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Sample records for pga pumpesvigt er

  1. pgaA and pgaB encode two constitutively expressed endopolygalacturonases of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed Central

    Parenicová, L; Benen, J A; Kester, H C; Visser, J

    2000-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence data for pgaA and pgaB have been deposited with the EMBL, GenBank and DDBJ Databases under accession numbers Y18804 and Y18805 respectively. pgaA and pgaB, two genes encoding endopolygalacturonases (PGs, EC 3.2.1.15) A and B, were isolated from a phage genomic library of Aspergillus niger N400. The 1167 bp protein coding region of the pgaA gene is interrupted by one intron, whereas the 1234 bp coding region of the pgaB gene contains two introns. The corresponding proteins, PGA and PGB, consist of 370 and 362 amino acid residues respectively. Northern-blot analysis revealed that pgaA- and pgaB-specific mRNA accumulate in mycelia grown on sucrose. mRNAs are also present upon transfer to media containing D-galacturonic acid and pectin. Recombinant PGA and PGB were characterized with respect to pH optimum, activity on polygalacturonic acid, and mode of action and kinetics on oligogalacturonates of different chain length (n=3-7). At their pH optimum the specific activities in a standard assay for PGA (pH 4.2) and PGB (pH 5.0) were 16.5 mu+kat.mg(-1) and 8.3 mu+kat.mg(-1) respectively. Product progression analysis, using polygalacturonate as a substrate, revealed a random cleavage pattern for both enzymes and indicated processive behaviour for PGA. This result was confirmed by analysis of the mode of action using oligogalacturonates. Processivity was observed when the degree of polymerization of the substrate exceeded 6. Using pectins of various degrees of methyl esterification, it was shown that PGA and PGB both preferred partially methylated substrates. PMID:10642523

  2. NOD2-Associated Pediatric Granulomatous Arthritis (PGA)

    PubMed Central

    Rosé, Carlos D; Aróstegui, Juan I.; Martin, Tammy M; Espada, Graciela; Scalzi, Lisabeth; Yagüe, Jordi; Modesto, Consuelo; Arnal, Maria Cristina; Merino, Rosa; Consuegra, Julia García; Carballo, María Antonia; Wouters, Carine H

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the phenotypic characteristics of the largest to date cohort of patients with Pediatric Granulomatous Arthritis (PGA) and documented NOD2 mutations. Methods Merged data from two prospective cohorts and systematic review of medical records of interest. Results Forty-five individuals with PGA (23 sporadic and 22 from familial pedigrees) and documented NOD2 mutations were identified and are the basis of this report. In this series, 18 patients have the R334W-encoding mutation, 18 the R334Q, four the E383K, three the R587C, one the C495Y and one the W490L. The majority of patients manifested the typical triad of dermatitis, uveitis and arthritis. Conversely, in 12 patients, the following “atypical” manifestations were found: fever, sialadenitis, lymphadenopathy, erythema nodosum, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, transient neuropathy, granulomatous glomerular and interstitial nephritis, interstitial lung disease, arterial hypertension, pericarditis, pulmonary embolism, hepatic granulomatous infiltration, splenic involvement and chronic renal failure. In addition, 4 individuals with an asymptomatic carrier status of a disease causing mutation were documented. Conclusion NOD2-associated PGA can be a multi-systemic disorder with significant visceral involvement. Treating physicians should be aware of the systemic nature of this condition since some of these manifestations may entail long-term morbidity. PMID:19479837

  3. Identification and characterization of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate granule-associated protein, PGA12 and PGA16 in Zoogloea ramigera I-16-M.

    PubMed

    Inagawa, Yasuhide; Inoue, Yoshio; Shiraki, Mari; Saito, Terumi

    2002-03-08

    Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules of Zoogloea ramigera I-16-M contained two major PHB granule-associated proteins (PGA12 and PGA16) as revealed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel elecrophoresis. N-terminal amino acid sequences of these proteins were determined. The genes encoding these proteins were cloned and sequenced. The structural genes of PGA12 and PGA16 were 351 and 447 bp long, which encode polypeptides with deduced molecular masses of 12.3 and 16.0 kDa, respectively. PGA12 and PGA16 were expressed in Escherichia coli. PHB granules were isolated from cells of recombinant strains of E. coli JM109, which harbored and expressed the PHB-synthetic genes of Ralstonia eutropha H16 and PGA12 or PGA16. These PHB granules contained PGA12 or PGA16 as a major protein. The presence of pga12 or pga16 did not affect the amount of PHB synthesized in E. coli. PGA12 and PGA16 bound to crystalline and amorphous PHB granules.

  4. gPGA: GPU Accelerated Population Genetics Analyses.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunbao; Lang, Xianyu; Wang, Yangang; Zhu, Chaodong

    2015-01-01

    The isolation with migration (IM) model is important for studies in population genetics and phylogeography. IM program applies the IM model to genetic data drawn from a pair of closely related populations or species based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations of gene genealogies. But computational burden of IM program has placed limits on its application. With strong computational power, Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has been widely used in many fields. In this article, we present an effective implementation of IM program on one GPU based on Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), which we call gPGA. Compared with IM program, gPGA can achieve up to 52.30X speedup on one GPU. The evaluation results demonstrate that it allows datasets to be analyzed effectively and rapidly for research on divergence population genetics. The software is freely available with source code at https://github.com/chunbaozhou/gPGA.

  5. A low power flexible PGA for software defined radio systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guofeng, Li; Nanjian, Wu

    2012-05-01

    This paper proposes a new low power structure to improve the trade-off between the bandwidth and the power consumption of a programmable gain amplifier (PGA). The PGA consists of three-stage amplifiers, which includes a variable gain amplifier and DC offset cancellation circuits. The cutoff frequency of the DC offset cancellation circuits can be changed from 4 to 80 kHz. The chip was fabricated in 0.13 μm CMOS technology. Measurement results showed that the gain of the PGA can be programmed from -5 to 60 dB. At the gain setting of 60 dB, the bandwidth can be tuned from 1 to 10 MHz, while the power consumption can be programmed from 850 μA to 3.2 mA at a supply voltage of 1.2 V. Its in-band OIP3 result is at 14 dBm.

  6. Simulations of optical autofocus algorithms based on PGA in SAIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Nan; Liu, Liren; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Yu; Sun, Jianfeng

    2011-09-01

    The phase perturbations due to propagation effects can destroy the high resolution imagery of Synthetic Aperture Imaging Ladar (SAIL). Some autofocus algorithms for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) were developed and implemented. Phase Gradient Algorithm (PGA) is a well-known one for its robustness and wide application, and Phase Curvature Algorithm (PCA) as a similar algorithm expands its applied field to strip map mode. In this paper the autofocus algorithms utilized in optical frequency domain are proposed, including optical PGA and PCA respectively implemented in spotlight and strip map mode. Firstly, the mathematical flows of optical PGA and PCA in SAIL are derived. The simulations model of the airborne SAIL is established, and the compensation simulations of the synthetic aperture laser images corrupted by the random errors, linear phase errors and quadratic phase errors are executed. The compensation effect and the cycle index of the simulation are discussed. The simulation results show that both the two optical autofocus algorithms are effective while the optical PGA outperforms the optical PCA, which keeps consistency with the theory.

  7. Prediction of spectral acceleration response ordinates based on PGA attenuation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graizer, V.; Kalkan, E.

    2009-01-01

    Developed herein is a new peak ground acceleration (PGA)-based predictive model for 5% damped pseudospectral acceleration (SA) ordinates of free-field horizontal component of ground motion from shallow-crustal earthquakes. The predictive model of ground motion spectral shape (i.e., normalized spectrum) is generated as a continuous function of few parameters. The proposed model eliminates the classical exhausted matrix of estimator coefficients, and provides significant ease in its implementation. It is structured on the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) database with a number of additions from recent Californian events including 2003 San Simeon and 2004 Parkfield earthquakes. A unique feature of the model is its new functional form explicitly integrating PGA as a scaling factor. The spectral shape model is parameterized within an approximation function using moment magnitude, closest distance to the fault (fault distance) and VS30 (average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 m) as independent variables. Mean values of its estimator coefficients were computed by fitting an approximation function to spectral shape of each record using robust nonlinear optimization. Proposed spectral shape model is independent of the PGA attenuation, allowing utilization of various PGA attenuation relations to estimate the response spectrum of earthquake recordings.

  8. PGA: power calculator for case-control genetic association analyses

    PubMed Central

    Menashe, Idan; Rosenberg, Philip S; Chen, Bingshu E

    2008-01-01

    Background Statistical power calculations inform the design and interpretation of genetic association studies, but few programs are tailored to case-control studies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in unrelated subjects. Results We have developed the "Power for Genetic Association analyses" (PGA) package which comprises algorithms and graphical user interfaces for sample size and minimum detectable risk calculations using SNP or haplotype effects under different genetic models and study constrains. The software accounts for linkage disequilibrium and statistical multiple comparisons. The results are presented in graphs or tables and can be printed or exported in standard file formats. Conclusion PGA is user friendly software that can facilitate decision making for association studies of candidate genes, fine-mapping studies, and whole-genome scans. Stand-alone executable files and a Matlab toolbox are available for download at: PMID:18477402

  9. Lack of the PGA exopolysaccharide in Salmonella as an adaptive trait for survival in the host

    PubMed Central

    Echeverz, Maite; García, Begoña; Sabalza, Amaia; Valle, Jaione; Lasa, Iñigo

    2017-01-01

    Many bacteria build biofilm matrices using a conserved exopolysaccharide named PGA or PNAG (poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine). Interestingly, while E. coli and other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae encode the pgaABCD operon responsible for PGA synthesis, Salmonella lacks it. The evolutionary force driving this difference remains to be determined. Here, we report that Salmonella lost the pgaABCD operon after the divergence of Salmonella and Citrobacter clades, and previous to the diversification of the currently sequenced Salmonella strains. Reconstitution of the PGA machinery endows Salmonella with the capacity to produce PGA in a cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) dependent manner. Outside the host, the PGA polysaccharide does not seem to provide any significant benefit to Salmonella: resistance against chlorine treatment, ultraviolet light irradiation, heavy metal stress and phage infection remained the same as in a strain producing cellulose, the main biofilm exopolysaccharide naturally produced by Salmonella. In contrast, PGA production proved to be deleterious to Salmonella survival inside the host, since it increased susceptibility to bile salts and oxidative stress, and hindered the capacity of S. Enteritidis to survive inside macrophages and to colonize extraintestinal organs, including the gallbladder. Altogether, our observations indicate that PGA is an antivirulence factor whose loss may have been a necessary event during Salmonella speciation to permit survival inside the host. PMID:28542593

  10. Non-woven PGA/PVA fibrous mesh as an appropriate scaffold for chondrocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Rampichová, M; Koštáková, E; Filová, E; Prosecká, E; Plencner, M; Ocheretná, L; Lytvynets, A; Lukáš, D; Amler, E

    2010-01-01

    Non-woven textile mesh from polyglycolic acid (PGA) was found as a proper material for chondrocyte adhesion but worse for their proliferation. Neither hyaluronic acid nor chitosan nor polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) increased chondrocyte adhesion. However, chondrocyte proliferation suffered from acidic byproducts of PGA degradation. However, the addition of PVA and/or chitosan into a wet-laid non-woven textile mesh from PGA improved chondrocyte proliferation seeded in vitro on the PGA-based composite scaffold namely due to a diminished acidification of their microenvironment. This PVA/PGA composite mesh used in combination with a proper hydrogel minimized the negative effect of PGA degradation without dropping positive parameters of the PGA wet-laid non-woven textile mesh. In fact, presence of PVA and/or chitosan in the PGA-based wet-laid non-woven textile mesh even advanced the PGA-based wet-laid non-woven textile mesh for chondrocyte seeding and artificial cartilage production due to a positive effect of PVA in such a scaffold on chondrocyte proliferation.

  11. iPGA: Incremental Principal Geodesic Analysis with Applications to Movement Disorder Classification★

    PubMed Central

    Salehian, Hesamoddin; Vaillancourt, David

    2014-01-01

    The nonlinear version of the well known PCA called the Principal Geodesic Analysis (PGA) was introduced in the past decade for statistical analysis of shapes as well as diffusion tensors. PGA of diffusion tensor fields or any other manifold-valued fields can be a computationally demanding task due to the dimensionality of the problem and thus establishing motivation for an incremental PGA (iPGA) algorithm. In this paper, we present a novel iPGA algorithm that incrementally updates the current Karcher mean and the principal sub-manifolds with any newly introduced data into the pool without having to recompute the PGA from scratch. We demonstrate substantial computational and memory savings of iPGA over the batch mode PGA for diffusion tensor fields via synthetic and real data examples. Further, we use the iPGA derived representation in an NN classifier to automatically discriminate between controls, Parkinson’s Disease and Essential Tremor patients, given their HARDI brain scans. PMID:25485449

  12. A biodegradable porous composite scaffold of PGA/beta-TCP for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hong; Kuboyama, Noboru

    2010-02-01

    Polyglycolic acid (PGA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) each have many applications as tissue repair materials. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) porous composite scaffolds of PGA/beta-TCP (in 1:1 and 1:3 weight ratios) were fabricated using the solvent casting and particulate leaching method. PGA/beta-TCP scaffolds with high porosity, interconnected 3D pores and rough surfaces were obtained and were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). The PGA/beta-TCP scaffolds were investigated during the repair of critical bone defects (3 mm diameter, 2 mm depth) in rat femoral medial-epicondyles, compared with hydroxylapatite (HAP) and no implant as controls. Quantitative imageology analysis (volume and density of new bone) and qualitative histological evaluations (hematoxylin and eosin staining; tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-hematoxylin counterstaining) were characterized using in vivo micro-CT images and histological sections at 0, 14, 30 and 90 days after surgery. Significant differences of all variables were tested by multivariate analysis (p<0.05). The results showed that the bone reformation by using the PGA/beta-TCP scaffolds began within 14 days of surgery, and were healing well at 30 days after surgery. By 90 days after surgery, the bone replacement was almost completed and presented a healthy bone appearance. The new bone mineral densities (mg/cm(3)) with HAP, PGA/beta-TCP (1:1) and PGA/beta-TCP (1:3) at 90 days after surgery were: 390.4+/-18.1, 563.8+/-26.9 and 606.3+/-26.9, respectively. The new bone mineral density with the PGA/beta-TCP scaffold was higher than with HAP (p<0.001), and with the PGA/beta-TCP (1:3) scaffold was higher than with the PGA/beta-TCP (1:1) scaffold at each time examined (p<0.05). The biodegradation percents (%) of HAP, PGA/beta-TCP (1:1) and PGA/beta-TCP (1:3) at 90 days after surgery were: 35.1+/-5.5, 99.0+/-1.0 and 96.2+/-3.3, respectively. The biodegradation

  13. The heterotrimeric Galpha protein pga1 regulates biosynthesis of penicillin, chrysogenin and roquefortine in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    García-Rico, Ramón O; Fierro, Francisco; Mauriz, Elba; Gómez, Ana; Fernández-Bodega, María Angeles; Martín, Juan F

    2008-11-01

    We have studied the role of the pga1 gene of Penicillium chrysogenum, encoding the alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein, in secondary metabolite production. The dominant activating pga1(G42R) mutation caused an increase in the production of the three secondary metabolites penicillin, the yellow pigment chrysogenin and the mycotoxin roquefortine, whereas the dominant inactivating pga1(G203R) allele and the deletion of the pga1 gene resulted in a decrease of the amount of produced penicillin and roquefortine. Chrysogenin is produced in solid medium as a yellow pigment, and its biosynthesis is clearly enhanced by the presence of the dominant activating pga1(G42R) allele. Roquefortine is produced associated with mycelium during the first 3 days in submerged cultures, and is released to the medium afterwards; dominant activating and inactivating pga1 mutations result in upregulation and downregulation of roquefortine biosynthesis recpectively. Pga1 regulates penicillin biosynthesis by controlling expression of the penicillin biosynthetic genes; the three genes pcbAB, pcbC and penDE showed elevated transcript levels in transformants expressing the pga1(G42R) allele, whereas in transformants with the inactivating pga1(G203R) allele and in the pga1-deleted mutant their transcript levels were lower than those in the parental strains. Increase of intracellular cAMP levels had no effect on penicillin production. In summary, the dominant activating pga1(G42R) allele upregulates the biosynthesis of three secondary metabolites in Penicillium chrysogenum to a different extent.

  14. Functions of poly-gamma-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) degradation genes in γ-PGA synthesis and cell morphology maintenance.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun; Gao, Weixia; Gu, Yanyan; Zhang, Wei; Cao, Mingfeng; Song, Cunjiang; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Min; Yang, Chao; Wang, Shufang

    2014-01-01

    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is an important biopolymer with greatly potential in industrial and medical applications. In the present study, we constructed a metabolically engineered glutamate-independent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3 strain with considerable γ-PGA production, which was carried out by single, double, and triple markerless deletions of three degradation genes pgdS, ggt, and cwlO. The highest γ-PGA production (7.12 g/L) was obtained from the pgdS and cwlO double-deletion strain NK-pc, which was 93 % higher than that of wild-type LL3 strain (3.69 g/L). The triple-gene-deletion strain NK-pgc showed a 28 % decrease in γ-PGA production, leading to a yield of 2.69 g/L. Furthermore, the cell morphologies of the mutant strains were also characterized. The cell length of cwlO deletion strains NK-c and NK-pc was shorter than that of the wild-type strain, while the ggt deletion strains NK-g, NK-pg, NK-gc, and NK-pgc showed longer cell lengths. This is the first report concerning the markerless deletion of γ-PGA degradation genes to improve γ-PGA production in a glutamate-independent strain and the first observation that γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (encoded by ggt) could be involved in the inhibition of cell elongation.

  15. Engineering of recombinant Escherichia coli cells co-expressing poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) synthetase and glutamate racemase for differential yielding of γ-PGA.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mingfeng; Geng, Weitao; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Jibin; Wang, Shufang; Feng, Jun; Zheng, Ping; Jiang, Anna; Song, Cunjiang

    2013-11-01

    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a promising environmental-friendly material with outstanding water solubility, biocompatibility and degradability. However, it is tough to determine the relationship between functional synthetic enzyme and the strains' yield or substrate dependency. We cloned γ-PGA synthetase genes pgsBCA and glutamate racemase gene racE from both L-glutamate-dependent γ-PGA-producing Bacillus licheniformis NK-03 and L-glutamate-independent B. amyloliquefaciens LL3 strains. The deduced RacE and PgsA from the two strains shared the identity of 84.5% and 78.53%, while PgsB and PgsC possessed greater similarity with 93.13% and 93.96%. The induced co-expression of pgsBCA and racE showed that the engineered Escherichia coli strains had the capacity of synthesizing γ-PGA, and LL3 derived PgsBCA had higher catalytic activity and enhanced productivity than NK-03 in Luria-Bertani medium containing glucose or L-glutamate. However, the differential effect was weakened when providing sufficient immediateness L-glutamate substrate, that is, the supply of substrate could be served as the ascendance upon γ-PGA production. Furthermore, RacE integration could enhance γ-PGA yield through improving the preferred d-glutamate content. This is the first report about co-expression of pgsBCA and racE from the two Bacillus strains, which will be of great value for the determination of the biosynthetic mechanism of γ-PGA.

  16. Heterotrimeric Galpha protein Pga1 of Penicillium chrysogenum controls conidiation mainly by a cAMP-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    García-Rico, Ramón Ovidio; Fierro, Francisco; Martín, Juan Francisco

    2008-02-01

    Fungal heterotrimeric G proteins regulate different processes related to development, such as colony growth and asexual sporulation, the main mechanism of propagation in filamentous fungi. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling growth and differentiation in the industrial penicillin producer Penicillioum chrysogenum, we investigated the role of the heterotrimeric Galpha subunit Pga1 in conidiogenesis. A pga1 deleted strain (Deltapga1) and transformants with constitutively activated (pga1G42R) and inactivated (pga1G203R) Pga1 alpha subunits were obtained. They showed phenotypes that clearly implicate Pga1 as an important negative regulator of conidiogenesis. Pga1 positively affected the level of intracellular cAMP, which acts as secondary messenger of Pga1-mediated signalling. Although cAMP has some inhibitory effect on conidiation, the regulation of asexual development by Pga1 is exerted mainly via cAMP-independent pathways. The regulation of conidiation by Pga1 is mediated by repression of the brlA and wetA genes. The Deltapga1 strain and transformants with the constitutively inactive Pga1G203R subunit developed a sporulation microcycle in submerged cultures triggered by the expression of brlA and wetA genes, which are deregulated in the absence of active Pga1. Our results indicate that although basic mechanisms for regulating conidiation are similar in most filamentous fungi, there are differences in the degree of involvement of specific pathways, such as the cAMP-mediated pathway, in the regulation of this process.

  17. PGA-incorporated collagen: Toward a biodegradable composite scaffold for bone-tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Toosi, Shirin; Naderi-Meshkin, Hojjat; Kalalinia, Fatemeh; Peivandi, Mohammad Taghi; HosseinKhani, Hossein; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Heirani-Tabasi, Asieh; Mirahmadi, Mahdi; Behravan, Javad

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays composite scaffolds based on synthetic and natural biomaterials have got attention to increase healing of non-union bone fractures. To this end, different aspects of collagen sponge incorporated with poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) fiber were investigated in this study. Collagen solution (6.33 mg/mL) with PGA fibers (collagen/fiber ratio [w/w]: 4.22, 2.11, 1.06, 0.52) was freeze-dried, followed by dehydrothermal cross-linking to obtain collagen sponge incorporating PGA fibers. Properties of scaffold for cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy showed that collagen sponge exhibited an interconnected pore structure with an average pore size of 190 μm, irrespective of PGA fiber incorporation. The collagen-PGA sponge was superior to the original collagen sponge in terms of the initial attachment, proliferation rate, and osteogenic differentiation of the bone marrow-MSCs (BM-MSC). The shrinkage of sponges during cell culture was significantly suppressed by fiber incorporation. Incorporation of PGA fiber is a simple and promising way to reinforce collagen sponge without impairing biocompatibility. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2020-2028, 2016.

  18. Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid (PGA)-Producing Bacillus Species Isolated from Kinema, Indian Fermented Soybean Food.

    PubMed

    Chettri, Rajen; Bhutia, Meera O; Tamang, Jyoti P

    2016-01-01

    Kinema, an ethnic fermented, non-salted and sticky soybean food is consumed in the eastern part of India. The stickiness is one of the best qualities of good kinema preferred by consumers, which is due to the production of poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA). Average load of Bacillus in kinema was 10(7) cfu/g and of lactic acid bacteria was 10(3) cfu/g. Bacillus spp. were screened for PGA-production and isolates of lactic acid bacteria were also tested for degradation of PGA. Only Bacillus produced PGA, none of lactic acid bacteria produced PGA. PGA-producing Bacillus spp. were identified by phenotypic characterization and also by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Bacillus subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. sonorensis.

  19. Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid (PGA)-Producing Bacillus Species Isolated from Kinema, Indian Fermented Soybean Food

    PubMed Central

    Chettri, Rajen; Bhutia, Meera O.; Tamang, Jyoti P.

    2016-01-01

    Kinema, an ethnic fermented, non-salted and sticky soybean food is consumed in the eastern part of India. The stickiness is one of the best qualities of good kinema preferred by consumers, which is due to the production of poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA). Average load of Bacillus in kinema was 107 cfu/g and of lactic acid bacteria was 103 cfu/g. Bacillus spp. were screened for PGA-production and isolates of lactic acid bacteria were also tested for degradation of PGA. Only Bacillus produced PGA, none of lactic acid bacteria produced PGA. PGA-producing Bacillus spp. were identified by phenotypic characterization and also by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Bacillus subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. sonorensis. PMID:27446012

  20. Production of Poly-γ-Glutamate (PGA) Biopolymer by Batch and Semicontinuous Cultures of Immobilized Bacilluslicheniformis strain-R

    PubMed Central

    Berekaa, Mahmoud M.; El Aassar, Samy A.; El-Sayed, Samia M.; EL Borai, Aliaa M.

    2009-01-01

    Production of Polyglutamate (PGA) biopolymer by immobilized Bacillus licheniformis strain-R was intensively investigated. Preliminary experiments were carried out to address the most suitable immobilization methodology. Entrapment of Bacillus cells in alginate–agar led optimal PGA production (36.75 g/l), with 1.32-and 2.18-fold increase in comparison with alginate-or K-carrageenan-immobilized cells, respectively. During semicontinuous cultivation of agar-alginate gel-cell mixture, production of PGA by 10 ml mixture was increased from 2nd to 3rd run whereas, increased till the 4th run using 15ml mixture. Adsorption was the most suitable immobilization technique for production of PGA and the sponge cubes was the preferred matrix recording 43.2 g/l of PGA with the highest cell adsorption. Furthermore, no PGA was detected when B. licheniformis cells were adsorbed on wood and pumice. Although luffa pulp-adsorbed cells recorded the highest PGA production (50.4 g/l), cell adsorption was the lowest. Semicontinuous cultivation of B. licheniformis cells adsorbed on sponge led to increase of PGA production till the 3rd run and reached 55.5 g/l then slightly decreased in the 4th run. The successful use of fixed-bed bioreactor for semicontinuous cultivation of B. licheniformis cells held on sponge cubes (3 runs, 96 hours/run) provides insight for the potential biotechnological production of PGA by immobilized cells. PMID:24031418

  1. Characterization of PbPga1, an Antigenic GPI-Protein in the Pathogenic Fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Valim, Clarissa X. R.; Basso, Luiz Roberto; dos Reis Almeida, Fausto B.; Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Damásio, André Ricardo Lima; Arruda, Luisa Karla; Martinez, Roberto; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria Célia; Coelho, Paulo Sergio Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), one of the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America. P. brasiliensis cell wall components interact with host cells and influence the pathogenesis of PCM. Cell wall components, such as glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-proteins play a critical role in cell adhesion and host tissue invasion. Although the importance of GPI-proteins in the pathogenesis of other medically important fungi is recognized, little is known about their function in P. brasiliensis cells and PCM pathogenesis. We cloned the PbPga1 gene that codifies for a predicted GPI-anchored glycoprotein from the dimorphic pathogenic fungus P. brasiliensis. PbPga1 is conserved in Eurotiomycetes fungi and encodes for a protein with potential glycosylation sites in a serine/threonine-rich region, a signal peptide and a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol attachment signal sequence. Specific chicken anti-rPbPga1 antibody localized PbPga1 on the yeast cell surface at the septum between the mother cell and the bud with stronger staining of the bud. The exposure of murine peritoneal macrophages to rPbPga1 induces TNF-α release and nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages. Furthermore, the presence of O-glycosylation sites was demonstrated by β-elimination under ammonium hydroxide treatment of rPbPga1. Finally, sera from PCM patients recognized rPbPga1 by Western blotting indicating the presence of specific antibodies against rPbPga1. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the PbPga1gene codifies for a cell surface glycoprotein, probably attached to a GPI-anchor, which may play a role in P. brasiliensis cell wall morphogenesis and infection. The induction of inflammatory mediators released by rPbPga1 and the reactivity of PCM patient sera toward rPbPga1 imply that the protein favors the innate mechanisms of defense and induces humoral immunity during P. brasiliensis infection. PMID:23024763

  2. Polyglutamic acid (PGA) production by Bacillus sp. SAB-26: application of Plackett-Burman experimental design to evaluate culture requirements.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Nadia A; Berekaa, Mahmoud M; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R

    2005-12-01

    A locally isolated thermostable Bacillus strain producing polyglutamic acid (PGA) was characterized and identified based on 16S rRNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its closeness to Bacillus licheniformis. To evaluate the effect of different culture conditions on the production of PGA, Plackett-Burman factorial design was carried out. Fifteen variables were examined for their significance on PGA production. Among those variables, K(2)HPO(4), KH(2)PO(4), (NH(4))(2)SO(4) and casein hydrolysate were found to be the most significant variables that encourage PGA production. A correlation between cellular growth, PGA and the produced traces of polysaccharides was illustrated. An inverse relationship practice between cell dry weights and the produced PGA was demonstrated. On the other hand, a direct proportional relation was shown between polysaccharides on one side and cell dry weight and produced PGA on the other. The pre-optimized medium, based on statistical analysis, showed a production of 33.5 g/l PGA, which is more than three times the basal medium.

  3. A new role for PGA1 in inhibiting hepatitis C virus-IRES-mediated translation by targeting viral translation factors.

    PubMed

    Tsukimoto, Atsuko; Sugiyama, Ryuichi; Abe, Makoto; Nishitsuji, Hironori; Shimizu, Yuko; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Kawai, Gota; Takaku, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that cyclopentenone prostaglandins (cyPGs) inhibit the replication of a wide variety of DNA and RNA viruses in different mammalian cell types. We investigated a new role for prostaglandin A1 (PGA1) in the inhibition of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-IRES-mediated translation. PGA1 exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory effects on HCV translation in HCV replicon cells. Furthermore, repetitive PGA1 treatment demonstrated the potential to safely induce the suppression of HCV translation. We also validated a new role for PGA1 in the inhibition of HCV-IRES-mediated translation by targeting cellular translation factors, including the small ribosomal subunit (40S) and eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs). In pull-down assays, biotinylated PGA1 co-precipitated with the entire HCV IRES RNA/eIF3-40S subunit complex. Moreover, the interactions between PGA1 and the elongation factors and ribosomal subunit were dependent upon HCV IRES RNA binding, and the PGA1/HCV IRES RNA/eIF3-40S subunit complex inhibited HCV-IRES-mediated translation. The novel mechanism revealed in this study may aid in the search for more effective anti-HCV drugs.

  4. Properties of starch-polyglutamic acid (PGA) graft copolymer prepared by microwave irradiation - Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and rheology studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rheological properties of waxy starch-'-polygutamic acid (PGA) graft copolymers were investigated. Grafting was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The starch-PGA copolymers absorbed water and formed gels, which exhibited concentration-dependent viscoelastic solid properties. Higher starch-PGA conce...

  5. Analysis of the possibility of a PGA309 integrated circuit application in pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walendziuk, Wojciech; Baczewski, Michal; Idzkowski, Adam

    2016-09-01

    This article present the results of research concerning the analysis of the possibilities of applying a PGA309 integrated circuit in transducers used for pressure measurement. The experiments were done with the use of a PGA309EVM-USB evaluation circuit with a BD|SENSORS pressure sensor. A specially prepared MATLAB script was used in the process of the calibration setting choice and the results analysis. The article discusses the worked out algorithm that processes the measurement results, i.e. the algorithm which calculates the desired gain and the offset adjustment voltage of the transducer measurement bridge in relation to the input signal range of the integrated circuit and the temperature of the environment (temperature compensation). The checking procedure was conducted in a measurement laboratory and the obtained result were analyzed and discussed.

  6. Combining in situ proteolysis and mass spectrometry to crystallize Escherichia coli PgaB

    PubMed Central

    Little, Dustin J.; Whitney, John C.; Robinson, Howard; Yip, Patrick; Nitz, Mark; Howell, P. Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The periplasmic poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG) de-N-acetylase PgaB from Escherichia coli was overexpressed and purified, but was recalcitrant to crystallization. Use of the in situ proteolysis technique produced crystals of PgaB, but these crystals could not be optimized for diffraction studies. By analyzing the initial crystal hits using SDS–PAGE and mass spectrometry, the boundaries of the protein species that crystallized were determined. The re-­engineered protein target crystallized reproducibly without the addition of protease and with significantly increased crystal quality. Crystals of the selenomethionine-incorporated protein exhibited the symmetry of space group P212121 and diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution. PMID:22750880

  7. PGA-associated heterotopic chondrocyte cocultures: implications of nasoseptal and auricular chondrocytes in articular cartilage repair.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, K; Marzahn, U; John, T; Hoyer, M; Zreiqat, H; Witthuhn, A; Kohl, B; Haisch, A; Schulze-Tanzil, G

    2013-01-01

    The availability of autologous articular chondrocytes remains a limiting issue in matrix assisted autologous chondrocyte transplantation. Non-articular heterotopic chondrocytes could be an alternative autologous cell source. The aims of this study were to establish heterotopic chondrocyte cocultures to analyze cell-cell compatibilities and to characterize the chondrogenic potential of nasoseptal chondrocytes compared to articular chondrocytes. Primary porcine and human nasoseptal and articular chondrocytes were investigated for extracellular cartilage matrix (ECM) expression in a monolayer culture. 3D polyglycolic acid- (PGA) associated porcine heterotopic mono- and cocultures were assessed for cell vitality, types II, I, and total collagen-, and proteoglycan content. The type II collagen, lubricin, and Sox9 gene expressions were significantly higher in articular compared with nasoseptal monolayer chondrocytes, while type IX collagen expression was lower in articular chondrocytes. Only β1-integrin gene expression was significantly inferior in humans but not in porcine nasoseptal compared with articular chondrocytes, indicating species-dependent differences. Heterotopic chondrocytes in PGA cultures revealed high vitality with proteoglycan-rich hyaline-like ECM production. Similar amounts of type II collagen deposition and type II/I collagen ratios were found in heterotopic chondrocytes cultured on PGA compared to articular chondrocytes. Quantitative analyses revealed a time-dependent increase in total collagen and proteoglycan content, whereby the differences between heterotopic and articular chondrocyte cultures were not significant. Nasoseptal and auricular chondrocytes monocultured in PGA or cocultured with articular chondrocytes revealed a comparable high chondrogenic potential in a tissue engineering setting, which created the opportunity to test them in vivo for articular cartilage repair. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. ePGA: A Web-Based Information System for Translational Pharmacogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Lakiotaki, Kleanthi; Kartsaki, Evgenia; Kanterakis, Alexandros; Katsila, Theodora; Patrinos, George P.; Potamias, George

    2016-01-01

    One of the challenges that arise from the advent of personal genomics services is to efficiently couple individual data with state of the art Pharmacogenomics (PGx) knowledge. Existing services are limited to either providing static views of PGx variants or applying a simplistic match between individual genotypes and existing PGx variants. Moreover, there is a considerable amount of haplotype variation associated with drug metabolism that is currently insufficiently addressed. Here, we present a web-based electronic Pharmacogenomics Assistant (ePGA; http://www.epga.gr/) that provides personalized genotype-to-phenotype translation, linked to state of the art clinical guidelines. ePGA's translation service matches individual genotype-profiles with PGx gene haplotypes and infers the corresponding diplotype and phenotype profiles, accompanied with summary statistics. Additional features include i) the ability to customize translation based on subsets of variants of clinical interest, and ii) to update the knowledge base with novel PGx findings. We demonstrate ePGA's functionality on genetic variation data from the 1000 Genomes Project. PMID:27631363

  9. ePGA: A Web-Based Information System for Translational Pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Lakiotaki, Kleanthi; Kartsaki, Evgenia; Kanterakis, Alexandros; Katsila, Theodora; Patrinos, George P; Potamias, George

    2016-01-01

    One of the challenges that arise from the advent of personal genomics services is to efficiently couple individual data with state of the art Pharmacogenomics (PGx) knowledge. Existing services are limited to either providing static views of PGx variants or applying a simplistic match between individual genotypes and existing PGx variants. Moreover, there is a considerable amount of haplotype variation associated with drug metabolism that is currently insufficiently addressed. Here, we present a web-based electronic Pharmacogenomics Assistant (ePGA; http://www.epga.gr/) that provides personalized genotype-to-phenotype translation, linked to state of the art clinical guidelines. ePGA's translation service matches individual genotype-profiles with PGx gene haplotypes and infers the corresponding diplotype and phenotype profiles, accompanied with summary statistics. Additional features include i) the ability to customize translation based on subsets of variants of clinical interest, and ii) to update the knowledge base with novel PGx findings. We demonstrate ePGA's functionality on genetic variation data from the 1000 Genomes Project.

  10. The dependence of PGA and PGV on distance and magnitude inferred from Northern California ShakeMap data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boatwright, J.; Bundock, H.; Luetgert, J.; Seekins, L.; Gee, L.; Lombard, P.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze peak ground velocity (PGV) and peak ground acceleration (PGA) data from 95 moderate (3.5 ??? M 100 km, the peak motions attenuate more rapidly than a simple power law (that is, r-??) can fit. Instead, we use an attenuation function that combines a fixed power law (r-0.7) with a fitted exponential dependence on distance, which is estimated as expt(-0.0063r) and exp(-0.0073r) for PGV and PGA, respectively, for moderate earthquakes. We regress log(PGV) and log(PGA) as functions of distance and magnitude. We assume that the scaling of log(PGV) and log(PGA) with magnitude can differ for moderate and large earthquakes, but must be continuous. Because the frequencies that carry PGV and PGA can vary with earthquake size for large earthquakes, the regression for large earthquakes incorporates a magnitude dependence in the exponential attenuation function. We fix the scaling break between moderate and large earthquakes at M 5.5; log(PGV) and log(PGA) scale as 1.06M and 1.00M, respectively, for moderate earthquakes and 0.58M and 0.31M for large earthquakes.

  11. Transcriptome Profiling of Wild-Type and pga-Knockout Mutant Strains Reveal the Role of Exopolysaccharide in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Mayilvahanan; El Abbar, Faiha; Ramasubbu, Narayanan

    2015-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides have a diverse set of functions in most bacteria including a mechanistic role in protecting bacteria against environmental stresses. Among the many functions attributed to the exopolysaccharides, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, immune evasion and colonization have been studied most extensively. The exopolysaccharide produced by many Gram positive as well as Gram negative bacteria including the oral pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is the homopolymer of β(1,6)-linked N-acetylglucosamine. Recently, we reported that the PGA-deficient mutant of A. actinomycetemcomitans failed to colonize or induce bone resorption in a rat model of periodontal disease, and the colonization genes, apiA and aae, were significantly down regulated in the mutant strain. To understand the role of exopolysaccharide and the pga locus in the global expression of A. actinomycetemcomitans, we have used comparative transcriptome profiling to identify differentially expressed genes in the wild-type strain in relation to the PGA-deficient strain. Transcriptome analysis revealed that about 50% of the genes are differently expressed (P < 0.05 and fold change >1.5). Our study demonstrated that the absence of the pga locus affects the genes involved in peptidoglycan recycling, glycogen storage, and virulence. Further, using confocal microscopy and plating assays, we show that the viability of pga mutant strain is significantly reduced during biofilm growth. Thus, this study highlights the importance of pga genes and the exopolysaccharide in the virulence of A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  12. Heterotrimeric Gα protein Pga1 from Penicillium chrysogenum triggers germination in response to carbon sources and affects negatively resistance to different stress conditions.

    PubMed

    García-Rico, Ramón Ovidio; Martín, Juan Francisco; Fierro, Francisco

    2011-06-01

    Heterotrimeric Gα protein Pga1 of Penicillium chrysogenum controls vegetative growth, conidiation and secondary metabolite production. In this work we studied the role of Pga1 in spore germination and resistance to different stress conditions. Strains G203R-T (expressing the dominant inactivating pga1(G203R) allele) and Δpga1 (deleted pga1) showed a delayed and asynchronic germination pattern, and a decrease in the percentage of germination, which occurred in only 70-80% of the total conidia. In contrast, in strains expressing the dominant activating pga1(G42R) allele, germination occurred at earlier times and in 100% of conidia. In addition, strains with the pga1(G42R) allele were able to bypass the carbon source (glucose or sucrose) requirement for germination in about 64% of conidia. Thus Pga1 plays an important, but not essential, role in germination, mediating carbon source sensing. Regulation of germination by Pga1 is probably mediated by cAMP, as intracellular levels of this secondary messenger undergo a peak before the onset of germination only in strains with an active Pga1. Pga1 activity is also a determinant factor in the resistance to different stress conditions. Absence or inactivation of Pga1 allow growth on SDS-containing minimal medium, increase resistance of conidia to thermal and oxidative stress, and increase resistance of vegetative mycelium to thermal and osmotic stress. In contrast, constitutive activation of Pga1 causes a decrease in the resistance of conidia to thermal stress and of vegetative mycelium to thermal and osmotic stress. Together with our previously reported results, we show in this work that Pga1 plays a central role in the regulation of the whole growth-developmental program of this biotechnologically important fungus.

  13. The pga1 gene of Penicillium chrysogenum NRRL 1951 encodes a heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunit that controls growth and development.

    PubMed

    García-Rico, Ramón O; Martín, Juan F; Fierro, Francisco

    2007-06-01

    The pga1 gene of Penicillium chrysogenum NRRL 1951 has been cloned and shown to participate in the developmental program of this fungus. It encodes a protein showing a high degree of identity to group I alpha subunits of fungal heterotrimeric G proteins, presenting in its sequence all the distinctive characteristics of this group. Northern analysis revealed that pga1 is highly expressed in a constitutive manner in submerged cultures, while its expression changes during development on solid media cultures; it is higher during vegetative growth and decreases significantly at the time of conidiogenesis. Attenuation of pga1 gene expression by antisense RNA, and mutations of pga1 resulting in a constitutively activated (pga1G42R allele) or constitutively inactivated (pga1G203R allele) Pga1 alpha subunit were used to study the function of Pga1 in P. chrysogenum. The phenotype of transformants expressing the antisense construction and the mutant alleles showed substantial morphological differences in colony diameter and conidiation, indicating that Pga1 controls apical extension and negatively regulates conidiogenesis on solid medium, but has no effect on submerged cultures. Pga1 is also functional in Penicillium roqueforti, controlling the same processes.

  14. Seismic Intensity, PGA and PGV for the South Napa Earthquake, August 24, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Pickering, A.; Mooney, W. D.; Crewdson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the statistical relationship between Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) and peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV). The Mw 6.0 South Napa (California) earthquake of August 24, 2014 provides valuable data to examine these relationships for both urban and rural environments within northern California. The finite fault model (D. Dreger, 2014) indicates that the fault rupture propagated predominantly NNW and up-dip from a 11-km-deep hypocenter. The epicentral location was 8 km SSW of downtown Napa. Recorded PGA north of the epicenter is as high as 600 cm/s2 and PGV locally reaches 80 cm/s. Field studies by two teams of investigators were conducted on August 24-26 and September 8-11, 2014 to assign MMI values at 108 sites. The highest MMI values are strongly localized along the NNW-SSE rupture trend north of the epicenter. Parts of the city of Napa and some communities several km farther north on Dry Creek Road were found to have experienced shaking intensities of MMI VII to VIII. The observed effects include houses moved off their foundations, chimney collapse or damage, cracked foundations and/or interior walls, broken windows, and the lateral displacement of heavy furniture. Communities to the east and west of this zone of high seismic intensity reported significantly lower values of MMI, typically IV and V even at distances as close as 10 km from the mapped surface rupture. In comparison with previous estimates by Wald et al. (1999) and Dangkua and Cramer (2011), we find that MMI III-VIII uniformly correspond to significantly larger (>150%) PGA and PGV values, as reported by the Center for Engineering Strong Motion Data (2014). We attribute this observation to two primary factors: (1) improved earthquake engineering in the post-Loma Prieta earthquake era that has led to building construction, both new and retrofitted, that is more resistant to earthquake strong ground motions; and (2) a frequency band relevant

  15. Regulation of pga Operon Expression and Biofilm Formation in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by σE and H-NS▿

    PubMed Central

    Bossé, Janine T.; Sinha, Sunita; Li, Ming-Shi; O'Dwyer, Clíona A.; Nash, John H. E.; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Kroll, J. Simon; Langford, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical isolates of the porcine pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae often form adherent colonies on agar plates due to expression of an operon, pgaABCD, encoding a poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PGA) extracellular matrix. The adherent colony phenotype, which correlates with the ability to form biofilms on the surfaces of polystyrene plates, is lost following serial passage in broth culture, and repeated passage of the nonadherent variants on solid media does not result in reversion to the adherent colony phenotype. In order to investigate the regulation of PGA expression and biofilm formation in A. pleuropneumoniae, we screened a bank of transposon mutants of the nonadherent serovar 1 strain S4074T and identified mutations in two genes, rseA and hns, which resulted in the formation of the adherent colony phenotype. In other bacteria, including the Enterobacteriaceae, H-NS acts as a global gene regulator, and RseA is a negative regulator of the extracytoplasmic stress response sigma factor σE. Transcription profiling of A. pleuropneumoniae rseA and hns mutants revealed that both σE and H-NS independently regulate expression of the pga operon. Transcription of the pga operon is initiated from a σE promoter site in the absence of H-NS, and upregulation of σE is sufficient to displace H-NS, allowing transcription to proceed. In A. pleuropneumoniae, H-NS does not act as a global gene regulator but rather specifically regulates biofilm formation via repression of the pga operon. Positive regulation of the pga operon by σE indicates that biofilm formation is part of the extracytoplasmic stress response in A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:20207760

  16. rPbPga1 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Activates Mast Cells and Macrophages via NFkB.

    PubMed

    Valim, Clarissa Xavier Resende; da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Assis, Mariana Aprigio; Fernandes, Fabricio Freitas; Coelho, Paulo Sergio Rodrigues; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria Célia

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the leading etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic granulomatous disease that typically affects the lungs. Cell wall components of P. brasiliensis interact with host cells and influence the pathogenesis of PCM. In yeast, many glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are important in the initial contact with the host, mediating host-yeast interactions that culminate with the disease. PbPga1 is a GPI anchored protein located on the surface of the yeast P. brasiliensis that is recognized by sera from PCM patients. Endogenous PbPga1 was localized to the surface of P. brasiliensis yeast cells in the lungs of infected mice using a polyclonal anti-rPbPga1 antibody. Furthermore, macrophages stained with anti-CD38 were associated with P. brasiliensis containing granulomas. Additionally, rPbPga1 activated the transcription factor NFkB in the macrophage cell line Raw 264.7 Luc cells, containing the luciferase gene downstream of the NFkB promoter. After 24 h of incubation with rPbPga1, alveolar macrophages from BALB/c mice were stimulated to release TNF-α, IL-4 and NO. Mast cells, identified by toluidine blue staining, were also associated with P. brasiliensis containing granulomas. Co-culture of P. Brasiliensis yeast cells with RBL-2H3 mast cells induced morphological changes on the surface of the mast cells. Furthermore, RBL-2H3 mast cells were degranulated by P. brasiliensis yeast cells, but not by rPbPga1, as determined by the release of beta-hexosaminidase. However, RBL-2H3 cells activated by rPbPga1 released the inflammatory interleukin IL-6 and also activated the transcription factor NFkB in GFP-reporter mast cells. The transcription factor NFAT was not activated when the mast cells were incubated with rPbPga1. The results indicate that PbPga1 may act as a modulator protein in PCM pathogenesis and serve as a useful target for additional studies on the pathogenesis of P. brasiliensis.

  17. rPbPga1 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Activates Mast Cells and Macrophages via NFkB

    PubMed Central

    Valim, Clarissa Xavier Resende; da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Assis, Mariana Aprigio; Fernandes, Fabricio Freitas; Coelho, Paulo Sergio Rodrigues; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria Célia

    2015-01-01

    Background The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the leading etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic granulomatous disease that typically affects the lungs. Cell wall components of P. brasiliensis interact with host cells and influence the pathogenesis of PCM. In yeast, many glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are important in the initial contact with the host, mediating host-yeast interactions that culminate with the disease. PbPga1 is a GPI anchored protein located on the surface of the yeast P. brasiliensis that is recognized by sera from PCM patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Endogenous PbPga1 was localized to the surface of P. brasiliensis yeast cells in the lungs of infected mice using a polyclonal anti-rPbPga1 antibody. Furthermore, macrophages stained with anti-CD38 were associated with P. brasiliensis containing granulomas. Additionally, rPbPga1 activated the transcription factor NFkB in the macrophage cell line Raw 264.7 Luc cells, containing the luciferase gene downstream of the NFkB promoter. After 24 h of incubation with rPbPga1, alveolar macrophages from BALB/c mice were stimulated to release TNF-α, IL-4 and NO. Mast cells, identified by toluidine blue staining, were also associated with P. brasiliensis containing granulomas. Co-culture of P. Brasiliensis yeast cells with RBL-2H3 mast cells induced morphological changes on the surface of the mast cells. Furthermore, RBL-2H3 mast cells were degranulated by P. brasiliensis yeast cells, but not by rPbPga1, as determined by the release of beta-hexosaminidase. However, RBL-2H3 cells activated by rPbPga1 released the inflammatory interleukin IL-6 and also activated the transcription factor NFkB in GFP-reporter mast cells. The transcription factor NFAT was not activated when the mast cells were incubated with rPbPga1. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate that PbPga1 may act as a modulator protein in PCM pathogenesis and serve as a useful target for

  18. Synthetic PGV and PGA values for the 1969 St. Vincent Cape earthquake Ms=8.1.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buforn, E.; Pro, C.; Borges, J.; Oliveira, C. S.; Carranza, M.; Udias, A.; Martinez Solares, J. M.; Gomis-Moreno, A.; Mattesini, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Cape St. Vincent region is of great seismological interest due to its tectonic complexity and the occurrence of the great 1755 Lisbon earthquake. This earthquake can repeat with catastrophic consequences. The last large shock occurred in this area on 28 February 1969 (Ms=8.1) was recorded by analogical instruments which are completely saturated. The lack of large earthquakes recorded by BB instruments limit the possibilities of seismic hazard studies in this region. In order to solve this problem, we have generated synthetic seismograms at regional distances for recent and well studied earthquakes occurred in this region, such as the 2007 (Mw=5.9) or the 2009 (Mw=5.5) events. This allows testing the earth model used for synthetic data and to generate synthetic records at regional distances for larger earthquakes. We have generated synthetic PGA values for 1969 earthquake and check them with the PGA value observed at a site of Lisbon. From the PGV values and using the empirical relations developed by Carranza et al. (2013) we obtain the predicted instrumental intensity IMM using the Wald et al (1999) relations . Comparison of them with the observed intensities for the 1969 earthquake in the Iberian Peninsula allows to validate this relation for large earthquakes at the region.

  19. Estimation of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) for Peninsular Malaysia using geospatial approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri Manafizad, Amir; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Abdullahi, Saleh

    2016-06-01

    Among the various types of natural disasters, earthquake is considered as one of the most destructive events which impose a great amount of human fatalities and economic losses. Visualization of earthquake events and estimation of peak ground motions provides a strong tool for scientists and authorities to predict and mitigate the aftereffects of earthquakes. In addition it is useful for some businesses like insurance companies to evaluate the amount of investing risk. Although Peninsular Malaysian is situated in the stable part of Sunda plate, it is seismically influenced by very active earthquake sources of Sumatra's fault and subduction zones. This study modelled the seismic zones and estimates maximum credible earthquake (MCE) based on classified data for period 1900 to 2014. The deterministic approach was implemented for the analysis. Attenuation equations were used for two zones. Results show that, the PGA produced from subduction zone is from 2-64 (gal) and from the fault zone varies from 1-191(gal). In addition, the PGA generated from fault zone is more critical than subduction zone for selected seismic model.

  20. PGA1-induced apoptosis involves specific activation of H-Ras and N-Ras in cellular endomembranes

    PubMed Central

    Anta, B; Pérez-Rodríguez, A; Castro, J; García- Domínguez, C A; Ibiza, S; Martínez, N; Durá, L M; Hernández, S; Gragera, T; Peña-Jiménez, D; Yunta, M; Zarich, N; Crespo, P; Serrador, J M; Santos, E; Muñoz, A; Oliva, J L; Rojas-Cabañeros, J M

    2016-01-01

    The cyclopentenone prostaglandin A1 (PGA1) is an inducer of cell death in cancer cells. However, the mechanism that initiates this cytotoxic response remains elusive. Here we report that PGA1 triggers apoptosis by a process that entails the specific activation of H- and N-Ras isoforms, leading to caspase activation. Cells without H- and N-Ras did not undergo apoptosis upon PGA1 treatment; in these cells, the cellular demise was rescued by overexpression of either H-Ras or N-Ras. Consistently, the mutant H-Ras-C118S, defective for binding PGA1, did not produce cell death. Molecular analysis revealed a key role for the RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway in the apoptotic process through the induction of calpain activity and caspase-12 cleavage. We propose that PGA1 evokes a specific physiological cell death program, through H- and N-Ras, but not K-Ras, activation at endomembranes. Our results highlight a novel mechanism that may be of potential interest for tumor treatment. PMID:27468687

  1. PGA1-induced apoptosis involves specific activation of H-Ras and N-Ras in cellular endomembranes.

    PubMed

    Anta, B; Pérez-Rodríguez, A; Castro, J; García-Domínguez, C A; Ibiza, S; Martínez, N; Durá, L M; Hernández, S; Gragera, T; Peña-Jiménez, D; Yunta, M; Zarich, N; Crespo, P; Serrador, J M; Santos, E; Muñoz, A; Oliva, J L; Rojas-Cabañeros, J M

    2016-07-28

    The cyclopentenone prostaglandin A1 (PGA1) is an inducer of cell death in cancer cells. However, the mechanism that initiates this cytotoxic response remains elusive. Here we report that PGA1 triggers apoptosis by a process that entails the specific activation of H- and N-Ras isoforms, leading to caspase activation. Cells without H- and N-Ras did not undergo apoptosis upon PGA1 treatment; in these cells, the cellular demise was rescued by overexpression of either H-Ras or N-Ras. Consistently, the mutant H-Ras-C118S, defective for binding PGA1, did not produce cell death. Molecular analysis revealed a key role for the RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway in the apoptotic process through the induction of calpain activity and caspase-12 cleavage. We propose that PGA1 evokes a specific physiological cell death program, through H- and N-Ras, but not K-Ras, activation at endomembranes. Our results highlight a novel mechanism that may be of potential interest for tumor treatment.

  2. The pgaABCD Locus of Acinetobacter baumannii Encodes the Production of Poly-β-1-6-N-Acetylglucosamine, Which Is Critical for Biofilm Formation▿

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Alexis H. K.; Slamti, Leyla; Avci, Fikri Y.; Pier, Gerald B.; Maira-Litrán, Tomás

    2009-01-01

    We found that Acinetobacter baumannii contains a pgaABCD locus that encodes proteins that synthesize cell-associated poly-β-(1-6)-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG). Both a mutant with an in-frame deletion of the pga locus (S1Δpga) and a transcomplemented strain (S1Δpga-c) of A. baumannii were constructed, and the PNAG production by these strains was compared using an immunoblot assay. Deleting the pga locus resulted in an A. baumannii strain without PNAG, and transcomplementation of the S1Δpga strain with the pgaABCD genes fully restored the wild-type PNAG phenotype. Heterologous expression of the A. baumannii pga locus in Escherichia coli led to synthesis of significant amounts of PNAG, while no polysaccharide was detected in E. coli cells harboring an empty vector. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the extracellular polysaccharide material isolated from A. baumannii confirmed that it was PNAG, but notably only 60% of the glucosamine amino groups were acetylated. PCR analysis indicated that all 30 clinical A. baumannii isolates examined had the pga genes, and immunoblot assays indicated that 14 of the 30 strains strongly produced PNAG, 14 of the strains moderately to weakly produced PNAG, and 2 strains appeared to not produce PNAG. Deletion of the pga locus led to loss of the strong biofilm phenotype, which was restored by complementation. Confocal laser scanning microscopy studies combined with COMSTAT analysis demonstrated that the biovolume, mean thickness, and maximum thickness of 16-h and 48-h-old biofilms formed by wild-type and pga-complemented A. baumannii strains were significantly greater than the biovolume, mean thickness, and maximum thickness of 16-h and 48-h-old biofilms formed by the S1Δpga mutant strain. Biofilm-dependent production of PNAG could be an important virulence factor for this emerging pathogen that has few known virulence factors. PMID:19633088

  3. The main byproducts and metabolic flux profiling of γ-PGA-producing strain B. subtilis ZJU-7 under different pH values.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Cai, Jin; Wu, Xiangting; Huang, Jin; Huang, Lei; Zhu, Jianzhong; Zheng, Qiang; Cen, Peilin; Xu, Zhinan

    2013-03-10

    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is an extracellular anionic polymer with many potential applications. Although microbial fermentation is the common approach to produce γ-PGA, the broth at the latter stage usually becomes very viscous and severely influences the metabolites producing pattern of target microbe. In this study, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol were confirmed to be the main byproducts of γ-PGA-producing strain B. subtilis ZJU-7 (B. subtilis CGMCC1250), and their effects on the cell growth and γ-PGA biosynthesis were further investigated in shake flasks. The outcome indicated that both acetoin and 2,3-butanediol showed clear impairment on γ-PGA production of B. subtilis ZJU-7. Moreover, the extracellular metabolites profiles of fermentation under three different pH values were acquired and the metabolic flux redistribution of pathways related to γ-PGA biosynthesis was calculated based on the collected data. As a result, the metabolic flux favored to distribute toward glycolytic pathway at pH 6.5, in which the ingestion rate of extracellular glutamic acid was higher and the subsequent γ-PGA biosynthesis was enhanced. The present work provided us a deep insight into the metabolic flux control of γ-PGA biosynthesis, which will stimulate some novel metabolic engineering strategies to improve the productivity of γ-PGA in future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. G protein-cAMP signaling pathway mediated by PGA3 plays different roles in regulating the expressions of amylases and cellulases in Penicillium decumbens.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yibo; Liu, Guodong; Li, Zhonghai; Qin, Yuqi; Qu, Yinbo; Song, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins (G proteins) have been extensively investigated for their regulatory functions in morphogenesis and development in filamentous fungi. In addition, G proteins were also shown to be involved in the regulation of cellulase expression in some fungi. Here, we report the different regulatory effects of PGA3, a group III G protein α subunit, on the expressions of amylases and cellulases in Penicillium decumbens. Deletion of pga3 resulted in impaired amylase production and significantly decreased transcription of the major amylase gene amy15A. Supplementation of exogenous cAMP or its analog dibutyryl-cAMP restored amylase production in Δpga3 strain, suggesting an essential role of PGA3 in amylase synthesis via controlling cAMP level. On the other hand, the transcription of major cellulase gene cel7A-2 increased, nevertheless cellulase activity in the medium was not affected, in Δpga3. The above regulatory effects of PGA3 are carbon source-independent, and are achieved, at least, by cAMP-mediated regulation of the expression level of transcription factor AmyR. The functions of PGA3 revealed by gene deletion were partially supported by the analysis of the mutant carrying dominantly-activated PGA3. The results provided new insights into the understanding of the physiological functions of G protein-cAMP pathway in filamentous fungi.

  5. Ebola Vaccination Using a DNA Vaccine Coated on PLGA-PLL/γPGA Nanoparticles Administered Using a Microneedle Patch.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hung-Wei; Ye, Ling; Guo, Xin Dong; Yang, Chinglai; Compans, Richard W; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2017-01-01

    Ebola DNA vaccine is incorporated into PLGA-PLL/γPGA nanoparticles and administered to skin using a microneedle (MN) patch. The nanoparticle delivery system increases vaccine thermostability and immunogenicity compared to free vaccine. Vaccination by MN patch produces stronger immune responses than intramuscular administration. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Novel electrochemical immune sensor based on Hep-PGA-PPy nanoparticles for detection of α-Fetoprotein in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tingting; Chi, Bo; Gao, Jian; Chu, Meilin; Fan, Wenlu; Yi, Meihui; Xu, Hong; Mao, Chun

    2017-07-18

    A simple and accurate immune sensor for quantitative detection of α-Fetoprotein (AFP) was developed based on the immobilization of antigen on the surface of Hep-PGA-PPy nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). The obtained Hep-PGA-PPy nanoparticles were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). And the blood compatibility of Hep-PGA-PPy nanoparticles was investigated by in vitro coagulation tests, hemolysis assay and whole blood adhesion tests. Combining the conductive property of polypyrrole (PPy) and the biocompatibility of heparin (Hep), the Hep-PGA-PPy nanoparticles could improve not only the anti-biofouling effect the electrode, but also improved the electrochemical properties of the immune sensor. Under optimal conditions, the proposed immune sensor could detect AFP in a linear range from 0.1 to 100 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.099 ng mL(-1) at the signal-to-noise ratio of 3, and it also possessed good reproducibility and storage stability. Furthermore, the detection of AFP in five human blood samples also showed satisfactory accuracy with low relative errors. Thus, the developed immune sensor which showed acceptable reproducibility, selectivity, stability and accuracy could be potentially used for the detection of whole blood samples directly. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Plasmid pGA1 from Corynebacterium glutamicum codes for a gene product that positively influences plasmid copy number.

    PubMed Central

    Nesvera, J; Pátek, M; Hochmannová, J; Abrhámová, Z; Becvárová, V; Jelínkova, M; Vohradský, J

    1997-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence (4,826 bp) of the cryptic plasmid pGA1 from Corynebacterium glutamicum was determined. DNA sequence analysis revealed four putative coding regions (open reading frame A [ORFA], ORFA2, ORFB, and ORFC). ORFC was identified as a rep gene coding for an initiator of plasmid replication (Rep) according to the high level of homology of its deduced amino acid sequence with the Rep proteins of plasmids pSR1 (from C. glutamicum) and pNG2 (from Corynebacterium diphtheriae). This function was confirmed by deletion mapping of the minimal replicon of pGA1 (1.7 kb) which contains only ORFC. Deletion derivatives of pGA1 devoid of ORFA exhibited significant decreases in the copy number in C. glutamicum cells and displayed segregational instability. Introduction of ORFA in trans into the cells harboring these deletion plasmids dramatically increased their copy number and segregational stability. The ORFA gene product thus positively influences plasmid copy number. This is the first report on such activity associated with a nonintegrating bacterial plasmid. The related plasmids pGA1, pSR1, and pNG2 lacking significant homology with any other plasmid seem to be representatives of a new group of plasmids replicating in the rolling-circle mode. PMID:9045809

  8. Improved antifungal activity of amphotericin B-loaded TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaolong; Jiao, Ronghong; Xie, Chunmei; Xu, Lifa; Huo, Zhen; Dai, Jingjing; Qian, Yunyun; Xu, Weiwen; Hou, Wei; Wang, Jiang; Liang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    To develop amphotericin B-loaded biodegradable TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles (PLGA-TPGS-AMB NPs) for fungal infection treatment, PLGA-TPGS NPs and PLGA NPs were synthesized by a modified double emulsion method and characterized in terms of size and size distribution, morphology and zeta potential. Drug encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, and in vitro/vivo tests against Candida glabrata were completed. The data showed that both of the two AMB-loaded NPs (PLGA-AMB NPs, PLGA-TPGS-AMB NPs) achieved significantly higher level of antifungal effects than water suspended AMB. In comparison with PLGA-AMB NPs, PLGA-TPGS-AMB NPs had a stronger protective effect against candidiasis and gained an advantage of prolonged antifungal efficacy. In conclusion, PLGA-TPGS-AMB NPs system significantly improves AMB bioavailability by increasing the aqueous dispersibility and improving the antifungal activity. And this would be an excellent choice for the antifungal treatment of the entrapped drug because of its low toxicity and higher effectiveness. PMID:26131089

  9. A Synthetic Bandwidth Method for High-Resolution SAR Based on PGA in the Range Dimension

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jincheng; Chen, Jie; Liu, Wei; Wang, Pengbo; Li, Chunsheng

    2015-01-01

    The synthetic bandwidth technique is an effective method to achieve ultra-high range resolution in an SAR system. There are mainly two challenges in its implementation. The first one is the estimation and compensation of system errors, such as the timing deviation and the amplitude-phase error. Due to precision limitation of the radar instrument, construction of the sub-band signals becomes much more complicated with these errors. The second challenge lies in the combination method, that is how to fit the sub-band signals together into a much wider bandwidth. In this paper, a novel synthetic bandwidth approach is presented. It considers two main errors of the multi-sub-band SAR system and compensates them by a two-order PGA (phase gradient auto-focus)-based method, named TRPGA. Furthermore, an improved cut-paste method is proposed to combine the signals in the frequency domain. It exploits the redundancy of errors and requires only a limited amount of data in the azimuth direction for error estimation. Moreover, the up-sampling operation can be avoided in the combination process. Imaging results based on both simulated and real data are presented to validate the proposed approach. PMID:26131679

  10. Strong motion PGA prediction for southwestern China from small earthquake records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zhengru; Tao, Xiaxin; Cui, Anping

    2016-05-01

    For regions without enough strong ground motion records, a seismology-based method is adopted to predict motion PGA (peak ground acceleration) values on rock sites with parameters from small earthquake data, recorded by regional broadband digital monitoring networks. Sichuan and Yunnan regions in southwestern China are selected for this case study. Five regional parameters of source spectrum and attenuation are acquired from a joint inversion by the micro-genetic algorithm. PGAs are predicted for earthquakes with moment magnitude (Mw) 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 respectively and a series of distances. The result is compared with limited regional strong motion data in the corresponding interval Mw ± 0.5. Most of the results ideally pass through the data clusters, except the case of Mw7.0 in the Sichuan region, which shows an obvious slow attenuation due to a lack of observed data from larger earthquakes (Mw ≥ 7.0). For further application, the parameters are adopted in strong motion synthesis at two near-fault stations during the great Wenchuan Earthquake M8.0 in 2008.

  11. A Synthetic Bandwidth Method for High-Resolution SAR Based on PGA in the Range Dimension.

    PubMed

    Li, Jincheng; Chen, Jie; Liu, Wei; Wang, Pengbo; Li, Chunsheng

    2015-06-29

    The synthetic bandwidth technique is an effective method to achieve ultra-high range resolution in an SAR system. There are mainly two challenges in its implementation. The first one is the estimation and compensation of system errors, such as the timing deviation and the amplitude-phase error. Due to precision limitation of the radar instrument, construction of the sub-band signals becomes much more complicated with these errors. The second challenge lies in the combination method, that is how to fit the sub-band signals together into a much wider bandwidth. In this paper, a novel synthetic bandwidth approach is presented. It considers two main errors of the multi-sub-band SAR system and compensates them by a two-order PGA (phase gradient auto-focus)-based method, named TRPGA. Furthermore, an improved cut-paste method is proposed to combine the signals in the frequency domain. It exploits the redundancy of errors and requires only a limited amount of data in the azimuth direction for error estimation. Moreover, the up-sampling operation can be avoided in the combination process. Imaging results based on both simulated and real data are presented to validate the proposed approach.

