Midsummer Eve celebrations caused a distinct and rapid increase in BW and a decrease in impedance indicating increased fluid retention. Compared with baseline values, peak BW increased by 1225 g [interquartile range (IQR) 475-2013 g)] which was accompanied by a decrease in impedance (3 Ω; IQR -5.2 to -1.2) and a clear deflection on the impedance-based fluid detection algorithm (OptiVol) that crossed the preset fluid-alert threshold six times following Midsummer. Body weight and impedance values were normalized after a period of 20 and 8 days, respectively. A clustering of minor clinical events following Midsummer suggests a possible adverse impact of dietary incompliance. However, none of the patients were hospitalized for HF. Dietary incompliance, e.g. on the occasion of a ceremonial meal, may lead to marked disturbances in the fluid balance of patients with HF reflected by increased BW and decreased intrathoracic impedance. These findings underline the importance of maintaining stable volume conditions in HF patients.

  4. Firework-related injuries in Tehran's Persian Wednesday Eve Festival (Chaharshanbe Soori).

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Hassan; Khashayar, Patricia; Amoli, Hadi Ahmadi; Esfandiari, Khalil; Ashegh, Hossein; Rezaii, Jalal; Salimi, Javad

    2011-03-01

    Fireworks are the leading cause of injuries such as burns and amputations during the Persian Wednesday Eve Festival (Chaharshanbeh Soori). This study was designed to explore the age of the high-risk population, the type of fireworks most frequently causing injury, the pattern of injury, and the frequency of permanent disabilities. This cohort study was performed by Tehran Emergency Medical Services at different medical centers all around Tehran, Iran, in individuals referred due to firework-related injuries during 1 month surrounding the festival in the year 2007. The following information was extracted from the patients' medical records: demographic data, the type of fireworks causing injury, the pattern and severity of the injury, the pre-hospital and hospital care provided for the patient, and the patient's condition at the time of discharge. In addition, information on the severity of the remaining disability was recorded 8 months after the injury. There were 197 patients enrolled in the study with a mean age of 20.94 ± 11.31 years; the majority of them were male. Fuse-detonated noisemakers and homemade grenades were the most frequent causes of injury. Hand injury was reported in 39.8% of the cases. Amputation and long-term disability were found in 6 and 12 cases, respectively. None of the patients died during the study period. The fireworks used during a Chaharshanbe Soori ceremony were responsible for a considerable number of injuries to different parts of the body, and some of them led to permanent disabilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 76 FR 72842 - Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Fireworks Displays within the Captain of the Port St. Petersburg...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing four temporary safety zones during New Year's Eve fireworks displays on certain navigable waterways in Naples, St. Petersburg, Cape Coral, and Sarasota, Florida. These safety zones are necessary to protect the public from the hazards associated with launching fireworks over navigable waters of the United States. Persons and vessels are prohibited from entering, transiting through, anchoring in, or remaining within any of the four safety zones unless authorized by the Captain of the Port St. Petersburg or a designated representative.

  6. Limits on light WIMPs with a germanium detector at 177 eVee threshold at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S. K.; Yue, Q.; Kang, K. J.; Cheng, J. P.; Wong, H. T.; Li, Y. J.; Lin, S. T.; Chang, J. P.; Chen, N.; Chen, Q. H.; Chen, Y. H.; Chuang, Y. C.; Deng, Z.; Du, Q.; Gong, H.; Hao, X. Q.; He, H. J.; He, Q. J.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, T. R.; Jiang, H.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. M.; Li, J.; Li, J.; Li, X.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. Y.; Li, Y. L.; Liao, H. Y.; Lin, F. K.; Lü, L. C.; Ma, H.; Mao, S. J.; Qin, J. Q.; Ren, J.; Ren, J.; Ruan, X. C.; Shen, M. B.; Singh, L.; Singh, M. K.; Soma, A. K.; Su, J.; Tang, C. J.; Tseng, C. H.; Wang, J. M.; Wang, L.; Wang, Q.; Wu, S. Y.; Wu, Y. C.; Wu, Y. C.; Xianyu, Z. Z.; Xiao, R. Q.; Xing, H. Y.; Xu, F. Z.; Xu, Y.; Xu, X. J.; Xue, T.; Yang, C. W.; Yang, L. T.; Yang, S. W.; Yi, N.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H.; Yu, X. Z.; Zeng, X. H.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, W.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhu, J. J.; Zhu, W. B.; Zhu, X. Z.; Zhu, Z. H.; CDEX Collaboration

    2014-08-01

    The China Dark Matter Experiment reports results on light WIMP dark matter searches at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory with a germanium detector array with a total mass of 20 g. The physics threshold achieved is 177 eVee ("ee" represents electron equivalent energy) at 50% signal efficiency. With 0.784 kg-days of data, exclusion region on spin-independent coupling with the nucleon is derived, improving over our earlier bounds at WIMP mass less than 4.6 GeV.

  7. The illness/non-illness model: hypnotherapy for physically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Navon, Shaul

    2014-07-01

    This article proposes a focused, novel sub-set of the cognitive behavioral therapy approach to hypnotherapy for physically ill patients, based upon the illness/non-illness psychotherapeutic model for physically ill patients. The model is based on three logical rules used in differentiating illness from non-illness: duality, contradiction, and complementarity. The article discusses the use of hypnotic interventions to help physically ill and/or disabled patients distinguish between illness and non-illness in their psychotherapeutic themes and attitudes. Two case studies illustrate that patients in this special population group can be taught to learn the language of change and to use this language to overcome difficult situations. The model suggests a new clinical mode of treatment in which individuals who are physically ill and/or disabled are helped in coping with actual motifs and thoughts related to non-illness or non-disability.

  8. Resolving Differences in Absolute Irradiance Measurements Between the SOHO/CELIAS/SEM and the SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, D. L.

    2014-08-01

    The Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) onboard SOHO has measured absolute extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray solar irradiance nearly continuously since January 1996. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on SDO, in operation since April of 2010, measures solar irradiance in a wide spectral range that encompasses the band passes (26 - 34 nm and 0.1 - 50 nm) measured by SOHO/SEM. However, throughout the mission overlap, irradiance values from these two instruments have differed by more than the combined stated uncertainties of the measurements. In an effort to identify the sources of these differences and eliminate them, we investigate in this work the effect of reprocessing the SEM data using a more accurate SEM response function (obtained from synchrotron measurements with a SEM sounding-rocket clone instrument taken after SOHO was already in orbit) and time-dependent, measured solar spectral distributions - i.e., solar reference spectra that were unavailable prior to the launch of the SDO. We find that recalculating the SEM data with these improved parameters reduces mean differences with the EVE measurements from about 20 % to less than 5 % in the 26 - 34 nm band, and from about 35 % to about 15 % for irradiances in the 0.1 - 7 nm band extracted from the SEM 0.1 - 50 nm channel.

  9. Further replication studies of the EVE Consortium meta-analysis identifies 2 asthma risk loci in European Americans.

    PubMed

    Myers, Rachel A; Himes, Blanca E; Gignoux, Christopher R; Yang, James J; Gauderman, W James; Rebordosa, Cristina; Xie, Jianming; Torgerson, Dara G; Levin, Albert M; Baurley, James; Graves, Penelope E; Mathias, Rasika A; Romieu, Isabelle; Roth, Lindsey A; Conti, David; Avila, Lydiana; Eng, Celeste; Vora, Hita; LeNoir, Michael A; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Liu, Jinghua; Celedón, Juan C; Galanter, Joshua M; Farber, Harold J; Kumar, Rajesh; Avila, Pedro C; Meade, Kelley; Serebrisky, Denise; Thyne, Shannon; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Borrell, Luisa N; Lemanske, Robert F; Bleecker, Eugene R; Meyers, Deborah A; London, Stephanie J; Barnes, Kathleen C; Raby, Benjamin A; Martinez, Fernando D; Gilliland, Frank D; Williams, L Keoki; Burchard, Esteban G; Weiss, Scott T; Nicolae, Dan L; Ober, Carole

    2012-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies of asthma have implicated many genetic risk factors, with well-replicated associations at approximately 10 loci that account for only a small proportion of the genetic risk. We aimed to identify additional asthma risk loci by performing an extensive replication study of the results from the EVE Consortium meta-analysis. We selected 3186 single nucleotide polymorphisms for replication based on the P values from the EVE Consortium meta-analysis. These single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in ethnically diverse replication samples from 9 different studies, totaling 7202 cases, 6426 controls, and 507 case-parent trios. Association analyses were conducted within each participating study, and the resulting test statistics were combined in a meta-analysis. Two novel associations were replicated in European Americans: rs1061477 in the KLK3 gene on chromosome 19 (combined odds ratio = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.10-1.25) and rs9570077 (combined odds ratio =1.20; 95% CI, 1.12-1.29) on chromosome 13q21. We could not replicate any additional associations in the African Americans or Latinos. This extended replication study identified 2 additional asthma risk loci in populations of European descent. The absence of additional loci for African Americans and Latinos highlights the difficulty in replicating associations in admixed populations. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Resolving Differences in Absolute Irradiance Measurements Between the SOHO/CELIAS/SEM and the SDO/EVE.

    PubMed

    Wieman, S R; Didkovsky, L V; Judge, D L

    The Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) onboard SOHO has measured absolute extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray solar irradiance nearly continuously since January 1996. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on SDO, in operation since April of 2010, measures solar irradiance in a wide spectral range that encompasses the band passes (26 - 34 nm and 0.1 - 50 nm) measured by SOHO/SEM. However, throughout the mission overlap, irradiance values from these two instruments have differed by more than the combined stated uncertainties of the measurements. In an effort to identify the sources of these differences and eliminate them, we investigate in this work the effect of reprocessing the SEM data using a more accurate SEM response function (obtained from synchrotron measurements with a SEM sounding-rocket clone instrument taken after SOHO was already in orbit) and time-dependent, measured solar spectral distributions - i.e., solar reference spectra that were unavailable prior to the launch of the SDO. We find that recalculating the SEM data with these improved parameters reduces mean differences with the EVE measurements from about 20 % to less than 5 % in the 26 - 34 nm band, and from about 35 % to about 15 % for irradiances in the 0.1 - 7 nm band extracted from the SEM 0.1 - 50 nm channel.

  11. The Adam and Eve story as exemplar of an early-life variant of the oedipus complex.

    PubMed

    Osman, M P

    2000-01-01

    The Adam and Eve story is construed as having an organizing function that facilitates the analytic understanding of certain patients. In this interpretation, the story epitomizes a psychodynamic in which progressive growth, with separation and individuation, of the young is experienced as perilous--not only to them, but also correspondingly to their procreators. In the myth, the increasing psychic and physical maturation of Adam and Eve produced a crisis. Not only was divine authority flouted, but also apprehensions were aroused that God might be humbled or diminished. This threatened him, evoking his wrath and leading to the punishment by abandonment of his youthful wards. It is suggested that the story depicts an emotional complex of widespread application and is an archaic version of the oedipus complex, continuous with the oedipus complex proper, but from an earlier stage of development. This archaic complex is delineated with clinical vignettes, and a clinical explication of its various components is provided. Clinical management is considered, particularly with reference to the challenge that a closed-system perspective (Fairbairn 1958) presents to a patient's development.

  12. Heat illness. I. Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ellis, F P

    1976-01-01

    Reliable information on the epidemiology of heat illness has come, until recently, mainly from the armed forces and, to a lesser extent, from some industries and civil communities. Data from the records of the British Army, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force, Indian Armed Forces, U.S. Army and forces engaged in the Arab-Israeli wars, from the South African gold mining corporations and Persian Gulf oil tankers, and from civilian communities, mainly in the U.S.A., are reviewed and discussed with particular reference to the classification of heat illness and definition of the terms used, and the effects on acclimatized and non-acclimatized personnel and on other sections of the civilian communities most at risk, i.e. the old and very young. This section concludes with an outline of the classification of acute heat illnesses from 1899 to the eighth revision of the WHO International Classification of Diseases in 1967.

  13. [Mental illness and media].

    PubMed

    Magli, Erica; Buizza, Chiara; Pioli, Rosaria

    2004-06-01

    Many knowledges on the mental disease that the community possesses are turning out of information disclosed from the media. It's common in the press to connect actions of violence and murders to the mental diseases. For this reason, the reader is induced to infer that murders and other violent actions are more frequent in people who have suffered from mentally ill, than in the general population. The mystifying impression provided by media accrues from the fact that these reports are rarely compensated from positive reports. Objective of the present study is to characterize the type of information concerning mental illness diffused from the local daily paper "Giornale di Brescia" in the year 2001. The results show that many articles connote negatively the mental disease. The journalistic sensationalism, denounced facing the speech of the prejudgment in the comparisons of the mentally ill people, seems to still remain, in the considered year of publication, one unchanging tendency.

  14. [Creativity and mental illness].

    PubMed

    Rihmer, Zoltán; Gonda, Xénia; Rihmer, Annamária

    2006-01-01

    It has been known for a long time that people with salient social and artistic creativity suffer more frequently from psychiatric illnesses than the average population. In their review paper, the authors assess the Hungarian and international scientific literature regarding the association of creativity and psychopathology. They conclude that contrary to the concept prevailing in the first part of the 20th century about the strong association between schizophrenia and creativity, the results of empirical research now unambiguously suggest that prominent social and artistic creativity is associated primarily with affective, and more specifically with bipolar affective illnesses. In addition, we already know that as regards the development of creativity, it is not the given affective (depressive, manic, hypomanic) episode which is important, but the hyperthymic or cyclothymic temperament structure which also predisposes for affective illness.

  15. Anomalous temporal behaviour of broadband Lyα observations during solar flares from SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-03-01

    Although it is the most prominent emission line in the solar spectrum, there has been a notable lack of studies devoted to variations in Lyα emission during solar flares in recent years. However, the few examples that do exist have shown Lyα emission to be a substantial radiator of the total energy budget of solar flares (of the order of 10%). It is also a known driver of fluctuations in the Earth's ionosphere. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory now provides broadband, photometric Lyα data at 10 s cadence with its Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph-Photometer (MEGS-P) component, and has observed scores of solar flares in the 5 years since it was launched. However, the MEGS-P time profiles appear to display a rise time of tens of minutes around the time of the flare onset. This is in stark contrast to the rapid, impulsive increase observed in other intrinsically chromospheric features (Hα, Lyβ, LyC, C III, etc.). Furthermore, the emission detected by MEGS-P peaks around the time of the peak of thermal soft X-ray emission and not during the impulsive phase when energy deposition in the chromosphere (often assumed to be in the form of non-thermal electrons) is greatest. The time derivative of Lyα lightcurves also appears to resemble that of the time derivative of soft X-rays, reminiscent of the Neupert effect. Given that spectrally-resolved Lyα observations during flares from SORCE/SOLSTICE peak during the impulsive phase as expected, this suggests that the atypical behaviour of MEGS-P data is a manifestation of the broadband nature of the observations. This could imply that other lines and/or continuum emission that becomes enhanced during flares could be contributing to the passband. Users are hereby urged to exercise caution when interpreting broadband Lyα observations of solar flares. Comparisons have also been made with other broadband Lyα photometers such as PROBA2/LYRA and GOES/EUVS-E.

  16. Anomalous Temporal Behaviour of Broadband Ly Alpha Observations During Solar Flares from SDO/EVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is the most prominent emission line in the solar spectrum, there has been a notable lack of studies devoted to variations in Lyman-alpha (Ly-alpha) emission during solar flares in recent years. However, the few examples that do exist have shown Ly-alpha emission to be a substantial radiator of the total energy budget of solar flares (of the order of 10 percent). It is also a known driver of fluctuations in the Earth's ionosphere. The EUV (Extreme Ultra-Violet) Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) now provides broadband, photometric Ly-alpha data at 10-second cadence with its Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph-Photometer (MEGS-P) component, and has observed scores of solar flares in the 5 years since it was launched. However, the MEGS-P time profiles appear to display a rise time of tens of minutes around the time of the flare onset. This is in stark contrast to the rapid, impulsive increase observed in other intrinsically chromospheric features (H-alpha, Ly-beta, LyC, C III, etc.). Furthermore, the emission detected by MEGS-P peaks around the time of the peak of thermal soft X-ray emission and not during the impulsive phase when energy deposition in the chromosphere (often assumed to be in the form of non-thermal electrons) is greatest. The time derivative of Ly-alpha lightcurves also appears to resemble that of the time derivative of soft X-rays, reminiscent of the Neupert effect. Given that spectrally-resolved Ly-alpha observations during flares from SORCE / SOLSTICE (Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment / Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment) peak during the impulsive phase as expected, this suggests that the atypical behaviour of MEGS-P data is a manifestation of the broadband nature of the observations. This could imply that other lines andor continuum emission that becomes enhanced during flares could be contributing to the passband. Users are hereby urged to exercise caution when interpreting

  17. Constraining Models Of The Solar Chromosphere Using An X2 Flare Observed By SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataramanasastry, A.; Murphy, N. A.; Avrett, E.

    2013-12-01

    The GOES X2 solar flare of Feb 15, 2011 is analyzed to draw observational constraints in constructing a model of the chromosphere of the Sun during a solar flare, using the Pandora computer program [1]. Spectra from the MEGS-A&B component of EVE [2] on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory are used to analyze the lines and continuum [3]. The irradiances before and after the flare are used for modeling the time-evolution of the impulsive and decay phases of the flare. Significant increase in the intensities of multiple coronal and chromospheric emission lines (H, He, C, N, O, Si etc.) is seen. The observed increase in intensities will serve as constraints to the model program. Pandora performs iterative calculations for non-LTE radiative transfer with multiple ions and atoms. It includes the effects of particle diffusion and flow velocities in the equations of radiative transfer and ionization equilibrium. The fraction of the area on the Sun contributing to the chromospheric flare emission is presented. The upper limit for the intensity in the Lyman continuum due to the flare is accounted to be approximately 7% of that due to the entire surface area. The Lyman, He II and He I continua provide strong constraints for characterizing the chromosphere. The emission lines from the CHIANTI atomic database in these wavelength ranges are considered in order to avoid using optically thin emission lines from the corona. The behavior of changes in line features with time is analyzed. The light curves of different lines that contribute substantially to the flare spectra are studied. The temperatures at the peak of the flare with respect to that at the quiet Sun is estimated at different continuum wavelengths. The pre-flare and post-flare values from these light-curves are adapted to construct the model during the rise and decay phases. The effective intensity due to the lines and the relative times at which these lines peak are presented. The observed irradiance values for pre

  18. A Partnership between English Language Learners and a Team of Rocket Scientists: EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhr, S. M.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Eparvier, F.; Murillo, M.

    2008-05-01

    Recent immigrant high school students were successfully engaged in learning about Sun-Earth connections through a partnership with the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) project. The students were enrolled in a pilot course as part of the Math, Engineering and Science Achievement (MESA) program. The English Language Learner (ELL) students doubled their achievement on a pre- and post- assessment on the content of the course. Students learned scientific content and vocabulary in English with support in Spanish, attended field trips, hosted scientist speakers, built antenna and deployed space weather monitors as part of the Stanford SOLAR project, and gave final presentations in English, showcasing their new computer skills. Teachers who taught the students in other courses noted gains in the students' willingness to use English in class and noted gains in math skills. The course has been broken into modules for use in shorter after-school environments, or for use by EVE scientists who are outside of the Boulder area. Video footage of "The Making of a Satellite", and "All About EVE" is completed for use in the kits. Other EVE EPO includes upcoming professional development for teachers and content workshops for journalists.

  19. A Partnership between English Language Learners and a Team of Rocket Scientists: EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhr, S. M.; Eparvier, F.; McCaffrey, M.; Murillo, M.

    2007-12-01

    Recent immigrant high school students were successfully engaged in learning about Sun-Earth connections through a partnership with the NASA SDO Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) project. The students were enrolled in a pilot course as part of the Math, Engineering and Science Achievement MESA) program. For many of the students, this was the only science option available to them due to language limitations. The English Language Learner (ELL) students doubled their achievement on a pre- and post-assessment on the content of the course. Students learned scientific content and vocabulary in English with support in Spanish, attended field trips, hosted scientist speakers, built and deployed space weather monitors as part of the Stanford SOLAR project, and gave final presentations in English, showcasing their new computer skills. Teachers who taught the students in other courses noted gains in the students' willingness to use English in class and noted gains in math skills. The MESA-EVE course won recognition as a Colorado MESA Program of Excellence and is being offered again in 2007-08. The course has been broken into modules for use in shorter after-school environments, or for use by EVE scientists who are outside of the Boulder area. Other EVE EPO includes professional development for teachers and content workshops for journalists.

  20. Functional endogenous viral elements (EVEs) in the genome of the parasitoid wasp cotesia congregata: insights into the evolutionary dynamics of bracoviruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bracoviruses represent the most complex Endogenous Viral Elements (EVEs) described to date. Nudiviral genes have been hosted within the genomes of parasitoid wasps since ~ 100 MYA (Million Years Ago) and are functionally integrated in the parasitoid wasp life cycle. They are involved in the producti...

  1. Ecology and Mary: An Ecological Theology of Mary as the New Eve in Response to the Church's Challenge for a Faith-Based Education in Ecological Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurmond, Gloria J.

    2007-01-01

    The Church's interpretation of the current ecological crisis as a moral crisis is the catalyst for this essay, which proposes a newly constructed faith-based model for ecological dialogue and education. The exploration and reinterpretation of the traditional Church doctrine of the Virgin Mary as the new Eve provides a theme from which an…

  2. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO): Overview of Science Objectives, Instrument Design, Data Products, and Model Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F. G.; Hock, R.; Jones, A. R.; Woodraska, D.; Judge, D.; Didkovsky, L.; Lean, J.; Mariska, J.; Warren, H.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The highly variable solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is the major energy input to the Earth's upper atmosphere, strongly impacting the geospace environment, affecting satellite operations, communications, and navigation. The Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1 to 105 nm with unprecedented spectral resolution (0.1 nm), temporal cadence (ten seconds), and accuracy (20%). EVE includes several irradiance instruments: The Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS)-A is a grazingincidence spectrograph that measures the solar EUV irradiance in the 5 to 37 nm range with 0.1-nm resolution, and the MEGS-B is a normal-incidence, dual-pass spectrograph that measures the solar EUV irradiance in the 35 to 105 nm range with 0.1-nm resolution. To provide MEGS in-flight calibration, the EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) measures the solar EUV irradiance in broadbands between 0.1 and 39 nm, and a MEGS-Photometer measures the Sun s bright hydrogen emission at 121.6 nm. The EVE data products include a near real-time space-weather product (Level 0C), which provides the solar EUV irradiance in specific bands and also spectra in 0.1-nm intervals with a cadence of one minute and with a time delay of less than 15 minutes. The EVE higher-level products are Level 2 with the solar EUV irradiance at higher time cadence (0.25 seconds for photometers and ten seconds for spectrographs) and Level 3 with averages of the solar irradiance over a day and over each one-hour period. The EVE team also plans to advance existing models of solar EUV irradiance and to operationally use the EVE measurements in models of Earth s ionosphere and thermosphere. Improved understanding of the evolution of solar flares and extending the various models to incorporate solar flare events are high priorities for the EVE team.

  3. Active Region Soft X-Ray Spectra as Observed Using Sounding Rocket Measurements from the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), - a Modified SDO/EVE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Woods, T. N.; Jones, A. R.; Caspi, A.; Warren, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of solar active regions (ARs) in the soft x-ray spectral range (0.5 to 3.0 nm) were made on sounding rocket flight NASA 36.290 using a modified Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), a pinhole camera on the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) sounding rocket instrument. The suite of EVE rocket instruments is designed for under-flight calibrations of the orbital EVE on SDO. While the sounding rocket EVE instrument is for the most part a duplicate of the EVE on SDO, the SAM channel on the rocket version was modified in 2012 to include a free-standing transmission grating so that it could provide spectrally resolved images of the solar disk with the best signal to noise ratio for the brightest features on it, such as ARs. Calibrations of the EVE sounding rocket instrument at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (NIST SURF) have provided a measurement of the SAM absolute spectral response function and a mapping of wavelength separation in the grating diffraction pattern. For solar observations, this spectral separation is on a similar scale to the spatial size of the AR on the CCD, so dispersed AR images associated with emission lines of similar wavelength tend to overlap. Furthermore, SAM shares a CCD detector with MEGS-A, a separate EVE spectrometer channel, and artifacts of the MEGS-A signal (a set of bright spectral lines) appear in the SAM images. For these reasons some processing and analysis of the solar images obtained by SAM must be performed in order to determine spectra of the observed ARs. We present a method for determining AR spectra from the SAM rocket images and report initial soft X-ray spectra for two of the major active regions (AR11877 and AR11875) observed on flight 36.290 on 21 October 2013 at about 18:30 UT. We also compare our results with concurrent measurements from other solar soft x-ray instrumentation.

  4. Mental Illness And Brain Disease.

    PubMed

    Bedrick, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abnormalities of neural structure while psychiatry deals with specific abnormalities of neural functioning. It is not clear that neurologists would accept this division, nor that they should. I argue that if we take seriously the notion that psychiatric illnesses are mental illnesses we can draw a more defensible boundary between psychiatry and neurology. As mental illnesses, psychiatric illnesses must have symptoms that affect our mental capacities and that the sufferer is capable of being aware of, even if they are not always self-consciously aware of them. Neurological illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, may be diagnosed even if they are silent, just as the person may not be aware of having high blood pressure or may suffer a silent myocardial infarction. It does not make sense to speak of panic disorder if the person has never had a panic attack, however, or of bipolar disorder in the absence of mood swings. This does not mean psychiatric illnesses are not biologically based. Mental illnesses are illnesses of persons, whereas other illnesses are illnesses of biological individuals.

  5. Mozart's illnesses and death.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, P J

    1983-01-01

    Throughout his life Mozart suffered frequent attacks of tonsillitis. In 1784 he developed post-streptococcal Schönlein-Henoch syndrome which caused chronic glomerular nephritis and chronic renal failure. His fatal illness was due to Schönlein-Henoch purpura, with death from cerebral haemorrhage and bronchopneumonia. Venesection(s) may have contributed to his death. PMID:6352940

  6. Platelets in Critical Illness.

    PubMed

    Levi, Marcel

    2016-04-01

    In patients with critical illness, thrombocytopenia is a frequent laboratory abnormality. However frequent this may occur, a low platelet count is not an epiphenomenon, but a marker with further significance. It is always important to assess the proper cause for thrombocytopenia in critically ill patients because different underlying disorders may precipitate different diagnostic and therapeutic management strategies. Platelets are part of the first-line defense of the body against bleeding; hence, thrombocytopenia may increase the risk of hemorrhage. In case of systemic inflammatory syndromes, such as the response to sepsis, disseminated intravascular platelet activation may occur. This will contribute to microvascular failure and thereby play a role in the development of organ dysfunction. Platelets are circulating blood cells that will normally not interact with the intact vessel wall but that may swiftly respond to endothelial disruption (which is often part of the pathogenesis of critical illness) by adhering to subendothelial structures, followed by interaction with each other, thereby forming a platelet aggregate. The activated platelet (phospholipid) membrane may form a suitable surface on which further coagulation activation may occur. A low platelet count is a strong and independent predictor of an adverse outcome in critically ill patients, thereby facilitating a simple and practically risk assessment in these patients and potentially guiding the use of complex or expensive treatment strategies.

  7. Alienation and Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobasa, Suzanne C.

    Reviews of studies of four groups (business executives, lawyers, Army officers, and working women) which demonstrate the health-damaging effects of alienation in certain life situations show that, when under stress, members of these groups who feel alienated fall ill, medically and/or psychiatrically. Three models are described which may explain…

  8. Mentally Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Estimates suggest that about 15% of all children have some form of mental disturbance. Potential causes can be of a physical, psychological, or environmental origin. Symptoms which indicate that a child needs professional help usually involve emotional overreaction to changes. Diagnosis of a child evidencing symptoms of mental illness should take…

  9. Mentally Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Estimates suggest that about 15% of all children have some form of mental disturbance. Potential causes can be of a physical, psychological, or environmental origin. Symptoms which indicate that a child needs professional help usually involve emotional overreaction to changes. Diagnosis of a child evidencing symptoms of mental illness should take…

  10. Evaluation of the effects of transmission impairments on perceived video quality by exploiting ReTRiEVED dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudyal, Pradip; Battisti, Federica; Carli, Marco

    2017-03-01

    The robust design and adaptation of multimedia networks relies on the study of the influence of potential network impairments on the perceived quality. Video quality may be affected by network impairments, such as delay, jitter, packet loss, and bandwidth, and the perceptual impact of these impairments may vary according to the video content. The effects of packet loss and encoding artifacts on the perceived quality have been widely addressed in the literature. However, the relationship between video content and network impairments on the perceived video quality has not been deeply investigated. A detailed analysis of ReTRiEVED test video dataset, designed by considering a set of potential network impairments, is presented, and the effects of transmission impairments on perceived quality are analyzed. Furthermore, the impact on the perceived quality of the video content in the presence of transmission impairments is studied by using video content descriptors. Finally, the performances of well-known quality metrics are tested on the proposed dataset.

  11. A substorm-associated enhancement in the XUV radiation measuring channel observed by ESP/EVE/SDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Wang, Hua-Ning; Shen, Chao; Du, Zhan-Le

    2016-06-01

    Comparing the ESP/EVE/SDO flux data of 2011 Feb 6, with the counterparts of XRS/GOES and SEM/SOHO, we find that there is an enhancement that is not apparent in the two latter datasets. The enhancement, possibly regarded as a flare at first glimpse, nevertheless, does not involve an energy-release from the Sun. Based on the enhancement, we combine data from SXI/GOES 15 into a synthesized analysis, and concluded that it arises from a particle-associated enhancement in the channel that measures XUV radiation. Paradoxically, it seems to be somewhat of a particle-avalanching process. Prior to the event, a moderate geomagnetic storm took place. Subsequently, while the event is proceeding, a geomagnetic substorm is simultaneously observed. Therefore, the particles, though unidentified, are probably energetic electrons induced by substorm injection.

  12. A surprise southern hemisphere meteor shower on New-Year's Eve 2015: the Volantids (IAU#758, VOL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Baggaley, J.; Crumpton, I.; Aldous, P.; Gural, P. S.; Samuels, D.; Albers, J.; Soja, R.

    2016-04-01

    A new 32-camera CAMS network in New Zealand, spread over two stations on South Island, has detected a high southern declination shower that was active on New Year's Eve, 2015 December 31. During the observing interval from 09h12m - 15h45m UT, 21 out of 59 detected meteors radiated from the constellation of Volans, the flying fish, with a geocentric radiant at RA = 122.9 deg +- 4.7 deg, Dec = -71.9 deg +- 1.9 deg, and speed V_g = 28.4 +- 1.5 km/s. The new year arrived in New Zealand at 11h00m UT. Two more were detected the next night. No activity from this shower was observed the year prior. The meteoroids move in a 48 deg-inclined Jupiter-family comet orbit. The parent body has not yet been identified.

  13. Solar EUV Variability from FISM and SDO/EVE During Solar Minimum, Active, and Flaring Time Periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2011-01-01

    The Living With a Star (LWS) Focus Science Team has identified three periods of different solar activity levels for which they will be determining the Earth's Ionosphere and Thermosphere response. Not only will the team be comparing individual models (e.g. FLIP, T1MEGCM, GLOW) outcome driven by the various levels of solar activity, but the models themselves will also be compared. These models all rely on the input solar EUV (0.1 -190 nm) irradiance to drive the variability. The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) and the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard provide the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) provide the most accurate quantification of these irradiances. Presented and discussed are how much the solar EUV irradiance changes during these three scenarios, both as a function of activity and wavelength.

  14. Thermal Evolution of Solar Flares During the First Year of SDO as Seen by the EVE Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Woods, Thomas N.

    2011-01-01

    It is very evident during the first year of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) that the Sun awoke from its prolonged minimum and is well into solar cycle 24. There has been tens of moderate M-class flares and a large X-class event (as of abstract submission), with more surely to come as the solar cycle activity increases. With SDO's 24/7 observations, every single flare has been observed through their entire evolution, providing new insights in the thermal evolution of every flare. It is evident that this evolution is extremely different for many of the flares, even for flares with similar X-ray magnitude classifications. Presented and discussed will be these different flares with their varying thermal evolution profiles as observed by the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO).

  15. Darwin's illness revealed

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, A.; Matthews, S.

    2005-01-01

    After returning from the Beagle in 1836, Charles Darwin suffered for over 40 years from long bouts of vomiting, gut pain, headaches, severe tiredness, skin problems, and depression. Twenty doctors failed to treat him. Many books and papers have explained Darwin's mystery illness as organic or psychosomatic, including arsenic poisoning, Chagas' disease, multiple allergy, hypochondria, or bereavement syndrome. None stand up to full scrutiny. His medical history shows he had an organic problem, exacerbated by depression. Here we show that all Darwin's symptoms match systemic lactose intolerance. Vomiting and gut problems showed up two to three hours after a meal, the time it takes for lactose to reach the large intestine. His family history shows a major inherited component, as with genetically predisposed hypolactasia. Darwin only got better when, by chance, he stopped taking milk and cream. Darwin's illness highlights something else he missed—the importance of lactose in mammalian and human evolution. PMID:15811889

  16. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    2001-01-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183

  17. An anatomy of illness.

    PubMed

    Biro, David

    2012-03-01

    Because it focuses primarily on the sick body (disease), medicine ignores many of the concerns and needs of sick people. By listening to the stories of patients in the clinic, on the Internet, and in published book form, health care providers could gain a better understanding of the impact of disease on the person (illness), what it means to patients over and above their physical symptoms and what they might require over and above surgery or chemotherapy. Only by familiarizing themselves with the entire emotional landscape of illness, which includes fear, anger, shame, guilt, and above all loneliness, can the healthy--medicine as well as society in general--hope to heal in a comprehensive manner.

  18. Violence and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Rueve, Marie E.; Welton, Randon S.

    2008-01-01

    Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, including etiology, comorbidity, risk factor management, and treatment. A psychiatrist who is well versed in the recognition and management of violence can contribute to the appropriate management of dangerous behaviors and minimize risk to patients, their families, mental health workers, and the community as a whole. PMID:19727251

  19. High altitude illness

    PubMed

    Hartman-Ksycińska, Anna; Kluz-Zawadzka, Jolanta; Lewandowski, Bogumił

    High-altitude illness is a result of prolonged high-altitude exposure of unacclimatized individuals. The illness is seen in the form of acute mountain sickness (AMS) which if not treated leads to potentially life-threatening high altitude pulmonary oedema and high-altitude cerebral oedema. Medical problems are caused by hypobaric hypoxia stimulating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) release. As a result, the central nervous system, circulation and respiratory system function impairment occurs. The most important factor in AMS treatment is acclimatization, withdrawing further ascent and rest or beginning to descent; oxygen supplementation, and pharmacological intervention, and, if available, a portable hyperbaric chamber. Because of the popularity of high-mountain sports and tourism better education of the population at risk is essential.