  12. Improved specific productivity in cephalexin synthesis by immobilized PGA in silica magnetic micro-particles.

    PubMed

    Bernardino, Susana M S A; Fernandes, Pedro; Fonseca, Luís P

    2010-12-01

    There is a marked trend in pharmaceutical industry towards the replacement of classical organic methods by "green" alternatives that minimize or eliminate the generation of waste and avoid, where possible, the use of toxic and/or hazardous reagents and solvents. In this work the kinetically controlled synthesis of cephalexin by soluble and penicillin G acylase immobilized in sol-gel micro-particles with magnetic properties was performed in aqueous media with PGME and 7-ADCA as substrates, at different concentrations of substrate, temperature, pH, enzyme to substrate ratio and acyl donor to nucleophile ratio. Excess acyl donor had a strong effect on cephalexin productivity. A PGME/7-ADCA ratio of 3 was considered optimum. A maximum specific productivity of 5.9 mmol h(-1), gbiocatalyst(-1) at 160 mM 7-ADCA, 480 mM PGME and low enzyme to substrate ratio at 32.5 U mmol(-1) 7-ADCA was obtained with immobilized PGA in full aqueous medium, suggesting that diffusional limitations were minimized when compared with other commercial biocatalysts. A half-life of 133 h for the immobilized biocatalyst was estimated during cephalexin synthesis in the presence of 100 mM 7-ADCA and 300 mM PGME, in 50 mM Tris/HCl at pH 7.2 and 14°C. These results compare quite favorably with those previously reported for the kinetically controlled synthesis of cephalexin.

  13. CsrA post-transcriptionally represses pgaABCD, responsible for synthesis of a biofilm polysaccharide adhesin of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Dubey, Ashok K; Suzuki, Kazushi; Baker, Carol S; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2005-06-01

    The RNA-binding protein CsrA represses biofilm formation, while the non-coding RNAs CsrB and CsrC activate this process by sequestering CsrA. We now provide evidence that the pgaABCD transcript, required for the synthesis of the polysaccharide adhesin PGA (poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine) of Escherichia coli, is the key target of biofilm regulation by CsrA. csrA disruption causes an approximately threefold increase in PGA production and an approximately sevenfold increase in expression of a pgaA'-'lacZ translational fusion. A DeltacsrBDeltacsrC mutant exhibits a modest decrease in pgaA'-'lacZ expression, while the response regulator UvrY, a transcriptional activator of csrB and csrC, stimulates this expression. Biofilm formation is not regulated by csrA, csrB or uvrY in a DeltapgaC mutant, which cannot synthesize PGA. Gel mobility shift and toeprint analyses demonstrate that CsrA binds cooperatively to pgaA mRNA and competes with 30S ribosome subunit for binding. CsrA destabilizes the pgaA transcript in vivo. RNA footprinting and boundary analyses identify six apparent CsrA binding sites in the pgaA mRNA leader, the most extensive arrangement of such sites in any mRNA examined to date. Substitution mutations in CsrA binding sites overlapping the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and initiation codon partially relieve repression by CsrA. These studies define the crucial mechanisms, though not the only means, by which the Csr system influences biofilm formation.

  14. B-value and slip rate sensitivity analysis for PGA value in Lembang fault and Cimandiri fault area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratama, Cecep; Ito, Takeo; Meilano, Irwan; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2017-07-01

    We examine slip rate and b-value contribution of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), in probabilistic seismic hazard maps (10% probability of exceedence in 50 years or 500 years return period). Hazard curve of PGA have been investigated for Sukabumi and Bandung using a PSHA (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis). We observe that the most influence in the hazard estimate is crustal fault. Monte Carlo approach has been developed to assess the sensitivity. Uncertainty and coefficient of variation from slip rate and b-value in Lembang and Cimandiri Fault area have been calculated. We observe that seismic hazard estimates are sensitive to fault slip rate and b-value with uncertainty result are 0.25 g dan 0.1-0.2 g, respectively. For specific site, we found seismic hazard estimate are 0.49 + 0.13 g with COV 27% and 0.39 + 0.05 g with COV 13% for Sukabumi and Bandung, respectively.

  15. A Preliminary Report on the Osteogenic Potential of a Biodegradable Copolymer of Polylactide: Polyglycolide (PLA:PGA). Revised.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-22

    Biodegradable Copolymer of Polylactide : July - December 1981 Polyglycolide (PLA:PGA) S. PERFORMING ORO. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(.) CONTRACT OR GRANT...I I l 2 INTRODUCTION The alpha-polyesters, polylactide and polyglycolide, have been investigated for use as suture and implant...materials for the repair of a variety of soft tissue and osseous wounds. -7 Implanted polymers and copolymers of polylactide and polyglycolide were

  16. Analysis of socket preservation using polylactide and polyglycolide (PLA-PGA) sponge: a clinical, radiographic, and histologic study.

    PubMed

    Madan, Rohit; Mohan, Ranjana; Bains, Vivek K; Gupta, Vivek; Singh, G P; Madan, Mani

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the extraction socket healing and dimensional changes following alveolar ridge preservation using polylactide and polyglycolide (PLA-PGA) sponge. Fifteen patients were selected for alveolar socket preservation immediately following tooth extraction. Monoradicular maxillary and mandibular teeth were evaluated. The selected sockets had intact sockets walls with a minimum of 7 mm of residual alveolar bone height. The test sites were thoroughly debrided and grafted with PLA-PGA sponge, while the control sites underwent natural healing. Computed tomography (CT) measurements were taken at baseline and 6 months. After 6 months of healing, final CT measurements were performed, and trephine core biopsy specimens were obtained for histologic analysis. Implants were placed immediately after biopsy harvesting. All subjects completed the study, and all sites healed without adverse events and allowed for implant placement. The mean difference in socket height, width, and density after 6 months was statistically significantly higher in the test sites compared with control sites. Clinical measurement at the midbuccal site of the alveolar socket showed a mean loss of 2.45 ± 0.67 mm in the control group, compared with a mean gain of 1.28 ± 0.58 mm in the test group. All test sites showed minimal ridge alterations, and statistically significant differences were observed between the test and control sites with respect to bone composition and horizontal and vertical bone loss, indicating that PLA-PGA sponge is suitable for alveolar ridge preservation.

  17. The pga gene cluster in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is necessary for the development of natural competence in Ca(2+) -promoted biofilms.

    PubMed

    Hisano, K; Fujise, O; Miura, M; Hamachi, T; Matsuzaki, E; Nishimura, F

    2014-04-01

    Natural competence is the ability of bacteria to incorporate extracellular DNA into their genomes. This competence is affected by a number of factors, including Ca(2+) utilization and biofilm formation. As bacteria can form thick biofilms in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) , the additive effects of Ca(2+) -promoted biofilm formation on natural competence should be examined. We evaluated natural competence in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, an important periodontal pathogen, in the context of Ca(2+) -promoted biofilms, and examined whether the pga gene cluster, required for bacterial cell aggregation, is necessary for competence development. The A. actinomycetemcomitans cells grown in the presence of 1 mm CaCl2 exhibited enhanced cell aggregation and increased levels of cell-associated Ca(2+) . Biofilm-derived cells grown in the presence of Ca(2+) exhibited the highest levels of natural transformation frequency and enhanced expression of the competence regulator gene, tfoX. Natural competence was enhanced by the additive effects of Ca(2+) -promoted biofilms, in which high levels of pga gene expression were also detected. Mutation of the pga gene cluster disrupted biofilm formation and competence development, suggesting that these genes play a critical role in the ability of A. actinomycetemcomitans to adapt to its natural environment. The Ca(2+) -promoted biofilms may enhance the ability of bacteria to acquire extracellular DNA.

  18. Antifungal efficacy of itraconazole-loaded TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Lixin; Hu, Bicheng; Chen, Hongbo; Li, Shanshan; Hu, Yuqian; Zheng, Yi; Wu, Xinxing

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to formulate biodegradable itraconazole (ITZ)-loaded d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-b-poly(e-caprolactone-ran-glycolide) (TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA); TPP) nanoparticles (NPs) (designed as ITZ-loaded TPP NPs) to improve antifungal efficacy. ITZ-loaded TPP NPs were prepared by a modified double-emulsion method, and their size distribution, morphology, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency, drug-release profile, and antifungal effects were characterized. The cytotoxicity of ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs on HeLa cells and fibroblasts was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. The in vivo antifungal activity of ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs was examined in mice by administrating 5×105 colony forming units of Candida albicans through the tail vein. The survival rate and survival time of the mice was observed. The fungal count and pathology of lung tissue was analyzed. The data showed that ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs have size of 265±5.8 nm, zeta potential of −31±0.5 mV, high encapsulation efficiency (95%), and extended drug-release profile. ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs at a high concentration of 25 mg/mL had no cytotoxicity on HeLa cells and fibroblasts. Furthermore, ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs achieved a higher level of antifungal activity both in vitro and in vivo. The survival rate and duration was higher in mice treated by ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs than in the other groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs significantly improved ITZ bioavailability by increasing its aqueous dispersibility and extending the duration of drug release, thereby improving the antifungal efficacy of the ITZ agent. PMID:25733833

  19. [Expressions of pgaABC gene clusters and changes in biofilm phenotype of Acinetobacter baumannii in burn patients].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jun; Sun, Zhen; Song, Fei; Huan, Jing-ning

    2011-04-01

    To observe expressions of pgaABC gene clusters and changes in biofilm (BF) phenotype in Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) isolated from burn patients. From January 2009 to October 2010, 24 strains of AB isolated from burn patients hospitalized in our burn wards were collected for the study, while the standard strain ATCC 19606 was used as control. Expressions of pgaABC gene clusters were detected by real time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. All strains were cultured for 16 hours in vitro, BF with semi-quantitative detection was respectively evaluated by modified microtiter-plate test under stable condition and tube test under shaking condition for expression of absorbance value. All strains were cultured for 48 hours in vitro, then stained with fluorescent agent and collected for measurement of BF thickness with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Data were processed with t test. (1) The expression of pgaB gene (27.91 ± 7.93) in clinical AB strains was much higher than that of standard strain ATCC 19606 (1.00, t = 5.77, P < 0.05). There was no statistical difference in expression of pgaA and pagC genes between standard strain ATCC 19606 (1.00) and clinical AB strains (1.01 ± 0.28, 1.15 ± 0.38, with t value respectively 0.04, 0.64, P values all above 0.05). (2) After being cultured for 16 hours, BF of clinical AB strains cultured under shaking condition formed distinct "purple circle", and its absorbance value (1.25 ± 0.31) was higher than that in standard strain ATCC 19606 (0.76 ± 0.03, t = 2.67, P < 0.05). There was no obvious difference in absorbance value between clinical AB strains and standard strain ATCC19606 cultured under stable condition. (3) After being culture for 48 hours, green fluorescence intensity and distribution in extracellular matrix of clinical AB strains were stronger as compared with those of standard strain ATCC 19606, and BF thickness in clinical AB strains [(27.3 ± 9.4)µm] was thicker than that in standard strain ATCC 19606 [(15

  20. iNKT Cells Are Responsible for the Apoptotic Reduction of Basophils That Mediate Th2 Immune Responses Elicited by Papain in Mice Following γPGA Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Se-Ho; Hong, Seokmann

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that Bacillus subtilis-derived poly-gamma glutamic acid (γPGA) treatment suppresses the development of allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD). Although basophils, an innate immune cell, are known to play critical roles in allergic immune responses and repeated long-term administration of γPGA results in decreased splenic basophils in an AD murine model, the underlying mechanisms by which γPGA regulates basophil frequency remain unclear. To investigate how γPGA modulates basophils, we employed basophil-mediated Th2 induction in vivo model elicited by the allergen papain protease. Repeated injection of γPGA reduced the abundance of basophils and their production of IL4 in mice, consistent with our previous study using NC/Nga AD model mice. The depletion of basophils by a single injection of γPGA was dependent on the TLR4/DC/IL12 axis. CD1d-dependent Vα14 TCR invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are known to regulate a variety of immune responses, such as allergy. Because iNKT cell activation is highly sensitive to IL12 produced by DCs, we evaluated whether the effect of γPGA on basophils is mediated by iNKT cell activation. We found that in vivo γPGA treatment did not induce the reduction of basophils in iNKT cell-deficient CD1d KO mice, suggesting the critical role of iNKT cells in γPGA-mediated basophil depletion at the early time points. Furthermore, increased apoptotic basophil reduction triggered by iNKT cells upon γPGA stimulation was mainly attributed to Th1 cytokines such as IFNγ and TNFα, consequently resulting in inhibition of papain-induced Th2 differentiation via diminishing basophil-derived IL4. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that γPGA-induced iNKT cell polarization toward the Th1 phenotype induces apoptotic basophil depletion, leading to the suppression of Th2 immune responses. Thus, elucidation of the crosstalk between innate immune cells will contribute to the design and

  1. Reticulons Regulate the ER Inheritance Block during ER Stress.

    PubMed

    Piña, Francisco Javier; Fleming, Tinya; Pogliano, Kit; Niwa, Maho

    2016-05-09

    Segregation of functional organelles during the cell cycle is crucial to generate healthy daughter cells. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ER stress causes an ER inheritance block to ensure cells inherit a functional ER. Here, we report that formation of tubular ER in the mother cell, the first step in ER inheritance, depends on functional symmetry between the cortical ER (cER) and perinuclear ER (pnER). ER stress induces functional asymmetry, blocking tubular ER formation and ER inheritance. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we show that the ER chaperone Kar2/BiP fused to GFP and an ER membrane reporter, Hmg1-GFP, behave differently in the cER and pnER. The functional asymmetry and tubular ER formation depend on Reticulons/Yop1, which maintain ER structure. LUNAPARK1 deletion in rtn1Δrtn2Δyop1Δ cells restores the pnER/cER functional asymmetry, tubular ER generation, and ER inheritance blocks. Thus, Reticulon/Yop1-dependent changes in ER structure are linked to ER inheritance during the yeast cell cycle.

  2. The Arabidopsis AtIPT8/PGA22 Gene Encodes an Isopentenyl Transferase That Is Involved in De Novo Cytokinin Biosynthesis1

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiaqiang; Niu, Qi-Wen; Tarkowski, Petr; Zheng, Binglian; Tarkowska, Danuse; Sandberg, Göran; Chua, Nam-Hai; Zuo, Jianru

    2003-01-01

    Cytokinin plays a critical role in plant growth and development by stimulating cell division and cell differentiation. Despite many years' research efforts, our current understanding of this hormone is still limited regarding both its biosynthesis and signaling. To genetically dissect the cytokinin pathway, we have used a functional screen to identify Arabidopsis gain-of-function mutations that enable shoot formation in the absence of exogenous cytokinins. By using a chemical-inducible activation tagging system, we have identified over 40 putative mutants, designated as pga (plant growth activators), which presumably were affected in key components of cytokinin biosynthesis and signaling pathway. Here, we report a detailed characterization of pga22, a representative mutant from this collection. A gain-of-function mutation in the PGA22 locus resulted in typical cytokinin responses. Molecular and genetic analyses indicated that PGA22 encodes an isopentenyl transferase (IPT) previously identified as AtIPT8. Plants of the pga22 mutant accumulated at remarkably higher levels of isopentenyladenosine-5′-monophosphate and isopentenyladenosine when analyzed by mass spectrometry, suggesting that AtIPT8/PGA22 is a functional IPT that may direct the biosynthesis of cytokinins in planta via an isopentenyladenosine-5′-monophosphate-dependent pathway. PMID:12529525

  3. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of pGA45, a 140,698-bp IncFIIY Plasmid Encoding blaIMI-3-Mediated Carbapenem Resistance, from River Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Bingjun; Mao, Daqing; Luo, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Plasmid pGA45 was isolated from the sediments of Haihe River using Escherichia coli CV601 (gfp-tagged) as recipients and indigenous bacteria from sediment as donors. This plasmid confers reduced susceptibility to imipenem which belongs to carbapenem group. Plasmid pGA45 was fully sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing system. The complete sequence of plasmid pGA45 was 140,698 bp in length with an average G + C content of 52.03%. Sequence analysis shows that pGA45 belongs to IncFIIY group and harbors a backbone region which shares high homology and gene synteny to several other IncF plasmids including pNDM1_EC14653, pYDC644, pNDM-Ec1GN574, pRJF866, pKOX_NDM1, and pP10164-NDM. In addition to the backbone region, plasmid pGA45 harbors two notable features including one blaIMI-3-containing region and one type VI secretion system region. The blaIMI-3-containing region is responsible for bacteria carbapenem resistance and the type VI secretion system region is probably involved in bacteria virulence, respectively. Plasmid pGA45 represents the first complete nucleotide sequence of the blaIMI-harboring plasmid from environment sample and the sequencing of this plasmid provided insight into the architecture used for the dissemination of blaIMI carbapenemase genes. PMID:26941718

  4. The Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Graft Copolymers Composed of γ-PGA Backbone and Oligoesters Pendant Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiecień, Iwona; Radecka, Iza; Kowalczuk, Marek; Jelonek, Katarzyna; Orchel, Arkadiusz; Adamus, Grażyna

    2017-07-01

    The novel copolymers composed of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) and oligoesters have been developed. The structures of the obtained copolymers including variety of end groups were determined at the molecular level with the aid of electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn). The fragmentation experiment performed for the selected sodium adducts of the copolymers confirmed that the developed methods lead to the formation of graft copolymers composed of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) backbone and oligoesters pendant chains. Moreover, it was established that fragmentation of selected sodium adducts of graft copolymers proceeded via random breakage of amide bonds along the backbone and ester bonds of the oligoesters pendant chains. Considering potential applications of the synthesized copolymers in the area of biomaterials, the hydrolytic degradation under laboratory conditions and in vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed. The ESI-MSn technique applied in this study has been proven to be a useful tool in structural studies of novel graft copolymers as well as their degradation products.

  5. ToF-SIMS evaluation of calcium-containing silica/γ-PGA hybrid systems for bone regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Daming; Nakamura, Jin; Poologasundarampillai, Gowsihan; Kasuga, Toshihiro; Jones, Julian R.; McPhail, David S.

    2014-08-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrids have great potential for the production of bioactive scaffolds which have tailored mechanical properties and degradation rates suitable for tissue engineering. For bone regeneration, calcium incorporation into hybrids at low temperatures is important due to its ability to stimulate new bone formation. As a consequence, understanding the homogeneity of the critical inorganic and organic components will be the key to the development of such hybrids. The aim of this interdisciplinary study was to use time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to determine the homogeneity of these critical components. We evaluated various sol-gel silica/γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA) hybrid systems produced using different routes to introduce the calcium, thereby tailoring and optimizing hybrid syntheses and processing routes. Dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was used to improve the inorganic/organic coupling and its influence on the homogeneity of the hybrid structures was also examined. The results revealed that the calcium salt form of γ-PGA was promising for calcium incorporation since homogeneous products could be obtained. The ToF-SIMS data also indicated that the reaction time of hybrid synthesis and the timing of the addition of DMC can affect the homogeneity of hybrids.

  6. The Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Graft Copolymers Composed of γ-PGA Backbone and Oligoesters Pendant Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiecień, Iwona; Radecka, Iza; Kowalczuk, Marek; Jelonek, Katarzyna; Orchel, Arkadiusz; Adamus, Grażyna

    2017-10-01

    The novel copolymers composed of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) and oligoesters have been developed. The structures of the obtained copolymers including variety of end groups were determined at the molecular level with the aid of electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn). The fragmentation experiment performed for the selected sodium adducts of the copolymers confirmed that the developed methods lead to the formation of graft copolymers composed of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) backbone and oligoesters pendant chains. Moreover, it was established that fragmentation of selected sodium adducts of graft copolymers proceeded via random breakage of amide bonds along the backbone and ester bonds of the oligoesters pendant chains. Considering potential applications of the synthesized copolymers in the area of biomaterials, the hydrolytic degradation under laboratory conditions and in vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed. The ESI-MSn technique applied in this study has been proven to be a useful tool in structural studies of novel graft copolymers as well as their degradation products. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Bacterial-Derived Polymer Poly-y-Glutamic Acid (y-PGA)-Based Micro/Nanoparticles as a Delivery System for Antimicrobials and Other Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Ibrahim R; Burns, Alan T H; Radecka, Iza; Kowalczuk, Marek; Khalaf, Tamara; Adamus, Grazyna; Johnston, Brian; Khechara, Martin P

    2017-02-02

    In the past decade, poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA)-based micro/nanoparticles have garnered remarkable attention as antimicrobial agents and for drug delivery, owing to their controlled and sustained-release properties, low toxicity, as well as biocompatibility with tissue and cells. γ-PGA is a naturally occurring biopolymer produced by several gram-positive bacteria that, due to its biodegradable, non-toxic and non-immunogenic properties, has been used successfully in the medical, food and wastewater industries. Moreover, its carboxylic group on the side chains can offer an attachment point to conjugate antimicrobial and various therapeutic agents, or to chemically modify the solubility of the biopolymer. The unique characteristics of γ-PGA have a promising future for medical and pharmaceutical applications. In the present review, the structure, properties and micro/nanoparticle preparation methods of γ-PGA and its derivatives are covered. Also, we have highlighted the impact of micro/nanoencapsulation or immobilisation of antimicrobial agents and various disease-related drugs on biodegradable γ-PGA micro/nanoparticles.

  8. Bacterial-Derived Polymer Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid (γ-PGA)-Based Micro/Nanoparticles as a Delivery System for Antimicrobials and Other Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Ibrahim R.; Burns, Alan T. H.; Radecka, Iza; Kowalczuk, Marek; Khalaf, Tamara; Adamus, Grazyna; Johnston, Brian; Khechara, Martin P.

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade, poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA)-based micro/nanoparticles have garnered remarkable attention as antimicrobial agents and for drug delivery, owing to their controlled and sustained-release properties, low toxicity, as well as biocompatibility with tissue and cells. γ-PGA is a naturally occurring biopolymer produced by several gram-positive bacteria that, due to its biodegradable, non-toxic and non-immunogenic properties, has been used successfully in the medical, food and wastewater industries. Moreover, its carboxylic group on the side chains can offer an attachment point to conjugate antimicrobial and various therapeutic agents, or to chemically modify the solubility of the biopolymer. The unique characteristics of γ-PGA have a promising future for medical and pharmaceutical applications. In the present review, the structure, properties and micro/nanoparticle preparation methods of γ-PGA and its derivatives are covered. Also, we have highlighted the impact of micro/nanoencapsulation or immobilisation of antimicrobial agents and various disease-related drugs on biodegradable γ-PGA micro/nanoparticles. PMID:28157175

  9. Differential selectivity of protein modification by the cyclopentenone prostaglandins PGA1 and 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-PGJ2: role of glutathione.

    PubMed

    Gayarre, Javier; Stamatakis, Konstantinos; Renedo, Marta; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2005-10-24

    Cyclopentenone prostaglandins (cyPG) with antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties have been envisaged as leads for the development of therapeutic agents. Because cyPG effects are mediated in part by the formation of covalent adducts with critical signaling proteins, it is important to assess the specificity of this interaction. By using biotinylated derivatives of 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ(2)-B) and PGA(1) (PGA(1)-B) we herein provide novel evidence for the differential selectivity of protein modification by distinct cyPG. The marked quantitative and qualitative differences in the binding of 15d-PGJ(2)-B and PGA(1)-B to cellular proteins were related to a differential reactivity in the presence of glutathione (GSH), both in vitro and in intact cells. Therefore GSH levels may influence not only the intensity but also the specificity of cyPG action.

  10. Inferring Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) from observed building damage and EO-derived exposure development to develop rapid loss estimates following the April 2015 Nepal earthquake.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huyck, C. K.

    2016-12-01

    The April 25th 7.8 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal occurred in an area with very few seismic stations. Ground motions were estimated primarily by Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) over a very large region, with a very high degree of uncertainty. Accordingly, initial fatality estimates and their distribution was highly uncertain, with a 65% chance of fatalities ranging from 1,000 to 100,000. With an aim to developing estimates of: 1) the number of buildings damaged by category (slight, moderate, extensive, complete), 2) fatalities and their distribution, and 3) rebuilding costs, researchers at ImageCat have developed a preliminary inferred Peak Ground Acceleration product in %g (PGA). The inferred PGA is determined by using observations of building collapse from the National Geospatial Agency and building exposure estimates derived from EO data to determine the percentage of buildings collapsed in key locations. The percentage of building collapse is adjusted for accuracy and cross referenced with composite building damage functions for 4 development patterns in Nepal: 1) sparsely populated, 2) rural, 3) dense development, and 4) urban development to yield an inferred PGA. Composite damage functions are derived from USGS Pager collapse fragility functions (Jaiswal et al., 2011) and are weighted by building type frequencies developed by ImageCat. The PGA is interpolated to yield a surface. An initial estimate of the fatalities based on ATC 13 (Rojan and Sharpe, 1985) using these PGA yields an estimate of: Extensively damaged or destroyed buildings: 225,000 to 450,000 Fatalities: 8,700 to 22,000, with a mean estimate of 15,700. The total number of displaced persons is estimated between 1 and 2 million. Rebuilding costs for building damage only are estimated to be between 2 and 3 billion USD. The inferred PGA product is recommended for use solely in loss estimation processes.

  11. A comparative study of different PGA attenuation and error models: Case of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebarki, Ahmed

    2009-03-01

    In order to evaluate the horizontal peak ground acceleration (HPGA) during earthquakes, the author studies the respective efficiency of two existing attenuation models [Mébarki, A., 2003a, Risques sismiques: aléas, vulnérabilité et aide à la décision par cartes SIG. Proceedings of International Conference on "Risks, Vulnerability and Reliability in Construction. Towards a reduction of disasters". ISBN: 9961-891-01-5, pp. 82-97. Algiers, October 11-12, Mébarki, A., 2003b. Proposal of a parametric attenuation model and comparison with some worldwide earthquakes. VII o Congreso Venezolano de Sismologia y Ingenieria Sísmica, Barquisimeto, Venezuela. November 12-13, (CD-ROM), Mébarki A., 2004. Modèle d'atténuation sismique: prédiction probabiliste des pics d'accélération, RFGC — Revue Française de Génie Civil, Hermès Ed., 8 (9-10), 1071-1086]. A comparative study of their performances is done in the case of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Taiwan). The reported PGA (Peak Ground Accelerations) values correspond to hypocentral distances ranging from 15 up to 180 km with observed acceleration peaks ranging from (0.04 g) up to (1.16 g). The author considers two kinds of probabilistic distributions for the error model in order to describe the uncertainty and the variability that affect the values of the PGA: a Gamma distribution and a Log-normal distribution. The adopted error models assume that the variability of the PGA is such that its coefficient of variation is equal to 55% [Mébarki, A., 2003a. Risques sismiques: aléas, vulnérabilité et aide à la décision par cartes SIG. Proceedings of International Conference on "Risks, Vulnerability and Reliability in Construction. Towards a reduction of disasters". ISBN: 9961-891-01-5, pp. 82-97. Algiers, October 11-12, Mébarki, A., 2003b. Proposal of a parametric attenuation model and comparison with some worldwide earthquakes. VII o Congreso Venezolano de Sismologia y Ingenieria Sísmica, Barquisimeto, Venezuela

  12. Preparation of biodegradable PLA/PLGA membranes with PGA mesh and their application for periodontal guided tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jin; Yoon, Suk Joon; Yeo, Guw-Dong; Pai, Chaul-Min; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2009-10-01

    A biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA)/poly(glycolide-co-lactide) copolymer (PLGA) membrane with polyglycolic acid (PGA) mesh was prepared to aid the effective regeneration of defective periodontal tissues. The microporous membrane used in this study consists of biodegradable polymers, and seems to have a structure to provide appropriate properties for periodontal tissue regeneration. Based on the albumin permeation test, it is known that the biodegradable membrane exhibits the suitable permeability of nutrients. The membrane maintained its physical integrity for 6-8 weeks, which could be sufficient to retain space in the periodontal pocket. Cell attachment and cytotoxicity tests were performed with respect to the evaluation of biocompatibility of the membrane. As a result, the membrane did not show any cytotoxicity. The safety and therapeutic efficacies of the biodegradable membranes were confirmed in animal tests.

  13. ER-2 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In this film clip, we see an ER-2 on its take off roll and climb as it departs from runway 22 at Edwards AFB, California. In 1981, NASA acquired its first ER-2 aircraft. The agency obtained a second ER-2 in 1989. These airplanes replaced two Lockheed U-2 aircraft, which NASA had used to collect scientific data since 1971. The U-2, and later the ER-2, were based at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, until 1997. In 1997, the ER-2 aircraft and their operations moved to NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Since the inaugural flight for this program, August 31, 1971, NASA U-2 and ER-2 aircraft have flown more than 4,000 data missions and test flights in support of scientific research conducted by scientists from NASA, other federal agencies, states, universities, and the private sector. NASA is currently using two ER-2 Airborne Science aircraft as flying laboratories. The aircraft, based at NASA Dryden, collect information about our surroundings, including Earth resources, celestial observations, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. The aircraft also are used for electronic sensor research and development, satellite calibration, and satellite data validation. The ER-2 is a versatile aircraft well-suited to perform multiple mission tasks. It is 30 percent larger than the U-2 with a 20 feet longer wingspan and a considerably increased payload over the older airframe. The aircraft has four large pressurized experiment compartments and a high-capacity AC/DC electrical system, permitting it to carry a variety of payloads on a single mission. The modular design of the aircraft permits rapid installation or removal of payloads to meet changing mission requirements. The ER-2 has a range beyond 3,000 miles (4800 kilometers); is capable of long flight duration and can operate at altitudes up to 70,000 feet (21.3 kilometers) if required. Operating at an altitude of 65,000 feet (19.8 kilometers) the ER-2 acquires data

  14. ER-2 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In this film clip, we see an ER-2 on its take off roll and climb as it departs from runway 22 at Edwards AFB, California. In 1981, NASA acquired its first ER-2 aircraft. The agency obtained a second ER-2 in 1989. These airplanes replaced two Lockheed U-2 aircraft, which NASA had used to collect scientific data since 1971. The U-2, and later the ER-2, were based at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, until 1997. In 1997, the ER-2 aircraft and their operations moved to NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Since the inaugural flight for this program, August 31, 1971, NASA U-2 and ER-2 aircraft have flown more than 4,000 data missions and test flights in support of scientific research conducted by scientists from NASA, other federal agencies, states, universities, and the private sector. NASA is currently using two ER-2 Airborne Science aircraft as flying laboratories. The aircraft, based at NASA Dryden, collect information about our surroundings, including Earth resources, celestial observations, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. The aircraft also are used for electronic sensor research and development, satellite calibration, and satellite data validation. The ER-2 is a versatile aircraft well-suited to perform multiple mission tasks. It is 30 percent larger than the U-2 with a 20 feet longer wingspan and a considerably increased payload over the older airframe. The aircraft has four large pressurized experiment compartments and a high-capacity AC/DC electrical system, permitting it to carry a variety of payloads on a single mission. The modular design of the aircraft permits rapid installation or removal of payloads to meet changing mission requirements. The ER-2 has a range beyond 3,000 miles (4800 kilometers); is capable of long flight duration and can operate at altitudes up to 70,000 feet (21.3 kilometers) if required. Operating at an altitude of 65,000 feet (19.8 kilometers) the ER-2 acquires data

  15. A Study of the Oxidation Behaviour of Pile Grade A (PGA) Nuclear Graphite Using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Tomography (XRT).

    PubMed

    Payne, Liam; Heard, Peter J; Scott, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Pile grade A (PGA) graphite was used as a material for moderating and reflecting neutrons in the UK's first generation Magnox nuclear power reactors. As all but one of these reactors are now shut down there is a need to understand the residual state of the material prior to decommissioning of the cores, in particular the location and concentration of key radio-contaminants such as 14C. The oxidation behaviour of unirradiated PGA graphite was studied, in the temperature range 600-1050°C, in air and nitrogen using thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray tomography to investigate the possibility of using thermal degradation techniques to examine 14C distribution within irradiated material. The thermal decomposition of PGA graphite was observed to follow the three oxidation regimes historically identified by previous workers with limited, uniform oxidation at temperatures below 600°C and substantial, external oxidation at higher temperatures. This work demonstrates that the different oxidation regimes of PGA graphite could be developed into a methodology to characterise the distribution and concentration of 14C in irradiated graphite by thermal treatment.

  16. A Study of the Oxidation Behaviour of Pile Grade A (PGA) Nuclear Graphite Using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Tomography (XRT)

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Liam; Heard, Peter J.; Scott, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Pile grade A (PGA) graphite was used as a material for moderating and reflecting neutrons in the UK’s first generation Magnox nuclear power reactors. As all but one of these reactors are now shut down there is a need to understand the residual state of the material prior to decommissioning of the cores, in particular the location and concentration of key radio-contaminants such as 14C. The oxidation behaviour of unirradiated PGA graphite was studied, in the temperature range 600–1050°C, in air and nitrogen using thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray tomography to investigate the possibility of using thermal degradation techniques to examine 14C distribution within irradiated material. The thermal decomposition of PGA graphite was observed to follow the three oxidation regimes historically identified by previous workers with limited, uniform oxidation at temperatures below 600°C and substantial, external oxidation at higher temperatures. This work demonstrates that the different oxidation regimes of PGA graphite could be developed into a methodology to characterise the distribution and concentration of 14C in irradiated graphite by thermal treatment. PMID:26575374

  17. ER Stress and Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Sapieha, Przemyslaw

    2015-10-06

    Proper tissue vascularization is vital for cellular function as it delivers oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and immune cells and helps to clear cellular debris and metabolic waste products. Tissue angiogenesis occurs to satisfy energy requirements and cellular sensors of metabolic imbalance coordinate vessel growth. In this regard, the classical pathways of the unfolded protein response activated under conditions of ER stress have recently been described to generate angiomodulatory or angiostatic signals. This review elaborates on the link between angiogenesis and ER stress and discusses the implications for diseases characterized by altered vascular homeostasis, such as cancer, retinopathies, and atherosclerosis.

  18. Colonic delivery of indometacin loaded PGA-co-PDL microparticles coated with Eudragit L100-55 from fast disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Tawfeek, Hesham M; Abdellatif, Ahmed A H; Dennison, Thomas J; Mohammed, Afzal R; Sadiq, Younis; Saleem, Imran Y

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate the efficient targeting and delivery of indometacin (IND), as a model anti-inflammatory drug to the colon for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. We prepared fast disintegrating tablets (FDT) containing IND encapsulated within poly(glycerol-adipate-co-ɷ-pentadecalactone), PGA-co-PDL, microparticles and coated with Eudragit L100-55 at different ratios (1:1.5, 1:1, 1:0.5). Microparticles encapsulated with IND were prepared using an o/w single emulsion solvent evaporation technique and coated with Eudragit L-100-55 via spray drying. The produced coated microparticles (PGA-co-PDL-IND/Eudragit) were formulated into optimised FTD using a single station press. The loading, in vitro release, permeability and transport of IND from PGA-co-PDL-IND/Eudragit microparticles was studied in Caco-2 cell lines. IND was efficiently encapsulated (570.15±4.2μg/mg) within the PGA-co-PDL microparticles. In vitro release of PGA-co-PDL-IND/Eudragit microparticles (1:1.5) showed significantly (p<0.05, ANOVA/Tukey) lower release of IND 13.70±1.6 and 56.46±3.8% compared with 1:1 (89.61±2.5, 80.13±2.6%) and 1:0.5 (39.46±0.9 & 43.38±3.12) after 3 and 43h at pH 5.5 and 6.8, respectively. The permeability and transport studies indicated IND released from PGA-co-PDL-IND/Eudragit microparticles had a lower permeability coefficient of 13.95±0.68×10(-6)cm/s compared to free IND 23.06±3.56×10(-6)cm/s. These results indicate the possibility of targeting anti-inflammatory drugs to the colon using FDTs containing microparticles coated with Eudragit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Cation-Responsive Protein NhaR of Escherichia coli Activates pgaABCD Transcription, Required for Production of the Biofilm Adhesin Poly-β-1,6-N-Acetyl-d-Glucosamine▿

    PubMed Central

    Goller, Carlos; Wang, Xin; Itoh, Yoshikane; Romeo, Tony

    2006-01-01

    The pgaABCD operon of Escherichia coli is required for production of the biofilm adhesin poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PGA). We establish here that NhaR, a DNA-binding protein of the LysR family of transcriptional regulators, activates transcription of this operon. Disruption of the nhaR gene decreased biofilm formation without affecting planktonic growth. PGA production was undetectable in an nhaR mutant strain. Expression of a pgaA′-′lacZ translational fusion was induced by NaCl and alkaline pH, but not by CaCl2 or sucrose, in an nhaR-dependent fashion. Primer extension and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses further revealed that NhaR affects the steady-state level of pga mRNA. A purified recombinant NhaR protein bound specifically and with high affinity within the pgaABCD promoter region; one apparent binding site overlaps the −35 element, and a second site lies immediately upstream of the first. This protein was necessary and sufficient for activation of in vitro transcription from the pgaA promoter. These results define a novel mechanism for regulation of biofilm formation in response to environmental conditions and suggest an expanded role for NhaR in promoting bacterial survival. PMID:16997959

  20. Trip to ER

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xuan; Cao, Xiaofeng; Mo, Beixin; Chen, Xuemei

    2013-01-01

    miRNAs elicit gene silencing at the post-transcriptional level by several modes of action: translational repression, mRNA decay, and mRNA cleavage. Studies in animals have suggested that translational repression occurs at early steps of translation initiation, which can be followed by deadenylation and mRNA decay. Plant miRNAs were originally thought to solely participate in mRNA cleavage, but increasing evidence has indicated that they are also commonly involved in translational inhibition. Here we discuss recent findings on miRNA-mediated translational repression in plants. The identification of AMP1 in Arabidopsis as a protein required for the translational repression but not the mRNA cleavage activity of miRNAs links miRNA-based translational repression to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Future work is required to further elucidate the miRNA machinery on the ER. PMID:24100209

  1. Kinetics of beta-lactam antibiotics synthesis by penicillin G acylase (PGA) from the viewpoint of the industrial enzymatic reactor optimization.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Roberto C; Ribeiro, Marcelo P A; Giordano, Raquel L C

    2006-01-01

    Competition with well-established, fine-tuned chemical processes is a major challenge for the industrial implementation of the enzymatic synthesis of beta-lactam antibiotics. Enzyme-based routes are acknowledged as an environmental-friendly approach, avoiding organochloride solvents and working at room temperatures. Among different alternatives, the kinetically controlled synthesis, using immobilized penicillin G acylase (PGA) in aqueous environment, with the simultaneous crystallization of the product, is the most promising one. However, PGA may act either as a transferase or as a hydrolase, catalyzing two undesired side reactions: the hydrolysis of the acyl side-chain precursor (an ester or amide, a parallel reaction) and the hydrolysis of the antibiotic itself (a consecutive reaction). This review focuses specially on aspects of the reactions' kinetics that may affect the performance of the enzymatic reactor.

  2. 6SLN-lipo PGA specifically catches (coats) human influenza virus and synergizes neuraminidase-targeting drugs for human influenza therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Sriwilaijaroen, Nongluk; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Takashita, Emi; Hiramatsu, Hiroaki; Kanie, Osamu; Suzuki, Yasuo

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new compound to overcome influenza epidemics and pandemics as well as drug resistance. We synthesized a new compound carrying: (i) Neu5Acα2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc (6SLN) for targeting immutable haemagglutinins (HAs) unless switched from human-type receptor preference; (ii) an acyl chain (lipo) for locking the compound with the viral HA via hydrophobic interactions; and (iii) a flexible poly-α-L-glutamic acid (PGA) for enhancing the compound solubility and for coating the viral surface, precluding accessibility of the PGA-coated virus to the negatively charged sialic acid on the host cell surface. 6SLN-lipo PGA appears to subvert binding of pandemic H1 and seasonal H3 HAs to receptors, as assessed by using guinea pig erythrocytes, which is critical for virus entry into host cells for multiplication. It shows high potency with IC50 values in the range of 300-500 nM against multiplication of both influenza pandemic H1N1/2009 and seasonal H3N2/2004 viruses in cell culture. It acts in synergism with either of the two FDA-approved neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) clinical drugs, zanamivir (Relenza(®)) and oseltamivir carboxylate (active form of Tamiflu(®)), and it has the potential to aid NAI drugs to achieve complete clearance of the virus from the culture. 6SLN-lipo PGA is a new potential candidate drug for influenza control and is an attractive candidate for use in combination with an NAI drug for minimized toxicity, delayed development of resistance, prevention and treatment with the potential for eradication of human influenza. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Surface modification of TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles with polyethyleneimine as a co-delivery system of TRAIL and endostatin for cervical cancer gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The efficient delivery of therapeutic genes into cells of interest is a critical challenge to broad application of non-viral vector systems. In this research, a novel TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticle modified with polyethyleneimine was applied to be a vector of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and endostatin for cervical cancer gene therapy. Firstly, a novel biodegradable copolymer, TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA), was synthesized and characterized. The nanoparticles were fabricated by an emulsion/solvent evaporation method and then further modified with polyethyleneimine (PEI) carrying TRAIL and/or endostatin genes. The uptake of pIRES2-EGFP and/or pDsRED nanoparticles by HeLa cells were observed by fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The cell viability of TRAIL/endostatin-loaded nanoparticles in HeLa cells was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. Severe combined immunodeficient mice carrying HeLa tumor xenografts were treated in groups of six including phosphate-buffered saline control, blank TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles, blank TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA)/PEI nanoparticles, and three types of gene nanoparticles. The activity was assessed using average increase in survival time, body weight, and solid tumor volume. All the specimens were then prepared as formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections for hematoxylin-eosin staining. The data showed that the nanoparticles could efficiently deliver plasmids into HeLa cells. The cytotoxicity of the HeLa cells was significantly increased by TRAIL/endostatin-loaded nanoparticles when compared with control groups. The use of TPGS in combination with TRAIL and endostatin had synergistic antitumor effects. In conclusion, the TRAIL/endostatin-loaded nanoparticles offer considerable potential as an ideal candidate for in vivo cancer gene delivery. PMID:23570619

  4. Surface modification of TPGS- b-(PCL- ran-PGA) nanoparticles with polyethyleneimine as a co-delivery system of TRAIL and endostatin for cervical cancer gene therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Chen, Hongbo; Zeng, Xiaowei; Liu, Zhigang; Xiao, Xiaojun; Zhu, Yongqiang; Gu, Dayong; Mei, Lin

    2013-04-01

    The efficient delivery of therapeutic genes into cells of interest is a critical challenge to broad application of non-viral vector systems. In this research, a novel TPGS- b-(PCL- ran-PGA) nanoparticle modified with polyethyleneimine was applied to be a vector of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and endostatin for cervical cancer gene therapy. Firstly, a novel biodegradable copolymer, TPGS- b-(PCL- ran-PGA), was synthesized and characterized. The nanoparticles were fabricated by an emulsion/solvent evaporation method and then further modified with polyethyleneimine (PEI) carrying TRAIL and/or endostatin genes. The uptake of pIRES2-EGFP and/or pDsRED nanoparticles by HeLa cells were observed by fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The cell viability of TRAIL/endostatin-loaded nanoparticles in HeLa cells was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2 H-tetrazolium bromide assay. Severe combined immunodeficient mice carrying HeLa tumor xenografts were treated in groups of six including phosphate-buffered saline control, blank TPGS- b-(PCL- ran-PGA) nanoparticles, blank TPGS- b-(PCL- ran-PGA)/PEI nanoparticles, and three types of gene nanoparticles. The activity was assessed using average increase in survival time, body weight, and solid tumor volume. All the specimens were then prepared as formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections for hematoxylin-eosin staining. The data showed that the nanoparticles could efficiently deliver plasmids into HeLa cells. The cytotoxicity of the HeLa cells was significantly increased by TRAIL/endostatin-loaded nanoparticles when compared with control groups. The use of TPGS in combination with TRAIL and endostatin had synergistic antitumor effects. In conclusion, the TRAIL/endostatin-loaded nanoparticles offer considerable potential as an ideal candidate for in vivo cancer gene delivery.

  5. Naltrexone ER/Bupropion ER: A Review in Obesity Management.

    PubMed

    Greig, Sarah L; Keating, Gillian M

    2015-07-01

    Oral naltrexone extended-release/bupropion extended-release (naltrexone ER/bupropion ER; Contrave(®), Mysimba(™)) is available as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity in adults with an initial body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 30 kg/m(2) (i.e. obese) or a BMI of ≥ 27 kg/m(2) (i.e. overweight) in the presence of at least one bodyweight-related comorbidity, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension or dyslipidaemia. In 56-week phase III trials in these patient populations, oral naltrexone ER/bupropion ER 32/360 mg/day was significantly more effective than placebo with regard to percentage bodyweight reductions from baseline and the proportion of patients who achieved bodyweight reductions of ≥ 5 and ≥ 10%. Significantly greater improvements in several cardiometabolic risk factors were also observed with naltrexone ER/bupropion ER versus placebo, as well as greater improvements in glycated haemoglobin levels in obese or overweight adults with type 2 diabetes. Naltrexone ER/bupropion ER was generally well tolerated in phase III trials, with nausea being the most common adverse event. Thus, naltrexone ER/bupropion ER 32/360 mg/day as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity, is an effective and well tolerated option for chronic bodyweight management in obese adults or overweight adults with at least one bodyweight-related comorbidity.

  6. Citizen earthquake alert using near real time PGA estimation from a local array combining a variety of accelerometric instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Nikolaos S.; Konstantinou, Konstantinos; Kalogeras, Ioannis; Sokos, Efthimios; Tselentis, G.-Akis

    2017-04-01

    It is of a great importance to assess rapidly the intensity of a felt event in a highly populated environment. Rapid and reliable information plays a key role to decision making responses, by performing correctly the first steps after a felt ground shaking. Thus, it is important to accurately respond to urgent societal demand using reliable information. A strong motion array is under deployment and trial operation in the area of Patras, Greece. It combines: (a) standard accelerometric stations operated by the National Observatory of Athens, Institute of Geodynamics (NOA), (b) QCN-type USB MEMS acceleration sensors deployed in schools and (c) P-alert MEMS acceleration devices deployed in public sector buildings as well as in private dwellings. The array intends to cover the whole city of Patras and the populated suburbs. All instruments are operating in near real time and they are linked to a combined Earthworm - SeisComP3 server at NOA, Athens. Rapid intensity estimation can be also performed by the P-alert accelerometers locally, but the performance of a near real time intensity estimation system is under operation at NOA. The procedure is based on observing the maximum PGA value at each instrument and empirically estimate the corresponding intensity. The values are also fed to a SeisComP3 based ShakeMap procedure that is served at NOA and uses the scwfparam module of SeisComP3. Earthquake activity has been recorded so far from the western Corinth Gulf, the Ionian Islands and Achaia-Elia area, western Peloponnesus. The first phase involves correlation tests of collocated instruments and assessment of their performance to low intensity as well as to strongly felt events in the Patras city area. Steps of expanding the array are also under consideration, in order to cover the wider area of northwestern Peloponnesus and Ionian islands.

  7. The influence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) on mRNA expression for NP-I/OT and PGA, involved in oxytocin synthesis in bovine granulosa and luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Wrobel, Michal H; Kotwica, Jan

    2009-11-01

    The effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners (PCB 77, PCB 126, PCB 153) and their technical mixture-Aroclor (Ar) 1248, as well as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE; two individual isomers p,p'- and o,p'- or their mixture, 95% and 5%, respectively) at the dose of 10 ng/ml each, on the gene expression of (a) oxytocin (OT) precursor-neurophysin-oxytocin (NP-I/OT) and (b) peptidyl glycine-alpha-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA), the terminal enzyme in the pathway of OT synthesis, was studied. Granulosa cells from follicles >1cm in diameter, collected on days 19-21 of estrous cycle, and luteal cells from corpora lutea (CL) collected on days 8-12 of the estrous cycle were used. The cells were incubated (6h) with these xenobiotics and the expression of NP-I/OT and PGA genes was determined. All PCBs increased (P<0.05) NP-I/OT gene expression in granulosa cells. Similarly, all PCBs but PCB 126 increased (P<0.05) PGA gene expression in these cells. DDT and DDE increased (P<0.05) gene expression of NP-I/OT in granulosa cells, while gene expression of PGA in these cells was stimulated (P<0.05) by DDE only. The mRNA expression for NP-I/OT and PGA in luteal cells was increased (P<0.05) by PCB 77 and PCB 153. Both DDE isomers and mixture also stimulated (P<0.05) of NP-I/OT mRNA expression, while increase (P<0.05) of PGA mRNA expression was elicited by incubation of these cells with DDE mixture and Ar 1248. Obtained data suggest that PCBs, DDT and DDE can affect the mRNA expression for NP-I/OT and PGA in bovine granulosa and luteal cells.

  8. [Optical parameters of Er3+ in Er3+ : YVO4].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Chen, Xiao-bo; Chen, Luan; Liu, Da-he; Song, Zeng-fu; Li, Yong-liang; Li, Song; Zeng, Yong-zhi; Wu, Zheng-long; Zhang, Chun-lin; Wang, Ya-fei; Guo, Jing-hua

    2010-07-01

    In the present paper the authors firstly measured the absorption spectra of Er3+ in the sample Er3+ : YVO4 (0.5%), then calculated the intensity parameters are calculated by using the Judd-Ofelt theory. After that the authors dealed with some predicted spectroscopic parameters, such as the oscillator strength, spontaneous radiative transition rate, branching ratio and integrated emission cross section. And Er : YVO4 crystal application value has been analyzed with the optical parameters. Especially there are large oscillator strengths and large integrated emission cross sections in the transitions of 4 I1/2 --> 4 I15/2, 2 H11/2 --> 4I15/2, 4S3/2 --> 4 I15/2, and 4F9/2 --> 4 I15/2. So, they are more worth of attention. Moreover, by comparing the Er-doped yttrium vanadate crystal and other Er-doped crystal optical properties, the authors can see the advantages of YVO4 as laser crystal. Finally, the authors discussed the splitting of the energy levels of Er3+ in the crystal YVO4 based on the group theory.

  9. Characterization of GaN nanowires grown on PSi, PZnO and PGaN on Si (111) substrates by thermal evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Shekari, Leila; Hassan, Haslan Abu; Thahab, Sabah M.; Hassan, Zainuriah

    2012-06-20

    In this research, we used an easy and inexpensive method to synthesize highly crystalline GaN nanowires (NWs); on different substrates such as porous silicon (PSi), porous zinc oxide (PZnO) and porous gallium nitride (PGaN) on Si (111) wafer by thermal evaporation using commercial GaN powder without any catalyst. Micro structural studies by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope measurements reveal the role of different substrates in the morphology, nucleation and alignment of the GaN nanowires. The degree of alignment of the synthesized nanowires does not depend on the lattice mismatch between wires and their substrates. Further structural and optical characterizations were performed using high resolution X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results indicate that the nanowires are of single-crystal hexagonal GaN. The quality and density of grown GaN nanowires for different substrates are highly dependent on the lattice mismatch between the nanowires and their substrates and also on the size of the porosity of the substrates. Nanowires grown on PGaN have the best quality and highest density as compared to nanowires on other substrates. By using three kinds of porous substrates, we are able to study the increase in the alignment and density of the nanowires.

  10. Surgical repair of a 30 mm long human median nerve defect in the distal forearm by implantation of a chitosan-PGA nerve guidance conduit.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jianhui; Hu, Wen; Deng, Aidong; Zhao, Qing; Lu, Shibi; Gu, Xiaosong

    2012-02-01

    This paper describes a clinical case study in which a chitosan/polyglycolic acid nerve guidance conduit (chitosan-PGA NGC) was utilized to repair a 30 mm long median nerve defect in the right distal forearm of a 55 year-old male patient. Thirty-six months after the nerve repair, the palm abduction of the thumb and the thumb-index digital opposition recovered, facilitating the patient to accomplish fine activities, such as handling chopsticks. Static two-point discrimination measured 14, 9 and 9 mm in the thumb, index and middle fingers of the right hand. Reproducible compound muscle action potentials were recorded on the right abductor pollicis. The ninhydrin test, a classical method for assessing sympathetic nerve function, showed partial recovery of the perspiration function of the injured thumb, index and middle fingers. This repair case suggested a possible strategy for the clinical reconstruction of extended defects in human peripheral nerve trunks by the implantation of chitosan-PGA NGCs. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Longer survival of a patient with glioblastoma resected with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-guided surgery and foreign body reaction to polyglycolic acid (PGA) suture.

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Raluca Maria; Eva, Lucian; DobrovăŢ, Bogdan IonuŢ; Iordache, Alin Constantin; Pendefunda, Liviu; Dumitrescu, Nicoleta; Mihăilă, Doina; Gavrilescu, Cristina Maria; Şapte, Elena; Poeată, Ion

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there is a growing evidence that using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-guided resection of a cerebral glioblastoma, associated with chemoradiotherapy determine a prolonged survival of these patients, even though this period do not exceed 15 months. 5-ALA is a natural biochemical precursor of heme that is metabolized to fluorescent porphyrins, particularly protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) and no foreign reaction were noted until now. However, foreign body reaction developing in neurosurgery is documented in a few number of cases to suture material, surgical hemostatic material, or surgical glove starch, but up to now we could not find any article about granulomatous inflammation to polyglycolic acid (PGA) suture after brain tumor resection. Here we present a case of a delayed foreign body granuloma to PGA suture diagnosed after 10 months following fluorescence-guided surgery with 5-ALA for resection of a cerebral glioblastoma that was difficult to diagnosis both clinically and on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Moreover, the survival time was longer. We correlate the appearance of foreign body granuloma with the patient's persistent pre- and postoperative lymphocytosis. We also suggest that the chronic inflammation inhibited the proliferation of any tumoral cells which could remain in the tumor bed because we did not noticed on serial MRI scans a rapidly tumor growth during the first 10 months after the initial surgery as we have expected to be for a glioblastoma.

  12. Glassy Behavior and Isolated Spin Dimers in a New Frustrated Magnet BaCr9pGa12-9pO19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Junjie; Samarakoon, Anjana M.; Hong, Kyun Woo; Copley, John R. D.; Huang, Qingzhen; Tennant, Alan; Sato, Taku J.; Lee, Seung-Hun

    2016-09-01

    Using bulk susceptibility and neutron scattering techniques, we have studied a new frustrated magnet, BaCr9pGa12-9pO19 [BCGO(p)], with 0.4 ≲ p ≲ 0.9. This system is isostructural to SrCr9pGa12-9pO19 [SCGO(p)], in which the magnetic Cr3+ (3d3, s = 3/2) ions form a quasi-two-dimensional triangular lattice of bi-pyramids or kagome-triangle-kagome trilayers. Our bulk susceptibility data exhibit glassy behavior at temperatures much lower than the absolute values of the Curie-Weiss temperature ΘCW ≈ -695(1) K for BCGO(p = 0.902(8)). The frustration index |ΘCW|/Tf is as high as 190 for BCGO(p = 0.902(8)) indicating strong frustration. Our inelastic neutron scattering data on BCGO(p = 0.902(8)) reveal a dispersionless magnetic excitation centered at ħω = 16.5(1) meV, due to a singlet to triplet excitation of spin s = 3/2 dimers. The spin dimers are formed by Cr3+ ions in two 4fvi layers that lie between 12k-2a-12k (kagome-triangle-kagome) trilayers. These results indicate that BCGO(p) is another good candidate system for a strongly frustrated quasi-two-dimensional magnet.

  13. The Effectiveness of Core ER Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun-Young; Day, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    This discussion piece continues the discussion forum on extensive reading (ER) from the April 2015 issue of "Reading in a Foreign Language." In that forum, a number of the discussions were concerned with the principles of ER (Day & Bamford, 2002) in implementing ER. Our discussion also concerns the principles; we examine ER programs…

  14. The Effectiveness of Core ER Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun-Young; Day, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    This discussion piece continues the discussion forum on extensive reading (ER) from the April 2015 issue of "Reading in a Foreign Language." In that forum, a number of the discussions were concerned with the principles of ER (Day & Bamford, 2002) in implementing ER. Our discussion also concerns the principles; we examine ER programs…

  15. The structure- and metal-dependent activity of Escherichia coli PgaB provides insight into the partial de-N-acetylation of poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine.

    PubMed

    Little, Dustin J; Poloczek, Joanna; Whitney, John C; Robinson, Howard; Nitz, Mark; Howell, P Lynne

    2012-09-07

    Exopolysaccharides are required for the development and integrity of biofilms produced by a wide variety of bacteria. In Escherichia coli, partial de-N-acetylation of the exopolysaccharide poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PNAG) by the periplasmic protein PgaB is required for polysaccharide intercellular adhesin-dependent biofilm formation. To understand the molecular basis for PNAG de-N-acetylation, the structure of PgaB in complex with Ni(2+) and Fe(3+) have been determined to 1.9 and 2.1 Å resolution, respectively, and its activity on β-1,6-GlcNAc oligomers has been characterized. The structure of PgaB reveals two (β/α)(x) barrel domains: a metal-binding de-N-acetylase that is a member of the family 4 carbohydrate esterases (CE4s) and a domain structurally similar to glycoside hydrolases. PgaB displays de-N-acetylase activity on β-1,6-GlcNAc oligomers but not on the β-1,4-(GlcNAc)(4) oligomer chitotetraose and is the first CE4 member to exhibit this substrate specificity. De-N-acetylation occurs in a length-dependent manor, and specificity is observed for the position of de-N-acetylation. A key aspartic acid involved in de-N-acetylation, normally seen in other CE4s, is missing in PgaB, suggesting that the activity of PgaB is attenuated to maintain the low levels of de-N-acetylation of PNAG observed in vivo. The metal dependence of PgaB is different from most CE4s, because PgaB shows increased rates of de-N-acetylation with Co(2+) and Ni(2+) under aerobic conditions, and Co(2+), Ni(2+) and Fe(2+) under anaerobic conditions, but decreased activity with Zn(2+). The work presented herein will guide inhibitor design to combat biofilm formation by E. coli and potentially a wide range of medically relevant bacteria producing polysaccharide intercellular adhesin-dependent biofilms.

  16. The Structure- and Metal-dependent Activity of Escherichia coli PgaB Provides Insight into the Partial De-N-acetylation of Poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine*

    PubMed Central

    Little, Dustin J.; Poloczek, Joanna; Whitney, John C.; Robinson, Howard; Nitz, Mark; Howell, P. Lynne

    2012-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides are required for the development and integrity of biofilms produced by a wide variety of bacteria. In Escherichia coli, partial de-N-acetylation of the exopolysaccharide poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG) by the periplasmic protein PgaB is required for polysaccharide intercellular adhesin-dependent biofilm formation. To understand the molecular basis for PNAG de-N-acetylation, the structure of PgaB in complex with Ni2+ and Fe3+ have been determined to 1.9 and 2.1 Å resolution, respectively, and its activity on β-1,6-GlcNAc oligomers has been characterized. The structure of PgaB reveals two (β/α)x barrel domains: a metal-binding de-N-acetylase that is a member of the family 4 carbohydrate esterases (CE4s) and a domain structurally similar to glycoside hydrolases. PgaB displays de-N-acetylase activity on β-1,6-GlcNAc oligomers but not on the β-1,4-(GlcNAc)4 oligomer chitotetraose and is the first CE4 member to exhibit this substrate specificity. De-N-acetylation occurs in a length-dependent manor, and specificity is observed for the position of de-N-acetylation. A key aspartic acid involved in de-N-acetylation, normally seen in other CE4s, is missing in PgaB, suggesting that the activity of PgaB is attenuated to maintain the low levels of de-N-acetylation of PNAG observed in vivo. The metal dependence of PgaB is different from most CE4s, because PgaB shows increased rates of de-N-acetylation with Co2+ and Ni2+ under aerobic conditions, and Co2+, Ni2+ and Fe2+ under anaerobic conditions, but decreased activity with Zn2+. The work presented herein will guide inhibitor design to combat biofilm formation by E. coli and potentially a wide range of medically relevant bacteria producing polysaccharide intercellular adhesin-dependent biofilms. PMID:22810235

  17. Summary of the GK15 ground‐motion prediction equation for horizontal PGA and 5% damped PSA from shallow crustal continental earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graizer, Vladimir;; Kalkan, Erol

    2016-01-01

    We present a revised ground‐motion prediction equation (GMPE) for computing medians and standard deviations of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and 5% damped pseudospectral acceleration (PSA) response ordinates of the horizontal component of randomly oriented ground motions to be used for seismic‐hazard analyses and engineering applications. This GMPE is derived from the expanded Next Generation Attenuation (NGA)‐West 1 database (see Data and Resources; Chiou et al., 2008). The revised model includes an anelastic attenuation term as a function of quality factor (Q0) to capture regional differences in far‐source (beyond 150 km) attenuation, and a new frequency‐dependent sedimentary‐basin scaling term as a function of depth to the 1.5  km/s shear‐wave velocity isosurface to improve ground‐motion predictions at sites located on deep sedimentary basins. The new Graizer–Kalkan 2015 (GK15) model, developed to be simple, is applicable for the western United States and other similar shallow crustal continental regions in active tectonic environments for earthquakes with moment magnitudes (M) 5.0–8.0, distances 0–250 km, average shear‐wave velocities in the upper 30 m (VS30) 200–1300  m/s, and spectral periods (T) 0.01–5 s. Our aleatory variability model captures interevent (between‐event) variability, which decreases with magnitude and increases with distance. The mixed‐effect residuals analysis reveals that the GK15 has no trend with respect to the independent predictor parameters. Compared to our 2007–2009 GMPE, the PGA values are very similar, whereas spectral ordinates predicted are larger at T<0.2  s and they are smaller at longer periods.

  18. The ER Stress Surveillance (ERSU) pathway regulates daughter cell ER protein aggregate inheritance.

    PubMed

    Piña, Francisco J; Niwa, Maho

    2015-09-01

    Stress induced by cytoplasmic protein aggregates can have deleterious consequences for the cell, contributing to neurodegeneration and other diseases. Protein aggregates are also formed within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), although the fate of ER protein aggregates, specifically during cell division, is not well understood. By simultaneous visualization of both the ER itself and ER protein aggregates, we found that ER protein aggregates that induce ER stress are retained in the mother cell by activation of the ER Stress Surveillance (ERSU) pathway, which prevents inheritance of stressed ER. In contrast, under conditions of normal ER inheritance, ER protein aggregates can enter the daughter cell. Thus, whereas cytoplasmic protein aggregates are retained in the mother cell to protect the functional capacity of daughter cells, the fate of ER protein aggregates is determined by whether or not they activate the ERSU pathway to impede transmission of the cortical ER during the cell cycle.

  19. Ames ER-2 ozone measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, R., Jr.; Vedder, James F.; Starr, W. L.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study ozone (O3) in the stratosphere. Measurements of the ozone mixing ratio at 1 s intervals are obtained with an ultraviolet photometer which flies on the ER-2 aircraft. The photometer determines the amount of ozone in air by measuring the transmission of ultraviolet light through a fixed path with and without ambient O3 present.

  20. ERS-1 SAR data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, K.; Bicknell, T.; Vines, K.

    1986-01-01

    To take full advantage of the synthetic aperature radar (SAR) to be flown on board the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) (1989) and the Canadian Radarsat (1990), the implementation of a receiving station in Alaska is being studied to gather and process SAR data pertaining in particular to regions within the station's range of reception. The current SAR data processing requirement is estimated to be on the order of 5 minutes per day. The Interim Digital Sar Processor (IDP) which was under continual development through Seasat (1978) and SIR-B (1984) can process slightly more than 2 minutes of ERS-1 data per day. On the other hand, the Advanced Digital SAR Processore (ADSP), currently under development for the Shuttle Imaging Radar C (SIR-C, 1988) and the Venus Radar Mapper, (VMR, 1988), is capable of processing ERS-1 SAR data at a real time rate. To better suit the anticipated ERS-1 SAR data processing requirement, both a modified IDP and an ADSP derivative are being examined. For the modified IDP, a pipelined architecture is proposed for the mini-computer plus array processor arrangement to improve throughout. For the ADSP derivative, a simplified version is proposed to enhance ease of implementation and maintainability while maintaing real time throughput rates. These processing systems are discussed and evaluated.

  1. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Endocrine Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-02-11

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the "unfolded protein response" (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2) are discussed in this article.

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Endocrine Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2) are discussed in this article. PMID:28208663

  3. Tank 241-ER-311, grab samples, ER311-98-1, ER311-98-2, ER311-98-3 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    FULLER, R.K.

    1999-02-24

    This document is the final report for catch tank 241-ER-311 grab samples. Three grab samples ER311-98-1, ER311-98-2 and ER311-98-3 were taken from East riser of tank 241-ER-311 on August 4, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on August 4, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998)and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Mulkey and Miller, 1997). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). No notification limits were exceeded.

  4. NASA ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the NASA ER-2 aircraft. The contents include: 1) ER-2 Specifications; 2) ER-2 Basic Configuration; 3) ER-2 Payload Areas: Nose Area; 4) ER-2 Payload Areas: SuperPod Fore and Aftbody; 5) ER-2 Payload Areas: SuperPod Midbody; 6) ER-2 Payload Areas: Q-Bay; 7) ER-2 Payload Areas: Q-Bay Hatch Designs; 8) ER-2 Payload Areas: External Pods; 9) ER-2 Electrical/Control Interface; 10) ER-2 Typical Flight Profile; 11) Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling TC-4; 12) TC-4 Timeline; 13) TC4 Area of Interest; 14) ER-2 TC4 Payload; 15) A/C ready for fuel; 16) ER-2 Pilot being suited; 17) ER-2 Taxing; 18) ER-2 Pilot post flight debrief; and 19) NASA ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies and Remote Sensing.

  5. Mitochondria-Associated Membranes and ER Stress.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Alexander R; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2017-03-28

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a crucial organelle for coordinating cellular Ca(2+) signaling and protein synthesis and folding. Moreover, the dynamic and complex membranous structures constituting the ER allow the formation of contact sites with other organelles and structures, including among others the mitochondria and the plasma membrane (PM). The contact sites that the ER form with mitochondria is a hot topic in research, and the nature of the so-called mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) is continuously evolving. The MAMs consist of a proteinaceous tether that physically connects the ER with mitochondria. The MAMs harness the main functions of both organelles to form a specialized subcompartment at the interface of the ER and mitochondria. Under homeostatic conditions, MAMs are crucial for the efficient transfer of Ca(2+) from the ER to mitochondria, and for proper mitochondria bioenergetics and lipid synthesis. MAMs are also believed to be the master regulators of mitochondrial shape and motility, and to form a crucial site for autophagosome assembly. Not surprisingly, MAMs have been shown to be a hot spot for the transfer of stress signals from the ER to mitochondria, most notably under the conditions of loss of ER proteostasis, by engaging the unfolded protein response (UPR). In this chapter after an introduction on ER biology and ER stress, we will review the emerging and key signaling roles of the MAMs, which have a root in cellular processes and signaling cascades coordinated by the ER.

  6. ER stress-induced cell death mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Renata; Reed, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress response constitutes a cellular process that is triggered by a variety of conditions that disturb folding of proteins in the ER. Eukaryotic cells have developed an evolutionarily conserved adaptive mechanism, the unfolded protein response (UPR), which aims to clear unfolded proteins and restore ER homeostasis. In cases where ER stress cannot be reversed, cellular functions deteriorate, often leading to cell death. Accumulating evidence implicates ER stress-induced cellular dysfunction and cell death as major contributors to many diseases, making modulators of ER stress pathways potentially attractive targets for therapeutics discovery. Here, we summarize recent advances in understanding the diversity of molecular mechanisms that govern ER stress signaling in health and disease. PMID:23850759

  7. The use of biodegradable PGA stents to judge the risk of post-TURP incontinence in patients with combined bladder outlet obstruction and overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Tomas; Pettersson, Silas; Dahlstrand, Christer

    2002-09-01

    For patients with the combination of severe bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and severe overactive bladder (OB), no straightforward and safe treatment exists due to the risk of urge incontinence after TURP. In this study we have used a biodegradable polyglycolic stent to simulate the status after TURP and register the risk for urge incontinence. A total of 37 patients with severe OB, combined with moderate to severe BOO, were asked if they wanted to participate. Under cystoscopic vision a polyglycolic biodegradable stent was inserted in the prostatic urethra. Twenty-five of the patients noticed no or only minor leakage and 19 of these have been subjected to TURP with good results. Three patients are on the waiting-list for TURP. Twelve of 37 patients were found to have major leakage after stent insertion. During the stent period, we noted five cases of complications, due to UTI, stent crash and irritation. All of these patients recovered within three weeks. A biodegradable PGA stent seems to be a new and unique tool to test the risk for post-TURP incontinence in patients with combined BOO and severe OB.

  8. Electronic state of Er in sputtered AlN:Er films determined by magnetic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Narang, V.; Seehra, M. S.; Korakakis, D.

    2014-12-07

    The optoelectronic and piezoelectric properties of AlN:Er thin films have been of great recent interest for potential device applications. In this work, the focus is on the electronic state of Er in AlN:Er thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering on (001) p-type Si substrate. X-ray diffraction shows that Er doping expands the lattice and the AlN:Er film has preferential c-plane orientation. To determine whether Er in AlN:Er is present as Er metal, Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, or Er{sup 3+} substituting for Al{sup 3+}, detailed measurements and analysis of the temperature dependence (2 K–300 K) of the magnetization M at a fixed magnetic field H along with the M vs. H data at 2 K up to H = 90 kOe are presented. The presence of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Er metal is ruled out since their characteristic magnetic transitions are not observed in the AlN:Er sample. Instead, the observed M vs. T and M vs. H variations are consistent with Er present as Er{sup 3+} substituting for Al{sup 3+} in AlN:Er at a concentration x = 1.08% in agreement with x = 0.94% ± 0.20% determined using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The larger size of Er{sup 3+} vs. Al{sup 3+}explains the observed lattice expansion of AlN:Er.

  9. Local structure and bonding of Er in GaN: A contrast with Er in Si

    SciTech Connect

    Citrin, P. H.; Northrup, P. A.; Birkhahn, R.; Steckl, A. J.

    2000-05-15

    X-ray absorption measurements from relatively high concentrations of Er (>0.1 at. %) doped in GaN films show that Er occupies the Ga site with an unprecedentedly short Er-N bond length. Electroluminescence intensities from these GaN:Er films correlate with the concentration of Er atoms that replace Ga, not with the abundantly present O impurities in the host. Simple chemical concepts are used to explain each of these results and their striking difference from those obtained for Er-doped Si. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum: ER stress regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Roberto; Gutierrez, Tomás; Paredes, Felipe; Gatica, Damián; Rodriguez, Andrea E.; Pedrozo, Zully; Chiong, Mario; Parra, Valentina; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. The molecular mechanisms responsible for execution of the cell death program are relatively well characterized, but the metabolic events taking place during the adaptive phase of ER stress remain largely undefined. Here we discuss emerging evidence regarding the metabolic changes that occur during the onset of ER stress and how ER influences mitochondrial function through mechanisms involving calcium transfer, thereby facilitating cellular adaptation. Finally, we highlight how dysregulation of ER–mitochondrial calcium homeostasis during prolonged ER stress is emerging as a novel mechanism implicated in the onset of metabolic disorders. PMID:22064245

  11. The ER Stress Surveillance (ERSU) pathway regulates daughter cell ER protein aggregate inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Piña, Francisco J; Niwa, Maho

    2015-01-01

    Stress induced by cytoplasmic protein aggregates can have deleterious consequences for the cell, contributing to neurodegeneration and other diseases. Protein aggregates are also formed within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), although the fate of ER protein aggregates, specifically during cell division, is not well understood. By simultaneous visualization of both the ER itself and ER protein aggregates, we found that ER protein aggregates that induce ER stress are retained in the mother cell by activation of the ER Stress Surveillance (ERSU) pathway, which prevents inheritance of stressed ER. In contrast, under conditions of normal ER inheritance, ER protein aggregates can enter the daughter cell. Thus, whereas cytoplasmic protein aggregates are retained in the mother cell to protect the functional capacity of daughter cells, the fate of ER protein aggregates is determined by whether or not they activate the ERSU pathway to impede transmission of the cortical ER during the cell cycle. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06970.001 PMID:26327697

  12. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  13. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

  14. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

  15. Lockheed ER-2 high altitude research aircraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-11-04

    ER-2 tail number 706, was one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft were platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They were also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation.

  16. Minimising Immunohistochemical False Negative ER Classification Using a Complementary 23 Gene Expression Signature of ER Status

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiyuan; Eklund, Aron C.; Juul, Nicolai; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Workman, Christopher T.; Richardson, Andrea L.; Szallasi, Zoltan; Swanton, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Background Expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER) in breast cancer predicts benefit from endocrine therapy. Minimising the frequency of false negative ER status classification is essential to identify all patients with ER positive breast cancers who should be offered endocrine therapies in order to improve clinical outcome. In routine oncological practice ER status is determined by semi-quantitative methods such as immunohistochemistry (IHC) or other immunoassays in which the ER expression level is compared to an empirical threshold[1], [2]. The clinical relevance of gene expression-based ER subtypes as compared to IHC-based determination has not been systematically evaluated. Here we attempt to reduce the frequency of false negative ER status classification using two gene expression approaches and compare these methods to IHC based ER status in terms of predictive and prognostic concordance with clinical outcome. Methodology/Principal Findings Firstly, ER status was discriminated by fitting the bimodal expression of ESR1 to a mixed Gaussian model. The discriminative power of ESR1 suggested bimodal expression as an efficient way to stratify breast cancer; therefore we identified a set of genes whose expression was both strongly bimodal, mimicking ESR expression status, and highly expressed in breast epithelial cell lines, to derive a 23-gene ER expression signature-based classifier. We assessed our classifiers in seven published breast cancer cohorts by comparing the gene expression-based ER status to IHC-based ER status as a predictor of clinical outcome in both untreated and tamoxifen treated cohorts. In untreated breast cancer cohorts, the 23 gene signature-based ER status provided significantly improved prognostic power compared to IHC-based ER status (P = 0.006). In tamoxifen-treated cohorts, the 23 gene ER expression signature predicted clinical outcome (HR = 2.20, P = 0.00035). These complementary ER signature-based strategies estimated that

  17. Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions in Ilan, Taiwan: Establishment and Analysis of Attenuation Relations for Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Peak Ground Velocity (PGV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.

    2009-12-01

    An evaluation of seismic hazards requires an estimate of the expected ground motion at the site of interest. The most common means of estimating this ground motion in engineering practice is the use of an attenuation relation. A number of developments have arisen recently to suggest that a new generation of attenuation relationships is warranted. The project named Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions (NGA) Project was developed by Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) in response to a core objective: reducing uncertainty in earthquake ground motion estimation. This objective reflects recognition from industry sponsors that improvements in earthquake ground motion estimation will result in significant cost savings and will result in improved system performance in the event of a large earthquake. The Central Weather Bureau has implemented the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) to collect high-quality instrumental recordings of strong earthquake shaking.It is necessary for us to study the strong ground motion characteristics at the Ilan area of northeastern Taiwan. Further analyses using a good quality data base that includes 486 events and 4172 recordings of magnitude greater than 4.0 are required to derive the next generation attenuation of ground motion in Ilan area. In addition, Liu and Tsai (2007) used a catalog of more than 1840 shallow earthquakes with homogenized Mw magnitude ranging from 5.0 to 8.2 in 1900-2007 to estimate the seismic hazard potential in Taiwan. As a result, the PGA and PGV contour patterns of maximum ground motion show that Ilan Plain has high values of 0.2g and 80cm/sec with respect to MMI intensity VII and IX, respectively. Furthermore, from the mean ground motion and the seismic intensity rate analyses, they show that a high annul probability of MMI > VI greater than 35 percents are located at the Chianan area of western Taiwan and Ilan Plain in northeastern Taiwan. However, these results was

  18. Facilitative plasma membrane transporters function during ER transit

    PubMed Central

    Takanaga, Hitomi; Frommer, Wolf B.

    2010-01-01

    Although biochemical studies suggested a high permeability of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane for small molecules, proteomics identified few specialized ER transporters. To test functionality of transporters during ER passage, we tested whether glucose transporters (GLUTs, SGLTs) destined for the plasma membrane are active during ER transit. HepG2 cells were characterized by low-affinity ER transport activity, suggesting that ER uptake is protein mediated. The much-reduced capacity of HEK293T cells to take up glucose across the plasma membrane correlated with low ER transport. Ectopic expression of GLUT1, -2, -4, or -9 induced GLUT isoform-specific ER transport activity in HEK293T cells. In contrast, the Na+-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 mediated efficient plasma membrane glucose transport but no detectable ER uptake, probably because of lack of a sufficient sodium gradient across the ER membrane. In conclusion, we demonstrate that GLUTs are sufficient for mediating ER glucose transport en route to the plasma membrane. Because of the low volume of the ER, trace amounts of these uniporters contribute to ER solute import during ER transit, while uniporters and cation-coupled transporters carry out export from the ER, together potentially explaining the low selectivity of ER transport. Expression levels and residence time of transporters in the ER, as well as their coupling mechanisms, could be key determinants of ER permeability.—Takanaga, H., Frommer, W. B. Facilitative plasma membrane transporters function during ER transit. PMID:20354141

  19. Electroreduction of Er 3+ in nonaqueous solvents

    DOE PAGES

    Small, Leo J.; Sears, Jeremiah M.; Lambert, Timothy N.; ...

    2016-09-15

    Here, the electroreduction of Er3+ in propylene carbonate, N,N-dimethylformamide, or a variety of quaternary ammonium ionic liquids (ILs) was investigated using [Er(OTf)3] and [Er(NTf2)3]. Systematic variation of the ILs' cation and anion, Er3+ salt, and electrode material revealed a disparity in electrochemical interactions not previously seen. For most ILs at a platinum electrode, cyclic voltammetry exhibits irreversible interactions between Er3+ salts and the electrode at potentials significantly less than the theoretical reduction potential for Er3+. Throughout all solvent–salt systems tested, a deposit could be formed on the electrode, though obtaining a high purity, crystalline Er0 deposit is challenging due tomore » the extreme reactivity of the deposit and resulting chemical interactions, often resulting in the formation of a complex, amorphous solid–electrolyte interface that slowed deposition rates. Comparison of platinum, gold, nickel, and glassy carbon (GC) working electrodes revealed oxidation processes unique to the platinum surface. While no appreciable reduction current was observed on GC at the potentials investigated, deposits were seen on platinum, gold, and nickel electrodes.« less

  20. High Performance Calcium Titanate Nanoparticle ER Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuezhao; Shen, Rong; Wen, Weijia; Lu, Kunquan

    A type of calcium titanate (CTO) nanoparticles was synthesized by means of wet chemical method [1] without coating on the particles. The CTO/silicone oil ER fluid exhibits excellent electrorheological properties: high shear stress (~50-100 kPa) under dc electric field, a low current density (less than 2μA/cm2 at 5kV/mm), and long term stability against sedimentation. Although there are not special additives in the ER fluids, it is found from the chemical analysis that a trace of alkyl group, hydroxyl group, carbonyl group and some ions is remained in the particles which may dominate the ER response.

  1. Facilitative plasma membrane transporters function during ER transit.

    PubMed

    Takanaga, Hitomi; Frommer, Wolf B

    2010-08-01

    Although biochemical studies suggested a high permeability of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane for small molecules, proteomics identified few specialized ER transporters. To test functionality of transporters during ER passage, we tested whether glucose transporters (GLUTs, SGLTs) destined for the plasma membrane are active during ER transit. HepG2 cells were characterized by low-affinity ER transport activity, suggesting that ER uptake is protein mediated. The much-reduced capacity of HEK293T cells to take up glucose across the plasma membrane correlated with low ER transport. Ectopic expression of GLUT1, -2, -4, or -9 induced GLUT isoform-specific ER transport activity in HEK293T cells. In contrast, the Na(+)-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 mediated efficient plasma membrane glucose transport but no detectable ER uptake, probably because of lack of a sufficient sodium gradient across the ER membrane. In conclusion, we demonstrate that GLUTs are sufficient for mediating ER glucose transport en route to the plasma membrane. Because of the low volume of the ER, trace amounts of these uniporters contribute to ER solute import during ER transit, while uniporters and cation-coupled transporters carry out export from the ER, together potentially explaining the low selectivity of ER transport. Expression levels and residence time of transporters in the ER, as well as their coupling mechanisms, could be key determinants of ER permeability.

  2. The ERS Research Agency: the beginning.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Joan B; Paton, James; Martin Burrieza, Fernando; Bill, Werner; Pannetier, Carine; Aliberti, Stefano; Adcock, Ian M; Wagers, Scott; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    2016-04-01

    There is at the current time a significant opportunity for the ERS to leverage its experience and reputation as an international umbrella organisation to promote high-quality, multinational respiratory research with the goal of improving the health of respiratory patients. This editorial proposes a model for the role and structure of an ERS Research Agency. It is based upon research, implicit knowledge and explicit feedback from ERS members and selected external individuals and organisations.As with any new endeavour there are challenges and threats. Building a Research Agency will be a major undertaking that will require significant organisational planning, resources, effort and commitment.Organisations with multiple stakeholders tend to have a status quo inertia that has to be overcome for any significant new endeavour. The ERS Research Agency could be an investment in the future of respiratory research.

  3. FIRE_ACE_ER2_MAS

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-04-26

    ... First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Cloud Experiment (ACE) NASA ER-2 Moderate Resolution Imaging ... SSFR Location:  Northern Alaska Arctic Ocean Spatial Coverage:  Fairbanks, Alaska and the surrounding ...

  4. Environmental release summary (ERS) database CY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1998-07-01

    This report discusses the Environmental Release Summary (ERS) database. The current needs of the Effluent and Environmental database is continually modified to fulfill monitoring (EEM) program (managed by Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Incorporated, Air and Water Services Organization). Changes are made to accurately calculate current releases, to affect how past releases are calculated. This document serves as a snap-shot of the database and software for the CY-1997 data and releases. This document contains all of the relevant data for calculating radioactive-airborne and liquid effluent. The ERS database is the official repository for the CY-1997 ERS release reports and the settings used to generate those reports. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, FDH is committed to provide a hard copy of the ERS database for Washington State Department of Ecology, upon request. This document also serves as that hard copy for the last complete calendar year.

  5. ER Consolidated Quarterly Report October 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John R.

    2014-10-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective actions and related Long- Term Stewardship (LTS) activities being implemented by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) ER for the April, May, and June 2014 quarterly reporting period. Section 2.0 provides the status of ER Operations activities including closure activities for the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL), project management and site closure, and hydrogeologic characterizations. Section 3.0 provides the status of LTS activities that relate to the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the associated Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU). Section 4.0 provides the references noted in Section I of this report.

  6. Fusing a lasting relationship between ER tubules

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Tyler J.; Daga, Andrea; McNew, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Atlastin is an integral membrane GTPase localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In vitro and in vivo analyses indicate that atlastin is a membrane fusogen capable of driving membrane fusion, suggesting a role in ER structure and maintenance. Interestingly, mutations in the human atlastin-1 gene, SPG3A, cause a form of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). The etiology of HSP is unclear but two predominant forms of the disorder are caused by mutant proteins that affect ER structure, formation, and maintenance in motor neurons. In this review, we describe what is known about the molecular mechanism of atlastin function and its potential role in HSP. Greater understanding of the function of atlastin and associated proteins should lend significant insight into normal ER biogenesis and maintenance, as well as the pathology of disease. PMID:21550242

  7. Arctigenin alleviates ER stress via activating AMPK.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yuan; Sun, Xiao-xiao; Ye, Ji-ming; He, Li; Yan, Shou-sheng; Zhang, Hao-hao; Hu, Li-hong; Yuan, Jun-ying; Yu, Qiang

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the protective effects of arctigenin (ATG), a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan from Arctium lappa L (Compositae), against ER stress in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. A cell-based screening assay for ER stress regulators was established. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. PCR and Western blotting were used to analyze gene and protein expression. Silencing of the CaMKKβ, LKB1, and AMPKα1 genes was achieved by RNA interference (RNAi). An ATP bioluminescent assay kit was employed to measure the intracellular ATP levels. ATG (2.5, 5 and 10 μmol/L) inhibited cell death and unfolded protein response (UPR) in a concentration-dependent manner in cells treated with the ER stress inducer brefeldin A (100 nmol/L). ATG (1, 5 and 10 μmol/L) significantly attenuated protein synthesis in cells through inhibiting mTOR-p70S6K signaling and eEF2 activity, which were partially reversed by silencing AMPKα1 with RNAi. ATG (1-50 μmol/L) reduced intracellular ATP level and activated AMPK through inhibiting complex I-mediated respiration. Pretreatment of cells with the AMPK inhibitor compound C (25 μmol/L) rescued the inhibitory effects of ATG on ER stress. Furthermore, ATG (2.5 and 5 μmol/L) efficiently activated AMPK and reduced the ER stress and cell death induced by palmitate (2 mmol/L) in INS-1 β cells. ATG is an effective ER stress alleviator, which protects cells against ER stress through activating AMPK, thus attenuating protein translation and reducing ER load.

  8. Topography over South America from ERS altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Anita; Frey, Herb; DiMarzio, John; Tsaoussi, Lucia

    1997-01-01

    The results of the surface topography mapping of South America during the ERS-1 geodetic mission are presented. The altimeter waveforms, the range measurement, and the internal and Doppler range corrections were obtained. The atmospheric corrections and solid tides were calculated. Comparisons between Shuttle laser altimetry and ERS-1 altimetry grid showed good agreement. Satellite radar altimetry data can be used to improve the topographic knowledge of regions for which only poor elevation data currently exist.

  9. Arctigenin alleviates ER stress via activating AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yuan; Sun, Xiao-xiao; Ye, Ji-ming; He, Li; Yan, Shou-sheng; Zhang, Hao-hao; Hu, Li-hong; Yuan, Jun-ying; Yu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effects of arctigenin (ATG), a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan from Arctium lappa L (Compositae), against ER stress in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: A cell-based screening assay for ER stress regulators was established. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. PCR and Western blotting were used to analyze gene and protein expression. Silencing of the CaMKKβ, LKB1, and AMPKα1 genes was achieved by RNA interference (RNAi). An ATP bioluminescent assay kit was employed to measure the intracellular ATP levels. Results: ATG (2.5, 5 and 10 μmol/L) inhibited cell death and unfolded protein response (UPR) in a concentration-dependent manner in cells treated with the ER stress inducer brefeldin A (100 nmol/L). ATG (1, 5 and 10 μmol/L) significantly attenuated protein synthesis in cells through inhibiting mTOR-p70S6K signaling and eEF2 activity, which were partially reversed by silencing AMPKα1 with RNAi. ATG (1-50 μmol/L) reduced intracellular ATP level and activated AMPK through inhibiting complex I-mediated respiration. Pretreatment of cells with the AMPK inhibitor compound C (25 μmol/L) rescued the inhibitory effects of ATG on ER stress. Furthermore, ATG (2.5 and 5 μmol/L) efficiently activated AMPK and reduced the ER stress and cell death induced by palmitate (2 mmol/L) in INS-1 β cells. Conclusion: ATG is an effective ER stress alleviator, which protects cells against ER stress through activating AMPK, thus attenuating protein translation and reducing ER load. PMID:22705729

  10. Characterization of the ER-Targeted Low Affinity Ca2+ Probe D4ER

    PubMed Central

    Greotti, Elisa; Wong, Andrea; Pozzan, Tullio; Pendin, Diana; Pizzo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Calcium ion (Ca2+) is a ubiquitous intracellular messenger and changes in its concentration impact on nearly every aspect of cell life. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represents the major intracellular Ca2+ store and the free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]) within its lumen ([Ca2+]ER) can reach levels higher than 1 mM. Several genetically-encoded ER-targeted Ca2+ sensors have been developed over the last years. However, most of them are non-ratiometric and, thus, their signal is difficult to calibrate in live cells and is affected by shifts in the focal plane and artifactual movements of the sample. On the other hand, existing ratiometric Ca2+ probes are plagued by different drawbacks, such as a double dissociation constant (Kd) for Ca2+, low dynamic range, and an affinity for the cation that is too high for the levels of [Ca2+] in the ER lumen. Here, we report the characterization of a recently generated ER-targeted, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based, Cameleon probe, named D4ER, characterized by suitable Ca2+ affinity and dynamic range for monitoring [Ca2+] variations within the ER. As an example, resting [Ca2+]ER have been evaluated in a known paradigm of altered ER Ca2+ homeostasis, i.e., in cells expressing a mutated form of the familial Alzheimer’s Disease-linked protein Presenilin 2 (PS2). The lower Ca2+ affinity of the D4ER probe, compared to that of the previously generated D1ER, allowed the detection of a conspicuous, more clear-cut, reduction in ER Ca2+ content in cells expressing mutated PS2, compared to controls. PMID:27598166

  11. Characterization of the ER-Targeted Low Affinity Ca(2+) Probe D4ER.

    PubMed

    Greotti, Elisa; Wong, Andrea; Pozzan, Tullio; Pendin, Diana; Pizzo, Paola

    2016-09-02

    Calcium ion (Ca(2+)) is a ubiquitous intracellular messenger and changes in its concentration impact on nearly every aspect of cell life. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represents the major intracellular Ca(2+) store and the free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]) within its lumen ([Ca(2+)]ER) can reach levels higher than 1 mM. Several genetically-encoded ER-targeted Ca(2+) sensors have been developed over the last years. However, most of them are non-ratiometric and, thus, their signal is difficult to calibrate in live cells and is affected by shifts in the focal plane and artifactual movements of the sample. On the other hand, existing ratiometric Ca(2+) probes are plagued by different drawbacks, such as a double dissociation constant (Kd) for Ca(2+), low dynamic range, and an affinity for the cation that is too high for the levels of [Ca(2+)] in the ER lumen. Here, we report the characterization of a recently generated ER-targeted, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based, Cameleon probe, named D4ER, characterized by suitable Ca(2+) affinity and dynamic range for monitoring [Ca(2+)] variations within the ER. As an example, resting [Ca(2+)]ER have been evaluated in a known paradigm of altered ER Ca(2+) homeostasis, i.e., in cells expressing a mutated form of the familial Alzheimer's Disease-linked protein Presenilin 2 (PS2). The lower Ca(2+) affinity of the D4ER probe, compared to that of the previously generated D1ER, allowed the detection of a conspicuous, more clear-cut, reduction in ER Ca(2+) content in cells expressing mutated PS2, compared to controls.

  12. The Aspergillus nidulans peripheral ER: disorganization by ER stress and persistence during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Markina-Iñarrairaegui, Ane; Pantazopoulou, Areti; Espeso, Eduardo A; Peñalva, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    The genetically amenable fungus Aspergillus nidulans is well suited for cell biology studies involving the secretory pathway and its relationship with hyphal tip growth by apical extension. We exploited live-cell epifluorescence microscopy of the ER labeled with the translocon component Sec63, endogenously tagged with GFP, to study the organization of 'secretory' ER domains. The Sec63 A. nidulans ER network includes brightly fluorescent peripheral strands and more faintly labeled nuclear envelopes. In hyphae, the most abundant peripheral ER structures correspond to plasma membrane-associated strands that are polarized, but do not invade the hyphal tip dome, at least in part because the subapical collar of endocytic actin patches constrict the cortical strands in this region. Thus the subapical endocytic ring might provide an attachment for ER strands, thereby ensuring that the growing tip remains 'loaded' with secretory ER. Acute disruption of secretory ER function by reductive stress-mediated induction of the unfolded protein response results in the reversible aggregation of ER strands, cessation of exocytosis and swelling of the hyphal tips. The secretory ER is insensitive to brefeldin A treatment and does not undergo changes during mitosis, in agreement with the reports that apical extension continues at normal rates during this period.

  13. A Role for Macro-ER-Phagy in ER Quality Control.

    PubMed

    Lipatova, Zhanna; Segev, Nava

    2015-07-01

    The endoplasmic-reticulum quality-control (ERQC) system shuttles misfolded proteins for degradation by the proteasome through the well-defined ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. In contrast, very little is known about the role of autophagy in ERQC. Macro-autophagy, a collection of pathways that deliver proteins through autophagosomes (APs) for degradation in the lysosome (vacuole in yeast), is mediated by autophagy-specific proteins, Atgs, and regulated by Ypt/Rab GTPases. Until recently, the term ER-phagy was used to describe degradation of ER membrane and proteins in the lysosome under stress: either ER stress induced by drugs or whole-cell stress induced by starvation. These two types of stresses induce micro-ER-phagy, which does not use autophagic organelles and machinery, and non-selective autophagy. Here, we characterize the macro-ER-phagy pathway and uncover its role in ERQC. This pathway delivers 20-50% of certain ER-resident membrane proteins to the vacuole and is further induced to >90% by overexpression of a single integral-membrane protein. Even though such overexpression in cells defective in macro-ER-phagy induces the unfolded-protein response (UPR), UPR is not needed for macro-ER-phagy. We show that macro-ER-phagy is dependent on Atgs and Ypt GTPases and its cargo passes through APs. Moreover, for the first time the role of Atg9, the only integral-membrane core Atg, is uncoupled from that of other core Atgs. Finally, three sequential steps of this pathway are delineated: Atg9-dependent exit from the ER en route to autophagy, Ypt1- and core Atgs-mediated pre-autophagsomal-structure organization, and Ypt51-mediated delivery of APs to the vacuole.

  14. A Role for Macro-ER-Phagy in ER Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Lipatova, Zhanna; Segev, Nava

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic-reticulum quality-control (ERQC) system shuttles misfolded proteins for degradation by the proteasome through the well-defined ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. In contrast, very little is known about the role of autophagy in ERQC. Macro-autophagy, a collection of pathways that deliver proteins through autophagosomes (APs) for degradation in the lysosome (vacuole in yeast), is mediated by autophagy-specific proteins, Atgs, and regulated by Ypt/Rab GTPases. Until recently, the term ER-phagy was used to describe degradation of ER membrane and proteins in the lysosome under stress: either ER stress induced by drugs or whole-cell stress induced by starvation. These two types of stresses induce micro-ER-phagy, which does not use autophagic organelles and machinery, and non-selective autophagy. Here, we characterize the macro-ER-phagy pathway and uncover its role in ERQC. This pathway delivers 20–50% of certain ER-resident membrane proteins to the vacuole and is further induced to >90% by overexpression of a single integral-membrane protein. Even though such overexpression in cells defective in macro-ER-phagy induces the unfolded-protein response (UPR), UPR is not needed for macro-ER-phagy. We show that macro-ER-phagy is dependent on Atgs and Ypt GTPases and its cargo passes through APs. Moreover, for the first time the role of Atg9, the only integral-membrane core Atg, is uncoupled from that of other core Atgs. Finally, three sequential steps of this pathway are delineated: Atg9-dependent exit from the ER en route to autophagy, Ypt1- and core Atgs-mediated pre-autophagsomal-structure organization, and Ypt51-mediated delivery of APs to the vacuole. PMID:26181331

  15. [ER stress and cardiometabolic disease: role of adipokines].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song-Yang; Feng, Juan; Wang, Xian

    2013-10-01

    ER stress is defined as an imbalance between protein synthesis and protein folding capacity, resulting in the accumulation of misfolded or unfolded protein in ER. Temperate ER stress through UPR enhances the folding capacity of ER and restores the ER homeostasis, exerting a cell protection role. While prolonged ER stress lead to inflammation, cell dysfunction and apoptosis, which takes part in the progression of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. In the condition of obesity or hyperhomocysteinemia, ER stress in adipose tissue, hypothalamus, liver and other tissue or organs causes the dysregulation of adipokines secretion as well as abnormal receptor or post-receptor signal transduction, which plays an significant role in cardiometabolic disease.

  16. 20 CFR 216.68 - Disability period for widow(er), surviving divorced spouse, or remarried widow(er).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disability period for widow(er), surviving divorced spouse, or remarried widow(er). 216.68 Section 216.68 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT... Divorced Spouse, and Remarried Widow(er) Annuities § 216.68 Disability period for widow(er),...

  17. Mechanisms of oestrogen receptor (ER) gene regulation in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Most breast cancers are driven by a transcription factor called oestrogen receptor (ER). Understanding the mechanisms of ER activity in breast cancer has been a major research interest and recent genomic advances have revealed extraordinary insights into how ER mediates gene transcription and what occurs during endocrine resistance. This review discusses our current understanding on ER activity, with an emphasis on several evolving, but important areas of ER biology. PMID:26884552

  18. The changing role of ER in endocrine resistance.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Agostina; De Angelis, Carmine; Trivedi, Meghana V; Osborne, C Kent; Schiff, Rachel

    2015-11-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) is expressed in approximately 70% of newly diagnosed breast tumors. Although endocrine therapy targeting ER is highly effective, intrinsic or acquired resistance is common, significantly jeopardizing treatment outcomes and minimizing overall survival. Even in the presence of endocrine resistance, a continued role of ER signaling is suggested by several lines of clinical and preclinical evidence. Indeed, inhibition or down-regulation of ER reduces tumor growth in preclinical models of acquired endocrine resistance, and many patients with recurrent ER+ breast tumors progressing on one type of ER-targeted treatment still benefit from sequential endocrine treatments that target ER by a different mechanism. New insights into the nature and biology of ER have revealed several mechanisms sustaining altered ER signaling in endocrine-resistant tumors, including deregulated growth factor receptor signaling that results in ligand-independent ER activation, unbalanced ER co-regulator activity, and genomic alterations involving the ER gene ESR1. Therefore, biopsies of recurrent lesions are needed to assess the changes in epi/genomics and signaling landscape of ER and associated pathways in order to tailor therapies to effectively overcome endocrine resistance. In addition, more completely abolishing the levels and activity of ER and its co-activators, in combination with selected signal transduction inhibitors or agents blocking the upstream or downstream targets of the ER pathway, may provide a better therapeutic strategy in combating endocrine resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ARM CLASIC ER2 CRS/EDOP

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Heymsfield

    2010-12-20

    Data was taken with the NASA ER-2 aircraft with the Cloud Radar System and other instruments in conjunction with the DOE ARM CLASIC field campaign. The flights were near the SGP site in north Central Oklahoma and targeted small developing convection. The CRS is a 94 GHz nadir pointing Doppler radar. Also on board the ER-2 was the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Seven science flights were conducted but the weather conditions did not cooperate in that there was neither developing convection, or there was heavy rain.

  20. Structural Determination of Certain Novel ER Complexes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    and Parker, T. M. (1992). Hydrophobicity-induced pK shifts in elastin protein-based polymers . Biopolymers 32, 373-379. Webb, P., Nguyen, P., and...between the aligned H12 from different complex struc- Chemicals, Materials, and Plasmids tures (OHT-ER and GW-ER) were calculated using a python script...buffer consisting of 1.5%-2% ethylene were used. 100 nM of GW7604 were added to the cells 18-24 hr imine polymer , 100 mM trisodium citrate (pH 5.6-5.7

  1. Caries inhibition potential of Er:YAG and Er:YSGG laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Featherstone, John D. B.; Visuri, Steven R.; Seka, Wolf D.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    1996-04-01

    Dental hard tissues can be ablated efficiency by (lambda) equals 3 micrometers laser irradiation with minimal subsurface thermal damage. However, the potential of lasers operating in the region of the infrared for caries preventive treatments has not been investigated. In this study, the caries inhibition potential of Er:YAG ((lambda) equals 2.94 micrometers ) and Er:YSGG ((lambda) equals 2.79 micrometers ) laser radiation on dental enamel was evaluated at various irradiation intensities. Pulsed IR radiometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to measure the time-resolved surface temperatures during laser irradiation and to detect changes in the surface morphology. The magnitude and temporal evolution of the surface temperature during multiple pulse irradiation of the tissue was dependent on the wavelength, irradiation intensity, and the number of laser pulses. Radiometry and SEM micrographs indicated that ablation was initiated at temperatures of approximately 300 degree(s)C for Er:YAG and 800 degree(s)C for Er:YSGG laser irradiation, well below the melting and vaporization temperatures of the carbonated hydroxyapatite mineral component (m.p. equals 1200 degree(s)C). Nevertheless, there was marked caries inhibition for irradiation intensities below those temperature thresholds, notably 60% and 40% inhibition was achieved after Er:YSGG and Er:YAG laser irradiation, respectively. These results indicate that the Er:YSGG laser can be used effectively for both preventive dental treatments and for hard tissue removal.

  2. Low temperature properties of some Er-rich intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    K.A. Gshneidner,jr; A.O. Pecharsky; L.Hale; V.K. Pecharsky

    2004-09-30

    The low temperature volumetric heat capacity ({approx}3.5 to 350 K) and magnetic susceptibility ({approx}4 to 320 K) of Er{sub 3}Rh, Er{sub 3}Ir, Er{sub 3}Pt, Er{sub 2}Al, and Er{sub 2}Sn have been measured. All of the compounds order antiferromagnetically (or ferrimagnetically), and most exhibit more than one magnetic ordering transition. The volumetric heat capacities in general are smaller than those of the prototype magnetic regenerator materials, except for Er{sub 3}Ir in the 12 to 14 K temperature range.

  3. ERS--Local School Budget Profile Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protheroe, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Presents data on school district expenditures for budget years 1996-97, 1991-92, and 1986-87, gathered by the Educational Research Service (ERS). Provides information on budgets; intragroup variations; trends in allocation patterns; personnel costs; school district revenues; and trends in revenue available from local, state, and federal sources.…

  4. Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allwinkle, Sam; Cruickshank, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The following offers an overview of what it means for cities to be "smart." It draws the supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities from a series of papers presented at the 2009 Trans-national Conference on Creating Smart(er) Cities. What the papers all have in common is their desire to overcome the all too often…

  5. Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allwinkle, Sam; Cruickshank, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The following offers an overview of what it means for cities to be "smart." It draws the supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities from a series of papers presented at the 2009 Trans-national Conference on Creating Smart(er) Cities. What the papers all have in common is their desire to overcome the all too often…

  6. PingER History and Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, L

    2003-10-01

    This paper describes the methodology of the PingER toolkit/project. It provides some examples of how the results have been used to identify evolutionary changes in WAN response times and connectivity quality over the past 10 years, as well as some of the challenges faced in maintaining and deploying the system.

  7. The QuEChERS revolution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The technique of QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) is only 7 years old, yet it is revolutionizing the manner in which multiresidue, multiclass pesticide analysis (and perhaps beyond) is performed. Columnist Ron Majors sits down with inventors Steve Lehotay and Michelangelo An...

  8. Spectroscopic properties of Er3+, Yb3 + and Er3 + /Yb3+ doped metaphosphate glasses.

    PubMed

    Speghini, A; Francini, R; Martinez, A; Tavernese, M; Bettinell, M

    2001-09-01

    The absorption and emission spectroscopies of Er3+ doped and Er3+/Yb3+ codoped Ca(PO3)2, Sr(PO3)2 and Ba(PO3)2 glasses have been studied. From the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, the spontaneous emission probabilities of some relevant transitions and the radiative lifetimes of several excited states of Er3+ have been calculated. The decay curves of the Er3+ emission at 1.5 microm have been measured at different temperatures. The data have been fitted using a stretched exponential function and the obtained experimental lifetimes have been compared with the calculated radiative lifetimes. The difference between the experimental and calculated lifetimes is attributed to the presence of traces of OH groups in the host glasses. The absolute OH content in some glasses has been determined from the infrared spectra. The emission spectra at 1.5 microm of the Er3+ ion in the codoped glasses have been measured at different temperatures. The integrated emission intensities decrease significantly on passing from room temperature to 13 K, suggesting a temperature dependence of the rate of the energy transfer process between Yb3+ and Er3+.

  9. Interaction of Er{sup 3+} ions in Er-doped calcium - niobium - gallium garnet crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Malov, A V; Popov, A V; Ryabochkina, P A; Bol'shakov, E V

    2010-08-03

    The processes of nonradiative energy transfer in calcium - niobium - gallium garnet (CNGG) crystals doped with Er{sup 3+} ions are studied. It is found that the energy of erbium ions in the Er:CNGG crystal with the erbium atomic concentrations C{sub Er}=6% and 11% is transferred via the nonradiative co-operative processes {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}; and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, whose efficiency increases with increasing intensity of exciting radiation. It is shown that the cross-relaxation processes {sup 4}S{sub 3/2{yields}}{sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 15/2{yields}}{sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, whose intensity depends on the concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions, are characteristic for Er:CNGG crystals with the Er atomic concentration above 1%. (active media)

  10. Increased ER-mitochondrial coupling promotes mitochondrial respiration and bioenergetics during early phases of ER stress.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Roberto; Vicencio, Jose Miguel; Parra, Valentina; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Munoz, Juan Pablo; Bui, Michael; Quiroga, Clara; Rodriguez, Andrea E; Verdejo, Hugo E; Ferreira, Jorge; Iglewski, Myriam; Chiong, Mario; Simmen, Thomas; Zorzano, Antonio; Hill, Joseph A; Rothermel, Beverly A; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Lavandero, Sergio

    2011-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR), but that beyond a certain degree of ER damage, this response triggers apoptotic pathways. The general mechanisms of the UPR and its apoptotic pathways are well characterized. However, the metabolic events that occur during the adaptive phase of ER stress, before the cell death response, remain unknown. Here, we show that, during the onset of ER stress, the reticular and mitochondrial networks are redistributed towards the perinuclear area and their points of connection are increased in a microtubule-dependent fashion. A localized increase in mitochondrial transmembrane potential is observed only in redistributed mitochondria, whereas mitochondria that remain in other subcellular zones display no significant changes. Spatial re-organization of these organelles correlates with an increase in ATP levels, oxygen consumption, reductive power and increased mitochondrial Ca²⁺ uptake. Accordingly, uncoupling of the organelles or blocking Ca²⁺ transfer impaired the metabolic response, rendering cells more vulnerable to ER stress. Overall, these data indicate that ER stress induces an early increase in mitochondrial metabolism that depends crucially upon organelle coupling and Ca²⁺ transfer, which, by enhancing cellular bioenergetics, establishes the metabolic basis for the adaptation to this response.

  11. ER-Golgi Traffic Is a Prerequisite for Efficient ER Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Taxis, Christof; Vogel, Frank; Wolf, Dieter H.

    2002-01-01

    Protein quality control is an essential function of the endoplasmic reticulum. Misfolded proteins unable to acquire their native conformation are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, retro-translocated back into the cytosol, and degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. We show that efficient degradation of soluble malfolded proteins in yeast requires a fully competent early secretory pathway. Mutations in proteins essential for ER-Golgi protein traffic severely inhibit ER degradation of the model substrate CPY*. We found ER localization of CPY* in WT cells, but no other specific organelle for ER degradation could be identified by electron microscopy studies. Because CPY* is degraded in COPI coat mutants, only a minor fraction of CPY* or of a proteinaceous factor required for degradation seems to enter the recycling pathway between ER and Golgi. Therefore, we propose that the disorganized structure of the ER and/or the mislocalization of Kar2p, observed in early secretory mutants, is responsible for the reduction in CPY* degradation. Further, we observed that mutations in proteins directly involved in degradation of malfolded proteins (Der1p, Der3/Hrd1p, and Hrd3p) lead to morphological changes of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi, escape of CPY* into the secretory pathway and a slower maturation rate of wild-type CPY. PMID:12058050

  12. 150. Credit ER. Building reinforced concrete portion of Coleman Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    150. Credit ER. Building reinforced concrete portion of Coleman Canal inverted siphon #2. Longitudinal steel reinforcing rods are visible at bottom. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 702). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  13. ER Consolidated Qtrly Rpt_April-June 2016_October 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John R.

    2016-10-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective action activities being implemented by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) for the April, May, and June 2016 quarterly reporting period.

  14. 146. Credit ER. Rubble masonry header box with dual intake ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    146. Credit ER. Rubble masonry header box with dual intake pipes at Coleman powerhouse forebay. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  15. 155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal after excavation by steam shovel. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  16. The cervical malignant cells display a down regulation of ER-α but retain the ER-β expression

    PubMed Central

    López-Romero, Ricardo; Garrido-Guerrero, Efraín; Rangel-López, Angélica; Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia; Lazos-Ochoa, Minerva; Mantilla-Morales, Alejandra; Bandala, Cindy; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    The human cervix is a tissue target of sex steroid hormones as estradiol (E2) which exerts its action through of the estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ER-α and ER-β). In this study we investigated the expression of ER-α and ER-β in human invasive cervical carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analyses and compared with that observed in the corresponding normal tissue. The results show nuclear expression of ER-α mainly in the first third of normal cervical epithelium, however, decreased or absent expression were present in invasive cervical carcinoma, indicating that expression of ER-α is lost in cervical cancer. Nevertheless, by RT-PCR we were able to demonstrate mRNA expression of ER-α in invasive cervical tissues. These results suggest that loss of ER-α could be due to a mechanism of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of its gene during the progression to invasive carcinoma. On the other hand, ER-β was expressed in normal cervix with an expression pattern similar to ER-α. In addition to its nuclear localization, cytoplasmic immunoreaction of ER-β was present in the epithelium of invasive cervical carcinomas, suggesting an association between cytoplasmic ER-β expression and invasive phenotype in the cervical tumors. In summary, the results show that the cervical malignant cells tend to loss the ER-α but maintain the ER-β actively expressed. Loss of expression of ER-α in neoplastic tissue suggests that the estrogenic effects could be conducted through the ER-β in human neoplastic cervical tissue. More detailed studies are needed to confirm this suggestion and to determine the role of ER-β in cervical cancer. PMID:23923078

  17. PERK is required at the ER-mitochondrial contact sites to convey apoptosis after ROS-based ER stress.

    PubMed

    Verfaillie, T; Rubio, N; Garg, A D; Bultynck, G; Rizzuto, R; Decuypere, J-P; Piette, J; Linehan, C; Gupta, S; Samali, A; Agostinis, P

    2012-11-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress is emerging as an important modulator of different pathologies and as a mechanism contributing to cancer cell death in response to therapeutic agents. In several instances, oxidative stress and the onset of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occur together; yet, the molecular events linking reactive oxygen species (ROS) to ER stress-mediated apoptosis are currently unknown. Here, we show that PERK (RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase), a key ER stress sensor of the unfolded protein response, is uniquely enriched at the mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs). PERK(-/-) cells display disturbed ER morphology and Ca(2+) signaling as well as significantly weaker ER-mitochondria contact sites. Re-expression of a kinase-dead PERK mutant but not the cytoplasmic deletion mutant of PERK in PERK(-/-) cells re-establishes ER-mitochondria juxtapositions and mitochondrial sensitization to ROS-mediated stress. In contrast to the canonical ER stressor thapsigargin, during ROS-mediated ER stress, PERK contributes to apoptosis twofold by sustaining the levels of pro-apoptotic C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and by facilitating the propagation of ROS signals between the ER and mitochondria through its tethering function. Hence, this study reveals an unprecedented role of PERK as a MAMs component required to maintain the ER-mitochondria juxtapositions and propel ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis. Furthermore, it suggests that loss of PERK may cause defects in cell death sensitivity in pathological conditions linked to ROS-mediated ER stress.

  18. Synthesis, characterization, and photoluminescence of Er2O3-Er2SO2 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Kalugin, Nikolai G; Roy, Aaron; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Serov, Alexey

    2017-03-30

    Thermal reduction of erbium nitrate and S-doped reduced graphene oxide (rGO) mixture resulted in the formation of small (~3-18 nm-sized) Er2O3-Er2SO2 nanoparticles with a high degree of surface coverage on the reduced graphene oxide support. The morphology, structure, and the chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles have been studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and by optical spectroscopies. The rGO-supported Er2O3-Er2SO2 nanoparticles (Er2O3-Er2SO2 /rGO) demonstrate sufficiently strong light emission (luminescence and upconversion) in the visible and near-infrared range via intra-4f Er3+ optical transitions. The reported synthetic approach demonstrates a novel method for synthesizing Er-containing nanoparticles for sensor applications.

  19. SYP73 Anchors the ER to the Actin Cytoskeleton for Maintenance of ER Integrity and Streaming in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Pengfei; Renna, Luciana; Stefano, Giovanni; Brandizzi, Federica

    2016-12-05

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential organelle that spreads throughout the cytoplasm as one interconnected network of narrow tubules and dilated cisternae that enclose a single lumen. The ER network undergoes extensive remodeling, which critically depends on membrane-cytoskeleton interactions [1]. In plants, the ER is also highly mobile, and its streaming contributes significantly to the movement of other organelles [2, 3]. The remodeling and motility of the plant ER rely mainly on actin [4] and to a minor extent on microtubules [5]. Although a three-way interaction between the ER, cytosolic myosin-XI, and F-actin mediates the plant ER streaming [6], the mechanisms underlying stable interaction of the ER membrane with actin are unknown. Early electron microscopy studies suggested a direct attachment of the plant ER with actin filaments [7, 8], but it is plausible that yet-unknown proteins facilitate anchoring of the ER membrane with the cytoskeleton. We demonstrate here that SYP73, a member of the plant Syp7 subgroup of SNARE proteins [9] containing actin-binding domains, is a novel ER membrane-associated actin-binding protein. We show that overexpression of SYP73 causes a striking rearrangement of the ER over actin and that, similar to mutations of myosin-XI [4, 10, 11], loss of SYP73 reduces ER streaming and affects overall ER network morphology and plant growth. We propose a model for plant ER remodeling whereby the dynamic rearrangement and streaming of the ER network depend on the propelling action of myosin-XI over actin coupled with a SYP73-mediated bridging, which dynamically anchors the ER membrane with actin filaments.

  20. ER-12-1 completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.E.; Gillespie, D.; Cole, J.C.; Drellack, S.L.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of drillhole ER-12-1 was to determine the hydrogeology of paleozoic carbonate rocks and of the Eleana Formation, a regional aquitard, in an area potentially downgradient from underground nuclear testing conducted in nearby Rainier Mesa. This objective was addressed through the drilling of well ER-12-1 at N886,640.26 E640,538.85 Nevada Central Coordinates. Drilling of the 1094 m (3588 ft) well began on July 19, 1991 and was completed on October 17, 1991. Drilling problems included hole deviation and hole instability that prevented the timely completion of this borehole. Drilling methods used include rotary tri-cone and rotary hammer drilling with conventional and reverse circulation using air/water, air/foam (Davis mix), and bentonite mud. Geologic cuttings and geophysical logs were obtained from the well. The rocks penetrated by the ER-12-1 drillhole are a complex assemblage of Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian sedimentary rocks that are bounded by numerous faults that show substantial stratigraphic offset. The final 7.3 m (24 ft) of this hole penetrated an unusual intrusive rock of Cretaceous age. The geology of this borehole was substantially different from that expected, with the Tongue Wash Fault encountered at a much shallower depth, paleozoic rocks shuffled out of stratigraphic sequence, and the presence of an altered biotite-rich microporphyritic igneous rock at the bottom of the borehole. Conodont CAI analyses and rock pyrolysis analyses indicate that the carbonate rocks in ER-12-1, as well as the intervening sheets of Eleana siltstone, have been thermally overprinted following movement on the faults that separate them. The probable source of heat for this thermal disturbance is the microporphyritic intrusion encountered at the bottom of the hole, and its age establishes that the major fault activity must have occurred prior to 102.3+0.5 Ma (middle Cretaceous).

  1. Characterization of ER,Cr:YSGG.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-03

    State, 2800 nm Lasers, Erbium Doped % 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reuers, if necessary and identify by bloack nurnberi A study of the spectroscopic and...laser properties of the crystal erbium -and chromium- doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) has been carried out. The absorption spectra...under pulsed excitation. Energy levels of the erbium ion have been determined. Analysis of the data shows that energy transfers from excited chromium

  2. Electrorheological (ER) Fluids: A Research Needs Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    control of their dynamic response to earthquakes and windstorms. The potential exists here to render nuclear power plants more resistant to earthquakes...of stress vs. strain as illustrated in Figure 2 (Gamota and Filisko 1991a). 5.9-9 T 4000 volts SHEAR 31 3000 vot STRESS or...from the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce. 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161, DOE’/ER/30O1 7)-. T UC-330,400

  3. Present statue of Japanese ERS-1 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishiwada, Yasufumi; Nemoto, Yoshiaki

    1986-01-01

    Earth Resources Satellite 1 (ERS-1) will be launched in the FY 1990 with the H-1 rocket from Tanegashima Space Center. ERS-1 will seek to firmly establish remote sensing technologies from space by using synthetic aperture radar and optical sensors, as well as primarily exploring for non-renewable resources and also monitoring for land use, agriculture, forestry, fishery, conservation of environment, prevention of disasters, and surveillance of coastal regions. ERS-1 is a joint project in which the main responsibility for the development of the mission equipment is assumed by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, MITI, and the Technology Research Association of Resources Remote Sensing System, while that for the satellite itself and launching rocket is assumed by the Science and Technology Agency (STA) and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA). In relation to this project, users have maintained a close working relationship with the manufacturers after submitting their requirements in 1984 on the specifications of the mission equipments. This missions parameters are outlined.

  4. ER contact sites direct late endosome transport.

    PubMed

    Wijdeven, Ruud H; Jongsma, Marlieke L M; Neefjes, Jacques; Berlin, Ilana

    2015-12-01

    Endosomes shuttle select cargoes between cellular compartments and, in doing so, maintain intracellular homeostasis and enable interactions with the extracellular space. Directionality of endosomal transport critically impinges on cargo fate, as retrograde (microtubule minus-end directed) traffic delivers vesicle contents to the lysosome for proteolysis, while the opposing anterograde (plus-end directed) movement promotes recycling and secretion. Intriguingly, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is emerging as a key player in spatiotemporal control of late endosome and lysosome transport, through the establishment of physical contacts with these organelles. Earlier studies have described how minus-end-directed motor proteins become discharged from vesicles engaged at such contact sites. Now, Raiborg et al. implicate ER-mediated interactions, induced by protrudin, in loading plus-end-directed motor kinesin-1 onto endosomes, thereby stimulating their transport toward the cell's periphery. In this review, we recast the prevailing concepts on bidirectional late endosome transport and discuss the emerging paradigm of inter-compartmental regulation from the ER-endosome interface viewpoint. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  5. ER stress, autophagy, and RNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Jheng, Jia-Rong; Ho, Jin-Yuan; Horng, Jim-Tong

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a general term for representing the pathway by which various stimuli affect ER functions. ER stress induces the evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways, called the unfolded protein response (UPR), which compromises the stimulus and then determines whether the cell survives or dies. In recent years, ongoing research has suggested that these pathways may be linked to the autophagic response, which plays a key role in the cell's response to various stressors. Autophagy performs a self-digestion function, and its activation protects cells against certain pathogens. However, the link between the UPR and autophagy may be more complicated. These two systems may act dependently, or the induction of one system may interfere with the other. Experimental studies have found that different viruses modulate these mechanisms to allow them to escape the host immune response or, worse, to exploit the host's defense to their advantage; thus, this topic is a critical area in antiviral research. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about how RNA viruses, including influenza virus, poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus 71, Japanese encephalitis virus, hepatitis C virus, and dengue virus, regulate these processes. We also discuss recent discoveries and how these will produce novel strategies for antiviral treatment. PMID:25140166

  6. MicroRNAs Meet Calcium: Joint Venture in ER Proteostasis

    PubMed Central

    Finger, Fabian; Hoppe, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular compartment that possesses a key function in protein translation and folding. Maintaining its integrity is of fundamental importance for organism’s physiology and viability. The dynamic regulation of intraluminal ER Ca2+ concentration directly influences the activity of ER-resident chaperones and stress response pathways that balance protein load and folding capacity. Here, we review the emerging evidence that microRNAs play important roles in adjusting these processes to frequently changing intracellular and environmental conditions to modify ER Ca2+ handling and storage and maintain ER homeostasis. PMID:25372053

  7. Optical properties of Er3 +-doped oxyfluoride glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Li; Wu, Yinsu

    2016-02-01

    Er3 +-singly doped and Er3 +/Yb3 +-codoped 50SiO2-(50 - x)BaF2-xZnF2(SBZx) oxyfluoride glasses are prepared and the optical properties of Er3 +-singly doped glasses are investigated by using the Judd-Ofelt theory. Bright green and red upconversion luminescence of Er3 +/Yb3 +-codoped glasses is obtained under 980 nm excitation. Furthermore, factors affecting this phenomenon such as glass composition, doping concentration of Er3 + and Yb3 + ions, and pump power are discussed in details.

  8. MicroRNAs meet calcium: joint venture in ER proteostasis.

    PubMed

    Finger, Fabian; Hoppe, Thorsten

    2014-11-04

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular compartment that has a key function in protein translation and folding. Maintaining its integrity is of fundamental importance for organism's physiology and viability. The dynamic regulation of intraluminal ER Ca(2+) concentration directly influences the activity of ER-resident chaperones and stress response pathways that balance protein load and folding capacity. We review the emerging evidence that microRNAs play important roles in adjusting these processes to frequently changing intracellular and environmental conditions to modify ER Ca(2+) handling and storage and maintain ER homeostasis. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Ternary system Er-Ni-In at T=870 K

    SciTech Connect

    Dzevenko, M.; Tyvanchuk, Yu.; Bratash, L.; Zaremba, V.; Havela, L.; Kalychak, Ya.

    2011-10-15

    Isothermal section of the Er-Ni-In system at T=870 K was constructed by means of X-ray powder diffraction and EDX-analyses. Nine ternary compounds, namely ErNi{sub 9}In{sub 2} (YNi{sub 9}In{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 1-1.22}Ni{sub 4}In{sub 1-0.78} (MgCu{sub 4}Sn-type), Er{sub 10}Ni{sub 9.07}In{sub 20} (Ho{sub 10}Ni{sub 9}In{sub 20}-type), ErNi{sub 1-0.60}In{sub 1-1.40} (ZrNiAl-type), Er{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}In (Mn{sub 2}AlB{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 2}Ni{sub 1.78}In (Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 4} (Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 4}-type), Er{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}-type), and Er{sub 13.53}Ni{sub 3.14}In{sub 3.33} (Lu{sub 14}Co{sub 2}In{sub 3}-type), exist in the Er-Ni-In system at this temperature. The substitution of Ni for In was observed for ErNi{sub 1-0.60}In{sub 1-1.40} and In for Er in the case of related compounds ErNi{sub 2} and ErNi{sub 4}In. Er can enter NiIn (CoSn-type) leading to including-substitution type of compound Er{sub 0-0.12}NiIn{sub 1-0.89}. Basic magnetic properties of the Er{sub 0.04}NiIn{sub 0.97}, ErNi{sub 2}, Er{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 0.1}, and ErNi{sub 4}In phases were inspected. Electrical-resistivity studies were performed on the ErNiIn, ErNi{sub 0.9}In{sub 1.1}, and ErNi{sub 4}In phases. - Graphical Abstract: Phase relations in the ternary system Er-Ni-In have been established for the isothermal section at T=870 K based on X-ray phase and EDX-analyses. Nine ternary compounds were observed. Highlights: > Isothermal section of Er-Ni-In system at T=870 K was constructed. > Nine ternary compounds were detected. > Basic magnetic properties of Er{sub 0.04}NiIn{sub 0.97} and ErNi{sub 4}In phases were inspected.

  10. Tamoxifen Action in ER-Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Manna, Subrata; Holz, Marina K

    2016-02-10

    Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease. Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator and is mainly indicated for the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women and postsurgery neoadjuvant therapy in ER-positive breast cancers. Interestingly, 5-10% of the ER-negative breast cancers have also shown sensitivity to tamoxifen treatment. The involvement of molecular markers and/or signaling pathways independent of ER signaling has been implicated in tamoxifen sensitivity in the ER-negative subgroup. Studies reveal that variation in the expression of estrogen-related receptor alpha, ER subtype beta, tumor microenvironment, and epigenetics affects tamoxifen sensitivity. This review discusses the background of the research on the action of tamoxifen that may inspire future studies to explore effective therapeutic strategies for the treatment of ER-negative and triple-negative breast cancers, the latter being an aggressive disease with worse clinical outcome.

  11. Tamoxifen Action in ER-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Subrata; Holz, Marina K.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease. Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator and is mainly indicated for the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women and postsurgery neoadjuvant therapy in ER-positive breast cancers. Interestingly, 5–10% of the ER-negative breast cancers have also shown sensitivity to tamoxifen treatment. The involvement of molecular markers and/or signaling pathways independent of ER signaling has been implicated in tamoxifen sensitivity in the ER-negative subgroup. Studies reveal that variation in the expression of estrogen-related receptor alpha, ER subtype beta, tumor microenvironment, and epigenetics affects tamoxifen sensitivity. This review discusses the background of the research on the action of tamoxifen that may inspire future studies to explore effective therapeutic strategies for the treatment of ER-negative and triple-negative breast cancers, the latter being an aggressive disease with worse clinical outcome. PMID:26989346

  12. Hair cycle control by estrogens: catagen induction via estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha is checked by ER beta signaling.

    PubMed

    Ohnemus, Ulrich; Uenalan, Murat; Conrad, Franziska; Handjiski, Bori; Mecklenburg, Lars; Nakamura, Motonobu; Inzunza, José; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Paus, Ralf

    2005-03-01

    Although 17beta-estradiol (E2) is recognized as a potent hair growth modulator, our knowledge of estrogen function, signaling, and target genes in hair biology is still very limited. Between the two recognized estrogen receptors (ERs), ER alpha and ER beta, only ER alpha had been detected in murine skin. Here we show that ER alpha, ER beta, and ER beta ins are all expressed throughout the murine hair cycle, both at the protein and RNA level, but show distinct expression patterns. We confirm that topical E2 arrests murine pelage hair follicles in telogen and demonstrate that E2 is a potent inducer of premature catagen development. The ER antagonist ICI 182.780 does not induce anagen prematurely but accelerates anagen development and wave spreading in female mice. ER beta knockout mice display accelerated catagen development along with an increase in the number of apoptotic hair follicle keratinocytes. This suggests that, contrary to previous concepts, ER beta does indeed play a significant role in murine hair growth control: whereas the catagen-promoting properties of E2 are mediated via ER alpha, ER beta mainly may function as a silencer of ER alpha action in hair biology. These findings illustrate the complexity of hair growth modulation by estrogens and suggest that one key to more effective hair growth manipulation with ER ligands lies in the use of selective ER alpha or -beta antagonists/agonists. Our study also underscores that the hair cycling response to estrogens offers an ideal model for studying the controls and dynamics of wave propagation in biological systems.

  13. Sec12 Binds to Sec16 at Transitional ER Sites

    PubMed Central

    Montegna, Elisabeth A.; Bhave, Madhura; Liu, Yang; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Glick, Benjamin S.

    2012-01-01

    COPII vesicles bud from an ER domain known as the transitional ER (tER). Assembly of the COPII coat is initiated by the transmembrane guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sec12. In the budding yeast Pichia pastoris, Sec12 is concentrated at tER sites. Previously, we found that the tER localization of P. pastoris Sec12 requires a saturable binding partner. We now show that this binding partner is Sec16, a peripheral membrane protein that functions in ER export and tER organization. One line of evidence is that overexpression of Sec12 delocalizes Sec12 to the general ER, but simultaneous overexpression of Sec16 retains overexpressed Sec12 at tER sites. Additionally, when P. pastoris Sec12 is expressed in S. cerevisiae, the exogenous Sec12 localizes to the general ER, but when P. pastoris Sec16 is expressed in the same cells, the exogenous Sec12 is recruited to tER sites. In both of these experimental systems, the ability of Sec16 to recruit Sec12 to tER sites is abolished by deleting a C-terminal fragment of Sec16. Biochemical experiments confirm that this C-terminal fragment of Sec16 binds to the cytosolic domain of Sec12. Similarly, we demonstrate that human Sec12 is concentrated at tER sites, likely due to association with a C-terminal fragment of Sec16A. These results suggest that a Sec12–Sec16 interaction has a conserved role in ER export. PMID:22347445

  14. Relationship between RUNX1 and AXIN1 in ER-negative versus ER-positive Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chimge, Nyam-Osor; Ahmed-Alnassar, Sara; Frenkel, Baruch

    2017-02-16

    RUNX1 plays opposing roles in breast cancer: a tumor suppressor in estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) disease and an oncogenic role in ER-negative (ER(-)) tumors. Potentially mediating the former, we have recently reported that RUNX1 prevents estrogen-driven suppression of the mRNA encoding the tumor suppressor AXIN1. Accordingly, AXIN1 protein expression was diminished upon RUNX1 silencing in ER(+) breast cancer cells and was positively correlated with AXIN1 protein expression across tumors with high levels of ER. Here we report the surprising observation that RUNX1 and AXIN1 proteins are strongly correlated in ER(-) tumors as well. However, this correlation is not attributable to regulation of AXIN1 by RUNX1 or vice versa. The unexpected correlation between RUNX1, playing an oncogenic role in ER(-) breast cancer, and AXIN1, a well-established tumor suppressor hub, may be related to a high ratio between the expression of variant 2 and variant 1 (v2/v1) of AXIN1 in ER(-) compared with ER(+) breast cancer. Although both isoforms are similarly regulated by RUNX1 in estrogen-stimulated ER(+) breast cancer cells, the higher v2/v1 ratio in ER(-) disease is expected to weaken the tumor suppressor activity of AXIN1 in these tumors.

  15. Global Assessment of Reprocessed ERS-1 and ERS-2 Altimetry (REAPER) Wind and Wave Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Saleh; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Janssen, Peter A. E. M.

    2016-08-01

    ESA has been committed to reprocess its Earth Observation Missions of ERS and ENVISAT to produce long and homogeneous time series suitable for climate studies. The full-mission reprocessing of the ERS Altimetry Level 2 REAPER was completed sometime ago. The REAPER wind and wave products are assessed mainly against ERA-Interim which is a rather consistent model run. Several numerical experiments were carried out in order to assess the impact of assimilating the reprocessed significant wave height data in the ECMWF wave model for potential use in the most recent ECMWF atmospheric reanalysis ERA-5. The results show positive impact.

  16. Bulk Er:YAP and Er:Yb:YAP optical emission studies for eyesafe laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, Efstratios; Boquillon, Jean-Pierre; Musset, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    Emission and excitation spectra of Er-doped YAP crystals reveal a broad emission band in the eyesafe region with peaks around 1545-nm and 1608-nm and pump-bands suitable for common 800-nm and 970-nm diode lasers, suggesting YAP as a candidate crystalline host for diode-pumped laser in the 1.5-μm eyesafe regime. Erbium-doped YAP-crystal results are comparable with analogous measurements on Er:Yb:YAG, which has already demostrated efficient lasing action in the eyesafe region.