  20. The EVE plus RHESSI DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Residual Non-Thermal X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTiernan, James; Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry

    2016-05-01

    Solar flare spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission in the soft X-ray energy range. The low energy extent of non-thermal emission can only be loosely quantified using currently available X-ray data. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) to calculate the Differential Emission Measure (DEM) for solar flares. This improvement over the isothermal approximation helps to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV.Previous work (Caspi et.al. 2014ApJ...788L..31C) concentrated on obtaining DEM models that fit both instruments' observations well. For this current project we are interested in breaks and cutoffs in the "residual" non-thermal spectrum; i.e., the RHESSI spectrum that is left over after the DEM has accounted for the bulk of the soft X-ray emission. As in our earlier work, thermal emission is modeled using a DEM that is parametrized as multiple gaussians in temperature. Non-thermal emission is modeled as a photon spectrum obtained using a thin-target emission model ('thin2' from the SolarSoft Xray IDL package). Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner.For this study, we have examined the DEM and non-thermal resuidual emission for a sample of relatively large (GOES M class and above) solar flares observed from 2011 to 2014. The results for the DEM and non-thermal parameters found using the combined EVE-RHESSI data are compared with those found using only RHESSI data.

  1. Images of Illness

    PubMed Central

    Longhurst, Mark F.

    1992-01-01

    The images we as physicians retain of our patients have a bearing on the evolution of our clinical behaviour and attributes. These images can enhance our diagnostic and therapeutic skills, increase our capacity to care for people with incurable diseases, and offer insights into our own emotional response. A recollection of five people with Parkinson's disease offers a college of images to give us further insights into the meaning of illness-for the patient and the physician. PMID:20469529

  2. Parasites and Foodborne Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... and Disease / Parasites and Foodborne Illness Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  3. Suicide in the Medically Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Douglas; Kleespies, Phillip

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between medical illness and suicide seems to be multi-faceted. While medical illness is not the sole determinant of suicide, certain illnesses, such as HIV/AIDS and brain cancers, do appear to elevate the risk of suicide. Possible effective prevention efforts include education of primary care providers, and improved medication…

  4. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  5. Suicide in the Medically Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Douglas; Kleespies, Phillip

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between medical illness and suicide seems to be multi-faceted. While medical illness is not the sole determinant of suicide, certain illnesses, such as HIV/AIDS and brain cancers, do appear to elevate the risk of suicide. Possible effective prevention efforts include education of primary care providers, and improved medication…

  6. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  7. Exercise Prevents Mental Illness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.

  8. [Enigma of Lenin's illness].

    PubMed

    Witztum, E; Lerner, V

    2002-04-01

    A difficult problem that arises periodically involves the physical and psychological problems of political leaders. Unlike the ordinary person, where the presence of physical or psychiatric disability that interferes with functioning will be revealed and will result in suspension from work responsibilities (e.g. pilot, bus driver, physician), the situation is different with regard to political leaders. Concerning the latter, the information may remain concealed because it is conceived of as stigmatizing, e.g., mental illness, and sexual disorder. The result of hiding such information is that sick leaders may continue to hold their positions of vast power in spite of their disability. Examples of world leaders who suffered from sustained disability as a result of incapacitating neurological or psychiatric illnesses, physical problems or medication effects include Woodrow Wilson, Franklin Roosevelt, Dwight Eisenhower, Winston Churchill and Conrad Adenauer. In the present article we will discuss in detail Lenins severe illness--whose differential diagnosis and real facts were kept hidden from the public--and the consequences of this cover-up.

  9. Advances in understanding illness anxiety.

    PubMed

    Harding, Kelli J; Skritskaya, Natalia; Doherty, Emily; Fallon, Brian A

    2008-08-01

    Illness anxiety, also known in its more severe form as hypochondriasis, is a debilitating and chronic condition in which normal bodily symptoms are misinterpreted as signs of serious medical illness. Patients suffer with the fear that they are ill despite reassurance to the contrary and often overuse medical services in the process. This article critically evaluates the recent literature on illness anxiety and related, medically unexplained symptoms, highlighting new and interesting findings in the areas of prevalence, classification/diagnosis, management, and evidence-based treatment and new frontiers in understanding illness anxiety, such as brain imaging, neuroimmunology, and cyberchondria.

  10. Illness, phenomenology, and philosophical method.

    PubMed

    Carel, Havi Hannah

    2013-08-01

    In this article, I propose that illness is philosophically revealing and can be used to explore human experience. I suggest that illness is a limit case of embodied experience. By pushing embodied experience to its limit, illness sheds light on normal experience, revealing its ordinary and thus overlooked structure. Illness produces a distancing effect, which allows us to observe normal human behavior and cognition via their pathological counterpart. I suggest that these characteristics warrant illness a philosophical role that has not been articulated. Illness can be used as a philosophical tool for the study of normally tacit aspects of human existence. I argue that illness itself can be integral to philosophical method, insofar as it facilitates a distancing from everyday practices. This method relies on pathological or limit cases to illuminate normally overlooked aspects of human perception and action. I offer Merleau-Ponty's analysis of the case of Schneider as an example of this method.

  11. Portraits of an illness

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Thomas P.

    2009-01-01

    Access to patients' inner lives can be expanded and enriched by incorporating the arts and humanities into the clinical encounter. A series of self-portraits created by an artist undergoing induction chemotherapy for leukemia afforded a unique opportunity to concentrate one's gaze upon the patient as a stimulus for reflection on suffering and isolation of patients. Poetry and theater were also invaluable in expanding the physician's awareness of the shared experience of illness. The process highlights the central role of the “New Humanities” in modern medicine, where science informs the arts and the arts inform science and medicine. PMID:19768179

  12. Gaius Caligula's mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sidwell, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The strange behavior of emperor Gaius has been the subject of debate for many historians. Some charge him with madness and attribute it to his illness in A.D. 37, whereas others believe it occurred later, or else had nothing to do with his sickness.We have no real evidence to reconstruct his mental state. Therefore speculations about madness are fruitless, as they can't be proven. Also, his madness belongs to a discourse which originates mainly from the senatorial narrative that sought to discredit him through any means possible. Thus, his acts should be seen from other angles, and the search for "mad Caligula" abandoned.

  13. Ionospheric ionization calculated from combined SolACES-SDO/EVE solar EUV spectra and comparison with global TEC at different time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Christoph; Unglaub, Claudia; Schmidtke, Gerhard; Schäfer, Robert; Brunner, Raimund; Woods, Tom; Jakowski, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    Ionospheric response to solar EUV variability during 2012 - 2014 is shown by the EUV-TEC proxy based on primary ionization calculations using combined solar spectra from SDO/EVE and SolACES on board the ISS. The in flight calibrated SolACES spectra have been used to calibrate the continuous SDO/EVE measurements. The results are compared with global TEC analyses. We found that EUV describes TEC variability better than conventional indices, especially during periods of strong solar flare activity. At time scales of the solar rotation, there is a time lag between EUV and TEC variability of about one day, indicating dynamical processes in the ionosphere. This lag is not seen at shorter time scales.

  14. Active Region Soft X-Ray Spectra and Temperature Analyses based on Sounding Rocket Measurements from the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), - a Modified SDO/EVE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, Leonid V.; Wieman, Seth; Woods, Thomas N.; Jones, Andrew; Moore, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Some initial results of soft x-ray spectral (0.5 to 3.0 nm) observations of active regions (AR11877 and AR11875) from a sounding rocket flight NASA 36.290 on 21 October 2013 at about 18:30 UT are reported. These observations were made by a Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), a rocket version of the EUV Variability Experiment’s (EVE) channel, a pinhole camera modified for EVE rocket suite of instruments to include a free-standing transmission grating (200 nm period), which provided spectrally-resolved images of the solar disk. Intensity ratios for strong emission lines extracted from temporally averaged SAM spectral profiles of the ARs were compared to appropriately convolved modeled CHIANTI spectra. These ratios represent the AR’s temperature structures, which are compared to the structures derived from some other observations and temperature models.

  15. [Sanitary service of West Special Military District on the eve and in the first days of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945].

    PubMed

    Shelepov, A M; Ishutin, O S; Leonik, S I

    2011-06-01

    This article evaluates military and political situation in the world and operational-strategic environment on the West Theater of operations on the eve of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945). We analyze structure and overall condition of sanitary service of West Special Military District of the Workers and Peasants Red Army and causes of failure of mobilization, organization and deployment of military units and establishments from the beginning of aggression of Fascist Germany to the Soviet Union.

  16. Chronically Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Sara L.; Daly, Barbara J.; Kelley, Carol Genet; O’Toole, Elizabeth; Montenegro, Hugo

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronically critically ill patients often have high costs of care and poor outcomes and thus might benefit from a disease management program. Objectives To evaluate how adding a disease management program to the usual care system affects outcomes after discharge from the hospital (mortality, health-related quality of life, resource use) in chronically critically ill patients. Methods In a prospective experimental design, 335 intensive care patients who received more than 3 days of mechanical ventilation at a university medical center were recruited. For 8 weeks after discharge, advanced practice nurses provided an intervention that focused on case management and interdisciplinary communication to patients in the experimental group. Results A total of 74.0% of the patients survived and completed the study. Significant predictors of death were age (P = .001), duration of mechanical ventilation (P = .001), and history of diabetes (P = .04). The disease management program did not have a significant impact on health-related quality of life; however, a greater percentage of patients in the experimental group than in the control group had “improved” physical health-related quality of life at the end of the intervention period (P = .02). The only significant effect of the intervention was a reduction in the number of days of hospital readmission and thus a reduction in charges associated with readmission. Conclusion The intervention was not associated with significant changes in any outcomes other than duration of readmission, but the supportive care coordination program could be provided without increasing overall charges. PMID:17724242

  17. Heat-related illness.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jonathan A; Stewart, Lynsey K

    2011-06-01

    Heat-related illness is a set of preventable conditions ranging from mild forms (e.g., heat exhaustion, heat cramps) to potentially fatal heat stroke. Hot and humid conditions challenge cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms. Once core temperature reaches 104°F (40°C), cellular damage occurs, initiating a cascade of events that may lead to organ failure and death. Early recognition of symptoms and accurate measurement of core temperature are crucial to rapid diagnosis. Milder forms of heat-related illness are manifested by symptoms such as headache, weakness, dizziness, and an inability to continue activity. These are managed by supportive measures including hydration and moving the patient to a cool place. Hyperthermia and central nervous system symptoms should prompt an evaluation for heat stroke. Initial treatments should focus on lowering core temperature through cold water immersion. Applying ice packs to the head, neck, axilla, and groin is an alternative. Additional measures include transporting the patient to a cool environment, removing excess clothing, and intravenous hydration. Delayed access to cooling is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with heat stroke. Identification of at-risk groups can help physicians and community health agencies provide preventive measures.

  18. The microbiome and critical illness

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    The central role of the microbiome in critical illness is supported by a half century of experimental and clinical study. The physiological effects of critical illness and the clinical interventions of intensive care substantially alter the microbiome. In turn, the microbiome predicts patients’ susceptibility to disease, and manipulation of the microbiome has prevented or modulated critical illness in animal models and clinical trials. This Review surveys the microbial ecology of critically ill patients, presents the facts and unanswered questions surrounding gut-derived sepsis, and explores the radically altered ecosystem of the injured alveolus. The revolution in culture-independent microbiology has provided the tools needed to target the microbiome rationally for the prevention and treatment of critical illness, holding great promise to improve the acute and chronic outcomes of the critically ill. PMID:26700442

  19. Defining Occupational Illnesses and Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    This technical report will discuss the definitions of occupational illnesses and injuries as established by the Occupational Safety and Health...Administration (OSHA). A systematic method for classifying an occupational event as either an illness or an injury will be presented. The Air Force is...required to collect occupational injury and illness data, to analyze collected data, and to establish preventive programs based upon any identified unsafe

  20. Protein requirement in critical illness.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2016-05-01

    How much protein do critically ill patients require? For the many decades that nutritional support has been used there was a broad consensus that critically ill patients need much more protein than required for normal health. Now, however, some clinical investigators recommend limiting all macronutrient provision during the early phase of critical illness. How did these conflicting recommendations emerge? Which of them is correct? This review explains the longstanding recommendation for generous protein provision in critical illness, analyzes the clinical trials now being claimed to refute it, and concludes with suggestions for clinical investigation and practice.

  1. Treating foodborne illness.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Theodore

    2013-09-01

    In healthy adults and children in developed countries, most foodborne and water-borne infections are short-lived and resolve without specific treatment. In developing areas, these infections may produce acute mortality and chronic morbidity caused by developmental impairment. Immune-compromised hosts are at increased risk of life-threatening complications. This article reviews recommendations for the treatment of the most common and important foodborne illnesses, focusing on those caused by infections or toxins of microbial origin. The cornerstone of life-saving treatment remains oral rehydration therapy, although the use of other supportive measures as well as antibiotics for certain infections is also recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Nutrition in critical illness].

    PubMed

    Ökrös, Ilona

    2014-12-21

    Critically ill patients are often unable to eat by themselves over a long period of time, sometimes for weeks. In the acute phase, serious protein-energy malnutrition may develop with progressive muscle weakness, which may result in assisted respiration of longer duration as well as longer stay in intensive care unit and hospital. In view of the metabolic processes, energy and protein intake targets should be defined and the performance of metabolism should be monitored. Enteral nutrition is primarily recommended. However, parenteral supplementation is often necessary because of the disrupted tolerance levels of the gastrointestinal system. Apparently, an early parenteral supplementation started within a week would be of no benefit. Some experts believe that muscle loss can be reduced by increased target levels of protein. Further studies are needed on the effect of immune system feeding, fatty acids and micronutrients.

  3. Neuroinflammation and psychiatric illness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence support the pathogenic role of neuroinflammation in psychiatric illness. While systemic autoimmune diseases are well-documented causes of neuropsychiatric disorders, synaptic autoimmune encephalitides with psychotic symptoms often go under-recognized. Parallel to the link between psychiatric symptoms and autoimmunity in autoimmune diseases, neuroimmunological abnormalities occur in classical psychiatric disorders (for example, major depressive, bipolar, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorders). Investigations into the pathophysiology of these conditions traditionally stressed dysregulation of the glutamatergic and monoaminergic systems, but the mechanisms causing these neurotransmitter abnormalities remained elusive. We review the link between autoimmunity and neuropsychiatric disorders, and the human and experimental evidence supporting the pathogenic role of neuroinflammation in selected classical psychiatric disorders. Understanding how psychosocial, genetic, immunological and neurotransmitter systems interact can reveal pathogenic clues and help target new preventive and symptomatic therapies. PMID:23547920

  4. Sounding Rocket Observations of Active Region Soft X-Ray Spectra Between 0.5 and 2.5 nm Using a Modified SDO/EVE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, Seth; Didkovsky, Leonid; Woods, Thomas; Jones, Andrew; Moore, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    Spectrally resolved measurements of individual solar active regions (ARs) in the soft X-ray (SXR) range are important for studying dynamic processes in the solar corona and their associated effects on the Earth's upper atmosphere. They are also a means of evaluating atomic data and elemental abundances used in physics-based solar spectral models. However, very few such measurements are available. We present spectral measurements of two individual ARs in the 0.5 to 2.5 nm range obtained on the NASA 36.290 sounding rocket flight of 21 October 2013 (at about 18:30 UT) using the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), a channel of the Extreme Ultaviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) payload designed for underflight calibrations of the orbital EVE on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The EVE rocket instrument is a duplicate of the EVE on SDO, except the SAM channel on the rocket version was modified in 2012 to include a freestanding transmission grating to provide spectrally resolved images of the solar disk with the best signal to noise ratio for the brightest features, such as ARs. Calibrations of the EVE sounding rocket instrument at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (NIST/SURF) have provided a measurement of the SAM absolute spectral response function and a mapping of wavelength separation in the grating diffraction pattern. We discuss techniques (incorporating the NIST/SURF data) for determining SXR spectra from the dispersed AR images as well as the resulting spectra for NOAA ARs 11877 and 11875 observed on the 2013 rocket flight. In comparisons with physics-based spectral models using the CHIANTI v8 atomic database we find that both AR spectra are in good agreement with isothermal spectra (4 MK), as well as spectra based on an AR differential emission measure (DEM) included with the CHIANTI distribution, with the exception of the relative intensities of strong Fe xvii lines associated with 2p6-2p53{s} and 2p6-2p

  5. Recreational water–related illness

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret; Takaro, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the risk factors, management, and prevention of recreational water–related illness in family practice. Sources of information Original and review articles from January 1998 to February 2012 were identified using PubMed and the search terms water-related illness, recreational water illness, and swimmer illness. Main message There is a 3% to 8% risk of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) after swimming. The high-risk groups for AGI are children younger than 5 years, especially if they have not been vaccinated for rotavirus, and elderly and immunocompromised patients. Children are at higher risk because they swallow more water when swimming, stay in the water longer, and play in the shallow water and sand, which are more contaminated. Participants in sports with a lot of water contact like triathlon and kite surfing are also at high risk, and even activities involving partial water contact like boating and fishing carry a 40% to 50% increase in risk of AGI compared with nonwater recreational activities. Stool cultures should be done when a recreational water illness is suspected, and the clinical dehydration scale is a useful clinical tool for assessing the treatment needs of affected children. Conclusion Recreational water illness is the main attributable cause of AGI during swimming season. Recognition that swimming is a substantial source of illness can help prevent recurrent and secondary cases. Rotavirus vaccine is highly recommended for children who will swim frequently. PMID:23673583

  6. Water Recreation and Illness Severity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Background: The health endpoint of prior studies of water recreation has been the occurrence gastrointestinal (GI) of illness. The use of this dichotomous health outcome fails to take into account the range of symptom severity among those with GI illness, as well as thos...

  7. Water Recreation and Illness Severity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Background: The health endpoint of prior studies of water recreation has been the occurrence gastrointestinal (GI) of illness. The use of this dichotomous health outcome fails to take into account the range of symptom severity among those with GI illness, as well as thos...

  8. Responding to Students' Chronic Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Steven R.; Glaser, Sarah E.; Stern, Melissa; Sferdenschi, Corina; McCabe, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic illnesses are long-term or permanent medical conditions that have recurring effects on everyday life. Large and growing number of students have chronic illnesses that affect their emotional development, physical development, academic performance, and family interactions. The primary error in educating those students is assuming that the…

  9. Children Coping with Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Lissette M.

    Children who live with chronic illness are confronted with challenges that frequently force them to cope in myriad ways. The ways in which children face chronic illness are summarized in this literature review. Also covered, are how the effects of family can influence coping strategies and how family members, especially parents, cope with their…

  10. Youth blogging and serious illness.

    PubMed

    Nesby, Linda; Salamonsen, Anita

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, a growing number of young people who experience illness tend to blog about it. In this paper, we question whether and how illness blogs illustrate the intercommunicative aspect of blogging by bringing forth both the literary concept of the implied reader and the sociological concepts of empowerment and agency in the analysis. We argue that young people blogging about serious illness demonstrate the inherent intercommunicative potential of blogging. We also argue that youth blogging about serious illness may represent a fruitful strategy for ill young people to create meaning, stay front-stage in youth communities and build self-esteem and confidence out of chaos. Furthermore, we argue that these blogs may contribute rather unique experience-based knowledge and reflections about existential issues to other young blog readers, who may otherwise not get access to this aspect of life. Youth blogging about serious illness thereby reflects a patient group so far not very visible and through the genre youth stand out as more competent when it comes to illness and healthcare issues than what is often presumed.

  11. Treatment of suspected heat illness.

    PubMed

    Eichner, E R

    1998-06-01

    1. Despite advances in the art and science of fluid balance, exertional heat illness -- even life-threatening heat stroke -- remains a threat for some athletes today. 2. Risk factors for heat illness include: being unacclimatized, unfit, or hypohydrated; certain illnesses or drugs; not drinking in long events; and a fast finishing pace. 3. Heat cramps typically occur in conditioned athletes who compete for hours in the sun. They can be prevented by increasing dietary salt and staying hydrated. 4. Early diagnosis of heat exhaustion can be vital. Early warning signs include: flushed face, hyperventilation, headache, dizziness, nausea, tingling arms, piloerection, chilliness, incoordination, and confusion. 5. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of heat illness include: confusion preventing self-diagnosis; the lack of trained spotters; rectal temperature not taken promptly; the problem of "seek not, find not;" and the mimicry of heat illness. 6. Heat stroke is a medical emergency. Mainstays of therapy include: emergency on-site cooling; intravenous fluids; treating hypoglycemia as needed; intravenous diazepam for seizures or severe cramping or shivering; and hospitalizing if response is slow or atypical. 7. The best treatment is prevention. Tips to avoiding heat illness include: rely not on thirst; drink on schedule; favor sports drinks; monitor weight; watch urine; shun caffeine and alcohol; key on meals for fluids and salt; stay cool when you can; and know the early warning signs of heat illness.

  12. [Religious beliefs, illness and death: family's perspectives in illness experience].

    PubMed

    Bousso, Regina Szylit; Poles, Kátia; Serafim, Taís de Souza; de Miranda, Mariana Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify predominant themes in religion, illness and death in the life histories of families and examine the relationship between religion creeds, illness and death in the discourse of families that have an ill person. The theoretical framework used in this study was Symbolic Interactionism and the method was Oral History. Participants were seventeen families with nine different religions, who had experienced the death of a relative. Data analysis showed that following a religion is a relevant part of the lives of many families and cannot be neglected in the illness context. Results point to the importance of understanding the meaning that religion has to the families in the health-disease process, so nurses can work on the promotion of health.

  13. [Non thyroidal illnesses (NTIS)].

    PubMed

    Luca, F; Goichot, B; Brue, T

    2010-09-01

    Abnormalities in the circulating levels of thyroid hormones, without evidence of coexisting thyroid or pituitary gland disease can be observed in all general diseases. These nonthyroidal illnesses (NTIS) are the result of complex mechanisms that combine the effect of some drugs, cytokines, nutritional and endocrine factors at all levels of the thyrotropic axis, from the hypothalamus to the cellular transporters and nuclear receptors of thyroid hormones. The patterns of NTIS depend on the underlying disease and its severity. Thirtyfive years after the initial description, the pathophysiological significance of these anomalies remains controversial. One of the dilemma of NTIS is whether the hormone responses represent an adaptive and normal, physiologic response to conserve energy and protect against hypercatabolism in case of aggression, or whether it is a maladaptive response contributing to a worsening of the disease. This debate is not just a theoretical question, because in the first case the process must be respected, in the other case a vigorous treatment to restore circulating thyroid hormone levels is justified. There have been very few clinical studies designed to address whether the substitution with thyroid hormone is advantageous, and there is at current time no permissive evidence for the use of thyroid hormone replacement in patients with NTIS. But the clinical context, the choice of the molecule or of the dose and the way of administration were not necessarily the most relevant. Theoretically, stimulation of thyreotrope axis used a continuous infusion of TRH seems to provide clinical benefit. With the expectation that randomized clinical trials will provide demonstration of NTIS treatment efficiency, the question might remain unanswered for several more years. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Doran M; Iddins, Carol J; Sugarman, Stephen L

    2014-02-01

    Although the spectrum of information related to diagnosis and management of radiation injuries and illnesses is vast and as radiation contamination incidents are rare, most emergency practitioners have had little to no practical experience with such cases. Exposures to ionizing radiation and internal contamination with radioactive materials can cause significant tissue damage and conditions. Emergency practitioners unaware of ionizing radiation as the cause of a condition may miss the diagnosis of radiation-induced injury or illness. This article reviews the pertinent terms, physics, radiobiology, and medical management of radiation injuries and illnesses that may confront the emergency practitioner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mental illness and criminal violence.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, J A; Brennan, P A; Hodgins, S; Mednick, S A

    1998-12-01

    This article examines the relationship between criminal violence and mental illness. Our data suggest that mentally ill persons tend to have an increased risk for committing violent offenses, and that the violent offending by these individuals tends to be recidivistic. Our findings suggest that parents who have both committed violent offenses and experienced a psychiatric hospitalization increase the risk of violent offending among their offspring. We propose the hypothesis that mentally ill parents transmit a biological characteristic which may genetically predispose their child towards criminal violence. Prenatal disturbances during critical periods of fetal development may provide clues regarding the etiology of criminal violence.

  16. Personality and illness: genetic connections?

    PubMed

    Hobgood, Donna K

    2011-01-01

    Illness is strongly influenced by genetics. Personality traits are influenced by genetics and have linkages with, at least, affective illness. Because genetics influences both personality and illness, we studied by literature review the genes that illness and personality traits share and, by office assessment, our patient population's illnesses and personality traits. This led to the following hypothesis: illness is related to more Submissive than Dominant personality trait and thus to lower norepinephrine activity. Patient affect and personality are often noted to be subdued in chronic illness, but whether from cause or effect is difficult to determine. After reviewing the literature on wellness, personality and genes, we endeavored to explore and better delineate our impressions of illness and personality relationships and to set the stage for a genetic hypothesis by using an online personality test in an ob-gyn practice to determine which traits could be used as proxies for personality trait genes. We thus confirmed our clinical impression that women with psychiatric and/or medical illness have more Submissive personality. The medical literature on gene markers shared by Submissive personality and illness in our population suggests the hypothesis that this relationship could be mediated by genetically lower neurotransmitter activity. Both norepinephrine activity and monoamine oxidase A, the enzyme controlling its catabolism, are in concert to blunt neuronal activity in such diverse states as depression, asthma, obesity, autoimmune illness, and in smokers. Conversely, norepinephrine activity is enhanced in breastfeeders and in other settings known to be related to good health. A point for possible divergence from the hypothesis is that African-Americans have enhanced norepinephrine activity yet poorer health outcomes although the effect of environmental risk factors in African-Americans is considered prominent by researchers. The possible importance of this

  17. Freud, his illness, and ourselves.

    PubMed

    Haynal, André

    2008-06-01

    The history of Freud's illness shows that he tried to avoid confrontation with it, and to treat it as unimportant. In his personal letters, the ill body remains outside-as another person, "Konrad," not he himself-and it is not taken into account. Particularly in Freud's correspondence with Ferenczi, we realize to what extent certain phenomena, especially depressive ones, he considered somatic, with a tendency to dismiss them, and this despite important occasional insights, such as about the role played by hate in psychosomatic illnesses. In the post-Freudian development, these topics have been more and more integrated in the dialogue, in the discourse between the analyst and the analysand.

  18. Improving Communication About Serious Illness

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-07

    Critical Illness; Chronic Disease; Terminal Care; Palliative Care; Communication; Advance Care Planning; Neoplasm Metastasis; Lung Neoplasms; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive; Heart Failure; End Stage Liver Disease; Kidney Failure, Chronic

  19. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  20. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  1. The EVE plus RHESSI DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Residual Non-Thermal Soft X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTiernan, J. M.; Caspi, A.; Warren, H.

    2016-12-01

    We combine observations of solar flares from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) to calculate the Differential Emission Measure (DEM). This improvement over the isothermal approximation is intended to help to resolve ambiguities in the range where thermal and non-thermal emission overlap. For this current project we are interested in constraining cutoffs in the "residual" non-thermal spectrum; i.e., the RHESSI spectrum that is left over after the DEM has accounted for the bulk of the soft X-ray emission. (Previous work by Caspi et.al. 2014ApJ...788L..31C concentrated on obtaining DEM models that fit both instruments' observations well). Solar flare spectra are typically dominated by thermal bremsstrahlung emission in the soft X-ray (< 10 keV) energy range; at higher hard X-ray energies (> 30 keV) the emission is non-thermal from beams of electrons. The low energy extent of non-thermal emission can typically only be loosely quantified. In particular, it is difficult to obtain a lower limit for any possible non-thermal cutoff energy due to the larger amount of thermal emission. In this model, thermal emission is due to a DEM that is parametrized as multiple gaussians in Log(T). Non-thermal emission is modeled as a photon spectrum obtained using thin and thick-target emission models. Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner. Preliminary results have been obtained using a sample of 102 large (GOES X and M class) solar flares observed between February 2011 and February 2013. These results show that it is possible to determine low energy cutoffs and breaks early during large flares, and to get good values for the low energy limit to the non-thermal cutoff.

  2. Adam, Eve and the reflux enigma: age and sex differences across the gastro-oesophageal reflux spectrum.

    PubMed

    Royston, Christine; Bardhan, Karna D

    2017-06-01

    We present demographic differences across the gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) spectrum in a UK District General Hospital. Data were prospectively collected over 37 years. At endoscopy patients were categorized as: erosive oesophagitis (EO), Barrett's oesophagus (BO) or nonerosive reflux disease (NER). Analysis 1: comparison of EO, BO and NER 1977-2001 when the database for GORD without BO closed. Analysis 2: demographic differences in oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) in total BO population diagnosed 1977-2011. GORD 1977-2001 (n=11 944): sex, male predominance in EO and BO but not NER; male : female ratios, 1.81, 1.65, 0.87, respectively (P<0.0001); mean age at presentation, EO 54 years, BO 62 years, NER 50 years; women were older than men by 10, 7 and 6 years, respectively.BO 1977-2011: prevalent OAC, 87/1468 (6%); male : female ratio, 4.1 (P<0.0001); incident OAC, 54/1381 (3.9%); male : female ratio, 3.5 (P<0.0001). Among all BO, more men developed OAC (3 vs. 0.9%). Within each sex, proportion of OAC higher among men (4.9 vs. 2.3%); at OAC diagnosis women were slightly but not significantly older (69.9 vs. 72.3 years, P=0.322). Two views may explain our findings. First, women have either milder reflux, or reduced mucosal sensitivity hence reflux remains silent for longer. Alternatively, women genuinely develop reflux later, that is, are more protected and for longer from developing GORD and its complications. Early evidence is emerging that female sex hormones may indeed have a protective role in GORD during the reproductive period. We suggest reflux and its consequences may be an example of 'protection' conferred on Eve.

  3. The Multi-Instrument (EVE-RHESSI) DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Non-thermal Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTiernan, J. M.; Caspi, A.; Warren, H. P.

    2013-12-01

    Observations of hard X-ray bremmstrahlung from solar flares directly probe the non-thermal electron population. For low energies, however, the spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission and the low energy extent of the non-thermal spectrum can be only loosely quantified. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). For a sample of solar flares, we model the emission using a Differential Emission Measure (DEM) for the thermal emission seen with both instruments and a power law fit for the non-thermal emission observed by RHESSI. Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner. This improvement over the traditional isothermal approximation for thermal flare emission is intended to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV for medium to large solar flares. It is expected that a low energy cutoff of the non-thermal electron spectrum is in this energy range, but is obscured by thermal emission. For each flare in the sample we establish limits for the low energy cutoff of the non-thermal spectrum. These limits, in turn, can be used to establish limits on the energy of non-thermal electrons accelerated during the flare. This research is supported by NASA contract NAS5-98033 and NASA Heliophysics Guest Investigator Grant NNX12AH48G.

  4. The Ubiquity of Chronic Illness.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Claudia; Fleischer, Soraya; Rui, Taniele

    2016-01-01

    This is a review of five different books dealing with some aspect of what might be termed a "chronic illness" - Alzheimer's disease, lupus, addiction, erectile dysfunction, and leprosy. The array of different subjects examined in these books points to the negotiable limits of this hugely open category. What exactly constitutes an "illness"? Why not use a less biomedical term instead: "disturbance", "problem", or simply "condition"? And how are we to understand "chronic" - simply as the flipside of "acute" or "curable"?

  5. Heat Illness - A Practical Primer.

    PubMed

    Raukar, Neha; Lemieux, Renee; Finn, George; Stearns, Rebecca; Casa, Douglas J

    2015-07-01

    Heat stroke is one of the top three causes of death for athletes. Vigilance is required to prevent these illnesses and when faced with an individual who is suffering an exertional heat stroke, the goal is to aggressively cool the patient to 102°F within 30 minutes to optimize survival. The elderly are also at risk for heat illness and physicians caring for these patients should discuss prevention and treatment plans.

  6. Delayed puberty in chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Jesús; Argente, Jesús

    2002-03-01

    Delayed puberty can be defined as the lack of pubertal development at an age of 2 SD above the mean, which corresponds to an age of approximately 14 years for males and 13 years for females, taking both sex and ethnic origin into consideration. Its incidence associated with chronic illnesses is unknown; however, its clinical importance is relevant due to the larger percentage of patients with chronic disorders surviving until the age of puberty. Virtually every child with any chronic disease could present with delayed puberty (due to recurrent infections, immunodeficiency, gastrointestinal disease, renal disturbances, respiratory illnesses, chronic anaemia, endocrine disease, eating disorders, exercise and a number of miscellaneous abnormalities). Pubertal delay associated with chronic illness is accompanied by a delay in growth and the pubertal growth spurt. The degree to which growth and pubertal development are affected in chronic illness depends upon the type of disease and individual factors, as well as on the age at illness onset, its duration and severity. The earlier its onset and the longer and more severe the illness, the greater the repercussions on growth and pubertal development. The mechanism that trigger the start of physiological puberty remain unknown. Although malnutrition is probably the most important mechanism responsible for delayed puberty, emotional deprivation, toxic substances, stress and the side effects of chronic therapy, among others, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of delayed puberty. Therefore, early diagnosis is essential and appropriate and specific therapy fundamental.

  7. Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, D J; Blackwood, D H R; Porteous, D J; Pickard, B S; Muir, W J

    2003-03-01

    Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness are reviewed along with supporting evidence that this may amount to an association. Chromosomal abnormalities are considered to be of possible significance if (a) the abnormality is rare and there are independent reports of its coexistence with psychiatric illness, or (b) there is colocalisation of the abnormality with a region of suggestive linkage findings, or (c) there is an apparent cosegregation of the abnormality with psychiatric illness within the individual's family. Breakpoints have been described within many of the loci suggested by linkage studies and these findings support the hypothesis that shared susceptibility factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may exist. If these abnormalities directly disrupt coding regions, then combining molecular genetic breakpoint cloning with bioinformatic sequence analysis may be a method of rapidly identifying candidate genes. Full karyotyping of individuals with psychotic illness especially where this coexists with mild learning disability, dysmorphism or a strong family history of mental disorder is encouraged.

  8. Mental illness and Egyptian families.

    PubMed

    Endrawes, Gihane; O'Brien, Louise; Wilkes, Lesley

    2007-06-01

    People from Egypt have cultural belief systems about mental illness and its causes that are at variance from Anglo-Saxon-derived understandings that predominate in Australian psychiatry. These differences in understanding can affect how mental health services are experienced and accepted by this cultural group. This paper is a review of the literature on Egyptians' beliefs about mental illness and how families in Egypt cope with a relative with mental illness. Because of limited literature on Egyptians' experience with mental illness in Australia, this paper will be used to shed some light on the way in which people experience mental illness and communicate this suffering in the Australian context, based on what has been known to occur in Egypt. The Zar cult and related practices focusing on belief in the evil eye, magic, and evil possession will be explored. Historical and contemporary mental health care systems in Egypt, and the influence of education and religion are discussed. In order to provide culturally sensitive care, nurses need to be aware of possible influences on belief systems about mental illness. This paper has the potential of helping nurses to gain a deeper understanding of cultures that differ from theirs and to provide care to clients and their families based on respect for the others' beliefs, values, and practices.