  17. On the Use of an ER-213 Detonator to Establish a Baseline for the ER-486

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Keith A.; Liechty, Gary H.; Jaramillo, Dennis C.; Munger, Alan C.; McHugh, Douglas C.; Kennedy, James E.

    2014-08-19

    This report documents a series of tests using a TSD-115 fireset coupled with an ER-213, a gold exploding bridgewire (EBW) detonator. These tests were designed to fire this EBW with a smaller fireset to obtain current and voltage data as well as timing information at voltage levels below, above, and throughout the threshold firing region. This study could then create a database for comparison to our current ER-486 EBW development, which is designed to be a lower voltage (<500V) device.

  18. COPII-Dependent ER Export: A Critical Component of Insulin Biogenesis and β-Cell ER Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jingye; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Xuebao; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Taatjes, Douglas J; Jena, Bhanu P; Sun, Fei; Woods, James; Bryson, Tim; Kowluru, Anjaneyulu; Zhang, Kezhong; Chen, Xuequn

    2015-08-01

    Pancreatic β-cells possess a highly active protein synthetic and export machinery in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to accommodate the massive production of proinsulin. ER homeostasis is vital for β-cell functions and is maintained by the delicate balance between protein synthesis, folding, export, and degradation. Disruption of ER homeostasis by diabetes-causing factors leads to β-cell death. Among the 4 components to maintain ER homeostasis in β-cells, the role of ER export in insulin biogenesis is the least understood. To address this knowledge gap, the present study investigated the molecular mechanism of proinsulin ER export in MIN6 cells and primary islets. Two inhibitory mutants of the secretion-associated RAS-related protein (Sar)1 small GTPase, known to specifically block coat protein complex II (COPII)-dependent ER export, were overexpressed in β-cells using recombinant adenoviruses. Results from this approach, as well as small interfering RNA-mediated Sar1 knockdown, demonstrated that defective Sar1 function blocked proinsulin ER export and abolished its conversion to mature insulin in MIN6 cells, isolated mouse, and human islets. It is further revealed, using an in vitro vesicle formation assay, that proinsulin was packaged into COPII vesicles in a GTP- and Sar1-dependent manner. Blockage of COPII-dependent ER exit by Sar1 mutants strongly induced ER morphology change, ER stress response, and β-cell apoptosis. These responses were mediated by the PKR (double-stranded RNA-dependent kinase)-like ER kinase (PERK)/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α) and inositol-requiring protein 1 (IRE1)/x-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1) pathways but not via activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Collectively, results from the study demonstrate that COPII-dependent ER export plays a vital role in insulin biogenesis, ER homeostasis, and β-cell survival.

  19. COPII-Dependent ER Export: A Critical Component of Insulin Biogenesis and β-Cell ER Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jingye; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Xuebao; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Taatjes, Douglas J.; Jena, Bhanu P.; Sun, Fei; Woods, James; Bryson, Tim; Kowluru, Anjaneyulu; Zhang, Kezhong

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic β-cells possess a highly active protein synthetic and export machinery in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to accommodate the massive production of proinsulin. ER homeostasis is vital for β-cell functions and is maintained by the delicate balance between protein synthesis, folding, export, and degradation. Disruption of ER homeostasis by diabetes-causing factors leads to β-cell death. Among the 4 components to maintain ER homeostasis in β-cells, the role of ER export in insulin biogenesis is the least understood. To address this knowledge gap, the present study investigated the molecular mechanism of proinsulin ER export in MIN6 cells and primary islets. Two inhibitory mutants of the secretion-associated RAS-related protein (Sar)1 small GTPase, known to specifically block coat protein complex II (COPII)-dependent ER export, were overexpressed in β-cells using recombinant adenoviruses. Results from this approach, as well as small interfering RNA-mediated Sar1 knockdown, demonstrated that defective Sar1 function blocked proinsulin ER export and abolished its conversion to mature insulin in MIN6 cells, isolated mouse, and human islets. It is further revealed, using an in vitro vesicle formation assay, that proinsulin was packaged into COPII vesicles in a GTP- and Sar1-dependent manner. Blockage of COPII-dependent ER exit by Sar1 mutants strongly induced ER morphology change, ER stress response, and β-cell apoptosis. These responses were mediated by the PKR (double-stranded RNA-dependent kinase)-like ER kinase (PERK)/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α) and inositol-requiring protein 1 (IRE1)/x-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1) pathways but not via activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Collectively, results from the study demonstrate that COPII-dependent ER export plays a vital role in insulin biogenesis, ER homeostasis, and β-cell survival. PMID:26083833

  20. Caffeine attenuated ER stress-induced leptin resistance in neurons.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Toru; Toyoda, Keisuke; Nakatsu, Kanako; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2014-05-21

    Exposing the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to stress causes the accumulation of unfolded proteins, and subsequently results in ER stress. ER stress may be involved in various disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Leptin is an important circulating hormone, that inhibits food intake and accelerates energy consumption, which suppresses body weight gain. Recent studies demonstrated that leptin resistance is one of the main factors involved in the development of obesity. We and other groups recently reported the role of ER stress in the development of leptin resistance. Therefore, identifying drugs that target ER stress may be a promising fundamental strategy for the treatment of obesity. In the present study, we investigated whether caffeine could affect ER stress and the subsequent development of leptin resistance. We showed that caffeine exhibited chaperone activity, which attenuated protein aggregation. Caffeine also inhibited the ER stress-induced activation of IRE1 and PERK, which suggested the attenuation of ER stress. Moreover, caffeine markedly improved ER stress-induced impairments in the leptin-induced phosphorylation of STAT3. Therefore, these results suggest caffeine may have pharmacological properties that ameliorate leptin resistance by reducing ER stress.

  1. Developing ER Stress Inhibitors for Treating ALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    Page 1. Introduction…………………………………………………………. 1 2. Body …….……………………………………………………………. 1 3. Accomplishments...ER) stress pathways in motor neurons of affected individuals. Apoptosis signal- regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a critical signaling molecule involved... Body : The Specific Aims of this project are: Aim 1: Design and synthesize small molecule modulators of ASK1 that are potent, selective, brain

  2. Atomic transition probabilities of Er i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, J. E.; Wyart, J.-F.; Den Hartog, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Atomic transition probabilities for 562 lines of the first spectrum of erbium (Er i) are reported. These data are from new branching fraction measurements on Fourier transform spectra normalized with previously reported radiative lifetimes from time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence measurements (Den Hartog et al 2010 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43 155004). The wavelength range of the data set is from 298 to 1981 nm. In this work we explore the utility of parametric fits based on the Cowan code in assessing branching fraction errors due to lines connecting to unobserved lower levels.

  3. Spectrofluorimetric determination of Er (III) with diantipyrylmethane.

    PubMed

    Sungur, S

    2001-02-01

    The optimum fluorescence conditions for erbium (III) are obtained by irradiating this lanthanide at 435 nm in 0.04 microg ml(-1) diantipyrylmethane solution at pH = 8 (lambdaem = 510 nm). The method proposed is satisfactory for the determination of erbium (III) in the range of 0.001 to 1 microg ml(-1). The relative standard deviation 0.02 microg ml(-1) Er (III) in 0.04 microg ml(-1) diantipyrylmethane solution is 1.1%. The effect of other rare earths upon the intensity of the fluorescence emitted by erbium (III) is discussed.

  4. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Navigation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strub, Richard; Dominguez, Roseanne; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS Staff Science effort covered those activities that were BOREAS community-level activities or required uniform data collection procedures across sites and time. These activities included the acquisition, processing, and archiving of aircraft navigation/attitude data to complement the digital image data. The level-0 ER-2 navigation data files contain aircraft attitude and position information acquired during the digital image and photographic data collection missions. Temporally, the data were acquired from April to September 1994. Data were recorded at intervals of 5 seconds. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  5. Obesity and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Yamini B.; Pandey, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    In obesity, the adipose cells behave as inflammatory source and result to low grade inflammation. This systemic inflammation along with oxidative stress is a silent killer and damages other vital organs also. High metabolic process, induced due to high nutritional intake, results to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial stress. This review describes the triggering factor and basic mechanism behind the obesity mediated these stresses in relation to inflammation. Efforts have been made to describe the effect-response cycle between adipocytes and non-adipocyte cells with reference to metabolic syndrome (MS). PMID:22891067

  6. Ground-motion prediction equations for the average horizontal component of PGA, PGV, and 5%-damped PSA at spectral periods between 0.01 s and 10.0 s

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.; Atkinson, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper contains ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for average horizontal-component ground motions as a function of earthquake magnitude, distance from source to site, local average shear-wave velocity, and fault type. Our equations are for peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), and 5%-damped pseudo-absolute-acceleration spectra (PSA) at periods between 0.01 s and 10 s. They were derived by empirical regression of an extensive strong-motion database compiled by the 'PEER NGA' (Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center's Next Generation Attenuation) project. For periods less than 1 s, the analysis used 1,574 records from 58 mainshocks in the distance range from 0 km to 400 km (the number of available data decreased as period increased). The primary predictor variables are moment magnitude (M), closest horizontal distance to the surface projection of the fault plane (RJB), and the time-averaged shear-wave velocity from the surface to 30 m (VS30). The equations are applicable for M=5-8, RJB<200 km, and VS30= 180-1300 m/s. ?? 2008, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  7. ER/PR Status of the Originating Cell of ER-Negative Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    levels. Therefore, the best ER BAC clon available at this time cannot express an However, while we were in the process of starting to make TVA...knock-in, we found the following surprise result that provides an alternati We have also created a transgenic line expressing tva from the whey acidic

  8. Infrared radiometry of dental enamel during Er:YAG and Er:YSGG laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Visuri, Steven R.; Featherstone, John D.; Walsh, Joseph T.; Seka, Wolf D.; Glena, Richard E.; McCormack, Sandra M.; Wigdor, Harvey A.

    1996-10-01

    Time-resolved infrared radiometry was used to measure surface temperatures during pulsed Er:YSGG and Er:YAG laser irradiation of dental enamel. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the melting and vaporization thresholds and to characterize other changes in the surface morphology. The magnitude and temporal evolution of the surface temperature during multiple-pulse irradiation of the tissue was dependant on the wavelength, fluence, and pre- exposure to laser pulses. Radiometry and SEM micrographs indicate that ablation is initiated at temperatures well below the melting and vaporization temperatures of the carbonated hydroxyapatite mineral component. Ablation occurred at lower surface temperatures and at a lower fluences for Er:YAG than for Er:YSGG laser irradiation: 400 degrees C versus 800 degrees C and above 7 J/cm2 versus 18/Jcm2, respectively. However, the measured surface temperatures were higher at (lambda) equals 2.79 (Mu) m than at (lambda) equals 2.94 during low fluence irradiation. Spatially dependent absorption in the enamel matrix is proposed to explain this apparent contradiction.

  9. Crystal Lattice Defects in MBE Grown Si Layers Heavily Doped with Er

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, N. D.; Werner, P.; Vdovin, V. I.; Denisov, D. V.; Sobolev, N. A.; Gösele, U.

    The main types of crystal structure defects in [Er]>2×1019 doped layers are: (i) spherical Er and (ii) ellipsoidal ErSi precipitates, as well as (iii) ErSi2 platelets on {111} planes. In the sample with [Er]=4x1019, small complexes consisting of tiny Er precipitates and four petals of ErSi2 platelets have been found additionally. The layer with [Er]= 8×1018 cm-3 was defect free. The formation of silicides from a supersaturated solid solution and Er precipitates is accompanied by the emission of vacancies V resulting in the formation of pores, V-V and V-Er complexes.

  10. Dysfunction of Wntless triggers the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport of Wingless and induces ER stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Lujun; Pei, Chunli; Lin, Xinhua; Yuan, Zengqiang

    2016-02-18

    Secreted Wnts play diverse roles in a non-cell-autonomous fashion. However, the cell-autonomous effect of unsecreted Wnts remains unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is observed in specialized secretory cells and participates in pathophysiological processes. The correlation between Wnt secretion and ER stress remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that Drosophila miR-307a initiates ER stress specifically in wingless (wg)-expressing cells through targeting wntless (wls/evi). This phenotype could be mimicked by retromer loss-of-function or porcupine (porc) depletion, and rescued by wg knockdown, arguing that unsecreted Wg triggers ER stress. Consistently, we found that disrupting the secretion of human Wnt5a also induced ER stress in mammalian cells. Furthermore, we showed that a C-terminal KKVY-motif of Wg is required for its retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport, thus inducing ER stress. Next, we investigated if COPI, the regulator of retrograde transport, is responsible for unsecreted Wg to induce ER stress. To our surprise, we found that COPI acts as a novel regulator of Wg secretion. Taken together, this study reveals a previously unknown Golgi-to-ER retrograde route of Wg, and elucidates a correlation between Wnt secretion and ER stress during development.

  11. Dysfunction of Wntless triggers the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport of Wingless and induces ER stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Lujun; Pei, Chunli; Lin, Xinhua; Yuan, Zengqiang

    2016-01-01

    Secreted Wnts play diverse roles in a non-cell-autonomous fashion. However, the cell-autonomous effect of unsecreted Wnts remains unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is observed in specialized secretory cells and participates in pathophysiological processes. The correlation between Wnt secretion and ER stress remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that Drosophila miR-307a initiates ER stress specifically in wingless (wg)-expressing cells through targeting wntless (wls/evi). This phenotype could be mimicked by retromer loss-of-function or porcupine (porc) depletion, and rescued by wg knockdown, arguing that unsecreted Wg triggers ER stress. Consistently, we found that disrupting the secretion of human Wnt5a also induced ER stress in mammalian cells. Furthermore, we showed that a C-terminal KKVY-motif of Wg is required for its retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport, thus inducing ER stress. Next, we investigated if COPI, the regulator of retrograde transport, is responsible for unsecreted Wg to induce ER stress. To our surprise, we found that COPI acts as a novel regulator of Wg secretion. Taken together, this study reveals a previously unknown Golgi-to-ER retrograde route of Wg, and elucidates a correlation between Wnt secretion and ER stress during development. PMID:26887613

  12. Magnetic properties of ErN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, C.; Ruck, B. J.; Preston, A. R. H.; Granville, S.; Williams, G. V. M.; Trodahl, H. J.

    2010-07-01

    We report a magnetization study of stoichiometric ErN nanocrystalline films grown on Si and protected by a GaN passivating layer. According to the temperature dependence of the resistivity the films are heavily doped semiconductors. Above 100 K the magnetization data fit well to a Curie-Weiss behavior with a moment expected within the free-ion ErJ={15}/{2} multiplet. Below 50 K the Curie-Weiss plot steepens to an effective moment corresponding to that in the crystal-field determined quartet ground state, and develops a clear paramagnetic Curie-Weiss temperature of about 4.5 K. Zero-field- and field-cooled magnetization curves and the AC susceptibility firmly establish a ferromagnetic ground state within that multiplet below a Curie temperature of 6.3±0.7 K. Due to the (1 1 1) texture of the film the comparison between the magnetization behavior, when the field is applied parallel and perpendicular to the film plane, gives new information about the magnetic structure. An arrangement of the moments according to the model derived from neutron diffraction for bulk HoN is strongly suggested.

  13. Validation of ERS-1 environmental data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodberlet, Mark A.; Swift, Calvin T.; Wilkerson, John C.

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation of the launch-version algorithms used by the European Space Agency (ESA) to derive wind field and ocean wave estimates from measurements of sensors aboard the European Remote Sensing satellite, ERS-1, has been accomplished through comparison of the derived parameters with coincident measurements made by 24 open ocean buoys maintained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). During the period from November 1, 1991 through February 28, 1992, data bases with 577 and 485 pairs of coincident sensor/buoy wind and wave measurements were collected for the Active Microwave Instrument (AMI) and Radar Altimeter (RA) respectively. Based on these data, algorithm retrieval accuracy is estimated to be plus or minus 4 m/s for AMI wind speed, plus or minus 3 m/s for RA wind speed and plus or minus 0.6 m for RA wave height. After removing 180 degree ambiguity errors, the AMI wind direction retrieval accuracy was estimated at plus or minus 28 degrees. All of the ERS-1 wind and wave retrievals are relatively unbiased. These results should be viewed as interim since improved algorithms are under development. As final versions are implemented, additional assessments should be conducted to complete the validation.

  14. ER chaperones in neurodegenerative disease: Folding and beyond.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Huerta, Paula; Bargsted, Leslie; Rivas, Alexis; Matus, Soledad; Vidal, Rene L

    2016-10-01

    Proteins along the secretory pathway are co-translationally translocated into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as unfolded polypeptide chains. Afterwards, they are usually modified with N-linked glycans, correctly folded and stabilized by disulfide bonds. ER chaperones and folding enzymes control these processes. The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER activates a signaling response, termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The hallmark of this response is the coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of ER chaperones and folding enzymes. In order to discuss the importance of the proper folding of certain substrates we will address the role of ER chaperones in normal physiological conditions and examine different aspects of its contribution in neurodegenerative disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:ER stress.

  15. Fluvoxamine alleviates ER stress via induction of Sigma-1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Omi, T; Tanimukai, H; Kanayama, D; Sakagami, Y; Tagami, S; Okochi, M; Morihara, T; Sato, M; Yanagida, K; Kitasyoji, A; Hara, H; Imaizumi, K; Maurice, T; Chevallier, N; Marchal, S; Takeda, M; Kudo, T

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) expression through the PERK pathway, which is one of the cell's responses to ER stress. In addition, it has been demonstrated that induction of Sig-1R can repress cell death signaling. Fluvoxamine (Flv) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with a high affinity for Sig-1R. In the present study, we show that treatment of neuroblastoma cells with Flv induces Sig-1R expression by increasing ATF4 translation directly, through its own activation, without involvement of the PERK pathway. The Flv-mediated induction of Sig-1R prevents neuronal cell death resulting from ER stress. Moreover, Flv-induced ER stress resistance reduces the infarct area in mice after focal cerebral ischemia. Thus, Flv, which is used frequently in clinical practice, can alleviate ER stress. This suggests that Flv could be a feasible therapy for cerebral diseases caused by ER stress. PMID:25032855

  16. Cooperative Dynamics of AR and ER Activity in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Nicholas C; Gordon, Michael A; Babbs, Beatrice; Spoelstra, Nicole S; Carson Butterfield, Kiel T; Torkko, Kathleen C; Phan, Vernon T; Barton, Valerie N; Rogers, Thomas J; Sartorius, Carol A; Elias, Anthony; Gertz, Jason; Jacobsen, Britta M; Richer, Jennifer K

    2016-11-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) is expressed in 90% of estrogen receptor alpha-positive (ER(+)) breast tumors, but its role in tumor growth and progression remains controversial. Use of two anti-androgens that inhibit AR nuclear localization, enzalutamide and MJC13, revealed that AR is required for maximum ER genomic binding. Here, a novel global examination of AR chromatin binding found that estradiol induced AR binding at unique sites compared with dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Estradiol-induced AR-binding sites were enriched for estrogen response elements and had significant overlap with ER-binding sites. Furthermore, AR inhibition reduced baseline and estradiol-mediated proliferation in multiple ER(+)/AR(+) breast cancer cell lines, and synergized with tamoxifen and fulvestrant. In vivo, enzalutamide significantly reduced viability of tamoxifen-resistant MCF7 xenograft tumors and an ER(+)/AR(+) patient-derived model. Enzalutamide also reduced metastatic burden following cardiac injection. Finally, in a comparison of ER(+)/AR(+) primary tumors versus patient-matched local recurrences or distant metastases, AR expression was often maintained even when ER was reduced or absent. These data provide preclinical evidence that anti-androgens that inhibit AR nuclear localization affect both AR and ER, and are effective in combination with current breast cancer therapies. In addition, single-agent efficacy may be possible in tumors resistant to traditional endocrine therapy, as clinical specimens of recurrent disease demonstrate AR expression in tumors with absent or refractory ER. This study suggests that AR plays a previously unrecognized role in supporting E2-mediated ER activity in ER(+)/AR(+) breast cancer cells, and that enzalutamide may be an effective therapeutic in ER(+)/AR(+) breast cancers. Mol Cancer Res; 14(11); 1054-67. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Fluorescence of Er3+:AlN Polycrystalline Ceramic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    using heating techniques and sintering aids such as hot pressing with Ca(NO3)2•4H2O [19], spark plasma sintering with CaF2 [20], and pressureless...Cleveland, OH, U.S.A.) to determine the levels of Er before and after sintering . The starting powders (measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma ...optical spectroscopy of Er3+ doped into bulk AlN ceramic. The material was prepared via hot press sintering of AlN with Er2O3 and [NH4][ErF4], which

  18. Ire1 supports normal ER differentiation in developing Drosophila photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zuyuan; Chikka, Madhusudana Rao; Xia, Hongai; Ready, Donald F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) serves virtually all aspects of cell physiology and, by pathways that are incompletely understood, is dynamically remodeled to meet changing cell needs. Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (Ire1), a conserved core protein of the unfolded protein response (UPR), participates in ER remodeling and is particularly required during the differentiation of cells devoted to intense secretory activity, so-called ‘professional’ secretory cells. Here, we characterize the role of Ire1 in ER differentiation in the developing Drosophila compound eye photoreceptors (R cells). As part of normal development, R cells take a turn as professional secretory cells with a massive secretory effort that builds the photosensitive membrane organelle, the rhabdomere. We find rough ER sheets proliferate as rhabdomere biogenesis culminates, and Ire1 is required for normal ER differentiation. Ire1 is active early in R cell development and is required in anticipation of peak biosynthesis. Without Ire1, the amount of rough ER sheets is strongly reduced and the extensive cortical ER network at the rhabdomere base, the subrhabdomere cisterna (SRC), fails. Instead, ER proliferates in persistent and ribosome-poor tubular tangles. A phase of Ire1 activity early in R cell development thus shapes dynamic ER. PMID:26787744

  19. Links between ER stress and autophagy in plants.

    PubMed

    Pu, Yunting; Bassham, Diane C

    2013-06-01

    Autophagy is a major pathway for the delivery of proteins or organelles to be degraded in the vacuole and recycled. It can be induced by abiotic stresses, senescence, and pathogen infection. Recent research has shown that autophagy is activated by ER stress. Here we review the major progress that has been made in the study of autophagy and ER stress in plants, and describe the links between ER stress and autophagy to guide further study on how autophagy is regulated in response to ER stress.

  20. Lanthanum Titanate Nanoparticles ER Fluids with High Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, De; Shen, Rong; Wei, Shiqiang; Lu, Kunquan

    A new type of electrorheological (ER) fluid consisting of lanthanum titanate (LTO) nanoparticles is developed. The ER fluids were prepared by suspending LTO powder in silicone oil and the particles were fabricated by wet chemical method. This ER fluid shows excellent ER properties: The static yield stress reaches over 150 kPa under 5 kV/mm with linear dependence on the applied DC electric field, and the current density is below 10 μA/cm2. In order to investigate the affect factor on the ER behavior, the LTO powder were heated under different temperatures. The ER performances of two particles treated under different temperatures were compared and the composition changes for those particles were analyzed with TG-FTIR technique. It was found that the static yield stress of the suspensions fell from over 150 kPa to about 40 kPa and the current densities decreased prominently as the rise of the heating temperature. TG-FTIR analysis indicated that polar groups remained in the particles such as alkyl group, hydroxyl group and carbonyl group etc., contribute to the ER effect significantly. The experimental results are helpful to understand the mechanism of the high ER effect and to synthesize better ER materials.

  1. Role of SERCA1 Truncated Isoform in the Proapoptotic Calcium Transfer from ER to Mitochondria during ER Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chami, Mounia; Oulès, Bénédicte; Szabadkai, György; Tacine, Rachida; Rizzuto, Rosario; Paterlini-Bréchot, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Among the new players at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria interface regulating interorganelle calcium signaling, those specifically involved during ER stress are not known at present. We report here that the truncated variant of the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 1 (S1T) amplifies ER stress through the PERK-eIF2α-ATF4-CHOP pathway. S1T, which is localized in the ER-mitochondria microdomains, determines ER Ca2+ depletion due to increased Ca2+ leak, an increased number of ER-mitochondria contact sites, and inhibition of mitochondria movements. This leads to increased Ca2+ transfer to mitochondria in both resting and stimulated conditions and activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Interestingly, S1T knockdown was shown to prevent ER stress, mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, and subsequent apoptosis. Thus, by bridging ER stress to apoptosis through increased ER-mitochondria Ca2+ transfer, S1T acts as an essential determinant of cellular fate. PMID:19061639

  2. Defect structures and optical characteristics of Er3+ ion in Er:LiNbO3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yannan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Biao; Xu, Chao; Xing, Lili; Xu, Yanling

    2013-03-01

    Congruent Er:LiNbO3 crystals were grown by Czochraski method. The OH- absorption and UV-vis-near infrared absorption spectra indicated that Er3+ cluster sites were formed in LiNbO3 crystal doped with 3 mol% Er3+ ions. Studies on the stokes and anti-stokes spectra showed that the formation of Er3+ cluster sites could increase the rate of cross relaxation processes. Judd-Ofelt theory was carried out to discuss the spectral characteristics of Er3+ ions in Er:LiNbO3 crystals. Based on Füchtbauer-Ladenburg and McCumber theory, the emission cross section of the 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition of Er3+ ion was calculated, and the potential laser performance was evaluated by the gain cross section spectra. Er:LiNbO3 crystal codoped with Zn2+ ions was also grown to discuss the relation between the defect structure and optical characteristics of Er3+ ion.

  3. ER trapping reveals Golgi enzymes continually revisit the ER through a recycling pathway that controls Golgi organization

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Prabuddha; Satpute-Krishnan, Prasanna; Seo, Arnold Y.; Burnette, Dylan T.; Patterson, George H.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Whether Golgi enzymes remain localized within the Golgi or constitutively cycle through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is unclear, yet is important for understanding Golgi dependence on the ER. Here, we demonstrate that the previously reported inefficient ER trapping of Golgi enzymes in a rapamycin-based assay results from an artifact involving an endogenous ER-localized 13-kD FK506 binding protein (FKBP13) competing with the FKBP12-tagged Golgi enzyme for binding to an FKBP-rapamycin binding domain (FRB)-tagged ER trap. When we express an FKBP12-tagged ER trap and FRB-tagged Golgi enzymes, conditions precluding such competition, the Golgi enzymes completely redistribute to the ER upon rapamycin treatment. A photoactivatable FRB-Golgi enzyme, highlighted only in the Golgi, likewise redistributes to the ER. These data establish Golgi enzymes constitutively cycle through the ER. Using our trapping scheme, we identify roles of rab6a and calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) in Golgi enzyme recycling, and show that retrograde transport of Golgi membrane underlies Golgi dispersal during microtubule depolymerization and mitosis. PMID:26598700

  4. Final Technical Report for Award # ER64999

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, William W.

    2014-10-08

    This report provides a summary of activities for Award # ER64999, a Genomes to Life Project funded by the Office of Science, Basic Energy Research. The project was entitled "Methanogenic archaea and the global carbon cycle: a systems biology approach to the study of Methanosarcina species". The long-term goal of this multi-investigator project was the creation of integrated, multiscale models that accurately and quantitatively predict the role of Methanosarcina species in the global carbon cycle under dynamic environmental conditions. To achieve these goals we pursed four specific aims: (1) genome sequencing of numerous members of the Order Methanosarcinales, (2) identification of genomic sources of phenotypic variation through in silico comparative genomics, (3) elucidation of the transcriptional networks of two Methanosarcina species, and (4) development of comprehensive metabolic network models for characterized strains to address the question of how metabolic models scale with genetic distance.

  5. Efficient 1645-nm Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, York E.; Setzler, Scott D.; Snell, Kevin J.; Budni, Peter A.; Pollak, Thomas M.; Chicklis, E. P.

    2004-05-01

    We report a resonantly fiber-laser-pumped Er:YAG laser operating at the eye-safe wavelength of 1645 nm, exhibiting 43% optical efficiency and 54% incident slope efficiency and emitting 7-W average power when repetitively Q switched at 10 kHz. To our knowledge, this is the best performance (conversion efficiency and average power) obtained from a bulk solid-state Q-switched erbium laser. At a 1.1-kHz pulse repetition frequency the laser produces 3.4-mJ pulses with a corresponding peak power of 162 kW. Frequency doubling to produce 822.5-nm, 4.7-kW pulses at 10 kHz was performed to demonstrate the laser's utility.

  6. ER@CEBAF: Modeling code developments

    SciTech Connect

    Meot, F.; Roblin, Y.

    2016-04-13

    A proposal for a multiple-pass, high energy, energy-recovery experiment using CEBAF is under preparation in the frame of a JLab-BNL collaboration. In view of beam dynamics investigations regarding this project, in addition to the existing model in use in Elegant a version of CEBAF is developed in the stepwise ray-tracing code Zgoubi, Beyond the ER experiment, it is also planned to use the latter for the study of polarization transport in the presence of synchrotron radiation, down to Hall D line where a 12 GeV polarized beam can be delivered. This Note briefly reports on the preliminary steps, and preliminary outcomes, based on an Elegant to Zgoubi translation.

  7. Spectroscopy of the Er-doped lithium tetraborate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padlyak, B. V.; Lisiecki, R.; Ryba-Romanowski, W.

    2016-04-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), optical absorption, and luminescence (emission and excitation) spectra as well as luminescence kinetics of the Er-doped glasses with Li2B4O7 composition were investigated and analysed. The high optical quality glasses with Li2B4O7:Er composition containing 0.5 and 1.0 mol.% Er2O3 were obtained from corresponding polycrystalline compound by standard glass synthesis. The EPR spectroscopy in the 4.2-300 K temperature range and optical spectroscopy at 300 K show that the Er impurity is incorporated into the network of Li2B4O7 glass as Er3+ (4f11, 4I15/2) ions, exclusively. The local structure of the Er3+ luminescence centres in Li sites of the glass network is proposed. Based on the standard Judd-Ofelt theory the oscillator strength (Pcal) and experimental oscillator strength (Pexp) for observed absorption transitions as well as phenomenological intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4, Ω6) for Er3+ centres in the Li2B4O7:Er glass containing 1.0 mol.% Er2O3 were calculated. Spectroscopic parameters of relevance for laser applications, including emission probabilities of transitions (Wr), branching ratios (β), and radiative lifetime (τrad) have been calculated for main observed emission transitions of the Er3+ centres in Li2B4O7:Er glasses. Experimental and calculated lifetimes were compared and quantum efficiency (η) for green (4S3/2 → 4I15/2 transition) and infrared (4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition) emission bands has been estimated.

  8. David A. Wright in ER-2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-27

    David A. Wright is associate director for Center Operations at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. He was formerly director of Flight Operations. He is also a research pilot, flying NASA's ER-2 and T-38. The ER-2s are civilian variants of the military U-2S reconnaissance aircraft and carry scientific instruments to study the Earth during worldwide deployments. Wright has more than 4,500 hours in six different aircraft. He held the position of deputy director of the Airborne Science Program at Dryden from 2002 until 2004. Wright came to Dryden after retiring from the U.S. Air Force as a lieutenant colonel. His final assignment was to the Joint Staff J3, Directorate of Operations at the Pentagon from November 1996 until August 1999. Prior to the Pentagon assignment, he served as commander of the 1st Reconnaissance Squadron at Beale Air Force Base near Marysville, Calif., the unit responsible for training all U-2 pilots. He was the operations officer for one the largest U-2 operations in history, flying combat missions against Iraq and managing an unprecedented U-2 flying schedule during the 1991 Desert Storm conflict. He was selected for the Air Force U-2 program in 1987 following duty as an aircraft commander in the E-3A AWACS (Airborne Warning and Control System) aircraft. Wright was a T-38 instructor for three years at Reese Air Force Base, Lubbock, Texas, following completion of pilot training in 1978. He graduated from the U.S. Air Force Academy in 1977 with a Bachelor of Science in mathematics and computer science. Wright earned a Master of Arts in Adult Education from Troy State University, Montgomery, Ala., in 1987, and a Master of Science in National Security and Strategic Studies from the Naval War College, Newport, R.I., in 1995.

  9. Apoptosis/Necrosis Induction by Ultraviolet, in ER Positive and ER Negative Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Shokrollahi Barough, Mahdieh; Hasanzadeh, Hadi; Barati, Mehdi; Pak, Fatemeh; Kokhaei, Parviz; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ultraviolet (UV) light exposure has been one of the major inducers of apoptosis. UV exposure has caused pyrimidine dimers and DNA fragmentation which might lead to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis signals activation. UV induced apoptosis has investigated in MDA-MB 468 as an ER negative breast adenocarcinoma and MCF-7 as an ER positive breast cancer cell line. Apoptosis induction rate by UV might be different in these two types of cells due to different biological characteristics of the cell. Objectives: In this paper we have evaluated serial dose of UV-B exposure on ER positive and ER negative breast cancer cell lines and its effect on apoptosis or necrosis induction in these cells. Materials and Methods: MDA-MB468 and MCF-7 cell lines have cultured for 24 hours and UV exposure has carried out at 290 nm at dose of 154 J/m2 to 18 KJ/m2 using UV lamp. UV exposed cells have incubated in cell culture condition for 24 or 48 hours following UV exposure and the cells have stained and analyzed by flow cytometry for apoptosis evaluation by Annexin V/PI method. Results: Apoptosis rate (PI and Annexin V double positive cells) after 24 hours incubation was higher in 24 hours in comparison with 48 hours incubation in both cell lines. The frequency of PI positive MDA-MB 468 cells was higher than PI and Annexin V double positive cells after 48 hours. PI positive MDA-MB 468 cells were significantly higher than MCF-7 cells in 24 hours incubation time. Conclusions: The results have shown that MDA-MB 468 cells were more sensitive to UV exposure and DNA fragmentation and necrosis pathway was dominant in these cells. PMID:26855725

  10. Reaction Diffusion Modeling of Calcium Dynamics with Realistic ER Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Means, Shawn; Smith, Alexander J.; Shepherd, Jason; Shadid, John; Fowler, John; Wojcikiewicz, Richard J. H.; Mazel, Tomas; Smith, Gregory D.; Wilson, Bridget S.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a finite-element model of mast cell calcium dynamics that incorporates the endoplasmic reticulum's complex geometry. The model is built upon a three-dimensional reconstruction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from an electron tomographic tilt series. Tetrahedral meshes provide volumetric representations of the ER lumen, ER membrane, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane. The reaction-diffusion model simultaneously tracks changes in cytoplasmic and ER intraluminal calcium concentrations and includes luminal and cytoplasmic protein buffers. Transport fluxes via PMCA, SERCA, ER leakage, and Type II IP3 receptors are also represented. Unique features of the model include stochastic behavior of IP3 receptor calcium channels and comparisons of channel open times when diffusely distributed or aggregated in clusters on the ER surface. Simulations show that IP3R channels in close proximity modulate activity of their neighbors through local Ca2+ feedback effects. Cytoplasmic calcium levels rise higher, and ER luminal calcium concentrations drop lower, after IP3-mediated release from receptors in the diffuse configuration. Simulation results also suggest that the buffering capacity of the ER, and not restricted diffusion, is the predominant factor influencing average luminal calcium concentrations. PMID:16617072

  11. Stability and optical activity of Er implanted MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, J. V.; da Silva, R. C.; Alves, E.; Soares, M. J.; Monteiro, T.; González, R.

    2004-06-01

    MgO single crystals were implanted with Er ions to a fluence of 5 × 10 15 ions/cm 2. The implantations were carried out at room temperature with an energy of 150 keV. Despite the large amount of damage produced during the implantation the Er ions are incorporated in optically active sites. Photoluminescence measurements at 77 K reveal the presence of the fingerprint Er 3+ emission at 1.54 μm due to 4I 13/2 → 4I 15/2 transition. Angular scans performed through the main axes show complete overlap between Er and magnesium curves. Subsequent annealing in a reducing atmosphere at 1000 °C for 1 h leads to the recovery of the implantation damage. During the annealing the fraction of Er in Mg sites decreases from 100% to 53%. This movement of the Er ions is accompanied by changes in the optical spectra. Further annealing for 2 h at the same temperature leads to more precipitation of Er into random sites, whereby the fraction of Er in Mg lattice sites decreases to 20% while there is an enhancement of optical activity.

  12. Operational durability of a giant ER valve for Braille display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luning, Xu; Han, Li; Yufei, Li; Shen, Rong; Kunquan, Lu

    2017-05-01

    The compact configuration of giant ER (electrorheological) valves provides the possibility of realizing a full-page Braille display. The operational durability of ER valves is a key issue in fulfilling a Braille display. A giant ER valve was used to investigate the variations in pressure drops and critical pressure drops of the valves over a long period under some typical operational parameters. The results indicate that neither the pressure drops nor critical pressure drops of giant ER valves show apparent deterioration over a long period. Without ER fluid exchange, a blockage appears in the channel of the valve because the ER structures induced by an external electric field cannot be broken by the Brownian motion of hydraulic oil molecules when the external electric field is removed. Forcing ER fluid flow is an effective and necessary method to keep the channel of the valve unblocked. Thus the operational durability of the valve using giant ER fluids is able to meet the demands of Braille display.

  13. The Electrocardiogram of an ER Patient With Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Panneerselvam, Arunkumar; Ananthakrishna, Rajiv; Bhat, Prabhavathi; Nanjappa, Manjunath C

    2011-01-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is an essential investigation in the evaluation of chest pain in the emergency room (ER). Correct interpretation of the ECG findings, determines the diagnosis and management strategy. This ECG spot diagnosis will improve the skills of the residents and physicians working in ER.

  14. CW YVO4:Er Laser with Resonant Pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachenya, K. N.; Kisel, V. E.; Yasukevich, A. S.; Matrosov, V. N.; Tolstik, N. A.; Kuleshov, N. V.

    2015-05-01

    The lasing characteristics of a YVO4:Er laser with resonant pumping in the 1.5-1.6 μm range are studied. Lasing is obtained at λ = 1603 nm with a differential efficiency of up to 61%. YVO4:Er crystals are found to offer promise for use in efficient resonantly (in-band) pumped lasers.

  15. Lockheed ER-2 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-11-04

    ER-2 tail number 706, was one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft were platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They were also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation.

  16. Lockheed ER-2 #709 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-03-02

    ER-2 tail number 709, was one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft were platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They were also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation.

  17. Abrupt dependence of ultrafast extrinsic photoconductivity on Er fraction in GaAs:Er

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E. R.; Mingardi, A.; Zhang, W.-D.; Feldman, A. D.; Harvey, T. E.; Mirin, R. P.

    2017-07-01

    We present a study of room-temperature, ultrafast photoconductivity associated with a strong, sub-bandgap, resonant absorption around λ = 1550 nm in three MBE-grown GaAs epitaxial layers heavily doped with Er at concentrations of ≈2.9 × 1018 (control sample), 4.4 × 1020, and 8.8 × 1020 cm-3, respectively. Transmission-electron microscopy reveals lack of nanoparticles in the control sample, but abundant in the other two samples in the 1.0-to-3.0-nm-diameter range, which is consistent with the previously known results. We measure very high photoelectron (Hall) mobility (2.57 × 103 cm2/V-s) and terahertz power (46 μW average) in the 4.4 × 1020 sample, but then, an abrupt decay in these properties as well as the dark resistivity is seen as the Er doping is increased just 2 times. The Er doping has little effect on the picosecond-scale, 1550-nm photocarrier lifetime.

  18. Smart structures for shock wave attenuation using ER inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Jung-Yup; Choi, Seung-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Su

    2001-08-01

    This Paper demonstrates the possibility of shock wave attenuation propagating through a smart structure that incorporates ER insert. The wave transmission of ER inserted beam is theoretically derived using Mead & Markus model and the theoretical results are compared with the finite element analysis results. To experimentally verify the shock wave attenuation, ER insert in an aluminum plate is made and two piezoceramic disks are used as transmitter and receiver of the wave. The transmitter sends a sine pulse signal such that a component of shock wave travels through the plate structure and the receiver gets the transmitted wave signal. Wave propagation of the ER insert can be adjusted by changing the applied electric field on the ER insert. Details of the experiment are addressed and the possibility of shock wave attenuation is experimentally verified. This kind of smart structure can be used for warship and submarine hull structures to protect fragile and important equipment.

  19. ER-2 Observations of Precipitation Systems During TRMM-LBA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Gerald; Tian, Lin; Geerts, Bart

    1999-01-01

    The NASA ER-2 performed numerous flights over precipitation systems in Rondonia, Brazil. The ER-2 carried a payload including the ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP), the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR), the Lightning Instrument Package, and other instruments. This presentation will overview the types of data sets collected during TRMM-LBA (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite-Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) with particular emphasis on EDOP measurements. Numerous cases of convection ranging from weak to very intense, were overflown by the ER-2. Two TRMM overpasses were coincident with ER-2 flights which allowed for intercomparisons between the Precipitation Radiometer (PR), EDOP, and the S-POL (S-band Polarimetric Radar) and TOGA (Tropical Oceans and Global Atmosphere) ground-based radars. Preliminary results from this comparison will be presented as well as initial selection of case studies and efforts involving vertical motions in convection.

  20. SR/ER-mitochondrial local communication: calcium and ROS.

    PubMed

    Csordás, György; Hajnóczky, György

    2009-11-01

    Mitochondria form junctions with the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER), which support signal transduction and biosynthetic pathways and affect organellar distribution. Recently, these junctions have received attention because of their pivotal role in mediating calcium signal propagation to the mitochondria, which is important for both ATP production and mitochondrial cell death. Many of the SR/ER-mitochondrial calcium transporters and signaling proteins are sensitive to redox regulation and are directly exposed to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the mitochondria and SR/ER. Although ROS has been emerging as a novel signaling entity, the redox signaling of the SR/ER-mitochondrial interface is yet to be elucidated. We describe here possible mechanisms of the mutual interaction between local Ca(2+) and ROS signaling in the control of SR/ER-mitochondrial function.

  1. Erbium induced magnetic properties of Er/ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Jayachandraiah, C.; Divya, A.; Sivakumar, K.; Krishnaiah, G.

    2016-05-23

    Pure and Er (2, 3 and 4 at. %) doped ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. EDS spectrum confirmed the presence of Zn, O and Er in the synthesized samples. The XRD measurements confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO for all samples. The crystallite size of the samples decreases with increase in concentration and are compatible with the results that obtained from TEM analysis.EPR spectra exhibitedferromagnetic signals the substitution Er The possible ferromagnetic zinc interstials signal is appeared for 2 at. % of Er dopant. The room temperature ferromagnetic is observed only for 2 at. % of Er while all other samples exhibiting weak ferromagnetic nature.

  2. The ER in 3D: a multifunctional dynamic membrane network.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jonathan R; Voeltz, Gia K

    2011-12-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large, singular, membrane-bound organelle that has an elaborate 3D structure with a diversity of structural domains. It contains regions that are flat and cisternal, ones that are highly curved and tubular, and others adapted to form contacts with nearly every other organelle and with the plasma membrane. The 3D structure of the ER is determined by both integral ER membrane proteins and by interactions with the cytoskeleton. In this review, we describe some of the factors that are known to regulate ER structure and discuss how this structural organization and the dynamic nature of the ER membrane network allow it to perform its many different functions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhance the Er3+ Upconversion Luminescence by Constructing NaGdF4:Er3+@NaGdF4:Er3+ Active-Core/Active-Shell Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaoyu; Wang, Xiangfu; Meng, Lan; Bu, Yanyan; Yan, Xiaohong

    2017-03-01

    NaGdF4:12%Er3+@NaGdF4: x%Er3+ ( x = 0, 6, 8, 10, and 12) active-core/active-shell nanoparticles (NPs) were peculiarly synthesized via a delayed nucleation pathway with procedures. The phase, shape, and size of the resulting core-shell NPs are confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Coated with a NaGdF4:10%Er3+ active shell around the NaGdF4:12%Er3+ core NPs, a maximum luminescent enhancement of about 336 times higher than the NaGdF4:12%Er3+ core-only NPs was observed under the 1540 nm excitation. The intensity ratio of green to red was adjusted through the construction of the core-shell structure and the change of Er3+ concentration in the shell. By analyzing the lifetimes of emission bands and exploring the energy transition mechanism, the giant luminescence enhancement is mainly attributed to the significant increase in the near-infrared absorption at 1540 nm and efficient energy migration from the shell to core.

  4. Enhance the Er(3+) Upconversion Luminescence by Constructing NaGdF4:Er(3+)@NaGdF4:Er(3+) Active-Core/Active-Shell Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoyu; Wang, Xiangfu; Meng, Lan; Bu, Yanyan; Yan, Xiaohong

    2017-12-01

    NaGdF4:12%Er(3+)@NaGdF4:x%Er(3+) (x = 0, 6, 8, 10, and 12) active-core/active-shell nanoparticles (NPs) were peculiarly synthesized via a delayed nucleation pathway with procedures. The phase, shape, and size of the resulting core-shell NPs are confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Coated with a NaGdF4:10%Er(3+) active shell around the NaGdF4:12%Er(3+) core NPs, a maximum luminescent enhancement of about 336 times higher than the NaGdF4:12%Er(3+) core-only NPs was observed under the 1540 nm excitation. The intensity ratio of green to red was adjusted through the construction of the core-shell structure and the change of Er(3+) concentration in the shell. By analyzing the lifetimes of emission bands and exploring the energy transition mechanism, the giant luminescence enhancement is mainly attributed to the significant increase in the near-infrared absorption at 1540 nm and efficient energy migration from the shell to core.

  5. ER stress and cancer: The FOXO forkhead transcription factor link.

    PubMed

    Alasiri, Glowi; Fan, Lavender Yuen-Nam; Zona, Stefania; Goldsbrough, Isabella Galeno; Ke, Hui-Ling; Auner, Holger Werner; Lam, Eric Wing-Fai

    2017-05-29

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular organelle with central roles in maintaining proteostasis due to its involvement in protein synthesis, folding, quality control, distribution and degradation. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER lumen causes 'ER stress' and threatens overall cellular proteostasis. To restore ER homeostasis, cells evoke an evolutionarily conserved adaptive signalling and gene expression network collectively called the 'unfolded protein response (UPR)', a complex biological process which aims to restore proteostasis. When ER stress is overwhelming and beyond rectification, the normally pro-survival UPR can shift to induce cell termination. Emerging evidence from mammalian, fly and nematode worm systems reveals that the FOXO Forkhead proteins integrate upstream ER stress and UPR signals with the transcriptional machinery to decrease translation, promote cell survival/termination and increase the levels of ER-resident chaperones and of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) components to restore ER homeostasis. The high rates of protein synthesis/translation associated with cancer cell proliferation and metabolism, as well as mutations resulting in aberrant proteins, also induce ER stress and the UPR. While the pro-survival side of the UPR underlies its ability to sustain and promote cancers, its apoptotic functions can be exploited for cancer therapies by offering the chance to 'flick the proteostatic switch'. To this end, further studies are required to fully reevaluate the roles and regulation of these UPR signalling molecules, including FOXO proteins and their targets, in cancer initiation and progression as well as the effects on inhibiting their functions in cancer cells. This information will help to establish these UPR signalling molecules as possible therapeutic targets and putative biomarkers in cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. LIS Validation at The KSC-ER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.; Krider, E. P.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Each year, thousands of lightning electric field disturbances are recorded and archived by the ground-based field mill (FM) network at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and USAF Eastern Range (ER). The FM network has a range of several tens of kilometers, and a digital accuracy of 4 V/m. It has provided years of continuous lightning warning surveillance to KSC-ER space vehicle launch operations, and has undergone one major hardware upgrade since its inception in the early 1970s. Additional KSC lightning warning data is derived from a multistation radio time-of-arrival system called Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR). This system provides the location and space-time mapping of individual lightning channels (for both cloud and ground flashes). Additional lightning information for the KSC region is available from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) and a 5-station local magnetic direction finder network. In this study, all of the above mentioned data are used to ground-validate data derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The FM network can be used to retrieve the charges deposited in a lightning flash, provided the flash is within a few kilometers of the FM Network. Although it is rare to obtain a TRMM overpass of thunderstorms hat occur this close to the FM network, seven such storms have been found and examined in this study. We compare the times and locations of LIS optical pulses with the spatial-temporal character of the FM, LDAR, and magnetic direction finder data. We also inter-compare LIS optical pulse amplitude data with FM-derived charge magnitudes, number of LDAR radio sources, and peak current values from magnetic direction finder data. Generally speaking, LIS lightning locations and times agree favorably with the KSC ground-based systems for most cases, but little correlation appears to exist between optical pulse amplitude and any of charge, # LDAR sources, peak current

  7. LIS Validation at The KSC-ER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.; Krider, E. P.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Each year, thousands of lightning electric field disturbances are recorded and archived by the ground-based field mill (FM) network at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and USAF Eastern Range (ER). The FM network has a range of several tens of kilometers, and a digital accuracy of 4 V/m. It has provided years of continuous lightning warning surveillance to KSC-ER space vehicle launch operations, and has undergone one major hardware upgrade since its inception in the early 1970s. Additional KSC lightning warning data is derived from a multistation radio time-of-arrival system called Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR). This system provides the location and space-time mapping of individual lightning channels (for both cloud and ground flashes). Additional lightning information for the KSC region is available from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) and a 5-station local magnetic direction finder network. In this study, all of the above mentioned data are used to ground-validate data derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The FM network can be used to retrieve the charges deposited in a lightning flash, provided the flash is within a few kilometers of the FM Network. Although it is rare to obtain a TRMM overpass of thunderstorms hat occur this close to the FM network, seven such storms have been found and examined in this study. We compare the times and locations of LIS optical pulses with the spatial-temporal character of the FM, LDAR, and magnetic direction finder data. We also inter-compare LIS optical pulse amplitude data with FM-derived charge magnitudes, number of LDAR radio sources, and peak current values from magnetic direction finder data. Generally speaking, LIS lightning locations and times agree favorably with the KSC ground-based systems for most cases, but little correlation appears to exist between optical pulse amplitude and any of charge, # LDAR sources, peak current

  8. Dielectronic recombination of Er-like tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, A. S.

    2012-03-01

    Theoretical studies of dielectronic recombination, a very important process for both atomic and plasma physics, are carried out for low-ionized Er-like W. The dielectronic recombination (DR) of the Er-like ion W6+ proceeds via electron capture into the intermediate autoionizing states of the Tm-like ion W5+ followed by the radiative decay to singly-excited bound states. In particular, energy levels, radiative transition probabilities, and autoionization rates for [Cd]4f145p55l'nl, [Cd]4f145p56l''nl, [Cd]4f135p65l'nl, and [Cd]4f135p66l''nl (l'=d,f,g, l''=s,p,d,f,g, n=5-7) states in Tm-like tungsten (W5+) are calculated using the relativistic many-body perturbation theory and relativistic all-order single-double method as well as the Hartree-Fock-relativistic method (cowan code). Branching ratios relative to the first threshold and intensity factors are calculated for satellite lines. DR rate coefficients are determined for the singly-excited [Cd]4f145p6nl (n=5-7) and nonautoionizing doubly-excited [Cd]4f145p55d2, [Cd]4f135p65d2, [Cd]4f135p66s2, [Cd]4f135p65d6s, and [Cd]4f135p65d6p states. Also, contributions from the autoionizing doubly-excited [Cd]4f145p55l'nl, [Cd]4f145p56l''nl, [Cd]4f135p65l'nl, and [Cd]4f135p66l''nl states (with n up to 100), which are very important for calculating total DR rates, are estimated. Synthetic dielectronic satellite spectra from Tm-like W are simulated in a broad spectral range from 140 to 1200 Å. These relativistic calculations provide recommended values critically evaluated for their accuracy for a number of W5+ ion properties useful for a variety of applications, including for fusion applications.

  9. Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence of Er3+ in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Gd2O3 nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kezhi; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Daisheng; Liu, Zhenyu; Qin, Weiping

    2011-11-01

    Under 980 nm excitation, room-temperature ultraviolet (UV) upconversion (UC) emissions of Er3+ from the 4G(9/2), 2K(13/2), and 2P(3/2) states were observed in Gd2O3:Yb3+/Er3+ nanotubes, which were synthesized via a simple wet-chemical route at low temperature and ambient pressure followed by a subsequent heat treatment at 800 degrees C. The experimental results exhibited that these UV emissions came from four-photon UC processes. In the Gd2O3:Yb3+/Er3+ nanocrystals, the energy transfers (ETs) from Yb3+ to Er3+ played important roles in populating the high-energy states of Er3+ ions. This material provides a possible candidate for building UV compact solid-state lasers or fiber lasers.

  10. Effects of silicon nanostructure evolution on Er{sup 3+} luminescence in silicon-rich silicon oxide/Er-doped silica multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jee Soo; Jhe, Ji-Hong; Yang, Moon-Seung; Shin, Jung H.; Kim, Kyung Joong; Moon, Dae Won

    2006-10-30

    The effect of silicon nanostructure evolution on Er{sup 3+} luminescence is investigated by using multilayers of 2.5 nm thin SiO{sub x} (x<2) and 10 nm thin Er-doped silica (SiO{sub 2}:Er). By separating excess Si and Er atoms into separate, nanometer-thin layers, the effect of silicon nanostructure evolution on np-Si sensitized Er{sup 3+} luminescence could be investigated while keeping the microscopic Er{sup 3+} environment the same. The authors find that while the presence of np-Si is necessary for efficient sensitization, the overall quality of np-Si layer has little effect on the Er{sup 3+} luminescence. On the other hand, intrusion of np-Si into Er-doped silica layers leads to deactivation of np-Si/Er{sup 3+} interaction, suggesting that there is a limit to excess Si and Er contents that can be used.

  11. Comparing efficiency and root surface morphology after scaling with Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers.

    PubMed

    Etemadi, Ardavan; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Abbas, Fatemeh Mashhadi; Razavi, Fahime; Aoki, Akira; Azad, Reza Fekr; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the root morphology of teeth and efficiency of scaling after using Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers. Thirty-two periodontally hopeless teeth were extracted. The border of an appropriate calculus was marked using a diamond bur on each tooth, and the calculus was divided into two almost equal parts. An Er,Cr:YSGG laser with pulse energy of 50 mJ, power of 1 W, and energy density of 17.7 J/cm2 and an Er:YAG laser with pulse energy of 200 mJ, power of 2.4 W, and energy density of 21 J/cm2 were used to remove the calculus. The time for scaling was recorded for each group, and using stereomicroscopic analysis, the calculus remnant, carbonization, and number of craters were investigated. The mean time required for calculus removal in the Er,Cr:YSGG and Er:YAG laser groups was 15.22 ± 6.18 seconds and 7.12 ± 4.11 seconds, respectively. The efficiency of calculus removal in the Er:YAG laser group was significantly higher than in the Er,Cr:YSGG laser group. Under stereomicroscope examination, no carbonization or remaining calculus was found in samples from either group, but all samples had craters. The number of craters in the Er,Cr:YSGG laser group was significantly higher than in the Er:YAG laser group. According to the parameters used and limitations of this study, there was no significant difference in efficiency per power for calculus removal between the two groups.

  12. Up Conversion Measurements in Er:YAG; Comparison with 1.6 Micrometer Laser Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Walsh, Brian M.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Reichle, Donald J.; Busch, George E.; Carrion, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Up conversion significantly affects Er:YAG lasers. Measurements performed here for low Er concentration are significantly different than reported high Er concentration. The results obtained here are used to predict laser performance and are compared with experimental results.

  13. Up Conversion Measurements in Er:YAG; Comparison with 1.6 Micrometer Laser Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Walsh, Brian M.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Reichle, Donald J.; Busch, George E.; Carrion, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Up conversion significantly affects Er:YAG lasers. Measurements performed here for low Er concentration are significantly different than reported high Er concentration. The results obtained here are used to predict laser performance and are compared with experimental results.

  14. Electroreduction of Er 3+ in nonaqueous solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Small, Leo J.; Sears, Jeremiah M.; Lambert, Timothy N.; Boyle, Timothy J.; Hess, Ryan F.

    2016-09-15

    Here, the electroreduction of Er3+ in propylene carbonate, N,N-dimethylformamide, or a variety of quaternary ammonium ionic liquids (ILs) was investigated using [Er(OTf)3] and [Er(NTf2)3]. Systematic variation of the ILs' cation and anion, Er3+ salt, and electrode material revealed a disparity in electrochemical interactions not previously seen. For most ILs at a platinum electrode, cyclic voltammetry exhibits irreversible interactions between Er3+ salts and the electrode at potentials significantly less than the theoretical reduction potential for Er3+. Throughout all solvent–salt systems tested, a deposit could be formed on the electrode, though obtaining a high purity, crystalline Er0 deposit is challenging due to the extreme reactivity of the deposit and resulting chemical interactions, often resulting in the formation of a complex, amorphous solid–electrolyte interface that slowed deposition rates. Comparison of platinum, gold, nickel, and glassy carbon (GC) working electrodes revealed oxidation processes unique to the platinum surface. While no appreciable reduction current was observed on GC at the potentials investigated, deposits were seen on platinum, gold, and nickel electrodes.

  15. Ammonia synthesis and ER-MCFC-technology - a profitable combination?

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkema, G.P.J.; Vervoort, J.; Daniels, R.J.E.; Luteijn, C.P.

    1996-12-31

    Similar to stand-alone ER-MCFC power systems industrial ammonia production facilities include hydrogen-rich synthesis-gas production. Therefore, integration of ER-MCFC stacks in a conventional industrial ammonia plant was investigated. By preliminary process design calculations three promising process structures were evaluated: (1) ER-MCFC is fed by the ammonia plant`s steam-reformer; anode off-gas to firing (2) similar to structure 1; in this case the anode off-gas is redirected to the ammonia process (3) ER-MCFC is fed by ammonia-synthesis purge gas The results indicate that for options 1 and 3 a return-on-investment for the ER-MCFC of around 8% is achievable at a stack cost of $250/kW and a revenue of 7c/kWh. Option 2 is not profitable, because of the associated reduction in ammonia production. The degree of hydrogen-utilization in the ER-MCFC to be selected for maximum profit varies with the process structure and indicates that there is scope for ER-MCFC stacks which operate at low hydrogen-utilization.

  16. Electroreduction of Er 3+ in nonaqueous solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Small, Leo J.; Sears, Jeremiah M.; Lambert, Timothy N.; Boyle, Timothy J.; Hess, Ryan F.

    2016-09-15

    Here, the electroreduction of Er3+ in propylene carbonate, N,N-dimethylformamide, or a variety of quaternary ammonium ionic liquids (ILs) was investigated using [Er(OTf)3] and [Er(NTf2)3]. Systematic variation of the ILs' cation and anion, Er3+ salt, and electrode material revealed a disparity in electrochemical interactions not previously seen. For most ILs at a platinum electrode, cyclic voltammetry exhibits irreversible interactions between Er3+ salts and the electrode at potentials significantly less than the theoretical reduction potential for Er3+. Throughout all solvent–salt systems tested, a deposit could be formed on the electrode, though obtaining a high purity, crystalline Er0 deposit is challenging due to the extreme reactivity of the deposit and resulting chemical interactions, often resulting in the formation of a complex, amorphous solid–electrolyte interface that slowed deposition rates. Comparison of platinum, gold, nickel, and glassy carbon (GC) working electrodes revealed oxidation processes unique to the platinum surface. While no appreciable reduction current was observed on GC at the potentials investigated, deposits were seen on platinum, gold, and nickel electrodes.

  17. ER stress induced by ionising radiation in IEC-6 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yan; Pang, Xueli; Su, Yongping; Ai, Guoping; Wang, Tao

    2010-06-01

    Ionising radiation (IR) can evoke a series of biochemical events inside the cell. However, whether IR can directly induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is not clear. In our previous study, we found that there might be a causative link between IR and ER stress. In this study, we further characterised the type of ER stress induced by IR. Rat intestinal epithelial cells IEC-6 were irradiated at a dose of 10 Gy, and total RNA and proteins were harvested at indicated time points. The mRNA and protein expression of immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) and glucose regulated protein 94 (GRP94) was detected along with proteins associated with ER stress signal pathways. Our results indicated that IR induced up-regulation of ER stress marker including BiP and GRP94 at protein and mRNA levels in IEC-6 cells. Increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha) and induced mRNA splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) suggested that PERK (interferon-induced double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PRKR) -like endoplasmic reticulum kinase) and IRE1 (inositol requirement 1) signal transduction pathways were involved in this kind of ER stress. However, the active form of activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) did not change significantly in irradiated cells, which suggested that the ATF6 pathway was not involved. Thus, we concluded that IR could induce moderate ER stress directly in IEC-6 cells.

  18. Structure and Dynamics of ER: Minimal Networks and Biophysical Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Congping; Zhang, Yiwei; Sparkes, Imogen; Ashwin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in live cells is a highly mobile network whose structure dynamically changes on a number of timescales. The role of such drastic changes in any system is unclear, although there are correlations with ER function. A better understanding of the fundamental biophysical constraints on the system will allow biologists to determine the effects of molecular factors on ER dynamics. Previous studies have identified potential static elements that the ER may remodel around. Here, we use these structural elements to assess biophysical principles behind the network dynamics. By analyzing imaging data of tobacco leaf epidermal cells under two different conditions, i.e., native state (control) and latrunculin B (treated), we show that the geometric structure and dynamics of ER networks can be understood in terms of minimal networks. Our results show that the ER network is well modeled as a locally minimal-length network between the static elements that potentially anchor the ER to the cell cortex over longer timescales; this network is perturbed by a mixture of random and deterministic forces. The network need not have globally minimum length; we observe cases where the local topology may change dynamically between different Euclidean Steiner network topologies. The networks in the treated cells are easier to quantify, because they are less dynamic (the treatment suppresses actin dynamics), but the same general features are found in control cells. Using a Langevin approach, we model the dynamics of the nonpersistent nodes and use this to show that the images can be used to estimate both local viscoelastic behavior of the cytoplasm and filament tension in the ER network. This means we can explain several aspects of the ER geometry in terms of biophysical principles. PMID:25099815

  19. Thermal safety of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers in hard tissue removal.

    PubMed

    Kilinc, Evren; Roshkind, David M; Antonson, Sibel A; Antonson, Donald E; Hardigan, Patrick C; Siegel, Sharon C; Thomas, James W

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the thermal safety of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers with conventional multi-use and single-use diamond burs. Thermal effect of tooth preparation is mostly evaluated through the pulp chamber because it is difficult to measure the temperature of the preparation surface. A new in vitro method was introduced to simultaneously evaluate the heat increase of the preparation surface together with the pulp chamber. Six laser and bur instrument groups were used to make standardized preparations on buccal surfaces of 60 intact third molars. The preparations removed an equal volume of hard tissue from each tooth (4 mm occluso-gingival x 8 mm mesial-distal x 1.6 mm bucco-lingual). The teeth also included tunnel preparations from the opposite (lingual) surface, exposing the pulpal axial wall (axial dentin wall in contact with the pulp chamber from the preparation surface site). An infrared thermal camera was positioned to capture the preparation surface in direct vision, while the pulpal axial wall was indirectly reflected to the thermal camera via a minimal-energy-loss mirror. Data from both surfaces were analyzed statistically using Nested Least Squares Analysis. The laser groups generated significantly lower heat compared to bur groups on the preparation surfaces. In contrast, both lasers generated greater pulpal heat increase, and the Er:YAG laser group showed significance (p < 0.0001). Lasers produced less heat on the preparation surface but more on the pulpal axial wall. However the temperature rise was less than the 5.5 degrees C threshold margin of safety.

  20. Arctic geodynamics: Arctic science and ERS-1 satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Allen Joel; Sandwell, David T.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed gravity field map of the mid Arctic Ocean, spreading ridge system was produced on the basis of ERS-1 satellite altimetry data. Areas of special concern, the Barents and Kara Seas, and areas surrounding the islands of Svalbard, Frans Josef Land and Novoya Zemlya are reviewed. ERS-1 altimetry covers unique Arctic and Antarctic latitudes above 72 degrees. Before ERS-1 it was not possible to study these areas with satellite altimetry. Gravity field solutions for the Barents Sea, portions of the Arctic Ocean and the Norwegian sea are shown. The largest gravity anomalies occur along the Greenland fracture zone as well as along transform faults near Svalbard.

  1. Arctic geodynamics: Arctic science and ERS-1 satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Allen Joel; Sandwell, David T.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed gravity field map of the mid Arctic Ocean, spreading ridge system was produced on the basis of ERS-1 satellite altimetry data. Areas of special concern, the Barents and Kara Seas, and areas surrounding the islands of Svalbard, Frans Josef Land and Novoya Zemlya are reviewed. ERS-1 altimetry covers unique Arctic and Antarctic latitudes above 72 degrees. Before ERS-1 it was not possible to study these areas with satellite altimetry. Gravity field solutions for the Barents Sea, portions of the Arctic Ocean and the Norwegian sea are shown. The largest gravity anomalies occur along the Greenland fracture zone as well as along transform faults near Svalbard.

  2. Harvard ER-2 OH laser-induced fluorescence instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wennberg, Paul O.; Anderson, James G.

    1994-01-01

    The Harvard ER-2 OH instrument is scheduled to be integrated into the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft ozone payload in August 1992. Design and fabrication is presently underway. This experiment is a descendant of a balloon borne instrument designed and built in the mid-1980s. The ER-2 instrument is being designed to measure OH and HO2 as part of the NASA ozone payload for the investigation of processes controlling the concentration of stratospheric ozone. Although not specifically designed to do so, it is hoped that valid measurements of OH and HO2 can be made in the remote free troposphere with this instrument.