  9. [Gustave Flaubert's illness].

    PubMed

    Gastaut, H; Gastaut, Y

    1982-01-01

    All those interested in Gustave Flaubert's illness, during his lifetime as well as after his death, have agreed that he had epilepsy. The one important exception is Jean-Paul Sartre, who, in the 2800 pages of his "Idiot de la famille" claimed that Flaubert was a hysteric with very moderate intelligence who somatized his neurosis in the form of seizures. These, in Sartre's views, were moreover probably hysterical, but possibly epileptic resulting from the existence of a psychogenic epilepsy bred from the neurosis. The basis for this neurosis could have originated at the time of Gustave's birth, as this occurred between those of two brothers who both died young, and as his mother had wished for a daughter. Further development of the neurosis might have taken place during a temporary phase of learning difficulties, exaggerated and exploited by his father to make his youngest son the idiot of a family in which the eldest son was the dauphin. Destroyed in this way, Gustave would have sought refuge in passivity and could have developed a hatred for his father and for his elder brother, who he would have liked to kill before killing himself. But, unable to carry out his wishes and desiring both to die and to survive, Gustave, adolescent, might have chosen the pathway of "false deaths", as exemplified by the seizures. Modern epileptology data enables not only to confirm the epileptic etiology and to discount the hysterical nature of the fits, but also: 1. to establish precise details of the site and nature of the cerebral lesions responsible for the attacks: neonatal atrophy or vascular malformation of the occipitotemporal cortex of the left hemisphere, the only lesion capable of provoking: a) the phosphenes marking the onset of the seizures; b) the intellectual manifestations (forced thoughts or flight of ideas), affective features (panic terror), and psychosensory (ecmnesic hallucinations) or psychomotor (confusional automatism) symptoms accompanying some attacks; c) the

  10. Cognitions and Procedures in Response to Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefenbach, Michael A.; And Others

    Recent research in illness has stressed the importance of constructive processes as determinants for coping and appraisal with illnesses. The goal of this study was to construct a lexicon of cognitive and behavioral responses people employ to cope with illness. Undergraduate college students (N=105) were given two illness scenarios describing the…

  11. Illness in the Returned International Traveler.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Christopher A; Fung, Claire

    2016-03-01

    Familiarity with the distribution, mode of transmission, and risk factors for acquisition of illnesses commonly transmitted to travelers to low-income nations can help guide clinicians in their work-up of an ill returned traveler. The 3 most common categories of illness in returned international travelers are gastrointestinal illness, fever, and dermatoses. Diarrhea is the most common illness reported in returned international travelers. Fever is a marker of a potentially significant illness; work-up of the ill febrile returned traveler should be conducted promptly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Swallowing Dysfunction After Critical Illness

    PubMed Central

    White, S. David; Moss, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Critical care practitioners must frequently make decisions about their patients’ ability to swallow food, liquids, and pills. These decisions can be particularly difficult given the incompletely defined epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, and prognostic features of swallowing disorders in critically ill patients. Furthermore, the consequences of improper decisions—namely, aspiration, malnutrition, hunger, and thirst—can be devastating to patients and their families. This review outlines the problem of swallowing dysfunction in critically ill patients and then addresses the most clinically relevant questions that critical care practitioners face today. First, we review the epidemiology of swallowing dysfunction in critically ill patients. Next, we describe the different diagnostic tests for swallowing dysfunction and describe a general approach to the initial assessment for swallowing disorders. Finally, we explore the existing treatments for swallowing dysfunction. Given the burden of swallowing dysfunction in patients recovering from critical illness, enabling critical care practitioners to manage these disorders, while stimulating new investigation into their pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management, will enhance our care of critically ill patients. PMID:25451355

  13. Somali Refugees' Perceptions of Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Bettmann, Joanna E; Penney, Deb; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela; Lecy, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 13% of the U.S. population is comprised of foreign-born individuals, with Somalis constituting one of the largest resettled groups. Research suggests that, among Somali refugees, rates of mental illness are high. Yet research shows Somalis underutilize mental health services. Understanding their perceptions of mental illness and its cures may help practitioners to design more effective treatments for this population. Thus, this pilot study investigated Somali refugees' perceptions of mental illness and its treatments. Using purposive sampling, this qualitative study interviewed 20 Somali refugees using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative analysis yielded participants' perceptions of mental illness through their descriptions of physical symptoms accompanying mental illness, the stigma of mental illness, causes of mental illness, medical and non-medical treatments for mental illness, spirit possession causing mental illness, and the Qur'an as treatment for mental illness. Such information may help practitioners in the United States approach Somali clients in the most culturally coherent manner.

  14. Concepts of illness in Icelandic children.

    PubMed

    Hansdottir, I; Malcarne, V L

    1998-06-01

    To investigate the development of illness concepts among healthy Icelandic children. Participants were 68 schoolchildren, 6-7, 10-11, and 14-15 years of age, and their parents. Cognitive developmental level and understanding of physical illness were assessed within a Piagetian framework. In addition, illness experience and illness behaviors (Child Illness Behavior Questionnaire) were assessed. Results were consistent with previous studies in that the development of illness concepts among Icelandic children was consistent with Piaget's theory of cognitive development. No relation was found between illness experience and understanding of illness. A more mature understanding of illness was related to willingness to report the onset of illness. The results suggest that findings from previous studies may be generalized to a broader population.

  15. Polyneuropathy in critically ill patients.

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, C F; Gilbert, J J; Hahn, A F; Sibbald, W J

    1984-01-01

    Five patients developed a severe motor and sensory polyneuropathy at the peak of critical illness (sepsis and multiorgan dysfunction complicating a variety of primary illnesses). Difficulties in weaning from the ventilator as the critical illness subsided and the development of flaccid and areflexic limbs were early clinical signs. However, electrophysiological studies, especially needle electrode examination of skeletal muscle, provided the definite evidence of polyneuropathy. The cause is uncertain, but the electrophysiological and morphological features indicate a primary axonal polyneuropathy with sparing of the central nervous system. Nutritional factors may have played a role, since the polyneuropathy improved in all five patients after total parenteral nutrition had been started, including the three patients who later died of unrelated causes. The features allow diagnosis during life, and encourage continued intensive management since recovery from the polyneuropathy may occur. Images PMID:6094735

  16. Circadian Rhythms and Psychiatric Illness

    PubMed Central

    Asarnow, Lauren D.; Soehner, Adriane M.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The present review provides a conceptual introduction to sleep and circadian research in psychiatric illness, and discusses recent experimental and intervention findings in this area. Recent Findings In this review, studies published since January 2011 on circadian disturbance and psychiatric illness have been summarized. Summary Exciting new results have increasingly utilized objective and validated instruments to measure the circadian system in experimental studies. Since 2011, treatment research has still predominantly utilized self-report measures as outcome variables. However, research in the treatment domain for sleep/circadian disturbances comorbid with psychiatric illness has advanced the field in its work to broaden the validation of existing sleep treatments to additional patient populations with comorbid sleep/circadian disruptions, address how to increase access to and affordability of treatment for sleep and circadian dysfunction for patients with psychiatric disorders, and how to combine psychosocial treatments with psychopharmacology to optimize treatment outcomes. PMID:24060916

  17. Carrion's disease: an eradicable illness?

    PubMed

    Gomes, Cláudia; Pons, Maria J; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2016-12-01

    Carrion's disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by Bartonella bacilliformis, a vector-borne pathogen restricted to the Andean valleys of Peru, Ecuador and Colombia. Carrion's disease is a biphasic illness; in the acute phase the case-fatality rate can be as high as 88 %, related to high parasitemia, arriving to almost all erythrocytes, and secondary bacterial infections close related with the development of transient immunosuppression in the earlier illness phases. In addition, there are an undefined number of asymptomatic carriers that are reservoirs of the etiological agent of Carrion's disease in endemic areas, they make take into account due to they are the perpetuators of this disease. The actual scenario of Carrion's disease, in which the illness is arriving to new areas, due to the expansion of the vector's distribution, suggests that now may be a crucial time to design a strategy focusing on its elimination.

  18. Rehabilitation of mentally ill women

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Rajni; Hashim, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Women, the fair sex, are principal providers of care and support to families. But, they are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. The provision of Rehabilitation for mentally ill women has been, and still is, one of the major challenges for mental health systems reform in the last decades, for various reasons. The present paper discusses the global and Indian scenario of rehabilitation of mentally ill women and goes on to detail the contribution of the state and voluntary agencies in this regard. It explores the need of recovery, multilayered strategy of Rehabilitation services and the availability of present services. The stigma attached and legal defects which interfere in good quality of life for the mentally ill women are reviewed. Strategies for changes in future are recommended. PMID:26330653

  19. [Illness behavior in chronic pain].

    PubMed

    Lavielle, Pilar; Clark, Patricia; Martínez, Homero; Mercado, Francisco; Ryan, Gery

    2008-01-01

    To describe the illness behaviour in patients with chronic pain. We conducted semi-structured interviews to 53 patients during 2000, in a tertiary care center. We explored their initial interpretations, responses and subsequent practices to chronic pain, until they received a diagnosis that satisfied them. Illness behaviour was determined by pain intensity and disability; beliefs regarding pain causes, trust in social networks, and quality and satisfaction with the health care systems. In terms of the decision to seek care, the first option was to go to the popular sector, followed by consulting a general physician, and as last resort, to go to a tertiary care center ("with a specialist"). Illness behaviour should be conceptualized as a process, which combines the use of different health care sectors by the same subjects, as a result of care provided sequentially by each previous sector.

  20. Serious Illness Conversations in ESRD.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Ernest I; Bernacki, Rachelle E; Block, Susan D

    2016-12-28

    Dialysis-dependent ESRD is a serious illness with high disease burden, morbidity, and mortality. Mortality in the first year on dialysis for individuals over age 75 years old approaches 40%, and even those with better prognoses face multiple hospitalizations and declining functional status. In the last month of life, patients on dialysis over age 65 years old experience higher rates of hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, procedures, and death in hospital than patients with cancer or heart failure, while using hospice services less. This high intensity of care is often inconsistent with the wishes of patients on dialysis but persists due to failure to explore or discuss patient goals, values, and preferences in the context of their serious illness. Fewer than 10% of patients on dialysis report having had a conversation about goals, values, and preferences with their nephrologist, although nearly 90% report wanting this conversation. Many nephrologists shy away from these conversations, because they do not wish to upset their patients, feel that there is too much uncertainty in their ability to predict prognosis, are insecure in their skills at broaching the topic, or have difficulty incorporating the conversations into their clinical workflow. In multiple studies, timely discussions about serious illness care goals, however, have been associated with enhanced goal-consistent care, improved quality of life, and positive family outcomes without an increase in patient distress or anxiety. In this special feature article, we will (1) identify the barriers to serious illness conversations in the dialysis population, (2) review best practices in and specific approaches to conducting serious illness conversations, and (3) offer solutions to overcome barriers as well as practical advice, including specific language and tools, to implement serious illness conversations in the dialysis population.

  1. Nutrition of critically ill horses.

    PubMed

    Carr, Elizabeth A; Holcombe, Susan J

    2009-04-01

    Nutritional supplementation is becoming the standard of practice in equine medicine, although there are minimal data on nutritional support in critically ill horses and its association or effect on morbidity and mortality or length of hospital stay. Horses can be fed orally and when that is not possible, intravenously or parenterally. Enteral feeding is less expensive, more physiologic, improves immunity, and is easier and safer. This article reviews available information on the development of a nutritional plan for critically ill horses, and describes methods for and complications of enteral and parenteral feeding.

  2. Presumptive nonthyroidal illness syndrome in critically ill foals.

    PubMed

    Himler, M; Hurcombe, S D A; Griffin, A; Barsnick, R J; Rathgeber, R A; MacGillivray, K C; Toribio, R E

    2012-02-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis dysfunction is associated with morbidity and mortality in critically ill people. To date, investigations of HPT axis in critically ill foals are limited. To document the occurrence of low thyroid hormone concentrations (presumptive nonthyroidal illness syndrome; NTIS) in critically ill newborn foals and investigate whether NTIS is associated with severity of disease and outcome. NTIS occurs frequently in foals with sepsis and is associated with sepsis score and outcome. Reverse T3 (rT3) concentrations will be increased in septic foals and highest in nonsurvivors. Thyroid hormones (total and free thyroxine [TT4 and fT4], total and free tri-iodothyronine [TT3 and fT3], reverse T3 [rT3]) were prospectively measured in healthy, sick nonseptic and septic foals. Clinical and laboratory information was retrieved from the medical records. Hormones were measured by validated radioimmunoassays. Concentrations of all thyroid hormones except rT3 (P = 0.69) were decreased in septic and sick nonseptic foals (P < 0.01). Reductions in hormone concentrations were associated with an increased sepsis score (P < 0.01). Nonsurviving septic foals had lower TT4, fT4, TT3 and fT3 concentrations than surviving septic foals (P < 0.01). rT3 concentrations were higher in nonsurviving septic prematurefoals than surviving septic premature foals (P < 0.05). NTIS (euthyroid sick syndrome) is frequently observed in critically ill and premature foals, and associated with severity of disease and mortality. More research is needed to better understand the mechanism of this finding and determine whether manipulation of the HPT axis or thyroid replacement therapy could be beneficial.

  3. Assessing illness- and non-illness-based motivations for violence in persons with major mental illness.

    PubMed

    Penney, Stephanie R; Morgan, Andrew; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2016-02-01

    Research on violence perpetrated by individuals with major mental illness (MMI) typically focuses on the presence of specific psychotic symptoms near the time of the violent act. This approach does not distinguish whether symptoms actually motivate the violence or were merely present at the material time. It also does not consider the possibility that non-illness-related factors (e.g., anger, substance use), or multiple motivations, may have been operative in driving violence. The failure to make these distinctions clouds our ability to understand the origins of violence in people with MMI, to accurately assess risk and criminal responsibility, and to appropriately target interventions to reduce and manage risk. This study describes the development of a new coding instrument designed to assess motivations for violence and offending among individuals with MMI, and reports on the scheme's interrater reliability. Using 72 psychiatric reports which had been submitted to the court to assist in determining criminal responsibility, we found that independent raters were able to assess different motivational influences for violence with a satisfactory degree of consistency. More than three-quarters (79.2%) of the sample were judged to have committed an act of violence as a primary result of illness, whereas 20.8% were deemed to have offended as a result of illness in conjunction with other non-illness-based motivating influences. Current findings have relevance for clarifying the rate of illness-driven violence among psychiatric patients, as well as legal and clinical issues related to violence risk and criminal responsibility more broadly.

  4. The critically ill immunosuppressed patient

    SciTech Connect

    Parrillo, J.E.; Masur, H. )

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the papers on the diagnosis and management of immunosuppressed patient. Some of the topics are: life-threatening organ failure in immunosuppressed patients; diagnosis and therapy of respiratory disease in the immunosuppressed patient; CNS complication of immunosuppression; infections; antineoplastic therapy of immunosuppressed patient; radiation therapy-issues in critically ill patient; AIDS; and management of bone marrow transplant patients.

  5. Nonthyroidal illness syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Marks, Seth D

    2009-12-01

    Neuroendocrine changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis during critical illness result in nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) characterized by abnormal thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid hormone levels. Studies looking at the natural history of neuroendocrine changes during critical illness have revealed the presence of NTIS. NTIS has been described in a variety of patient settings. Many studies have tried to uncover the pathophysiology behind NTIS and several theories are proposed. Whether NTIS requires treatment or intervention is still controversial and the results of the treatment studies are arguably mixed. Whether implicitly stated or not, the underlying purpose of all the natural history, pathophysiology, or treatment studies is to determine whether NTIS is adaptive or maladaptive. Some studies have illustrated a correlation between illness severity and the degree of NTIS but a cause and effect relationship is still elusive. The human studies can be divided between those with either adult or pediatric subjects, with much less data available in the latter. This review examines the available literature on NTIS with an emphasis on the pediatric literature.

  6. Illness, suffering and voluntary euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Varelius, Jukka

    2007-02-01

    It is often accepted that we may legitimately speak about voluntary euthanasia only in cases of persons who are suffering because they are incurably injured or have an incurable disease. This article argues that when we consider the moral acceptability of voluntary euthanasia, we have no good reason to concentrate only on persons who are ill or injured and suffering.

  7. Program for the Chronically Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenherr, Arline; Schnarr, Barbara

    The program for chronically ill students in the Detroit public schools is described. Forms are presented listing needed information and implications for teachers of the following conditions: diabetes, sickle cell anemia, chronic renal failure, congenital heart disease, hemophilia, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, leukemia, and cystic fibrosis. The…

  8. Marriage, mental illness and law

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Reddy, Karri Rama; Kamath, Rabindra Mukund

    2015-01-01

    The Special Marriage Act (SMA), 1954 and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955 have put restrictions on the marriage of persons with mental illness, which are proving to be detrimental to patients and their families. There is an urgent need to address this problem. The deficiencies in the existing legislation have been projected and constructive suggestions have been put forward. PMID:26330652

  9. Family Therapy and Psychosomatic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Edward M.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the use of family therapy in dealing with illnesses such as childhood diabetes, asthma, pain, and anorexia nervosa. Marital and family therapy may be effective in treating some psychosomatic problems. Family assessment is helpful in the management of all psychosomatic problems. (Author/JAC)

  10. Teaching the Terminally Ill Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsa, Trisha

    1981-01-01

    Classroom teachers of terminally ill children face potentially difficult, challenging, rewarding and professionally expanding experiences which require an understanding of the basic needs of the dying. Strategies for teaching such children include literature, writing, role playing, magic circle discussions, play therapy, art therapy, counseling,…

  11. Foodborne illness and microbial agents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foodborne illnesses result from the consumption of food containing microbial agents such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or food contaminated by poisonous chemicals or bio-toxins. Pathogen proliferation is due to nutrient composition of foods, which are capable of supporting the growth of microorgan...

  12. Diarrhoea in the critically ill.

    PubMed

    Reintam Blaser, Annika; Deane, Adam M; Fruhwald, Sonja

    2015-04-01

    To summarize existing evidence on definition, epidemiology, mechanisms, risk factors, consequences, outcome and management of diarrhoea in the critically ill. In health, diarrhoea is defined as the passage of three or more loose or liquid stools per day. In the critically ill, the diagnosis is yet to be formalized and reported prevalence of diarrhoea varies according to the definition used. Recent studies estimate the prevalence between 14 and 21% and describe risk factors for diarrhoea in critically ill patients. The precipitant of diarrhoea always needs to be identified, as targeted therapies are important for several causes. Although the majority of patients with diarrhoea require only supportive care, it is always essential to exclude, or confirm and treat infectious diarrhoea. There is little evidence to support delaying or withdrawing provision of enteral nutrition in patients with diarrhoea, and we recommend continuing enteral nutrition whenever possible. However, the consequences of diarrhoea - hypovolaemia, electrolyte disturbances, malnutrition, skin lesions and contamination of wounds - should be avoided or at least recognized promptly. A definition of diarrhoea and a practical approach to identify the precipitant and to manage diarrhoea in critically ill patients are proposed.

  13. Program for the Chronically Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenherr, Arline; Schnarr, Barbara

    The program for chronically ill students in the Detroit public schools is described. Forms are presented listing needed information and implications for teachers of the following conditions: diabetes, sickle cell anemia, chronic renal failure, congenital heart disease, hemophilia, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, leukemia, and cystic fibrosis. The…

  14. Mental Illness Disclosure Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Pahwa, Rohini; Fulginiti, Anthony; Brekke, John S; Rice, Eric

    2017-04-10

    Disclosure related to mental illness has been linked to various positive outcomes, including better mental health. However, many individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) continue to practice non-disclosure. Even though disclosure inherently occurs within the context of one's social relationships, research has generally conceptualized mental illness disclosure as an individual level phenomenon and neglected to consider preferences concerning to whom an individual discloses and the factors that influence this decision. The current study uses the disclosure decision-making model (DD-MM) by Greene (2009) to better understand the processes of mental illness disclosure preference and selective disclosure for individuals with SMI (n = 60) using multivariate random intercept logistic regression with an emphasis on the constituent factors of disclosure preference at both individual and relational levels. The majority of participants were found to practice selective disclosure, with 68% of the participants identifying at least 1 network member to whom they could disclose. Family members and friends were central to the selective disclosure process, comprising the greatest proportion of network members who, both were and were not identified as preferred confidants. Women were found to show higher odds of preference for mental illness disclosure than men. Having lower perceived social support was associated with lower odds of disclosure preference. Among relational factors, greater relationship availability and lower dyadic tangible social support were associated with lower odds of disclosure preference. Practice and research implications of using social network analysis to get a deeper understanding of disclosure and disclosure preference are discussed, including implications for future interventions targeting stigma reduction. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Communication About Chronic Critical Illness

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Judith E.; Mercado, Alice F.; Camhi, Sharon L.; Tandon, Nidhi; Wallenstein, Sylvan; August, Gary I.; Morrison, R. Sean

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite poor outcomes, life-sustaining treatments including mechanical ventilation are continued for a large and growing population of patients with chronic critical illness. This may be owing in part to a lack of understanding resulting from inadequate communication between clinicians and patients and families. Our objective was to investigate the informational needs of patients with chronic critical illness and their families and the extent to which these needs are met. Methods In this prospective observational study conducted at 5 adult intensive care units in a large, university-affiliated hospital in New York, New York, 100 patients with chronic critical illness (within 3–7 days of elective tracheotomy for prolonged mechanical ventilation) or surrogates for incapacitated patients were surveyed using an 18-item questionnaire addressing communication about chronic critical illness. Main outcome measures included ratings of importance and reports of whether information was received about questionnaire items. Results Among 125 consecutive, eligible patients, 100 (80%) were enrolled; questionnaire respondents included 2 patients and 98 surrogates. For all items, more than 78% of respondents rated the information as important for decision making (>98% for 16 of 18 items). Respondents reported receiving no information for a mean (SD) of 9.0 (3.3) of 18 items, with 95% of respondents reporting not receiving information for approximately one-quarter of the items. Of the subjects rating the item as important, 77 of 96 (80%) and 69 of 74 (93%) reported receiving no information about expected functional status at hospital discharge and prognosis for 1-year survival, respectively. Conclusions Many patients and their families may lack important information for decision making about continuation of treatment in the chronic phase of critical illness. Strategies for effective communication in this clinical context should be investigated and implemented. PMID

  16. Life Event, Stress and Illness

    PubMed Central

    Salleh, Mohd. Razali

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between stress and illness is complex. The susceptibility to stress varies from person to person. Among the factors that influenced the susceptibility to stress are genetic vulnerability, coping style, type of personality and social support. Not all stress has negative effect. Studies have shown that short-term stress boosted the immune system, but chronic stress has a significant effect on the immune system that ultimately manifest an illness. It raises catecholamine and suppressor T cells levels, which suppress the immune system. This suppression, in turn raises the risk of viral infection. Stress also leads to the release of histamine, which can trigger severe broncho-constriction in asthmatics. Stress increases the risk for diabetes mellitus, especially in overweight individuals, since psychological stress alters insulin needs. Stress also alters the acid concentration in the stomach, which can lead to peptic ulcers, stress ulcers or ulcerative colitis. Chronic stress can also lead to plaque buildup in the arteries (atherosclerosis), especially if combined with a high-fat diet and sedentary living. The correlation between stressful life events and psychiatric illness is stronger than the correlation with medical or physical illness. The relationship of stress with psychiatric illness is strongest in neuroses, which is followed by depression and schizophrenia. There is no scientific evidence of a direct cause-and-effect relationship between the immune system changes and the development of cancer. However, recent studies found a link between stress, tumour development and suppression of natural killer (NK) cells, which is actively involved in preventing metastasis and destroying small metastases. PMID:22589633

  17. Multi-symptom illnesses, unexplained illness and Gulf War Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Khalida; Lewis, Glyn

    2006-01-01

    Explanatory models for the increased prevalence of ill health in Gulf veterans compared to those not deployed to the Gulf War 1990–1991 remain elusive. This article addresses whether multi-symptom reporting in Gulf veterans are types of medically unexplained symptoms and whether the alleged Gulf War Syndrome is best understood as a medically unexplained syndrome. A review of the epidemiological studies, overwhelmingly cross-sectional, describing ill health was conducted including those that used factor analysis to search for underlying or latent clinical constructs. The overwhelming evidence was that symptoms in Gulf veterans were either in keeping with currently defined psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety or were medically unexplained. The application of factor analysis methods had varied widely with a risk of over interpretation in some studies and limiting the validity of their findings. We concluded that ill health in Gulf veterans and the alleged Gulf War Syndrome is best understood within the medically unexplained symptoms and syndromes constructs. The cause of increased reporting in Gulf veterans are still not clear and requires further inquiry into the interaction between sociological factors and symptomatic distress. PMID:16687260

  18. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... when someone experiences a mental illness and a substance abuse problem simultaneously. Dual diagnosis is a very broad ... person abuses heroin during periods of mania. Either substance abuse or mental illness can develop first. A person ...

  19. Mental Illness in Children: Know the Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... how you can help. By Mayo Clinic Staff Mental illness in children can be hard for parents to ... help they need. Understand the warning signs of mental illness in children and how you can help your ...

  20. Extensive scaling and nonuniformity of the Karhunen-Lo{grave e}ve decomposition for the spiral-defect chaos state

    SciTech Connect

    Zoldi, S.M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J.; Greenside, H.S.

    1998-12-01

    By analyzing large-aspect-ratio spiral-defect chaos (SDC) convection images, we show that the Karhunen-Lo{grave e}ve decomposition (KLD) scales extensively for subsystem sizes larger than 4d ({ital d} is the fluid depth), which strongly suggests that SDC is extensively chaotic. From this extensive scaling, the intensive length {xi}{sub KLD} is computed and found to have a different dependence on the Rayleigh number than the two-point correlation length {xi}{sub 2}. Local computations of {xi}{sub KLD} reveal a spatial nonuniformity of SDC images that extends over radii 18d{lt}r{lt}45d in a {Gamma}=109 aspect-ratio cell. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. SOLACES - Presenting the Level 3 dataset and a completion of the years 2010 to 2013 using the SDO/EVE experiment data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, Marcel; Brunner, Raimund; Schmidtke, Gerhard; Nikutowski, Bernd; Erhardt, Christian; Eparvier, Francis G.

    In October 2013 the SolACES Team published the Level 2 dataset. It is a compilation of over 500 spectra ranging from 16-58 nm for the time period of 2008 - 2010. To complete the time period until end of 2013 the SolACES Team will present the process of calculating calibrated spectral data from spectrometer and ionization chamber measurements. We will also present a modelling process generating calibrated spectra directly from ionization chamber measurements. The evaluated dataset is interpolated using time series coming from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) - Extreme ultraviolet variability experiment (EVE) generating a full time series of data from the beginning of 2011 to the end of 2013.

  2. C.T. Jackson's 15 October 1846 letter to J.-B.A.L. Elie de Beaumont: Jackson's thoughts on Ether Day's Eve?

    PubMed

    Bause, George S; Sim, Patrick P

    2011-01-01

    As did the previous letter on 30 November 1845 from Charles T. Jackson to J.-B.A.L. Elie de Beaumont, this 15 October 1846 missive underscores the cordial professional relationship between the two geologists. Remarkably, in this "Ether Day's Eve" letter, Jackson never reveals whether he had any clue that W.T.G. Morton would be publicly demonstrating ether anesthesia for surgery the next morning. More importantly, since Elie de Beaumont would play a future pivotal role in assigning initial credit for "discovering anesthesia" to his geological colleague Jackson, rather than to Morton, letters such as these from November of 1845 and October of 1846 can only raise more questions about the impartiality of Elie de Beaumont.

  3. 'Chronic' identities in mental illness.

    PubMed

    von Peter, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    The term 'chronicity' is still widely used in psychiatric discourse and practice. A category employed in political, administrative and therapeutic contexts, it guides practitioners' beliefs and actions. This paper attempts a review of the attitudes and procedures that result as a consequence of identifying 'chronically' disturbed identities in clinical practice. An essentially social, relational and materialist understanding of mental illness is used to highlight the kind of thinking underlying the notion of 'chronic' identities in day-to-day psychiatric routines. Problematising the notions of singularity and expressiveness, as well as mind/body- and self/other-distinctions, it claims the category itself is responsible for creating a 'chronic' kind of being. A spatial metaphor is presented in the conclusion, illustrating a mental strategy by which we can re-shape our thinking about 'chronic' identities. It attempts to describe how the shift from an epistemological to a praxeographic approach could build a more complete understanding of mental illness.

  4. Adult Neurogenesis and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407

  5. Hypernatremia in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Gregor; Funk, Georg-Christian

    2013-04-01

    Hypernatremia is common in intensive care units. It has detrimental effects on various physiologic functions and was shown to be an independent risk factor for increased mortality in critically ill patients. Mechanisms of hypernatremia include sodium gain and/or loss of free water and can be discriminated by clinical assessment and urine electrolyte analysis. Because many critically ill patients have impaired levels of consciousness, their water balance can no longer be regulated by thirst and water uptake but is managed by the physician. Therefore, the intensivists should be very careful to provide the adequate sodium and water balance for them. Hypernatremia is treated by the administration of free water and/or diuretics, which promote renal excretion of sodium. The rate of correction is critical and must be adjusted to the rapidity of the development of hypernatremia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bipolar illness, creativity, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, A

    2001-01-01

    There have been in recent years increasing claims in both popular and professional literature for a connection between bipolar illness and creativity. A review of studies supporting this claim reveals serious flaws in sampling, methodology, presentation of results, and conclusions. Although there is therefore no evidence for etiological or genetic linkages, it is still necessary to explain interrelationships in those creative persons suffering from the illness. Examples of the work in progress of artists with bipolar disorder, Jackson Pollock and Edvard Munch, illustrate the use of healthy and adaptive creative cognition--janusian and homospatial processes--in the former's breakthrough conception during an improvement phase in treatment leading to the development of the Abstract Expressionist Movement and in the latter's transformation of an hallucination into his famous artwork "The Scream." Treatment options that do not produce cognitive effects are important for creative persons with bipolar disorder.

  7. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations.

  8. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262

  9. Probiotics in critically ill children

    PubMed Central

    Singhi, Sunit C.; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and prevention of bacterial translocation. Enteral supplementation of probiotic strains containing either Lactobacillus alone or in combination with Bifidobacterium reduced the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in preterm infants. Orally administered Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were effective in the prevention of late-onset sepsis and GIT colonization by Candida in preterm very low birth weight infants. In critically ill children, probiotics are effective in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Oral administration of a mix of probiotics for 1 week to children on broad-spectrum antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit decreased GIT colonization by Candida, led to a 50% reduction in candiduria, and showed a trend toward decreased incidence of candidemia. However, routine use of probiotics cannot be supported on the basis of current scientific evidence. Safety of probiotics is also a concern; rarely, probiotics may cause bacteremia, fungemia, and sepsis in immunocompromised critically ill children. More studies are needed to answer questions on the effectiveness of a mix versus single-strain probiotics, optimum dosage regimens

  10. How are women living with HIV in France coping with their perceived side effects of antiretroviral therapy? Results from the EVE study.

    PubMed

    Quatremère, Guillemette; Guiguet, Marguerite; Girardi, Patricia; Liaud, Marie-Noëlle; Mey, Coline; Benkhoucha, Cynthia; Barbier, Franck; Cattaneo, Graciela; Simon, Anne; Rojas Castro, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Side effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) can have a negative impact on health-related quality of life threatening long-term retention in HIV care and adherence to ART. The aim of the French community-based survey EVE was to document personal experiences with side effects, the related physician-patient communication, and solutions found to deal with them. Cross-sectional study of women between September 2013 to September 2014. An anonymous online questionnaire included the HIV Symptom Distress Module, which explores 20 symptoms. In all, 301 women on ART participated in the study (median age: 49 years; median duration of ART: 14 years). They reported having experienced a median of 12 symptoms (Q1-Q3: 9-15) during the previous 12 months. Overall, 56% of them reported having found at least a partial solution to dealing with their symptoms. Women reporting financial difficulties were twice less likely to have found solutions to coping with their side effects (AOR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3-0.8). Feeling supported by the health-care provider (AOR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1-3.9) and being in contact with HIV/AIDS organisations (AOR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-3.2) were positively associated with coping. Seventeen percent reported having modified their ART regimen to improve tolerance, with only 2 in 3 informing their physician afterwards. Reporting financial difficulties and living with more bothersome symptoms increased the risk of ART regimen modification without health-care provider consultation. The EVE study has called attention to the large number of side effects experienced by WLWHIV, only half of whom have found self-care strategies to manage their symptoms. Modification of ART regimen by the women themselves was not uncommon.

  11. How are women living with HIV in France coping with their perceived side effects of antiretroviral therapy? Results from the EVE study

    PubMed Central

    Quatremère, Guillemette; Guiguet, Marguerite; Girardi, Patricia; Liaud, Marie-Noëlle; Mey, Coline; Benkhoucha, Cynthia; Barbier, Franck; Cattaneo, Graciela; Simon, Anne; Rojas Castro, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Objective Side effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) can have a negative impact on health-related quality of life threatening long-term retention in HIV care and adherence to ART. The aim of the French community-based survey EVE was to document personal experiences with side effects, the related physician-patient communication, and solutions found to deal with them. Design Cross-sectional study of women between September 2013 to September 2014 Methods An anonymous online questionnaire included the HIV Symptom Distress Module, which explores 20 symptoms. Results In all, 301 women on ART participated in the study (median age: 49 years; median duration of ART: 14 years). They reported having experienced a median of 12 symptoms (Q1-Q3: 9–15) during the previous 12 months. Overall, 56% of them reported having found at least a partial solution to dealing with their symptoms. Women reporting financial difficulties were twice less likely to have found solutions to coping with their side effects (AOR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3–0.8). Feeling supported by the health-care provider (AOR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1–3.9) and being in contact with HIV/AIDS organisations (AOR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2–3.2) were positively associated with coping. Seventeen percent reported having modified their ART regimen to improve tolerance, with only 2 in 3 informing their physician afterwards. Reporting financial difficulties and living with more bothersome symptoms increased the risk of ART regimen modification without health-care provider consultation. Conclusion The EVE study has called attention to the large number of side effects experienced by WLWHIV, only half of whom have found self-care strategies to manage their symptoms. Modification of ART regimen by the women themselves was not uncommon. PMID:28264016

  12. Depressive illness and Navajo healing.

    PubMed

    Storck, M; Csordas, T J; Strauss, M

    2000-12-01

    What is the experience of Navajo patients in Navajo religious healing who, by the criteria and in the vernacular of contemporary psychiatry, would be diagnosed with the disorder called depression? We ask this question in the context of a double dialogue between psychiatry and anthropology and between these disciplines' academic constructs of illness and those of contemporary Navajos. The dialogue is conducted in the arena of patient narratives, providing a means for observing and explicating processes of therapeutic change in individuals, for illustrating variations in forms of Navajo religious healing sought out by patients demonstrating similar symptoms of distress, and for considering the heuristic utility of psychiatric diagnoses and nomenclature in the conceptualization of illness, recovery, and religious healing. From among the 37 percent of patients participating in the Navajo Healing Project who had a lifetime history of a major depressive illness, three are discussed herein, their selection based on two criteria: (1) all met formal psychiatric diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode at the time of their healing ceremonies, and (2) together, their experiences illustrate the range of contemporary Navajo religious healing, including Traditional, Native American Church (NAC), and Christian forms. We suggest that, despite the explicit role of the sacred in religious healing interventions available to Navajo patients, differences between biomedical and religious healing systems may be of less significance than their shared existential engagement of problems such as those glossed as depression.

  13. Explanatory Models for Psychiatric Illness

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    How can we best develop explanatory models for psychiatric disorders? Because causal factors have an impact on psychiatric illness both at micro levels and macro levels, both within and outside of the individual, and involving processes best understood from biological, psychological, and sociocultural perspectives, traditional models of science that strive for single broadly applicable explanatory laws are ill suited for our field. Such models are based on the incorrect assumption that psychiatric illnesses can be understood from a single perspective. A more appropriate scientific model for psychiatry emphasizes the understanding of mechanisms, an approach that fits naturally with a multicausal framework and provides a realistic paradigm for scientific progress, that is, understanding mechanisms through decomposition and reassembly. Simple subunits of complicated mechanisms can be usefully studied in isolation. Reassembling these constituent parts into a functioning whole, which is straightforward for simple additive mechanisms, will be far more challenging in psychiatry where causal networks contain multiple nonlinear interactions and causal loops. Our field has long struggled with the interrelationship between biological and psychological explanatory perspectives. Building from the seminal work of the neuronal modeler and philosopher David Marr, the author suggests that biology will implement but not replace psychology within our explanatory systems. The iterative process of interactions between biology and psychology needed to achieve this implementation will deepen our understanding of both classes of processes. PMID:18483135

  14. Women living with environmental illness.

    PubMed

    Chircop, Andrea; Keddy, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    We used a case study approach to explore the experiences of 4 women who live with environmental illness (EI). From the unstructured interviews we found a variety of themes that pointed to the complexity of EI and its severe impact on the lives of these women, their families, and their significant others. The methodology was guided by an ecofeminist approach, which enabled a critical analysis of the data to move beyond the personal to the broader sociopolitical forces shaping society. We identified the following themes from the women's stories: indirect exposure to incitants through people with whom these women come in close physical contact; the phenomenon of burden of proof, meaning that these women are forced to explain and legitimize their illness on a continuous basis; taking refuge from a hostile environment in social isolation to a more controlled environment, not as a matter of choice, but because of the severity of the illness; and, finally, a change in value system was integral to the entire process of living with EI.

  15. Delirium in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Slooter, A J C; Van De Leur, R R; Zaal, I J

    2017-01-01

    Delirium is common in critically ill patients and associated with increased length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and long-term cognitive impairment. The pathophysiology of delirium has been explained by neuroinflammation, an aberrant stress response, neurotransmitter imbalances, and neuronal network alterations. Delirium develops mostly in vulnerable patients (e.g., elderly and cognitively impaired) in the throes of a critical illness. Delirium is by definition due to an underlying condition and can be identified at ICU admission using prediction models. Treatment of delirium can be improved with frequent monitoring, as early detection and subsequent treatment of the underlying condition can improve outcome. Cautious use or avoidance of benzodiazepines may reduce the likelihood of developing delirium. Nonpharmacologic strategies with early mobilization, reducing causes for sleep deprivation, and reorientation measures may be effective in the prevention of delirium. Antipsychotics are effective in treating hallucinations and agitation, but do not reduce the duration of delirium. Combined pain, agitation, and delirium protocols seem to improve the outcome of critically ill patients and may reduce delirium incidence. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Epigenetic Basis of Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Eric J; Peña, Catherine J; Kundakovic, Marija; Mitchell, Amanda; Akbarian, Schahram

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial illnesses involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function as well as likely abnormalities in glial cells. While genetic factors are important in the etiology of most mental disorders, the relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins, particularly for depression and other stress-related syndromes, clearly indicate the importance of additional mechanisms. Environmental factors such as stress are known to play a role in the onset of these illnesses. Exposure to such environmental insults induces stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior, and these maladaptations appear distinct between developmental versus adult exposures. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and the aberrant epigenetic regulation that underlies this dysregulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Here, we provide a progress report of epigenetic studies of the three major psychiatric syndromes, depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. We review the literature derived from animal models of these disorders as well as from studies of postmortem brain tissue from human patients. While epigenetic studies of mental illness remain at early stages, understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery within specific brain regions to cause lasting changes in disease susceptibility and pathophysiology is revealing new insight into the etiology and treatment of these conditions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Informal care and terminal illness.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Penny; Shaw, Sandra

    1999-01-01

    This paper is based on a study of the care and services received by people in the year before death in one Yorkshire health authority. In the spring of 1997 in-depth interviews were carried out with bereaved relatives and carers of a weighted sample of 33 people who had died in one Yorkshire health authority in the previous 18 months. Deaths where people were judged to have needed no input from palliative care services were excluded. The sample covers a range of different caring arrangements, experiences of caring for someone who is dying, support from formal services, place and manner of death. All those interviewed were providing some form of informal care or support to those who died, in some cases 24-h care. The interviews provided a valuable insight into ordinary people's experiences of death and of caring for someone who is dying. Most importantly for the purposes of this study, they gave insight into their experiences of services to support both the dying person and themselves in their caring role. The paper discusses the ways in which care of the terminally ill is distinctive. It explores the role of informal care in relation to the wider character and history of the local community, in particular the significance of its declining industrial base, and secondly, the availability of appropriate services to support those caring for the terminally ill. Finally, it makes recommendations about service planning and delivery which challenge the current framework for providing services to the terminally ill.

  18. Meditation's impact on chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Bonadonna, Ramita

    2003-01-01

    Meditation is becoming widely popular as an adjunct to conventional medical therapies. This article reviews the literature regarding the experience of chronic illness, theories about meditation, and clinical effects of this self-care practice. Eastern theories of meditation include Buddhist psychology. The word Buddha means the awakened one, and Buddhist meditators have been called the first scientists, alluding to more than 2500 years of precise, detailed observation of inner experience. The knowledge that comprises Buddhist psychology was derived inductively from the historical figure's (Prince Siddhartha Gautama) diligent self-inquiry. Western theories of meditation include Jungian, Benson's relaxation response, and transpersonal psychology. Clinical effects of meditation impact a broad spectrum of physical and psychological symptoms and syndromes, including reduced anxiety, pain, and depression, enhanced mood and self-esteem, and decreased stress. Meditation has been studied in populations with fibromyalgia, cancer, hypertension, and psoriasis. While earlier studies were small and lacked experimental controls, the quality and quantity of valid research is growing. Meditation practice can positively influence the experience of chronic illness and can serve as a primary, secondary, and/or tertiary prevention strategy. Health professionals demonstrate commitment to holistic practice by asking patients about use of meditation, and can encourage this self-care activity. Simple techniques for mindfulness can be taught in the clinical setting. Living mindfully with chronic illness is a fruitful area for research, and it can be predicted that evidence will grow to support the role of consciousness in the human experience of disease.

  19. Brain Immune Interactions as the Basis of Gulf War Illness: Gulf War Illness Consortium (GWIC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0072 TITLE: Brain Immune Interactions as the Basis of Gulf War Illness : Gulf War Illness Consortium (GWIC...Title and Subtitle Brain Immune Interactions as the Basis of Gulf War Illness : Gulf War Illness Consortium (GWIC) 5. Award Number W81XWH-13-2-0072...distribution unlimited 12b. Distribution Code (Leave Blank) 13. Abstract (Maximum 200 Words) The primary function of the Gulf War Illness (GWIC) consortium

  20. Brain Immune Interactions as the Basis of Gulf War Illness: Gulf War Illness Consortium (GWIC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0072 TITLE: Brain Immune Interactions as the Basis of Gulf War Illness : Gulf War Illness Consortium (GWIC) PRINCIPAL...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Brain Immune Interactions as the Basis of Gulf War Illness : Gulf War Illness Consortium (GWIC) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The primary function of the Gulf War Illness (GWIC) consortium is to identify the

  1. Ill-posed problems in mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. Ph.

    2016-09-01

    The notion of ill-posed initial and boundary value problems for partial differential equations was introduced by Hadamard, who also presented the first example of an ill-posed problem for a specific partial differential equation. At the same time, there are numerous examples of ill-posed problems in any field of mechanics. Hadamard and some of his successors believed that any ill-posed problem has no physical meaning and such problems should not be posed. The present paper contains several examples of ill-posed problems. We show that if one deals with an applied problem, then overcoming the ill-posedness mathematically can help one to improve the structure in practice, which justifies the study of ill-posed problems.

  2. Violence and mental illness: an overview.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Heather

    2003-06-01

    THIS PAPER EVALUATES THE RELATIONSHIP OF MENTAL ILLNESS AND VIOLENCE BY ASKING THREE QUESTIONS: Are the mentally ill violent? Are the mentally ill at increased risk of violence? Are the public at risk? Mental disorders are neither necessary nor sufficient causes of violence. Major determinants of violence continue to be socio-demographic and economic factors. Substance abuse is a major determinant of violence and this is true whether it occurs in the context of a concurrent mental illness or not. Therefore, early identification and treatment of substance abuse problems, and greater attention to the diagnosis and management of concurrent substance abuse disorders among seriously mentally ill, may be potential violence prevention strategies. Members of the public exaggerate both the strength of the association between mental illness and violence and their own personal risk. Finally, too little is known about the social contextual determinants of violence, but research supports the view the mentally ill are more often victims than perpetrators of violence.

  3. Aspects of spirituality concerning illness.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, René; Tiesinga, Lucas J; Jochemsen, Henk; Jochemasen, Henk; Post, Doeke

    2007-12-01

    The spiritual dimension of illness, health and care may be seen as a unique aspect in addition to the physical, mental and social dimension. This contribution describes experiences of patients, nurses and hospital chaplains in relation to the spiritual aspects of being ill. Qualitative research was performed with the design of a focus group study, consisting of 13 focus groups with a total of 67 participants. A purposive sample was used comprising patients, nurses and hospital chaplains working in oncology, cardiology and neurology in different institutions and regions in the Netherlands. The qualitative analysis consisted of open coding and the determining of topics, followed by the subsequent attachment of substantial dimensions and characteristic fragments. Data were analysed by using the computer program KWALITAN. Spirituality play various roles in patients lives during their illness. There is a wide range of topics that may have an individual effect on patients. Despite differences in emphasis, the topics play a role in different patient categories. Although the spiritual topics seem to manifest themselves more clearly in long-term care relationships, they may also play a role during brief admittance periods (such as treatment decisions). The spiritual topics that arise from this study offer caregivers a framework for signalling the spiritual needs of patients. The question is not whether spirituality is a relevant focus area in care, but how and to what degree it plays a role with individual patients. Follow up research should aim at further exploration of spiritual aspects in care, the relationship between spirituality and health and at effective training of caregivers.

  4. [Pets for the mentally ill].

    PubMed

    Jonas, C; Feline, A

    1981-07-01

    After studying the historical importance of the domestic animal through the ages and the role of the "pet" animal in the contemporary world, the authors present an analysis of the literature dealing with the function of the animal in child development and the use of animals as therapeutic "tools". The author's then consider, based on a series of observations, the relationship certain mentally ill patients may establish with one or several pet animals and the significance this object relation may have for the patient : animals become invested as counter depressive or delusional objects, auxiliary means for identification and projection, symbiotic relationship, as well as encouraging feeling of security and responsibility.

  5. [Family and chronic paediatric illness].

    PubMed

    Grau Rubio, Claudia; Fernández Hawrylak, M

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric illnesses are always a family problem. Hospitalization, treatments and their long term consequences constitute a challenge for the family. In this paper, we describe the structural, procedural and emotional alterations that affect the family dynamic. We argue that the child should be treated within the family context and propose a multi-dimensional intervention model centered on the family's singularities and specific needs, the support available in their environment, the development of capacities and resilience, and also the organization of user-centered services that are coordinated with all the services provided by the community.

  6. Ethics and mental illness research.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2002-09-01

    There are many tasks ahead in the area of ethics and mental illness research. We face unknown challenges in psychiatric genetics projects, studies of psychopharmacological interventions in children, controversial scientific designs (e.g., symptom challenge, medication-free interval), and cross-disciplinary research incorporating goals and methods of health services, epidemiology, and social and behavioral science endeavors. Boundaries between innovative clinical practices and research-related experimentation will become increasingly difficult to distinguish, as will the roles between clinicians, clinical researchers, and basic scientists. Moreover, the institutions and systems in which research occurs are being rapidly and radically revised, raising new questions about oversight responsibilities and standards. Our ability to identify and respond to the ethical questions arising in this uncharted territory will depend on our willingness to self-reflect, to integrate the observations and insights of the past century, to think with great clarity, and to anticipate novel ethical problems that keep company with scientific advancements. It will also depend on data. Empirical study of ethical dimensions of human research is essential to anchor and attune the intuitions and theoretical constructs that we develop. Science and ethics have changed over the past 100 years, as they will over the next century. It is ironic that the ethical acceptability of psychiatric research is so much in question at this time, when it holds so much promise for advancing our understanding of mental illness and its treatment. The tension between the duty to protect vulnerable individuals and the duty to perform human science will continue to grow, as long as ethics and science are seen as separable, opposing forces with different aims championed by different heroes. The profession of psychiatry is poised to move toward a new, more coherent research ethics paradigm in which scientific and

  7. A Dynamic Cycle of Familial Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gillian; Peters, Kathleen; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we present A Dynamic Cycle of Familial Mental Illness; an innovative framework, which considers family members' experiences and responses to mental illness. There is an acknowledged discourse noting parental experiences of mental illness alongside a growing body of knowledge acknowledging children's needs while living with parental mental illness. However, there is a paucity of literature that makes reference to the concept of familial mental illness and the cyclic interface of parental and child distress and symptoms. The model is supported by published research studies from several differing disciplines to demonstrate the relationship between parent and child experiences and to synthesise the published short- and longer-term possible impact of familial mental illness. An extensive search of the literature using recognised search engines, keywords and phrases has been undertaken, to generate an appropriate literature base for this work. This literature demonstrates how a child's possible emotional distancing as a response to parental mental illness could increase parental distress. A Dynamic Cycle of Familial Mental Illness adopts the underpinning philosophy of a Stress Vulnerability Model of Mental Illness, which assumes that predisposing factors and increased stress for a parent may have possible links to exacerbation of parental mental distress and symptomology. We advocate for further research of familial mental illness, and argue for a family approach to mental health assessment and treatment in mainstream health and social care sectors.

  8. Post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS).

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2016-08-01

    Men with post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS) become ill rather immediately after ejaculation, whether spontaneously at night, during sexual intercourse or masturbation. Two subtypes are distinguished: primary and secondary POIS. It also occurs before or after a man has been sterilized. POIS is an invalidating most probably auto-immune disease leading to much distress in males and their partners. It is characterized by five criteria. Its symptoms are described by seven clusters. However, the manifestation of these symptoms varies from one male to the other but is relatively constant in the person himself. Among men the symptoms vary in intensity, durations and sort of symptoms. POIS is a chronic disorder that manifests itself in POIS "attacks" that occur within a few minutes to a few hours after ejaculation, and disappear spontaneously after 3 to 7 days. POIS is not associated with increased total serum IgE concentrations. On the contrary, there are indications that POIS is triggered by specific cytokines that are released by an auto-immune reaction to the man's seminal fluid. Indirect clinical evidence suggests that the antigen (Ag) triggering the POIS systemic reaction is not bound to spermatozoa but to seminal fluid produced by prostatic tissue. In addition, POIS may also occur-although rarely-in females. In those cases, it is hypothesized that the Ag is associated with female prostatic tissue around the vagina.

  9. Gulf War Illness: Challenges Persist

    PubMed Central

    Nettleman, Mary

    2015-01-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the United States and coalition forces entered Kuwait and Iraq. Actual combat was of remarkably short duration: less than 1 week of sustained ground activity and 6 weeks of air missions. Thus, it was surprising when approximately 200,000 returning US veterans were affected by a chronic multi-symptom illness that came to be known as Gulf War Illness (GWI). There were many challenges in investigating GWI, not least of which was that it took several years before the condition was officially taken seriously. There were multiple exposures to potentially causal agents on and off the battlefield, but these exposures were documented incompletely if at all, leaving epidemiologists to rely on self-report for information. In the past 2 years, significant controversy has arisen over the future directions of the field. Despite these challenges, several studies have implicated exposure to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as pyridostigmine bromide in the genesis of the condition. The story of GWI can inform research into other conditions and guide future work on veterans' health. PMID:26330683

  10. Recognizing occupational illnesses and injuries.

    PubMed

    Taiwo, Oyebode A; Mobo, Ben Hur P; Cantley, Linda

    2010-07-15

    Given the burden of occupational illnesses and injuries in the United States, family physicians should understand the role workplace exposures may play in patients' chief concerns. Incorporating employment screening questions into patients' intake questionnaires is an efficient means of identifying potential occupational causes of symptoms. Recommended questions include what kind of job patients have; whether their symptoms are worse at work; whether they are or have been exposed to dust, fumes, chemicals, radiation, or loud noise; and whether they think their health problems may be related to their work. These questions are especially important when the diagnosis or etiology is in doubt. Depending on patients' responses to the screening questions, a more detailed occupational history may be appropriate. It can be useful to ask about routine tasks performed during a typical work shift, as well as anything out of the ordinary (e.g., a change in routine, an injury or accident). The occupational history should include information about alcohol and tobacco use, second or part-time jobs, military service, hobbies, and home environment. Patients with suspected occupational illnesses or injuries may benefit from referral to an occupational medicine specialist for a more detailed assessment and follow-up.

  11. Febrile Illness with Skin Rashes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Skin rashes that appear during febrile illnesses are in fact caused by various infectious diseases. Since infectious exanthematous diseases range from mild infections that disappear naturally to severe infectious diseases, focus on and basic knowledge of these diseases is very important. But, these include non-infectious diseases, so that comprehensive knowledge of these other diseases is required. Usually, early diagnostic testing for a febrile illness with a rash is inefficient. For clinical diagnosis of diseases accompanied by skin rash and fever, a complete history must be taken, including recent travel, contact with animals, medications, and exposure to forests and other natural environments. In addition, time of onset of symptoms and the characteristics of the rash itself (morphology, location, distribution) could be helpful in the clinical diagnosis. It is also critical to understand the patient's history of specific underlying diseases. However, diagnostic basic tests could be helpful in diagnosis if they are repeated and the clinical course is monitored. Generally, skin rashes are nonspecific and self-limited. Therefore, it could be clinically meaningful as a characteristic diagnostic finding in a very small subset of specific diseases. PMID:26483989

  12. Seizures in the critically ill.

    PubMed

    Ch'ang, J; Claassen, J

    2017-01-01

    Critically ill patients with seizures are either admitted to the intensive care unit because of uncontrolled seizures requiring aggressive treatment or are admitted for other reasons and develop seizures secondarily. These patients may have multiorgan failure and severe metabolic and electrolyte disarrangements, and may require complex medication regimens and interventions. Seizures can be seen as a result of an acute systemic illness, a primary neurologic pathology, or a medication side-effect and can present in a wide array of symptoms from convulsive activity, subtle twitching, to lethargy. In this population, untreated isolated seizures can quickly escalate to generalized convulsive status epilepticus or, more frequently, nonconvulsive status epileptics, which is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Status epilepticus (SE) arises from a failure of inhibitory mechanisms and an enhancement of excitatory pathways causing permanent neuronal injury and other systemic sequelae. Carrying a high 30-day mortality rate, SE can be very difficult to treat in this complex setting, and a portion of these patients will become refractory, requiring narcotics and anesthetic medications. The most significant factor in successfully treating status epilepticus is initiating antiepileptic drugs as soon as possible, thus attentiveness and recognition of this disease are critical.

  13. Post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Men with post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS) become ill rather immediately after ejaculation, whether spontaneously at night, during sexual intercourse or masturbation. Two subtypes are distinguished: primary and secondary POIS. It also occurs before or after a man has been sterilized. POIS is an invalidating most probably auto-immune disease leading to much distress in males and their partners. It is characterized by five criteria. Its symptoms are described by seven clusters. However, the manifestation of these symptoms varies from one male to the other but is relatively constant in the person himself. Among men the symptoms vary in intensity, durations and sort of symptoms. POIS is a chronic disorder that manifests itself in POIS “attacks” that occur within a few minutes to a few hours after ejaculation, and disappear spontaneously after 3 to 7 days. POIS is not associated with increased total serum IgE concentrations. On the contrary, there are indications that POIS is triggered by specific cytokines that are released by an auto-immune reaction to the man’s seminal fluid. Indirect clinical evidence suggests that the antigen (Ag) triggering the POIS systemic reaction is not bound to spermatozoa but to seminal fluid produced by prostatic tissue. In addition, POIS may also occur—although rarely—in females. In those cases, it is hypothesized that the Ag is associated with female prostatic tissue around the vagina. PMID:27652231

  14. Gulf War Illness: Challenges Persist.

    PubMed

    Nettleman, Mary

    2015-01-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the United States and coalition forces entered Kuwait and Iraq. Actual combat was of remarkably short duration: less than 1 week of sustained ground activity and 6 weeks of air missions. Thus, it was surprising when approximately 200,000 returning US veterans were affected by a chronic multi-symptom illness that came to be known as Gulf War Illness (GWI). There were many challenges in investigating GWI, not least of which was that it took several years before the condition was officially taken seriously. There were multiple exposures to potentially causal agents on and off the battlefield, but these exposures were documented incompletely if at all, leaving epidemiologists to rely on self-report for information. In the past 2 years, significant controversy has arisen over the future directions of the field. Despite these challenges, several studies have implicated exposure to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as pyridostigmine bromide in the genesis of the condition. The story of GWI can inform research into other conditions and guide future work on veterans' health.

  15. Media and mental illness: relevance to India.

    PubMed

    Padhy, S K; Khatana, S; Sarkar, S

    2014-01-01

    Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored.

  16. Evolving definitions of mental illness and wellness.

    PubMed

    Manderscheid, Ronald W; Ryff, Carol D; Freeman, Elsie J; McKnight-Eily, Lela R; Dhingra, Satvinder; Strine, Tara W

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the definitions of wellness and illness has changed from the mid-20th century to modern times, moving from a diagnosis-focused to a person-focused definition of mental illnesses, and from an "absence of disease" model to one that stresses positive psychological function for mental health. Currently, wellness refers to the degree to which one feels positive and enthusiastic about oneself and life, whereas illness refers to the presence of disease. These definitions apply to physical as well as mental illness and wellness. In this article, we build on the essential concepts of wellness and illness, discuss how these definitions have changed over time, and discuss their importance in the context of health reform and health care reform. Health reform refers to efforts focused on health, such as health promotion and the development of positive well-being. Health care reform refers to efforts focused on illness, such as treatment of disease and related rehabilitation efforts.

  17. The labor market consequences of family illness.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Allison A.

    1999-12-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examines the impact of mental illness on the labor market performance of family members of afflicted individuals. Numerous research projects have attempted to measure the impact of mental illness and related disorders on the ill individual, yet have traditionally neglected estimating potential costs accruing to family members of the ill. AIMS OF THE STUDY: Previous research estimating the impact of illness on the time allocation decisions of family caregivers has been limited in scope. I obtain estimates of the impact of mental illness on the probability of labor force participation and hours of work of all family members. The general analysis used in this study will pave the way for more accurate assessments of the costs of all types of illness and the estimates obtained will provide policy makers with a much more complete picture of the costs of mental illness. METHODS: The main empirical work in this study includes a probit estimation of labor force participation and a tobit regression of hours worked (including sample selection correction). The data sample, taken from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey, is also partitioned by gender to clarify effects of family illness on labor supply for both females and males. RESULTS: Adult males are found to increase their probability of labor force participation in the presence of mental illness in the family (all else equal) when the mental illness is accompanied by a chronic physical illness. However, females are surprisingly found to have no significant impact on their probability of being a member of the labor market when a family member is afflicted with mental illness. On the other hand, hours of work are significantly reduced for both females and males when the mentally ill family member is afflicted with additional illnesses (physical and/or mental). DISCUSSION: Previous studies have traditionally not considered the effects of family illness on males because females are typically

  18. [Psychopharmacology in medical illness: cardiology, nephrology, hepatology].

    PubMed

    Telles-Correia, Diogo; Guerreiro, Diogo F; Coentre, Ricardo; Zuzarte, Pedro; Figueira, Luísa

    2009-01-01

    The high prevalence of psychiatric disturbances in the context of medical illness and its association with worse prognostic of the last one, are the reasons for which it becomes essential that the doctor, not psychiatrist, has the skills in the use of psychopharmaceuticals. A systematic review of the literature published until January of 2006 was done, through MEDLINE, using as key-words psychiatric illness, renal illness, hepatic illness, cardiovascular illness, psychopharmacology. The reviewed studies include original articles, reviews and observational studies. 39 articles were selected for its adequacy and acquired for the accomplishment of this revision. The authors intend to review the use of the several classes of psychopharmaceuticals, its risks and benefits, according to the different medical illnesses. The first part of this article will have is focus in the area of cardiology, nephrology and hepatology.

  19. Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0477 TITLE: Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ronald R. Bach, Ph.D...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0477 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The objective of this clinical trial is to find an evidence-based treatment for Gulf War Illness

  20. Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Högberg, Torbjörn; Magnusson, Annabella; Lützén, Kim; Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice

    2012-04-01

    Negative and stigmatizing attitudes towards persons with mental illness must be dealt with to facilitate the sufferers' social acceptance. The present study aimed at survey Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness related to factors impacting these attitudes. New CAMI-S based on the questionnaire "Community Attitudes to Mental Illness in Sweden" ([CAMI] Taylor & Dear, 1981) was developed with nine behavioral-intention items and thus comprised a total of 29 items. Of 5000 Swedish people, 2391 agreed to complete the questionnaire. Principal component analysis rendered four factors reflecting attitudes towards the mentally ill: Intention to Interact, Fearful and Avoidant, Open-minded and Pro-Integration, as well as Community Mental Health Ideology. The factors were analyzed for trends in attitudes. By MANOVA, the experience of mental illness effects on mind-set towards the sufferers was assessed. By means of logistic regression, demographic factors contributing to positive attitudes towards persons with mental illness residing in the neighborhood were assessed. By New CAMI-S, the Swedish attitudes towards the mentally ill were surveyed and trends in agreement with living next to a person with mental illness were revealed in three out of four factors derived by principal component analysis. Aspects impacting the Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness and willingness to have him/her residing in the neighborhood comprised experience of mental illness, female gender, age (31-50 years), born in Scandinavia or outside Europe, only 9 years of compulsory school and accommodation in flat. The New CAMI-S came out as a useful tool to screen Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness. Most Swedes were prepared to live next to the mentally ill.

  1. Mass psychogenic illness after vaccination.

    PubMed

    Clements, C John

    2003-01-01

    When vaccines are administered to groups, the physical reactions of the recipients may be similar, causing a form of mass reaction, the mechanism for which is the same as that for mass reactions from other causes. These phenomena have been categorised as mass psychogenic illness (MPI), and have been defined as the collective occurrence of a constellation of symptoms suggestive of organic illness but without an identified cause in a group of people with shared beliefs about the cause of the symptom(s). A review of the literature shows that such outbreaks have been reported in differing cultural and environmental settings including developing and industrialised countries, in the work place, on public transport, in schools, and the military. The perceived threats have been against agents such as food poisoning, fire and toxic gases. Whatever the place or perceived threat, the response seems to be similar. The symptoms generally included headache, dizziness, weakness, and loss of consciousness. Once under way, MPIs are not easy to stop. Incidents reported in the literature show that they can quickly gather momentum and can be amplified by the press who disseminate information rapidly, escalating the events. Management of such mass events can be extremely difficult. Should the public health official in charge continue to try and determine the cause, or should this person call off the entire investigation? It is suggested here that once vaccines are identified as a probable cause of the phenomenon, a dismissive approach may actually be harmful. Unless the spokesperson has already earned a high level of trust, the public are not likely to be convinced easily that nothing was wrong with the vaccine until it has been tested. An increased awareness of MPIs on the part of organisers of future mass vaccination campaigns seems appropriate. Immunisation managers should be aware that mass immunisation campaigns could generate such mass reactions. It is therefore essential that

  2. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Lee A.; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-01-01

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided. PMID:26901213

  3. Liver Illness and Psychiatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, Paul; Debette-Gratien, Marilyne; Girard, Murielle; Jacques, Jérémie; Nubukpo, Philippe; Loustaud-Ratti, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Patients with psychiatric disorders are usually more exposed to multiple somatic illnesses, including liver diseases. Specific links are established between psychiatric disorders and alcohol hepatitis, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in the population as a whole, and specifically in drug abusers. Metabolic syndrome criteria, and associated steatosis or non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH) are frequent in patients with chronic psychiatric disorders under psychotropic drugs, and should be screened. Some psychiatric medications, such as neuroleptics, mood stabilizers, and a few antidepressants, are often associated with drug-induced liver injury (DILI). In patients with advanced chronic liver diseases, the prescription of some specific psychiatric treatments should be avoided. Psychiatric disorders can be a limiting factor in the decision-making and following up for liver transplantation. PMID:28123443

  4. Wounded, Ill, and Injured Challenges.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    The Washington Post articles of February 2007 led to a close examination of the care provided Wounded Warriors at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Subsequent reports by the President's Commission, Independent Review Group, and Defense Health Board all recommended ways to improve care. Joint Task Force National Capital Region Medical was established to implement the recommended improvements in Warrior care, and the recommendations of the Base Realignment and Closure Commission to close Walter Reed and realign the staff into a new Walter Reed National Military Medical Center and Fort Belvoir Community Hospital. It accomplished these tasks, maintained existing wounded, ill, and injured care, and safely transferred patients during the height of the fighting season in Afghanistan. It successfully accomplished its mission through engaged leadership, establishing an appropriate environment for Warrior care, careful management of casualty flow, and robust communication with all parties affected by the changes. The lessons learned in Warrior care should be considered when planning future military medical operations.

  5. Social networks and neurological illness.

    PubMed

    Dhand, Amar; Luke, Douglas A; Lang, Catherine E; Lee, Jin-Moo

    2016-10-01

    Every patient is embedded in a social network of interpersonal connections that influence health outcomes. Neurologists routinely need to engage with a patient's family and friends due to the nature of the illness and its social sequelae. Social isolation is a potent determinant of poor health and neurobiological changes, and its effects can be comparable to those of traditional risk factors. It would seem reasonable, therefore, to map and follow the personal networks of neurology patients. This approach reveals influential people, their habits, and linkage patterns that could facilitate or limit health behaviours. Personal network information can be particularly valuable to enhance risk factor management, medication adherence, and functional recovery. Here, we propose an agenda for research and clinical practice that includes mapping the networks of patients with diverse neurological disorders, evaluating the impact of the networks on patient outcomes, and testing network interventions.

  6. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Lee A; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-02-18

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided.

  7. World survey of mental illness stigma.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Neil; Tang, Sabrina; Brown, Adalsteinn D; Ing, Alton

    2016-01-15

    To obtain rapid and reproducible opinions that address mental illness stigma around the world. Random global Web users were exposed to brief questions, asking whether they interacted daily with someone with mental illness, whether they believed that mental illness was associated with violence, whether it was similar to physical illness, and whether it could be overcome. Over a period of 1.7 years, 596,712 respondents from 229 countries completed the online survey. The response rate was 54.3%. China had the highest proportion of respondents in daily contact with a person with mental illness. In developed countries, 7% to 8% of respondents endorsed the statement that individuals with mental illness were more violent than others, in contrast to 15% or 16% in developing countries. While 45% to 51% of respondents from developed countries believed that mental illness was similar to physical illness, only 7% believed that mental illness could be overcome. To test for reproducibility, 21 repeats of the same questions were asked monthly in India for 21 months. Each time, 10.1 ± 0.11% s.e., of respondents endorsed the statement that persons who suffer from mental illness are more violent than others, indicating strong reproducibility of response. This study shows that surveys of constructs such as stigma towards mental illness can be carried out rapidly and repeatedly across the globe, so that the impact of policy interventions can be readily measured. The method engages English speakers only, mainly young, educated males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Illness narratives of people who are homeless

    PubMed Central

    Håkanson, Cecilia; Öhlén, Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Multiple illnesses are common in all homeless populations. While most previous studies have focused on experiences of mental illness, there is a scarcity of studies about experiences of bodily illness among people who are homeless. This study aimed to explore illness narratives of people who are homeless, and how homelessness as a social context shapes the experience of multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions. The design was a qualitative single-case study, using interpretive description. Data were generated through interviews, with nine participants who were homeless rough sleepers in Stockholm, Sweden, recruited while receiving care in a support home for homeless people with complex care needs. The findings revealed experiences of illness embedded in narratives about falling ill, being ill, and the future. The particularity of these illness narratives and the way that they are shaped by homelessness give rise to several observations: the necessity of a capable body for survival; chaos and profound solitude in illness and self-care management; ambiguous feelings about receiving care, transitioning from independence, and “freedom” in the streets to dependency and being institutionalized; and finally, the absence of hope and desire for recovery or a better future. The narratives are discussed from the perspective of Frank's four types of illness stories (restitution, chaos, quest, and testimony). The findings stress that to provide appropriate care and support to people who are homeless and have multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions, health care professionals need to be informed both about the individual's biography and about the circumstances under which illness and self-care takes place in the streets. PMID:27914194

  9. Illness narratives of people who are homeless.

    PubMed

    Håkanson, Cecilia; Öhlén, Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Multiple illnesses are common in all homeless populations. While most previous studies have focused on experiences of mental illness, there is a scarcity of studies about experiences of bodily illness among people who are homeless. This study aimed to explore illness narratives of people who are homeless, and how homelessness as a social context shapes the experience of multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions. The design was a qualitative single-case study, using interpretive description. Data were generated through interviews, with nine participants who were homeless rough sleepers in Stockholm, Sweden, recruited while receiving care in a support home for homeless people with complex care needs. The findings revealed experiences of illness embedded in narratives about falling ill, being ill, and the future. The particularity of these illness narratives and the way that they are shaped by homelessness give rise to several observations: the necessity of a capable body for survival; chaos and profound solitude in illness and self-care management; ambiguous feelings about receiving care, transitioning from independence, and "freedom" in the streets to dependency and being institutionalized; and finally, the absence of hope and desire for recovery or a better future. The narratives are discussed from the perspective of Frank's four types of illness stories (restitution, chaos, quest, and testimony). The findings stress that to provide appropriate care and support to people who are homeless and have multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions, health care professionals need to be informed both about the individual's biography and about the circumstances under which illness and self-care takes place in the streets.