  3. Return of Collective Rotation in {sup 157}Er and {sup 158}Er at Ultrahigh Spin

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E. S.; Twin, P. J.; Evans, A. O.; Choy, P. T. W.; Nolan, P. J.; Pipidis, A.; Riley, M. A.; Campbell, D. B.; Simpson, J.; Appelbe, D. E.; Joss, D. T.; Clark, R. M.; Cromaz, M.; Fallon, P.; Goergen, A.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Ward, D.; Ragnarsson, I.

    2007-01-05

    A new frontier of discrete-line {gamma}-ray spectroscopy at ultrahigh spin has been opened in the rare-earth nuclei {sup 157,158}Er. Four rotational structures, displaying high moments of inertia, have been identified, which extend up to spin {approx}65({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) and bypass the band-terminating states in these nuclei which occur at {approx}45({Dirac_h}/2{pi}). Cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations suggest that these structures arise from well-deformed triaxial configurations that lie in a valley of favored shell energy which also includes the triaxial strongly deformed bands in {sup 161-167}Lu.

  4. Calcium homoeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) reduces the calcium content of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and triggers ER stress.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Sandín, Sonia; Alonso, María Teresa; García-Sancho, Javier

    2011-08-01

    CALHM1 (calcium homoeostasis modulator 1), a membrane protein with similarity to NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor channels that localizes in the plasma membrane and the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) of neurons, has been shown to generate a plasma-membrane Ca(2+) conductance and has been proposed to influence Alzheimer's disease risk. In the present study we have investigated the effects of CALHM1 on intracellular Ca(2+) handling in HEK-293T [HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells expressing the large T-antigen of SV40 (simian virus 40)] cells by using targeted aequorins for selective monitorization of Ca(2+) transport by organelles. We find that CALHM1 increases Ca(2+) leak from the ER and, more importantly, reduces ER Ca(2+) uptake by decreasing both the transport capacity and the Ca(2+) affinity of SERCA (sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase). As a result, the Ca(2+) content of the ER is drastically decreased. This reduction in the Ca(2+) content of the ER triggered the UPR (unfolded protein response) with induction of several ER stress markers, such as CHOP [C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein)-homologous protein], ERdj4, GRP78 (glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa) and XBP1 (X-box-binding protein 1). Thus CALHM1 might provide a relevant link between Ca(2+) homoeostasis disruption, ER stress and cell damage in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society

  5. Sigma-1 receptor chaperone at the ER-mitochondrion interface mediates the mitochondrion-ER-nucleus signaling for cellular survival.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tomohisa; Hayashi, Teruo; Hayashi, Eri; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of a cell forms contacts directly with mitochondria whereby the contact is referred to as the mitochondrion-associated ER membrane or the MAM. Here we found that the MAM regulates cellular survival via an MAM-residing ER chaperone the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) in that the Sig-1R chaperones the ER stress sensor IRE1 to facilitate inter-organelle signaling for survival. IRE1 is found in this study to be enriched at the MAM in CHO cells. We found that IRE1 is stabilized at the MAM by Sig-1Rs when cells are under ER stress. Sig-1Rs stabilize IRE1 and thus allow for conformationally correct IRE1 to dimerize into the long-lasting, activated endonuclease. The IRE1 at the MAM also responds to reactive oxygen species derived from mitochondria. Therefore, the ER-mitochondrion interface serves as an important subcellular entity in the regulation of cellular survival by enhancing the stress-responding signaling between mitochondria, ER, and nucleus.

  6. Absorption and photoluminescence properties of Er-doped and Er/Yb codoped soda-silicate laser glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.F.; Zhang, Q.Y.; Lee, Y.P.

    2004-11-01

    Er-doped and Er/Yb codoped soda-silicate laser glasses with various concentrations of Er and Yb were fabricated. The absorption and the photoluminescence (PL) spectra were measured and analyzed. For the Er- doped soda-slilicate glasses, the optimum Er concentration for the PL intensity at 1536 nm turns out to be 0.5 at. %, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of PL spectrum increases from 18 to 26 nm, with the increase of the concentration from 0.1 to 0.8 at. %. The PL intensity of Er/Yb codoped soda-silicate glasses with an Er concentration of 0.5 at. % is enhanced approximately by four times, and the optimum Yb concentration for the PL intensity at 1536 nm is analyzed to be 3.0 at. %. The PL spectrum becomes broader with increasing the Yb concentration, up to a FWHM of 80 nm at 6.0 at. %. Yb. The relation between the absorption and PL spectra, together with the mechanism of PL broadening, has also been addressed.

  7. Electron spin resonance study of Er-concentration effect in GaAs;Er,O containing charge carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Elmasry, F.; Okubo, S.; Ohta, H.; Fujiwara, Y.

    2014-05-21

    Er-concentration effect in GaAs;Er,O containing charge carriers (n-type, high resistance, p-type) has been studied by X-band Electron spin resonance (ESR) at low temperature (4.7 K < T < 18 K). Observed A, B, and C types of ESR signals were identical to those observed previously in GaAs:Er,O without carrier. The local structure around Er-2O centers is not affected by carriers because similar angular dependence of g-values was observed in both cases (with/without carrier). For temperature dependence, linewidth and lineshape analysis suggested the existence of Er dimers with antiferromagnetic exchange interaction of about 7 K. Moreover, drastic decrease of ESR intensity for C signal in p-type sample was observed and it correlates with the decrease of photoluminescence (PL) intensity. Possible model for the Er-2O trap level in GaAs:Er,O is discussed from the ESR and PL experimental results.

  8. Sigma-1 Receptor Chaperone at the ER-Mitochondrion Interface Mediates the Mitochondrion-ER-Nucleus Signaling for Cellular Survival

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Tomohisa; Hayashi, Teruo; Hayashi, Eri; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of a cell forms contacts directly with mitochondria whereby the contact is referred to as the mitochondrion-associated ER membrane or the MAM. Here we found that the MAM regulates cellular survival via an MAM-residing ER chaperone the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) in that the Sig-1R chaperones the ER stress sensor IRE1 to facilitate inter-organelle signaling for survival. IRE1 is found in this study to be enriched at the MAM in CHO cells. We found that IRE1 is stabilized at the MAM by Sig-1Rs when cells are under ER stress. Sig-1Rs stabilize IRE1 and thus allow for conformationally correct IRE1 to dimerize into the long-lasting, activated endonuclease. The IRE1 at the MAM also responds to reactive oxygen species derived from mitochondria. Therefore, the ER-mitochondrion interface serves as an important subcellular entity in the regulation of cellular survival by enhancing the stress-responding signaling between mitochondria, ER, and nucleus. PMID:24204710

  9. Exciting transition metal doped dilute magnetic thin films: MgO:Er and ZnO:Er

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćakıcı, T.; Sarıtaş, S.; Muǧlu, G. Merhan; Yıldırım, M.

    2017-02-01

    Erbium doped MgO and doped ZnO thin films have reasonably important properties applications in spintronic devices. These films were synthesized on glass substrates by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) method. In the literature there has been almost no report on preparation of MgO:Er dilute magnetic thin films by means of CSP. Because doped thin films show different magnetic behaviors, depending upon the type of magnetic material ions, concentration of them, synthesis route and experimental conditions, synthesized MgO:Er and ZnO:Er films were compared to thin film properties. Optical analyses of the synthesized thin films were examined spectral absorption and transmittance measurements by UV-Vis double beam spectrophotometer technique. Structural analysis of the thin films was examined by using XRD, Raman Analysis, FE-SEM, EDX and AFM techniques. Also, magnetic properties of the MgO:Er and ZnO:Er films were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) which show that diamagnetic behavior of the MgO:Er thin film and ferromagnetic (FM) behavior of the ZnO:Er film were is formed.

  10. Direct estrogen receptor (ER) / HER family crosstalk mediating sensitivity to lumretuzumab and pertuzumab in ER+ breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Denis; Jacob, Wolfgang; Cejalvo, Juan Miguel; Ceppi, Maurizio; James, Ian; Hasmann, Max; Crown, John; Cervantes, Andrés; Weisser, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Bidirectional cross talk between members of the human epidermal growth factor family of receptors (HER) and the estrogen receptor (ER) is believed to underlie resistance mechanisms that develop in response to treatment with anti-HER agents and endocrine therapy. We investigated the interaction between HER2, HER3 and the ER in vitro using human embryonic kidney cells transfected with human HER2, HER3, and ERα. We also investigated the additive efficacy of combination regimens consisting of anti-HER3 (lumretuzumab), anti-HER2 (pertuzumab), and endocrine (fulvestrant) therapy in vivo. Our data show that both HER2 and HER3 can directly complex with the ER and can mediate phosphorylation of the ER. Phosphorylation of the ER was only observed in cells that expressed both HER2 and ERα or in heregulin-stimulated cells that expressed both HER3 and ERα. Using a mouse xenograft model of ER+/HER2-low (HER2 immunohistochemistry 1+ or 2+ without gene amplification) human breast cancer we show that the combination of lumretuzumab and pertuzumab is highly efficacious and induces long-lasting tumor regression in vivo and adding endocrine therapy (fulvestrant) to this combination further improved efficacy. In addition, a prolonged clinical response was observed with the combination of lumretuzumab and pertuzumab in a patient with ER+/HER2-low breast cancer who had failed endocrine therapy. These preclinical data confirm that direct cross talk exists between HER2/HER3 and ER which may explain the resistance mechanisms to endocrine therapy and monoclonal antibodies that target HER2 and HER3. Our data also indicate that the triplet of anti-HER2, anti-HER3, and endocrine therapy might be an efficacious combination for treating patients with ER+/HER2-low breast cancer, which is an area of significant unmet medical need. PMID:28493933

  11. ER-2 High Altitude Solar Cell Calibration Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Piszczor, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    The first flights of the ER-2 solar cell calibration demonstration were conducted during September-October of 2014. Three flights were performed that not only tested out the equipment and operational procedures, but also demonstrated the capability of this unique facility by conducting the first short-circuit measurements on a variety of test solar cells. Very preliminary results of these first flights were presented at the 2014 Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT) Conference in Cleveland, OH shortly following these first flights. At the 2015 Space Power Workshop, a more detailed description of these first ER-2 flights will be presented, along with the final flight data from some of the test cells that were flown and has now been reduced and corrected for ER-2 atmospheric flight conditions. Plans for ER-2 flights during the summer of 2015 will also be discussed.

  12. Opportunistic intruders: how viruses orchestrate ER functions to infect cells.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Madhu Sudhan; Bagchi, Parikshit; Cunningham, Corey Nathaniel; Tsai, Billy

    2016-07-01

    Viruses subvert the functions of their host cells to replicate and form new viral progeny. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been identified as a central organelle that governs the intracellular interplay between viruses and hosts. In this Review, we analyse how viruses from vastly different families converge on this unique intracellular organelle during infection, co-opting some of the endogenous functions of the ER to promote distinct steps of the viral life cycle from entry and replication to assembly and egress. The ER can act as the common denominator during infection for diverse virus families, thereby providing a shared principle that underlies the apparent complexity of relationships between viruses and host cells. As a plethora of information illuminating the molecular and cellular basis of virus-ER interactions has become available, these insights may lead to the development of crucial therapeutic agents.

  13. ERS-1 and Almaz ocean wave monitoring experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beal, R. C.; Tilley, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results from two ocean wave monitoring experiments conducted in 1991 using the high-altitude ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and the low-altitude ex-USSR Almaz 1 SAR are presented. ERS-1 imagery of the Gulf Stream supports the idea that a future wide-swath scansar will be a valuable tool for monitoring large-scale ocean dynamics at high resolution. A direct comparison of ERS-1 and Almaz 1 ocean wave spectra shows major deficiencies in the ERS-1 high range-to-velocity ratio R/V sensor that are partially resolved with the lower-altitude Almaz platform. Optimum wave imaging from space will require both a low R/V and low off-nadir angle.

  14. More Babies in Strollers, Cribs Winding Up in ER

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Strollers, Cribs Winding Up in ER: Study Concussions driving upswing, with only 1 percent of cases ... of the increase in injuries was related to concussions: The rate of concussion diagnoses more than doubled ...

  15. Opportunistic intruders: how viruses orchestrate ER functions to infect cells

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Corey Nathaniel; Tsai, Billy

    2017-01-01

    Viruses subvert the functions of their host cells to replicate and form new viral progeny. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been identified as a central organelle that governs the intracellular interplay between viruses and hosts. In this Review, we analyse how viruses from vastly different families converge on this unique intracellular organelle during infection, co-opting some of the endogenous functions of the ER to promote distinct steps of the viral life cycle from entry and replication to assembly and egress. The ER can act as the common denominator during infection for diverse virus families, thereby providing a shared principle that underlies the apparent complexity of relationships between viruses and host cells. As a plethora of information illuminating the molecular and cellular basis of virus–ER interactions has become available, these insights may lead to the development of crucial therapeutic agents. PMID:27265768

  16. Neuronal ER Stress in Axon Injury and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shaohua; Yang, Liu; Selzer, Michael E.; Hu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to CNS axons result not only in Wallerian degeneration of the axon distal to the injury, but also in death or atrophy of the axotomized neurons, depending on injury location and neuron type. No method of permanently avoiding these changes has been found, despite extensive knowledge concerning mechanisms of secondary neuronal injury. The autonomous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway in neurons has recently been implicated in retrograde neuronal degeneration. In addition to the emerging role of ER morphology in axon maintenance, we propose that ER stress is a common neuronal response to disturbances in axon integrity and a general mechanism for neurodegeneration. Thus manipulation of the ER stress pathway could have important therapeutic implications for neuroprotection. PMID:23955583

  17. Spectroscopic study of Er:Sm doped barium fluorotellurite glass.

    PubMed

    Bahadur, A; Dwivedi, Y; Rai, S B

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, we report the physical and spectroscopic properties of Er(3+), Sm(3+) and Er(3+):Sm(3+) ions codoped barium fluorotellurite (BFT) glasses. Different Stokes and anti-Stokes emissions were observed under 532 nm and 976 nm laser excitations. Energy transfer from Er(3+) ion to Sm(3+) ion was confirmed on the basis of luminescence intensity variation and decay curve analysis in both the cases. Under green (532 nm) excitation emission intensity of Sm(3+) ion bands improves whereas on NIR (976 nm) excitation new emission bands of Sm(3+) ions were observed in Er:Sm codoped samples. Ion interactions and the different energy transfer parameters were also calculated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Magnetic behavior of nanocrystalline ErCo(2).

    PubMed

    Das, Sitikantha D; Mohapatra, Niharika; Iyer, Kartik K; Bapat, R D; Sampathkumaran, E V

    2009-07-22

    We have investigated the magnetic behavior of the nanocrystalline form of a well-known Laves phase compound, ErCo(2)-the bulk form of which has been known to undergo an interesting first-order ferrimagnetic ordering near 32 K-synthesized by high-energy ball-milling. It is found that, in these nanocrystallites, Co exhibits ferromagnetic order at room temperature, as inferred from the magnetization data. However, the magnetic transition temperature for the Er sub-lattice remains essentially unaffected suggesting the (Er)4f-Co(3d) coupling is weak on Er magnetism. The net magnetic moment as measured at high fields, for example at 120 kOe, is significantly reduced with respect to that for the bulk in the ferrimagnetically ordered state and possible reasons are outlined for this. We have also compared the magnetocaloric behavior for the bulk and for nanoparticles.

  19. Balancing ER dynamics: shaping, bending, severing, and mending membranes

    PubMed Central

    Pendin, Diana; McNew, James A.; Daga, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum is a multifunctional organelle composed of functionally and morphologically distinct domains. These include the relatively planar nuclear envelope and the peripheral ER, a network of sheet-like cisternae interconnected with tubules that spread throughout the cytoplasm. The ER is highly dynamic and the shape of its domains as well as their relative content are in constant flux. The multiple forces driving these morphological changes depend on the interaction between the ER and microtubules, membrane fusion and fission events and the action of proteins capable of actively shaping membranes. The interplay between these forces is ultimately responsible for the dynamic morphology of the ER, which in turn is crucial for properly executing the varied functions of this organelle. PMID:21641197

  20. Transitions of protein traffic from cardiac ER to junctional SR.

    PubMed

    Sleiman, Naama H; McFarland, Timothy P; Jones, Larry R; Cala, Steven E

    2015-04-01

    The junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (jSR) is an important and unique ER subdomain in the adult myocyte that concentrates resident proteins to regulate Ca(2+) release. To investigate cellular mechanisms for sorting and trafficking proteins to jSR, we overexpressed canine forms of junctin (JCT) or triadin (TRD) in adult rat cardiomyocytes. Protein accumulation over time was visualized by confocal fluorescence microscopy using species-specific antibodies. Newly synthesized JCTdog and TRDdog appeared by 12-24h as bright fluorescent puncta close to the nuclear surface, decreasing in intensity with increasing radial distance. With increasing time (24-48h), fluorescent puncta appeared at further radial distances from the nuclear surface, eventually populating jSR similar to steady-state patterns. CSQ2-DsRed, a form of CSQ that polymerizes ectopically in rough ER, prevented anterograde traffic of newly made TRDdog and JCTdog, demonstrating common pathways of intracellular trafficking as well as in situ binding to CSQ2 in juxtanuclear rough ER. Reversal of CSQ-DsRed interactions occurred when a form of TRDdog was used in which CSQ2-binding sites are removed ((del)TRD). With increasing levels of expression, CSQ2-DsRed revealed a novel smooth ER network that surrounds nuclei and connects the nuclear axis. TRDdog was retained in smooth ER by binding to CSQ2-DsRed, but escaped to populate jSR puncta. TRDdog and (del)TRD were therefore able to elucidate areas of ER-SR transition. High levels of CSQ2-DsRed in the ER led to loss of jSR puncta labeling, suggesting a plasticity of ER-SR transition sites. We propose a model of ER and SR protein traffic along microtubules, with prominent transverse/radial ER trafficking of JCT and TRD along Z-lines to populate jSR, and an abundant longitudinal/axial smooth ER between and encircling myonuclei, from which jSR proteins traffic.

  1. ER stress induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation and hepatocyte death

    PubMed Central

    Lebeaupin, C; Proics, E; de Bieville, C H D; Rousseau, D; Bonnafous, S; Patouraux, S; Adam, G; Lavallard, V J; Rovere, C; Le Thuc, O; Saint-Paul, M C; Anty, R; Schneck, A S; Iannelli, A; Gugenheim, J; Tran, A; Gual, P; Bailly-Maitre, B

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of chronic liver disease is constantly increasing, owing to the obesity epidemic. However, the causes and mechanisms of inflammation-mediated liver damage remain poorly understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an initiator of cell death and inflammatory mechanisms. Although obesity induces ER stress, the interplay between hepatic ER stress, NLRP3 inflammasome activation and hepatocyte death signaling has not yet been explored during the etiology of chronic liver diseases. Steatosis is a common disorder affecting obese patients; moreover, 25% of these patients develop steatohepatitis with an inherent risk for progression to hepatocarcinoma. Increased plasma LPS levels have been detected in the serum of patients with steatohepatitis. We hypothesized that, as a consequence of increased plasma LPS, ER stress could be induced and lead to NLRP3 inflammasome activation and hepatocyte death associated with steatohepatitis progression. In livers from obese mice, administration of LPS or tunicamycin results in IRE1α and PERK activation, leading to the overexpression of CHOP. This, in turn, activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, subsequently initiating hepatocyte pyroptosis (caspase-1, -11, interleukin-1β secretion) and apoptosis (caspase-3, BH3-only proteins). In contrast, the LPS challenge is blocked by the ER stress inhibitor TUDCA, resulting in: CHOP downregulation, reduced caspase-1, caspase-11, caspase-3 activities, lowered interleukin-1β secretion and rescue from cell death. The central role of CHOP in mediating the activation of proinflammatory caspases and cell death was characterized by performing knockdown experiments in primary mouse hepatocytes. Finally, the analysis of human steatohepatitis liver biopsies showed a correlation between the upregulation of inflammasome and ER stress markers, as well as liver injury. We demonstrate here that ER stress leads to hepatic NLRP3 inflammasome pyroptotic death, thus contributing as a novel mechanism of

  2. Measuring the Digital Divide with PingER

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, L.

    2003-10-01

    We introduce the PingER project/toolkit and show its relevance to monitoring sites in developing countries. We then show results from PingER that illustrate the extent of the Digital Divide in terms of Internet performance between developed and developing regions, which developing regions are catching up, keeping up, or falling behind and the magnitude of the differences in performance between developed regions and developing regions.

  3. Promoter and Cofactor Requirements for SERM-ER Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Rett syndrome . Nat. Genet. 37, 31–40. keda, K., Sato, M., Tsutsumi, O., Tsuchiya, F., Tsuneizumi, M., Emi, ., Imoto, I., Inazawa, J., Muramatsu, M., and...already found a number of novel ER associated proteins that appear to be essential for ER-mediated transcription 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF...identify long distance cis-regulatory elements, which proved successful in two of the three assessed cases, including TFF-1 and NRIP-1. This for the first

  4. Expression of estrogen receptor (ER) (beta)cx protein in ER(alpha)-positive breast cancer: specific correlation with progesterone receptor.

    PubMed

    Saji, Shigehira; Omoto, Yoko; Shimizu, Chikako; Warner, Margaret; Hayashi, Yukiko; Horiguchi, Shin-ichiro; Watanabe, Toru; Hayashi, Shin-ichi; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Toi, Masakazu

    2002-09-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) (beta)cx, a splice variant of ERbeta, is a dominant repressor of ER(alpha) function. In this study we investigated the possibility that because the progesterone receptor (PR) gene is a downstream target of activated ER(alpha), in ER(alpha)-positive breast cancers, expression of ER(beta)cx would result in repression of PR. In ER(alpha)-positive MCF-7 cells, stable transfection of an ER(beta)cx expression vector resulted in reduced expression of PR without affecting ER(alpha) expression. In breast cancers, immunohistochemical evaluation of ER(alpha)-positive foci for the expression of PR and ER(beta)cx revealed a significant correlation between a PR-negative phenotype and the presence of ER(beta)cx within the foci. However, when entire lesions were evaluated by Allred scoring in 115 ER(alpha)-positive breast cancer specimens, the presence of two distinct groups of patients could be discerned. One group expressed ER(beta)cx and had very reduced levels of PR expression, as expected. The second group showed both ER(beta)cx and high levels of PR. To evaluate the role of ER(beta)cx in sensitivity to tamoxifen, 18 core needle biopsies, obtained before preoperative treatment with tamoxifen, were investigated. The results show that expression of ER(beta)cx in primary lesions correlated with a poor response to tamoxifen, especially in cancers with a low PR expression in Allred score. This is the first evidence that evaluation of ER(beta)cx along with PR may contribute to a better characterization of ER(alpha)-positive breast cancers.

  5. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  6. Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft during landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-12-18

    ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  7. Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-11-17

    ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  8. Lockheed ER-2 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 706, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  9. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  10. Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  11. Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft during landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  12. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  13. Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  14. Lockheed ER-2 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 706, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  15. Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft during landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  16. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  17. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  18. Memantine ER/Donepezil: A Review in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Greig, Sarah L

    2015-11-01

    A once-daily, fixed-dose combination of memantine extended-release (ER)/donepezil 28/10 mg (Namzaric™) is available in the USA for patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) on stable memantine and donepezil therapy. The fixed-dose formulation is bioequivalent to coadministration of the individual drugs. In a 24-week, phase III trial in patients with moderate to severe AD, addition of memantine ER 28 mg once daily to stable cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) therapy was more effective than add-on placebo on measures of cognition, global clinical status, dementia behaviour and semantic processing ability, although between-group differences on a measure of daily function did not significantly differ. In subgroup analyses in donepezil-treated patients, add-on memantine ER was more effective than add-on placebo on measures of cognition, dementia behaviour and semantic processing, although there were no significant between-group differences on measures of global clinical status and daily function. Memantine ER plus ChEI combination therapy was generally well tolerated in the phase III trial, with diarrhoea, dizziness and influenza occurring at least twice as often with add-on memantine ER as add-on placebo in donepezil-treated patients. Thus, memantine ER plus donepezil combination therapy is an effective and well tolerated treatment option for patients with moderate to severe AD. The fixed-dose combination is potentially more convenient than coadministration of the individual agents.

  19. Oceanographic results from analysis of ERS-1 altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapley, B. D.; Shum, C. K.; Chambers, D. P.; Peterson, G. E.; Ries, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Large scale dynamic ocean topography and its variations were observed using ERS-1 radar altimeter measurements. The altimeter measurements analyzed are primarily from the ESA ocean product (OPR02) and from the Interim Geophysical Data Records (IGDR) generated by NOAA from the fast delivery (FD) data during the ERS-1 35 day repeat orbit phase. The precise orbits used for the dynamic topography solution are computed using dual satellite crossover measurements from ERS-1 and TOPEX (Topology Ocean Experiment)/Poseidon (T/P) as additional tracking data, and using improved models and constants which are consistent with T/P. Analysis of the ERS-1 dynamic topography solution indicates agreement with the T/P solution at the 5 cm root mean square level, with regional differences as large as 15 cm tide gauges at the 8 to 9 cm level. There are differences between the ERS-1 OPR02 and IGDR determined dynamic topography solutions on the order of 5 cm root mean square. Mesoscale oceanic variability time series obtained using collinear analysis of the ERS-1 altimeter data show good qualitative agreement when compared with the T/P results.

  20. Reference threshold levels for an ER-3A insert earphone.

    PubMed

    Frank, T; Vavrek, M J

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain normal hearing thresholds for an ER-3A insert earphone as a contribution for future standardization and for comparison with previous studies and interim ANSI and ISO insert earphone reference equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (RETSPLs). Hearing thresholds were obtained on each ear of 48 normal-hearing subjects from 125 to 8000 Hz using ER-3A and TDH-49P earphones referenced to a Bruel and Kjaer DB-0138 HA-2 and NBS-9A acoustic coupler, respectively. The mean unadjusted and adjusted ER-3A thresholds were in very good agreement with the mean thresholds averaged over eight other studies. Further, the mean adjusted ER-3A thresholds were in very good agreement with the interim ANSI RETSPLs while the mean unadjusted ER-3A thresholds were slightly higher than the ISO RETSPLs. Also, mean ER-3A thresholds averaged over a nine study data base were in closer agreement with the interim ANSI than the ISO RETSPLS. Overall, the interim ANSI insert earphone RETSPLs were recommended for clinical use.

  1. A model for the generation and interconversion of ER morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Shemesh, Tom; Klemm, Robin W.; Romano, Fabian B.; Wang, Songyu; Vaughan, Joshua; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Tukachinsky, Hanna; Kozlov, Michael M.; Rapoport, Tom A.

    2014-01-01

    The peripheral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms different morphologies composed of tubules and sheets. Proteins such as the reticulons shape the ER by stabilizing the high membrane curvature in cross-sections of tubules and sheet edges. Here, we show that membrane curvature along the edge lines is also critical for ER shaping. We describe a theoretical model that explains virtually all observed ER morphologies. The model is based on two types of curvature-stabilizing proteins that generate either straight or negatively curved edge lines (R- and S-type proteins). Dependent on the concentrations of R- and S-type proteins, membrane morphologies can be generated that consist of tubules, sheets, sheet fenestrations, and sheet stacks with helicoidal connections. We propose that reticulons 4a/b are representatives of R-type proteins that favor tubules and outer edges of sheets. Lunapark is an example of S-type proteins that promote junctions between tubules and sheets. In a tubular ER network, lunapark stabilizes three-way junctions, i.e., small triangular sheets with concave edges. The model agrees with experimental observations and explains how curvature-stabilizing proteins determine ER morphology. PMID:25404289

  2. Herp enhances ER-associated protein degradation by recruiting ubiquilins

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Eunmin; Yoon, Sungjoo Kim; Yoon, Jong-Bok

    2008-05-02

    ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) is a protein quality control system of ER, which eliminates misfolded proteins by proteasome-dependent degradation and ensures export of only properly folded proteins from ER. Herp, an ER membrane protein upregulated by ER stress, is implicated in regulation of ERAD. In the present study, we show that Herp interacts with members of the ubiquilin family, which function as a shuttle factor to deliver ubiquitinated substrates to the proteasome for degradation. Knockdown of ubiquilin expression by small interfering RNA stabilized the ERAD substrate CD3{delta}, whereas it did not alter or increased degradation of non-ERAD substrates tested. CD3{delta} was stabilized by overexpressed Herp mutants which were capable of binding to ubiquilins but were impaired in ER membrane targeting by deletion of the transmembrane domain. Our data suggest that Herp binding to ubiquilin proteins plays an important role in the ERAD pathway and that ubiquilins are specifically involved in degradation of only a subset of ubiquitinated targets, including Herp-dependent ERAD substrates.

  3. Laser performance of in-band pumped Er : LiYF4 and Er : LiLuF4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachenya, K. N.; Kurilchik, S. V.; Kisel, V. E.; Yasukevich, A. S.; Kuleshov, N. V.; Nizamutdinov, A. S.; Korableva, S. L.; Semashko, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    Spectroscopic properties of Er : LiLuF4 and Er : LiYF4 crystals in the spectral region near 1.5 μm and the lasing characteristics of these crystals under in-band pumping at a wavelength of 1522 nm are studied. With the Er : LiLuF4 crystal, the maximum slope efficiency with respect to the absorbed pump power was 44% at a wavelength of 1609 nm. Continuous-wave operation of an inband pumped Er : LiYF4 laser is obtained for the first time. The output power at a wavelength of 1606 nm was 58 mW with a slope efficiency of 21%.

  4. An ER protein functionally couples neutral lipid metabolism on lipid droplets to membrane lipid synthesis in the ER.

    PubMed

    Markgraf, Daniel F; Klemm, Robin W; Junker, Mirco; Hannibal-Bach, Hans K; Ejsing, Christer S; Rapoport, Tom A

    2014-01-16

    Eukaryotic cells store neutral lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG) in lipid droplets (LDs). Here, we have addressed how LDs are functionally linked to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We show that, in S. cerevisiae, LD growth is sustained by LD-localized enzymes. When LDs grow in early stationary phase, the diacylglycerol acyl-transferase Dga1p moves from the ER to LDs and is responsible for all TAG synthesis from diacylglycerol (DAG). During LD breakdown in early exponential phase, an ER membrane protein (Ice2p) facilitates TAG utilization for membrane-lipid synthesis. Ice2p has a cytosolic domain with affinity for LDs and is required for the efficient utilization of LD-derived DAG in the ER. Ice2p breaks a futile cycle on LDs between TAG degradation and synthesis, promoting the rapid relocalization of Dga1p to the ER. Our results show that Ice2p functionally links LDs with the ER and explain how cells switch neutral lipid metabolism from storage to consumption. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bond strength of composites on Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-irradiated enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Christian; Gutknecht, Norbert

    1999-02-01

    In an in vitro study the bond strength of composite materials on Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-radiated enamel was examined. The results achieved on enamel surfaces conditioned conventionally using the acid etching method served as a control. On 80 extracted cariesfree third molars an enamel area of 4 X 4 mm was conditioned with three different systems. The Er:YAG laser was used at pulse frequencies of 8 Hz, 10 Hz, 12 Hz and 15 Hz using an energy of 120 mJ at each setting. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser was used at the settings of 20 Hz/50 mJ, 20 Hz/100 mJ and 20 Hz/150 mJ. The repetition rate for this device is constantly 20 Hz. In the reference group 10 teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid. In order to be able to perform the tensile tests under standard conditions metal brackets were placed on the conditioned surfaces. The 'Orthodontic-Bonding-System' was used as an adhesive system. The brackets were pulled off from the etched surfaces vertically to the tooth using a tensile testing machine. The results confirmed the highest bond strengths in the group of enamel surfaces which have been conditioned with acid etching gel. The bond strength of the Er:YAG laser (8, 10 and 12 Hz)- and Er,Cr:YSGG laser (20 Hz/150 mJ)-conditioned enamel surfaces was not significantly lower.

  6. Judd-Ofelt analysis of the Er3+ (4f11) absorption intensities in Er3+-doped garnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardar, Dhiraj K.; Bradley, William M.; Perez, John J.; Gruber, John B.; Zandi, Bahram; Hutchinson, J. Andrew; Trussell, C. Ward; Kokta, Milan R.

    2003-03-01

    Spectroscopic and laser properties of three different Er3+-doped garnet systems are characterized by employing the Judd-Ofelt (JO) analysis. The three garnet hosts are Y3Al5O12 (YAG), Y3Sc2Ga3O12 (YSGG), and Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG). The JO model has been applied to the room temperature absorption intensities of Er3+ (4f11) transitions to establish the so-called JO intensity parameters: Ω2, Ω4, and Ω6 in the three garnet hosts. The intensity parameters are used to determine the radiative decay rates (emission probabilities of transitions) and branching ratios of the Er3+ transitions from the excited state J manifolds to the lower-lying J' manifolds. The predicted decay rates and branching ratios of these Er3+ transitions in YAG, YSGG, and GGG hosts are compared. From the radiative decay rates, the radiative lifetimes of the Er3+ excited states are determined in the three garnets and are also compared. We also report the spectroscopic quality factors, Ω4/Ω6, obtained for the three garnets. The quantum efficiencies of the 4I13/2→4I15/2 Er3+ transition in YAG, YSGG, and GGG are determined to be ˜79%, 82%, and 85%, respectively.

  7. mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin and ER stressor tunicamycin induce differential patterns of ER-mitochondria coupling

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; López-Crisosto, Camila; Parra, Valentina; Rodriguez-Peña, Marcelo; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Efficient mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake takes place at contact points between the ER and mitochondria, and represents a key regulator of many cell functions. In a previous study with HeLa cells, we showed that ER-to-mitochondria Ca2+ transfer increases during the early phase of ER stress induced by tunicamycin as an adaptive response to stimulate mitochondrial bioenergetics. It remains unknown whether other types of stress signals trigger similar responses. Here we observed that rapamycin, which inhibits the nutrient-sensing complex mTORC1, increased ER-mitochondria coupling in HeLa cells to a similar extent as did tunicamycin. Interestingly, although global responses to both stressors were comparable, there were notable differences in the spatial distribution of such changes. While tunicamycin increased organelle proximity primarily in the perinuclear region, rapamycin increased organelle contacts throughout the entire cell. These differences were paralleled by dissimilar alterations in the distribution of regulatory proteins of the ER-mitochondria interface, heterogeneities in mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, and the formation of domains within the mitochondrial network with varying mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Collectively, these data suggest that while increasing ER-mitochondria coupling appears to represent a general response to cell stress, the intracellular distribution of the associated responses needs to be tailored to meet specific cellular requirements. PMID:27808250

  8. ER signaling is activated to protect human HaCaT keratinocytes from ER stress induced by environmental doses of UVB

    SciTech Connect

    Mera, Kentaro; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Tada, Ko-ichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro; Kanekura, Takuro

    2010-06-25

    Proteins are folded properly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Various stress such as hypoxia, ischemia and starvation interfere with the ER function, causing ER stress, which is defined by the accumulation of unfolded protein (UP) in the ER. ER stress is prevented by the UP response (UPR) and ER-associated degradation (ERAD). These signaling pathways are activated by three major ER molecules, ATF6, IRE-1 and PERK. Using HaCaT cells, we investigated ER signaling in human keratinocytes irradiated by environmental doses of ultraviolet B (UVB). The expression of Ero1-L{alpha}, an upstream signaling molecule of ER stress, decreased at 1-4 h after 10 mJ/cm{sup 2} irradiation, indicating that the environmental dose of UVB-induced ER stress in HaCaT cells, without growth retardation. Furthermore, expression of intact ATF6 was decreased and it was translocated to the nuclei. The expression of XBP-1, a downstream molecule of IRE-1, which is an ER chaperone whose expression is regulated by XBP-1, and UP ubiquitination were induced by 10 mJ/cm{sup 2} UVB at 4 h. PERK, which regulates apoptosis, was not phosphorylated. Our results demonstrate that UVB irradiation generates UP in HaCaT cells and that the UPR and ERAD systems are activated to protect cells from UVB-induced ER stress. This is the first report to show ER signaling in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes.

  9. Structural Analysis of the QCM Aboard the ER-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Phyllis D.; Bainum, Peter M.; Xing, Guangqian

    1997-01-01

    As a result of recent supersonic transport (SST) studies on the effect they may have on the atmosphere, several experiments have been proposed to capture and evaluate samples of the stratosphere where SST's travel. One means to achieve this is to utilize the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) installed aboard the ER-2, formerly the U-2 reconnaissance aircraft. The QCM is a cascade impactor designed to perform in-situ, real-time measurements of aerosols and chemical vapors at an altitude of 60,000 - 70,000 feet. The ER-2 is primarily used by NASA for Earth resources to test new sensor systems before they are placed aboard satellites. One of the main reasons the ER-2 is used for this flight experiment is its capability to fly approximately twelve miles above sea level (can reach an altitude of 78,000 feet). Because the ER-2 operates at such a high altitude, it is of special interest to scientists interested in space exploration or supersonic aircraft. Some of the experiments are designed to extract data from the atmosphere around the ER-2. For the current flight experiment, the QCM is housed in a frame that is connected to an outer pod that is attached to the fuselage of the ER-2. Due to the location of the QCM within the housing frame and the location of the pod on the ER-2, the pod and its contents are subject to structural loads. In addition to structural loads, structural vibrations are also of importance because the QCM is a frequency induced instrument. Therefore, a structural analysis of the instrument within the frame is imperative to determine if resonance and/or undesirable deformations occur.

  10. The Implantation Of MeV Er Into Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, H. B.; Klein, P. B.; Mrstik, B. J.; Ingram, David C.

    1985-04-01

    The rare earth (RE) doping of III-V compounds and Si is currently of interest due to the potential development of these materials for LED's and electrically injected lasers which operate in the near infrared (1-3 pm). Er and Yb have been studied extensively, and have been incorporated into semiconductor hosts either during growth or by subsequent implantation. Implantation is of interest because of the greater degree of flexibility it affords for device fabrication in an integrated format. The use of conventional implantation energies is hampered by the large mass of the rare earths which restricts the range and creates a high density of displacement damage. In this paper, we discuss the use of MeV implantation for the incorporation of Er in Si. Rutherford backscattering (RBS), photoluminescence (PL) and electrical measurements have been carried out on Si substrates implanted with Er at MeV energies. The RBS data show that 1E13cm-2 1 MeV implants do not produce a distinct damage peak and are well annealed by a 2 900°C 30 min anneal. They also show that MeV implants of 2.5E14cm-2 produce a thick amor-phous layer while 5E13cm-implants result in a damage peak which is 50% of the random. A characteristic 806 meV Er PL peak is present in all the samples annealed at 700°C or higher. The integrated Er PL intensity is found to decrease with increasing anneal temperature, and may be related to interstitial Er3+. All samples annealed at 650°C or higher also show an n-type layer associated with the implanted Er. The carrier concentration is a maximum for 700°C anneals and decreases monotonically for higher anneal temperatures.

  11. THE CONTRIBUTION OF ER STRESS TO LIVER DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    Dara, Lily; Ji, Cheng; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an evolutionarily conserved cell signaling pathway which is activated to regulate protein synthesis and restore homeostatic equilibrium when the cell is stressed from increased client protein load or the accumulation of unfolded or malfolded proteins. Once activated, this signaling pathway can either result in the recovery of homeostasis, , or can activate a cascade of events which ultimately result in cell death. The UPR/ER stress response spectrum and its interplay with other cellular organelles play an important role in the pathogenesis of disease in secretory cells rich in endoplasmic reticulum, such as hepatocytes. Over the past two decades the contribution of ER stress to various forms of liver diseases has been examined. Robust support for a contributing as opposed to a secondary role for ER stress response is seen in the nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), alcoholic liver disease, ischemia reperfusion injury and cholestatic models of liver disease. The exact direction of the cause and effect relationship between modes of cell injury and ER stress remains elusive. It is apparent that a complex interplay exists between ER stress response, conditions that promote it, and those that result from it. A vicious cycle in which ER stress promotes inflammation, cell injury and steatosis and in which steatogenesis, inflammation and cell injury aggravate ER stress seems to be at play. It is perhaps the nature of such a vicious cycle that is the key pathophysiologic concept. Therapeutic approaches aimed at interrupting the cycle may dampen the stress response and the ensuing injury. PMID:21384408

  12. The widow(er)'s limit provision of Social Security.

    PubMed

    Weaver, D A

    Widow benefits have been a part of the Social Security program since the 1939 amendments to the Social Security Act (widower benefits were added later). For many years, the Social Security law called for paying a widow(er) a fraction of the deceased worker's primary insurance amount (PIA). However, the worker--while alive--may have received the full PIA as his or her retirement benefit. Over time, arguments were made that a widow(er) should be treated as generously as his or her spouse was. The 1972 amendments to the Social Security Act allowed for a widow(er) to receive a full PIA, subject to actuarial reductions if the widow(er) benefit was claimed before the normal retirement age (NRA) and subject to a new provision of the law commonly referred to as the widow(er)'s limit. Generally, the widow(er)'s limit specifies that if a worker received reduced retirement benefits (because the worker claimed benefits before the NRA), then the worker's widow(er) cannot receive a monthly benefit equal to the full PIA. Rather, the widow(er)'s benefit is generally limited to the amount the worker would receive if he or she was still alive. The limit provision appears to be motivated by the overall intent of the 1972 Congress to pay a benefit to a widow(er) that was comparable with what the worker received. A number of changes to the limit provision have been discussed. This article looks at the following options: Abolishing the limit, Raising the limit by requiring that it never be set below the average PIA among all retired-worker beneficiaries. Adjusting the limit for some widow(er)s--that is, only persons who are widowed before the NRA (the ARLA option), Making a simpler adjustment to the limit by abolishing it for persons who are widowed before age 62 (the SARLA option), and A proposal by Robert J. Myers that would make modest adjustments to the limit for cases in which the worker died before the NRA. The most fundamental change--abolishing the limit--would increase benefits

  13. Effects of Y3+/Er3+ ratio on the 2.7 μm emission of Er3+ ions in oxyfluoride glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhiyong; Liu, Chao; Xia, Mengling; Wang, Jing; Han, Jianjun; Xie, Jun; Zhao, Xiujian

    2016-04-01

    Y3+/Er3+ ions co-doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramics were investigated to realize efficient 2.7 μm emission. Incorporation of Er3+ ions into the fluoride nanocrystals was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction patterns, absorption spectra, emission spectra and Judd-Ofelt analysis. With an increase in the Y3+/Er3+ ratio, radiative lifetime, quantum efficiency and emission cross section of the 2.7 μm emission from Er3+ ions were greatly improved, due to the reduced effective concentration of Er3+ ions and suppressed cross relaxation processes among Er3+ ions in the fluoride nanocrystals. Compared to other Er3+-doped glasses, Y3+/Er3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramics showed a promising potential for gain medium.

  14. ER bodies in plants of the Brassicales order: biogenesis and association with innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryohei T.; Yamada, Kenji; Bednarek, Paweł; Nishimura, Mikio; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms highly organized network structures composed of tubules and cisternae. Many plant species develop additional ER-derived structures, most of which are specific for certain groups of species. In particular, a rod-shaped structure designated as the ER body is produced by plants of the Brassicales order, which includes Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analyses and characterization of A. thaliana mutants possessing a disorganized ER morphology or lacking ER bodies have provided insights into the highly organized mechanisms responsible for the formation of these unique ER structures. The accumulation of proteins specific for the ER body within the ER plays an important role in the formation of ER bodies. However, a mutant that exhibits morphological defects of both the ER and ER bodies has not been identified. This suggests that plants in the Brassicales order have evolved novel mechanisms for the development of this unique organelle, which are distinct from those used to maintain generic ER structures. In A. thaliana, ER bodies are ubiquitous in seedlings and roots, but rare in rosette leaves. Wounding of rosette leaves induces de novo formation of ER bodies, suggesting that these structures are associated with resistance against pathogens and/or herbivores. ER bodies accumulate a large amount of β-glucosidases, which can produce substances that potentially protect against invading pests. Biochemical studies have determined that the enzymatic activities of these β-glucosidases are enhanced during cell collapse. These results suggest that ER bodies are involved in plant immunity, although there is no direct evidence of this. In this review, we provide recent perspectives of ER and ER body formation in A. thaliana, and discuss clues for the functions of ER bodies. We highlight defense strategies against biotic stress that are unique for the Brassicales order, and discuss how ER structures could contribute to these strategies. PMID

  15. Er:YAG laser debonding of porcelain veneers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buu, Natalie; Morford, Cynthia; Finzen, Frederick; Sharma, Arun; Rechmann, Peter

    2010-02-01

    The removal of porcelain veneers using Er:YAG lasers has not been previously described in the scientific literature. This study was designed to systematically investigate the efficacy of an Er:YAG laser on veneer debonding without damaging the underlying tooth structure, as well as preserving a new or misplaced veneer. Initially, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used on flat porcelain veneer samples (IPS Empress Esthetic; Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY) to assess which infrared laser wavelengths are transmitted through the veneer. Additionally, FTIR spectra from a veneer bonding cement (RelyX Veneer Cement A1; 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN) were obtained. While the veneer material showed no characteristic water absorption bands in the FTIR, the bonding cement has a broad H2O/OH absorption band coinciding with the ER:YAG laser emission wavelength. Consequently Er:YAG laser energy transmission through different veneer thicknesses was measured. The porcelain veneers transmitted 11 - 18 % of the incident Er:YAG laser energy depending on their thicknesses (Er:YAG laser: LiteTouch by Syneron; wavelength 2,940 nm, 10 Hz repetition rate, pulse duration 100 μs at 133 mJ/pulse; straight sapphire tip 1,100 μm diameter; Syneron, Yokneam, Israel). Initial signs of cement ablation occurred at approximately 1.8 - 4.0 J/cm2. This can be achieved by irradiating through the veneer with the fiber tip positioned at a distance of 3-6 mm from the veneer surface, and operating the Er:YAG laser with 133 mJ output energy. All eleven veneers bonded on extracted anterior incisor teeth were easily removed using the Er:YAG laser. The removal occurred without damaging underlying tooth structure as verified by light microscopic investigation (Incident Light Microscope Olympus B 50, Micropublisher RTV 3.3 MP, Image Pro software, Olympus). The debonding mainly occurred at the cement/veneer interface. When the samples were stored in saline solution for 5 days and/or an air-waterspray was

  16. ER Ursae Majoris: A dwarf nova with surprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Miguel, Enrique; Patterson, Joe; Kemp, Jonathan; Stein, William; Roberts, George; Campbell, T.; Hambsch, Franz-J.; Krajci, Tom; Dvorak, Shawn; Koff, Robert A.; Morelle, Etienne; Potter, Michael; Cejudo, David; Brady, Steve; Menzies, Kenneth

    2012-05-01

    ER Ursae Majoris is a relatively bright member of the SU UMa-type dwarf novae that undergoes frequent eruptions of amplitude ~2 mag every ~4 d. In addition to these ordinary dwarf-nova outbursts, ER UMa shows brighter eruptions (superoutbursts) lasting ~20 d with a recurrence time of ~44 d. As other members of the SU UMa class, ER UMa displays a characteristic periodic modulation (superhumps) in its light curve during the course of a superoutburst, the period being a few percent longer than the orbital period of the underlying binary system. A routine photometric patrol of ER UMa during its January 2011superoutburst became much more interesting after noticing the presence of an additional modulation in its light curve, with a period slightly shorter than the orbital period. Similar photometric waves (known as negative superhumps) have already been observed in other cataclysmic variables, mainly in nova-like systems, but only in a small handful of SU UMa-type stars during quiescence, and never before during a superoutburst. We report in this communication the results of a worldwide photometric campaign that was orchestrated right after the discovery of negative superhumps in ER UMa, and provide a thorough analysis of the data obtained from more than 10 stations of the Center of Backyard Astrophysics (CBA) network, which include more than 1000 hours of photometric data over a 4-month baseline on 2011, and a similar (still in progress) dense coverage in 2012.

  17. Towards Understanding ER Fluids Using Sals/rheometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, Bryan J.; McLeish, Tom; Block, Harry

    This paper details work in Cranfield and Leeds Universities of making a stock of transparent ER fluids, which could later be utilised in a new optical electro rheometer (OER) to be assembled at Leeds University. Two basic routes were attempted. One was to use glass microspheres and the other was to use polymer spheres. In order to increase the strength of the ER effect, it was necessary to increase the volume loading while still maintaining sufficient transmission (about 75% over 2 mm). It was found to be possible to increase the ER effect quite substantially in some instances, and in others it was possible to get a near perfect refractive index match. It was not possible to combine both requirements in one fluid such that a high static yield stress was apparent in a transparent ER fluid. However one fluid was made which gave acceptable diffraction losses at high volume fractions, remained in suspension for extended periods and provide about 700 Pa yield stress at 4kV/mm and about 30% volume fraction viz: untreated poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) microspheres in Cereclor/bromonaphthalene/polystyrene solution. The OER being assembled at Leeds University is intended to record small angle light scattering (SALS) profiles, electrical and mechanical properties of ER fluids simultaneously. The OER is based around a DSR 500 machine purchased from Rheometric Scientific with quartz tools coated with transparent indium tin oxide(ITO), which is capable of measuring both steady state (DC) and oscillatory (AC) material parameters.

  18. Hippocampal ER Stress and Learning Deficits Following Repeated Pyrethroid Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Muhammad M.; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel; Richardson, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated as a significant contributor to neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction. Previously, we reported that the widely used pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin causes ER stress-mediated apoptosis in SK-N-AS neuroblastoma cells. Whether or not this occurs in vivo remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that repeated deltamethrin exposure (3 mg/kg every 3 days for 60 days) causes hippocampal ER stress and learning deficits in adult mice. Repeated exposure to deltamethrin caused ER stress in the hippocampus as indicated by increased levels of C/EBP-homologous protein (131%) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (96%). This was accompanied by increased levels of caspase-12 (110%) and activated caspase-3 (50%). To determine whether these effects resulted in learning deficits, hippocampal-dependent learning was evaluated using the Morris water maze. Deltamethrin-treated animals exhibited profound deficits in the acquisition of learning. We also found that deltamethrin exposure resulted in decreased BrdU-positive cells (37%) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, suggesting potential impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that repeated deltamethrin exposure leads to ER stress, apoptotic cell death in the hippocampus, and deficits in hippocampal precursor proliferation, which is associated with learning deficits. PMID:25359175

  19. Coordination of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Signaling During Maize Seed Development

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, Rebecca S.

    2010-11-20

    Seed storage reserves represent one of the most important sources of renewable fixed carbon and nitrogen found in nature. Seeds are well-adapted for diverting metabolic resources to synthesize storage proteins as well as enzymes and structural proteins needed for their transport and packaging into membrane bound storage protein bodies. Our underlying hypothesis is that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response provides the critical cellular control of metabolic flux required for optimal accumulation of storage reserves in seeds. This highly conserved response is a cellular mechanism to monitor the protein folding environment of the ER and restore homeostasis in the presence of unfolded or misfolded proteins. In seeds, deposition of storage proteins in protein bodies is a highly specialized process that takes place even in the presence of mutant proteins that no longer fold and package properly. The capacity of the ER to deposit these aberrant proteins in protein bodies during a period that extends several weeks provides an excellent model for deconvoluting the ER stress response of plants. We have focused in this project on the means by which the ER senses and responds to functional perturbations and the underlying intracellular communication that occurs among biosynthetic, trafficking and degradative pathways for proteins during seed development.

  20. ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), (Edwards, California, USA) has two Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, Maryland) Earth Research-2 (ER-2) aircraft that serve as high-altitude and long-range flying laboratories. The ER-2 has been utilized to conduct scientific studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, land-use mapping, disaster assessment, preliminary testing and calibration and validation of satellite sensors. The ER-2 aircraft provides experimenters with a wide array of payload accommodation areas with suitable environment control with required electrical and mechanical interfaces. Missions may be flown out of DFRC or from remote bases worldwide. The NASA ER-2 is utilized by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. The combination of the ER-2 s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities complemented by a trained maintenance and operations team provides an excellent and unique platform system to the science community.

  1. ER Stress Proteins in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases.

    PubMed

    Morito, Daisuke; Nagata, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, heat shock proteins (HSPs) have been implicated in inflammatory responses and autoimmunity. HSPs were originally believed to maintain protein quality control in the cytosol. However, they also exist extracellularly and appear to act as inflammatory factors. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggested that the other class of stress proteins such as, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins, which originally act as protein quality control factors in the secretory pathway and are induced by ER stress in inflammatory lesions, also participate in inflammation and autoimmunity. The immunoglobulin heavy-chain binding protein (Bip)/glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), calnexin, calreticulin, glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94)/gp96, oxygen regulated protein 150 (ORP150)/glucose-regulated protein 170 (GRP170), homocysteine-induced ER protein (Herp) and heat shock protein 47 (hsp47)/Serpin H1, which are expressed not only in the ER but also occasionally at the cell surface play pathophysiological roles in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases as pro- or anti-inflammatory factors. Here we describe the accumulating evidence of the participation of ER stress proteins in autoimmunity and inflammation and discuss the critical differences between the two classes of stress proteins.

  2. Hippocampal ER stress and learning deficits following repeated pyrethroid exposure.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Muhammad M; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel; Richardson, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated as a significant contributor to neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction. Previously, we reported that the widely used pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin causes ER stress-mediated apoptosis in SK-N-AS neuroblastoma cells. Whether or not this occurs in vivo remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that repeated deltamethrin exposure (3 mg/kg every 3 days for 60 days) causes hippocampal ER stress and learning deficits in adult mice. Repeated exposure to deltamethrin caused ER stress in the hippocampus as indicated by increased levels of C/EBP-homologous protein (131%) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (96%). This was accompanied by increased levels of caspase-12 (110%) and activated caspase-3 (50%). To determine whether these effects resulted in learning deficits, hippocampal-dependent learning was evaluated using the Morris water maze. Deltamethrin-treated animals exhibited profound deficits in the acquisition of learning. We also found that deltamethrin exposure resulted in decreased BrdU-positive cells (37%) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, suggesting potential impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that repeated deltamethrin exposure leads to ER stress, apoptotic cell death in the hippocampus, and deficits in hippocampal precursor proliferation, which is associated with learning deficits.

  3. Multiscale Structural Analysis of Plant ER-PM Contact Sites.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Heather E; Lee, Eun Kyoung; van Bezouwen, Laura S; Ross, Bradford; Rosado, Abel; Samuels, A Lacey

    2017-03-01

    Membrane contact sites are recognized across eukaryotic systems as important nanostructures. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane (PM) contact sites (EPCS) are involved in excitation-contraction coupling, signaling, and plant responses to stress. In this report, we perform a multiscale structural analysis of Arabidopsis EPCS that combines live cell imaging, quantitative transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron tomography over a developmental gradient. To place EPCS in the context of the entire cortical ER, we examined green fluorescent protein (GFP)-HDEL in living cells over a developmental gradient, then Synaptotagmin1 (SYT1)-GFP was used as a specific marker of EPCS. In all tissues examined, young, rapidly elongating cells showed lamellar cortical ER and higher density of SYT1-GFP puncta, while in mature cells the cortical ER network was tubular, highly dynamic and had fewer SYT1-labeled puncta. The higher density of EPCS in young cells was verified by quantitative TEM of cryo-fixed tissues. For all cell types, the size of each EPCS had a consistent range in length along the PM from 50 to 300 nm, with microtubules and ribosomes excluded from the EPCS. The structural characterization of EPCS in different plant tissues, and the correlation of EPCS densities over developmental gradients illustrate how ER-PM communication evolves in response to cellular expansion. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Excitation mechanisms of Er optical centers GaN epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Matthew; Jiang, Hongxing; Lin, Jingyu; Zavada, John; Vinh, Nguyen

    We report direct evidence of two mechanisms responsible for the excitation of optically active Er3 + ions in GaN epilayers grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. These mechanisms, resonant excitation via the higher-lying inner 4f shell transitions and band-to-band excitation of the semiconductor host, lead to narrow emission lines from isolated and the defect-related Er optical centers. However, these centers have different photoluminescence spectra, local defect environments, decay dynamics, and excitation cross sections. The photoluminescence at 1.54 micrometer from the isolated Er optical center which can be excited by either mechanism has the same decay dynamics, but possesses a much higher excitation cross-section under band-to-band excitation. In contrast, the photoluminescence at 1.54 micrometer from the defect-related Er optical center can only be observed through band-to-band excitation but has the largest excitation cross-section. These results explain the difficulty in achieving gain in Er doped GaN and indicate approaches for realization of optical amplification, and possibly lasing, at room temperature.

  5. Aging induced ER stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Marishka K.; Chan, May T.; Zimmerman, John E.; Pack, Allan I.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The effectiveness of the adaptive UPR is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduces ER stress and ameliorates age-associated sleep changes in Drosophila. PBA consolidates both baseline and recovery sleep in aging flies. The behavioral modifications of PBA are linked to its suppression of ER stress. PBA decreased splicing of x-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and upregulation of phosphorylated elongation initiation factor 2 α (p-eIF2α), in flies that were subjected to sleep deprivation. We also demonstrate that directly activating ER stress in young flies fragments baseline sleep and alters recovery sleep. Alleviating prolonged/sustained ER stress during aging contributes to sleep consolidation and improves recovery sleep/ sleep debt discharge. PMID:24444805

  6. 184AA3: a xenograft model of ER+ breast adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, William C.; Kuhn, Irene; Thi, Kate; Chu, Berbie; Stanford-Moore, Gaelen; Sampayo, Rocío; Garbe, James C.; Stampfer, Martha; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2015-12-12

    Despite the prevalence and significant morbidity resulting from estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast adenocarcinomas, there are only a few models of this cancer subtype available for drug development and arguably none for studying etiology. Those models that do exist have questionable clinical relevance. Given our goal of developing luminal models, we focused on six cell lines derived by minimal mutagenesis from normal human breast cells, and asked if any could generate clinically relevant xenografts, which we then extensively characterized. Xenografts of one cell line, 184AA3, consistently formed ER+ adenocarcinomas that had a high proliferative rate and other features consistent with “luminal B” intrinsic subtype. Squamous and spindle cell/mesenchymal differentiation was absent, in stark contrast to other cell lines that we examined or others have reported. We explored intratumoral heterogeneity produced by 184AA3 by immunophenotyping xenograft tumors and cultured cells, and characterized marker expression by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. A CD44High subpopulation was discovered, yet their tumor forming ability was far less than CD44Low cells. Single cell cloning revealed the phenotypic plasticity of 184AA3, consistent with the intratumoral heterogeneity observed in xenografts. Characterization of ER expression in cultures revealed ER protein and signaling is intact, yet when estrogen was depleted in culture, and in vivo, it did not impact cell or tumor growth, analogous to therapeutically resistant ER+ cancers. This model is appropriate for studies of the etiology of ovarian hormone independent adenocarcinomas, for identification of therapeutic targets, predictive testing, and drug development.

  7. Microtensile bond strength analysis of adhesive systems to Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-treated dentin.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Thaysa Monteiro; Ramos-Oliveira, Thayanne Monteiro; Moretto, Simone Gonçalves; de Freitas, Patricia Moreira; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments (control, diamond bur, erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser, and erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser) on sound dentin surface morphology and on microtensile bond strength (μTBS). Sixteen dentin fragments were randomly divided into four groups (n = 4), and different surface treatments were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Ninety-six third molars were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 12) according to type of surface treatment and adhesive system: G1 = Control + Clearfil SE Bond (SE); G2 = Control + Single Bond (SB); G3 = diamond bur (DB) + SE; G4 = DB + SB, G5 = Er:YAG laser (2.94 μm, 60 mJ, 2 Hz, 0.12 W, 19.3 J/cm(2)) + SE; G6 = Er:YAG + SB, G7 = Er,Cr:YSGG laser (2.78 μm, 50 mJ, 30 Hz, 1.5 W, 4.5 J/cm(2)) + SE; and G8 = Er,Cr:YSGG + SB. Composite blocks were bonded to the samples, and after 24-h storage in distilled/deionized water (37 °C), stick-shaped samples were obtained and submitted to μTBS test. Bond strength values (in megapascal) were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α = 0.05). G1 (54.69 ± 7.8 MPa) showed the highest mean, which was statistically significantly higher than all the other groups (p < 0.05). For all treatments, SE showed higher bond strength than SB, except only for Er,Cr:YSGG treatment, in which the systems did not differ statistically from each other. Based on the irradiation parameters considered in this study, it can be concluded that Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG irradiation presented lower values than the control group; however, their association with self-etching adhesive does not have a significantly negative effect on sound dentin (μTBS values of >20 MPa).

  8. Er-doped and Er, Yb co-doped oxyfluoride glasses and glass-ceramics, structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisiecki, Radosław; Augustyn, Elżbieta; Ryba-Romanowski, Witold; Żelechower, Michał

    2011-09-01

    The selected glasses and glass-ceramics pertinent to following chemical composition in mol%:48%SiO 2-11%Al 2O 3-7%Na 2O-10%CaO-10%PbO-11%PbF 2-3%ErF 3 and 48%SiO 2-11%Al 2O 3-7%Na 2O-10%CaO-10%PbO-10%PbF 2-1%ErF 3-3%YbF 3 have been manufactured from high purity components (Aldrich) at 1450 °C in normal atmosphere. Glass optical fibers were successfully drawn. Subsequently they were subject to the heat-treatment at 700 °C in various time periods. The preceding differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies allowed estimating both the fiber drawing temperature and the controlled crystallization temperature of glass fibers. It has been observed that the controlled heat-treatment of oxyfluoride glass fibers results in the creation of Pb 5Al 3F 19, Er 4F 2O 11Si 3 and Er 3FO 10Si 3 crystalline phases. The identified phases were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and confirmed by selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The fibers consist of mixed amorphous-crystalline microstructure with nano-crystals of size even below 10 nm distributed in the glassy host. Their morphology was investigated applying high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Optical properties and excited state relaxation dynamics of optically active ions (Er 3+, Yb 3+) in glass and glass-ceramics have been studied. Based on absorption spectra the Judd-Ofelt analysis was carried out. The main attention was directed to NIR luminescence at. 1.6 μm related to 4I 13/2 → 4I 15/2 Er 3+ and less effective emission associated with 4I 11/2 → 4I 15/2 Er 3+ and 2F 5/2 → 2F 7/2 Yb 3+ transitions. The dissimilar spectroscopic properties have been revealed for glasses and glass-ceramic samples, respectively. The reduction of emission linewidth at 1.6 and 1.0 μm combined with substantial increase of 4I 13/2 lifetimes of erbium in glass-ceramics appear to be evidences that Er 3+ ions are accommodated in crystalline phases. The structural and optical characteristics of oxyfluoride glass

  9. Optical characterization, luminescence properties of Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glasses for broadband amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meruva, Seshadri; Carlos, Barbosa Luiz; Alberto Peres, Ferencz Junior Julio

    2014-03-01

    In the present paper, optical absorption and emission spectra and luminescence decay lifetimes of different concentrations, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 mol% of Er3+ and 0.1Er3+/0.5Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glasses (TeO2-Bi2O3-ZnONb2O5) were reported. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters were determined and used to calculate spontaneous radiative transition probabilities (Arad), radiative lifetimes (τR), branching ratios (β) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σP) for certain emission transitions. NIR emission at 1.5μm and up-conversion spectra of Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glasses were measured under excitation wavelength of 980 nm. The absorption, emission and gain cross-sections for 4I13/2→4I15/2 transition of Er3+ are determined. The peak emission cross-section of this transition is found to be higher (9.95×10-21 cm2) for 0.1 mol% of Er3+ and lower (6.81×10-21 cm2) for 1.0 mol% of Er3+ doped tellurite glasses, which is comparable to other oxide glasses. The larger peak emission cross-section for lower concentration of Er3+ is due to the high refractive index of glass matrix (2.1547), relation established from Judd-Ofelt theory. The observed full-widths at half maxima (FWHM) for lower and higher concentrations of Er3+ are 64nm and 96 nm respectively. The larger values of FWHM and peak emission cross-sections are potentially useful for optical amplification processes in the design of Erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFs). Under 980 nm excitation three strong up-conversion bands were observed at 530nm, 546nm and 665nm. The pump power dependent intensities and mechanisms involved in the up-conversion process have been studied. The luminescence decay profiles for 4I13/2 level were reported for all glass matrices.

  10. Er:YAG laser metal and ceramic bracket debonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostálová, Tat'jana; Remeš, Marek; Jelínková, Helena; Å ulc, Jan; Němec, Michal; Vyhlídal, David

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the study was investigation of Er:YAG radiation (wavelength 2.94 μm) interaction with various metal and ceramic brackets and adhesive materials. The source of radiation was a free-running Er: YAG laser generating pulses with energy 280 mJ, 250 μs long and repetition rate 6 Hz (mean power 1.7 W). During the treatment lasting 140 s, water cooling was implemented and only the brackets were irradiated. It has been observed that the brackets were removed easily after the Er:YAG laser irradiation, and temperature rise was limited also for metal brackets. SEM investigation has confirmed less damage of enamel in comparison with non-irradiated samples.

  11. Tapentadol-ER for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Games, Gina; Hutchison, Amber

    2013-10-01

    With the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) increasing, pathologic complications such as diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) are also becoming more common. Of those diagnosed with DM, 10% to 20% of patients suffer from painful DPN. Until recently, only pregabalin and duloxetine possessed Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for this condition. However, FDA recently approved tapentadol-ER [extended release] (Nucynta ER) for painful DPN. Tapentadol-ER is an opioid analgesic commonly used for the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic pain that contains a unique dual mechanism acting as both a weak mu-opiod receptor agonist and norepinephine-reuptake inhibitor. It is by way of this unique dual mechanism that allows for effective analgesic effects with increased tolerability. This new FDA approval provides an additional therapeutic option to treat DPN in symptomatic patients.

  12. Ultra-High Spin Spectroscopy In Er Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.

    2008-11-11

    The discoveries observed in the ongoing conflict between collective and single-particle nuclear behaviour with increasing angular momentum have driven the field of nuclear spectroscopy for many decades and have given rise to new nuclear phenomena. Recently a new frontier of {gamma} spectroscopy at ultra-high spin has been opened in the rare-earth region with rotational bands that bypass the classic band-terminating states that appear at spin 45({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) in the N 90 Er nuclei. These weakly populated rotational structures have characteristics of triaxial strongly-deformed bands. Such structures have been observed in {sup 157,158,160}Er, following a series of experiments using the Gammasphere spectrometer. These observations herald a return to collective excitations at spins of about 50 to 65({Dirac_h}/2{pi}). This talk reviews the status of the spectroscopy and understanding of the observed structures in these Er and neighbouring nuclei.

  13. Phosphoinositide kinase signaling controls ER-PM cross-talk

    PubMed Central

    Omnus, Deike J.; Manford, Andrew G.; Bader, Jakob M.; Emr, Scott D.; Stefan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane lipid dynamics must be precisely regulated for normal cellular function, and disruptions in lipid homeostasis are linked to the progression of several diseases. However, little is known about the sensory mechanisms for detecting membrane composition and how lipid metabolism is regulated in response to membrane stress. We find that phosphoinositide (PI) kinase signaling controls a conserved PDK-TORC2-Akt signaling cascade as part of a homeostasis network that allows the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to modulate essential responses, including Ca2+-regulated lipid biogenesis, upon plasma membrane (PM) stress. Furthermore, loss of ER-PM junctions impairs this protective response, leading to PM integrity defects upon heat stress. Thus PI kinase–mediated ER-PM cross-talk comprises a regulatory system that ensures cellular integrity under membrane stress conditions. PMID:26864629

  14. Biological properties of ER 42859, a novel erythromycin derivative.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J M; Hannan, P C; Shillingford, C; Knowles, D J

    1989-03-01

    The antimicrobial activity of a new semi-synthetic oral erythromycin derivative, ER 42859, was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in comparison with erythromycin, spiramycin, josamycin, oleandomycin and the newer semi-synthetic derivatives flurithromycin, roxithromycin and A-56268. MIC values of ER 42859 were superior to those of roxithromycin, oleandomycin, josamycin and spiramycin but generally 2-fold poorer than those of erythromycin. The activity equalled that of erythromycin against Haemophilus influenzae and was superior to that of roxithromycin and A-56268 against this organism. MIC values of the compound were greatly influenced by pH due to the dibasic nature of the molecule. ER 42859 had markedly superior activity to erythromycin, spiramycin, josamycin, oleandomycin and flurithromycin against experimental infections in mice and similar activity to roxithromycin and A-56268. Blood and tissue levels were high and prolonged in rodents. In volunteers, blood levels were prolonged but inferior to those of erythromycin.

  15. Residual vibration suppression of flexible arms using ER adaptive structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Kexiang; Meng, Guang; Tang, Huanqing; Liu, Yingchun

    2007-07-01

    In the past decades, there have been a number of research activities to control unwanted vibration of flexible robot arms. The electrorheological (ER) adaptive structures, which behave as viscoelastic damping structures with controllable shear modulus, are used to suppress the residual vibrations of the rotating flexible arm in this study. The flexible arm is designed as an ER sandwich structures, in which ER fluids is sandwiched between two elastic surface layers. Experimental tests are conducted. The vibration response performances of the beam subjected to different electric field intensity and motion conditions are demonstrated and evaluated. The experimental results obtained indicate that significant vibration attenuation is achieved at different operating conditions by applying an electric field to the rotating flexible arm.

  16. The Role of ER Bodies in Brassicaceae Resistance under Clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanchuk, S. M.; Kordyum, E. L.

    2013-02-01

    Results of the electron-microscopic investigation of root apices of Arabidopsis thaliana 3- and 7-day old seedlings grown in the stationary conditions and under clinorotation are presented. It was shown the similarity in the root apex cell ultrastructure in control and under clinorotation. In the same time there were some differences in the ultrustructure of statocytes and the distal elongation zone under clinorotation. For the first time, the sensitivity of ER-bodies, which are derivative of granular endoplasmic reticulum and contain a β-glucosidase enzyme, to the influence of simulated microgravity that was demonstrated by increasing quantity and area of ER-bodies per cell section, as well as by higher variability of their shape under clinorotation. A degree of these changes correlated with the duration of clinorotation. On the basis of obtained data, a protective role of ER-bodies in adaptation of plants to microgravity is discussed.

  17. Klotho ameliorates chemically induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Srijita; Zhao, Yanhua; Sarkar, Partha S; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Tilton, Ronald G; Choudhary, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a fundamental cell response associated with stress-initiated unfolded protein response (UPR), and loss of Klotho, an anti-aging hormone linked to NF-κB-induced inflammation, occur in chronic metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. We investigated if the loss of Klotho is causally linked to increased ER stress. We treated human renal epithelial HK-2, alveolar epithelial A549, HEK293, and SH-SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with ER stress-inducing agents, thapsigargin and/or tunicamycin. Effects of overexpression or siRNA-mediated knockdown of Klotho on UPR signaling was investigated by immunoblotting and Real-time PCR. Elevated Klotho levels in HK-2 cells decreased expression of ER stress markers phospho--IRE1, XBP-1s, BiP, CHOP, pJNK, and phospho-p38, all of which were elevated in response to tunicamycin and/or thapsigargin. Similar results were observed using A549 cells for XBP-1s, BiP, and CHOP in response to thapsigargin. Conversely, knockdown of Klotho in HEK 293 cells using siRNA caused further thapsigargin-induced increases in pIRE-1, XBP-1s, and BiP. Klotho overexpression in A549 cells blocked thapsigargin-induced caspase and PARP cleavage and improved cell viability. Our data indicate that Klotho has an important role in regulating ER stress and that loss of Klotho is causally linked to ER stress-induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Atlastin GTPases are required for Golgi apparatus and ER morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rismanchi, Neggy; Soderblom, Cynthia; Stadler, Julia; Zhu, Peng-Peng; Blackstone, Craig

    2008-06-01

    The hereditary spastic paraplegias (SPG1-33) comprise a cluster of inherited neurological disorders characterized principally by lower extremity spasticity and weakness due to a length-dependent, retrograde axonopathy of corticospinal motor neurons. Mutations in the gene encoding the large oligomeric GTPase atlastin-1 are responsible for SPG3A, a common autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia. Here we describe a family of human GTPases, atlastin-2 and -3 that are closely related to atlastin-1. Interestingly, while atlastin-1 is predominantly localized to vesicular tubular complexes and cis-Golgi cisternae, mostly in brain, atlastin-2 and -3 are localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are most enriched in other tissues. Knockdown of atlastin-2 and -3 levels in HeLa cells using siRNA (small interfering RNA) causes disruption of Golgi morphology, and these Golgi structures remain sensitive to brefeldin A treatment. Interestingly, expression of SPG3A mutant or dominant-negative atlastin proteins lacking GTPase activity causes prominent inhibition of ER reticularization, suggesting a role for atlastin GTPases in the formation of three-way junctions in the ER. However, secretory pathway trafficking as assessed using vesicular stomatitis virus G protein fused to green fluorescent protein (VSVG-GFP) as a reporter was essentially normal in both knockdown and dominant-negative overexpression conditions for all atlastins. Thus, the atlastin family of GTPases functions prominently in both ER and Golgi morphogenesis, but they do not appear to be required generally for anterograde ER-to-Golgi trafficking. Abnormal morphogenesis of the ER and Golgi resulting from mutations in atlastin-1 may ultimately underlie SPG3A by interfering with proper membrane distribution or polarity of the long corticospinal motor neurons.

  19. ER stress induces epithelial differentiation in the mouse oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Rosekrans, Sanne L; Heijmans, Jarom; Büller, Nikè V J A; Westerlund, Jessica; Lee, Amy S; Muncan, Vanesa; van den Brink, Gijs R

    2015-02-01

    Stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leads to activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Xbp1, a key component of the UPR has recently been linked to the risk of developing oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, suggesting an important role for the UPR in the oesophageal epithelium. Here we examined the role of ER stress and the UPR in oesophageal epithelial homoeostasis. We examined the expression of components of the UPR in the oesophageal epithelium. We used a pharmacological approach and a genetic approach to examine the effects of ER stress in vivo in the mouse oesophagus. The oesophagus of these mice was examined using immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Components of the UPR were heterogeneously expressed in the basal layer of the epithelium. Induction of ER stress by 24-h treatment with thapsigargin resulted in depletion of proliferating cells in the basal layer of the oesophagus and induced differentiation. We next activated the UPR by inducible deletion of the major ER chaperone Grp78 in Ah1Cre-Rosa26-LacZ-Grp78(-/-) mice in which mutant cells could be traced by expression of LacZ. In these mice LacZ-positive mutant cells in the basal layer lost their proliferative capacity, migrated towards the oesophageal lumen and were replaced by LacZ-negative non-mutant cells. We observed no apoptosis in mutant cells. These results show that ER stress induces epithelial differentiation in precursor cells in the oesophageal epithelium. This UPR induced differentiation may serve as a quality control mechanism that protects against oesophageal cancer development. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Pilot James Barrilleaux with ER-2 aircraft on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    James Barrilleaux is the assistant chief pilot for ER-2s in the Flight Crew Branch of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The ER-2s--civilian variants of the military U-2S reconnaissance aircraft--are part of NASA's Airborne Science program. The ER-2s can carry airborne scientific payloads of up to 2,600 pounds to altitudes of about 70,000 feet to investigate such matters as earth resources, celestial phenomena, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. Barrilleaux has held his current position since February 1998. Barrilleaux joined NASA in 1986 as a U-2/ER-2 pilot with NASA's Airborne Science program at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. He flew both the U-2C (until 1989) and the ER-2 on a wide variety of missions both domestic and international. Barrilleaux flew high-altitude operations over Antarctica in which scientific instruments aboard the ER-2 defined the cause of ozone depletion over the continent, known as the ozone hole. He has also flown the ER-2 over the North Pole. Barrilleaux served for 20 years in the U.S. Air Force before he joined NASA. He completed pilot training at Reese Air Force Base, Lubbock, Texas, in 1966. He flew 120 combat missions as a F-4 fighter pilot over Laos and North Vietnam in 1970 and 1971. He joined the U-2 program in 1974, becoming the commander of an overseas U-2 operation in 1982. In 1983, he became commander of the squadron responsible for training all U-2 pilots and SR-71 crews located at Beale Air Force Base, Marysville, California. He retired from the Air Force as a lieutenant colonel in 1986. On active duty, he flew the U-2, F-4 Phantom, the T-38, T-37, and the T-33. His decorations included two Distinguished Flying Crosses, 12 Air Medals, two Meritorious Service Medals, and other Air Force and South Vietnamese awards. Barrilleaux earned a bachelor of science degree in chemical engineering from Texas A&M University, College Station, in 1964 and a master of science

  1. ADMiER-ing thin but complex fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, Amarin G.; Bhattacharjee, Pradipto K.; Pan, Sharadwata; Hill, David; Danquah, Michael K.; Friend, James R.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Prabhakar, Ranganathan

    2011-12-01

    The Acoustics Driven Microfluidic Extensional Rheometer (ADMiER) utilises micro litre volumes of liquid, with viscosities as low as that of water, to create valid and observable extensional flows, liquid bridges that pinch off due to capillary forces in this case. ADMiER allows the study fluids that have been beyond conventional methods and also study more subtle fluid properties. We can observe polymeric fluids with solvent viscosities far below those previously testable, accentuating elastic effects. Also, it has enabled the testing of aqueous solutions of living motile particles, which significantly change fluid properties, opening up the potential for diagnostic applications.

  2. Orchestration of secretory protein folding by ER chaperones

    PubMed Central

    Gidalevitz, Tali; Stevens, Fred; Argon, Yair

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum is a major compartment of protein biogenesis in the cell, dedicated to production of secretory, membrane and organelle proteins. The secretome has distinct structural and post-translational characteristics, since folding in the ER occurs in an environment that is distinct in terms of its ionic composition, dynamics and requirements for quality contol. The folding machinery in the ER therefore includes chaperones and folding enzymes that introduce, monitor and react to disulfide bonds, glycans, and fluctuations of luminal calcium. We describe the major chaperone networks in the lumen and discuss how they have distinct modes of operation that enable cells to accomplish highly efficient production of the secretome. PMID:23507200

  3. Optical properties of Er3+ ions doped in oxyfluoroborate glass.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Akshaya; Rai, D K; Rai, S B

    2002-12-01

    In this paper the Stark components of 4S(3/2), 2H(11/2) and 4I(15/2) levels of Er3+ ion doped in oxyfluoroborate glass have been resolved using laser excitation and fluorescence measurements. The lifetime of 4S(3/2) level as a function of Er3+ concentration in the glass host has also been measured. Concentration quenching due to interaction among rare earth ions and the mechanism responsible for the same has been elucidated. The Judd-Ofelt analysis of the absorption spectrum has also been carried out.

  4. Two-phonon excitations in 170Er

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, D E; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Garrett, P E; Johns, G D; Kadi, M; Martin, A; Nelson, R O; Warr, N; Wilburn, W S; Yates, S W; Younes, W

    1998-09-29

    Recent experiments at the GEANIE/WNR facility and the University of Kentucky accelerator have yielded strong evidence for a two-gamma excitation in 170Er. This new case can be added to a handful of previously identified examples of two-gamma vibrations, all of them discovered in this decade. In this paper the experimental evidence for a two-phonon excitation 170Er is presented and the current state of understanding of these structures is reviewed in the context of this and other recent findings.

  5. Computational modelling of Er(3+): Garnet laser materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, Lee H.

    1994-01-01

    The Er(3+) ion has attracted a lot of interest for four reasons: (1) Its (4)I(sub 13/2) yields (4)I(sub 15/2) transition lases in the eyesafe region near 1.5 micron; (2) the (4)I(sub 13/2) transition lases near 2.8 micron, an important wavelength for surgical purposes; (3) it displays surprisingly efficient upconversion with lasing observed at 1.7, 1.2, 0.85, 0.56, 0.55, and 0.47 micron following 1.5 micron pumping; and (4) it has absorption bands at 0.96 and 0.81 micron and thus can be diode pumped. However, properties desirable for upconversion reduce the efficiency of 1.5 and 3 micron laser operation and vice versa. Since all of the processes are influenced by the host via the crystal field induced stark splittings in the Er levels, this project undertook modelling of the host influence on the Er lasinng behavior. While growth and measurement of all ten Er(3+) doped garnets is the surest way of identifying hosts which maximize upconversion (or conversly, 1.5 and 3 micron performance), it is also expensive - costing approximately $10,000/material or approximately $100,000 for the materials computationally investigated here. The calculations were performed using a quantum mechanical point charge model developed by Clyde Morrison at Harry Diamond Laboratories. The programs were used to fit the Er:YAG experimental energy levels so that the crystal field parameters, B(sub nm) could be extracted. From these radial factors, rho (sub n) were determined for Er(3+) in garnets. These, in combination with crystal field components, Anm, available from X-ray data, were used to predict energy levels for Er in the other nine garnet hosts. The levels in Er:YAG were fit with an rms error of 12.2/cm over a 22,000/cm range. Predicted levels for two other garnets for which literature values were available had rms errors of less than 17/cm , showing the calculations to be reliable. Based on resonances between pairs of calculated stark levels, the model predicts GSGG as the best host

  6. Next generation Er:YAG fractional ablative laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, A.; Vizhanyo, A.; Krammer, P.; Summer, S.; Gross, S.; Bragagna, T.; Böhler, C.

    2011-03-01

    Pantec Biosolutions AG presents a portable fractional ablative laser system based on a miniaturized diode pumped Er:YAG laser. The system can operate at repetition rates up to 500 Hz and has an incorporated beam deflection unit. It is smaller, lighter and cost efficient compared to systems based on lamp pumped Er:YAG lasers and incorporates a skin layer detection to guarantee precise control of the microporation process. The pulse parameters enable a variety of applications in dermatology and in general medicine, as demonstrated by first results on transdermal drug delivery of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone).

  7. Ocean wind field measurement performance of the ERS-1 scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hans, P.; Schuessler, H.

    1984-01-01

    The Active Microwave Instrumentation (AMI), which will be implemented on the ERS-1, is a 5.3 GHz multipurpose radar for land surface imaging, ocean wave spectrum measurement and wind observations over oceans. The imaging and wave measurements apply Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques, while wind field detection is performed by the Scatterometer as part of the AMI. The Scatterometer system design was developed and optimized with the aid of a performance simulator. This paper, aimed at giving an overview, is presented about the: (1) ERS-1 Scatterometer system design; (2) Error budget; and the (3) Overall calibration concept.

  8. Unraveling the role of ER stress inhibitors in the context of metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Sarvani, Chodisetty; Sireesh, Dornadula; Ramkumar, Kunka Mohanram

    2017-02-22

    ER stress is provoked by the accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER lumen leading to perturbations in ER homeostasis. ER stress activates a signaling cascade called the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) which triggers a set of transcriptional and translational events that restore ER homeostasis, promoting cell survival and adaptation. If this adaptive response fails, a terminal UPR program commits such cells to apoptosis. Existing preclinical and clinical evidence testify that prolonged ER stress escalates the risk of several metabolic disorders including diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia. There have been considerable efforts to develop small molecules that are capable of ameliorating ER stress. Few naturally occurring and synthetic molecules have already been demonstrated for their efficacy in abrogating ER stress in both in vitro and in vivo models of metabolic disorders. This review provides a broad overview of the molecular mechanisms of inhibition of ER stress and its association with various metabolic diseases.

  9. HDLs protect pancreatic β-cells against ER stress by restoring protein folding and trafficking.

    PubMed

    Pétremand, Jannick; Puyal, Julien; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Duprez, Jessica; Allagnat, Florent; Frias, Miguel; James, Richard W; Waeber, Gérard; Jonas, Jean-Christophe; Widmann, Christian

    2012-05-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis alteration contributes to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and death and favors the development of diabetes. In this study, we demonstrate that HDLs protect β-cells against ER stress induced by thapsigargin, cyclopiazonic acid, palmitate, insulin overexpression, and high glucose concentrations. ER stress marker induction and ER morphology disruption mediated by these stimuli were inhibited by HDLs. Using a temperature-sensitive viral glycoprotein folding mutant, we show that HDLs correct impaired protein trafficking and folding induced by thapsigargin and palmitate. The ability of HDLs to protect β-cells against ER stress was inhibited by brefeldin A, an ER to Golgi trafficking blocker. These results indicate that HDLs restore ER homeostasis in response to ER stress, which is required for their ability to promote β-cell survival. This study identifies a cellular mechanism mediating the beneficial effect of HDLs on β-cells against ER stress-inducing factors.

  10. HDLs Protect Pancreatic β-Cells Against ER Stress by Restoring Protein Folding and Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Pétremand, Jannick; Puyal, Julien; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Duprez, Jessica; Allagnat, Florent; Frias, Miguel; James, Richard W.; Waeber, Gérard; Jonas, Jean-Christophe; Widmann, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis alteration contributes to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and death and favors the development of diabetes. In this study, we demonstrate that HDLs protect β-cells against ER stress induced by thapsigargin, cyclopiazonic acid, palmitate, insulin overexpression, and high glucose concentrations. ER stress marker induction and ER morphology disruption mediated by these stimuli were inhibited by HDLs. Using a temperature-sensitive viral glycoprotein folding mutant, we show that HDLs correct impaired protein trafficking and folding induced by thapsigargin and palmitate. The ability of HDLs to protect β-cells against ER stress was inhibited by brefeldin A, an ER to Golgi trafficking blocker. These results indicate that HDLs restore ER homeostasis in response to ER stress, which is required for their ability to promote β-cell survival. This study identifies a cellular mechanism mediating the beneficial effect of HDLs on β-cells against ER stress-inducing factors. PMID:22399686

  11. Estrogen receptor (ER)-beta, but not ER-alpha, is present in thyroid vessels: immunohistochemical evaluations in multinodular goiter and papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ceresini, Graziano; Morganti, Simonetta; Graiani, Virna; Saccani, Maria; Milli, Bruna; Usberti, Elisa; Valenti, Giorgio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Corcione, Luigi

    2006-12-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) have been demostrated in the vessel structures of several systems. Little is known on the presence of ERs in the thyroid vessels. We immunohistochemically evaluated both ER-alpha and ER-beta immunoreactivity (IR) in both vascular and follicular thyroid cells in tissue samples from 17 cases of multinodular goiter (MNG) and 17 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). ER-alpha IR was undetectable in either tissue examined. In 100% of MNG samples, nuclear ER-beta IR was detected in both endothelial and follicular cells. In PTC samples, endothelial nuclear ER-beta IR was found in 100% of cases, whereas the nuclear staining of follicular cells was found in 83% of cases. The intensity of staining of the endothelial ER-beta IR was comparable between MNG and PTC. However, when follicular cells were considered, a tendency toward a decrease in nuclear staining and a significant increase in cytoplasmic staining were found in PTC lesions as compared to MNG. This study demonstrated that ER-beta, but not ER-alpha, IR is present in the endothelium of thyroid vessels. Furthermore, although data need to be confirmed in larger observations, these results suggest the lack of differences in the pattern of vascular ER-beta IR between MNG and PTC.

  12. The ER Stress Sensor PERK Coordinates ER-Plasma Membrane Contact Site Formation through Interaction with Filamin-A and F-Actin Remodeling.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Alexander R; Giordano, Francesca; Gerlo, Sarah; Segura, Inmaculada; Van Eygen, Sofie; Molenberghs, Geert; Rocha, Susana; Houcine, Audrey; Derua, Rita; Verfaillie, Tom; Vangindertael, Jeroen; De Keersmaecker, Herlinde; Waelkens, Etienne; Tavernier, Jan; Hofkens, Johan; Annaert, Wim; Carmeliet, Peter; Samali, Afshin; Mizuno, Hideaki; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2017-03-02

    Loss of ER Ca(2+) homeostasis triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and drives ER-PM contact sites formation in order to refill ER-luminal Ca(2+). Recent studies suggest that the ER stress sensor and mediator of the unfolded protein response (UPR) PERK regulates intracellular Ca(2+) fluxes, but the mechanisms remain elusive. Here, using proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID), we identified the actin-binding protein Filamin A (FLNA) as a key PERK interactor. Cells lacking PERK accumulate F-actin at the cell edges and display reduced ER-PM contacts. Following ER-Ca(2+) store depletion, the PERK-FLNA interaction drives the expansion of ER-PM juxtapositions by regulating F-actin-assisted relocation of the ER-associated tethering proteins Stromal Interaction Molecule 1 (STIM1) and Extended Synaptotagmin-1 (E-Syt1) to the PM. Cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation elicits rapid and UPR-independent PERK dimerization, which enforces PERK-FLNA-mediated ER-PM juxtapositions. Collectively, our data unravel an unprecedented role of PERK in the regulation of ER-PM appositions through the modulation of the actin cytoskeleton.

  13. Pahute Mesa Well Development and Testing Analyses for Wells ER-20-7, ER-20-8 #2, and ER-EC-11, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Ruskauff

    2011-12-01

    This report analyzes the following data collected from ER-20-7, ER-20-8 No.2, and ER-EC-11 during WDT operations: (1) Chemical indicators of well development (Section 2.0); (2) Static hydraulic head (Section 3.0); (3) Radiochemistry and geochemistry (Section 4.0); (4) Drawdown observed at locations distal to the pumping well (Section 5.0); and (5) Drilling water production, flow logs, and temperature logs (Section 6.0). The new data are further considered with respect to existing data as to how they enhance or change interpretations of groundwater flow and transport, and an interim small-scale conceptual model is also developed and compared to Phase I concepts. The purpose of well development is to remove drilling fluids and drilling-associated fines from the formation adjacent to a well so samples reflecting ambient groundwater water quality can be collected, and to restore hydraulic properties near the well bore. Drilling fluids can contaminate environmental samples from the well, resulting in nonrepresentative measurements. Both drilling fluids and preexisting fines in the formation adjacent to the well can impede the flow of water from the formation to the well, creating artifacts in hydraulic response data measured in the well.

  14. The Genetic Architecture of the Genome-Wide Transcriptional Response to ER Stress in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Clement Y; Wang, Xu; Riccardi, David; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Clark, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER. The cellular response to ER stress involves complex transcriptional and translational changes, important to the survival of the cell. ER stress is a primary cause and a modifier of many human diseases. A first step to understanding how the ER stress response impacts human disease is to determine how the transcriptional response to ER stress varies among individuals. The genetic diversity of the eight mouse Collaborative Cross (CC) founder strains allowed us to determine how genetic variation impacts the ER stress transcriptional response. We used tunicamycin, a drug commonly used to induce ER stress, to elicit an ER stress response in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from the CC founder strains and measured their transcriptional responses. We identified hundreds of genes that differed in response to ER stress across these genetically diverse strains. Strikingly, inflammatory response genes differed most between strains; major canonical ER stress response genes showed relatively invariant responses across strains. To uncover the genetic architecture underlying these strain differences in ER stress response, we measured the transcriptional response to ER stress in MEFs derived from a subset of F1 crosses between the CC founder strains. We found a unique layer of regulatory variation that is only detectable under ER stress conditions. Over 80% of the regulatory variation under ER stress derives from cis-regulatory differences. This is the first study to characterize the genetic variation in ER stress transcriptional response in the laboratory mouse. Our findings indicate that the ER stress transcriptional response is highly variable among strains and arises from genetic variation in individual downstream response genes, rather than major signaling transcription factors. These results have important implications for understanding how genetic variation impacts the ER stress

  15. Oroxin B selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrently inhibits tumor-adaptive ER stress in B-lymphoma cells for effective anti-lymphoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Fu, Shilong; Cao, Zhifei; Liao, Huaidong; Huo, Zihe; Pan, Yanyan; Zhang, Gaochuan; Gao, Aidi; Zhou, Quansheng

    2015-10-15

    Cancer cells have both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress machineries that determine cell fate. In malignant tumors including lymphoma, constant activation of tumor-adaptive ER stress and concurrent reduction of tumor-suppressive ER stress favors cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. Current ER stress-based anti-tumor drugs typically activate both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive ER stresses, resulting in low anti-cancer efficacy; hence, selective induction of tumor-suppressive ER stress and inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress are new strategies for novel anti-cancer drug discovery. Thus far, specific tumor-suppressive ER stress therapeutics have remained absent in clinical settings. In this study, we explored unique tumor-suppressive ER stress agents from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Oroxylum indicum, and found that a small molecule oroxin B selectively induced tumor-suppressive ER stress in malignant lymphoma cells, but not in normal cells, effectively inhibited lymphoma growth in vivo, and significantly prolonged overall survival of lymphoma-xenografted mice without obvious toxicity. Mechanistic studies have revealed that the expression of key tumor-adaptive ER-stress gene GRP78 was notably suppressed by oroxin B via down-regulation of up-stream key signaling protein ATF6, while tumor-suppressive ER stress master gene DDIT3 was strikingly activated through activating the MKK3-p38 signaling pathway, correcting the imbalance between tumor-suppressive DDIT3 and tumor-adaptive GRP78 in lymphoma. Together, selective induction of unique tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrent inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress in malignant lymphoma are new and feasible approaches for novel anti-lymphoma drug discovery and anti-lymphoma therapy.

  16. ER-associated retrograde SNAREs and the Dsl1 complex mediate an alternative, Sey1p-independent homotypic ER fusion pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Jason V.; McMahon, Conor; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Hughson, Frederick M.; Rose, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    The peripheral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network is dynamically maintained by homotypic (ER–ER) fusion. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the dynamin-like GTPase Sey1p can mediate ER–ER fusion, but sey1Δ cells have no growth defect and only slightly perturbed ER structure. Recent work suggested that ER-localized soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) mediate a Sey1p-independent ER–ER fusion pathway. However, an alternative explanation—that the observed phenotypes arose from perturbed vesicle trafficking—could not be ruled out. In this study, we used candidate and synthetic genetic array (SGA) approaches to more fully characterize SNARE-mediated ER–ER fusion. We found that Dsl1 complex mutations in sey1Δ cells cause strong synthetic growth and ER structure defects and delayed ER–ER fusion in vivo, additionally implicating the Dsl1 complex in SNARE-mediated ER–ER fusion. In contrast, cytosolic coat protein I (COPI) vesicle coat mutations in sey1Δ cells caused no synthetic defects, excluding perturbed retrograde trafficking as a cause for the previously observed synthetic defects. Finally, deleting the reticulons that help maintain ER architecture in cells disrupted for both ER–ER fusion pathways caused almost complete inviability. We conclude that the ER SNAREs and the Dsl1 complex directly mediate Sey1p-independent ER–ER fusion and that, in the absence of both pathways, cell viability depends upon membrane curvature–promoting reticulons. PMID:25187651

  17. FrontiERs: movers and shapers of the higher plant cortical endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Sparkes, Imogen; Hawes, Chris; Frigerio, Lorenzo

    2011-12-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in higher plants performs many important functions, yet our understanding of how its intricate network shape and dynamics relate to function is very limited. Recent work has begun to unpick key molecular players in the generation of the pleomorphic, highly dynamic ER network structure that pervades the entire cytoplasm. ER movement is acto-myosin dependent. ER shape is dependent on RHD3 (Root Hair Defective 3) and a family of proteins called reticulons. The major challenge that lies ahead is understanding how factors that control ER shape and movement are regulated and how this relates to the numerous functions of the ER.

  18. Flash X-ray testing of ER3400 EAROMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abare, W. E.; Riley, R. M.; Thygeson, T. L.

    1983-12-01

    Flash X-ray testing of ER3400 MNOS memories demonstrates their memory volatility. Flash X-ray test data is presented for four bias conditions and two write pulse widths. A simple electrical screening technique is described which increases the memory vulnerability threshold. Permanent shifts in access time and memory reference voltage from accumulated doses are discussed.

  19. Intracellular zinc distribution in mitochondria, ER and the Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiping; Haragopal, Hariprakash; Slepchenko, Kira G; Stork, Christian; Li, Yang V

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn(2+)) is required for numerous cellular functions. As such, the homeostasis and distribution of intracellular zinc can influence cellular metabolism and signaling. However, the exact distribution of free zinc within live cells remains elusive. Previously we showed the release of zinc from thapsigargin/IP3-sensitive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) storage in cortical neurons. In the present study, we investigated if other cellular organelles also contain free chelatable zinc and function as organelle storage for zinc. To identify free zinc within the organelles, live cells were co-stained with Zinpyr-1, a zinc fluorescent dye, and organelle-specific fluorescent dyes (MitoFluor Red 589: mitochondria; ER Tracker Red: endoplasmic reticulum; BODIPY TR ceramide: Golgi apparatus; Syto Red 64: nucleus). We examined organelles that represent potential storing sites for intracellular zinc. We showed that zinc fluorescence staining was co-localized with MitoFluor Red 589, ER Tracker Red, and BODIPY TR ceramide respectively, suggesting the presence of free zinc in mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus. On the other hand, cytosol and nucleus had nearly no detectable zinc fluorescence. It is known that nucleus contains high amount of zinc binding proteins that have high zinc binding affinity. The absence of zinc fluorescence suggests that there is little free zinc in these two regions. It also indicates that the zinc fluorescence detected in mitochondria, ER and Golgi apparatus represents free chelatable zinc. Taken together, our results support that these organelles are potential zinc storing organelles during cellular zinc homeostasis.

  20. FANS-3D Users Guide (ESTEP Project ER 201031)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTEP) Project ER-201-031. Dr. Hamn-Ching Chen and his students and collaborators developed the FANS...Ching Chen and his students and collaborators developed the FANS-3D code over the past 25 years. Programmers use this general- purpose computational

  1. Structural and Functional Impacts of ER Coactivator Sequential Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ping; Wang, Zhao; Feng, Qin; Chou, Chao-Kai; Pintilie, Grigore D; Shen, Hong; Foulds, Charles E; Fan, Guizhen; Serysheva, Irina; Ludtke, Steven J; Schmid, Michael F; Hung, Mien-Chie; Chiu, Wah; O'Malley, Bert W

    2017-09-07

    Nuclear receptors recruit multiple coactivators sequentially to activate transcription. This "ordered" recruitment allows different coactivator activities to engage the nuclear receptor complex at different steps of transcription. Estrogen receptor (ER) recruits steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3) primary coactivator and secondary coactivators, p300/CBP and CARM1. CARM1 recruitment lags behind the binding of SRC-3 and p300 to ER. Combining cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure analysis and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that there is a close crosstalk between early- and late-recruited coactivators. The sequential recruitment of CARM1 not only adds a protein arginine methyltransferase activity to the ER-coactivator complex, it also alters the structural organization of the pre-existing ERE/ERα/SRC-3/p300 complex. It induces a p300 conformational change and significantly increases p300 HAT activity on histone H3K18 residues, which, in turn, promotes CARM1 methylation activity on H3R17 residues to enhance transcriptional activity. This study reveals a structural role for a coactivator sequential recruitment and biochemical process in ER-mediated transcription. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Er:YAG laser dentistry in special needs patients

    PubMed Central

    Fornaini, Carlo; Clini, Fabio; Fontana, Matteo; Cella, Luigi; Oppici, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Between a quarter and a third of adults with intellectual disability is estimated to have dental anxiety. Unpleasant stimuli, such as the injection of local anaesthesia or the noise and vibration of rotary instruments, may provoke anxiety and subsequent low compliance until the opposition to the treatment. The use of Er:YAG laser in conservative dentistry had a great development in these last years thank to new devices and also to their advantages when compared to the conventional instruments. The aim of this clinical study was to show the advantages of the Er:YAG laser in the conservative treatment of Special Care patients. Methods: Four cases are here described to show the Er:YAG laser use in our Unit on special needs patients. Results and conclusions: Based on the experience gained on conservative laser-assisted treatments performed in a time of 5 years at our Dentistry, Special Needs and Maxillo-Facial Surgery Unit we may affirm that Er:YAG laser may be considered as a good way to improve the cooperation, to reduce anxiety related to rotating instruments and to reach better results with equal or shorter operating times. PMID:26557733

  3. Completion report for Well Cluster ER-20-6

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Well Cluster ER-20-6 drilling and completion project was conducted during February, March, and April of 1996 in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This project is part of the DOE`s Underground Test Area (UGTA) subproject at the NTS. The primary UGTA tasks include collecting geological, geophysical, and hydrological data from new and existing wells to define groundwater quality as well as pathways and rates of groundwater migration at the NTS. A program of drilling wells near the sites of selected underground nuclear tests (near-field drilling) was implemented as part of the UGTA subproject to obtain site-specific data on the nature and extent of migration of radionuclides produced by an underground nuclear explosion. The ER-20-6 near-field drilling project was originally planned to be very similar to that recently conducted at Well Cluster ER-20-5, which was designed to obtain data on the existing hydrologic regime near the site of an underground nuclear explosion (IT, 1995; IT, 1996a). However, after further consideration of the goals of the near-field drilling program and the characteristics of the BULLION site, the TWG recommended that the ER-20-6 project be redesigned to accommodate a forced-gradient experiment. This proposed experiment is expected to yield more realistic estimates of transport parameters than can be deduced from sampling and testing natural groundwater flow systems.

  4. Optimal pumping for eye-safe Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchenkov, Vyacheslav A.; Polyakov, Vadim M.; Rodionov, Andrey Y.; Kovalev, Anton V.

    2016-04-01

    We report on theoretical investigation of quasi-three level Er:YAG laser. We propose a numerical model of the laser design with side pump by 1471 nm laser diodes. The model describes the dynamical propagation of the pump in the cavity and the kinetic parameters of the active medium.

  5. Control Performance of ER Engine Mount Subjected to Temperature Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, H. J.; Choi, S. B.; Kim, K. S.

    A key function of engine mount of vehicle systems is to support engine mass and isolate noise and vibration from engine disturbance forces. One of attractive candidates to achieve this goal is to utilize a semi-active ER engine mount. By applying this, we can effectively control damping force and hence the noise and vibration by just controlling the intensity of electric field. However, control performance of the engine mount may be very sensitive to temperature variation during engine operation. In this work, we investigate dynamic and control performances of ER engine mount with respect to the temperature variation. In order to undertake this, a flow-mode type of ER engine mount is designed and manufactured. Displacement transmissibility is experimentally evaluated for 1 degree of freedom. The ER engine mount is then incorporated with full-vehicle model in order to investigate vibration control performance. After formulating the governing equation of motion, a semi-active controller is designed. The controller is implemented through a hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS), and control responses such as acceleration level at various engine speeds are evaluated in the frequency and time domains.

  6. OpenER, a Dutch Initiative in Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuwer, Robert; Mulder, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Over the period 2006-2008, the Dutch Open Universiteit Nederland conducted an experiment in which Open Educational Resources (OER) were offered in an effort to bridge the gap between informal and formal learning and to establish a new style of entry portal to higher education with no barriers at all. OpenER received considerable attention both in…

  7. [Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped germanium bismuthate glass].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Ren, Guo-Zhong; Yang, Qi-Bin; Xu, Chang-Fu; Liu, Yun-Xin; Shang, Zhen-Gang

    2008-05-01

    Er(3+)-Doped Germanium Bismuthate Glass was fabricated and characterized. The absorption spectrum and up-conversion spectrum of glass were studied. The Judd-Oflet intensity parameters omega(t) (t = 2, 4, 6), determined based on Judd-Ofelt theory, were found to be omega2 = 3.35 x 10(-20) cm2, omega4 = 1.34 x 10(-20) cm2, omega6 = 0.67 x 10(-20) cm2. Frequency up-conversion of Er(3+)-doped germanium bismuthate glass has been investigated. The up-conversion mechanisms are discussed under 808 nm and 980 nm excitation. Stimulated emission cross-section of 4I(13/2) --> 4I(15/2) transition was calculated by McCumber theory. Compared to other host glasses, the emission property of Er(3+)-doped germanium bismuthate glasses has advantage over those of silicate, phosphate and germinate glasses. Er(3+)-doped germanium bismuth glasses are promising upconversion optical and optic-communication materials.

  8. Magnetocaloric effect in the metamagnet ErRhSi compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, J. C.; Nair, Harikrishnan S.; Strydom, André M.; Ramesh Kumar, K.; Wang, Jianli

    2016-12-01

    The magnetocaloric effect is observed in the 1:1:1 compound ErRhSi, which is a metamagnet is reported in this paper. ErRhSi crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pnma, adopting the TiNiSi structure type, with lattice parameters a(Å) = 6.7903(5), b(Å) = 4.1881(3), and c(Å) = 7.3847(4). Our magnetic measurements confirm an antiferromagnetic phase transition at TN ≈ 8.5 K, also supported by the specific heat measurement. Crystal field effects of Er3+ are suggested by the inverse magnetic susceptibility data which do not conform to an ideal Curie-Weiss behaviour and also by the total entropy that attains Rln (2) at TN. Although the magnetic hysteresis indicates ErRhSi to be a soft magnet, several clear metamagnetic features are observed at 2 K. Magnetic entropy change ΔSM = - 8.7 J/kg-K is observed at about 9 K with the application of 5 T magnetic field. The corresponding adiabatic temperature change ΔTad is about 4 K. Large magnetocaloric effects suggest that this material is suitable for the low temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  9. Luminescence properties of Er3+-doped phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hraiech, S.; Bouzidi, C.; Férid, M.

    2017-10-01

    Erbium doped phosphate glasses with composition P2O5 - Na2O - B2O3 -x Er2O3 were obtained using melt-quench method. The spectroscopic properties were analyzed using optical absorption and fluorescence spectra. Based on the absorption spectra and Judd-Ofelt theory, the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, Ω2, Ω4, and Ω6 were determined and then used to calculate the total spontaneous transition probability (Atot), radiative life time (τr) and the branching ratio (β), for various excited luminescent states. The spectroscopic quality factor Ω4/Ω6 has been calculated for the present Er3+ doped phosphate glasses (1.53, 1.69 and 1.02) and is found to be in the same order than the reported Er3+ glasses, that makes our glasses are suitable for various photonic applications. Optical band gap energy (Eopt) values through direct and indirect allowed transitions of the prepared Er3+ glasses have also been determined and compared with similar studies.

  10. Staff Survey Results, 2000-2001. E&R Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Wanda N.

    Evaluation and Research (E&R) staff of the Wake County Public Schools (WCPSS), North Carolina, have conducted spring surveys of school staff since 1992. This report contains information from the survey distributed in March 2001. Completed surveys were returned by 5,755 staff members. Survey results indicate that in the year 2000, more staff…

  11. Mitochondria-associated ER membranes and Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Area-Gomez, Estela; Schon, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    The series of events underlying the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) in unknown. The most widely-accepted hypothesis is called the amyloid cascade, based on the observation that the brains of AD patients contain high levels of extracellular plaques, composed mainly of β-amyloid (Aβ), and intracellular tangles, composed of hyperphosphorylated forms of the microtubule-associated protein tau. However, AD is also characterized by other features, including aberrant cholesterol, phospholipid, and calcium metabolism, and mitochondrial dysfunction, all ostensibly unrelated to plaque and tangle formation. Notably, these “other” aspects of AD pathology are functions related to mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAM), a subdomain of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is apposed to, and communicates with, mitochondria. Given the potential relationship between MAM and AD, we explored the possibility that perturbed MAM function might play a role in AD pathogenesis. We found that γ-secretase activity, which processes the amyloid precursor protein to generate Aβ, is located predominantly in the MAM, and that ER-mitochondrial apposition and MAM function are increased significantly in cells from AD patients. These observations may help explain not only the aberrant Aβ production, but also many of the “other” biochemical and morphological features of the disease. Based on these, and other, data we propose that AD is fundamentally a disorder of ER-mitochondrial hyperconnectivity. PMID:27235807

  12. School Officials and the Courts: Update 1984. ERS Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckham, Joseph C.

    This is the seventh in a series of Educational Research Service (ERS) monographs designed to summarize judicial decisions on elementary and secondary education issues by state and federal courts. These cases, dating from June 30, 1983 to June 30, 1984, were selected on the basis of their relevance to contemporary problems in public schools, their…

  13. Er:YAG clinical results on hard tissue: phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozean, Colette D.; Powell, G. L.

    1998-04-01

    Objective: In Phase I, we demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the pulsed 2.94 micron Er:YAG laser for caries removal, cavity preparation and laser etching utilizing in vivo teeth scheduled for removal to quantitatively verify the safety of the product for up to one year following treatment. Phase II was a continuation of this study evaluating in vivo teeth to verify the safety and efficacy of the Er:YAG in a long-term follow-up study. Methods: We randomly divided the patients into two groups: a laser group and a control group, which employed the high speed drill. The investigators rated clinical efficacy by several criteria, evaluated pain and measured pulpal vitality up to two years following treatment. This phase consisted of 512 procedures that made up the laser group and 357 procedures that made up the control group. Conclusions: The results from this phase showed that the Er:YAG laser was able to perform as well as, if not better than, the drill in caries removal, cavity preparation, and acid etching alone. Use of the laser virtually eliminated the need for anesthesia. The Er:YAG laser is safe and efficacious for removal of caries, cavity preparation and etching prior to acid etching.

  14. [The ethical approach applied to the TV series ER].

    PubMed

    Svandra, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    The television series ER presents an opportunity to reflect on ethical dilemmas. This article discusses the example of an episode in which a patient suffering from an incurable disease, unable to express his views clearly, has a tracheotomy performed on him without the consent of the team or his health care proxy.

  15. Pilot James Barrilleaux with ER-2 aircraft on ramp

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-03-18

    James Barrilleaux is the assistant chief pilot for ER-2s in the Flight Crew Branch of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The ER-2s--civilian variants of the military U-2S reconnaissance aircraft--are part of NASA's Airborne Science program. The ER-2s can carry airborne scientific payloads of up to 2,600 pounds to altitudes of about 70,000 feet to investigate such matters as earth resources, celestial phenomena, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. Barrilleaux has held his current position since February 1998. Barrilleaux joined NASA in 1986 as a U-2/ER-2 pilot with NASA's Airborne Science program at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. He flew both the U-2C (until 1989) and the ER-2 on a wide variety of missions both domestic and international. Barrilleaux flew high-altitude operations over Antarctica in which scientific instruments aboard the ER-2 defined the cause of ozone depletion over the continent, known as the ozone hole. He has also flown the ER-2 over the North Pole. Barrilleaux served for 20 years in the U.S. Air Force before he joined NASA. He completed pilot training at Reese Air Force Base, Lubbock, Texas, in 1966. He flew 120 combat missions as a F-4 fighter pilot over Laos and North Vietnam in 1970 and 1971. He joined the U-2 program in 1974, becoming the commander of an overseas U-2 operation in 1982. In 1983, he became commander of the squadron responsible for training all U-2 pilots and SR-71 crews located at Beale Air Force Base, Marysville, California. He retired from the Air Force as a lieutenant colonel in 1986. On active duty, he flew the U-2, F-4 Phantom, the T-38, T-37, and the T-33. His decorations included two Distinguished Flying Crosses, 12 Air Medals, two Meritorious Service Medals, and other Air Force and South Vietnamese awards. Barrilleaux earned a bachelor of science degree in chemical engineering from Texas A&M University, College Station, in 1964 and a master of science

  16. Er:YAG crystal temperature influence on laser output characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, Michal; Å ulc, Jan; Hubka, Zbyněk.; Hlinomaz, Kryštof; Jelínková, Helena

    2017-02-01

    The main goal of this work was to investigate the influence of the temperature of the Er:YAG active medium on laser properties in eye-safe spectral region for three various pump wavelengths. The tested Er:YAG sample doped by 0.5% of Er3+ ions had a cylindrical shape with 25mm in length and 5mm in diameter. The absorption spectrum of the Er:YAG active medium in the range from 1400nm up to 1700nm for temperatures 80K and 300K was measured. The crystal was placed inside the vacuum chamber of a liquid nitrogen cooled cryostat. The temperature was controlled within the 80 - 340K temperature range. Three pump sources generating at 1535, 1452, and 1467nm were applied. The first one was flash lamp pumped Er:glass laser (repetition rate 0.5 Hz, pulse duration 1 ms, pulse energy 148 mJ). The further two sources were fiber coupled laser diodes (repetition rate 10 Hz, pulse duration 10 ms, maximum pulse energies 106mJ and 195 mJ). The semi-hemispherical laser resonator consisted of a pump curved mirror and output plan coupler with a reflectivity of 90% @ 1645 nm. The laser output characteristics were investigated in dependence on temperature of active medium for three laser pumping systems. The output energy has an optimum in dependence on active medium temperature and pump wavelengths. The maximal generated laser energies were 16.2mJ (90 K), 28.7mJ (120 K), and 33.2mJ (220 K), for pump wavelengths 1452 nm, 1467 nm, and 1535 nm, respectively.

  17. Precise satellite orbit determination with particular application to ERS-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Maria Joana Afonso Pereira

    The motivation behind this study is twofold. First to assess the accuracy of ERS-1 long arc ephemerides using state of the art models. Second, to develop improved methods for determining precise ERS-1 orbits using either short or long arc techniques. The SATAN programs, for the computation of satellite orbits using laser data were used. Several facilities were added to the original programs: the processing of PRARE range and altimeter data, and a number of algorithms that allow more flexible solutions by adjusting a number of additional parameters. The first part of this study, before the launch of ERS-1, was done with SEAS AT data. The accuracy of SEASAT orbits computed with PRARE simulated data has been determined. The effect of temporal distribution of tracking data along the arc and the extent to which altimetry can replace range data have been investigated. The second part starts with the computation of ERS-1 long arc solutions using laser data. Some aspects of modelling the two main forces affecting ERS-l's orbit are investigated. With regard to the gravitational forces, the adjustment of a set of geopotential coefficients has been considered. With respect to atmospheric drag, extensive research has been carried out on determining the influence on orbit accuracy of the measurements of solar fluxes (P10.7 indices) and geomagnetic activity (Kp indices) used by the atmospheric model in the computation of atmospheric density at satellite height. Two new short arc methods have been developed: the Constrained and the Bayesian method. Both methods are dynamic and consist of solving for the 6 osculating elements. Using different techniques, both methods overcome the problem of normal matrix ill- conditioning by constraining the solution. The accuracy and applicability of these methods are discussed and compared with the traditional non-dynamic TAR method.

  18. 184AA3: a xenograft model of ER+ breast adenocarcinoma

    DOE PAGES

    Hines, William C.; Kuhn, Irene; Thi, Kate; ...

    2015-12-12

    Despite the prevalence and significant morbidity resulting from estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast adenocarcinomas, there are only a few models of this cancer subtype available for drug development and arguably none for studying etiology. Those models that do exist have questionable clinical relevance. Given our goal of developing luminal models, we focused on six cell lines derived by minimal mutagenesis from normal human breast cells, and asked if any could generate clinically relevant xenografts, which we then extensively characterized. Xenografts of one cell line, 184AA3, consistently formed ER+ adenocarcinomas that had a high proliferative rate and other features consistent withmore » “luminal B” intrinsic subtype. Squamous and spindle cell/mesenchymal differentiation was absent, in stark contrast to other cell lines that we examined or others have reported. We explored intratumoral heterogeneity produced by 184AA3 by immunophenotyping xenograft tumors and cultured cells, and characterized marker expression by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. A CD44High subpopulation was discovered, yet their tumor forming ability was far less than CD44Low cells. Single cell cloning revealed the phenotypic plasticity of 184AA3, consistent with the intratumoral heterogeneity observed in xenografts. Characterization of ER expression in cultures revealed ER protein and signaling is intact, yet when estrogen was depleted in culture, and in vivo, it did not impact cell or tumor growth, analogous to therapeutically resistant ER+ cancers. This model is appropriate for studies of the etiology of ovarian hormone independent adenocarcinomas, for identification of therapeutic targets, predictive testing, and drug development.« less

  19. 184AA3: A Xenograft Model of ER+ Breast Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hines, William C.; Kuhn, Irene; Thi, Kate; Chu, Berbie; Stanford-Moore, Gaelen; Sampayo, Rocío; Garbe, James C.; Stampfer, Martha; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Bissell, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite the prevalence and significant morbidity resulting from estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast adenocarcinomas, there are only a few models of this cancer subtype available for drug development, and arguably none for studying etiology. Those models that do exist have questionable clinical relevance. Methods Given our goal of developing luminal models, we focused on six cell lines derived by minimal mutagenesis from normal human breast cells, and asked if any could generate clinically relevant xenografts, which we then extensively characterized. Results Xenografts of one cell line, 184AA3, consistently formed ER+ adenocarcinomas that had a high proliferative rate and other features consistent with “luminal B” intrinsic subtype. Squamous and spindle cell/mesenchymal differentiation was absent, in stark contrast to other cell lines that we examined or others have reported. We explored intratumoral heterogeneity produced by 184AA3 by immunophenotyping xenograft tumors and cultured cells, and characterized marker expression by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. A CD44High subpopulation was discovered, yet their tumor forming ability was far less than CD44Low cells. Single cell cloning revealed the phenotypic plasticity of 184AA3, consistent with the intratumoral heterogeneity observed in xenografts. Characterization of ER expression in cultures revealed ER protein and signaling is intact, yet when estrogen was depleted in culture, and in vivo, it did not impact cell or tumor growth, analogous to therapeutically resistant ER+ cancers. Conclusions This model is appropriate for studies of the etiology of ovarian hormone independent adenocarcinomas, for identification of therapeutic targets, predictive testing and drug development. PMID:26661596

  20. Functional characterization of estrogen receptor subtypes, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, mediating vitellogenin production in the liver of rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Leanos-Castaneda, Olga Kraak, Glen van der

    2007-10-15

    The estrogen-dependent process of vitellogenesis is a key function on oviparous fish reproduction and it has been widely used as an indicator of xenoestrogen exposure. The two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, are often co-expressed in the liver of fish. The relative contribution of each ER subtype to modulate vitellogenin production by hepatocytes was studied using selected compounds known to preferentially interact with specific ER subtypes: propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT) an ER{alpha} selective agonist, methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (MPP) an ER{alpha} selective antagonist, and diarylpropionitrile (DPN) an ER{beta} selective agonist. First, the relative binding affinity of the test compounds to estradiol for rainbow trout hepatic nuclear ER was determined using a competitive ligand binding assay. All the test ligands achieved complete displacement of specific [{sup 3}H]-estradiol binding from the nuclear ER extract. This indicates that the test ligands have the potential to modify the ER function in the rainbow trout liver. Secondly, the ability of the test compounds to induce or inhibit vitellogenin production by primary cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes was studied. Estradiol and DPN were the only compounds that induced a dose-dependent increase on vitellogenin synthesis. The lack of vitellogenin induction by PPT indicates that ER{alpha} could not have a role on this reproductive process whereas the ability of DPN to induce vitellogenin production supports the participation of ER{beta}. In addition, this hypothesis is reinforced by the results obtained from MPP plus estradiol. On one hand, the absence of suppressive activity of MPP in the estradiol-induced vitellogenin production does not support the participation of ER{alpha}. On the other hand, once blocked ER{alpha} with MPP, the only manifestation of agonist activity of estradiol would be achieved via ER{beta}. In conclusion, the present results indicate that vitellogenin production is

  1. [Spectroscopic analysis of Er3+ in Er3+ /Yb3+ co-doped LiNbO3 crystal].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dun-Chun; Zhang, De-Long; Cui, Yu-Ming; Chen, Cai-He

    2005-12-01

    At room temperature, alpha-polarized absorption spectra of as-grown and annealed Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped, Z-cut LiNbO3 single crystals, grown by using Czochralski method, were measured in the wavelength range of 300-1 650 nm. The spectroscopic properties of Er3+ were analysed by using Judd-Ofelt theory. The experimental values of the electron transition strengths of several major transitions from the ground state to excited-state manifolds were evaluated from the measured integrated absorption coefficients of Er3+. The Judd-Ofelt parameters were determined by using least square method. According to the fitted Judd-Ofelt parameters, the spontaneous emission rates, the fluorescence branch ratios from the excited-state manifolds J to the lower-lying manifolds J', as well as the radiative lifetimes of the excited states were numerically calculated. In addition, Yb3+ co-doping and thermal anneal effects on the spectroscopic properties of Er3+ were also considered in this work.

  2. ER stress-induced protein, VIGG, disturbs plant cation homeostasis, which is correlated with growth retardation and robustness to ER stress

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Hironori; Fujita, Keiko; Takuhara, Yuki; Ogawa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Shunji

    2011-02-18

    Highlights: {yields} VIGG is an ER stress-induced protein in plant. {yields} We examine the characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants. {yields} VIGG-overexpressing plants reveal growth retardation and robustness to ER stress. {yields} VIGG disturbs cation homeostasis in plant. -- Abstract: VIGG is a putative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein induced by virus infection and ER stress, and is correlated with fruit quality in grapevine. The present study was undertaken to determine the biological function of VIGG in grapevine. Experiments using fluorescent protein-VIGG fusion protein demonstrated that VIGG is localized in ER and the ER targeting sequence is in the N-terminus. The overexpression of VIGG in Arabidopsis plant led to growth retardation. The rosette leaves of VIGG-overexpressing plants were smaller than those of the control plants and rolled at 42 days after seeding. VIGG-overexpressing plants revealed robustness to ER stress as well as the low expression of ER stress marker proteins, such as the luminal binding proteins. These characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing plants were supported by a microarray experiment that demonstrated the disruption of genes related to ER stress response and flowering, as well as cation mobility, in the plants. Finally, cation homeostasis in the plants was disturbed by the overexpression of VIGG. Taken together, these results suggest that VIGG may disturb cation homeostasis in plant, which is correlated with the robustness to ER stress and growth retardation.

  3. Real-time detection and continuous monitoring of ER stress in vitro and in vivo by ES-TRAP: evidence for systemic, transient ER stress during endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Hiramatsu, Nobuhiko; Kasai, Ayumi; Hayakawa, Kunihiro; Yao, Jian; Kitamura, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    Activity of secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) produced by transfected cells is rapidly down-regulated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress independent of transcriptional regulation. This phenomenon was observed in a wide range of cell types triggered by various ER stress inducers. The magnitude of the decrease in SEAP was proportional to the extent of ER stress and inversely correlated with the induction of endogenous ER stress markers grp78 and grp94. In contrast to SEAP, activity of secreted luciferase was less susceptible to ER stress. The decrease in SEAP activity by ER stress was caused by abnormal post-translational modification, accelerated degradation and reduced secretion of SEAP protein. In transgenic mice constitutively producing SEAP, systemic induction of ER stress led to reduction in serum SEAP. In these mice, administration with lipopolysaccharide caused rapid, transient decrease in serum SEAP activity, and it was correlated with up-regulation of grp78 in several organs including the spleen, lung, kidney, liver and heart. These results elucidated for the first time a possible involvement of transient, systemic ER stress in endotoxemia and provided evidence for usefulness of ER stress responsive alkaline phosphatase for real-time monitoring of ER stress in vitro and in vivo. PMID:16877567

  4. Real-time detection and continuous monitoring of ER stress in vitro and in vivo by ES-TRAP: evidence for systemic, transient ER stress during endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Nobuhiko; Kasai, Ayumi; Hayakawa, Kunihiro; Yao, Jian; Kitamura, Masanori

    2006-07-28

    Activity of secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) produced by transfected cells is rapidly down-regulated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress independent of transcriptional regulation. This phenomenon was observed in a wide range of cell types triggered by various ER stress inducers. The magnitude of the decrease in SEAP was proportional to the extent of ER stress and inversely correlated with the induction of endogenous ER stress markers grp78 and grp94. In contrast to SEAP, activity of secreted luciferase was less susceptible to ER stress. The decrease in SEAP activity by ER stress was caused by abnormal post-translational modification, accelerated degradation and reduced secretion of SEAP protein. In transgenic mice constitutively producing SEAP, systemic induction of ER stress led to reduction in serum SEAP. In these mice, administration with lipopolysaccharide caused rapid, transient decrease in serum SEAP activity, and it was correlated with up-regulation of grp78 in several organs including the spleen, lung, kidney, liver and heart. These results elucidated for the first time a possible involvement of transient, systemic ER stress in endotoxemia and provided evidence for usefulness of ER stress responsive alkaline phosphatase for real-time monitoring of ER stress in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Bap31 is an itinerant protein that moves between the peripheral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and a juxtanuclear compartment related to ER-associated Degradation.

    PubMed

    Wakana, Yuichi; Takai, Sawako; Nakajima, Ken-Ichi; Tani, Katsuko; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Watson, Peter; Stephens, David J; Hauri, Hans-Peter; Tagaya, Mitsuo

    2008-05-01

    Certain endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) substrates with transmembrane domains are segregated from other ER proteins and sorted into a juxtanuclear subcompartment, known as the ER quality control compartment. Bap31 is an ER protein with three transmembrane domains, and it is assumed to be a cargo receptor for ER export of some transmembrane proteins, especially those prone to ERAD. Here, we show that Bap31 is a component of the ER quality control compartment and that it moves between the peripheral ER and a juxtanuclear ER or ER-related compartment distinct from the conventional ER-Golgi intermediate compartment. The third and second transmembrane domains of Bap31 are principally responsible for the movement to and recycling from the juxtanuclear region, respectively. This cycling was blocked by depolymerization of microtubules and disruption of dynein-dynactin function. Overexpression of Sar1p and Arf1 mutants affected Bap31 cycling, suggesting that this cycling pathway is related to the conventional vesicular transport pathways.

  6. SEAP activity serves for demonstrating ER stress induction by glucolipotoxicity as well as testing ER stress inhibitory potential of therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Lenin, Raji; Mohan, Viswanathan; Balasubramanyam, Muthuswamy

    2015-06-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is emerging as a unifying paradigm and one of the underlying mechanisms in the genesis of diabetes and its complications. While this has prompted the development of ER stress inhibitors, there is a limitation in monitoring of ER stress in vitro and in vivo by reliable methodologies. We validated the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) activity as a surrogate marker of ER stress in mouse β-TC6 cells exposed to glucolipotoxicity or tunicamycin and studied insulin secretion along with alterations in ER stress markers. SEAP activity assay was measured using the Great EscAPe SEAP kit, insulin levels were determined by Mercodia reagents and mRNA expression of ER stress markers was quantified by real-time PCR. SEAP activity in β-cells was significantly decreased (indicating increased ER stress) on exposure either to glucolipotoxicity or tunicamycin. This was accompanied by an increased mRNA expression of ER stress markers (GRP-78, PERK, IRE1α, ATF6, XBP-1, and CHOP) and decreased insulin secretion. Treating the cells with phenylbutyric acid normalized SEAP activity, decreased mRNA expression of ER stress markers and improved insulin secretion. Interestingly, cells exposed to different classes of anti-diabetes agents or compounds such as resveratrol resisted ER stress. Methylglyoxal also induces ER stress and this was counteracted by aminoguanidine. Out study demonstrates SEAP activity as a novel ER stress monitoring assay to investigate the therapeutic value of agents with ER stress inhibitory potential. Future studies should focus on the exercise of adopting this reporter assay for high-throughput screening mode of drug discovery.

  7. NASA ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation shows views of the ER-2, NASA's Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies and Remote Sensing. The presentation briefly reviews the successes of the ER-2, and what the facility provides.

  8. 78 FR 4857 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition for Amerasian, Widow(er), or Special Immigrant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... Amerasian, Widow(er), or Special Immigrant, Form I-360; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION.../Collection: Petition for Amerasian, Widow(er), or Special Immigrant (3) Agency form number, if any, and...

  9. Emergency room (ER) referrals and health insurance in the United States.

    PubMed

    Amini, Reza; Swan, James; Yang, Philip; Ingman, Stanley Rusk; Turner, Keith; Sahaf, Robab

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to determine how various health insurance policies affect the rate of emergency room (ER) referrals in the United States. The secondary data, gathered in National Health Measurement Study (NHMS) in 2008 and 2010, was used. The authors identify the relationships between health insurance and ER referrals by using zero-inflated binomial and zero-inflated Poisson regression. About 17% (2008) and 20% (2010) of the respondents had one or more ER referrals in the 2 years; those who were under coverage of governmental health insurance are more likely to refer ER than uninsured group. The differences in ER referrals that ended with hospital admission across different insurance policies are not significant. Health insurance is a remarkable factor in ER referrals; the coverage of health insurance plans can affect consuming the services provided in ER. Governmental insurance plans can increase ER referrals.

  10. Mitofusin 2 in POMC Neurons Connects ER Stress with Leptin Resistance and Energy Imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Schneeberger, Marc; Dietrich, Marcelo O; Sebastián, David; Imbernón, Mónica; Castaño, Carlos; Garcia, Ainhoa; Esteban, Yaiza; Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Rodríguez, Ignacio Castrillón; Bortolozzi, Analía; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M; Gomis, Ramon; Nogueiras, Ruben; Horvath, Tamas L; Zorzano, Antonio; Claret, Marc

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) plays critical roles in both mitochondrial fusion and the establishment of mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) interactions. Hypothalamic ER stress has emerged as a causative factor for the development of leptin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show that mitochondria-ER contacts in anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus are decreased in diet-induced obesity. POMC-specific ablation of Mfn2 resulted in loss of mitochondria-ER contacts, defective POMC processing, ER stress-induced leptin resistance, hyperphagia, reduced energy expenditure and obesity. Pharmacological relieve of hypothalamic ER stress reversed these metabolic alterations. Our data establishes Mfn2 in POMC neurons as an essential regulator of systemic energy balance by fine-tuning the mitochondrial-ER axis homeostasis and function. This previously unrecognized role for Mfn2 argues for a crucial involvement in mediating ER stress-induced leptin resistance. PMID:24074867

  11. Excitation and De-Excitation Mechanisms of ER - Gallium Arsenide and Aluminum Gallium Arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsaesser, David William

    Electrical and optical characterization have been performed on GaAs and Al_{rm x}Ga_{rm 1-x} As samples doped with Er either by ion implantation and during Molecular Beam Epitaxial (MBE) growth. The electrical techniques of Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and Temperature-Dependent Hall Effect (TDH) indicated that Er primarily formed two electrically active centers in both materials. The first center gave rise to a hole trap at E_{rm v} + 35 meV, which was thought to be due to Er substituting for a Ga atom (Er_{rm Ga}) and giving rise to an isoelectronic impurity potential. The second center also gave rise to a hole trap at approximately E_{rm v} + 360 meV, and was attributed to an Er atom occupying an interstitial position (Er_{rm i}). Annealing studies performed on Er-implanted GaAs indicated that the Er_{rm Ga} center preferentially formed at higher annealing temperatures (> 850^circC), with the Er_{rm i} reaching a maximum concentration at an annealing temperature of around 750^circC. Additionally, optical characterization performed by Photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed that the Er_{ rm i} center gave much stronger Er-related emissions due to the transition ^4I _{13/2} to ^4 I_{15/2} in the unfilled Er^{3+}-4f shell than was observed for 4f-emissions associated with the Er_{rm Ga} center. Mechanisms for the excitation and de-excitation of the Er-4f shell in GaAs, consistent with all experimental observations, were proposed. DLTS measurements also detected the presence of a large concentration of Ga-antisite (Ga_ {rm As}) defects as well as As-interstitial (As_{rm i}) defects. Based upon reports of Er^{3+} -4f emissions from four distinct Er-centers, two other likely Er-centers were proposed, Er_{rm Ga}-Ga_{rm As} and Er_{rm Ga} -As_{rm i}. Finally, electrical and optical characterization of Er-doped MBE -grown Al_{0.5}Ga _{rm 0.5}As indicated that the solubility limit of Er in this material was possibly as high as 2 times 10^ {19} cm^{-3}, as

  12. Er and Yb isotope fractionation in planetary materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albalat, Emmanuelle; Telouk, Philippe; Albarède, Francis

    2012-11-01

    Terrestrial planets are depleted in volatile elements relative to solar abundances. Little is known, however, about volatility at the high temperatures relevant to asteroidal collisions and to the giant lunar impact. Although refractory rare-earth elements have overall similar crystallochemical properties, some differ in their temperatures of condensation from the nebular gas. This is the case for Yb, which condenses at ˜1490K and in the vapor is mostly in elemental form. By contrast, Er, largely present as ErO, condenses at ˜1660K. We analyzed the Er and Yb isotopic compositions in 33 terrestrial basalts, garnets, different classes of chondrites and achondrites, and lunar samples by MC-ICP-MS. The range of mass-dependent isotope fractionation is larger for Yb (0.43‰ per amu) than Er (0.23‰) isotopes. For terrestrial rocks, a positive correlation between δYb and La/Yb suggests that the isotopic differences between Er and Yb can be accounted for by the presence of small fractions of Yb2+. Yb is isotopically heavy in kimberlite and light in garnets. Ytterbium behaves similarly to Fe, with Yb3+ being more incompatible than the much less abundant Yb2+. In addition, the coexistence of divalent and trivalent sites in the garnet structure and the preference of heavy isotopes for stable bonds makes Yb in garnet isotopically light. The deficit of heavy Yb isotopes in lunar basaltic samples relative to the Earth, chondrites, and eucrites provides new evidence that the Moon formed by the condensation of silicate vapor in the aftermath of the giant lunar impact. Separation of vapor from melt and of heavy from light isotopes is first expected during the adiabatic expansion of the initial vapor plume. Subsequently, friction between melt and gas tends to further enrich the Moon feeding zone in silicate vapor to compensate the inward migration of melt out of the pre-lunar disk. A major consequence of interpreting the present lunar data by vapor/melt segregation is that the

  13. Er1.33Pt3Ga8: A modulated variant of the Er4Pt9Al24-structure type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Iain W. H.; Gourdon, Olivier; Bekins, Amy; Evans, Jess; Treadwell, LaRico J.; Chan, Julia Y.; Macaluso, Robin T.