  10. Random Assignment to Illness: Teaching Illness and Disease in the Introductory Health Communication Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Jennifer B.; Riley, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    A key concept in health communication is the difference between disease and illness: disease refers to the physical manifestations of a condition, while illness encompasses the physical, emotional, social, communicative, and psychological experience of living with a condition. The individual illness experience takes into account the full story of…

  11. Random Assignment to Illness: Teaching Illness and Disease in the Introductory Health Communication Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Jennifer B.; Riley, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    A key concept in health communication is the difference between disease and illness: disease refers to the physical manifestations of a condition, while illness encompasses the physical, emotional, social, communicative, and psychological experience of living with a condition. The individual illness experience takes into account the full story of…

  12. Growing up with an ill parent: An examination of family characteristics and parental illness features.

    PubMed

    Stoeckel, Maggie; Weissbrod, Carol

    2015-12-01

    Existing literature suggests that the children of ill parents are vulnerable to a variety of psychosocial difficulties such as depression and anxiety. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the impact of family characteristics (parental involvement, familial support, stress experienced as a result of parental illness) and parental illness features (severity, duration, recovery status, frequency of symptoms, course) on the psychosocial functioning (depression, anxiety, life satisfaction) of late adolescents who have grown up with an ill parent but no longer live with their parents. Participants were 71 college students with a parent who experienced a chronic medical condition while they were growing up. Participants provided information regarding family characteristics, parental illness features, and the impact of parental illness. Impact of parental illness was assessed using the Impact of Illness Scale. Participants also completed measures of depression, anxiety, and life satisfaction. Participants' reported impact of parent illness was positively correlated with participant depression and anxiety. Several family characteristics and parental illness features were significantly associated with participant psychosocial functioning. In particular, lower parental involvement was correlated with greater participant depression and anxiety, as well as lower life satisfaction. These findings extend our understanding of the impact of parental illness on late adolescents' psychosocial functioning. Results could have clinical applications for psychosocial interventions in children and families coping with chronic illness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

  14. Perceptions of Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, David R.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Open-ended questions of college students (N=60) indicated students clearly differentiated between the mentally retarded and mentally ill. Mental retardation was characterized by physical stigmata, brain damage, developmental delays, and cognitive deficits; mental illness by emotional lability due to environmental, hereditary, or mixed factors.…

  15. Social Work Faculty and Mental Illness Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Amy C.; Fulambarker, Anjali; Kondrat, David C.; Holley, Lynn C.; Kranke, Derrick; Wilkins, Brittany T.; Stromwall, Layne K.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2017-01-01

    Stigma is a significant barrier to recovery and full community inclusion for people with mental illnesses. Social work educators can play critical roles in addressing this stigma, yet little is known about their attitudes. Social work educators were surveyed about their general attitudes about people with mental illnesses, attitudes about practice…

  16. Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

  17. Resilience in the Chronic Illness Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kralik, Debbie; van Loon, Antonia; Visentin, Kate

    2006-01-01

    This article advances the consideration of resilience as an important concept in the transitional process of learning to adapt to life with chronic illness, by utilising interactional processes inherent in participatory action research (PAR) that may strengthen a person's capacity to live well with long-term illness. Sharing experiences and…

  18. Resilience in the Chronic Illness Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kralik, Debbie; van Loon, Antonia; Visentin, Kate

    2006-01-01

    This article advances the consideration of resilience as an important concept in the transitional process of learning to adapt to life with chronic illness, by utilising interactional processes inherent in participatory action research (PAR) that may strengthen a person's capacity to live well with long-term illness. Sharing experiences and…

  19. Minor Illnesses, Temperament, and Toddler Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolak, Amy M.; Frey, Tara J.; Brown, Chloe A.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Minor illnesses, such as upper respiratory infections, stomachaches, and fevers, have been associated with children's decreased activity and increased irritability. This multi-method investigation of 110 day care-attending children examined whether experience with recurrent, minor illnesses and negative emotionality worked…

  20. Comorbid medical illness in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Forty, Liz; Ulanova, Anna; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Fraser, Christine; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Hosang, Georgina M.; Rivera, Margarita; Craddock, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with a mental health disorder appear to be at increased risk of medical illness. Aims To examine rates of medical illnesses in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 1720) and to examine the clinical course of the bipolar illness according to lifetime medical illness burden. Method Participants recruited within the UK were asked about the lifetime occurrence of 20 medical illnesses, interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Results We found significantly increased rates of several medical illnesses in our bipolar sample. A high medical illness burden was associated with a history of anxiety disorder, rapid cycling mood episodes, suicide attempts and mood episodes with a typically acute onset. Conclusions Bipolar disorder is associated with high rates of medical illness. This comorbidity needs to be taken into account by services in order to improve outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and also in research investigating the aetiology of affective disorder where shared biological pathways may play a role. PMID:25359927

  1. Comorbid medical illness in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Forty, Liz; Ulanova, Anna; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Fraser, Christine; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M; Hosang, Georgina M; Rivera, Margarita; Craddock, Nick

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with a mental health disorder appear to be at increased risk of medical illness. To examine rates of medical illnesses in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 1720) and to examine the clinical course of the bipolar illness according to lifetime medical illness burden. Participants recruited within the UK were asked about the lifetime occurrence of 20 medical illnesses, interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. We found significantly increased rates of several medical illnesses in our bipolar sample. A high medical illness burden was associated with a history of anxiety disorder, rapid cycling mood episodes, suicide attempts and mood episodes with a typically acute onset. Bipolar disorder is associated with high rates of medical illness. This comorbidity needs to be taken into account by services in order to improve outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and also in research investigating the aetiology of affective disorder where shared biological pathways may play a role. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  2. A Behavioral Response to Illness. N106.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Judith

    A description is provided of "Behavioral Response to Illness," a required course offered in the second quarter of a two-year college nursing program, which examines physiological and psychosocial changes in patients from the framework of illness as a stressor, and the possible behavioral responses to such stress. The course focuses on behavioral…

  3. Combating the Stigma of Mental Illness. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    Many former mental patients see their biggest problem in resuming community life to be their inability to be accepted by other people. The National Institute of Mental Health has worked to remove the stigma associated with mental illness and research has unraveled many of the mysteries about the origins of mental illness. Deinstitutionalization,…

  4. Delirium in the Critically Ill Child.

    PubMed

    Norman, Sharon; Taha, Asma A; Turner, Helen N

    The purposes of this article are to describe the scientific literature on assessment, prevention, and management of delirium in critically ill children and to articulate the implications for clinical nurse specialists, in translating the evidence into practice. A literature search was conducted in 4 databases-OvidMEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsychINFO, and Web of Science-using the terms "delirium," "child," and "critically ill" for the period of 2006 to 2016. The scientific literature included articles on diagnosis, prevalence, risk factors, adverse outcomes, screening tools, prevention, and management. The prevalence of delirium in critically ill children is up to 30%. Risk factors include age, developmental delay, severity of illness, and mechanical ventilation. Adverse outcomes include increased mortality, hospital length of stay, and cost for the critically ill child with delirium. Valid and reliable delirium screening tools are available for critically ill children. Prevention and management strategies include interventions to address environmental triggers, sleep disruption, integrated family care, and mobilization. Delirium is a common occurrence for the critically ill child. The clinical nurse specialist is accountable for leading the implementation of practice changes that are based on evidence to improve patient outcomes. Screening and early intervention for delirium are key to mitigating adverse outcomes for critically ill children.

  5. Chronic Illness and the Academic Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Stephanie A.; Morgan, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the hidden epidemic in higher education. They describe the stigma of chronic illness and argue that the invisibility of chronic illness may elicit particularly problematic responses from others, especially when faculty work in a context where people are expected to be highly productive and have unlimited…

  6. Administrative Segregation for Mentally Ill Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Maureen L.

    2007-01-01

    Largely the result of prison officials needing to safely and efficiently manage a volatile inmate population, administrative segregation or supermax facilities are criticized as violating basic human needs, particularly for mentally ill inmates. The present study compared Colorado offenders with mental illness (OMIs) to nonOMIs in segregated and…

  7. Cultural Construction of Psychiatric Illness in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Razak, Asrenee Ab

    2017-03-01

    The concept of the cultural construction of illness is important in terms of understanding people's behaviour. In this article, this idea is applied to psychiatric illness in Malaysia to explore how it is informed by sociocultural elements, a process that will help us understand the psychiatric expression and help-seeking behaviour of the country's population.

  8. Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kaylene; Bradley, Loretta J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year, an estimated 50 million Americans will experience a mental disorder while only one fourth of them will seek mental health services. Contends that this disparity results from the stigma attached to mental illness. Proposes that counselors must educate the general public about the misconceptions of mental illness and advocate for parity…

  9. Adult Sex Roles and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gove, Walter R.; Tudor, Jeannette F.

    1973-01-01

    Patterned variations in the rates of mental illness among men and women have been described suggesting that the ordering of these rates is a reflection of the position of men and women in society, with womens roles contributing to their higher incidence of illness. (Author/JB)

  10. A Behavioral Response to Illness. N106.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Judith

    A description is provided of "Behavioral Response to Illness," a required course offered in the second quarter of a two-year college nursing program, which examines physiological and psychosocial changes in patients from the framework of illness as a stressor, and the possible behavioral responses to such stress. The course focuses on behavioral…

  11. Minor Illnesses, Temperament, and Toddler Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolak, Amy M.; Frey, Tara J.; Brown, Chloe A.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Minor illnesses, such as upper respiratory infections, stomachaches, and fevers, have been associated with children's decreased activity and increased irritability. This multi-method investigation of 110 day care-attending children examined whether experience with recurrent, minor illnesses and negative emotionality worked…

  12. Chronic Illness and the Academic Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Stephanie A.; Morgan, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the hidden epidemic in higher education. They describe the stigma of chronic illness and argue that the invisibility of chronic illness may elicit particularly problematic responses from others, especially when faculty work in a context where people are expected to be highly productive and have unlimited…

  13. OPTIMOS-EVE optical design of a very efficient, high-multiplex, large spectral coverage, fiber-fed spectrograph at EELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanò, P.; Tosh, I.; Chemla, F.

    2010-07-01

    OPTIMOS-EVE is a fiber-fed, high-multiplex, high-efficiency, large spectral coverage spectrograph for EELT covering visible and near-infrared simultaneously. More than 200 seeing-limited objects will be observed at the same time over the full 7 arcmin field of view of the telescope, feeding the spectrograph, asking for very large multiplexing at the spectrograph side. The spectrograph consists of two identical units. Each unit will have two optimized channels to observe both visible and near-infrared wavelengths at the same time, covering from 0.37 to 1.7 micron. To maximize the scientific return, a large simultaneous spectral coverage per exposure was required, up to 1/3 of the central wavelength. Moreover, different spectral resolution modes, spanning from 5'000 to 30'000, were defined to match very different sky targets. Many different optical solutions were generated during the initial study phase in order to select that one that will maximize performances within given constraints (mass, space, cost). Here we present the results of this study, with special attention to the baseline design. Efforts were done to keep size of the optical components well within present state-of-the-art technologies. For example, large glass blank sizes were limited to ~35 cm maximum diameter. VPH gratings were selected as dispersers, to improve efficiency, following their superblaze curve. This led to scanning gratings and cameras. Optical design will be described, together with expected performances.

  14. How calibration and reference spectra affect the accuracy of absolute soft X-ray solar irradiance measured by the SDO/EVE/ESP during high solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, Leonid

    2016-10-01

    The Extreme ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (ESP), one of the channels of SDO’s Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), measures solar irradiance in several EUV and soft x-ray (SXR) bands isolated using thin-film filters and a transmission diffraction grating, and includes a quad-diode detector positioned at the grating zeroth-order to observe in a wavelength band from about 0.1 to 7.0 nm. The quad diode signal also includes some contribution from shorter wavelength in the grating’s first-order and the ratio of zeroth-order to first-order signal depends on both source geometry, and spectral distribution. For example, radiometric calibration of the ESP zeroth-order at the NIST SURF BL-2 with a near-parallel beam provides a different zeroth-to-first-order ratio than modeled for solar observations. The relative influence of “uncalibrated” first-order irradiance during solar observations is a function of the solar spectral irradiance and the locations of large Active Regions or solar flares. We discuss how the “uncalibrated” first-order “solar” component and the use of variable solar reference spectra affect determination of absolute SXR irradiance which currently may be significantly overestimated during high solar activity.

  15. Heat Illness among North Carolina Latino Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Summers, Phillip; Talton, Jennifer W.; Chen, Haiying; Sandberg, Joanne C.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Heat exposure is an important hazard for workers in manual occupations, including farmworkers. This analysis delineates the prevalence of heat illness among farmworkers, and the factors associated with heat illness. Methods North Carolina Latino male farmworkers completed interviews in August, 2013. They reported on heat exposure and behaviors over the previous 3 months while working both outdoors and indoors. Results A third (35.6%) of the participants reported heat illness while working outside, and 13.9% while working inside. Factors associated with heat illness while working outside included working in wet clothes and shoes, harvesting and topping tobacco, and spending after-work time in an extremely hot house. Conclusions Policy addressing heat illness is needed, as is more detailed research on occupational heat exposure that uses common measures. PMID:26641825

  16. Diagnosis and Management of Foodborne Illness.

    PubMed

    Switaj, Timothy L; Winter, Kelly J; Christensen, Scott R

    2015-09-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that each year, one in six Americans will experience a foodborne illness. The most common causes in the United States are viruses, such as norovirus; bacteria, such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, and Listeria; and parasites, such as Toxoplasma gondii and Giardia. Resources are available to educate consumers on food recalls and proper handling, storage, and cooking of foods. Diagnosis and management of a foodborne illness are based on the history and physical examination. Common symptoms of foodborne illnesses include vomiting, diarrhea (with or without blood), fever, abdominal cramping, headache, dehydration, myalgia, and arthralgias. Definitive diagnosis can be made only through stool culture or more advanced laboratory testing. However, these results should not delay empiric treatment if a foodborne illness is suspected. Empiric treatment should focus on symptom management, rehydration if the patient is clinically dehydrated, and antibiotic therapy. Foodborne illnesses should be reported to local and state health agencies; reporting requirements vary among states.

  17. Mental illness stigma, secrecy and suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Oexle, N; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Kilian, R; Müller, M; Rodgers, S; Xu, Z; Rössler, W; Rüsch, N

    2017-02-01

    Whether the public stigma associated with mental illness negatively affects an individual, largely depends on whether the person has been labelled 'mentally ill'. For labelled individuals concealing mental illness is a common strategy to cope with mental illness stigma, despite secrecy's potential negative consequences. In addition, initial evidence points to a link between stigma and suicidality, but quantitative data from community samples are lacking. Based on previous literature about mental illness stigma and suicidality, as well as about the potential influence of labelling processes and secrecy, a theory-driven model linking perceived mental illness stigma and suicidal ideation by a mediation of secrecy and hopelessness was established. This model was tested separately among labelled and unlabelled persons using data derived from a Swiss cross-sectional population-based study. A large community sample of people with elevated psychiatric symptoms was examined by interviews and self-report, collecting information on perceived stigma, secrecy, hopelessness and suicidal ideation. Participants who had ever used mental health services were considered as labelled 'mentally ill'. A descriptive analysis, stratified logistic regression models and a path analysis testing a three-path mediation effect were conducted. While no significant differences between labelled and unlabelled participants were observed regarding perceived stigma and secrecy, labelled individuals reported significantly higher frequencies of suicidal ideation and feelings of hopelessness. More perceived stigma was associated with suicidal ideation among labelled, but not among unlabelled individuals. In the path analysis, this link was mediated by increased secrecy and hopelessness. Results from this study indicate that among persons labelled 'mentally ill', mental illness stigma is a contributor to suicidal ideation. One explanation for this association is the relation perceived stigma has with

  18. Managerial practices regarding workers working while ill.

    PubMed

    Norton, D M; Brown, L G; Frick, R; Carpenter, L R; Green, A L; Tobin-D'Angelo, M; Reimann, D W; Blade, H; Nicholas, D C; Egan, J S; Everstine, K

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance data indicate that handling of food by an ill worker is a cause of almost half of all restaurant-related outbreaks. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Food Code contains recommendations for food service establishments, including restaurants, aimed at reducing the frequency with which food workers work while ill. However, few data exist on the extent to which restaurants have implemented FDA recommendations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) conducted a study on the topic of ill food workers in restaurants. We interviewed restaurant managers (n = 426) in nine EHS-Net sites. We found that many restaurant policies concerning ill food workers do not follow FDA recommendations. For example, one-third of the restaurants' policies did not specifically address the circumstances under which ill food workers should be excluded from work (i.e., not be allowed to work). We also found that, in many restaurants, managers are not actively involved in decisions about whether ill food workers should work. Additionally, almost 70% of managers said they had worked while ill; 10% said they had worked while having nausea or "stomach flu," possible symptoms of foodborne illness. When asked why they had worked when ill, a third of the managers said they felt obligated to work or their strong work ethic compelled them to work. Other reasons cited were that the restaurant was understaffed or no one was available to replace them (26%), they felt that their symptoms were mild or not contagious (19%), they had special managerial responsibilities that no one else could fulfill (11%), there was non-food handling work they could do (7%), and they would not get paid if they did not work or the restaurant had no sick leave policy (5%). Data from this study can inform future research and help policy makers target interventions designed to reduce the frequency with which food workers work while ill.

  19. Musicians' illness perceptions of musculoskeletal complaints.

    PubMed

    Kok, Laura M; Vliet Vlieland, Theodora P M; Fiocco, Marta; Kaptein, Ad A; Nelissen, Rob G H H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to know the views of people about their illness, i.e., illness perceptions, determine coping strategies, and outcome. Previous research suggests a higher prevalence and a different perception of musculoskeletal complaints between musicians and nonmusicians. The aim of this study is to compare illness perceptions related to musculoskeletal complaints between musicians and nonmusicians. In this cross-sectional study, students from three music academies (n = 345) and one university medical center (n = 2,870) in the Netherlands received an electronic questionnaire concerning questions on sociodemographic characteristics, use of musical instruments, occurrence and characteristics of musculoskeletal complaints in the past year, and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ). Baseline and B-IPQ scores were compared between the samples by means of t tests, chi-square tests, and regression models to adjust for differences in sociodemographic characteristics. Eighty-three music academy students and 494 medical students completed the questionnaire (response rates, 25.5 and 17.6 %, respectively). Seventy-four (89 %) persons in the musician group and 382 (78 %) persons in the nonmusician group reported occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints during the last 12 months. Adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, the B-IPQ scores of the domains consequences (my illness is a serious condition), concern (I am extremely concerned about my illness), and emotions (my illness makes me scared) were significantly higher among musicians, whereas personal control (there is little I can do to improve my illness), identity (number of symptoms patient sees as part of illness) were not significantly different. Music academy students had a significant more positive score on treatment control. Music academy students report more negative perceptions of their musculoskeletal complaints compared to medical students. Although some selection bias is

  20. The Illness Narratives of Health Managers: Developing an Analytical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exworthy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the personal experience of illness and healthcare by health managers through their illness narratives. By synthesising a wider literature of illness narratives and health management, an analytical framework is presented, which considers the impact of illness narratives, comprising the logic of illness narratives, the actors…

  1. Families living with chronic illness: beliefs about illness, family, and health care.

    PubMed

    Årestedt, Liselott; Benzein, Eva; Persson, Carina

    2015-05-01

    Beliefs can be described as the lenses through which we view the world. With emerging illness, beliefs about the illness experience become important for nurses to understand to enhance well-being and healing. The aim of this study was to illuminate illness beliefs of families living with chronic illness. A qualitative design was chosen, including repeated narrative research interviews with seven Swedish families living with chronic illness. Hermeneutic analysis was used to interpret the transcribed family interviews. The result described beliefs in families, both within and across families. Both core beliefs and secondary beliefs about illness, family, and health care were revealed. Illness beliefs have importance for how families respond to and manage situations that arise from their encounters with illness. Nurses have to make space for and listen to families' stories of illness to become aware of what beliefs may support and encourage family well-being and healing. The Illness Beliefs Model provides a touchstone whereby nurses can distinguish both individual and shared beliefs within families living with chronic illness and provide ideas for family intervention if needed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Jacob Aall's illness and death.

    PubMed

    Hem, Erlend; Stubhaug, Arild

    2013-12-10

    Jacob Aall (1773-1844) was one of Norway's most notable nation-builders at the beginning of the 19th century. He owned and operated a large ironworks, participated in political life and was an historian, writer and translator of sagas. In the last 15 years of his life, he suffered greatly from pain attacks. After his death, an autopsy was performed and the doctors found a stone the size of a hen's egg, which weighed more than 90 g. The stone was variously described as a kidney stone and a bladder stone. Aall had travelled to Copenhagen in 1837 and consulted the Danish doctor Ludvig Levin Jacobson (1783-1843), known for his instrument for crushing bladder stones, a new and revolutionary treatment method. But some disagreement appears to have arisen between them about the treatment. A year later Aall consulted Christen Heiberg (1799-1872), a professor of surgery in Christiania (now Oslo). Heiberg also examined Aall's bladder and found «no cause for alarm». Aall adhered to a strict diet, including drinking an Italian «spa water» daily which he obtained in bottles from Trieste. However, he showed no great improvement. To all appearances, it was kidney stones that afflicted him in his last years and which finally ended his life. This article gives a full portrayal of the course of his illness with an authentic description from an age when there were no treatment possibilities for kidney stones.

  3. Molecular genetics in affective illness

    SciTech Connect

    Mendlewicz, J.; Sevy, S.; Mendelbaum, K. )

    1993-01-01

    Genetic transmission in manic depressive illness (MDI) has been explored in twins, adoption, association, and linkage studies. The X-linked transmission hypothesis has been tested by using several markers on chromosome X: Xg blood group, color blindness, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), factor IX (hemophilia B), and DNA probes such as DXS15, DXS52, F8C, ST14. The hypothesis of autosomal transmission has been tested by association studies with the O blood group located on chromosome 9, as well as linkage studies on chromosome 6 with the Human Leucocyte Antigens (HLA) haplotypes and on Chromosome 11 with DNA markers for the following genes: D2 dopamine receptor, tyrosinase, C-Harvey-Ras-A (HRAS) oncogene, insuline (ins), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Although linkage studies support the hypothesis of a major locus for the transmission of MDI in the Xq27-28 region, several factors are limiting the results, and are discussed in the present review. 105 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. The Impact of Illness Identity on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Yanos, Philip T; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H

    2010-04-01

    The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically driven model of the impact of illness identity on the course and recovery from severe mental illness and reviews relevant research. We propose that accepting a definition of oneself as mentally ill and assuming that mental illness means incompetence and inadequacy impact hope and self-esteem, which further impact suicide risk, coping, social interaction, vocational functioning, and symptom severity. Evidence supports most of the predictions made by the model. Implications for psychiatric rehabilitation services are discussed.

  5. The Impact of Illness Identity on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Yanos, Philip T.; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically driven model of the impact of illness identity on the course and recovery from severe mental illness and reviews relevant research. We propose that accepting a definition of oneself as mentally ill and assuming that mental illness means incompetence and inadequacy impact hope and self-esteem, which further impact suicide risk, coping, social interaction, vocational functioning, and symptom severity. Evidence supports most of the predictions made by the model. Implications for psychiatric rehabilitation services are discussed. PMID:20802840

  6. Illness perception in Polish patients with chronic diseases: Psychometric properties of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Nowicka-Sauer, Katarzyna; Banaszkiewicz, Dorota; Staśkiewicz, Izabela; Kopczyński, Piotr; Hajduk, Adam; Czuszyńska, Zenobia; Ejdys, Mariola; Szostakiewicz, Małgorzata; Sablińska, Agnieszka; Kałużna, Anna; Tomaszewska, Magda; Siebert, Janusz

    2016-08-01

    The study evaluates the psychometric properties of a Polish translation of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. A total of 276 patients with chronic conditions (58.7% women) completed the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The internal consistency of the Polish Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire measured with Cronbach's alpha was satisfactory (α = 0.74). Structural validity was demonstrated by significant inter-correlations between the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire components. Discriminant validity was supported by the fact that the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire enables patients with various conditions to be differentiated. Significant correlations were found between Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and depression and anxiety levels. The Polish Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire thus evaluated is a reliable and valid tool. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants.

    PubMed

    Minas, Harry; Klimidis, Steven; Tuncer, Can

    2007-07-24

    People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes persists despite modernizing and acculturative influences. Different

  8. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Minas, Harry; Klimidis, Steven; Tuncer, Can

    2007-01-01

    Background People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Methods Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Results Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Conclusion Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes persists despite modernizing and

  9. New pharmaceuticals reduce cost of illness.

    PubMed

    Hansen, R W

    1986-06-01

    The cost of illness includes not only the funds required to treat illness, but also the effect on the patient's quality of life. Recent concern about rising health costs have focused on the direct expenditures without noting that the cost of illness in terms of mortality and morbidity has declined significantly. Pharmaceuticals have played a major role in reducing the total cost of illness. Several studies of the cost-effectiveness of past introductions of vaccines and pharmaceuticals reveal large cost savings. Although the focus of most studies has been on major advances, the continuing process of less dramatic therapeutic improvements has significantly trimmed the cost of illness. Cost-benefit studies of new drugs or changes in drug use, while more difficult to perform, make it possible to influence the selection of therapy. Since pharmaceuticals represent less than 10% of total treatment costs, reduction in the cost of pharmaceutical products can only have a minor impact on the total cost of illness. Pharmaceuticals can reduce the cost of illness by providing alternative therapies that reduce direct treatment cost or improve the public health.

  10. Violence and mental illness: an overview

    PubMed Central

    STUART, HEATHER

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the relationship of mental illness and violence by asking three questions: Are the mentally ill violent? Are the mentally ill at increased risk of violence? Are the public at risk? Mental disorders are neither necessary nor sufficient causes of violence. Major determinants of violence continue to be socio-demographic and economic factors. Substance abuse is a major determinant of violence and this is true whether it occurs in the context of a concurrent mental illness or not. Therefore, early identification and treatment of substance abuse problems, and greater attention to the diagnosis and management of concurrent substance abuse disorders among seriously mentally ill, may be potential violence prevention strategies. Members of the public exaggerate both the strength of the association between mental illness and violence and their own personal risk. Finally, too little is known about the social contextual determinants of violence, but research supports the view the mentally ill are more often victims than perpetrators of violence. PMID:16946914

  11. Mental illness in Disney animated films.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Andrea; Fouts, Gregory

    2004-05-01

    To examine the prevalence of verbalizations about mental illness in the animated feature films of The Walt Disney Company (TWDC). We discuss the results within the context of children's repeated exposure to popular animated movies and their learning of labels and stereotypes associated with mental illness. We recommend further research on this topic. We coded 34 animated feature films produced by TWDC for mental illness references (for example, "crazy" or "nuts"). We developed a coding manual to systematize the content analysis, to ensure accuracy of the data, and to ascertain intercoder reliability. Most of the films (that is, 85%) contain verbal references to mental illness, with an average of 4.6 references per film. The references were mainly used to set apart and denigrate the characters to whom they referred. Twenty-one percent of the principal characters were referred to as mentally ill. We discuss the contributions and limitations of the study. The findings have implications for child viewers in terms of their potentially learning prejudicial attitudes and distancing behaviours toward individuals perceived as being mentally ill. To further verify this connection, an assessment of the incidence of Disney film exposure and attitudes toward people with a mental illness, using a sample of school-aged children, is needed.

  12. Illness Perceptions and Fatigue in Systemic Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Peter C.; Amudala, Naomi A.; McAlear, Carol A.; Leduc, Renée L.; Shereff, Denise; Richesson, Rachel; Fraenkel, Liana; Merkel, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare illness perceptions among patients with different forms of vasculitis, identify risk factors for negative illness perceptions, and determine the association between illness perceptions and fatigue. Methods Participants were recruited from an online registry in vasculitis to complete the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R). Mean scores on each IPQ-R dimension were compared across types of vasculitis. Cluster analysis and stepwise regression identified predictors of negative illness perception. Fatigue was measured using the general subscale of the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI). Patient-reported measures of disease activity and IPQ-R dimensions were assessed in relation to MFI scores using linear regression in sequential, additive models with model-fit comparisons. Results 692 participants with 9 forms of vasculitis completed the IPQ-R. For 6 out of 8 IPQ-R dimensions, there were no significant differences in mean scores between the different vasculitides. Scores in identity and cyclical dimensions were significantly higher in Behçet’s disease compared to other types of vasculitis (13.5 vs 10.7; 4.0 vs 3.2, p<0.05). Younger age (OR=1.04; 95%CI 1.02–1.06), depression (OR=4.94; 95%CI 2.90–8.41), active disease status (OR=2.05; 95%CI 1.27–3.29), and poor overall health (OR=3.92; 95%CI 0.88–17.56) were associated with negative illness perceptions. Sequential models demonstrated that IPQ-R dimensions explained an equivalent proportion of variability in fatigue scores compared to measures of disease activity. Conclusion Illness perceptions are similar across different types of vasculitis, and younger age is a risk factor for negative illness perceptions. Illness perceptions explain differences in fatigue scores beyond what can be explained by measures of disease activity. PMID:23861259

  13. Coliphages and Gastrointestinal Illness in Recreational Waters

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Wade, Timothy J.; Schiff, Kenneth; Griffith, John F.; Dufour, Alfred P.; Weisberg, Stephen B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Coliphages have been proposed as indicators of fecal contamination in recreational waters because they better mimic the persistence of pathogenic viruses in the environment and wastewater treatment than fecal indicator bacteria. We estimated the association between coliphages and gastrointestinal illness and compared it with the association with culturable enterococci. Methods: We pooled data from six prospective cohort studies that enrolled coastal beachgoers in California, Alabama, and Rhode Island. Water samples were collected and gastrointestinal illness within 10 days of the beach visit was recorded. Samples were tested for enterococci and male-specific and somatic coliphages. We estimated cumulative incidence ratios (CIR) for the association between swimming in water with detectable coliphage and gastrointestinal illness when human fecal pollution was likely present, not likely present, and under all conditions combined. The reference group was unexposed swimmers. We defined continuous and threshold-based exposures (coliphage present/absent, enterococci >35 vs. ≤35 CFU/100 ml). Results: Under all conditions combined, there was no association between gastrointestinal illness and swimming in water with detectable coliphage or enterococci. When human fecal pollution was likely present, coliphage and enterococci were associated with increased gastrointestinal illness, and there was an association between male-specific coliphage level and illness that was somewhat stronger than the association between enterococci and illness. There were no substantial differences between male-specific and somatic coliphage. Conclusions: Somatic coliphage and enterococci had similar associations with gastrointestinal illness; there was some evidence that male-specific coliphage had a stronger association with illness than enterococci in marine waters with human fecal contamination. PMID:28489717

  14. Consumer Informatics in Chronic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Tetzlaff, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To explore the informatic requirements in the home care of chronically ill patients. Design: A number of strategies were deployed to help evoke a picture of home care informatics needs: A detailed questionnaire evaluating informational needs and assessing programmable technologies was distributed to a clinic population of parents of children with cancer. Open ended questionnaires were distributed to medical staff and parents soliciting a list of questions asked of medical staff. Parent procedure training was observed to evaluate the training dialog, and parents were observed interacting with a prototype information and education computer offering. Results: Parents' concerns ranged from the details of managing day to day, to conceptual information about disease and treatment, to management of psychosocial problems. They sought information to solve problems and to provide emotional support, which may create conflicts of interest when the material is threatening. Whether they preferred to be informed by a doctor, nurse, or another parent depended on the nature of the information. Live interaction was preferred to video, which was preferred to text for all topics. Respondents used existing technologies in a straightforward way but were enthusiastic about the proposed use of computer technology to support home care. Multimedia solutions appear to complement user needs and preferences. Conclusion: Consumers appear positively disposed toward on-line solutions. On-line systems can offer breadth, depth and timeliness currently unattainable. Patients should be involved in the formation and development process in much the same way that users are involved in usercentered computer interface design. A generic framework for patient content is presented that could be applied across multiple disorders. PMID:9223035

  15. Chronic illness in adolescents: a sociological perspective.

    PubMed

    Silber, T J

    1983-01-01

    This article relates chronic illness in adolescents to a sociological model of deviance. This is an area of controversy: the views of Freidson, Lorber and Robinson are presented as being representative of the dispute. Four situations are discussed in which the issues of prognosis, responsibility and stigma elicit societal response. The usefulness of a sociological model consists in making vague societal perception and rules explicit. The concept of the chronically ill adolescent as deviant is descriptive and devoid of value judgment. Only through such rigorous assessment is it possible to gain a realistic understanding of the societal role in the life of the chronically ill adolescent.

  16. Electrotherapy and mental illness: then and now.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Sander L

    2008-09-01

    Today electrotherapy has reappeared as a therapy of choice for the treatment of depression and other forms of mental illness. It had de facto vanished from allopathic medicine from the 1920s to the end of the century. The debates about electrotherapy mirror the question of whether mental illness was somatic and to be treated by somatic means or psychological to be treated with psychotherapy. Sigmund Freud's move from an advocate to an opponent of electrotherapy is exemplary for a shift in attitude and the decline of electrotherapy. With the re-somaticization of mental illness over the past decades has come the reappearance of somatic therapies such as electrotherapy.

  17. Preventing injuries and illnesses in the wilderness.

    PubMed

    Angert, David; Schaff, Eric A

    2010-06-01

    Wilderness trips have become increasingly popular, especially in the adolescent population. The wilderness can be a source of rejuvenation while being mentally and physically challenging; however, it is also fraught with the potential for injury, illness, and even death. Epidemiologic studies of injuries and illnesses from hikers are not extensive, but there are sufficient data to identify the most common risk factors to offer some strategies for prevention. Many youth will have a medical visit or preparticipation physical assessment before an organized wilderness experience. This article highlights commonly seen wilderness injuries and illnesses and provides guidance for proper planning and problem solving.

  18. Illness theodicies in the New Testament.

    PubMed

    Price, R M

    1986-12-01

    The New Testament writers advocate or at least mention six different religious explanations for the origin of sickness. First, Satan may thus victimize the innocent. Second, God may send sickness as a punishment for the sufferer's sins. Third, God may send sickness to punish one's parents' sins. Fourth, God may so punish one's own sins committed in a previous life. Fifth, God may inflict illness in order to show his power by subsequent healing. Sixth, God may inflict illness in order to show his power by sustaining the sufferer through the illness instead of healing it.

  19. Mental illness: media perpetuation of stigma.

    PubMed

    Williams, M; Taylor, J

    1995-03-01

    Content analysis of 83 newspaper articles from February 1991 to January 1993 was the chosen method to determine the role of newspapers in the portrayal of the mentally ill. Two emergent themes arose: the closure of a mental health hospital was viewed negatively; and the stereotypical perception of the mentally ill as violent and unpredictable was reinforced. Over the two year period of the study the shift in focus from the ideology of de-institutionalisation, funding issues, crisis and chaos in the mental health hospital eventuated in an emphasis on the negativity associated with mental illness.

  20. Toward a theory of online communication in illness: concept analysis of illness blogs.

    PubMed

    Heilferty, Catherine McGeehin

    2009-07-01

    This paper is a report of a concept analysis of illness blogs and their relevance to nursing research on communication during illness. Blogs are being used by patients and family members to describe the experience of illness, but very little is known about this phenomenon. Seventeen English language databases and one Internet search engine were searched from 1990 to 2007 using the truncated term 'blog*'. Specific illness terms together with 'blog*', for example, blog* and diabetes; and blog* and cancer, were used to expand the search. Reports were included if they were of qualitative or quantitative research that included a definition of blogs or blogging and some identification or description of blog uses pertinent to the discipline. Specific emphasis was placed on blog use by individuals coping with illness experiences. 'Meta' writings by authors about their own blogging intentions and experiences were excluded. An illness blog is the online expression of the narrative of illness. Theoretical and operational definitions, defining attributes, uses, antecedents and consequences were developed. The literature search returned 45 works from 17 disciplines referring to the definition and uses of blogging. Support is offered from the review of literature and analysis of the concept for the development of a theory of online communication during illness. Reading and incorporating illness blogs into care will enhance patient-provider relationships. Analysis of the narratives being created online about the illness experience will contribute significantly to nursing's body of knowledge.

  1. Youth adjustment to parental illness or disability: the role of illness characteristics, caregiving, and attachment.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Michael J; Pakenham, Kenneth I

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to (1) examine relations between youth adjustment and three sets of predictors: parental illness/disability characteristics, caregiving, and parent-child attachment, and (2) explore differences on these variables between youths of parental physical illness/disability and youths of parental mental illness. Eighty-one youths between 10 and 25 years of a parent with a physical illness/disability (35%) or a mental illness (43%) completed a series of self-report measures assessing perceived characteristics of the parent's illness/disability, caregiving experiences, and adjustment outcomes. Results revealed a set of predictors of poorer youth adjustment: gradual illness/disability onset, being male, isolation, lower perceived maturity, and less choice in caregiving. Youths of parental mental illness differed from youths of parental physical illness/disability on emotional distress (worry and discomfort) dimensions of caregiving. Youth-parent attachment security was associated with youth caregiving and there was a trend for attachment to vary according to parental illness/disability type. Findings highlight young caregiving as an important target for service and policy planning.

  2. Mass sociogenic illness--real and imaginary.

    PubMed

    Doyle, C R; Akhtar, J; Mrvos, R; Krenzelok, E P

    2004-04-01

    Mass sociogenic illness is the occurrence of a group of nonspecific physical symptoms for which no organic cause can be determined and is often transmitted by 'line of sight'. The fear of bioterrorism can also lead to panic and produce cases of mass sociogenic illness, in which people develop symptoms in response to an imaginary threat. Poison centers are faced with resolving the dilemma of sociogenic vs poison related symptoms. We report 2 situations of mass sociogenic illnesses involving school age children where multiple victims exhibited similar symptoms prompted by the presence or suggestion of fumes. Symptoms resolved spontaneously. When clusters of unexplained illness occur, a sociogenic etiology should be considered in the differential diagnosis. As fears about bioterrorism increase, the frequency of such incidents and the anxiety generated may increase.

  3. Advanced Illness: Holding on and Letting Go

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Home Advanced Illness: Holding On and Letting Go Order this publication Printer-friendly version Introduction Our ... fate, then I accept it with dignity." Letting Go As death nears, many people feel a lessening ...

  4. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a term for when someone experiences a mental illness and a substance use disorder simultaneously. Either disorder—substance use or mental illness—can develop first. People experiencing a mental health ...

  5. Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The overall objective of the study is to determine whether probiotic VSL#3® will improve 1) intestinal symptoms of

  6. Antiphospholipid antibodies in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Vassalo, Juliana; Spector, Nelson; de Meis, Ernesto; Soares, Márcio; Salluh, Jorge Ibrain Figueira

    2014-01-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies are responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Venous, arterial and microvascular thrombosis and severe catastrophic cases account for a large morbidly/mortality. Through the connection between the immune, inflammatory and hemostatic systems, it is possible that these antibodies may contribute to the development of organ dysfunction and are associated with poor short and long-term prognoses in critically ill patients. We performed a search of the PubMed/MedLine database for articles written during the period from January 2000 to February 2013 to evaluate the frequency of antiphospholipid antibodies in critically ill patients and their impact on the outcomes of these patients. Only eight original studies involving critically ill patients were found. However, the development of antiphospholipid antibodies in critically ill patients seems to be frequent, but more studies are necessary to clarify their pathogenic role and implications for clinical practice. PMID:25028953

  7. Foodborne Illnesses: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... to all persons. ORGANISM Bacillus cereus Campylobacter jejuni Clostridium botulinum COMMON NAME OF ILLNESS B. cereus food poisoning Campylobacteriosis Botulism Clostridium perfringens Perfringens food poisoning Cryptosporidium Intestinal cryptosporidiosis Cyclospora ...

  8. Seniors' life histories and perceptions of illness.

    PubMed

    Montbriand, Muriel J

    2004-03-01

    This life history research examined seniors' life experiences and perceived connections to illnesses. From a randomly selected sample of 190 seniors'interviews, 107 deemed to be the most expressive life stories were selected as the focus for this analysis. All seniors lived independently in a Canadian prairie city, were 60 years of age or older, Caucasian, European decent, had a chronic illness, and told of lives touched by the Great Depression and World War II. Given the paucity of research exploring seniors' life histories, these findings increase understanding of how life experiences shape seniors' identities. Four main themes emerged to describe seniors' lives: chaos, tragedy, quest, and romance. Findings reported here show that seniors with optimistic perceptions do not connect their life experiences with illnesses. Seniors with pessimistic perceptions frequently connect their life experiences with present illnesses and are most likely to remember past abuse and coping with abuse.

  9. Many Chronic Illnesses Linked to Suicide Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_166776.html Many Chronic Illnesses Linked to Suicide Risk Odds 9 times higher for people with ... problems seem to have a higher risk of suicide, a new study suggests. And, for certain conditions -- ...

  10. Hypocalcemia and hypercalcitoninemia in critically ill children.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, B; Trachtman, H; Di Carmine, F; Urivetsky, M; Tobash, J; Chasalow, F; Walco, G; Schaeffer, J

    1990-11-01

    To study Ca metabolism in critically ill children, we measured ionized Ca (Ca2+), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, 25 hydroxycholecalciferol (25[OH] D3), 1-25 dihydroxycholecalciferol (1-25[OH]2D3, and gastrin levels in critically ill children and in healthy controls. Patients were considered hypocalcemic if Ca2+ was less than 1.1 mmol/L. Six (14%) of 45 patients were hypocalcemic. Five hypocalcemic patients were studied and were found to have higher calcitonin levels than normocalcemic patients and healthy controls and higher PTH levels than healthy controls. 25(OH)D3 and 1-25(OH)2D3 were not significantly different in the three groups of patients. Gastrin levels were low in critically ill patients, whether or not they were hypocalcemic. We conclude that hypocalcemia occurs frequently in critically ill children. It is associated with raised levels of calcitonin and PTH. The mechanism for the increase in calcitonin is unknown.

  11. [Foodborne illness report systems in China].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianghui; Li, Fengqin; Li, Ning; Yan, Weixing; Xu, Haibin; Ma, Ning; Song, Xiaoyu; Liang, Jiang; Wang, Xiaodan; Gao, Peng

    2013-09-01

    To introduce the current foodborne illness report system in China. Foodborne illness (food poisoning included) report system and food related unusual cases reported system were characterized by their report definitions, scopes and report procedures as well as their differences. From October, 2010 to June, 2012, there are 2961 centers of disease control and prevention and heath executive organizations at the different local levels registered in the foodborne illness (food poisoning included) report system and 1525 incidents were reported. There were 553 hospitals registered in the food related unusual cases reported system while only 38 cases reported. The foodborne illness report system has been set up in China and further efforts in capacities building are needed.

  12. California Firearms Law and Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Barnhorst, Amy

    2015-06-01

    California provides numerous pathways by which people with mental illness can qualify for a state-level firearm prohibition. The state's involuntary detention for psychiatric treatment, or "5150" (CA W&I Code 5150) process, is often cited as one potential mechanism for reducing violence by dangerous people, though its use is limited to people whose dangerousness is due to a mental illness. Additionally, California has taken legislative steps to prohibit firearm ownership among other people who have an increased risk of violence, regardless of whether or not mental illness is a factor. This article compares the California firearm ownership disqualification system for mental illness with the federal system and those of other states, examines the strengths and weaknesses of this system, and reviews alternatives.

  13. Concept Analysis of Illness Engulfment in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vining, Danny; Robinson, Jennifer C

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia has a significant risk of damaging an individual's self-concept. Through the process of illness engulfment an individual's self-concept becomes reorganized entirely around the experience of having schizophrenia. The purpose of this manuscript is to clarify the structure and function of the concept of illness engulfment in schizophrenia using Walker and Avant's (2011) method of concept analysis. Data came from a review of scholarly literature, as well as contemporary and historical art, literature, music, and other media forms. The analysis discussed two defining attributes of experience of illness and impact on self-concept with a total of seven indicators. The article listed antecedents, consequences, and discussed the Modified Engulfment Scale as empirical referents. Fictional cases were developed to illustrate the concept. Finally, the concept of illness engulfment was discussed within the framework of the Roy Adaptation Model.

  14. Evidence against roles for phorbol binding protein Munc13-1, ADAM adaptor Eve-1, or vesicle trafficking phosphoproteins Munc18 or NSF as phospho-state-sensitive modulators of phorbol/PKC-activated Alzheimer APP ectodomain shedding.

    PubMed

    Ikin, Annat F; Causevic, Mirsada; Pedrini, Steve; Benson, Lyndsey S; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Lovestone, Simon; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Mustelin, Tomas; Burgoyne, Robert D; Gandy, Sam

    2007-12-09

    Shedding of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) ectodomain can be accelerated by phorbol esters, compounds that act via protein kinase C (PKC) or through unconventional phorbol-binding proteins such as Munc13-1. We have previously demonstrated that application of phorbol esters or purified PKC potentiates budding of APP-bearing secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and toward the plasma membrane where APP becomes a substrate for enzymes responsible for shedding, known collectively as alpha-secretase(s). However, molecular identification of the presumptive "phospho-state-sensitive modulators of ectodomain shedding" (PMES) responsible for regulated shedding has been challenging. Here, we examined the effects on APP ectodomain shedding of four phorbol-sensitive proteins involved in regulation of vesicular membrane trafficking of APP: Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and Eve-1. Overexpression of either phorbol-sensitive wildtype Munc13-1 or phorbol-insensitive Munc13-1 H567K resulted in increased basal APP ectodomain shedding. However, in contrast to the report of Rossner et al (2004), phorbol ester-dependent APP ectodomain shedding from cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 wildtype was indistinguishable from that observed following application of phorbol to cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 H567K mutant. This pattern of similar effects on basal and stimulated APP shedding was also observed for Munc18 and NSF. Eve-1, an ADAM adaptor protein reported to be essential for PKC-regulated shedding of pro-EGF, was found to play no obvious role in regulated shedding of sAPPalpha. Our results indicate that, in the HEK293 system, Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and EVE-1 fail to meet essential criteria for identity as PMES for APP.

  15. Evidence against roles for phorbol binding protein Munc13-1, ADAM adaptor Eve-1, or vesicle trafficking phosphoproteins Munc18 or NSF as phospho-state-sensitive modulators of phorbol/PKC-activated Alzheimer APP ectodomain shedding

    PubMed Central

    Ikin, Annat F; Causevic, Mirsada; Pedrini, Steve; Benson, Lyndsey S; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Lovestone, Simon; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Mustelin, Tomas; Burgoyne, Robert D; Gandy, Sam

    2007-01-01

    Background Shedding of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) ectodomain can be accelerated by phorbol esters, compounds that act via protein kinase C (PKC) or through unconventional phorbol-binding proteins such as Munc13-1. We have previously demonstrated that application of phorbol esters or purified PKC potentiates budding of APP-bearing secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and toward the plasma membrane where APP becomes a substrate for enzymes responsible for shedding, known collectively as α-secretase(s). However, molecular identification of the presumptive "phospho-state-sensitive modulators of ectodomain shedding" (PMES) responsible for regulated shedding has been challenging. Here, we examined the effects on APP ectodomain shedding of four phorbol-sensitive proteins involved in regulation of vesicular membrane trafficking of APP: Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and Eve-1. Results Overexpression of either phorbol-sensitive wildtype Munc13-1 or phorbol-insensitive Munc13-1 H567K resulted in increased basal APP ectodomain shedding. However, in contrast to the report of Roßner et al (2004), phorbol ester-dependent APP ectodomain shedding from cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 wildtype was indistinguishable from that observed following application of phorbol to cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 H567K mutant. This pattern of similar effects on basal and stimulated APP shedding was also observed for Munc18 and NSF. Eve-1, an ADAM adaptor protein reported to be essential for PKC-regulated shedding of pro-EGF, was found to play no obvious role in regulated shedding of sAPPα. Conclusion Our results indicate that, in the HEK293 system, Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and EVE-1 fail to meet essential criteria for identity as PMES for APP. PMID:18067682

  16. Illness Behavior and Anomie In Family Practice

    PubMed Central

    Ramesar, Simon

    1985-01-01

    Patients who present with physical complaints that have a psychosocial source are often dissatisfied with reassurance that nothing is physically wrong. This is frustrating to the physician, who may elect to refer the patient, do nothing further—or address the issue of illness behavior. This article analyzes the effects of the physician's response on the doctor/patient relationship, and outlines several methods of psychotherapy which can be used to change illness behavior. PMID:21274170

  17. Occupational illnesses within two national data sets.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J P; Miller, T R

    1998-01-01

    To describe occupational illness data in two large data sets, two national data sets were aggregated, and the numbers, percentages, and rates of cases of occupational illnesses were determined. Job-related illness data were from Bureau of Labor Statistics documents containing Annual Survey and Census of Fatal Occupational Injury data. A severity index was created to assess the overall burden of a disease. The index multiplies the number of cases times the median days lost. Circulatory disease accounted for 85% of the deaths in the Census and at least 80% in the Annual Survey. More fatal myocardial infarctions occurred on Monday than on any other day. Low-paying occupations had the most myocardial infarctions: operators, laborers, and truck drivers; high-paying occupations had the least: executives, administrators, and managers. Carpal tunnel syndrome and hearing loss accounted for more morbidity, measured by cases and days lost, than any other illness. Persons at great risk for carpal tunnel syndrome included dental hygienists, butchers, sewing machine operators, and dentists. Mental disorders generated more morbidity than is generally acknowledged. Neurotic reactions to stress were highest in the transportation and public utility industries, as well as in finance, insurance, and real estate. Manufacturing contributed far more cases than any other industry. Industries generating significant asbestos-related deaths included construction and boat building. Ninety-three percent of all illness fatalities were among men. Few African Americans died from coal-workers' pneumoconiosis. Illness cases increased much faster than injury cases in recent years. The two data sets provide insights into the incidences and prevalences of occupational illnesses, but underestimate the burden of job-related illnesses.

  18. Corticosteroid replacement in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Judith

    2006-04-01

    This review addresses the use of corticosteroid replacement in critically ill patients. Low-dose corticosteroid replacement for critically ill patients with septic shock has been shown to reduce the duration of vasopressor-dependent shock, to shorten ICU length of stay, and, in recent trials, to reduce mortality. Numerous questions remain to be fully answered about patient selection, corticotropin-stimulation testing methods, and interpretation of results.

  19. Coping mediates the relationship between disease severity and illness intrusiveness among chronically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Hundt, Natalie E; Bensadon, Benjamin A; Stanley, Melinda A; Petersen, Nancy J; Kunik, Mark E; Kauth, Michael R; Cully, Jeffrey A

    2015-09-01

    Reducing perceptions of illness intrusiveness may improve quality of life and mental health among patients with cardiopulmonary disease. To better understand relationships between coping style, locus of control, perceived illness intrusiveness, and disease severity, we analyzed data from 227 older Veterans with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or congestive heart failure. Regressions revealed illness intrusiveness to be associated with younger age and greater disease severity, less internal locus of control, and avoidant/emotion-focused coping. Avoidant/emotion-focused coping but not active coping mediated the relationship between illness severity and illness intrusiveness. Findings suggest that supportive psychological interventions may reduce illness intrusiveness by targeting an avoidant/emotion-focused coping style and associated behaviors. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. The Multi-Instrument (EVE-RHESSI) DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Residual Non-Thermal Soft X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTiernan, James M.; Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry

    2015-04-01

    In the soft X-ray energy range, solar flare spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission. The low energy extent of non-thermal emission can only be loosely quantified using currently available X-ray data. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The improvement over the isothermal approximation is intended to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV for medium to large solar flares.Previous work (Caspi et.al. 2014ApJ...788L..31C) has concentrated on obtaining DEM models that fit both instruments' observations well. Now we are interested in any breaks and cutoffs in the "residual" non-thermal spectrum; i.e., the RHESSI spectrum that is left over after the DEM has accounted for the bulk of the soft X-ray emission. Thermal emission is again modeled using a DEM that is parametrized as multiple gaussians in temperature; the non-thermal emission is modeled as a photon spectrum obtained using a thin-target emission model ('thin2' from the SolarSoft Xray IDL package). Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner. The results for non-thermal parameters then are compared with those found using RHESSI data alone, with isothermal and double-thermal models.

  1. Prediction of response to antiretroviral therapy by human experts and by the EuResist data-driven expert system (the EVE study).

    PubMed

    Zazzi, M; Kaiser, R; Sönnerborg, A; Struck, D; Altmann, A; Prosperi, M; Rosen-Zvi, M; Petroczi, A; Peres, Y; Schülter, E; Boucher, C A; Brun-Vezinet, F; Harrigan, P R; Morris, L; Obermeier, M; Perno, C-F; Phanuphak, P; Pillay, D; Shafer, R W; Vandamme, A-M; van Laethem, K; Wensing, A M J; Lengauer, T; Incardona, F

    2011-04-01

    The EuResist expert system is a novel data-driven online system for computing the probability of 8-week success for any given pair of HIV-1 genotype and combination antiretroviral therapy regimen plus optional patient information. The objective of this study was to compare the EuResist system vs. human experts (EVE) for the ability to predict response to treatment. The EuResist system was compared with 10 HIV-1 drug resistance experts for the ability to predict 8-week response to 25 treatment cases derived from the EuResist database validation data set. All current and past patient data were made available to simulate clinical practice. The experts were asked to provide a qualitative and quantitative estimate of the probability of treatment success. There were 15 treatment successes and 10 treatment failures. In the classification task, the number of mislabelled cases was six for EuResist and 6-13 for the human experts [mean±standard deviation (SD) 9.1±1.9]. The accuracy of EuResist was higher than the average for the experts (0.76 vs. 0.64, respectively). The quantitative estimates computed by EuResist were significantly correlated (Pearson r=0.695, P<0.0001) with the mean quantitative estimates provided by the experts. However, the agreement among experts was only moderate (for the classification task, inter-rater κ=0.355; for the quantitative estimation, mean±SD coefficient of variation=55.9±22.4%). With this limited data set, the EuResist engine performed comparably to or better than human experts. The system warrants further investigation as a treatment-decision support tool in clinical practice. © 2010 British HIV Association.

  2. High Altitude Illnesses in Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    High Altitude Headache (HAH), Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS), and High Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE) are all high altitude related illnesses in order of severity from the mildly symptomatic to the potentially life-threatening. High altitude illnesses occur when travelers ascend to high altitudes too rapidly, which does not allow enough time for the body to adjust. Slow graded ascent to the desired altitude and termination of ascent if AMS symptoms present are keys to illness prevention. Early recognition and rapid intervention of AMS can halt progression to HACE. Pharmacologic prophylaxis with acetazolamide is a proven method of prevention and treatment of high altitude illness. If prevention fails then treatment modalities include supplemental oxygen, supportive therapy, hyperbaric treatment, and dexamethasone. Given the multitude of visitors to the mountains of Hawai‘i, high altitude illness will continue to persist as a prevalent local condition. This paper will emphasize the prevention and early diagnosis of AMS so that the illness does not progress to HACE. PMID:25478293

  3. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses in infants

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1993-11-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is an oxidant gas that contaminates outdoor air and indoor air in homes with unvented gas appliances. A prospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that residential exposure to NO2 increases incidence and severity of respiratory illnesses during the first 18 months of life. A cohort of 1,205 healthy infants from homes without smokers was enrolled. The daily occurrence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was reported by the mothers every 2 wk. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as lower respiratory tract. Indoor NO2 concentrations were serially measured with passive samplers place in the subjects' bedrooms. In stratified analyses, illness incidence rates did not consistently increase with exposure to NO2 or stove type. In multivariate analyses that adjusted for potential confounding factors, odds ratios were not significantly elevated for current or lagged NO2 exposures, or stove type. Illness duration, a measure of illness severity, was not associated with NO2 exposure. The findings can be extended to homes with gas stoves in regions of the United States where the outdoor air is not heavily polluted by NO2.

  4. Illness stories: themes emerging through narrative.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Deborah; McColl, Mary Ann

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the use of narrative as a tool to understand the experience of chronic illness. The study is phenomenological in nature, using elements of grounded theory and social constructionism to consider the data collected. As examples of the issues raised using the narrative approach, the paper describes four themes that were pervasive in the first-person accounts of these individuals: 1. Emotional reaction to the diagnosis--Because of both the form and content in the narratives, these are described as 'peak experiences'; 2. Impact of stress--As a precipitator of symptoms or illness, as an ongoing aggravator of the chronic illness, or as a factor in overall coping with the chronic illness; 3. View of death--Named by all four individuals as it relates to their view of life; 4. Illness meaning--Coined by two of the individuals as 'philosophy of life.' These themes were interpreted in terms of their implications for therapeutic relationships with people with disabilities and chronic illnesses.

  5. Timing of mental illness onset and motherhood.

    PubMed

    Mowbray, Carol T; Bybee, Deborah; Oyserman, Daphna; MacFarlane, Peter

    2005-06-01

    The timing of mental illness onset in relationship to birth of children was explored as a possible indicator of the extent to which mothers experienced difficulties in parenting and functioning. Analyses employed data from a longitudinal study of urban-based, primarily minority mothers with mental illness (N = 379) who had parenting responsibility for their minor children. We found that women who were parents first and experienced mental illness onset after the birth of all their children showed the most positive trajectories over the study course. Mothers whose mental illness onset occurred before the birth of any of their children also showed improvements in functioning and symptomatology over time. In contrast, mothers whose mental illness onset had occurred in temporal proximity to the birth of a child showed little improvement. They also were younger, on average, at first birth, and had the largest number of children. Thus, timing of mental illness onset and childbirth may be predictive of longer-term maternal functioning and therefore may be useful in clinical assessment and treatment.

  6. Estimated Costs of Sporadic Gastrointestinal Illness ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND: The ·burden of illness can be described by addressing both incidence and illness severity attributable to water recreation. Monetized as cost. attributable disease burden estimates can be useful for environmental management decisions. OBJECTIVES: We characterize the disease burden attributable to water recreation using data from two cohort studies using a cost of illness (COI) approach and estimate the largest drivers of the disease burden of water recreation. METHODS: Data from the NEEAR study, which evaluated swimming and wading in marine and freshwater beaches in six U.S. states, and CHEERS, which evaluated illness after incidental-contact recreation (boating, canoeing, fishing, kayaking, and rowing) on waterways in the Chicago area, were used to estimate the cost per case of gastrointestinal illness and costs attributable to water recreation. Data on health care and medication utilization and missed days of work or leisure were collected and combined with cost data to construct measures of COI. RESULTS: Depending on different assumptions, the cost of gastrointestinal symptoms attributable to water recreation are estimated to be $1,220 for incidental-contact recreation (range $338-$1,681) and $1,676 for swimming/wading (range $425-2,743) per 1,000 recreators. Lost productivity is a major driver of the estimated COI, accounting for up to 90% of total costs. CONCLUSIONS: Our estimates suggest gastrointestinal illness attributed to surface water rec

  7. Programmes for parents with a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Reupert, A; Maybery, D

    2011-04-01

    Parents with a mental illness experience the same parenting stressors that other parents do, and at the same time need to manage their mental illness. However, few programmes are designed for parents who have a mental illness, with older children (as opposed to interventions for mothers with infants). This study identified the common components across six programmes developed for parents with a mental illness who have older children. Australian clinicians, responsible for six parenting programmes for those with a mental illness, participated in individual, semi-structured interviews, during 2008. Programme manuals and evaluation reports were also sourced. Analyses involved thematic analysis, inter-rater reliability and respondent validation. Data were organized in three main areas: (1) programme description (format, goals, length and participants' inclusion criteria); (2) theoretical framework (including clinicians' beliefs and evidence underpinning programmes); and (3) evaluation designs and methodologies. It was found that clinicians facilitated education and support via a peer intervention model for parents with various mental illness diagnoses, responsive to the needs of parents and in a time flexible manner. At the same time, clinicians found it difficult to articulate the theoretical framework of their programmes and employed mostly simplistic evaluation strategies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  8. Mental illness and the dental patient.

    PubMed

    Longley, Alison J; Doyle, Patricia E

    2003-01-01

    Virtually every oral health care practice includes patients with mental illness. This continuing education (CE) course gives a practical overview of common psychiatric disorders, their effects on oral and dental health, and conditions associated with mental illness that affect oral health treatment. Following a brief description of mental illnesses, information on conducting a mental health interview and making a psychiatric referral are provided. Oral health problems associated with mental illness and factors affecting treatment delivery are discussed, as well as ideas for avoiding potentially dangerous medication interactions and working with fearful, suspicious, or cognitively impaired patients. Ways in which dental hygienists can work with case managers to provide much needed oral health care to patients whose illness is severe or chronic are covered. Examples are given of work with clients illustrating principles described in the text. The purpose of this course is to provide oral health personnel the information they need to knowledgeably care for patients who have mental illness. Successful completion will be assessed with a post-test to be completed after reading the article in its entirety, including figures and case-reports. Two continuing education course credit hours will be awarded following successful completion of the post-test.

  9. Nutritional support of the critically ill child.

    PubMed

    Huddleston, K C; Ferraro-McDuffie, A; Wolff-Small, T

    1993-03-01

    There is a growing awareness that the nutrition an individual receives as a child may exert significant consequences later in life. The successful treatment of critically ill children influences their potential for full recovery and optimal outcome. This requires an understanding of how the child responds to stress and starvation. Daily energy needs of the child in the intensive care unit are highly variable. Specific knowledge of the nutritional assessment of these children, whether sustaining an acute or chronic illness, is required, as is an understanding of how the disease process affects the child. Further work needs to be done to evaluate how chronic illness affects the growth, development, and maturation of the child. Assessment parameters remain somewhat controversial, and recent studies indicate that, indeed, critically ill children may be overfed if standard equations are used to calculate needs. Poor clinical outcomes can occur if the child is underfed or overfed. The long-term results of specific diets, micronutrients, glutamine, and new access routes into the infant are not yet known. Research in these areas is rapidly growing, and the new knowledge will provide a greater ability to meet the individual needs of the critically ill child. Perhaps in the future the treatment of choice in patients with organ failure will involve specific micronutrients that influence the immune status and cellular degradation. In the meantime, critically ill children deserve to have their basic nutritional needs met, and nurses can do much to individualize the nutritional support required to produce optimal patient outcomes.

  10. Anxiety in Medically Ill Children/Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pao, Maryland; Bosk, Abigail

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are thought to be one of the most common psychiatric diagnoses in children/adolescents. Chronic medical illness is a significant risk factor for the development of an anxiety disorder and the prevalence rate of anxiety disorders among youths with chronic medical illnesses is higher compared to their healthy counterparts. Anxiety disorders may develop secondary to predisposing biological mechanisms related to a child’s specific medical illness, as a response to being ill or in the hospital, a threatening environment, as a result of other genetic and psychological factors, or as a combination of all these factors. Additionally, exposure to physical pain early in one’s life and or frequent painful medical procedures are correlated with fear and anxiety during subsequent procedures and treatments and may lead to medical nonadherence and other comorbidities. Anxiety disorders can have serious consequences in children/adolescents with chronic and or life limiting medical illnesses. Therefore, proper identification and treatment of anxiety disorders is necessary and may improve not only psychiatric symptoms but also physical symptoms. Behavioral and cognitive methods as well as psychotropic medications are used to treat anxiety disorders in pediatric patients. We will review current treatments for anxiety in children/adolescents with medical illnesses and propose future research directions. PMID:20721908

  11. Foodborne illness: is it on the rise?

    PubMed

    Nyachuba, David G

    2010-05-01

    Foodborne illness is a serious public health threat. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 76 million foodborne illnesses, including 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths, occur in the United States each year. Two recently published Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) reports showed that Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella, Cryptosporidium, and Shiga toxin Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 continue to be leading causes of both the number and incidence of laboratory-confirmed foodborne infections in the United States. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), foodborne illness costs the US economy $10-83 billion per year. Recent large foodborne outbreaks have led to claims that the number of foodborne disease outbreaks and concomitant illnesses has increased in recent years. However, a comparison of data from the CDC showed very little change in the incidence of foodborne illness caused by common pathogens between 2008 and the preceding 3 years (2005-2007). Nevertheless, despite intensified prevention efforts, foodborne illness remains a persistent problem in the United States. Food can become contaminated at any point in the farm-to-table continuum, as well as in consumers' own kitchens. Therefore, foodborne illness risk reduction and control interventions must be implemented at every step throughout the food preparation process, from farm to table. In addition, more effective food safety education programs for foodhandlers and consumers are needed. Strategies should take into account food safety-related trends including large-scale production and wide distribution of food, globalization of the food supply, eating outside of the home, emergence of new pathogens, and growing population of at-risk consumers.

  12. How the Media Cover Mental Illnesses: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Zexin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Mental illness has become an important public health issue in society, and media are the most common sources of information about mental illnesses. Thus, it is important to review research on mental illnesses and media. The purpose of this paper is to provide a narrative review of studies on mental illnesses in the media and identifies…

  13. Methionine splanchnic uptake is increased in critically ill children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During critical illness the splanchnic area is profoundly affected. There is no information on splanchnic uptake of amino acids in vivo, in critically ill children. Methionine splanchnic uptake in critically ill children will differ from estimates in healthy adults. We studied 24 critically ill chil...

  14. How the Media Cover Mental Illnesses: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Zexin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Mental illness has become an important public health issue in society, and media are the most common sources of information about mental illnesses. Thus, it is important to review research on mental illnesses and media. The purpose of this paper is to provide a narrative review of studies on mental illnesses in the media and identifies…

  15. Health Update: Care of Ill Children in Child Care Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses differing opinions about (1) exclusion of ill children from child care; (2) the meaning of fever; (3) appropriate care for ill children; (4) transfer of information about ill children in child care; and (5) written policies and procedures for care of ill children. (NH)

  16. Mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Galea, Sandro; Jones, Russell T.; Parker, Holly A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of Hurricane Katrina on mental illness and suicidality by comparing results of a post-Katrina survey with those of an earlier survey. METHODS: The National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, conducted between February 2001 and February 2003, interviewed 826 adults in the Census Divisions later affected by Hurricane Katrina. The post-Katrina survey interviewed a new sample of 1043 adults who lived in the same area before the hurricane. Identical questions were asked about mental illness and suicidality. The post-Katrina survey also assessed several dimensions of personal growth that resulted from the trauma (for example, increased closeness to a loved one, increased religiosity). Outcome measures used were the K6 screening scale of serious mental illness and mild-moderate mental illness and questions about suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. FINDINGS: Respondents to the post-Katrina survey had a significantly higher estimated prevalence of serious mental illness than respondents to the earlier survey (11.3% after Katrina versus 6.1% before; chi(2)1= 10.9; P < 0.001) and mild-moderate mental illness (19.9% after Katrina versus 9.7% before; chi(2)1 = 22.5; P < 0.001). Among respondents estimated to have mental illness, though, the prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans was significantly lower in the post-Katrina survey (suicidal ideation 0.7% after Katrina versus 8.4% before; chi(2)1 = 13.1; P < 0.001; plans for suicide 0.4% after Katrina versus 3.6% before; chi(2)1 = 6.0; P = 0.014). This lower conditional prevalence of suicidality was strongly related to two dimensions of personal growth after the trauma (faith in one's own ability to rebuild one's life, and realization of inner strength), without which between-survey differences in suicidality were insignificant. CONCLUSION: Despite the estimated prevalence of mental illness doubling after Hurricane Katrina, the prevalence of suicidality was unexpectedly low. The role of post

  17. Mental Illness among Us: A New Curriculum to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma among Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…

  18. Mental Illness among Us: A New Curriculum to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma among Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…

  19. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  20. Adults' Explanations and Children's Understanding of Contagious Illnesses, Non-Contagious Illnesses, and Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined (1) whether children notice different causes for contagious illnesses, non-contagious illnesses, and injuries and (2) what information adults provide to children and to what extent this information is related to children's causal awareness. Studies 1 and 2 explored preschool teachers' and mothers' explanations of…

  1. Illness perception in tuberculosis by implementation of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire - a TBNET study.

    PubMed

    Pesut, Dragica P; Bursuc, Bogdana N; Bulajic, Milica V; Solovic, Ivan; Kruczak, Katarzyna; Duarte, Raquel; Sorete-Arbore, Adriana; Raileanu, Marinela; Strambu, Irina; Nagorni-Obradovic, Ljudmila; Adzic, Tatjana; Lazic, Zorica; Zlatev-Ionescu, Maria; Bhagyabati, Sorokhaibam; Singh, Irom Ibungo; Srivastava, Govind Narayan

    2014-01-01

    How patients relate to the experience of their illness has a direct impact over their behavior. We aimed to assess illness perception in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) by means of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ) in correlation with patients' demographic features and clinical TB score. Our observational questionnaire based study included series of consecutive TB patients enrolled in several countries from October 2008 to January 2011 with 167 valid questionnaires analyzed. Each BIPQ item assessed one dimension of illness perceptions like the consequences, timeline, personal control, treatment control, identity, coherence, emotional representation and concern. An open question referred to the main causes of TB in each patient's opinion. The over-all BIPQ score (36.25 ± 11.054) was in concordance with the clinical TB score (p ≤ 0.001). TB patients believed in the treatment (the highest item-related score for treatment control) but were unsure about the illness identity. Illness understanding and the clinical TB score were negatively correlated (p < 0.01). Only 25% of the participants stated bacteria or TB contact as the first ranked cause of the illness. For routine clinical practice implementation of the BIPQ is convenient for obtaining fast and easy assessment of illness perception with potential utility in intervention design. This time saving effective personalized approach may improve communication with TB patients and contribute to better behavioral strategies in disease control.