    2016-10-01

    Single crystals of Er1.33Pt3Ga8 were synthesized in a molten Ga flux. Er1.33Pt3Ga8 can be considered to be a modulated variant of the Er4Pt9Al24-structure type, where the partial occupancies are ordered. Indeed, the presence of weak satellite reflections indicates a complex organization and distribution of the Er and Ga atoms within the [ErGa] slabs. The structure has been solved based on single crystal X-ray diffraction data in the monoclinic superspace group X2/m(0β0)00 with a commensurate modulated vector q=1/3b*. Precession images also indicate diffusion in the perpendicular direction indicating a partial disorder of this arrangement from layer to layer. In addition, Er1.33Pt3Ga8 shows antiferromagnetic ordering at TN~5 K.

  14. When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... TV, Video Games, and the Internet When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma ... of these symptoms happen, see your doctor immediately, go to the ER, or call an ambulance: Your ...

  15. 20 CFR 218.40 - When a widow(er) annuity ends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Entitlement based on age. When a widow(er)'s annuity is based on age, the annuity ends with the earliest of... else as the employee's legal widow(er) if entitlement is based on a deemed valid marriage. (b) Disabled... month in which the widow(er) attains age 60 (the disability annuitant then becomes entitled to...

  16. 20 CFR 218.44 - When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) annuity ends. (a) Entitlement based on age. When the remarried widow(er) annuity is based on age, the...(er)— (1) Dies; (2) Becomes entitled to an old age benefit under the Social Security Act that is equal to or larger than the amount of the full remarried widow(er) annuity before reduction for age or...

  17. 20 CFR 218.44 - When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) annuity ends. (a) Entitlement based on age. When the remarried widow(er) annuity is based on age, the...(er)— (1) Dies; (2) Becomes entitled to an old age benefit under the Social Security Act that is equal to or larger than the amount of the full remarried widow(er) annuity before reduction for age or...

  18. 20 CFR 218.44 - When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) annuity ends. (a) Entitlement based on age. When the remarried widow(er) annuity is based on age, the...(er)— (1) Dies; (2) Becomes entitled to an old age benefit under the Social Security Act that is equal to or larger than the amount of the full remarried widow(er) annuity before reduction for age or...

  19. 20 CFR 218.40 - When a widow(er) annuity ends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Entitlement based on age. When a widow(er)'s annuity is based on age, the annuity ends with the earliest of... else as the employee's legal widow(er) if entitlement is based on a deemed valid marriage. (b) Disabled... month in which the widow(er) attains age 60 (the disability annuitant then becomes entitled to...

  20. 20 CFR 218.40 - When a widow(er) annuity ends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Entitlement based on age. When a widow(er)'s annuity is based on age, the annuity ends with the earliest of... else as the employee's legal widow(er) if entitlement is based on a deemed valid marriage. (b) Disabled... month in which the widow(er) attains age 60 (the disability annuitant then becomes entitled to...

  1. 75 FR 48281 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737-900ER Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... directive (AD) for certain Model 737-900ER series airplanes. This proposed AD would require doing a one-time... Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737-900ER Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...-300ER series airplanes. The fuel tank access door at this location has a fuel measuring stick installed...

  2. Multiple mechanisms determine ER network morphology during the cell cycle in Xenopus egg extracts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Songyu; Romano, Fabian B.; Field, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    In metazoans the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) changes during the cell cycle, with the nuclear envelope (NE) disassembling and reassembling during mitosis and the peripheral ER undergoing extensive remodeling. Here we address how ER morphology is generated during the cell cycle using crude and fractionated Xenopus laevis egg extracts. We show that in interphase the ER is concentrated at the microtubule (MT)-organizing center by dynein and is spread by outward extension of ER tubules through their association with plus ends of growing MTs. Fusion of membranes into an ER network is dependent on the guanosine triphosphatase atlastin (ATL). NE assembly requires fusion by both ATL and ER-soluble N-ethyl-maleimide–sensitive factor adaptor protein receptors. In mitotic extracts, the ER converts into a network of sheets connected by ER tubules and loses most of its interactions with MTs. Together, these results indicate that fusion of ER membranes by ATL and interaction of ER with growing MT ends and dynein cooperate to generate distinct ER morphologies during the cell cycle. PMID:24297752

  3. 20 CFR 234.47 - Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent... parent. (a) An RLS cannot be paid if it appears that there are immediate or future monthly survivor benefits payable to anyone other than a widow(er) or parent. A widow(er) or parent can elect to have...

  4. 20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... parent. 228.50 Section 228.50 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General. The tier II annuity component is an additional amount payable to a widow(er), disabled widow(er), child, or parent, but not to a surviving...

  5. 20 CFR 234.47 - Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent... parent. (a) An RLS cannot be paid if it appears that there are immediate or future monthly survivor benefits payable to anyone other than a widow(er) or parent. A widow(er) or parent can elect to have...

  6. 20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., or parent. 228.50 Section 228.50 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General. The tier II annuity component is an additional amount payable to a widow(er), disabled widow(er), child, or parent, but not to a surviving...

  7. 20 CFR 234.47 - Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent... parent. (a) An RLS cannot be paid if it appears that there are immediate or future monthly survivor benefits payable to anyone other than a widow(er) or parent. A widow(er) or parent can elect to have...

  8. 20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... parent. 228.50 Section 228.50 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General. The tier II annuity component is an additional amount payable to a widow(er), disabled widow(er), child, or parent, but not to a surviving...

  9. 20 CFR 234.47 - Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent... parent. (a) An RLS cannot be paid if it appears that there are immediate or future monthly survivor benefits payable to anyone other than a widow(er) or parent. A widow(er) or parent can elect to have...

  10. 20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., or parent. 228.50 Section 228.50 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General. The tier II annuity component is an additional amount payable to a widow(er), disabled widow(er), child, or parent, but not to a surviving...

  11. 20 CFR 234.47 - Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent... parent. (a) An RLS cannot be paid if it appears that there are immediate or future monthly survivor benefits payable to anyone other than a widow(er) or parent. A widow(er) or parent can elect to have...

  12. 20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or parent. 228.50 Section 228.50 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General. The tier II annuity component is an additional amount payable to a widow(er), disabled widow(er), child, or parent, but not to a surviving...

  13. Glucocorticoids alleviate intestinal ER stress by enhancing protein folding and degradation of misfolded proteins.

    PubMed

    Das, Indrajit; Png, Chin Wen; Oancea, Iulia; Hasnain, Sumaira Z; Lourie, Rohan; Proctor, Martina; Eri, Rajaraman D; Sheng, Yong; Crane, Denis I; Florin, Timothy H; McGuckin, Michael A

    2013-06-03

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in intestinal secretory cells has been linked with colitis in mice and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Endogenous intestinal glucocorticoids are important for homeostasis and glucocorticoid drugs are efficacious in IBD. In Winnie mice with intestinal ER stress caused by misfolding of the Muc2 mucin, the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) suppressed ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), substantially restoring goblet cell Muc2 production. In mice lacking inflammation, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist increased ER stress, and DEX suppressed ER stress induced by the N-glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin (Tm). In cultured human intestinal secretory cells, in a glucocorticoid receptor-dependent manner, DEX suppressed ER stress and UPR activation induced by blocking N-glycosylation, reducing ER Ca(2+) or depleting glucose. DEX up-regulated genes encoding chaperones and elements of ER-associated degradation (ERAD), including EDEM1. Silencing EDEM1 partially inhibited DEX's suppression of misfolding-induced ER stress, showing that DEX enhances ERAD. DEX inhibited Tm-induced MUC2 precursor accumulation, promoted production of mature mucin, and restored ER exit and secretion of Winnie mutant recombinant Muc2 domains, consistent with enhanced protein folding. In IBD, glucocorticoids are likely to ameliorate ER stress by promoting correct folding of secreted proteins and enhancing removal of misfolded proteins from the ER.

  14. PREDICTING ER BINDING AFFINITY FOR EDC RANKING AND PRIORITIZATION: A COMPARISON OF THREE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparative analysis of how three COREPA models for ER binding affinity performed when used to predict potential estrogen receptor (ER) ligands is presented. Models I and II were developed based on training sets of 232 and 279 rat ER binding affinity measurements, respectively....

  15. PREDICTING ER BINDING AFFINITY FOR EDC RANKING AND PRIORITIZATION: A COMPARISON OF THREE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparative analysis of how three COREPA models for ER binding affinity performed when used to predict potential estrogen receptor (ER) ligands is presented. Models I and II were developed based on training sets of 232 and 279 rat ER binding affinity measurements, respectively....

  16. Electro-optic coefficients r13 and r33 of singly Er3+-doped and In3+/Er3+-codoped LiNbO3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wan-Ying; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Zi-Bo; Ren, Shuai; Wong, Wing-Han; Yu, Dao-Yin; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun; Zhang, De-Long

    2017-01-01

    A series of singly Er3+-doped and doubly In3+/Er3+-doped congruent LiNbO3 crystals were grown by Czochralski method. The Er3+-only doped crystals were grown from the growth melts doped with different concentrations of Er2O3 up to 1 mol%, and the In3+/Er3+-codoped crystals from the melts doped with fixed 0.5 mol% Er2O3 while varied In2O3 contents of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mol%. The electro-optic coefficients γ13 and γ33 of these doped crystals were measured by Mach-Zehnder interferometry. Both clamped and unclamped coefficients were measured. The results show that both γ13 and γ33 reveal small Er3+ and In3+ doping effects. In the Er3+-only doping case, γ13 almost does not change within the experimental error of 3%, γ33 reveals a degradation tendency with a rise in Er3+ doping level, but the degradation is no more than 5% in the considered Er3+ concentration range 0-3.0 mol% (in crystal). In the In3+/Er3+-codoping case, both γ13 and γ33 can be regarded as unchanged in the studied In3+ concentration range of 0-2.6 mol% (in crystal) within the error. The small Er3+ or In3+ doping effect is desired in light of electro-optic application of these crystals. It is qualitatively explained on the basis of EO coefficient model and doping effect on defect structure of LiNbO3.

  17. Membrane-bound fatty acid desaturases are inserted co-translationally into the ER and contain different ER retrieval motifs at their carboxy termini.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Andrew W; Dyer, John M; Dhanoa, Preetinder K; Kim, Peter K; Andrews, David W; McNew, James A; Mullen, Robert T

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) play a prominent role in plant lipid metabolism and are located in various subcellular compartments, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To investigate the biogenesis of ER-localized membrane-bound FADs, we characterized the mechanisms responsible for insertion of Arabidopsis FAD2 and Brassica FAD3 into ER membranes and determined the molecular signals that maintain their ER residency. Using in vitro transcription/translation reactions with ER-derived microsomes, we show that both FAD2 and FAD3 are efficiently integrated into membranes by a co-translational, translocon-mediated pathway. We also demonstrate that while the C-terminus of FAD3 (-KSKIN) contains a functional prototypic dilysine ER retrieval motif, FAD2 contains a novel C-terminal aromatic amino acid-containing sequence (-YNNKL) that is both necessary and sufficient for maintaining localization in the ER. Co-expression of a membrane-bound reporter protein containing the FAD2 C-terminus with a dominant-negative mutant of ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf)1 abolished transient localization of the reporter protein in the Golgi, indicating that the FAD2 peptide signal acts as an ER retrieval motif. Mutational analysis of the FAD2 ER retrieval signal revealed a sequence-specific motif consisting of Phi-X-X-K/R/D/E-Phi-COOH, where -Phi- are large hydrophobic amino acid residues. Interestingly, this aromatic motif was present in a variety of other known and putative ER membrane proteins, including cytochrome P450 and the peroxisomal biogenesis factor Pex10p. Taken together, these data describe the insertion and retrieval mechanisms of FADs and define a new ER localization signal in plants that is responsible for the retrieval of escaped membrane proteins back to the ER.

  18. Association of FGFR1 with ERαmaintains ligand-independent ER transcription and mediates resistance to estrogen deprivation in ER+ breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Formisano, Luigi; Stauffer, Kimberly Mae; Young, Christian D; Bhola, Neil E; Guerrero-Zotano, Angel L; Jansen, Valerie M; Estrada, Monica M; Hutchinson, Katherine E; Giltnane, Jennifer M; Schwarz, Luis J; Lu, Yao; Balko, Justin M; Deas, Olivier; Cairo, Stefano; Judde, Jean-Gabriel; Mayer, Ingrid A; Sanders, Melinda; Dugger, Teresa C; Bianco, Roberto; Stricker, Thomas; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2017-07-27

    FGFR1 amplification occurs in ~15% of ER+ human breast cancers. We investigated mechanisms by which FGFR1 amplification confers antiestrogen resistance to ER+ breast cancer.

    Experimental Design: ER+ tumors from patients treated with letrozole before surgery were subjected to Ki67 immunohistochemistry, FGFR1 FISH, and RNA-sequencing. ER+/FGFR1 amplified breast cancer cells and patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) were treated with FGFR1 siRNA or the FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor lucitanib. Endpoints were cell/xenograft growth, FGFR1/ERα association by co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation, ER genomic activity by ChIP-sequencing, and gene expression by RT-PCR.

    Results: ER+/FGFR1 amplified tumors in patients treated with letrozole maintained cell proliferation (Ki67). Estrogen deprivation increased total and nuclear FGFR1 and FGF ligands expression in ER+/FGFR1-amplified primary tumors and breast cancer cells. In estrogen-free conditions, FGFR1 associated with ERα in tumor cell nuclei and regulated the transcription of ER-dependent genes. This association was inhibited by a kinase-dead FGFR1 mutant and by treatment with lucitanib. ChIP-seq analysis of estrogen-deprived ER+/FGFR1 amplified cells showed binding of FGFR1 and ERα to DNA. Treatment with fulvestrant and/or lucitanib reduced FGFR1 and ERα binding to DNA. RNA-seq data from FGFR1-amplified patients' tumors treated with letrozole showed enrichment of estrogen response and E2F target genes. Finally, growth of ER+/FGFR1-amplified cells and PDXs was more potently inhibited by fulvestrant and lucitanib combined than each drug alone.

    Conclusions: These data suggest the ERα pathway remains active in estrogen-deprived ER+/FGFR1-amplified breast cancers. Therefore, these tumors are endocrine resistant and should be candidates for treatment with combinations of ER and FGFR antagonists. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Multiple magnetic transitions in Er2Ni2Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinchure, Aravind D.; Muñoz-Sandoval, E.; Mydosh, J. A.

    2001-07-01

    We have fabricated single-phase samples and measured the bulk properties for one (Er) of a series of ternary, heavy rare-earth, 221 ``plumbide'' intermetallic compounds R2Ni2Pb (R=rare earths). These materials form in the orthorhombic (space group Cmmm) structure which is isostructural to Mn2AlB2 compounds. Our results of susceptibility, magnetization, heat capacity, and (magneto) resistivity on Er2Ni2Pb show (sharp) multiple antiferromagnetic transitions and strong field dependences in all bulk properties for the temperature range 2-10 K. We relate this magnetic behavior to the unusual R symmetry (partially frustrated) of the highly anisotropic plumbide crystal structure.

  20. Differences between the TERF and the ERS tritium capture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hedley, W.H.; Lamberger, P.H.; Colvin, C.M.; Gibbs, G.E.; Adams, F.S.; Bowser, R.P.; Kissner, T.J.; Morgan, F.E.; Schmidt, M.J.; Van Patten, J.F.; Wieneke, R.E.

    1991-12-31

    The TERF and the ERS tritium capture systems are alike in that they both use the ``oxidize and dry`` principle to remove tritium from gases, but they differ significantly in engineering details. The newer TERF system benefited in many ways from experience with the ERS. The TERF is expected to: (1) operate at a higher pressure, leading to greater throughput, (2) have redesigned reactors with better efficiency to process tritiated organic compounds, (3) have better energy conservation, (4) use an advanced process control system to provide more versatility in operation of the system, to account for the amount of tritium in the system at all times, and to more completely log operating results, (5) utilize more corrosion resistant materials to minimize maintenance, and (6) provide double containment of all pressurized tritium containing equipment to reduce tritium losses and increase operating safety. 6 refs.

  1. Differences between the TERF and the ERS tritium capture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hedley, W.H.; Lamberger, P.H.; Colvin, C.M.; Gibbs, G.E.; Adams, F.S.; Bowser, R.P.; Kissner, T.J.; Morgan, F.E.; Schmidt, M.J.; Van Patten, J.F.; Wieneke, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The TERF and the ERS tritium capture systems are alike in that they both use the oxidize and dry'' principle to remove tritium from gases, but they differ significantly in engineering details. The newer TERF system benefited in many ways from experience with the ERS. The TERF is expected to: (1) operate at a higher pressure, leading to greater throughput, (2) have redesigned reactors with better efficiency to process tritiated organic compounds, (3) have better energy conservation, (4) use an advanced process control system to provide more versatility in operation of the system, to account for the amount of tritium in the system at all times, and to more completely log operating results, (5) utilize more corrosion resistant materials to minimize maintenance, and (6) provide double containment of all pressurized tritium containing equipment to reduce tritium losses and increase operating safety. 6 refs.

  2. Er:YAG and adhesion in conservative dentistry : clinical overview

    PubMed Central

    Fornaini, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The notion of utilizing laser technology in conservative dentistry was proposed in 1990 by Hibst and Keller, who introduced the possibility of using an Er:YAG laser as alternative to conventional instruments such as the turbine and micro-motor. In subsequent years a continuing effort has been made by clinicians, researchers and commercial companies to improve the technology. The aim of this clinical study is to demonstrate, by the description of different clinical cases, the possibilities and the advantages of using Er:YAG lasers in conservative dentistry and to show that better results may be achieved in terms of stronger adhesion, less invasiveness, reduced pain as well as greater comfort and satisfaction of patients. PMID:24155547

  3. Ice sheet topography from retracked ERS-1 altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Brenner, Anita C.; Dimarzio, John; Seiss, Timothy

    1994-01-01

    An objective of the ERS-1 radar altimeter is to measure the surface topography of the polar ice sheets to a precision on the order of a meter. ERS-1 Waveform Altimeter Product (WAP) data was corrected for several processing errors. A range correction from the WAP waveforms, using the multiparameter retracking algorithm to account for range tracking limitations inherent to radar altimetry, was derived. From crossover analysis, the resulting precision is shown to be about 2.1 m in ocean mode and 2.2 m in ice mode. A topography map, produced with 23 days of corrected data, shows details of the western part of west Antarctic ice sheet and part of the Ross ice shelf including ice divides, ice stream boundaries, and ice shelf grounding lines.

  4. Hypothalamic ER stress: A bridge between leptin resistance and obesity.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Sara; Claret, Marc

    2015-06-22

    The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide at an alarming rate. However, non-invasive pharmacological treatments remain elusive. Leptin resistance is a general feature of obesity, thus strategies aimed at enhancing the sensitivity to this hormone may constitute an excellent therapeutical approach to counteract current obesity epidemics. Nevertheless, the etiology and neuronal basis of leptin resistance remains an enigma. A recent hypothesis gaining substantial experimental support is that hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a causal role in the development of leptin resistance and obesity. The objective of this review article is to provide an updated view on current evidence connecting hypothalamic ER stress with leptin resistance. We discuss the experimental findings supporting this hypothesis, as well as the potential causes and underlying mechanisms leading to this metabolic disorder. Understanding these mechanisms may provide key insights into the development of novel intervention approaches.

  5. Effects of Er:YAG laser irradiation on human cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glinkowski, Wojciech; Brzozowska, Malgorzata; Ciszek, Bogdan; Rowinski, Jan; Strek, Wieslaw

    1996-03-01

    Irradiation of the hyaline or fibrous cartilage excised from the body of a human cadaver with Er:YAG laser beam, single pulse with a dose of 1 J, produces a crater with a depth of approximately 500 micrometers and a diameter varying from 5 to 300 micrometers. Histological examination has revealed that the laser-made craters were surrounded by a thin rim (2-10 micrometer) of charred and coagulated tissue. No damage was observed in the cartilage surrounding the rim. The presence of sharp demarcation between the tissue areas ablated by laser energy and the undamaged areas argues for the potential usefulness of the Er:YAG laser in surgery of cartilages.

  6. Polarization maintaining linear cavity Er-doped fiber femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Heesuk; Jang, Yoon-Soo; Kim, Seungman; Lee, Keunwoo; Han, Seongheum; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    We present a polarization-maintaining (PM) type of Er-doped fiber linear oscillator designed to produce femtosecond laser pulses with high operational stability. Mode locking is activated using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) attached to one end of the linear PM oscillator. To avoid heat damage, the SESAM is mounted on a copper-silicon-layered heat sink and connected to the linear oscillator through a fiber buffer dissipating the residual pump power. A long-term stability test is performed to prove that the proposed oscillator design maintains a soliton-mode single-pulse operation without breakdown of mode locking over a week period. With addition of an Er-doped fiber amplifier, the output power is raised to 180 mW with 60 fs pulse duration, from which an octave-spanning supercontinuum is produced.

  7. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) ER-2 Preflight Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Hsiang; Wilson, John W.; Maiden, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) produces chemically active radicals in biological tissues that alter the cell function or result in cell death. The AIR ER-2 flight measurements will enable scientists to study the radiation risk associated with the high-altitude operation of a commercial supersonic transport. The ER-2 radiation measurement flights will follow predetermined, carefully chosen courses to provide an appropriate database matrix which will enable the evaluation of predictive modeling techniques. Explicit scientific results such as dose rate, dose equivalent rate, magnetic cutoff, neutron flux, and air ionization rate associated with those flights are predicted by using the AIR model. Through these flight experiments, we will further increase our knowledge and understanding of the AIR environment and our ability to assess the risk from the associated hazard.

  8. Tunable eye-safe Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, M.; Šulc, J.; Indra, L.; Fibrich, M.; Jelínková, H.

    2015-01-01

    Er:YAG crystal was investigated as the gain medium in a diode (1452 nm) pumped tunable laser. The tunability was reached in an eye-safe region by an intracavity birefringent filter. The four tuning bands were obtained peaking at wavelengths 1616, 1632, 1645, and 1656 nm. The broadest continuous tunability was 6 nm wide peaking at 1616 nm. The laser was operating in a pulsed regime (10 ms pulse length, 10 Hz repetition rate). The maximum mean output power was 26.5 mW at 1645 nm. The constructed system demonstrated the tunability of a resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser which could be useful in the development of compact diode-pumped lasers for spectroscopic applications.

  9. Ho:Tm:Er:LuAG and Two Wavelength Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Murray, Keith E.; Walsh, Brian M.; Hutcheson, Ralph L.

    1997-01-01

    Ho:Tm:Er:LuAG demonstrated simultaneous laser oscillation associated with two different transitions and different atoms. Two wavelength oscillation, or TWO, can be achieved in a single laser and single resonator. Moreover, the wavelength can be electronically controlled by varying the pump pulse length, Either the short wavelength, the Ho (5)1(sub 7) to (5)1(sub 8) transition at 2.1 microns, or the long wavelength, the Er (4)1(sub 11/2) to (4)1(sub 13/2) transition at 2.7 microns, or both wavelengths simultaneously can be produced without resorting to mechanical intervention. Consequently, a single laser system can easily switch between producing either of these useful wavelengths. Laser operation of both transitions has been characterized and is presented.

  10. Preliminary analysis of ERS-1 SAR for forest ecosystem studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, M. G.; Pierce, Leland; Sarabandi, Kamal; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Sharik, Terry

    1992-01-01

    An image obtained by the C-band VV-polarized ERS-1 SAR is examined with respect to potential land applications. A scene obtained near noon on August 15, 1991, along the U.S.-Canadian border near Sault Ste. Marie is calibrated relative to an array of trihedral corner reflectors and active radar calibrators distributed across the swath. Extensive contemporaneous ground observations of forest stands are used to predict the radar backscattering coefficient sigma at the time of the SAR overpass using a first-order vector radiative transfer model. These predictions generally agree with the calibrated ERS-1 data to within 1 dB. It is demonstrated that the dynamic range of sigma is sufficient to perform limited discrimination of various forest and grassland communities even for a single-date observation. Furthermore, retrieval of near-surface soil moisture is feasible for grass-covered soils when plant biomass is less than 1 tonne/ha.

  11. Misfolding of Mutated Vasopressin Causes ER-Retention and Activation of ER-Stress Markers in Neuro-2a Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhongyu; Hoffmann, Andrea; Kaiser, Erin Kelly; Grunwald, William C.; Cool, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) is a peptide hormone normally secreted from neuroendocrine cells via the regulated secretory pathway. In Familial Neurohypophyseal Diabetes Insipidus (FNDI), an autosomal dominant form of central diabetes insipidus, mutations of pro-vasopressin appear to accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causing a lack of biologically active AVP in the blood. To investigate the effect of pro-vasopressin mutations regarding intracellular functions of protein targeting and secretion, we created two FNDI-associated amino acid substitution mutants, e.g., G14R, and G17V in frame with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and pro-vasopressin (VP) in frame with red fluorescent protein (VP-RFP). Fluorescence microscopy of Neuro-2a cells expressing these constructs revealed co-localization of VP-GFP and VP-RFP to punctate granules along the length and accumulating at the tips of neurites, characteristic of regulated secretory granules. In contrast, the two FNDI-associated amino acid substitution mutants, e.g., G14R-GFP, and G17VGFP, were localized to a perinuclear region of the Neuro-2a cells characteristic of the endoplasmic reticulum. Co-expression of these mutants with VP-RFP showed VP-RFP was retained in the ER, co-localized with the mutants suggesting the formation of heterodimers as found in FNDI. Stimulated secretion experiments indicated that VP-GFP was secreted in an inducible manner whereas, G14R-GFP and G17V-GFP were retained to nearly 100% within the cells. Analysis by western blotting and semi-quantitative RT-PCR indicated an increased protein and mRNA expression for an ER resident molecular chaperone, BiP. Further analysis of ER-storage disease-associated proteins such as caspase 12 and CHOP showed an increase in these as well. The results suggest that G14R-GFP and G17V-GFP are retained in the ER of Neuro-2a cells, resulting in up-regulation of the molecular chaperone BiP, and activation of the ER-storage disease-associated caspase

  12. NASA ER-2 flys over Hurricane Dennis during TSCP mission.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-07-06

    The NASA ER-2 airplane flew over hurricane Dennis as part of the Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes "TSCP" Mission. This 28-day field mission sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate is studying the bursting conditions for tropical storms, hurricanes and related phenomena. The flight originated from TSCP's base-of-operations in San Juan Santa Maria airport in San Jose, Costa Rica. Photo Credit: "NASA/Bill Ingalls"

  13. Changes in intrapulpal temperature after Er:YAG laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Park, N S; Kim, K S; Kim, M E; Kim, Y S; Ahn, S W

    2007-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the changes in temperature induced by an Er:YAG laser irradiation and to find the means to minimize potential thermal damage due to temperature rise after irradiation. Intrapulpal temperature rise was found to last after irradiation at times, although the addition of appropriate water spray during tooth ablation by Er:YAG laser produced efficient ablation with little thermal damage. To investigate intrapulpal temperature change, each extracted tooth specimen was embedded into a resin block and temperature-measuring probes were placed on the irradiated and the opposite pulpal walls. An Er:YAG laser irradiation was performed at 300 mJ/pulse and 20 Hz, with a water flow rate of 1.6 mL/min for 3 sec. Each lasing was followed by (1) no application of post-irradiation water spray, (2) post-irradiation water spray for 1 sec and (3) for 2 sec. No significant temperature change was found on the irradiated pulpal wall during Er:YAG laser, while there existed significant temperature rise on the irradiated pulpal wall after irradiation. However, the addition of water spray for 1 or 2 sec after irradiation significantly decreased intrapulpal temperature compared to no application of post-irradiation water spray. There were no significant differences between the 1- and 2-sec groups. It is suggested that the addition of water spray for 1 or more seconds after irradiation reduces post-irradiation temperature rise, possibly leading to thermal damage on the dental pulp tissue.

  14. Final Report DE-FG02-07ER64416

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, Joseph D.

    2014-02-01

    The document provides the Final Report for DE-FG02-07ER64416 on the use of magnetic resonance (MR) methods to quantify transport in porous media impacted by biological and chemical processes. Products resulting from the research in the form of peer reviewed publications and conference presentations are presented. The research correlated numerical simulations and MR measurements to test simulation methodology. Biofilm and uranium detection by MR was demonstrated.

  15. Efficient visible upconversion luminescence in Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Y2O3 phosphors obtained by solution combustion reaction.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay; Haritha, P; Venkatramu, V; Kim, S H

    2014-05-21

    Combustion derived Er(3+) -doped Y2O3 and Er(3+)/Yb(3+)co-doped Y2O3 powders have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and laser excited spectroscopy. Formation of Y2O3 phosphor was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The vibrational properties of Y2O3 powder was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The luminescence spectra of Er(3+) -doped and Er(3+)/Yb(3+) co-doped Y2O3 powders were studied under 379nm excitation. The strong up-conversion luminescence for Er(3+) -doped and Er(3+)/Yb(3+) co-doped Y2O3 powders have been observed under 978nm laser excitation. The effect of Yb(3+) addition on optical and luminescence properties of Er(3+):Y2O3 powders were studied. The ratio of red to green intensity has been enhanced when Er(3+) -doped Y2O3 is co-doped with Yb(3+) ions. The effect of co-doping of Yb(3+) ions on the visible luminescence intensity of Er(3+) has been studied and the mechanism responsible for the variation in the green and red intensity is discussed.

  16. Completion report for Well ER-19-1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Well ER-19-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. IT Corporation (IT) was the principal environmental contractor for the project. The roles and responsibilities of IT and other contractors involved in the project are described in the Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN) Drilling and Completion Programs. The Well ER-19-1 investigation is part of the DOE`s Underground Test Area (UGTA) project at the NTS. The goals of the UGTA project include collecting geological, geophysical, hydrological, and water chemistry data from new and existing wells to define groundwater migration pathways, migration rates, and quality at the NTS. An additional major objective of drilling Well ER-19-1 was to develop dual-wall, reverse-circulation drilling technology for use on small-diameter wells at the NTS. The well will become part of the UGTA monitoring well network.

  17. Er-doped LiNbO3 waveguide lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohler, Wolfgang; Suche, Hubertus

    1997-05-01

    The state-of-the-art of Er-doped integrated optical lasers in LiNbO3 is reviewed. They are fabricated in Er- diffusion doped substrates with Ti-diffused channel guides of high quality. The laser resonators are formed by dielectric mirrors vacuum-deposited on the polished waveguide end faces. Five different types of Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers are presented.Among them are free running Fabry-Perot lasers of six different wavelengths in the range 153nm < (lambda) < 1610nm with a cw-output power up to 63mW. They have a shot noise limited relative intensity noise at frequencies above 50MHz. Tunable lasers have been developed by the intracavity integration of an acoustooptical amplifying wavelength filter yielding a tuning range up to 31nm. With an intracavity electrooptic phase modulator modelocked laser operation has been obtained with pulse repetition frequencies up to 10GHz; pulses of only a few ps width could be generated. With an intracavity amplitude modulator Q-switched laser operation has been achieved with up to 2.4W pulse peak power at 2kHz repetition frequency. Moreover, distributed Bragg reflector lasers of emission linewidth < 8kHz have been developed using a dry- etched surface grating as one of the mirrors of the laser cavity.

  18. Balanced Ero1 activation and inactivation establishes ER redox homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunghwan; Sideris, Dionisia P.; Sevier, Carolyn S.

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) provides an environment optimized for oxidative protein folding through the action of Ero1p, which generates disulfide bonds, and Pdi1p, which receives disulfide bonds from Ero1p and transfers them to substrate proteins. Feedback regulation of Ero1p through reduction and oxidation of regulatory bonds within Ero1p is essential for maintaining the proper redox balance in the ER. In this paper, we show that Pdi1p is the key regulator of Ero1p activity. Reduced Pdi1p resulted in the activation of Ero1p by direct reduction of Ero1p regulatory bonds. Conversely, upon depletion of thiol substrates and accumulation of oxidized Pdi1p, Ero1p was inactivated by both autonomous oxidation and Pdi1p-mediated oxidation of Ero1p regulatory bonds. Pdi1p responded to the availability of free thiols and the relative levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione in the ER to control Ero1p activity and ensure that cells generate the minimum number of disulfide bonds needed for efficient oxidative protein folding. PMID:22412017

  19. Temperature variation during apicectomy with Er:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Bodrumlu, Emre; Keskiner, Ilker; Sumer, Mahmut; Sumer, A Pinar; Telcıoglu, N Tuba

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the generated temperature of the Er:YAG laser, with three different pulse durations for apicectomy, compared with tungsten bur and surgical saw. Apicectomy is an endodontic surgery performed to remove the root apex and curette adjacent periapical tissue because of lesions of the apical area that are not healing properly. Sixty single-rooted extracted human teeth were resected by three cutting methods: tungsten bur, surgical saw, and Er:YAG laser irradiation with three different pulse durations; pulse duration 50 μs, pulse duration 100 μs, and pulse duration 300 μs. Teflon-insulated, type K thermocouples were used to measure temperature changes during the apicectomy process. Data were analyzed using the general linear models procedure of the SPSS statistical software program. Although there was no statistically significant difference for the mean values of temperature changes at 1 mm away to the cutting site of teeth, there was statistically significant difference among groups for the mean values of temperature changes at 3 mm away to the cutting site of teeth. Additionally, there was statistically significant difference among groups for the total time required for apicectomy. The laser irradiation with pulse duration 50 μs appears to have the lowest temperature rise and the shortest time required for apicectomy of the three pulse durations. However, Er:YAG laser for apicectomy in all pulse durations could be used safely for resection in endodontics in the presence of sufficient water.

  20. Er + medium energy ion implantation into lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svecova, B.; Nekvindova, P.; Mackova, A.; Oswald, J.; Vacik, J.; Grötzschel, R.; Spirkova, J.

    2009-05-01

    Erbium-doped lithium niobate (Er:LiNbO3) is a prospective photonics component, operating at 1.5 μm, which could find its use chiefly as an optical amplifier or waveguide laser. In this study, we have focused on the properties of the optically active Er:LiNbO3 layers, which are fabricated by medium energy ion implantation under various experimental conditions. Erbium ions were implanted at energies of 330 and 500 keV with fluences of 1.0 × 1015, 2.5 × 1015 and 1.0 × 1016 cm-2 into LiNbO3 single-crystalline cuts of various orientations. The as-implanted samples were annealed in air at 350 °C for 5 h. The depth distribution and diffusion profiles of the implanted Er were measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) using 2 MeV He+ ions. The projected range RP and projected range straggling ΔRP were calculated employing the SRIM code. The damage distribution and structural changes were described using the RBS/channelling method. Changes of the lithium concentration depth distribution were studied by Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP). The photoluminescence spectra of the samples were measured to determine whether the emission was in the desired region of 1.5 μm. The obtained data made it possible to reveal the relations between the structural changes of erbium-implanted lithium niobate and its luminescence properties important for photonics applications.

  1. Completion Report for Well Cluster ER-6-1

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well Cluster ER-6-1 was constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Division at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This work was initiated as part of the Groundwater Characterization Project, now known as the Underground Test Area Project. The well cluster is located in southeastern Yucca Flat. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments for Well Cluster ER-6-1 are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and conventional core samples taken below 639 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 11 samples to resolve complex interrelationships between several of the Tertiary tuff units. Additionally, paleontological analyses by the U.S. Geological Survey confirmed the stratigraphic assignments below 539 meters within the Paleozoic sedimentary section. All three wells in the Well ER-6-1 cluster were drilled within the Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium section, the Tertiary volcanic section, and into the Paleozoic sedimentary section.

  2. Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped fluorotellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguel, A.; Al-Saleh, M.; Azkargorta, J.; Morea, R.; Gonzalo, J.; Arriandiaga, M. A.; Fernandez, J.; Balda, R.

    2013-09-01

    In this work we report the spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped fluorotellurite glasses in the 46.6TeO2-18.2ZnO-35.2ZnF2 system for different ErF3 concentrations between 0.5 and 3 wt%. Absorption and emission spectra and lifetimes have been measured in the visible and near infrared regions. Judd-Ofelt analysis has been performed to estimate the radiative transition probabilities. The high content of ZnF2 in this glass decreases the covalency degree in rare-earth site and results in a lower value of Ω2 if compared with zinc tellurite glasses. The infrared emissions at 1532 nm are broader by nearly 30 nm in these glasses if compared to silica glass. This broad emission together with the high values of the stimulated emission cross-section and lifetime of level 4I13/2 make these glasses attractive for broadband amplifiers. The decays from level 4I13/2 are single exponentials for all concentrations which indicates a fast energy diffusion between Er3+ ions. Similar values for the critical radius and energy transfer microparameter are obtained for the different concentrations, which supports the dipole-dipole transfer hypothesis.

  3. Er:YAG clinical results on hard tissue: phase I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozean, Colette D.; Powell, G. L.

    1998-04-01

    Objective: This study was performed in order to establish that the pulpal and dentinal tissue are safe when exposed to the 2.94 micron pulsed Er:YAG laser radiation for the procedures of caries removal, cavity preparation, and etching prior to acid etching. This presentation discusses the histological results of a double-blind study comparing a pulsed Er:YAG with a standard dental drill. Methods: A double-blind histological evaluation of the pulpal and dentinal tissue changes induced by the Erbium laser and the dental drill was conducted on teeth extracted immediately following the dental procedure and at various intervals up to 1 year post-treatment. A statistical analysis was used to determine if any statistically significant clinical differences in dental tissue response could be observed between the Er:YAG laser and the standard dental drill. Conclusions: Analysis of the results indicated there were no significant differences observed between the laser and control groups in this study.

  4. Completion Report for Well Cluster ER-5-4

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2005-02-01

    Well Cluster ER-5-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The cluster consists of two wells, positioned about 30 meters apart on the same drill pad, constructed as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments for the well cluster are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 156 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 192 meters in both boreholes, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 122 samples. Well ER-5-4 penetrated approximately 1,120 meters of Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium before reaching total depth in Tertiary volcanic rocks at 1,137.5 meters. The deeper Well ER-5-4 No.2 penetrated 1,120.4 meters of alluvial sediments, and was terminated within Tertiary volcanic rocks at a depth of 2,133.6 meters, indicating that Paleozoic rocks are deeper than expected at this site.

  5. Inhibition of nonsense-mediated RNA decay by ER stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhelin; Vuong, John K; Zhang, Min; Stork, Cheryl; Zheng, Sika

    2017-03-01

    Nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) selectively degrades mutated and aberrantly processed transcripts that contain premature termination codons (PTC). Cellular NMD activity is typically assessed using exogenous PTC-containing reporters. We overcame some inherently problematic aspects of assaying endogenous targets and developed a broadly applicable strategy to reliably and easily monitor changes in cellular NMD activity. Our new method was genetically validated for distinguishing NMD regulation from transcriptional control and alternative splicing regulation, and unexpectedly disclosed a different sensitivity of NMD targets to NMD inhibition. Applying this robust method for screening, we identified NMD-inhibiting stressors but also found that NMD inactivation was not universal to cellular stresses. The high sensitivity and broad dynamic range of our method revealed a strong correlation between NMD inhibition, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and polysome disassembly upon thapsigargin treatment in a temporal and dose-dependent manner. We found little evidence of calcium signaling mediating thapsigargin-induced NMD inhibition. Instead, we discovered that of the three unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways activated by thapsigargin, mainly protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) was required for NMD inhibition. Finally, we showed that ER stress compounded TDP-43 depletion in the up-regulation of NMD isoforms that had been implicated in the pathogenic mechanisms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia, and that the additive effect of ER stress was completely blocked by PERK deficiency.

  6. Tunable, diode side-pumped Er:YAG laser

    DOEpatents

    Hamilton, C.E.; Furu, L.H.

    1997-04-22

    A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 {micro}m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 {micro}m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 {micro}m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 {micro}m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems. 4 figs.

  7. Tunable, diode side-pumped Er: YAG laser

    DOEpatents

    Hamilton, Charles E.; Furu, Laurence H.

    1997-01-01

    A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 .mu.m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 .mu.m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 .mu.m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 .mu.m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems.

  8. Completion report for Well Cluster ER-20-5

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The Well Cluster ER-20-5 drilling and completion project was conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. Its primary tasks include collecting geological, geophysical, hydrological, and water chemistry data from new and existing wells to define groundwater quality in addition to pathways and rates of groundwater migration. A program of drilling wells near the sites of selected underground nuclear tests (near-field drilling) was implemented to obtain site-specific data about the nature and extent of migration of radionuclides that might have been produced by an underground nuclear explosion. Well Cluster ER-20-5 is the first near-field drilling project initiated at the NTS. This document presents construction data and summarizes the scientific data gathered during the drilling and well-installation phases for all three holes drilled at Well Cluster ER-20-5. Some of this information is preliminary and unprocessed, but was released so that drilling, geotechnical, well design, and completion data could be rapidly disseminated. Additional information about water levels, aquifer testing, and groundwater sampling will be reported after any of this work is performed. Any additional geologic and/or geophysical investigations conducted for this project is described in one or more analysis and interpretation reports. The lithologic and stratigraphic logs, however, are provided in final form.

  9. An Overview of ER-2 Platform Science during TC4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platnick, S.; Newman, P. A.

    2007-12-01

    The NASA high-altitude ER-2 aircraft flew 11 science flight out of San Jose, Costa Rica during July and August 2007 as part of the NASA-sponsored Tropical Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling Experiment (TC4). The ER-2 flew a remote sensing payload consisting of passive optical and microwave imagers (MAS/MASTER, CoSSIR, AMPR), a high spectral resolution IR imager (S-HIS), active sensors (CPL lidar, CRS and EDOP radars), spectral solar (SSFR) and IR flux radiometers, a microwave temperature profiler (MTP), and a visible video camera (MVIS). This suite of sensors provided a high spatial resolution simulator for cloud, aerosol, sounding, and trace gas retrieval capabilities from the "A-Train" constellation, in particular, the Aqua, CloudSat, and CALIPSO satellites. In this talk we present an overview of the ER-2 TC4 science and validation objectives, and a summary of the campaign accomplishments. Science goals included observations of convective system development, anvil cirrus property evolution (i.e., microphysics, optical properties, narrow and broadband radiative fluxes), tropical Tropopause Transition Layer (TTL) and subvisual cirrus detection and characterization, marine boundary layer cloud properties, aerosol transport and optical properties, and trace gas and atmospheric state characteristics. Coordination with the DC-8 and/or WB-57 aircrafts allowed for validation of various retrievals from these observations. Morning flights (due to adverse local afternoon weather conditions) included coordination with the Terra spacecraft when feasible.

  10. Development of a stable ERroGFP variant suitable for monitoring redox dynamics in the ER

    PubMed Central

    Hoseki, Jun; Oishi, Asami; Fujimura, Takaaki; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential organelle for cellular metabolic homeostasis including folding and maturation of secretory and membrane proteins. Disruption of ER proteostasis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases such as diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. The ER redox state, which is an oxidative environment suitable for disulfide-bond formation, is essential for ER protein quality control. Hence, detection of the ER redox state, especially in living cells, is essential to understand the mechanism by which the redox state of the ER is maintained. However, methods to detect the redox state of the ER have not been well-established because of inefficient folding and stability of roGFP variants with oxidative redox potential like roGFP-iL. Here we have improved the folding efficiency of ER-targeted roGFP-iL (ERroGFP-iL) in cells by introducing superfolder GFP (sfGFP) mutations. Four specific amino acid substitutions (S30R, Y39N, T105N and I171V) greatly improved folding efficiency in Escherichia coli and in the ER of HeLa cells, as well as the thermostability of the purified proteins. Introduction of these mutations also enhanced the dynamic range for redox change both in vitro and in the ER of living cells. ER-targeted roGFP-S4 (ERroGFP-S4) possessing these four mutations could detect physiological redox changes within the ER. ERroGFP-S4 is therefore a novel probe suitable for monitoring redox change in the ER. ERroGFP-S4 can be applied to detect aberrant ER redox states associated with various pathological conditions and to identify the mechanisms used to maintain the redox state of the ER. PMID:26934978

  11. Real-time monitoring of ER stress in living cells and animals using ESTRAP assay.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Masanori; Hiramatsu, Nobuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in a wide range of pathologies. Detection and monitoring of the unfolded protein response are required to disclose the link between ER stress and diseases. Assessment of ER stress is also essential for evaluation of therapeutic drugs in vitro and in vivo; that is, their therapeutic utility as well as adverse effects. For detection and monitoring of ER stress in living cells and animals, ER stress-responsive alkaline phosphatase (ESTRAP), also called secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), serves as a useful indicator. In cells genetically engineered to express SEAP, secretion of SEAP is quickly downregulated in response to ER stress. This phenomenon is observed in a wide range of cell types triggered by various ER stress inducers. The magnitude of the decrease in extracellular SEAP is proportional to the intensity of ER stress, which is inversely correlated with the induction of endogenous ER stress markers. In contrast to SEAP, the activity of intracellular luciferase is not affected by ER stress. ER stress causes a decrease in SEAP activity not via transcriptional suppression but via abnormal posttranslational modification, accelerated degradation, and reduced secretion of SEAP protein. In mice constitutively producing SEAP, in vivo induction of ER stress similarly causes rapid reduction in serum SEAP activity. Using SEAP as an indicator, real-time monitoring of ER stress in living cells and animals is feasible. The ESTRAP method provides a powerful tool to investigate the pathogenesis of ER stress-associated diseases, to assess toxicity and the adverse effects of drugs, and to develop therapeutic agents for the treatment of ER stress-related disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of excess silicon on the 1540 nm Er3+ luminescence in silicon rich oxynitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lingbo; Jin, Lu; Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Deren

    2013-08-01

    Indirect excitation of Er3+ ions via energy transfer from silicon nano-clusters (Si-NCs) is demonstrated in silicon rich oxynitride films with different Si excess concentrations. Excess Si shows competitive effects on Er3+ luminescence. It could enhance the Er3+ emission efficiency while it degrades the energy transfer efficiency and density of optically active Er3+ ions at the same time. Furthermore, coalescence of Si-NCs is observed in the samples with high Si excess concentrations, reducing the density of sensitizers and their coupling with Er.

  13. Analysis of the miRNA-mRNA-lncRNA networks in ER+ and ER- breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Guo, Li; Jiang, Fei; Li, Lei; Li, Zhong; Chen, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Recently, rapid advances in bioinformatics analysis have expanded our understanding of the transcriptome to a genome-wide level. miRNA-mRNA-lncRNA interactions have been shown to play critical regulatory role in cancer biology. In this study, we discussed the use of an integrated systematic approach to explore new facets of the oestrogen receptor (ER)-regulated transcriptome. The identification of RNAs that are related to the expression status of the ER may be useful in clinical therapy and prognosis. We used a network modelling strategy. First, microarray expression profiling of mRNA, lncRNA and miRNA was performed in MCF-7 (ER-positive) and MDA-MB-231 cells (ER- negative). A co-expression network was then built using co-expression relationships of the differentially expressed mRNAs and lncRNAs. Finally, the selected miRNA-mRNA network was added to the network. The key miRNA-mRNA-lncRNA interaction can be inferred from the network. The mRNA and non-coding RNA expression profiles of the cells with different ER phenotypes were distinct. Among the aberrantly expressed miRNAs, the expression levels of miR-19a-3p, miR-19b-3p and miR-130a-3p were much lower in the MCF-7 cells, whereas that of miR-148b-3p was much higher. In a cluster of miR-17-92, the expression levels of six of seven miRNAs were lower in the MCF-7 cells, in addition to miR-20b in the miR-106a-363 cluster. However, the levels of all the miRNAs in the miR-106a-25 cluster were higher in the MCF-7 cells. In the co-expression networking, CD74 and FMNL2 gene which is involved in the immune response and metastasis, respectively, had a stronger correlation with ER. Among the aberrantly expressed lncRNAs, lncRNA-DLEU1 was highly expressed in the MCF-7 cells. A statistical analysis revealed that there was a co-expression relationship between ESR1 and lncRNA-DLEU1. In addition, miR-19a and lncRNA-DLEU1 are both located on the human chromosome 13q. We speculate that miR-19a might be co-expressed with lncRNA-DLEU1

  14. [Influence of erbium ion concentration on Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er3+ -doped tellurite glass].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gang; Dai, Shi-xun; Yu, Chun-lei; Zhang, Jun-jie; Hu, Li-li; Jiang, Zhong-hong

    2006-03-01

    Er3+ -doped tellurite glasses with four different concentrations were fabricated, and the oscillator strength of Er3+ in the tellurite glasses were calculated through the absorption spectra of the glasses. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameter omega i, spontaneous transition probability A, fluorescence branching ratio beta, and radiative lifetime tau rad of Er3+ were calculated on the basis of Judd-Ofelt theory, and the effect of the erbium ion concentration on the above optical parameters was also discussed. The fluorescence spectra of Er3+: (4)I(13/2)--> (4)I(15/2) transition and the lifetime of Er3+: (4)I(13/2) level of the samples were measured. The stimulated emission cross-section of (4)I(13/2)--> (4)I(15/2) transition of the samples was finally calculated by using McCumber theory. The results show that with the increase in the Er3+ concentration, the oscillator strength and spontaneous transition probability A of Er3+ increase, while the fluorescence branching ratio beta of Er3+ shows little difference. The stimulated emission cross-section of Er3+: (4)I(13/2)--> (4)I(15/2) transition of the samples changes slightly with the increase in the Er3+ concentration. All the fluorescence effective line widths for the four different Er3+ concentration samples are nearly 50 nm.

  15. Emodin and Aloe-Emodin Suppress Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation through ER α Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pao-Hsuan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chen, Mei-Chih; Lee, Yueh-Tsung; Yue, Chia-Herng; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Ho

    2013-01-01

    The anthraquinones emodin and aloe-emodin are abundant in rhubarb. Several lines of evidence indicate that emodin and aloe-emodin have estrogenic activity as phytoestrogens. However, their effects on estrogen receptor α (ER α ) activation and breast cancer cell growth remain controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of emodin and aloe-emodin on breast cancer cell proliferation. Our results indicate that both emodin and aloe-emodin are capable of inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation by downregulating ER α protein levels, thereby suppressing ER α transcriptional activation. Furthermore, aloe-emodin treatment led to the dissociation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and ER α and increased ER α ubiquitination. Although emodin had similar effects to aloe-emodin, it was not capable of promoting HSP90/ER α dissociation and ER α ubiquitination. Protein fractionation results suggest that aloe-emodin tended to induce cytosolic ER α degradation. Although emodin might induce cytosolic ER α degradation, it primarily affected nuclear ER α distribution similar to the action of estrogen when protein degradation was blocked. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that emodin and aloe-emodin specifically suppress breast cancer cell proliferation by targeting ER α protein stability through distinct mechanisms. These findings suggest a possible application of anthraquinones in preventing or treating breast cancer in the future.

  16. COMPLETION REPORT FOR WELL CLUSTER ER-5-3

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-12-01

    Well Cluster ER-5-3 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This cluster of 3 wells was drilled in 2000 and 2001 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in Frenchman Flat. The first borehole in the cluster, Well ER-5-3, was drilled in February and March 2000. A 47.0-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 374.8 meters. The hole diameter was decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 794.3 meters within welded ash-flow tuff. A piezometer string with 1 slotted interval was installed in the annulus of the surface casing, open to the saturated alluvium. A completion string with 2 slotted intervals was installed in the main hole, open to saturated alluvium and to the welded tuff aquifer. A second piezometer string with 1 slotted interval open to the welded-tuff aquifer was installed outside the completion string. Well ER-5-3 No.2 was drilled about 30 meters west of the first borehole in March 2000, and was recompleted in March 2001. A 66.0-centimeter hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 613.8 meters. The hole diameter was decreased to 44.5 centimeters and the borehole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 849.0 meters. The hole diameter was decreased once more to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,732.2 meters in dolomite. A completion string open to the dolomite (lower carbonate aquifer) was installed. Well ER-5-3 No.3 was drilled approximately 30 meters north of the first 2 boreholes in February 2001. A 66.0-centimeter hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 36.6 meters, then the main 25.1-centimeter-diameter hole was drilled to a total depth of 548.6 meters in alluvium. A slotted stainless-steel tubing string was installed in the saturated alluvium. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at

  17. Effect of different Er 3+ compounds doping on microstructure and photoluminescent properties of oxyfluoride glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fanqing; Ren, Guozhong; Qiu, Xiannian; Yang, Qibin

    2008-07-01

    Four different erbium compounds: Er 2O 3, ErOF, ErF 3 and ErCl 3, doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics were prepared. The microstructure and optical properties of the glasses and glass ceramics were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), absorption spectra and luminescence spectra. The influence of four different Er 3+ compounds on the microstructure and optical properties of the glasses and their corresponding glass ceramics was analyzed in detail. The results indicated that upconversion luminescence and ratios of red to green emission of all the samples have close relationship with microstructures and the variety of the Er 3+ compounds. It was concluded that the glass ceramics doped with ErF 3 was the most beneficial for the precipitation of PbF 2 crystallites and had the lowest ratio of red to green emission. The mechanisms of the observed phenomena were discussed.

  18. ER stress response mechanisms in the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata and their roles in virulence

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Taiga; Kohno, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis is critical for numerous aspects of cell physiology. Eukaryotic cells respond to the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER (ER stress) by activating the unfolded protein response (UPR), an intracellular signaling pathway that adjusts the folding capacity of the ER. Recent studies of several pathogenic fungi have revealed that the UPR is important for antifungal resistance and virulence; therefore, the pathway has attracted much attention as a potential therapeutic target. While the UPR is highly conserved among eukaryotes, our group recently discovered that the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata lacks the typical fungal UPR, but possesses alternative mechanisms to cope with ER stress. This review summarizes how C. glabrata responds to ER stress and discusses the impacts of ER quality control systems on antifungal resistance and virulence. PMID:24335436

  19. Scandium effect on the luminescence of Er-Sc silicates prepared from multi-nanolayer films

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline Er-Sc silicates (Er x Sc2-x Si2O7 and Er x Sc2-x SiO5) were fabricated using multilayer nanostructured films of Er2O3/SiO2/Sc2O3 deposited on SiO2/Si substrates by RF sputtering and thermal annealing at high temperature. The films were characterized by synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and micro-photoluminescence measurements. The Er-Sc silicate phase Er x Sc2-x Si2O7 is the dominant film, and Er and Sc are homogeneously distributed after thermal treatment because of the excess of oxygen from SiO2 interlayers. The Er concentration of 6.7 × 1021 atoms/cm3 was achieved due to the presence of Sc that dilutes the Er concentration and generates concentration quenching. During silicate formation, the erbium diffusion coefficient in the silicate phase is estimated to be 1 × 10-15 cm2/s at 1,250°C. The dominant Er x Sc2 - x Si2O7 layer shows a room-temperature photoluminescence peak at 1,537 nm with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 1.6 nm. The peak emission shift compared to that of the Y-Er silicate (where Y and Er have almost the same ionic radii) and the narrow FWHM are due to the small ionic radii of Sc3+ which enhance the crystal field strength affecting the optical properties of Er3+ ions located at the well-defined lattice sites of the Sc silicate. The Er-Sc silicate with narrow FWHM opens a promising way to prepare photonic crystal light-emitting devices. PMID:25114648

  20. Synthesis and upconversion luminescence properties of YF3:Yb3+/Er3+ hollow nanofibers derived from Y2O3:Yb3+/Er3+ hollow nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Dong, Xiangting; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Jinxian; Liu, Guixia

    2013-06-01

    YF3:Yb3+/Er3+ hollow nanofibers were successfully fabricated via fluorination of the relevant Y2O3:Yb3+/Er3+ hollow nanofibers which were obtained by calcining the electrospun PVP/[Y(NO3)3 + Yb(NO3)3 + Er(NO3)3] composite nanofibers. The morphology and properties of the products were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and fluorescence spectrometer. YF3:Yb3+/Er3+ hollow nanofibers were pure orthorhombic phase with space group Pnma and were hollow-centered structure with mean diameter of 174 ± 22 nm, and YF3:Yb3+/Er3+ hollow nanofibers are composed of nanoparticles with size in the range of 30-60 nm. Upconversion emission spectrum analysis manifested that YF3:Yb3+/Er3+ hollow nanofibers emitted strong green and weak red upconversion emissions centering at 523, 545, and 654 nm, respectively. The green and red emissions were, respectively, originated from 2H11/2/4S3/2 → 4I15/2 and 4F9/2 → 4Il5/2 energy levels transitions of the Er3+ ions. Moreover, the emitting colors of YF3:Yb3+/Er3+ hollow nanofibers were located in the green region in CIE chromaticity coordinates diagram. This preparation technique could be applied to prepare other rare earth fluoride upconversion luminescence hollow nanofibers.

  1. TaER Expression Is Associated with Transpiration Efficiency Traits and Yield in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiacheng; Yang, Zhiyuan; Madgwick, Pippa J.; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A. J.; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2015-01-01

    ERECTA encodes a receptor-like kinase and is proposed as a candidate for determining transpiration efficiency of plants. Two genes homologous to ERECTA in Arabidopsis were identified on chromosomes 6 (TaER2) and 7 (TaER1) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), with copies of each gene on the A, B and D genomes of wheat. Similar expression patterns were observed for TaER1 and TaER2 with relatively higher expression of TaER1 in flag leaves of wheat at heading (Z55) and grain-filling (Z73) stages. Significant variations were found in the expression levels of both TaER1 and TaER2 in the flag leaves at both growth stages among 48 diverse bread wheat varieties. Based on the expression of TaER1 and TaER2, the 48 wheat varieties could be classified into three groups having high (5 varieties), medium (27 varieties) and low (16 varieties) levels of TaER expression. Significant differences were also observed between the three groups varying for TaER expression for several transpiration efficiency (TE)- related traits, including stomatal density (SD), transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate (A), instant water use efficiency (WUEi) and carbon isotope discrimination (CID), and yield traits of biomass production plant-1 (BYPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP). Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of TaER1 and TaER2 at the two growth stages was significantly and negatively associated with SD (P<0.01), transpiration rate (P<0.05) and CID (P<0.01), while significantly and positively correlated with flag leaf area (FLA, P<0.01), A (P<0.05), WUEi (P<0.05), BYPP (P<0.01) and GYPP (P<0.01), with stronger correlations for TaER1 than TaER2 and at grain-filling stage than at heading stage. These combined results suggested that TaER involved in development of transpiration efficiency -related traits and yield in bread wheat, implying a function for TaER in regulating leaf development of bread wheat and contributing to expression of these traits. Moreover, the results indicate

  2. TaER Expression Is Associated with Transpiration Efficiency Traits and Yield in Bread Wheat.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiacheng; Yang, Zhiyuan; Madgwick, Pippa J; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A J; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2015-01-01

    ERECTA encodes a receptor-like kinase and is proposed as a candidate for determining transpiration efficiency of plants. Two genes homologous to ERECTA in Arabidopsis were identified on chromosomes 6 (TaER2) and 7 (TaER1) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), with copies of each gene on the A, B and D genomes of wheat. Similar expression patterns were observed for TaER1 and TaER2 with relatively higher expression of TaER1 in flag leaves of wheat at heading (Z55) and grain-filling (Z73) stages. Significant variations were found in the expression levels of both TaER1 and TaER2 in the flag leaves at both growth stages among 48 diverse bread wheat varieties. Based on the expression of TaER1 and TaER2, the 48 wheat varieties could be classified into three groups having high (5 varieties), medium (27 varieties) and low (16 varieties) levels of TaER expression. Significant differences were also observed between the three groups varying for TaER expression for several transpiration efficiency (TE)- related traits, including stomatal density (SD), transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate (A), instant water use efficiency (WUEi) and carbon isotope discrimination (CID), and yield traits of biomass production plant-1 (BYPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP). Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of TaER1 and TaER2 at the two growth stages was significantly and negatively associated with SD (P<0.01), transpiration rate (P<0.05) and CID (P<0.01), while significantly and positively correlated with flag leaf area (FLA, P<0.01), A (P<0.05), WUEi (P<0.05), BYPP (P<0.01) and GYPP (P<0.01), with stronger correlations for TaER1 than TaER2 and at grain-filling stage than at heading stage. These combined results suggested that TaER involved in development of transpiration efficiency -related traits and yield in bread wheat, implying a function for TaER in regulating leaf development of bread wheat and contributing to expression of these traits. Moreover, the results indicate

  3. Cholesterol biosynthesis and ER stress in peroxisome deficiency.

    PubMed

    Faust, Phyllis L; Kovacs, Werner J

    2014-03-01

    Cholesterol biosynthesis is a multi-step process involving more than 20 enzymes in several subcellular compartments. The pre-squalene segment of the cholesterol/isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway is localized in peroxisomes. This review intends to highlight recent findings illustrating the important role peroxisomes play in cholesterol biosynthesis and maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis. Disruption of the Pex2 gene leads to peroxisome deficiency and widespread metabolic dysfunction. The Pex2(-/-) mouse model for Zellweger syndrome enabled us to evaluate the role of peroxisomes in cholesterol biosynthesis. These studies have shown that Pex2(-/-) mice exhibit low levels of cholesterol in plasma and liver. Pex2(-/-) mice were unable to maintain normal cholesterol homeostasis despite activation of SREBP-2, the master transcriptional regulator of cholesterol biosynthesis, and increased protein levels and activities of cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes. The SREBP-2 pathway remained activated even after normalization of hepatic cholesterol levels in response to bile acid feeding as well as in extrahepatic tissues and the liver of neonatal and longer surviving Pex2 mutants, where cholesterol levels were normal. Several studies have shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress can dysregulate lipid metabolism via SREBP activation independently of intracellular cholesterol concentration. We demonstrated that peroxisome deficiency activates endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways in Pex2(-/-) mice, especially the integrated stress response mediated by PERK and ATF4 signaling, and thereby leads to dysregulation of the SREBP-2 pathway. Our findings suggest that functional peroxisomes are necessary to prevent chronic ER stress and dysregulation of the endogenous sterol response pathway. The constitutive activation of ER stress pathways might contribute to organ pathology and metabolic dysfunction in peroxisomal disorder patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  4. Transmission of Er:YAG laser through different dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Sari, Tugrul; Tuncel, Ilkin; Usumez, Aslihan; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser transmission ratio through different dental ceramics with different thicknesses. Laser debonding procedure of adhesively luted all-ceramic restorations is based on the transmission of laser energy through the ceramic and the ablation of resin cement, because of the transmitted laser energy. Five different dental ceramics were evaluated in this study: sintered zirconium-oxide core ceramic, monolithic zirconium-oxide ceramic, feldspathic ceramic, leucite-reinforced glass ceramic, and lithium disilicate-reinforced glass ceramic. Two ceramic discs with different thicknesses (0.5 and 1 mm) were fabricated for each group. Ceramic discs were placed between the sensor membrane of the laser power meter and the tip of the contact handpiece of an Er:YAG laser device with the aid of a custom- made acrylic holder. The transmission ratio of Er:YAG laser energy (500 mJ, 2 Hz, 1 W, 1000 μs) through different ceramic discs was measured with the power meter. Ten measurements were made for each group and the results were analyzed with two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) tests. The highest transmission ratio was determined for lithium disilicate-reinforced ceramic with 0.5 mm thickness (88%) and the lowest was determined for feldspathic ceramic with 1 mm thickness (44%). The differences among the different ceramics and between the different thicknesses were significant (p<0.05). Ceramic type and thickness should be taken into consideration to adjust the laser irradiation parameters during laser debonding of adhesively luted all-ceramic restorations.