  2. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  3. Adults' Explanations and Children's Understanding of Contagious Illnesses, Non-Contagious Illnesses, and Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined (1) whether children notice different causes for contagious illnesses, non-contagious illnesses, and injuries and (2) what information adults provide to children and to what extent this information is related to children's causal awareness. Studies 1 and 2 explored preschool teachers' and mothers' explanations of…

  4. The Chronic Illness Initiative: Supporting College Students with Chronic Illness Needs at DePaul University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royster, Lynn; Marshall, Olena

    2008-01-01

    College students with chronic illness find it difficult to succeed in traditional degree programs due to disruptions caused by relapses and unpredictable waxing and waning symptoms. College disability offices are often unable to help, both because their standard supports are not appropriate and because students with chronic illness frequently do…

  5. Stigmatization of mental illness among Nigerian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Ronzoni, Pablo; Dogra, Nisha; Omigbodun, Olayinka; Bella, Tolulope; Atitola, Olayinka

    2010-09-01

    Despite the fact that about 10% of children experience mental health problems, they tend to hold negative views about mental illness. The objective of this study was to investigate the views of Nigerian schoolchildren towards individuals with mental illness or mental health problems. A cross-sectional design was used. Junior and senior secondary schoolchildren from rural and urban southwest Nigeria were asked: 'What sorts of words or phrases might you use to describe someone who experiences mental health problems?' The responses were tabulated, grouped and interpreted by qualitative thematic analysis. Of 164 students, 132 (80.5%) responded to the question. Six major themes emerged from the answers. The most popular descriptions were 'derogatory terms' (33%). This was followed by 'abnormal appearance and behaviour' (29.6%); 'don't know' answers (13.6%); 'physical illness and disability' (13.6%); 'negative emotional states' (6.8%); and 'language and communication difficulties' (3.4%). The results suggest that, similar to findings elsewhere, stigmatization of mental illness is highly prevalent among Nigerian children. This may be underpinned by lack of knowledge regarding mental health problems and/or fuelled by the media. Educational interventions and encouraging contact with mentally ill persons could play a role in reducing stigma among schoolchildren.

  6. Hyperbaric oxygen in the critically ill.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Lindell K

    2011-07-01

    To review aspects of hyperbaric medicine pertinent to treating critically ill patients with hyperbaric oxygen in both monoplace and multiplace chambers. Literature review of online databases, research repositories, and clinical trial registries. The search of these resources produced information regarding technical considerations, feasibility, risk, and patient management. Hyperbaric oxygen is used in treating a number of disorders that occur in critically ill patients, including acute carbon monoxide poisoning, arterial gas embolism, severe decompression sickness, clostridial gas gangrene, necrotizing fasciitis, and acute crush injury. Most chambers in the United States treat outpatients with problem nonhealing wounds, and many chambers are not hospital-based. Only a few hyperbaric medicine centers have intensive care unit-level staffing, specialized equipment, a 24/7 schedule, and experience in treating critically ill patients. Not all intensive care unit-related equipment can be subjected to hyperbaric pressurization, and some equipment may increase the risk for fire inside the chamber. Treating critically ill patients with hyperbaric oxygen requires specialized equipment and personnel with intensive care unit skills and knowledge of the physiology and risks unique to hyperbaric oxygen exposure. Like with all medical interventions, it is important to consider the risk vs. the benefit of hyperbaric oxygen for any given critical care disorder, but hyperbaric oxygen can be delivered safely to critically ill patients. Many critical care environments without present hyperbaric oxygen capability may wish to consider offering hyperbaric oxygen to patients with hyperbaric oxygen-approved indications.

  7. [Neurological manifestations in critically ill patients].

    PubMed

    López-Rodríguez, L; Hidalgo-Alquicira, F G; Mimenza-Alvarado, A J

    To describe the pathophysiology, diagnosis and clinical manifestations of the neurological complications that critically ill patients often develop in intensive care units, and to discuss their treatment and prognosis, in the light of the most significant contemporary literature. The most frequent complication suffered by critically ill patients is sepsis, with encephalopathy as the main manifestation, and this has a direct effect on their prognosis. Polyneuropathy of the critically ill patient is linked to sepsis, as the main precipitating factor, as well as to the presence of high levels of glucose, which plays an important role in deciding whether mechanical ventilation can be withdrawn or not. Myopathy of the critically ill patient is related to the use of fluorinated steroids and neuromuscular blockers, which are frequently administered to these patients. All these entities represent a significant diagnostic challenge for the physician and are accompanied by important sequelae that continue after the patient's discharge from hospital, as well as myopathies and neuropathies associated to the use of drugs that are commonly administered to critically ill patients. It is therefore necessary to be familiar with the pathophysiology of the damage and with the associated factors, if a suitable diagnostic approach is to be employed. The incidence of these pathologies and their complications makes them important conditions that require a swift, accurate diagnosis so that treatment can be established early on and a prognosis can also be determined.

  8. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and Gulf War illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Golomb, Beatrice Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests excess illness in Persian Gulf War veterans (GWV) can be explained in part by exposure of GWV to organophosphate and carbamate acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEis), including pyridostigmine bromide (PB), pesticides, and nerve agents. Evidence germane to the relation of AChEis to illness in GWV was assessed. Many epidemiological studies reported a link between AChEi exposure and chronic symptoms in GWV. The link is buttressed by a dose–response relation of PB pill number to chronic symptoms in GWV and by a relation between avidity of AChEi clearance and illness, based on genotypes, concentrations, and activity levels of enzymes that detoxify AChEis. Triangulating evidence derives from studies linking occupational exposure to AChEis to chronic health symptoms that mirror those of ill GWV. Illness is again linked to lower activity of AChEi detoxifying enzymes and genotypes conferring less-avid AChEi detoxification. AChEi exposure satisfies Hill's presumptive criteria for causality, suggesting this exposure may be causally linked to excess health problems in GWV. PMID:18332428

  9. Hypomagnesemia in Critically Ill Sepsis Patients.

    PubMed

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vassilios; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Aretha, Diamanto; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium (Mg), also known as "the forgotten electrolyte", is the fourth most abundant cation overall and the second most abundant intracellular cation in the body. Mg deficiency has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many diseases. This article is a review of the literature regarding Mg abnormalities with emphasis on the implications of hypomagnesemia in critical illness and on treatment options for hypomagnesemia in critically ill patients with sepsis. Hypomagnesemia is common in critically ill patients, and there is strong, consistent clinical evidence, largely from observational studies, showing that hypomagnesemia is significantly associated with increased need for mechanical ventilation, prolonged ICU stay and increased mortality. Although the mechanism linking hypomagnesemia with poor clinical outcomes is not known, experimental data suggest mechanisms contributing to such outcomes. However, at the present time, there is no clear evidence that magnesium supplementation improves outcomes in critically ill patients with hypomagnesemia. Large, well-designed clinical trials are needed to evaluate the role of magnesium therapy for improving outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis.

  10. Hypomagnesemia in Critically Ill Sepsis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vassilios; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Aretha, Diamanto; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg), also known as “the forgotten electrolyte”, is the fourth most abundant cation overall and the second most abundant intracellular cation in the body. Mg deficiency has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many diseases. This article is a review of the literature regarding Mg abnormalities with emphasis on the implications of hypomagnesemia in critical illness and on treatment options for hypomagnesemia in critically ill patients with sepsis. Hypomagnesemia is common in critically ill patients, and there is strong, consistent clinical evidence, largely from observational studies, showing that hypomagnesemia is significantly associated with increased need for mechanical ventilation, prolonged ICU stay and increased mortality. Although the mechanism linking hypomagnesemia with poor clinical outcomes is not known, experimental data suggest mechanisms contributing to such outcomes. However, at the present time, there is no clear evidence that magnesium supplementation improves outcomes in critically ill patients with hypomagnesemia. Large, well-designed clinical trials are needed to evaluate the role of magnesium therapy for improving outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis. PMID:26566403

  11. Updates in SDO/EVE/EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) Data Processing and Inter-comparison of Calibrated ESP Irradiances with Measurements from Other On-orbit EUV Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Woodraska, D.

    2014-12-01

    Prior to the May 2014 anomaly which indefinitely suspended SDO/EVE Multiple EUV Spectrographs-A (MEGS-A) science operations, MEGS-A spectral distributions were used in the data processing algorithm for determining absolute EUV irradiance values from the SDO/EVE EUV Spectrophotometer (ESP) raw data. We discuss a revised ESP data processing algorithm which, in lieu of concurrently measured MEGS-A spectra, adopts reference spectra selected (based on solar activity at the time of the ESP observation) from a discrete set of spectra derived from MEGS-A spectra for various levels of activity observed prior to the anomaly. We present evaluations of the revised algorithm and adopted reference spectra based on comparisons of the resultant ESP irradiance values with EUV measurements from other on-orbit instrumentation including the SOHO/Solar EUV Monitor (SEM). The results of comparisons between ESP irradiances determined using the revised algorithm and those based on the pre-anomaly algorithm which uses concurrent MEGS-A spectra are also presented

  12. Correctional Officers and the Incarcerated Mentally Ill: Responses to Psychiatric Illness in Prison

    PubMed Central

    Galanek, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. men’s prison, I investigate how this social and cultural context structures relations between correctional officers and inmates with severe mental illness. Utilizing interpretivist perspectives, I explore how these relations are structured by trust, respect, and meanings associated with mental illness. Officers’ discretionary responses to mentally ill inmates included observations to ensure psychiatric stability and flexibility in rule enforcement and were embedded within their role to ensure staff and inmate safety. Officers identified housing, employment, and social support as important for inmates’ psychiatric stability as medications. Inmates identified officers’ observation and responsiveness to help seeking as assisting in institutional functioning. These findings demonstrate that this prison’s structures and values enable officers’ discretion with mentally ill inmates, rather than solely fostering custodial responses to these inmates’ behaviors. These officers’ responses to inmates with mental illness concurrently support custodial control and the prison’s order. PMID:25219680

  13. Illness as a condition of our existence in the world: on illness and pathic existence.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, Elin Håkonsen; Solbakk, Jan Helge

    2012-06-01

    This paper seeks to find different ways of addressing illness as an experience essential to the understanding of being a human being. As a conceptual point of departure, we suggest the notion of 'pathic existence' as developed by the German physician and philosopher Viktor von Weizsäcker (1886-1957). Through an analysis of his conceptualisation of the pathic and of pathic categories, we demonstrate how this auxiliary typology may be of help in unveiling different modes of ill-being, or Kranksein. Furthermore, we show how illness plays a paradigmatic role in this type of existence. We discuss how von Weizsäcker's claim of illness as "a way of being human" indicates how such a view of the illness existence both differs from and touches upon other streams of thought within the philosophy of medicine and medical ethics. Finally, we highlight some of the normative implications emerging from this perspective of relevance in today's medicine.

  14. Children's understanding of illness: the generalization of illness according to exemplar.

    PubMed

    Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn; Bati, Mariangela

    2003-11-01

    Using children's naïve theory of biology as a framework, this study examined children's illness conceptions. Children (aged 4-11), presented with one of four exemplars (child, dog, duck or rosebush) suffering an imaginary illness, were asked whether various entities from six categories, biological and non-biological, could also be afflicted. The children's illness generalizations differentiated between all of the categories; they not only distinguished between living and non-living things, but also recognized biological subkinds. Furthermore, the children's generalizations were significantly greater to the category of exemplar, indicating that human prototypicality is not the sole basis for children's generalizations. It is concluded that children's understanding of illness is mediated by a naïve biological theory that facilitates their systematic predictions of susceptibility to illness.

  15. Witchcraft illness in the Evuzok nosological system.

    PubMed

    Guimera, L M

    1978-12-01

    The Evuzok nosological system is structured with respect to two frames of reference, one designating illness as an empirical reality (descriptive subsystem), the other designating it according to its religious, magical and social significance (etiological subsystem). The articulation of these two subsystems is brought about in the process of diagnosis. Having examined this system as a whole, the author devotes his attention to a particular set of etiological categories, those which associate illness with witchcraft (nocturnal illnesses). He attempts to define their distinctive traits and, from this, to determine their common elemental structure. This study, based on a number of years of fieldwork, is part of an ongoing research program on African folk-medicine pursued by the Laboratoire d'Ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative of the Université de Paris X.

  16. Review of Critical Illness Myopathy and Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Starane; Batra, Ayush

    2016-01-01

    Critical illness myopathy (CIM) and neuropathy are underdiagnosed conditions within the intensive care setting and contribute to prolonged mechanical ventilation and ventilator wean failure and ultimately lead to significant morbidity and mortality. These conditions are often further subdivided into CIM, critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP), or the combination—critical illness polyneuromyopathy (CIPNM). In this review, we discuss the epidemiology and pathophysiology of CIM, CIP, and CIPNM, along with diagnostic considerations such as detailed clinical examination, electrophysiological studies, and histopathological review of muscle biopsy specimens. We also review current available treatments and prognosis. Increased awareness and early recognition of CIM, CIP, and CIPNM in the intensive care unit setting may lead to earlier treatments and rehabilitation, improving patient outcomes. PMID:28042370

  17. Brainstorm: occupational choice, bipolar illness and creativity.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Carol Horton; Grosskopf, Shawna; Yang, Ke

    2010-07-01

    Although economists have analyzed earnings, unemployment, and labor force participation for those with bipolar illness, occupational choice has yet to be explored. Psychological and medical studies often suggest an association between bipolar illness and creative achievement, but they tend to focus on eminent figures, case studies, or small samples. We seek to examine occupational creativity of non-eminent individuals with bipolar disorder. We use Epidemiologic Catchment Area data to estimate a multinomial logit model matched to an index of occupational creativity. Those with bipolar illness appear to be disproportionately concentrated in the most creative occupational category. Nonparametric kernel density estimates reveal that the densities of the occupational creativity variable for the bipolar and non-bipolar individuals significantly differ in the ECA data, and suggest that the probability of engaging in creative activities on the job is higher for bipolar than non-bipolar workers. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bedside echocardiography in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Casaroto, Eduardo; Mohovic, Tatiana; Pinto, Lilian Moreira; de Lara, Tais Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The echocardiography has become a vital tool in the diagnosis of critically ill patients. The use of echocardiography by intensivists has been increasing since the 1990’s. This tool has become a common procedure for the cardiovascular assessment of critically ill patients, especially because it is non-invasive and can be applied in fast and guided manner at the bedside. Physicians with basic training in echocardiography, both from intensive care unit or emergency department, can assess the left ventricle function properly with good accuracy compared with assessment made by cardiologists. The change of treatment approach based on echocardiographic findings is commonly seen after examination of unstable patient. This brief review focuses on growing importance of echocardiography as an useful tool for management of critically ill patients in the intensive care setting along with the cardiac output assessment using this resource. PMID:26761560

  19. Measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters.

    PubMed Central

    White, M C; Baker, E L

    1988-01-01

    The prevalence of different measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters was examined and the relation between respiratory illness and employment as a painter assessed in a cross sectional study of current male members of two local affiliates of a large international union of painters. Respiratory illness was measured by questionnaire and spirometry. Longer employment as a painter was associated with increased prevalence of chronic obstructive disease and an interactive effect was observed for smoking and duration of employment as a painter. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between years worked as a painter and a decrement in FEV1 equal to about 11 ml for each year worked. This association was larger among painters who had smoked. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was significantly associated with increased use of spray application methods. PMID:3261989

  20. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

  1. Symptom Identification in the Chronically Critically Ill

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Grace B.; Happ, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    Ascertaining the symptom experience of chronically critically ill (CCI) patients is difficult due to communication impairment and fluctuations in patient cognition and physiological conditions. The use of checklist self report ratings is hampered by the inability of most CCI patients to respond verbally to symptom queries. In addition to the communication problems caused by mechanical ventilation, the apparently diverse idioms of symptom expression add to the potential for miscommunication regarding symptom experience. Although patient communication impairment is a major barrier to symptom identification, symptom assessment and treatment are fundamental components of nursing care for CCI. This paper reviews and describes the unique constellation of symptoms experienced by many critically ill patients. We report our observations of symptom communication among CCI patients and nurses and discuss inconsistency in the language of symptom expression among nurses and patients. Clinically applicable strategies to improve nurse-patient symptom communication and suggestions for refinement of symptom assessment in chronic critical illness are provided. PMID:20118706

  2. Diagnosis of Pfiesteria-human illness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, R C

    1997-01-01

    The first case reports of human illness caused by exposure to Pfiesteria piscicida toxin(s) acquired outside of a laboratory are reported. Though Pfiesteria, a toxin-forming dinoflagellate, is responsible for killing billions of fish in estuaries in North Carolina, its role in human illness has remained controversial, in part due to lack of identification of the toxin. A recent fish kill in the rivers of the lower Eastern Shore has permitted careful investigation and identification of a distinct clinical syndrome resulting from exposure to the Pfiesteria toxin--Pfiesteria human illness syndrome (PHIS). Patients have memory losses, cognitive impairments, headaches, skin rashes, abdominal pain, secretory diarrhea, conjunctival irritation, and bronchospasm. Not all patients have all elements of the syndrome.

  3. Mental illness, stigma, and the media.

    PubMed

    Benbow, Alastair

    2007-01-01

    Society is ingrained with prejudice toward mental illness, and sufferers are often widely perceived to be dangerous or unpredictable. Reinforcement of these popular myths through the media can perpetuate the stigma surrounding mental illness, precipitating shame, self-blame, and secrecy, all of which discourage affected individuals from seeking treatment. Efforts aimed at countering stigma in mental illness are faced with the challenge of centuries of discrimination and must, therefore, replace existing stereotypes with coverage of positive outcomes, as a first step in achieving the daunting task of overcoming these negative stereotypes. Long-term anti-stigma campaigns that encompass human-rights-based, normalization, and educational approaches are needed. The involvement of the media is essential for success, but, in order for the media to be used effectively, its motivations and limitations must first be recognized and understood.

  4. [Health education: knowledge, social representation, and illness].

    PubMed

    Gazzinelli, Maria Flávia; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Reis, Dener Carlos dos; Penna, Cláudia Maria de Mattos

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the theory and practice of health and education, beginning with the notion of the hegemony (in health education practice) of strategies linked to the notion that to grasp established knowledge always leads to the acquisition of new behaviors and practices. Five different axioms have oriented education and health practices, either juxtaposed or at different moments: (1) the notion of overcoming the determination of knowledge over practices; (2) the determination of representations over practices; (3) the analysis of representations within the traditional framework of right and wrong; (4) reciprocity between representations and practices; and (5) the importance of considering practices amenable to re-elaboration through representations, thus situating experience in understanding subjects' illness processes, as well as the way subjects culturally construct illness. The article highlights the need for a link between social representations and illness-as-experience in health education practices.

  5. Cultural diversity: family path through terminal illness.

    PubMed

    Baider, L

    2012-04-01

    In trying to comprehend a culture and its ways of structuring the world, much can be learned from addressing the manner in which intimate family relationships are ordered and family crises channeled toward care. A family's experience with illness cannot be considered in isolation from the cultural milieu in which it occurs. Family adaptation to cancer diagnosis is a continuous motion between many critical strata--a fragile oscillation between hope and desperation. Processes for optimal functioning and the well-being of members are seen to vary over time, as challenges unfold and families evolve across the life cycle and illness trajectory. The manner in which the healthcare system and family manage illness and terminal care is a particularly helpful window into the cultural, religious and traditional values of every family in a particular society.

  6. Gastrointestinal illness on passenger cruise ships.

    PubMed

    Merson, M H; Hughes, J M; Wood, B T; Yashuk, J C; Wells, J G

    1975-02-17

    Medical logs of 2,445 cruises taken by 38 vessels over a 20-month period beginning Jan 1, 1972, were reviewed. On 92% of the cruises, the recorded incidence of gastrointestinal illness was 1% or less; on 2% of cruises, it was 5% or greater. The actual incidence of gastrointestinal illness determined by a questionnaire survey of passengers sailing on nine cruises was found to be at least four times as high as that recorded in the medical logs. Although the cause of the illnesses was not known, there was evidence that transmission took place aboard ship. A survey of food-handling practices and water systems aboard selected ships demonstrated a significant potential for transmission of foodborne and waterborne disease.

  7. Morgellons: contested illness, diagnostic compromise and medicalisation.

    PubMed

    Fair, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The case of Morgellons illustrates how the emergence of a new medically contested illness intersected with and impacted on the diagnostic processes of an existing uncontested psychiatric condition, Delusional Parasitosis (DP). More specifically, the sociopolitical processes at play in the contested illness, Morgellons, dubiously reflect patient empowerment, as well the resilience and power of medical jurisdiction. This research offers insights into the contested illness and medicalisation literatures, and aims to bridge these two approaches towards the relationship between patient empowerment and medical authority, which I do through the notion of doctor-patient compromise. The data for this research come from a comprehensive qualitative analysis of Morgellons discourse through four key sources: the pro-Morgellons website Morgellons.org; the anti-Morgellons website Morgellonswatch.com; the popular media's portrayal of Morgellons; and the DP and Morgellons articles published in peer-reviewed medical journals, as made available on PubMed.

  8. Sex-dependent mental illnesses and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Akiko; Rappeneau, Virginie

    2017-03-06

    The prevalence of some mental illnesses, including major depression, anxiety-, trauma-, and stress-related disorders, some substance use disorders, and later onset of schizophrenia, is higher in women than men. While the higher prevalence in women could simply be explained by socioeconomic determinants, such as income, social status, or cultural background, extensive studies show sex differences in biological, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacological factors contribute to females' vulnerability to these mental illnesses. In this review, we focus on estrogens, chronic stress, and neurotoxicity from behavioral, pharmacological, biological, and molecular perspectives to delineate the sex differences in these mental illnesses. Particularly, we investigate a possible role of mitochondrial function, including biosynthesis, bioenergetics, and signaling, on mediating the sex differences in psychiatric disorders.

  9. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  10. Diastolic dysfunction in the critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Suárez, J C; López, P; Mancebo, J; Zapata, L

    2016-11-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is a common finding in critically ill patients. It is characterized by a progressive deterioration of the relaxation and the compliance of the left ventricle. Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography is a cornerstone in its diagnosis. Acute pulmonary edema associated with hypertensive crisis is the most frequent presentation of diastolic dysfunction critically ill patients. Myocardial ischemia, sepsis and weaning failure from mechanical ventilation also may be associated with diastolic dysfunction. The treatment is based on the reduction of pulmonary congestion and left ventricular filling pressures. Some studies have found a prognostic role of diastolic dysfunction in some diseases such as sepsis. The present review aims to analyze thoroughly the echocardiographic diagnosis and the most frequent scenarios in critically ill patients in whom diastolic dysfunction plays a key role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  11. The neurological illness of Friedrich Nietzsche.

    PubMed

    Hemelsoet, D; Hemelsoet, K; Devreese, D

    2008-03-01

    Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), one of the most profound and influential modern philosophers, suffered since his very childhood from severe migraine. At 44 he had a mental breakdown ending in a dementia with total physical dependence due to stroke. From the very beginning, Nietzsche's dementia was attributed to a neurosyphilitic infection. Recently, this tentative diagnosis has become controversial. To use historical accounts and original materials including correspondence, biographical data and medical papers to document the clinical characteristics of Nietzsche's illness and, by using this pathography, to discuss formerly proposed diagnoses and to provide and support a new diagnostic hypothesis. Original letters from Friedrich Nietzsche, descriptions by relatives and friends, and medical descriptions. Original German sources were investigated. Biographical papers published in medical journals were also consulted. Nietzsche suffered from migraine without aura which started in his childhood. In the second half of his life he suffered from a psychiatric illness with depression. During his last years, a progressive cognitive decline evolved and ended in a profound dementia with stroke. He died from pneumonia in 1900. The family history includes a possible vascular-related mental illness in his father who died from stroke at 36. Friedrich Nietzsche's disease consisted of migraine, psychiatric disturbances, cognitive decline with dementia, and stroke. Despite the prevalent opinion that neurosyphilis caused Nietzsche's illness, there is lack of evidence to support this diagnosis. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) accounts for all the signs and symptoms of Nietzsche's illness. This study adds new elements to the debate and controversy about Nietzsche's illness. We discuss former diagnoses, comment on the history of a diagnostic mistake, and integrate for the first time Nietzsche's medical problems.

  12. Army dependents: childhood illness and health provision.

    PubMed

    Giles, Sarah

    2005-06-01

    This small qualitative study explored attitudes of a group of Army wives to childhood illness and their expectations of health provision. The author's practice serves a population mainly comprising of Army dependents where GP attendance rates are double the national average. Two focus groups were organised using health visitor groups attached to the practice. Transcripts were examined to produce a framework for semi-structured interviews with nine mothers, who were selected by purposive sampling. Mothers were asked about symptoms, coping, social problems, decisions to take action, health provision and support. Data were analysed and sorted, using the principles of grounded theory, into four main themes: attitude to child's illness, coping, Army culture and accessibility to health services. Many Army wives appear to suffer from high levels of stress. It seemed that the coping ability of the mother was affected by the constant turbulence and isolation of Army life. While mothers displayed a knowledge of common illnesses, they had fears of the unknown and of life threatening illnesses. They sometimes managed childhood illness at home owing to lack of transport. The author concluded that some Army wives suffer from stress and lack confidence in their mothering skills when their children are ill, which may be due, in part, to the constant cycle of postings and isolation from family and services. They need easily accessible health facilities and information regarding these services. Communication should be encouraged between civilian services and the Army. It appears that Army dependents require more support from their GP practice than the average civilian family, offering opportunity for nurses and health visitors to provide alternative and proactive services.

  13. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang-pei; Ying-Chi Lai, Grace; Yang, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person’s participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese-immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) has specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese-immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from two Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semi-structured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants’ consideration of three critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship-building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network involuntary disclosure could happen without participants’ permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations where they experienced little discriminatory treatment and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed. PMID:23647389

  14. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang-Pei; Lai, Grace Ying-Chi; Yang, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person's participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) have specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from 2 Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semistructured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants' consideration of 3 critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network, involuntary disclosure could happen without participants' permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations in which they experienced little discriminatory treatment, and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed.

  15. Adaptive Leadership Framework for Chronic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ruth A.; Bailey, Donald E.; Wu, Bei; Corazzini, Kirsten; McConnell, Eleanor S.; Thygeson, N. Marcus; Docherty, Sharron L.

    2015-01-01

    We propose the Adaptive Leadership Framework for Chronic Illness as a novel framework for conceptualizing, studying, and providing care. This framework is an application of the Adaptive Leadership Framework developed by Heifetz and colleagues for business. Our framework views health care as a complex adaptive system and addresses the intersection at which people with chronic illness interface with the care system. We shift focus from symptoms to symptoms and the challenges they pose for patients/families. We describe how providers and patients/families might collaborate to create shared meaning of symptoms and challenges to coproduce appropriate approaches to care. PMID:25647829

  16. Giving nutrition support to critically ill adults.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jane

    Patients who become critically ill can have problems maintaining nutritional intake and it can be challenging for nurses to provide nutritional support. No one assessment method can identify each patient's risk of malnutrition, so nurses need to look at different aspects in their nutritional assessment and refer for specialist help from dietitians and nutrition support teams when needed. This article focuses on how severe physiological stress affects patients who are critically ill and impacts on their nutritional requirements. A nursing nutritional assessment is explored, as are nutritional support methods that may be used to manage these patients' nutritional needs.

  17. [Metabolic emergencies in critically ill cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Namendys-Silva, Silvio A; Hernández-Garay, Marisol; García-Guillén, Francisco J; Correa-García, Paulina; Herrera Gómez, Angel; Meneses-García, Abelardo

    2013-11-01

    Severe metabolic alterations frequently occur in critically ill cancer patients; hypercalcemia, hypocalcemia, hyponatremia, tumor lysis syndrome, metabolic complications of renal failure and lactic acidosis. Cancer patients with metabolic emergencies should be treated in a medical oncology department or an intensive care unit. Most metabolic emergencies can be treated properly when they are identified early. The clinician should consider that the prognosis of critically ill cancer patients depends on their primary disease, comorbidities and organ failure. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Illness perception in Chinese adults with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ji, Haixia; Zhang, Lei; Li, Lunlan; Gong, Guiping; Cao, Zhaolun; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhou, Nong; Wang, Yu; Tu, Houmian; Wang, Kai

    2016-12-01

    Epilepsy is among the most common neurological disorders worldwide. Understanding the patient's subjective experience plays an important role in the treatment and rehabilitation of the patient. However, few studies are concerned about the illness perception of Chinese adults with epilepsy. 117 Chinese adults with epilepsy and 87 Chinese adults with chronic liver disease completed the Chinese version of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (CIPQ-R). The Chinese epilepsy patients also completed the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ). A comparison about CIPQ-R score between the epilepsy group and chronic liver group was conducted using the independent sample t test. Partial correlation coefficients were calculated among the eight subscales of the CIPQ-R and its associated factors. Results for the CIPQ-R indicated that both the epilepsy patients and the chronic liver disease patients had a moderate belief in their personal control and treatment control over their disorder. Consistent with our hypothesis, patients with epilepsy and those with chronic liver disease perceived their respective disease similarly in terms of timeline and illness coherence. However, epilepsy patients had a higher negative emotional representations level than that we expected when compared to those of the patients suffering from chronic liver disease. Partial correlation analysis in Chinese epilepsy patients showed that the timeline acute/chronic dimension and emotional representations dimension were closely related to the other dimensions of illness perception. Moreover, the illness perception of the patients was significantly associated with social support, coping style, duration of epilepsy, seizure frequency, and the number of antiepileptic drugs. Chinese patients with epilepsy had limited understanding of the illness, and poor belief in personal control and treatment control. They had a negative emotional response to their illness

  19. Stigma of Mental Illness-1: Clinical reflections

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Johnston, Megan; Bureau, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Although the quality and effectiveness of mental health treatments and services have improved greatly over the past 50 years, therapeutic revolutions in psychiatry have not yet been able to reduce stigma. Stigma is a risk factor leading to negative mental health outcomes. It is responsible for treatment seeking delays and reduces the likelihood that a mentally ill patient will receive adequate care. It is evident that delay due to stigma can have devastating consequences. This review will discuss the causes and consequences of stigma related to mental illness. PMID:22654383

  20. [Illness caused by water-based paints?].

    PubMed

    Birkeland, G; Zahlsen, K; Aas, K

    1994-08-20

    Illness caused by the indoor environment is a challenging and complicated field to investigate. Emissions from paints may contribute to the problems. Several components of water-based paints evaporate for a long time after painting, and some of them may affect human biology. We describe one patient who has experienced symptoms caused by water-based paint. Different reaction mechanisms may be involved, and these are discussed. Components which may elicit biological effects are listed and discussed. Physicians should be aware of the possibility that a few patients may suffer from illness caused by emissions from modern paints.

  1. Monitoring Illness in a Closed Work Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-20

    AD-AlS 1#17 NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER SAN DIEGO CA F/S 5/2 MONITORING ILLNESS MN A CLOSED WORK ENVIRONMENT .(Ul OCT Al L HERNANSEN, V M PUGH...CLOSED WORK ENVIRONMENT Larry Hermansen* and William M. Pugh* Naval Health Research Center P.O. Box 85122 San Diego, California 92138 Accesion Yor NUIS 0R...monitoring outpatient illness rates in a closed work environment . This paper presents additional procedures which were used to further organize and

  2. [Stigmatizing of persons with a mental illness].

    PubMed

    Vendsborg, Per; Nordentoft, Merete; Lindhardt, Anne

    2011-04-18

    Persons with a mental illness and their relatives experience discrimination and expect to be discriminated. The public regards them as unpredictable and dangerous and do not wish to have any relation with them neither in private nor at work. This opinion is shared by people working in health care or social care. The myth of dangerousness is out of proportion and the media is to blame as they most often mention persons with mental illnesses as dangerous. Many countries make a great effort to reduce stigma and this is also under planning in Denmark.

  3. Bipolar illness: factors in drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Dunner, D L; Hensel, B M; Fieve, R R

    1979-04-01

    Alcohol use and abuse was investigated in 73 patients with bipolar I manic-depressive illness who were attending a lithium clinic. Alcohol-related problems were identified in 7 of the male and none of the female patients. Family data revealed a higher morbid risk for alcoholism among relatives of patients with drinking problems than among relatives of patients without drinking problems. Morbid risks for affective disorder for these two groups of relatives were similar, suggesting that alcoholism among relatives of patients with bipolar illness is not solely "genotypically" related to the affective disorder.

  4. Magnesium homeostasis in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Ryzen, E

    1989-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) deficiency is a common finding in critically ill patients. Mg deficiency results primarily from gastrointestinal or urinary Mg losses, but malnutrition and decreased dietary Mg intake may hasten the development of Mg depletion. In our medical intensive-care unit, we have found hypomagnesemia in 65% of patients with normal serum creatinine concentrations. The prevalence of normomagnesemic Mg deficiency in critically ill patients may be even higher and may contribute to the pathogenesis of hypocalcemia, cardiac arrhythmias and other symptoms of Mg deficiency.

  5. Law & psychiatry: Murder, inheritance, and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Gold, Azgad; Appelbaum, Paul S

    2011-07-01

    Should a murderer be allowed to inherit the victim's estate? The question dates from biblical times, but most jurisdictions today have statutes in place that bar inheritance by convicted murderers. However, a special problem arises when the killer has a severe mental illness and has been found not guilty by reason of insanity. Should such people, who have not been convicted of a crime, be permitted to collect their inheritance? Jurisdictions vary in their responses, with the rules reflecting a mix of practical and moral considerations influenced by different perspectives about what determines the behavior of persons with mental illness.

  6. Variation in the spillover effects of illness on parents, spouses, and children of the chronically ill.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Tara A; Wittenberg, Eve; Lamarand, Kara; Prosser, Lisa A

    2014-04-01

    Given the broad scope of the spillover effects of illness, it is important to characterize the variability in these outcomes to identify relationship types in which secondary impacts of illness are particularly important to include in health economic evaluations. To examine heterogeneity in spillover effects of chronic conditions on family members by type of familial relationship with patient. Adults (aged ≥18 years) and adolescents (aged 13-17 years) who had a parent, spouse, or child in their household with a chronic condition (Alzheimer's disease/dementia, arthritis, cancer, or depression) were recruited from a US national panel to participate in an on-line survey. Respondents were asked to rate the spillover effect of their family member's illness on their own health on a 0-100 scale, with lower scores indicating greater spillover. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between rating scale scores and relationship with an ill family member (ill parent, child, or spouse) for each illness separately, controlling for caregiving responsibility and the health status of the ill family member. 1,267 adults and 102 adolescents met inclusion criteria. In adjusted analyses, having a sick child was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with lower rating scale scores compared with having a spouse with the same condition (cancer: -24.2; depression -9.7). Having a non-elderly or elderly adult parent with a condition, compared with a spouse, was significantly associated with lower rating scale scores for arthritis (-3.8) and depression (-5.3), but not for Alzheimer's disease/dementia or cancer. The impact of illness on family members, measured with a rating scale, varies by relationship type for certain illnesses. Having a child with cancer, a parent with arthritis, or either with depression, is significantly associated with greater spillover, compared with having a spouse with one of these conditions.

  7. Variation in the spillover effects of illness on parents, spouses and children of the chronically ill

    PubMed Central

    Lavelle, Tara A.; Wittenberg, Eve; Lamarand, Kara; Prosser, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the broad scope of the spillover effects of illness, it is important to characterize the variability in these outcomes in order to identify relationship types in which secondary impacts of illness are particularly important to include in health economic evaluations. Purpose To examine heterogeneity in spillover effects of chronic conditions on family members by type of familial relationship with patient. Methods Adults (≥18 years) and adolescents (13-17 years) who had a parent, spouse or child in their household with a chronic condition (including Alzheimer's disease/dementia, arthritis, cancer and depression) were recruited from a U.S. national panel to participate in an on-line survey. Respondents were asked to rate the spillover effect of their family member's illness on their own health on a 0-100 scale, with lower scores indicating greater spillover. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between rating scale scores and relationship with ill family member (ill parent, child, or spouse) for each illness separately, controlling for caregiving responsibility and the health status of the ill family member. Results 1267 adults and 102 adolescents met inclusion criteria. In adjusted analyses, having a sick child was significantly (p<0.05) associated with lower rating scale scores compared to having a spouse with the same condition (cancer: -24.2; depression -9.7). Having a non-elderly or elderly adult parent with a condition, compared to a spouse, was significantly associated with lower rating scale scores for arthritis (-3.8) and depression (-5.3), but not for Alzheimer's disease/dementia or cancer. Conclusions The impact of illness on family members, measured with a rating scale, varies by relationship type for certain illnesses. Having a child with cancer, a parent with arthritis, or either with depression, is significantly associated with greater spillover, compared to having a spouse with one of these conditions. PMID

  8. The stigma of mental illness in the labor market.

    PubMed

    Hipes, Crosby; Lucas, Jeffrey; Phelan, Jo C; White, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Mental illness labels are accompanied by devaluation and discrimination. We extend research on reactions to mental illness by utilizing a field experiment (N = 635) to test effects of mental illness labels on labor market discrimination. This study involved sending fictitious applications to job listings, some applications indicating a history of mental illness and some indicating a history of physical injury. In line with research indicating that mental illness leads to stigma, we predicted fewer callbacks to candidates with mental illness. We also predicted relatively fewer callbacks for applicants with mental illness when the jobs involved a greater likelihood for interpersonal contact with the employer. Results showed significant discrimination against applicants with mental illness, but did not indicate an effect of potential proximity to the employer. This contributes a valuable finding in a natural setting to research on labor market discrimination towards people with mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Predicting wellbeing among people with epilepsy using illness cognitions.

    PubMed

    Salter, Kirstie A; Prior, Kirsty N; Bond, Malcolm J

    2017-06-01

    This study sought to examine the synergistic contribution of illness-related perceptions (stigma, severity, and threat) and illness behavior to wellbeing among people with epilepsy. Poorer wellbeing was expected among those who perceived greater stigma, illness severity, and threat and had more extreme illness behavior. Individuals with a diagnosis of epilepsy (N=210), recruited through local and online support groups, completed a questionnaire comprising demographic and epilepsy-specific information, and validated measures of illness perceptions and behavior, epilepsy-related quality of life, and general psychological health. Bivariate associations among illness cognition, illness behavior, and wellbeing were all as expected. Structural equation modeling highlighted the strong, direct effect of illness threat on quality of life, with other contributions from perceived stigma and an abnormal illness behavior syndrome (i.e., maladaptive illness responses). Significant variance was accounted for in both quality of life (64%) and psychological health (34%). Preliminary evidence of the contributions of illness threat and maladaptive illness responses to wellbeing highlights the need for longitudinal research to examine the dynamic nature of such findings. Clinicians are encouraged to consider the potential value of screening for both illness threat and abnormal illness behavior to facilitate interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanisms influencing bone metabolism in chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Daci, E; van Cromphaut, S; Bouillon, R

    2002-01-01

    Bone is permanently renewed by the coordinated actions of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts, which model and remodel bone structure during growth and adult life. The origin of osteoblastic cells (osteoblasts, osteocytes and bone-lining cells) differs from that of osteoclasts, but both cell groups communicate with each other using cytokines and cell-cell contact as to optimally maintain bone homeostasis. This communication in many ways uses the same players as the communication between cells in the immune system. During acute life-threatening illness massive bone resorption is the rule, while bone formation is suppressed. During chronic illness, the balance between bone formation and bone resorption also shifts, frequently resulting in decreased bone mass and density. Several factors may contribute to the osteopenia that accompanies chronic illness, the most important being undernutrition and low body weight, inflammatory cytokines, disorders of the neuroendocrine axis (growth hormone/IGF-1 disturbances, thyroid and gonadal deficiency), immobilization, and the long-term use of glucocorticoids. Their combined effects not only influence the generation and activity of all bone cells involved, but probably also regulate their life span by apoptotic mechanisms. Osteopenia or even osteoporosis and bone fragility, and before puberty also decreased linear growth and lower peak bone mass are therefore frequent consequences of chronic illnesses.

  11. [Epidemiological surveillance of febrile rash illness].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, Gabriela Fidela; Rojas-Mendoza, Teresita; Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción; Maldonado-Burgos, Martha Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Three imported cases of measles were detected in 2011, so the issue of surveillance with epidemiological alerts intensified. The aim of this article is to describe the phenomenon of intensified surveillance of febrile rash illness before the import of confirmed measles in the country at the Mexican Institute of Social Security cases. The cases of epidemiological surveillance system 2011 were obtained was compared with the prior year It was determined t-Student mean difference and Wilson test for proportions, both with an alpha value of 0.05. 2786 cases of febrile rash illness were reported, 51.2 % more cases than the previous year were reported in 2011, the number of reported cases in relation to the expected increase in 29 of the 35 Delegations, an increase in the average number of cases reported from week 26. 67.4 % of reported cases are concentrated in children under 5 years of age. The average days to collect laboratory sample improved after issuing alerts from 3.4 to 2.6 days (p < 0.000000559). A significant increase in reported cases of febrile rash illness compared with the prior year was appreciated. The Institute has a surveillance system for robust and febrile rash illness, which has identified risks to the population.

  12. Wellness within illness: happiness in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Barton W; Martin, Averria Sirkin; Depp, Colin A; Glorioso, Danielle K; Jeste, Dilip V

    2014-10-01

    Schizophrenia is typically a chronic disorder and among the most severe forms of serious mental illnesses in terms of adverse impact on quality of life. Yet, there have been suggestions that some people with schizophrenia can experience an overall sense of happiness in their lives. We investigated happiness among 72 outpatients with non-remitted chronic schizophrenia with a mean duration of illness of 24.4 years, and 64 healthy comparison subjects (HCs). Despite continued treatment with antipsychotic medications, the individuals with schizophrenia manifested a mild to moderate level of psychopathology. People with schizophrenia reported lower mean levels of happiness than HCs, but there was substantial heterogeneity within the schizophrenia group. Level of happiness in persons with schizophrenia was significantly correlated with higher mental health-related quality of life, and several positive psychosocial factors (lower perceived stress, and higher levels of resilience, optimism, and personal mastery). However, level of happiness was not related to sociodemographic characteristics, duration of illness, severity of positive or negative symptoms, physical function, medical comorbidity, or cognitive functioning. Except for an absence of an association with resilience, the pattern of correlations of happiness with other variables seen among HCs was similar to that in individuals with schizophrenia. Although happiness may be harder to achieve in the context of a serious mental illness, it nonetheless appears to be a viable treatment goal in schizophrenia. Psychotherapies targeting positive coping factors such as resilience, optimism, and personal mastery warrant further investigation.

  13. Pediatric Social Illnesses and Black Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Robert L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines the concept of "pediatric social illness" (child abuse, neglect, accidents, ingestions, and failure to thrive) in a sample of 94 Black families whose children were admitted to Children's Hospital Medical Center (Boston). Explores economic, social, and environmental causes of the phenomenon. (GC)

  14. Examining the Education Gradient in Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterji, Pinka; Joo, Heesoo; Lahiri, Kajal

    2015-01-01

    We examine the education gradient in diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol. We take into account diagnosed as well as undiagnosed cases and use methods accounting for the possibility of unmeasured factors that are correlated with education and drive both the likelihood of having illness and the propensity to be diagnosed. Data come from the…

  15. Illness Cognition and Responses to AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, George D.

    Along with the current epidemic of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has come what some have called an epidemic of fear. Two studies were conducted to explore lay responses to AIDS from the perspective of recent research on how lay people process illness information. The research examines the cognitive organization of disease information…

  16. Economic cost of foodborne illness in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Scharff, Robert L; McDowell, Joyce; Medeiros, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    Past efforts to evaluate the economic burden of risks from foodborne illness in the United States have generally taken the form of studies focused on a single or a small number of "important" pathogens. As a result, the economic impact of many less prominent pathogens has not been sufficiently explored. Consequently, currently available studies only provide cost estimates for fewer than 4 million of the 76 million cases of foodborne illness, are incomplete, and, as a result, underestimate the efficacy of broad-based intervention programs. We present a cost-of-illness model that enhances the oft-cited U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service model. Our model uses a more comprehensive set of pathogens, includes pathogen-specific hospitalization costs, and includes measures to account for lost quality of life. We also use Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the effects of uncertainty in our analysis. We find the estimated annual expected economic cost of foodborne illness for Ohio to be between $1.0 and $7.1 billion, which translates into a per-Ohio resident cost of $91 to $624. Our results can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of broad-based food safety programs.

  17. Resisting the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoits, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…

  18. Resisting the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoits, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…

  19. The Stigma of Families with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…

  20. Siblings and Mental Illness: Heredity vs. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, David C.; Elam, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Siblings are far more likely to be different than alike in personality and psychopathology. Different genes and different environmental experiences can account for why one sibling becomes mentally ill and another is not affected. Environmental experiences play a much greater role in sibling differentiation than has been previously recognized.…

  1. I'll Never Do It Again

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clift, Elayne

    2009-01-01

    While online teaching may be the wave of the future, it is not for this author, who writes "I trained for it, I tried it, and I'll never do it again." An instructor with years of experience successfully teaching in collegiate classrooms, she says online teaching does not compare. So she will chalk up her first and only venture to experience and…

  2. Remote Intimations: Performance Art and Environmental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Stephen; Laffin, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This article explores and documents the work of leading Midwestern performance artist Julie Laffin, in the years since she developed a serious form of environmental illness (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity). This condition has effectively rendered her housebound and unable to appear in public, so that her previous live performance practice--which…

  3. About the right to be ill.

    PubMed

    Halasz, Jacek

    2017-07-14

    The article raises the issue of 'the right to be ill', formulated by Tadeusz Kielanowski, a Polish physician and humanist. According to him, the right to health should be supplemented by the principle which would serve the protection of people with diseases or disabilities. One-sided interpretation of 'the right to health' may result in various forms of intolerance and discrimination. This paper presents what dangers Kielanowski recognized and explains why his approach was considered to be a novelty; what the idea of 'the right to be ill' is, how the need for it is substantiated. This idea is considered in the context of human rights and it constitutes a starting point for the reflection on social phenomena connected with medicine. Taking into account the changes in medical ethics and culture which have taken place in the recent decades the question has been asked-is it worth talking about the right to be ill these days? Giving positive answers to this question, the spheres and issues that have been presented can be analyzed and assessed from the perspective of the right to be ill.

  4. Foodborne illness: implications for the future.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    Many outbreaks of foodborne illness, even those involving newly recognized pathogens, could have been avoided if certain precautions had been taken. This article will draw on existing information to suggest realistic measures that, if implemented, are most likely to avert or diminish the impact of new foodborne disease outbreaks. PMID:9366609

  5. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome in the critically ill.

    PubMed

    Jones, Shirley F; Brito, Veronica; Ghamande, Shekhar

    2015-07-01

    This article summarizes available data on the obesity hypoventilation syndrome and its pertinence to intensivists, outlines clinical and pathophysiologic aspects of the disease, discusses multidisciplinary treatments, and reviews the available literature on outcomes specific to the critically ill patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychological and Spiritual Factors in Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifer, Ron

    1996-01-01

    Asserts the importance of psychological and spiritual factors in the treatment of chronic illness. Discusses the inevitably of sickness, old age, and death, as well as the presence of the physician, patience, pain, and hope. Maintains that reflection on these qualities can benefit both the physician and patient. (MJP)

  7. Pressure sore prevention in acutely ill patients.

    PubMed

    James, H

    1997-03-01

    A wide range of factors affect the skin's ability to withstand pressure, friction and shear. Clinically validated pressure-relieving equipment is essential to prevent pressure sores in acutely ill patients. A successful pressure sore prevention strategy depends on sufficient resource allocation, appropriate levels and types of preventive equipment and evaluation.

  8. Siblings and Mental Illness: Heredity vs. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, David C.; Elam, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Siblings are far more likely to be different than alike in personality and psychopathology. Different genes and different environmental experiences can account for why one sibling becomes mentally ill and another is not affected. Environmental experiences play a much greater role in sibling differentiation than has been previously recognized.…

  9. Psychological and Spiritual Factors in Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifer, Ron

    1996-01-01

    Asserts the importance of psychological and spiritual factors in the treatment of chronic illness. Discusses the inevitably of sickness, old age, and death, as well as the presence of the physician, patience, pain, and hope. Maintains that reflection on these qualities can benefit both the physician and patient. (MJP)

  10. Fatally Ill Children's Comprehension of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walco, Gary A.; And Others

    Currently, professionals disagree about whether children should be informed about their illnesses and the possibility of their deaths. Some experts feel discussion of these subjects would only upset the children while others feel this knowledge is the children's right and will allay the children's anxieties. What is needed but not available is…

  11. The Victimization of the Homeless Mentally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence

    An indication of the failure of the mental health system in this country is reflected in the increasingly visible homeless population, many of whom suffer from some form of untreated mental illness. Public policy priorities have shifted from proactive, treatment-oriented policies to reactive, punitive institutionalization. The…

  12. Coping with Loneliness among the Terminally Ill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokach, Ami

    2007-01-01

    Loneliness is a universal phenomenon, and its pain is intensified by a diagnosis of a terminal illness. The present study is an investigation of the strategies used by patients with Multiple sclerosis (MS), by individuals diagnosed with cancer, and by the general population to cope with loneliness. Three hundred and twenty nine MS patients, 315…

  13. Patient Education for the Mentally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Louise Harding

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the philosophy of the rehabilitation services department at McLean Hospital on patient education for the mentally ill, noting patient library collection and recommended resources on marital problems, sex education, drug manuals, and diagnostic and research findings. A list of magazines subscribed to, color code classification, and 23…

  14. The Stigma of Families with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…

  15. Caring for a critically ill Amish newborn.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Elizabeth A

    2008-10-01

    This article describes a neonatal nurse's personal experience in working with a critically ill newborn and his Amish family in a newborn intensive care unit in Montana. The description includes a cultural experience with an Amish family with application to Madeleine Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality.

  16. Numerical Regularization of Ill-Posed Problems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-09

    Unione Matematica Italiana. 4. The parameter choice problem in linear regularization: a mathematical introduction, in "Ill-Posed Problems: Theory and...vector b which is generally unavailable (see [21], [22]). Kdckler [33] has shon however that in the case of Tikhonov regularization for matrices it may

  17. Examining the Education Gradient in Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterji, Pinka; Joo, Heesoo; Lahiri, Kajal

    2015-01-01

    We examine the education gradient in diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol. We take into account diagnosed as well as undiagnosed cases and use methods accounting for the possibility of unmeasured factors that are correlated with education and drive both the likelihood of having illness and the propensity to be diagnosed. Data come from the…

  18. Wellness within illness: Happiness in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Barton W.; Martin, Averria Sirkin; Depp, Colin A.; Glorioso, Danielle K.; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is typically a chronic disorder and among the most severe forms of serious mental illnesses in terms of adverse impact on quality of life. Yet, there have been suggestions that some people with schizophrenia can experience an overall sense of happiness in their lives. We investigated happiness among 72 outpatients with non-remitted chronic schizophrenia with a mean duration of illness of 24.4 years, and 64 healthy comparison subjects (HCs). Despite continued treatment with antipsychotic medications, the individuals with schizophrenia manifested a mild to moderate level of psychopathology. People with schizophrenia reported lower mean levels of happiness than HCs, but there was substantial heterogeneity within the schizophrenia group. Level of happiness in persons with schizophrenia was significantly correlated with higher mental health-related quality of life, and several positive psychosocial factors (lower perceived stress, and higher levels of resilience, optimism, and personal mastery). However, level of happiness was not related to sociodemographic characteristics, duration of illness, severity of positive or negative symptoms, physical function, medical comorbidity, or cognitive functioning. Except for an absence of an association with resilience, the pattern of correlations of happiness with other variables seen among HCs was similar to that in individuals with schizophrenia. Although happiness may be harder to achieve in the context of a serious mental illness, it nonetheless appears to be a viable treatment goal in schizophrenia. Psychotherapies targeting positive coping factors such as resilience, optimism, and personal mastery warrant further investigation. PMID:25153363

  19. Gendering psychosis: the illness of Zelda Fitzgerald.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Mary V

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatric textbooks tend to describe psychosis as it is experienced by men. The well-documented illness of Zelda Fitzgerald illustrates the feminine side of psychosis. The distinctive features of Zelda's illness--its specific precipitants, the timing of its onset, the discontinuities in its course, the pronounced mood swings, the preservation of intellect and of agency, the maintenance of human ties, the association of flare-ups with immune and hormonal changes, the responsiveness to treatment, the lifelong creativity and productivity--show the female side of psychotic illness, one that is rarely described in diagnostic manuals. This paper relies on Nancy Milford's biography of Zelda, as well as on several other biographical sources and, using Zelda's own words and the words of her husband and friends, allows entry into a feminine world of psychosis, not encountered in textbooks. The expression of psychotic illness varies from person to person, its exact shape depending on many factors, most of them still undetermined, but gender is a critically important core component of variance.

  20. Remote Intimations: Performance Art and Environmental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Stephen; Laffin, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This article explores and documents the work of leading Midwestern performance artist Julie Laffin, in the years since she developed a serious form of environmental illness (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity). This condition has effectively rendered her housebound and unable to appear in public, so that her previous live performance practice--which…

  1. [Medicines reconciliation in critically ill patients].

    PubMed

    Lopez-Martin, C; Aquerreta, I; Faus, V; Idoate, A

    2014-01-01

    Medicines reconciliation plays a key role in patient safety. However, there is limited data available on how this process affects critically ill patients. In this study, we evaluate a program of reconciliation in critically ill patients conducted by the Intensive Care Unit's (ICU) pharmacist. Prospective study about reconciliation medication errors observed in 50 patients. All ICU patients, excluding patients without regular treatment. Reconciliation process was carried out in the first 24h after ICU admission. Discrepancies were clarified with the doctor in charge of the patient. We analyzed the incidence of reconciliation errors, their characteristics and gravity, the interventions made by the pharmacist and their acceptance by physicians. A total of 48% of patients showed at least one reconciliation error. Omission of drugs accounted for 74% of the reconciliation errors, mainly involving antihypertensive drugs (33%). An amount of 58% of reconciliation errors detected corresponded to severity category D. Pharmacist made interventions in the 98% of patients with discrepancies. A total of 81% of interventions were accepted. The incidence and characteristics of reconciliation errors in ICU are similar to those published in non-critically ill patients, and they affect drugs with high clinical significance. Our data support the importance of the stablishment of medication reconciliation proceedings in critically ill patients. The ICU's pharmacist could carry out this procedure adequately. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic Illness in Adolescents: A Sociological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silber, Tomas J.

    1983-01-01

    Relates chronic illness in adolescents to a sociological model of deviance. Four situations are discussed in which the issues of prognosis, responsibility, and stigma elicit societal response. The usefulness of a sociological model consists in making vague societal perceptions and rules explicit. (JAC)

  3. Chronic Illness in Adolescents: A Sociological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silber, Tomas J.

    1983-01-01

    Relates chronic illness in adolescents to a sociological model of deviance. Four situations are discussed in which the issues of prognosis, responsibility, and stigma elicit societal response. The usefulness of a sociological model consists in making vague societal perceptions and rules explicit. (JAC)

  4. Managing Chronic Illness in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishnietsky, Dorothy Botsch; Wishnietsky, Dan H.

    An important but often overlooked member of a student's health care team is the teacher. This text covers ways to help teachers and administrators understand the special needs of students suffering from a chronic illness, how to recognize health events that may interfere with learning, and suggestions for appropriate interventions. The book opens…

  5. I'll Never Do It Again

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clift, Elayne

    2009-01-01

    While online teaching may be the wave of the future, it is not for this author, who writes "I trained for it, I tried it, and I'll never do it again." An instructor with years of experience successfully teaching in collegiate classrooms, she says online teaching does not compare. So she will chalk up her first and only venture to experience and…

  6. Blood-Injury-Illness Phobia: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thyer, Bruce A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Surveys empirical literature pertaining to phobias of blood, injury, or illness (BII); defines BII phobia as selectively associated with vasovagal fainting response upon exposure to phobic stimuli. Presents clinical, demographic, and etiological information from 15 BII phobics and suggests that BII phobia warrants diagnostic category separate from…

  7. Managing Chronic Illness in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishnietsky, Dorothy Botsch; Wishnietsky, Dan H.

    An important but often overlooked member of a student's health care team is the teacher. This text covers ways to help teachers and administrators understand the special needs of students suffering from a chronic illness, how to recognize health events that may interfere with learning, and suggestions for appropriate interventions. The book opens…

  8. Smoking, Mental Illness, and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Judith J; Das, Smita; Young-Wolff, Kelly C

    2016-12-16

    Tobacco remains the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. In particular, people with mental illness are disproportionately affected with high smoking prevalence; they account for more than 200,000 of the 520,000 tobacco-attributable deaths in the United States annually and die on average 25 years prematurely. Our review aims to provide an update on smoking in the mentally ill. We review the determinants of tobacco use among smokers with mental illness, presented with regard to the public health HAVE framework of "the host" (e.g., tobacco user characteristics), the "agent" (e.g., nicotine product characteristics), the "vector" (e.g., tobacco industry), and the "environment" (e.g., smoking policies). Furthermore, we identify the significant health harms incurred and opportunities for prevention and intervention within a health care systems and larger health policy perspective. A comprehensive effort is warranted to achieve equity toward the 2025 Healthy People goal of reducing US adult tobacco use to 12%, with attention to all subgroups, including smokers with mental illness. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 38 is March 20, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  9. Inner strength in women with chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, Amanda; Cantrell, Mary A

    2017-06-01

    Objectives This literature review summarizes research relevant to the meaning of inner strength in females living with a chronic illness. This review also examined studies that have used The Inner Strength Questionnaire to examine inner strength among chronically ill females. Methods Using the search terms inner strength and women, CINAHL, PubMed, and ProQuest Nursing databases were searched for the years 1990-2016. Ten articles met the inclusion criteria. Results Inner strength in women is a mental health construct that women can encompass to positively affect their quality of life while living through challenging life events. The Theory of Inner Strength appears to be a useful a framework for understanding how physical, psychological, and spiritual health can promote well-being, quality of life, and spirituality in women. Discussion The limited number of studies identified suggests the need for further investigations to explore the relationship between inner strength and quality of life among females living with chronic health conditions. The Inner Strength Questionnaire is a unique tool with adequate psychometric properties to measure inner strength in chronically ill women that includes a holistic assessment of living with a chronic illness that encompasses women' social, physical, emotional, and spiritual needs.

  10. Life-threatening illness in the analyst.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, B

    2001-01-01

    The literature on practicing throughout a life-threatening illness is reviewed and important differences about attitudes toward self-disclosure are understood by noting a division between two perspectives on transference: "one-body" and "two-body" views. The analyst's use of self-disclosure is informed by the prominence given the interpretation of transference as against that given the patient's needs in the collaborative relatedness supporting the therapeutic alliance. Themes and illustrative clinical vignettes are presented from the author's own experience practicing during such an illness. Three phases of working during illness are delineated, each somewhat different regarding the analyst's state, and hence patients' needs and reactions. Recommendations are made regarding conditions that make it possible to work effectively during a life-threatening illness. The analyst needs help from his or her own analyst to make the clinically and sometimes ethically appropriate decisions about practice; while this is important in instances in which the analyst recovers, it is essential should the analyst become terminal and face more certain death.

  11. Acronyms Gone Wild! ILL Flirts with NCIP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Al

    2008-01-01

    While the traditional uses of InterLibrary Loan (ILL) can be cumbersome, much of the work is now done electronically. Google and WorldCat can tell patrons which libraries in their areas owns the the titles they want, but they cannot always tell patrons whether there is a copy on the shelf available for loan. Several ILS vendors and OCLC are…

  12. Coping with Loneliness among the Terminally Ill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokach, Ami

    2007-01-01

    Loneliness is a universal phenomenon, and its pain is intensified by a diagnosis of a terminal illness. The present study is an investigation of the strategies used by patients with Multiple sclerosis (MS), by individuals diagnosed with cancer, and by the general population to cope with loneliness. Three hundred and twenty nine MS patients, 315…

  13. Paracetamol in critical illness: a review.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Sarah; Saxena, Manoj; Young, Paul

    2012-03-01

    Paracetamol is one of the commonest medications used worldwide. This review was conceived as a consequence of evaluating the literature in the protocol development of two randomised, controlled clinical trials investigating the safety and efficacy of paracetamol in ICU patients (the HEAT [Permissive HyperthErmiA Through Avoidance of Paracetamol in Known or Suspected Infection in the Intensive Care Unit] study; the Paracetamol After traumatic Brain Injury [PARITY] Study). To provide a historical perspective on the introduction of paracetamol into clinical practice, to present the pharmacology of paracetamol in critical illness, and evaluate the current evidence for its use as an antipyretic and analgesic in intensive care. Literature searches were performed using keywords: "paracetamol", "acetaminophen", "critical illness", "intensive care", "history", "pharmacology", "antipyre*", "analgesi*", "adverse effect*", "administration and dosage", "toxicity", "animals" and "humans". Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed (1947/1950 to July 2011). The authors examined each article's title and abstract, fully reviewing relevant articles, with searching of reference lists and additional hand-searching. The most recent and highest quality available evidence was included. Limited data are available on the pharmacology of paracetamol in the critically ill. Among patients with sepsis, paracetamol may inhibit the immunological response. Among patients with neurological injury paracetamol can reduce temperature but appears not to improve outcome. When administered with opioids after major surgery, paracetamol does not reduce the incidence of pain or opioid related side-effects. Despite the widespread use of paracetamol in critical illness, there is a paucity of data supporting its utility in this setting. Further research is required to determine how paracetamol should be used in the critically ill.

  14. State regulations for nursing home residents with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Street, Debra; Molinari, Victor; Cohen, Donna

    2013-08-01

    To identify state regulations for nursing home residents with Serious Mental Illness (SMI). We reviewed state regulations for policies relating to nursing home residents with SMI, and conducted interviews with expert stakeholders. A framework for analyzing state regulations was generated by identifying four discrete categories: States with specific mental illness regulations, Alzheimer's or dementia regulations, minor mention of mental illness, and no mention of mental illness. A large majority of the states have little or no mention of mental illness in their nursing home regulations, suggesting limited attention to all forms of mental illness by most state regulatory bodies.

  15. Personality and illness adaptation in adults with type 1 diabetes: the intervening role of illness coping and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Rassart, Jessica; Luyckx, Koen; Klimstra, Theo A; Moons, Philip; Groven, Chris; Weets, Ilse

    2014-03-01

    Inspired by the common sense model, the present cross-sectional study examined illness perceptions and coping as intervening mechanisms in the relationship between Big Five personality traits and illness adaptation in adults with Type 1 diabetes. A total of 368 individuals with Type 1 diabetes (18-35 years old) completed questionnaires on personality, diabetes-related problems, illness perceptions, and illness coping. First, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness predicted patients' illness adaptation, above and beyond the effects of sex, age, and illness duration. Second, illness coping was found to be an important mediating mechanism in the relationship between the Big Five and illness adaptation. Finally, perceived consequences and perceived personal control partially mediated the relationship between the Big Five and illness coping. These findings underscore the importance of examining patients' personality to shed light on their daily functioning and, hence, call for tailored intervention programs which take into account the personality of the individual patient.

  16. Ineffective chronic illness behaviour in a patient with long-term non-psychotic psychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Koekkoek, Bauke; van Tilburg, Willem

    2010-11-29

    This case report offers a different perspective on a patient with a long-term non-psychotic psychiatric disorder that was difficult to specify. The patient, a man in his 50s, was unable to profit from outpatient treatment and became increasingly dependent on mental healthcare - which could not be understood based on his history and psychiatric symptoms alone. By separating symptoms from illness behaviour, the negative course of this patient's treatment is analysed. Focusing on ineffective chronic illness behaviour by the patient, and mutual ineffective treatment behaviour by the clinicians, it becomes clear that basic requirements of effective treatment were unmet. By making a proper diagnosis, clarifying expectations and offering a suitable therapy, ineffective illness behaviour was diminished and this 'difficult' case became much easier for both patient and clinicians. The illness behaviour framework offers a useful, systematic tool to analyse difficulties between patients and clinicians beyond psychiatric symptoms or explanations.

  17. The chronic illness problem inventory: problem-oriented psychosocial assessment of patients with chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Kames, L D; Naliboff, B D; Heinrich, R L; Schag, C C

    1984-01-01

    Two studies are presented which describe the development of a problem-oriented psychosocial screening instrument for use in health care settings. Reliability and validity data are presented on the Chronic Illness Problem Inventory (CIPI) which demonstrate its ability to document accurately patient's specific problems in areas of physical limitations, psychosocial functioning, health care behaviors and marital adjustment. A study is also presented which compares the problems of patients with three distinct chronic illnesses: pain, obesity, and respiratory ailments. Results indicate a significantly greater severity of problems for pain patients and especially patients with multiple pain complaints. Problem areas common to all three illness groups are discussed in the context of providing better comprehensive treatment for chronically ill patients.

  18. Critical illness neuromyopathy and the role of physical therapy and rehabilitation in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Fan, Eddy

    2012-06-01

    Neuromuscular complications of critical illness are common, and can be severe and persistent, with substantial impairment in physical function and long-term quality of life. While the etiology of ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is multifactorial, both direct (ie, critical illness neuromyopathy) and indirect (ie, immobility/disuse atrophy) complications of critical illness contribute to it. ICUAW is often difficult to diagnose clinically during the acute phase of critical illness, due to the frequent use of deep sedation, encephalopathy, and delirium, which impair physical examination for patient strength. Despite its limitations, physical examination is the starting point for identification of ICUAW in the cooperative patient. Given the relative cost, invasiveness, and need for expertise, electrophysiological testing and/or muscle biopsy may be reserved for weak patients with slower than expected improvement on serial clinical examination. Currently there are limited interventions to prevent or treat ICUAW, with tight glycemic control having the greatest supporting evidence. There is a paucity of clinical trials evaluating the specific role of early rehabilitation in the chronic critically ill. However, a number of studies support the benefit of intensive rehabilitation in patients receiving chronic mechanical ventilation. Furthermore, emerging data demonstrate the safety, feasibility, and potential benefit of early mobility in critically ill patients, with the need for multicenter randomized trials to evaluate potential short- and long-term benefits of early mobility, including the potential to prevent the need for prolonged mechanical ventilation and/or the development of chronic critical illness, and other novel treatments on patients' muscle strength, physical function, quality of life, and resource utilization. Finally, the barriers, feasibility, and efficacy of early mobility in both medical and other ICUs (eg, surgical, neurological, pediatric), as well as in

  19. Mental illness among us: a new curriculum to reduce mental illness stigma among medical students.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Anuj K; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H

    2013-11-01

    Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us (MIAU)," would reduce stigma of mental illness. In 2010 and 2011, students completed voluntary pre- and post-MIAU surveys measuring attitudes regarding mental illness in relation to MIAU. Also, in 2011, the authors categorized topics mentioned in student responses to an open-ended, free-response question on the course final examination. Of 298 enrolled students, 250 submitted surveys that were matched pre- and post-intervention. Participants in the curriculum showed a significant difference in Social Distance, indicating an increased willingness to interact with individuals with mental illness, and a significant difference in the Mental Illness: Clinicians' Attitudes (MICA) score representing a stronger agreement with positive statements regarding mental illness. The non-participants' scores showed no changes in measures from pre- to post. Respondents most frequently reported that the neuroscience course prepared them to be a physician because it taught about compassion and the importance of treating the whole patient. The results indicate that participation in MIAU leads to a decrease in stigmatization of mental illness and a greater sense of compassion among UCSF medical students. This finding is consistent with previous research suggesting social and cognitive congruence among peers and peer-teachers can result in meaningful learning experiences. MIAU may represent a sustainable model to supplement current systems to promote well-being of medical trainees.

  20. Automatic effects of illness schema activation on behavioral manifestations of illness.

    PubMed

    Orbell, Sheina; Henderson, Caroline J

    2016-10-01

    Relatively little research has directly evaluated the schematic nature of illness representations proposed by the common sense model of illness. Four studies tested the hypothesis that illness schema activation leads directly and automatically to behavioral manifestations of illness. Study 1 was a survey (N = 970) that evaluated the proposition that the mental representation of common cold symptom experience includes functional deviation from the usual prototypical self. Studies 2 and 3 were experiments that tested effects of cold schema activation using a subliminal priming paradigm on walking speed (Study 2, N = 53) and free recall in a memory task (Study 3, N = 30). Study 4 (N = 65) used a 2 (cold prime vs. control) × 2 (alternate self vs. control) experimental design to investigate attenuation of the effect of the cold prime on free recall. Study 1 confirmed the multifactorial nature of functional self-deviations representing the common cold symptomology. Studies 2 and 3 showed that participants primed with the common cold schema walked more slowly and performed worse on a memory recall task relative to controls in whom the schema was not activated. These effects were automatic in the sense that participants were not aware of the prime or of this influence. In Study 4, priming an alternative self-identity overcame the deleterious effect of automatic common cold schema activation on free recall in a memory task. Subliminal activation of a schematic representation of illness automatically activates behavioral manifestations of illness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).