  5. ER sheet persistence is coupled to myosin 1c-regulated dynamic actin filament arrays.

    PubMed

    Joensuu, Merja; Belevich, Ilya; Rämö, Olli; Nevzorov, Ilya; Vihinen, Helena; Puhka, Maija; Witkos, Tomasz M; Lowe, Martin; Vartiainen, Maria K; Jokitalo, Eija

    2014-04-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) comprises a dynamic three-dimensional (3D) network with diverse structural and functional domains. Proper ER operation requires an intricate balance within and between dynamics, morphology, and functions, but how these processes are coupled in cells has been unclear. Using live-cell imaging and 3D electron microscopy, we identify a specific subset of actin filaments localizing to polygons defined by ER sheets and tubules and describe a role for these actin arrays in ER sheet persistence and, thereby, in maintenance of the characteristic network architecture by showing that actin depolymerization leads to increased sheet fluctuation and transformations and results in small and less abundant sheet remnants and a defective ER network distribution. Furthermore, we identify myosin 1c localizing to the ER-associated actin filament arrays and reveal a novel role for myosin 1c in regulating these actin structures, as myosin 1c manipulations lead to loss of the actin filaments and to similar ER phenotype as observed after actin depolymerization. We propose that ER-associated actin filaments have a role in ER sheet persistence regulation and thus support the maintenance of sheets as a stationary subdomain of the dynamic ER network.

  6. Genome-wide association studies identify four ER negative–specific breast cancer risk loci

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Couch, Fergus J; Lindstrom, Sara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Brook, Mark N; orr, Nick; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Riboli, Elio; Feigelson, Heather s; Le Marchand, Loic; Buring, Julie E; Eccles, Diana; Miron, Penelope; Fasching, Peter A; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Carpenter, Jane; Godwin, Andrew K; Nevanlinna, Heli; Giles, Graham G; Cox, Angela; Hopper, John L; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Howat, Will J; Schoof, Nils; Bojesen, Stig E; Lambrechts, Diether; Broeks, Annegien; Andrulis, Irene L; Guénel, Pascal; Burwinkel, Barbara; Sawyer, Elinor J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Fletcher, Olivia; Winqvist, Robert; Brenner, Hermann; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Meindl, Alfons; Lindblom, Annika; Zheng, Wei; Devillee, Peter; Goldberg, Mark S; Lubinski, Jan; Kristensen, Vessela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Matsuo, Keitaro; Wu, Anna H; Radice, Paolo; Teo, Soo Hwang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Blot, William; Kang, Daehee; Hartman, Mikael; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Chen-Yang; Southey, Melissa C; Park, Daniel J; Hammet, Fleur; Stone, Jennifer; Veer, Laura J Van’t; Rutgers, Emiel J; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Peto, Julian; Schrauder, Michael G; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Johnson, Nichola; Warren, Helen; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Truong, Therese; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Kerbrat, Pierre; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menéndez, Primitiva; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lichtner, Peter; Lochmann, Magdalena; Justenhoven, Christina; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Margolin, Sara; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Balleine, Rosemary; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Neven, Patrick; Dieudonné, Anne-Sophie; Leunen, Karin; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bernard, Loris; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Stevens, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Mclean, Catriona; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Feng, Ye; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Tollenaar, Robertus A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Kriege, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje J; Van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Signorello, Lisa; Cai, Qiuyin; Shah, Mitul; Miao, Hui; Chan, Ching Wan; Chia, Kee Seng; Jakubowska, Anna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Tessier, Daniel C; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; John, Esther M; Chen, Gary K; Hu, Jennifer J; Rodriguez-gil, Jorge L; Bernstein, Leslie; Press, Michael F; Ziegler, Regina G; Millikan, Robert M; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L; Nyante, Sarah; Ingles, Sue A; Waisfisz, Quinten; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel; Bui, Minh; Gibson, Lorna; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schmutzler, Rita K; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Pilarski, Robert; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Slamon, Dennis J; Rauh, Claudia; Lux, Michael P; Jud, Sebastian M; Bruning, Thomas; Weaver, Joellen; Sharma, Priyanka; Pathak, Harsh; Tapper, Will; Gerty, Sue; Durcan, Lorraine; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele; Canzian, Federico; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Johansson, Mattias; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chen, Constance; Beck, Andy; Hankinson, Susan E; Berg, Christine D; Hoover, Robert N; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Chasman, Daniel I; Gaudet, Mia M; Diver, W Ryan; Willett, Walter C; Hunter, David J; Simard, Jacques; Benitez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M; Sherman, Mark E; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Chanock, Stephen J; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D P; Vachon, Celine; Easton, Douglas F; Haiman, Christopher A; Kraft, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20–30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry1. The etiology2 and clinical behavior3 of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including differences in genetic predisposition4. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a meta-analysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P = 2.1 × 10−12 and LGR6, P = 1.4 × 10−8), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 × 10−8) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 × 10−8), were associated with ER-negative but not ER-positive breast cancer (P > 0.05). These findings provide further evidence for distinct etiological pathways associated with invasive ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. PMID:23535733

  7. SERCaMP: a carboxy-terminal protein modification that enables monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Mark J.; Wires, Emily S.; Trychta, Kathleen A.; Richie, Christopher T.; Harvey, Brandon K.

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium homeostasis is disrupted in diverse pathologies, including neurodegeneration, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Temporally defining calcium dysregulation during disease progression, however, has been challenging. Here we describe secreted ER calcium-monitoring proteins (SERCaMPs), which allow for longitudinal monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis. We identified a carboxy-terminal modification that is sufficient to confer release of a protein specifically in response to ER calcium depletion. A Gaussia luciferase (GLuc)–based SERCaMP provides a simple and sensitive method to monitor ER calcium homeostasis in vitro or in vivo by analyzing culture medium or blood. GLuc-SERCaMPs revealed ER calcium depletion in rat primary neurons exposed to various ER stressors. In vivo, ER calcium disruption in rat liver was monitored over several days by repeated sampling of blood. Our results suggest that SERCaMPs will have broad applications for the long-term monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis and the development of therapeutic approaches to counteract ER calcium dysregulation. PMID:25031430

  8. The endogenous caspase-8 inhibitor c-FLIPL regulates ER morphology and crosstalk with mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Marini, E S; Giampietri, C; Petrungaro, S; Conti, S; Filippini, A; Scorrano, L; Ziparo, E

    2015-01-01

    Components of the death receptor-mediated pathways like caspase-8 have been identified in complexes at intracellular membranes to spatially restrict the processing of local targets. In this study, we report that the long isoform of the cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIPL), a well-known inhibitor of the extrinsic cell death initiator caspase-8, localizes at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). ER morphology was disrupted and ER Ca2+-release as well as ER-mitochondria tethering was decreased in c-FLIP−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Mechanistically, c-FLIP ablation resulted in enhanced basal caspase-8 activation and in caspase-mediated processing of the ER-shaping protein reticulon-4 (RTN4) that was corrected by re-introduction of c-FLIPL and caspase inhibition, resulting in the recovery of a normal ER morphology and ER-mitochondria juxtaposition. Thus, the caspase-8 inhibitor c-FLIPL emerges as a component of the MAMs signaling platforms, where caspases appear to regulate ER morphology and ER-mitochondria crosstalk by impinging on ER-shaping proteins like the RTN4. PMID:25501600

  9. When supply does not meet demand-ER stress and plant programmed cell death

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Brett; Verchot, Jeanmarie; Dickman, Martin B.

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the central organelle in the eukaryotic secretory pathway. The ER functions in protein synthesis and maturation and is crucial for proper maintenance of cellular homeostasis and adaptation to adverse environments. Acting as a cellular sentinel, the ER is exquisitely sensitive to changing environments principally via the ER quality control machinery. When perturbed, ER-stress triggers a tightly regulated and highly conserved, signal transduction pathway known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) that prevents the dangerous accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins. In situations where excessive UPR activity surpasses threshold levels, cells deteriorate and eventually trigger programmed cell death (PCD) as a way for the organism to cope with dysfunctional or toxic signals. The programmed cell death that results from excessive ER stress in mammalian systems contributes to several important diseases including hypoxia, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. Importantly, hallmark features and markers of cell death that are associated with ER stress in mammals are also found in plants. In particular, there is a common, conserved set of chaperones that modulate ER cell death signaling. Here we review the elements of plant cell death responses to ER stress and note that an increasing number of plant-pathogen interactions are being identified in which the host ER is targeted by plant pathogens to establish compatibility. PMID:24926295

  10. ER sheet persistence is coupled to myosin 1c–regulated dynamic actin filament arrays

    PubMed Central

    Joensuu, Merja; Belevich, Ilya; Rämö, Olli; Nevzorov, Ilya; Vihinen, Helena; Puhka, Maija; Witkos, Tomasz M.; Lowe, Martin; Vartiainen, Maria K.; Jokitalo, Eija

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) comprises a dynamic three-dimensional (3D) network with diverse structural and functional domains. Proper ER operation requires an intricate balance within and between dynamics, morphology, and functions, but how these processes are coupled in cells has been unclear. Using live-cell imaging and 3D electron microscopy, we identify a specific subset of actin filaments localizing to polygons defined by ER sheets and tubules and describe a role for these actin arrays in ER sheet persistence and, thereby, in maintenance of the characteristic network architecture by showing that actin depolymerization leads to increased sheet fluctuation and transformations and results in small and less abundant sheet remnants and a defective ER network distribution. Furthermore, we identify myosin 1c localizing to the ER-associated actin filament arrays and reveal a novel role for myosin 1c in regulating these actin structures, as myosin 1c manipulations lead to loss of the actin filaments and to similar ER phenotype as observed after actin depolymerization. We propose that ER-associated actin filaments have a role in ER sheet persistence regulation and thus support the maintenance of sheets as a stationary subdomain of the dynamic ER network. PMID:24523293

  11. Loss of Clcc1 Results in ER Stress, Misfolded Protein Accumulation, and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yichang; Jucius, Thomas J.; Cook, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Folding of transmembrane and secretory proteins occurs in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before transportation to the cell surface and is monitored by the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway. The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER activates the UPR that restores ER homeostasis by regulating gene expression that leads to an increase in the protein-folding capacity of the ER and a decrease in the ER protein-folding load. However, prolonged UPR activity has been associated with cell death in multiple pathological conditions, including neurodegeneration. Here, we report a spontaneous recessive mouse mutation that causes progressive cerebellar granule cell death and peripheral motor axon degeneration. By positional cloning, we identify the mutation in this strain as a retrotransposon insertion in the Clcc1 gene, which encodes a putative chloride channel localized to the ER. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the C3H/HeSnJ inbred strain has late onset cerebellar degeneration due to this mutation. Interestingly, acute knockdown of Clcc1 expression in cultured cells increases sensitivity to ER stress. In agreement, GRP78, the major HSP70 family chaperone in the ER, is upregulated in Clcc1-deficient granule cells in vivo, and ubiquitinated proteins accumulate in these neurons before their degeneration. These data suggest that disruption of chloride homeostasis in the ER disrupts the protein-folding capacity of the ER, leading to eventual neuron death. PMID:25698737

  12. Genome-wide association studies identify four ER negative-specific breast cancer risk loci.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Couch, Fergus J; Lindstrom, Sara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Brook, Mark N; Orr, Nick; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Riboli, Elio; Feigelson, Heather S; Le Marchand, Loic; Buring, Julie E; Eccles, Diana; Miron, Penelope; Fasching, Peter A; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Carpenter, Jane; Godwin, Andrew K; Nevanlinna, Heli; Giles, Graham G; Cox, Angela; Hopper, John L; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Howat, Will J; Schoof, Nils; Bojesen, Stig E; Lambrechts, Diether; Broeks, Annegien; Andrulis, Irene L; Guénel, Pascal; Burwinkel, Barbara; Sawyer, Elinor J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Fletcher, Olivia; Winqvist, Robert; Brenner, Hermann; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Meindl, Alfons; Lindblom, Annika; Zheng, Wei; Devillee, Peter; Goldberg, Mark S; Lubinski, Jan; Kristensen, Vessela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Matsuo, Keitaro; Wu, Anna H; Radice, Paolo; Teo, Soo Hwang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Blot, William; Kang, Daehee; Hartman, Mikael; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Chen-Yang; Southey, Melissa C; Park, Daniel J; Hammet, Fleur; Stone, Jennifer; Veer, Laura J Van't; Rutgers, Emiel J; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Peto, Julian; Schrauder, Michael G; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Warren, Helen; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Truong, Therese; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Kerbrat, Pierre; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menéndez, Primitiva; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lichtner, Peter; Lochmann, Magdalena; Justenhoven, Christina; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Margolin, Sara; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Balleine, Rosemary; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Berg, David Van Den; Stram, Daniel O; Neven, Patrick; Dieudonné, Anne-Sophie; Leunen, Karin; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bernard, Loris; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Stevens, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Feng, Ye; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Tollenaar, Robertus A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Kriege, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje J; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Signorello, Lisa; Cai, Qiuyin; Shah, Mitul; Miao, Hui; Chan, Ching Wan; Chia, Kee Seng; Jakubowska, Anna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Tessier, Daniel C; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; John, Esther M; Chen, Gary K; Hu, Jennifer J; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Bernstein, Leslie; Press, Michael F; Ziegler, Regina G; Millikan, Robert M; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L; Nyante, Sarah; Ingles, Sue A; Waisfisz, Quinten; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel; Bui, Minh; Gibson, Lorna; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schmutzler, Rita K; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Pilarski, Robert; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Slamon, Dennis J; Rauh, Claudia; Lux, Michael P; Jud, Sebastian M; Bruning, Thomas; Weaver, Joellen; Sharma, Priyanka; Pathak, Harsh; Tapper, Will; Gerty, Sue; Durcan, Lorraine; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele; Canzian, Federico; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Johansson, Mattias; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chen, Constance; Beck, Andy; Hankinson, Susan E; Berg, Christine D; Hoover, Robert N; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Chasman, Daniel I; Gaudet, Mia M; Diver, W Ryan; Willett, Walter C; Hunter, David J; Simard, Jacques; Benitez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M; Sherman, Mark E; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Chanock, Stephen J; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D P; Vachon, Celine; Easton, Douglas F; Haiman, Christopher A; Kraft, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20-30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry. The etiology and clinical behavior of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including differences in genetic predisposition. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a meta-analysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P = 2.1 × 10(-12) and LGR6, P = 1.4 × 10(-8)), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 × 10(-8)) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 × 10(-8)), were associated with ER-negative but not ER-positive breast cancer (P > 0.05). These findings provide further evidence for distinct etiological pathways associated with invasive ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers.

  13. Final Report on Grant DE-FG-02ER63350

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Miller

    2005-06-10

    Research funded by grant DE-FG-02ER63350 focused on DNA bending measured NMR spectroscopy and modeled by classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Bending is a structural aspect of DNA that is plays a key role in its function. The most important finding of our research was that oxidation of guanine, a ubiquitous DNA lesion caused by endogenous and environmental oxidative stress, changes DNA bending dynamics in a way that favors binding of glycosylases, repair enzymes that remove damaged bases from DNA. Hence, the effect of 8-oxoguanine on DNA bending contributes to its recognition and removal by the base excision repair system.

  14. [Crystal growth and spectroscopy of Er/Yb:KGW crystal].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhao-jie; Tu, Chao-yang; Li, Jian-fu; Wu, Bai-chang; Huang, Yan

    2005-09-01

    The Er3 /Yb3+:KGW crystal with the dimensions of 30 mm x 25 mm x 15 mm was grown from K2W2O7 solvent by modified Czochralski method. The absorption spectrum was measured at room temperature and its absorption peaks were assigned. The emission spectrum was obtained under the excitation of 980 nm. There are two broad emission bands at 1024 and 1535 nm, whose FHWM are 60 and 36 nm respectively. It shows that this crystal is suitable for InGaAs LD pumping, and may be a promising laser crystal tunable at near 1 024 and 1 535 nm.

  15. Completion report for well ER-3-2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Well ER-3-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP) at the Nevada Test Site. IT Corporation (IT) was the principal environmental contractor for the project. The roles and responsibilities of IT and other contractors involved in the project are described in the Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN) Drilling Program and the Underground Test Area Operable Unit Project Management Plan. The well will become part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) monitoring well network.

  16. High-Performance 1645-nm Er: YAG Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-25

    laser set-up is shown in Figure 1. An IPG Photonics TEM00 erbium fiber laser , which provided 20 W cw power at 1532.4 nm, was used in these experi...output of the resonantly fiber - laser -pumped Er:AYG laser at 1645 nm using 0.25% doped crystal out- performed the 0.5% doped crystal. In addition to the...the advantages of small quantum defect and small thermal load for the laser materials. High-brightness erbium fiber pump lasers at 1532 nm not only

  17. Common cytotoxic chemotherapeutics induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) downstream of ER stress

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Parag P.; Dupre, Tess V.; Siskind, Leah J.; Beverly, Levi J.

    2017-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in eukaryotes is a main organelle involved in a wide variety of functions including calcium storage, lipid biosynthesis, protein folding and protein transport. Disruption of ER homeostasis leads to ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). We and others have previously found that ER stress induces EMT in different cellular systems. Induction of ER stress with chemical modulators of ER homeostasis was sufficient to activate an EMT-like state in all cellular systems tested. Here, we provide evidence for the first time demonstrating that ER stress induces EMT that is neither cancer cell specific nor cell-type specific. In addition, we observed that chemotherapeutic drugs commonly used to treat patients also activate ER stress that is concomitant with activation of an EMT-like state. Interestingly, we find that following removal of ER stress, partial EMT characteristics still persist indicating that ER stress induced EMT is a long-term effect. Induction of mesenchymal characteristics, following chemotherapeutics treatment may be involved in providing cancer stemness and invasiveness in the cellular system. Interestingly, we find that mice treated with cisplatin have elevated level of ER stress and EMT markers in multiple tissues including lung, liver and kidneys. Furthermore, increased ER stress, as demonstrated by increased Bip, Chop, PDI, Ero1α and IRE1, and EMT, as demonstrated by increased Vimentin and Snail, is a hallmark of primary lung adenocarcinoma samples from patients. These observations have potential clinical relevance because overexpression of ER stress and EMT markers might contribute to chemoresistance and poor survival of lung adenocarcinoma patients. PMID:28186986

  18. Common cytotoxic chemotherapeutics induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) downstream of ER stress.

    PubMed

    Shah, Parag P; Dupre, Tess V; Siskind, Leah J; Beverly, Levi J

    2017-04-04

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in eukaryotes is a main organelle involved in a wide variety of functions including calcium storage, lipid biosynthesis, protein folding and protein transport. Disruption of ER homeostasis leads to ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). We and others have previously found that ER stress induces EMT in different cellular systems. Induction of ER stress with chemical modulators of ER homeostasis was sufficient to activate an EMT-like state in all cellular systems tested. Here, we provide evidence for the first time demonstrating that ER stress induces EMT that is neither cancer cell specific nor cell-type specific. In addition, we observed that chemotherapeutic drugs commonly used to treat patients also activate ER stress that is concomitant with activation of an EMT-like state. Interestingly, we find that following removal of ER stress, partial EMT characteristics still persist indicating that ER stress induced EMT is a long-term effect. Induction of mesenchymal characteristics, following chemotherapeutics treatment may be involved in providing cancer stemness and invasiveness in the cellular system. Interestingly, we find that mice treated with cisplatin have elevated level of ER stress and EMT markers in multiple tissues including lung, liver and kidneys. Furthermore, increased ER stress, as demonstrated by increased Bip, Chop, PDI, Ero1α and IRE1, and EMT, as demonstrated by increased Vimentin and Snail, is a hallmark of primary lung adenocarcinoma samples from patients. These observations have potential clinical relevance because overexpression of ER stress and EMT markers might contribute to chemoresistance and poor survival of lung adenocarcinoma patients.

  19. Magnetic properties and transformation of crystal structure in the ErFe{sub 2}-ErAl{sub 2} system

    SciTech Connect

    Ćwik, J. Miller, M.; Koshkid'ko, Y.; Mikhailova, A.; Kolchugina, N.; Nenkov, K.; Hackamer, A.

    2015-03-28

    The modification of structural properties and magnetic behaviour of the ErFe{sub 2−x}Al{sub x} Laves phase intermetallic compounds have been studied while changing the Al content in the range 0.36 ≤ x ≤ 1.5. Powder X-ray diffraction study at room temperature showed the formation of the cubic C15 structure, in the samples with Al content of 0.36 ≤ x < 0.75 and 1.4 ≤ x ≤ 2.0. For the intermediate compositions with 0.75 ≤ x ≤ 1.4, the hexagonal C14 structure is observed. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of polycrystalline ErFe{sub 2−x}Al{sub x} intermetallic compounds were investigated experimentally using magnetic and heat capacity measurements. The Curie temperature T{sub C} decreases from 275 to 28 K as the Al content increases from x = 0.36 to x = 1.5, respectively. Magnetization measurements in strong magnetic fields showed the complex mechanism of magnetic saturation in the studied compounds. Under an external field change from 0 to 2 T, the maximum entropy change is 6 J/kg K at T = 28 K for the composition with x = 1.5. The minimum in the concentration dependence of the magnetic entropy change is observed in the vicinity of x equal to 1.25. Regularities of variations of magnetocaloric properties of ErFe{sub 2−x}Al{sub x} intermetallic compounds with increasing Al content are discussed from the point of view of their both structural and magnetic states.

  20. MappERS-C and MappERS-V. The crowd source for prevention and crisis support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigerio, Simone; Schenato, Luca; Bianchizza, Chiara; Del Bianco, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    The responsibilities within natural hazards at local/regional levels involve citizens and volunteers as first actors of civil protection and territorial management. The prevention implicates the capacities of professional operators and technical volunteers, but the priority implies now the involvement and awareness of the citizens over the territory they inhabit. The involvement of population creates context-specific strategies of territorial surveillance and management, skipping the limit to face risks only when they have to bear impacts on their lives. MAppERS (Mobile Application for Emergency Response and Support) is a EU project (funded under programme 2013-2015 Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection, ECHO A5) which empowers "crowd-sourced mappers" through smart phone applications and sensors, with geo-tagged information, detailed gathered parameters, field-check survey in a contest of geospatial response. The process of development includes feedback from citizens, involving them in training courses on the monitoring as long term objective (raising public awareness and participation). The project deals with the development and testing of the smart phone applications (module MAppERS-V for volunteers, module MAppERS-C for citizens) according to Android SDK environment. A first research described a desk-based investigation on consequences of disasters impacts and costs of prevention strategies in pilot countries. Furthermore a review of state-of-the-art of database management systems (DBMS) in pilot countries and involvement of volunteers/citizens in data collection/monitoring collected basic info on data structure for the development. A desk-based research proposed communication methods/graphic solutions within mobile technologies for disaster management in pilot countries and available smartphone applications linked to centralized web/server database. A technical review is compulsory for a useful design-line for MappERS development, and it is linked with on

  1. ER-2 High Altitude Solar Cell Calibration Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Matthew; Wolford, David; Snyder, David; Piszczor, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of space photovoltaics using ground-based simulators requires primary standard cells which have been characterized in a space or near-space environment. Due to the high cost inherent in testing cells in space, most primary standards are tested on high altitude fixed wing aircraft or balloons. The ER-2 test platform is the latest system developed by the Glenn Research Center (GRC) for near-space photovoltaic characterization. This system offers several improvements over GRC's current Learjet platform including higher altitude, larger testing area, onboard spectrometers, and longer flight season. The ER-2 system was developed by GRC in cooperation with NASA's Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) as well as partners at the Naval Research Laboratory and Air Force Research Laboratory. The system was designed and built between June and September of 2014, with the integration and first flights taking place at AFRC's Palmdale facility in October of 2014. Three flights were made testing cells from GRC as well as commercial industry partners. Cell performance data was successfully collected on all three flights as well as solar spectra. The data was processed using a Langley extrapolation method, and performance results showed a less than half a percent variation between flights, and less than a percent variation from GRC's current Learjet test platform.

  2. The Application of Survey in ER Wang Temple Restituting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuai, W.; Rong, Z.

    2013-07-01

    Er Wang Temple, in World Heritage Site "Dujiang Weirs and Qingchengshan Mountai", was severely destroyed in Wenchuan earthquake of May 2008. There are several problems at different level in every building, such as structural distortion, foundation displacement, wall fracture, roof damage, etc. The stage was completely collapsed in the earthquake. Tableland the stage situated had a huge crack and slope collapse. This article is for the stage renovation. The survey of damage in earthquake is the basis of Er Wang Temple restituting. Survey including field survey after the earthquake and the measurement and investigation for the remained construction member of the main wood structure. For field survey, the basis of pillars which had not have significantly affects in earthquake could be seem as the reference points for measurement. The investigation of remained main wood construction member, especially the size of the key structures and site and manufacture method of the joints, is the important basis for recovery stage. Our team did our utmost to restore the original appearance of stage in design, materials and craft by various tools, which include measured drawings in different times, old images collection, fine measuring by 3D laser scan, measurement of leftover pieces, logical inference.

  3. Compact pulsed high-energy Er:glass laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Peng; Liu, Jian

    2012-03-01

    Bulk Erbium-doped lasers are widely used for long-distance telemetry and ranging. In some applications such as coherent Doppler radars, laser outputs with a relatively long pulse width, good beam profile and pulse shape are required. High energy Q-switched Er:glass lasers were demonstrated by use of electro-optic (E/O) Q-switching or frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) Q-switching. However, the output pulse durations in these lasers were fixed to relatively small values and extremely hard to tune. We report here on developing a novel and compact Q-switched Er:Yb co-doped phosphate glass laser at an eye-safe wavelength of 1.5 μm. A rotating mirror was used as a Q-switch. Co-linear pump scheme was used to maintain a good output beam profile. Near-perfect Gaussian temporal shape was obtained in our experiment. By changing motor rotation speed, pulse duration was tunable and up to 240 ns was achieved. In our preliminary experiment, output pulse energies of 44 mJ and 4.5 mJ were obtained in free-running and Q-switched operation modes respectively.

  4. Tokamak edge Er studies by turbulence and divertor simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Y.; Coster, D.; Scott, B.

    2002-11-01

    Numerical coupling of the divertor code B2(B. J. Braams, Next European Torus Technical Report 68 (1987).) and the turbulence code DALF(B. D. Scott, Phys. Fluids B 4), 2468 (1992). is pursued. Within this model, space and time dependent transport coefficients (D and i) respond to the dynamics of drift wave turbulence. The Braginskii transport model of the B2 code incorporates guiding-center plasma drifts self-consistently and generate Er shear in the presence of steep pressure gradients. This Braginskii type Er can enter the turbulence model as a background E × B shear flow which suppresses the radial flux together with Reynolds stress induced electric fields. As an example of L-H transition, influx at the core boundary is controlled to produce steepening of the edge gradients. ( Y.Hamada et al.), in Proceedings of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (IAEA-F1-CN-69/PD, 1998) reveals heat pulse induced L-H transitions after sawtooth events.

  5. ER Consolidated Qtrly Rpt_July-September 2015_January 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John R.

    2016-01-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective action activities being implemented by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) for the July, August, and September 2015 quarterly reporting period. The Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) identified for corrective action at SNL/NM are listed in Table I-1. The work completed during this quarter is reported below in Sections I.2.1 and I.2.2. Section I.2.1 summarizes the quarterly activities at sites undergoing corrective action field activities (SWMUs 8 and 58, 68, 149, 154, and 502, and three groundwater AOCs). Section I.2.2 summarizes quarterly activities at sites where the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) has issued a certificate of completion and the site is in the corrective action complete (CAC) regulatory process. Currently, the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL, SWMU 76) is the only site in the CAC regulatory process. Corrective action activities have been deferred at the Long Sled Track (SWMU 83), the Gun Facilities (SWMU 84), and the Short Sled Track (SWMU 240) because these are active mission facilities.

  6. Completion Report for Well ER-2-1

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well ER-2-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (formerly Nevada Operations Office), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in February and March of 2003, as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. Well ER-2-1 was drilled as part of the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit Phase I drilling initiative. The well is located in north central Yucca Flat within Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site, and provided information regarding the radiological and physical environment near underground nuclear tests conducted in a saturated volcanic aquifer setting. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 83 sidewall samples taken at various depths between 113.7 and 754.4 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 27 samples of drill cuttings. The well was collared in tuffaceous alluvium, and penetrated Tertiary-age tuffs of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush Groups, Calico Hills and Wahmonie Formations, Crater Flat Group, Grouse Canyon Formation, before reaching total depth in the Tunnel Bed Formation.

  7. Hepatic p63 regulates steatosis via IKKβ/ER stress

    PubMed Central

    Porteiro, Begoña; Fondevila, Marcos F.; Delgado, Teresa C.; Iglesias, Cristina; Imbernon, Monica; Iruzubieta, Paula; Crespo, Javier; Zabala-Letona, Amaia; Fernø, Johan; González-Terán, Bárbara; Matesanz, Nuria; Hernández-Cosido, Lourdes; Marcos, Miguel; Tovar, Sulay; Vidal, Anxo; Sánchez-Ceinos, Julia; Malagon, Maria M.; Pombo, Celia; Zalvide, Juan; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Buque, Xabier; Dieguez, Carlos; Sabio, Guadalupe; López, Miguel; Aspichueta, Patricia; Martínez-Chantar, María L.; Nogueiras, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    p53 family members control several metabolic and cellular functions. The p53 ortholog p63 modulates cellular adaptations to stress and has a major role in cell maintenance and proliferation. Here we show that p63 regulates hepatic lipid metabolism. Mice with liver-specific p53 deletion develop steatosis and show increased levels of p63. Down-regulation of p63 attenuates liver steatosis in p53 knockout mice and in diet-induced obese mice, whereas the activation of p63 induces lipid accumulation. Hepatic overexpression of N-terminal transactivation domain TAp63 induces liver steatosis through IKKβ activation and the induction of ER stress, the inhibition of which rescues the liver functions. Expression of TAp63, IKKβ and XBP1s is also increased in livers of obese patients with NAFLD. In cultured human hepatocytes, TAp63 inhibition protects against oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation, whereas TAp63 overexpression promotes lipid storage, an effect reversible by IKKβ silencing. Our findings indicate an unexpected role of the p63/IKKβ/ER stress pathway in lipid metabolism and liver disease. PMID:28480888

  8. Hollow waveguide for giant Er:YAG laser pulses transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Michal; Jelinkova, Helena; Koranda, Petr; Cech, Miroslav; Sulc, Jan; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji

    2004-06-01

    Short Er:YAG laser pulses were delivered by a cyclic olefin polymer coated silver hollow glass (COP/Ag) waveguide specially designed for a high power radiation. Er:YAG laser was Q-switched by an electro-optic shutter - LiNbO3 Pockels cell with Brewster angle cut input/output faces. The maximum energy output obtained from this system was 29 mJ with the length of pulse 69 ns corresponding to 420 kW output peak power. The system was working with the repetition rate of 1.5 Hz. A delivery system composed of a lens (f = 40 mm), protector and waveguide with the 700/850 μm diameter and 50 cm or 1 m length. The measured maximum delivered intensity was 86 MW/cm2 what corresponds to the transmission of 78.6 % for whole delivery system. Using of a sealed cap, this delivery system gives a possibility of the contact surgical treatment in many medicine branches, for example ophthalmology, urology or dentistry.

  9. Overview of aircraft radiation exposure and recent ER-2 measurements.

    PubMed

    Goldhagen, P

    2000-11-01

    The intensity of the different particles making up atmospheric cosmic radiation, their energy distribution, and their potential biological effect on aircraft occupants vary with altitude, geomagnetic latitude, and time in the sun's magnetic activity cycle. Dose rates from cosmic radiation at commercial aviation altitudes are such that crews working on present-day jet aircraft are an occupationally exposed group with a relatively high average effective dose. Crews of future high speed commercial aircraft flying at higher altitudes would be even more exposed. Present calculations of such exposures are uncertain because knowledge of important components of the radiation field comes primarily from theoretical predictions. To help reduce these uncertainties for high-altitude flight, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) started the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) project. The measurement part of the AIR project is an international collaboration of 12 laboratories placing 14 instruments on multiple flights of a NASA ER-2 aircraft. This paper describes the basic features of cosmic radiation in the atmosphere as they relate to exposure of aircraft occupants and then describes the AIR ER-2 measurements and presents some preliminary results from a series of flights in June 1997.

  10. Completion Report for Well ER-8-1

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-11-01

    Well ER-8-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in October and November of 2002 as part of a Hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. Well ER-8-1 is located at the north end of Yucca Flat approximately 580 meters south-southeast of the surface exposure of the Climax granitic intrusive. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters, and 21 sidewall samples taken at various depths between 351.1 and 573.0 meters, supplemented by incomplete geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, geochemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 22 samples of drill cuttings. Drilling began in tuffaceous alluvium, and the borehole penetrated Tertiary age bedded tuffs of the Volcanics of Oak Spring Butte and carbonate sediments of Paleozoic age, which were encountered at a depth of 334 meters. The borehole unexpectedly penetrated granite at the depth of 538.9 meters in which drilling was stopped. Contact metamorphic rocks and intrusive dikes associated with the Cretaceous-age granitic intrusive and at least one significant fault zone were encountered.

  11. Population dynamics in Er3+-doped fluoride glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, V. K.; Booth, D. J.; Gibbs, W. E.; Javorniczky, J. S.; Newman, P. J.; Macfarlane, D. R.

    2001-05-01

    A detailed study of the energy-transfer processes in Er3+: flouride glasses with doping concentrations of 0.2-18 mol % is presented. Fluorescence wave forms for 11 erbium transitions were measured under 802-nm, 1.5-μm, 975-nm, 520-nm, and 403-nm excitation from a high-energy short-pulse source. The analysis of these data provided a physical understanding of the processes responsible for the temporal behavior of the populations of a large number of energy levels. A comprehensive nine-level rate-equation model of the Er3+ population dynamics in these fluoride glasses is developed. The model performs well in predicting the observed fluorescence behavior of the main fluorescing lines under all pumping conditions. The modeling process allowed 14 ion-ion energy-transfer processes that are important for the population dynamics in these fluoride glasses to be identified and their rate constants obtained. Noticeably, the inclusion of seven three-ion processes was found necessary in order to obtain good fits to the experimental fluorescence wave forms. It was also found that some three-ion processes have a significant effect on the population dynamics of the levels even in lower doping concentrations.

  12. Modeling of Yb3+/Er3+-codoped microring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallés, Juan A.; Gălătuş, Ramona

    2015-03-01

    The performance of a highly Yb3+/Er3+-codoped phosphate glass add-drop microring resonator is numerically analyzed. The model assumes resonant behaviour of both pump and signal powers and the dependences of pump intensity build-up inside the microring resonator and of the signal transfer functions to the device through and drop ports are evaluated. Detailed equations for the evolution of the rare-earth ions levels population densities and the propagation of the optical powers inside the microring resonator are included in the model. Moreover, due to the high dopant concentrations considered, the microscopic statistical formalism based on the statistical average of the excitation probability of the Er3+ ion in a microscopic level has been used to describe energy-transfer inter-atomic mechanisms. Realistic parameters and working conditions are used for the calculations. Requirements to achieve amplification and laser oscillation within these devices are obtainable as a function of rare earth ions concentration and coupling losses.

  13. Reference thresholds for the ER-3A insert earphone.

    PubMed

    Wilber, L A; Kruger, B; Killion, M C

    1988-02-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that the ER-3A insert earphone may sometimes be directly substituted, without recalibrating, for a TDH-39/MX-41AR earphone. However, most available data have not been reduced to a form suitable for establishing a revised estimate of the reference threshold levels. This article reports such a data analysis performed on the results of five recent studies. The mean data from the five studies are typically within 1 dB of the provisional reference threshold SPLs given by the ER-3A manufacturer for calibration in a (HA-1) 2-cc coupler. After converting the mean data to equivalent Zwislocki-coupler-type ear simulator SPLs at each of the reported audiometric frequencies (125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hz), agreement within 1.5 dB was seen with the revised estimate of minimum audible pressures given by Killion [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63, 1501-1508 (1978)]. Either the manufacturer's provisional SPLs or the average results from this study may be used with little noticeable difference for most purposes.

  14. An ab initio-based Er–He interatomic potential in hcp Er

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Li; ye, Yeting; Fan, K. M.; Shen, Huahai; Peng, Shuming; Long, XG; Zhou, X. S.; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei

    2014-09-01

    We have developed an empirical erbium-helium (Er-He) potential by fitting to the results calculated from ab initio method. Based on the electronic hybridization between Er and He atoms, an s-band model, along with a repulsive pair potential, has been derived to describe the Er-He interaction. The atomic configurations and the formation energies of single He defects, small He interstitial clusters (Hen) and He-vacancy (HenV ) clusters obtained by ab initio calculations are used as the fitting database. The binding energies and relative stabilities of the HnVm clusters are studied by the present potential and compared with the ab initio calculations. The Er-He potential is also applied to study the migration of He in hcp-Er at different temperatures, and He clustering is found to occur at 600 K in hcp Er crystal, which may be due to the anisotropic migration behavior of He interstitials.

  15. Acuminated fluorescence of Er3+ centres in endohedral fullerenes through the incarceration of a carbide cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plant, Simon R.; Dantelle, Géraldine; Ito, Yasuhiro; Ng, Tsz Cheong; Ardavan, Arzhang; Shinohara, Hisanori; Taylor, Robert A.; Briggs, G. Andrew D.; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos

    2009-07-01

    Photoluminescence spectroscopic measurements have allowed the acquisition of high resolution spectra at low temperature for the endohedral metallofullerenes, Er2 @C82 (isomer I) and Er2C2 @C82 (isomer I). The characteristic emission in the 1.5-1.6 μm region corresponds to the 4I13/2 (m) →4I15/2 (n) transitions of the Er3+ ion for both molecules. The emission arising from Er2C2 @C82 (I) appears acuminated (narrow lines that taper to a point) when compared with that of Er2 @C82 (I) . The Er2C2 @C82 (I) emission linewidths are comparable to those found in crystals, making this molecule of interest for applications where accessible, well-defined quantum states are required.

  16. Distance dependent interaction as the limiting factor for Si nanocluster to Er energy transfer in silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, B.; García, C.; Pellegrino, P.; Navarro-Urrios, D.; Daldosso, N.; Pavesi, L.; Gourbilleau, F.; Rizk, R.

    2006-10-01

    Si excess, Er content, and processing parameters have been optimized in a series of cosputtered oxide layers for maximizing Er emission and lifetime. The amount of excited Er as a function of the incident photon flux has been quantified for resonant (488nm) and nonresonant (476nm) excitations. Results show that a maximum of 3.5% of Er ions is excitable through the Si nanoclusters (Si-nc). This low value cannot be explained only by cooperative upconversion and/or excited state absorption. A short range (0.5nm) distance dependent interaction model is developed that accounts for this low Er population inversion. The model points to the low density of Si-nc [(3-5)×1017cm-3] as the ultimate limiting step for indirect Er excitation in this system.

  17. Radiations emitted in the decay of 165Er: a promising medical radionuclide.

    PubMed

    Rao, D V; Hallee, G J; Ottlinger, M E; Sastry, K S

    1977-01-01

    The 10.3-h 165Er, decaying by electron capture to stable 165Ho, offers an excellent promise for use in diagnostic nuclear medicine, especially in conjunction with multiwire proportional-counter cameras. Using an ultra-high-resolution Si(Li) photon spectrometer, L and K x-ray photon yields in 165Er decay have been measured. The ratio PL/PK of electron-capture probalities in L and K shells is determined to be 0.196+/-0.030, in good agreement with theory. Estimates of Auger electron yields and yields of very-low-energy electrons from Coster-Kronig transitions are presented. Levels of 169Er and 171Er radioactive impurities in the reactor-produced 165Er sample are experimentally determined. Whole-body dose estimates for 165Er are given. These compare favorably with 99mTc dose.

  18. Er/Si (111) interface intermixing investigation using core level photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Haderbache, L.; Wetzel, P.; Pirri, C.; Peruchetti, J.C.; Bolmont, D.; Gewinner, G. )

    1990-07-23

    We present in this letter Si 2{ital p} core level photoemission measurements on the Er/Si (111) interface formed at room temperature. These spectroscopic data are compared with those measured on amorphous silicide films for various Er concentrations grown by coevaporation of Er and Si species at room temperature under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. This study reveals a strong interaction between Er and the Si (111) substrate even at very low coverage. A mixed interface is observed with silicide formation up to 6 monolayers of deposited metal which corresponds to the onset of erbium metal overgrowth. The Er concentration in the interfacial silicide is found to increase as a function of the deposited Er thickness. A model for the interface is proposed and discussed.

  19. Targeting the hallmarks of cancer with therapy-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.

    PubMed

    Garg, Abhishek D; Maes, Hannelore; van Vliet, Alexander R; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is at the center of a number of vital cellular processes such as cell growth, death, and differentiation, crosstalk with immune or stromal cells, and maintenance of proteostasis or homeostasis, and ER functions have implications for various pathologies including cancer. Recently, a number of major hallmarks of cancer have been delineated that are expected to facilitate the development of anticancer therapies. However, therapeutic induction of ER stress as a strategy to broadly target multiple hallmarks of cancer has been seldom discussed despite the fact that several primary or secondary ER stress-inducing therapies have been found to exhibit positive clinical activity in cancer patients. In the present review we provide a brief historical overview of the major discoveries and milestones in the field of ER stress biology with important implications for anticancer therapy. Furthermore, we comprehensively discuss possible strategies enabling the targeting of multiple hallmarks of cancer with therapy-induced ER stress.

  20. Photoluminescence quantum efficiency of Er optical centers in GaN epilayers.

    PubMed

    Ho, V X; Dao, T V; Jiang, H X; Lin, J Y; Zavada, J M; McGill, S A; Vinh, N Q

    2017-01-05

    We report the quantum efficiency of photoluminescence processes of Er optical centers as well as the thermal quenching mechanism in GaN epilayers prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. High resolution infrared spectroscopy and temperature dependence measurements of photoluminescence intensity from Er ions in GaN under resonant excitation excitations were performed. Data provide a picture of the thermal quenching processes and activation energy levels. By comparing the photoluminescence from Er ions in the epilayer with a reference sample of Er-doped SiO2, we find that the fraction of Er ions that emits photon at 1.54 μm upon a resonant optical excitation is approximately 68%. This result presents a significant step in the realization of GaN:Er epilayers as an optical gain medium at 1.54 μm.

  1. Targeting the hallmarks of cancer with therapy-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Abhishek D; Maes, Hannelore; van Vliet, Alexander R; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is at the center of a number of vital cellular processes such as cell growth, death, and differentiation, crosstalk with immune or stromal cells, and maintenance of proteostasis or homeostasis, and ER functions have implications for various pathologies including cancer. Recently, a number of major hallmarks of cancer have been delineated that are expected to facilitate the development of anticancer therapies. However, therapeutic induction of ER stress as a strategy to broadly target multiple hallmarks of cancer has been seldom discussed despite the fact that several primary or secondary ER stress-inducing therapies have been found to exhibit positive clinical activity in cancer patients. In the present review we provide a brief historical overview of the major discoveries and milestones in the field of ER stress biology with important implications for anticancer therapy. Furthermore, we comprehensively discuss possible strategies enabling the targeting of multiple hallmarks of cancer with therapy-induced ER stress. PMID:27308392

  2. Er3+ - Tm3+ energy transfer in YLiF4 (YLF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenier, A.; Moncorge, R.; Pedrini, C.

    1990-06-01

    The Er3+ - Tm3+ energy transfers are analyzed in doubly doped YLiF4:Er3+, Tm3+ single crystals. A good description of the excited state dynamics is achieved with models based on rate equations and using lifetime data. It is shown that the down-conversion of the Er3+ excitation energy is very efficient, except in the case of 4I11/2 excitation where strong up-conversion and excited-state absorption processes may occur. These results confirm what was already observed in other strongly doped Er3+ systems. The largest part of the Er3+ - Tm3+ energy transfer arises between the lowest excited states of the two impurity ions, namely 4I11/2 of Er3+ and 3F4 of Tm3+. Both direct- and back-transfers are so efficient that they induce a Boltzmann distribution of the populations of these excited states at room temperature.

  3. Photoluminescence quantum efficiency of Er optical centers in GaN epilayers

    PubMed Central

    Ho, V. X.; Dao, T. V.; Jiang, H. X.; Lin, J. Y.; Zavada, J. M.; McGill, S. A.; Vinh, N. Q.

    2017-01-01

    We report the quantum efficiency of photoluminescence processes of Er optical centers as well as the thermal quenching mechanism in GaN epilayers prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. High resolution infrared spectroscopy and temperature dependence measurements of photoluminescence intensity from Er ions in GaN under resonant excitation excitations were performed. Data provide a picture of the thermal quenching processes and activation energy levels. By comparing the photoluminescence from Er ions in the epilayer with a reference sample of Er-doped SiO2, we find that the fraction of Er ions that emits photon at 1.54 μm upon a resonant optical excitation is approximately 68%. This result presents a significant step in the realization of GaN:Er epilayers as an optical gain medium at 1.54 μm. PMID:28054672

  4. Photoluminescence quantum efficiency of Er optical centers in GaN epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, V. X.; Dao, T. V.; Jiang, H. X.; Lin, J. Y.; Zavada, J. M.; McGill, S. A.; Vinh, N. Q.

    2017-01-01

    We report the quantum efficiency of photoluminescence processes of Er optical centers as well as the thermal quenching mechanism in GaN epilayers prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. High resolution infrared spectroscopy and temperature dependence measurements of photoluminescence intensity from Er ions in GaN under resonant excitation excitations were performed. Data provide a picture of the thermal quenching processes and activation energy levels. By comparing the photoluminescence from Er ions in the epilayer with a reference sample of Er-doped SiO2, we find that the fraction of Er ions that emits photon at 1.54 μm upon a resonant optical excitation is approximately 68%. This result presents a significant step in the realization of GaN:Er epilayers as an optical gain medium at 1.54 μm.

  5. Structure and radiation effect of Er-stuffed pyrochlore Er2(Ti2-xErx)O7-x/2 (x = 0-0.667)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D. Y.; Xu, C. P.; Fu, E. G.; Wen, J.; Liu, C. G.; Zhang, K. Q.; Wang, Y. Q.; Li, Y. H.

    2015-08-01

    Er-stuffed pyrochlore series Er2(Ti2-xErx)O7-x/2 (x = 0, 0.162, 0.286, 0.424 and 0.667) were synthesized using conventional ceramic processing procedures. The structure of Er2(Ti2-xErx)O7-x/2 is effectively tailored by the Er stuffing level (x). In order to study the radiation effect of Er-stuffed pyrochlores, irradiation experiments were performed with 400 keV Ne2+ ions to fluences ranging from 5 × 1014 to 3.0 × 1015 ions/cm2 at cryogenic condition. Irradiation induced microstructural evolution was examined using a grazing incidence X-ray diffraction technique. It is found that the irradiated layer of Er2(Ti2-xErx)O7-x/2 undergoes significant lattice disordering and swelling at fluences of ⩽1.5 × 1015 ions/cm2 and amorphization at fluences of ⩾1.5 × 1015 ions/cm2. The radiation effect depends strongly on the chemical compositions of the samples. Both the lattice swelling percentage and the amorphous fraction decrease with increasing x. The experimental results are discussed in the context of cation antisite defect. The defect formation energy which varies as a function of x is responsible for the difference in the structural behaviors of Er2(Ti2-xErx)O7-x/2 under 400 keV Ne2+ ion irradiation.

  6. Energy transfer between Ni2+ sensitizers and Er3+ emitters in broadband-sensitive upconverters La(Ga,Sc,In)O3:Er,Ni,Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Yasuhiko; Mizuno, Shintaro; Luitel, Hom Nath; Yamanaka, Ken-ichi; Tani, Toshihiko

    2016-08-01

    We have analyzed broadband-sensitive upconversion from 1.1-1.6 μm to 0.98 μm in La(Ga,Sc,In)O3 doped with Er, Ni, and Nb, which could significantly boost the conversion efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells, in particular, energy transfer from the Ni2+ sensitizers to the Er3+ emitters and back transfer from the Er3+ to the Ni2+. We have compared these processes and the resultant upconversion emission intensities depending on the host material compositions. With increasing the bond length between the Ni2+ and surrounding oxygen ions, the Ni2+ emission band located at around 1.2-1.6 μm red-shifts and hence overlaps more significantly with the Er3+ absorption band ranging from 1.45 μm to 1.6 μm, resulting in more rapid energy transfer from the Ni2+ to the Er3+. However, back energy transfer from the Er3+ to the Ni2+ deteriorates the performance more considerably, because of more significant overlap between the Er3+ emission band and Ni2+ absorption band. This trade-off relationship strongly affects the upconversion emission intensity. The key of the material design for further efficient upconversion is to achieve narrower bands and a larger Stokes shift of the Ni2+ absorption/emission to suppress the back energy transfer while maintaining the efficient energy transfer in the forward direction.

  7. Etude des interdiffusions en phase solide dans le contact Er/GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Députier, S.; Guivarc'h, A.; Caulet, J.; Minier, M.; Guérin, R.

    1994-05-01

    Solid state interdiffusions between a thin film of erbium deposited under vacuum conditions and (001) and (111) GaAs substrates were investigated in the temperature range 350-800 ^{circ}C. Complementary analysis methods (RBS, X-ray diffraction) allow us to point out, according to annealing temperatures, successives steps of the interaction corresponding to different mixtures of phases, essentially binaries. These steps are strongly depending on the GaAs substrate orientation, especially the final step of the interdiffusions. On (001) GaAs, only two steps have been observed : no visible interaction is noticed between erbium and GaAs before 600 ^{circ}C ; the interaction begins at 600 ^{circ}C, evolves slightly and leads at 800 ^{circ}C to the nominal composition " Er{10}GaAs " which corresponds to a mixture of several phases Er5Ga3, Er and ErAs. On (111) GaAs, several steps of interaction have been found ; first of all, erbium reacts with the substrate at 400 ^{circ}C (Er5Ga3 + Er mixture), then the reaction is continuing at 600 ^{circ}C (Er5Ga3 + Er + ErAs mixture) before reaching at 800 ^{circ}C the nominal composition " Er{1,5}GaAs ", which is in fact a mixture of the three binaries ErAs + ErGa2 + Er3Ga5. It can be noticed that the 800 ^{circ}C annealing is not sufficient to reach the mixture of the phases ErAs + Ga which, according to the ternary phase diagram, should be the final stage of the interaction Er/GaAs. The analysis of the Er/GaAs interdiffusions shows that ErAs is the " key " compound around which the interaction progresses. This compound appears as an ideal candidate to realize epitaxial ErAs/GaAs heterostructures. Les interdiffusions en phase solide entre une couche mince d'erbium déposée dans des conditions d'ultra-vide et des substrats de GaAs orientés (001) et (111) ont été étudiées après des traitements thermiques d'une heure entre 350 et 800 ^{circ}C. L'utilisation de techniques complémentaires d'analyse (RBS, diffraction X) a permis

  8. Verification and Improvement of ERS-1/2 Altimeter Geophysical Data Records for Global Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shum, C. K.

    2000-01-01

    This Final Technical Report summarizes the research work conducted under NASA's Physical Oceanography Program entitled, Verification And Improvement Of ERS-112 Altimeter Geophysical Data Recorders For Global Change Studies, for the time period from January 1, 2000 through June 30, 2000. This report also provides a summary of the investigation from July 1, 1997 - June 30, 2000. The primary objectives of this investigation include verification and improvement of the ERS-1 and ERS-2 radar altimeter geophysical data records for distribution of the data to the ESA-approved U.S. ERS-1/-2 investigators for global climate change studies. Specifically, the investigation is to verify and improve the ERS geophysical data record products by calibrating the instrument and assessing accuracy for the ERS-1/-2 orbital, geophysical, media, and instrument corrections. The purpose is to ensure that the consistency of constants, standards and algorithms with TOPEX/POSEIDON radar altimeter for global climate change studies such as the monitoring and interpretation of long-term sea level change. This investigation has provided the current best precise orbits, with the radial orbit accuracy for ERS-1 (Phases C-G) and ERS-2 estimated at the 3-5 cm rms level, an 30-fold improvement compared to the 1993 accuracy. We have finalized the production and verification of the value-added ERS-1 mission (Phases A, B, C, D, E, F, and G), in collaboration with JPL PODAAC and the University of Texas. Orbit and data verification and improvement of algorithms led to the best data product available to-date. ERS-2 altimeter data have been improved and we have been active on Envisat (2001 launch) GDR algorithm review and improvement. The data improvement of ERS-1 and ERS-2 led to improvement in the global mean sea surface, marine gravity anomaly and bathymetry models, and a study of Antarctica mass balance, which was published in Science in 1998.

  9. Gingival tissue healing following Er:YAG laser ablation compared to electrosurgery in rats.

    PubMed

    Sawabe, Masanori; Aoki, Akira; Komaki, Motohiro; Iwasaki, Kengo; Ogita, Mayumi; Izumi, Yuichi

    2015-02-01

    The erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser is currently used for periodontal soft tissue management with favorable outcomes. However, the process of wound healing after Er:YAG laser (ErL) treatment has not been fully elucidated yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the gingival tissue healing after ErL ablation in comparison with that after electrosurgery (ElS). Gingival defects were created in 28 rats by ablation with ErL irradiation or ElS. The chronological changes in wound healing were evaluated using histological, histometrical, and immunohistochemical analyses. The ErL-ablated gingival tissue revealed much less thermal damage, compared to the ElS. In the ElS sites, the postoperative tissue destruction continued due to thermal damage, while in the ErL sites, tissue degradation was limited and the defects were re-epithelialized early. Heat shock protein (Hsp) 72/73 expression was detected abundantly remote from the wound in the ElS, whereas it was slightly observed in close proximity to the wound in the ErL sites. Hsp47 expression was observed in the entire connective tissue early in the wound healing and was found limited in the wound area later. This phenomenon proceeded faster in the ErL sites than in the ElS sites. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) persisted in the epithelial tissue for a longer period in the ElS than that in the ErL. The ErL results in faster and more favorable gingival wound healing compared to the ElS, suggesting that the ErL is a safe and suitable tool for periodontal soft tissue management.

  10. LOCAL TRANSLATION. Comment on "Principles of ER cotranslational translocation revealed by proximity-specific ribosome profiling".

    PubMed

    Reid, David W; Nicchitta, Christopher V

    2015-06-12

    Jan et al. (Research Articles, 7 November 2014, p. 716) propose that ribosomes translating secretome messenger RNAs (mRNAs) traffic from the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) upon emergence of the signal peptide and return to the cytosol after termination. An accounting of controls demonstrates that mRNAs initiate translation on ER-bound ribosomes and that ribosomes are retained on the ER through many cycles of translation.

  11. ER Ca2+ depletion triggers apoptotic signals for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) overload response induced by overexpressed reticulon 3 (RTN3/HAP).

    PubMed

    Kuang, Ersheng; Wan, Qingwen; Li, Xiaojuan; Xu, Hua; Liu, Qingzhen; Qi, Yipeng

    2005-08-01

    Perturbance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function, either by the mutant proteins not folding correctly, or by an excessive accumulation of proteins in the organelle, will lead to the unfolded protein response (UPR) or ER overload response (EOR). The signal-transducing pathways for UPR have been identified, whereas the pathway for EOR remains to be elucidated. Our previous study demonstrated that the overexpression of reticulon 3 (RTN3, also named HAP, homologue of ASY protein) caused apoptosis with the depletion of ER Ca(2+) stores. In present research, we characterized RTN3 as a novel EOR-induced protein, triggering the apoptotic signals through the release of ER Ca(2+) and the elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+). Our studies showed that overexpressed RTN3 induced EOR, eliciting ER-specific apoptosis with activation of caspase-12 and mitochondrial dysfunction through ER Ca(2+) depletion and the sustained elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+). Furthermore, we demonstrated that overexpressed RTN3 and stimuli that activate both EOR and UPR, not UPR only, were able to induce up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in HeLa cells through ER Ca(2+) release and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs), resulting in endogenous calcium-dependent nitric oxide protecting cells against ER specific apoptosis, which suggested that the nitric oxide and iNOS represented a likely protective response to EOR, not the UPR. These results supported that the release of ER Ca(2+) stores triggered the initial signal-transducing pathways for EOR induced by overexpressed RTN3.

  12. Integrated self-organization of transitional ER and early Golgi compartments

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Benjamin S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary COPII coated vesicles bud from an ER domain termed the transitional ER (tER), but the mechanism that clusters COPII vesicles at tER sites is unknown. tER sites are closely associated with early Golgi or pre-Golgi structures, suggesting that the clustering of nascent COPII vesicles could be achieved by tethering to adjacent membranes. This model challenges the prevailing view that COPII vesicles are clustered by a scaffolding protein at the ER surface. Although Sec16 was proposed to serve as such a scaffolding protein, recent data suggest that rather than organizing COPII into higher-order structures, Sec16 acts at the level of individual COPII vesicles to regulate COPII turnover. A plausible synthesis is that tER sites are created by tethering to Golgi membranes and are regulated by Sec16. Meanwhile, the COPII vesicles that bud from tER sites are thought to nucleate new Golgi cisternae. Thus, an integrated self-organization process may generate tER-Golgi units. PMID:24242672

  13. Integrated self-organization of transitional ER and early Golgi compartments.

    PubMed

    Glick, Benjamin S

    2014-02-01

    COPII coated vesicles bud from an ER domain termed the transitional ER (tER), but the mechanism that clusters COPII vesicles at tER sites is unknown. tER sites are closely associated with early Golgi or pre-Golgi structures, suggesting that the clustering of nascent COPII vesicles could be achieved by tethering to adjacent membranes. This model challenges the prevailing view that COPII vesicles are clustered by a scaffolding protein at the ER surface. Although Sec16 was proposed to serve as such a scaffolding protein, recent data suggest that rather than organizing COPII into higher-order structures, Sec16 acts at the level of individual COPII vesicles to regulate COPII turnover. A plausible synthesis is that tER sites are created by tethering to Golgi membranes and are regulated by Sec16. Meanwhile, the COPII vesicles that bud from tER sites are thought to nucleate new Golgi cisternae. Thus, an integrated self-organization process may generate tER-Golgi units. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Amalgam Surface Treatment by Different Output Powers of Er:YAG Laser:SEM Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mohammad Hashem; Hassanpour, Mehdi; Etemadi, Ardavan; Ranjbar Omrani, Ladan; Darvishpour, Hojat; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate amalgam surfaces treated by different output powers of erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Twenty-one amalgam blocks (8 mm × 8 mm, 3 mm thickness) were prepared by condensing silver amalgam (into putty impression material. After keeping them for 24 hours in distilled water, they were divided into 7 groups as follow: G1: Er:YAG laser (1 W, 50 mJ), G2: Er:YAG laser (2 W, 100 mJ), G3: Er:YAG laser (3 W, 150 mJ), G4: Sandblast, G5: Sandblast + Er:YAG laser (1 W, 50 mJ), G6: Sandblast +Er:YAG laser (2 W, 100 mJ) and G7: Sandblast +Er:YAG laser (3 W, 150 mJ). Then after preparation of all samples, they were examined by SEM. The SEM results of amalgam surfaces treated by different output powers of Er:YAG laser showed some pitting areas with non-homogenous irregularities Conclusion: It seems that the application of sandblasting accompanied by Er:YAG laser irradiation can provide proper surface for bonding of orthodontic brackets.

  15. Relaxation Dynamics of Excited States of Er(3+) in YVO4 Single Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In the last few years Er3 ’ doped YVO 4 has been considered as a potential laser material in the IR spectral region i. However, that real...negligible but no laser emission of Er3 +:YVO4 has been observed yet. The absorption spectra, emission spectra and fluorescence dynamics of Er3 +:YVO4 have...into 4111/2 was considered. The emission cross- section and the gain coefficient for 413,/2 _4115/2 transition of Er3 + in YVO4 were calculated. 2

  16. Cooling of Er(3+) with Tm(3+) for accurate temperature sensing using yttrium silicate compact powders.

    PubMed

    Rakov, Nikifor; Maciel, Glauco S

    2014-11-14

    Er(3+) doped nanocrystalline powders are extensively used for thermometry based on luminescence spectral analysis. The luminescence from Er(3+) is produced by a nonlinear (two-photon) absorption process which may generate strong internal heat by activation of nonradiative relaxation channels. If the heat dissipation is not efficient, as is the case for compact powders, there will be inaccurate readings of the temperature. Our proposed solution is to cool down Er(3+) by transferring part of its accumulated energy to another rare-earth element in the lattice. Here, we show our results for Er(3+)-Tm(3+) co-doped yttrium silicate powders prepared by combustion synthesis.

  17. Specific features of the nonradiative relaxation of Er{sup 3+} ions in epitaxial Si structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, K. E. Kryzhkov, D. I.; Antonov, A. V.; Shengurov, D. V.; Shmagin, V. B.; Krasilnik, Z. F.

    2014-12-15

    The specific features of the nonradiative relaxation of Er{sup 3+} ions in Si:Er layers grown by sublimation molecular-beam epitaxy (SMBE) are studied. In Si:Er/Si diode structures containing precipitation-type emitting centers, a resonance photoresponse at the wavelength λ ≈ 1.5 μm is observed, which is indicative of the nonradiative relaxation of Er3+ ions via the energy back-transfer mechanism. Saturation of the erbium-related photocurrent is for the first time observed at high temperatures. This allows estimation of the concentration of Er centers that undergo relaxation via the above-mentioned back-transfer mechanism (N{sub 0} ≈ 5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3}). In terms of order of magnitude, the estimated concentration N{sub 0} corresponds to the concentration of optically active Er ions upon excitation of the Si:Er layers by means of the recombination mechanism. The features of the nonradiative relaxation of Er{sup 3+} ions in Si:Er/Si structures with different types of emitting centers are analyzed.

  18. Amalgam Surface Treatment by Different Output Powers of Er:YAG Laser:SEM Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mohammad Hashem; Hassanpour, Mehdi; Etemadi, Ardavan; Ranjbar Omrani, Ladan; Darvishpour, Hojat; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate amalgam surfaces treated by different output powers of erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Methods: Twenty-one amalgam blocks (8 mm × 8 mm, 3 mm thickness) were prepared by condensing silver amalgam (into putty impression material. After keeping them for 24 hours in distilled water, they were divided into 7 groups as follow: G1: Er:YAG laser (1 W, 50 mJ), G2: Er:YAG laser (2 W, 100 mJ), G3: Er:YAG laser (3 W, 150 mJ), G4: Sandblast, G5: Sandblast + Er:YAG laser (1 W, 50 mJ), G6: Sandblast +Er:YAG laser (2 W, 100 mJ) and G7: Sandblast +Er:YAG laser (3 W, 150 mJ). Then after preparation of all samples, they were examined by SEM. Results: The SEM results of amalgam surfaces treated by different output powers of Er:YAG laser showed some pitting areas with non-homogenous irregularities Conclusion: It seems that the application of sandblasting accompanied by Er:YAG laser irradiation can provide proper surface for bonding of orthodontic brackets. PMID:26705463

  19. TRAM1 is involved in disposal of ER membrane degradation substrates.

    PubMed

    Ng, Caroline L; Oresic, Kristina; Tortorella, Domenico

    2010-08-01

    ER quality control consists of monitoring protein folding and targeting misfolded proteins for proteasomal degradation. ER stress results in an unfolded protein response (UPR) that selectively upregulates proteins involved in protein degradation, ER expansion, and protein folding. Given the efficiency in which misfolded proteins are degraded, there likely exist cellular factors that enhance the export of proteins across the ER membrane. We have reported that translocating chain-associated membrane protein 1 (TRAM1), an ER-resident membrane protein, participates in HCMV US2- and US11-mediated dislocation of MHC class I heavy chains (Oresic, K., Ng, C.L., and Tortorella, D. 2009). Consistent with the hypothesis that TRAM1 is involved in the disposal of misfolded ER proteins, cells lacking TRAM1 experienced a heightened UPR upon acute ER stress, as evidenced by increased activation of unfolded protein response elements (UPRE) and elevated levels of NF-kappaB activity. We have also extended the involvement of TRAM1 in the selective degradation of misfolded ER membrane proteins Cln6(M241T) and US2, but not the soluble degradation substrate alpha(1)-antitrypsin null(HK). These degradation model systems support the paradigm that TRAM1 is a selective factor that can enhance the dislocation of ER membrane proteins. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of erbium concentration on optical properties of Er:YLF laser crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jiaqi; Zhang, Lianhan; Xu, Min; Hang, Yin

    2017-01-01

    Four Er-doped LiYF4 crystals with different Er-concentrations were grown by Czochralski method. The laser crystals were characterized by measurements of ICP-AES, XRD, absorption spectra, up-conversion fluorescence spectra, near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (Mid-IR) fluorescence spectra, as well as luminescence decays. It was found that the heavily 15 at% Er-doped YLF crystal is more proper in up-conversion or ∼3 μm laser applications; while the 5 at% Er-doped YLF is a better candidate for ∼1.5 μm lasers within these four crystals.