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Sample records for ph conductivity alkalinity

  1. Carbon dioxide addition to microbial fuel cell cathodes maintains sustainable catholyte pH and improves anolyte pH, alkalinity, and conductivity.

    PubMed

    Fornero, Jeffrey J; Rosenbaum, Miriam; Cotta, Michael A; Angenent, Largus T

    2010-04-01

    Bioelectrochemical system (BES) pH imbalances develop due to anodic proton-generating oxidation reactions and cathodic hydroxide-ion-generating reduction reactions. Until now, workers added unsustainable buffers to reduce the pH difference between the anode and cathode because the pH imbalance contributes to BES potential losses and, therefore, power losses. Here, we report that adding carbon dioxide (CO(2)) gas to the cathode, which creates a CO(2)/bicarbonate buffered catholyte system, can diminish microbial fuel cell (MFC) pH imbalances in contrast to the CO(2)/carbonate buffered catholyte system by Torres, Lee, and Rittmann [Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 8773]. We operated an air-cathode and liquid-cathode MFC side-by-side. For the air-cathode MFC, CO(2) addition resulted in a stable catholyte film pH of 6.61 +/- 0.12 and a 152% increase in steady-state power density. By adding CO(2) to the liquid-cathode system, we sustained a steady catholyte pH (pH = 5.94 +/- 0.02) and a low pH imbalance (DeltapH = 0.65 +/- 0.18) over a 2-week period without external salt buffer addition. By migrating bicarbonate ions from the cathode to the anode (with an anion-exchange membrane), we increased the anolyte pH (DeltapH = 0.39 +/- 0.31), total alkalinity (494 +/- 6 to 582 +/- 6 as mg CaCO(3)/L), and conductivity (1.53 +/- 0.49 to 2.16 +/- 0.03 mS/cm) relative to the feed properties. We also verified with a phosphate-buffered MFC that our reaction rates were limited mainly by the reactor configuration rather than limitations due to the bicarbonate buffer.

  2. Alkaline pH sensor molecules.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Takashi; Maruyama, Ichiro N

    2015-11-01

    Animals can survive only within a narrow pH range. This requires continual monitoring of environmental and body-fluid pH. Although a variety of acidic pH sensor molecules have been reported, alkaline pH sensor function is not well understood. This Review describes neuronal alkaline pH sensors, grouped according to whether they monitor extracellular or intracellular alkaline pH. Extracellular sensors include the receptor-type guanylyl cyclase, the insulin receptor-related receptor, ligand-gated Cl- channels, connexin hemichannels, two-pore-domain K+ channels, and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Intracellular sensors include TRP channels and gap junction channels. Identification of molecular mechanisms underlying alkaline pH sensing is crucial for understanding how animals respond to environmental alkaline pH and how body-fluid pH is maintained within a narrow range.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Addition to Microbial Fuel Cell Cathodes Maintains Sustainable Catholyte pH and Improves Anolyte pH, Alkalinity, and Conductivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bioelectrochemical system (BES) pH imbalances develop due to anodic proton-generating oxidation reactions and cathodic hydroxide-ion-generating reduction reactions. Until now, workers added unsustainable buffers to reduce the pH difference between the anode and cathode because the pH imbalance cont...

  4. Irrigation water acidification to neutralize alkalinity for nursery crop production: Substrate pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient concentrations; and plant nutrition and growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Liming agents (LA) in irrigation water, typically associated with carbonates and bicarbonates of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), contribute to water alkalinity. Repeated application of LA to container crops can cause media-solution pH to rise overtime, that uncorrected, can lead to a nutrient avail...

  5. Irrigation water acidification to neutralize alkalinity for nursery crop production: Substrate pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient concentrations; and plant nutrition and growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Liming agents in irrigation water, typically associated with carbonates and bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium, contribute to water alkalinity. Repeated application of LA to container crops can cause media-solution pH to rise overtime, that uncorrected, can lead to a nutrient availability imbalan...

  6. Low pH alkaline chemical formulations

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Peru, D.A.; Thornton, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the development of a surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding system that is applicable to specific reservoir conditions in Wilmington (California) field. The cost of the chemicals for an ASP (alkali/surfactant/polymer) flood is calculated to be $3.90/bbl of oil produced, with 78% of that cost attributable to polymer. This research included phase behavior tests, oil displacement tests, mineral dissolution tests, and adsorption measurements. It was discovered that consumption of low pH alkalis is low enough in the Wilmington field to be acceptable. In addition, alkali dramatically reduced surfactant adsorption and precipitation. A mixture of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 was recommended for use as a preflush and in the ASP formulation. Research was also conducted on the synergistic effect that occurs when a mixture of alkali and synthetic surfactant contacts crude oil. It appears that very low IFT is predominantly a result of the activation of the natural surfactants present in the Wilmington oil, and the sustained low IFT is primarily the result of the synthetic surfactant. It also appears that removal of acids from the crude oil by the alkali renders the oil more interfacially reactive to synthetic surfactant. These phenomena help to explain the synergism that results from combining alkali and synthetic surfactant into a single oil recovery formulation. 19 refs., 24 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Field measurement of alkalinity and pH

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Ivan

    1964-01-01

    The behavior of electrometric pH equipment under field conditions departs from the behavior predicted from Nernst's law. The response is a linear function of pH, and hence measured pH values may be corrected to true pH if the instrument is calibrated with two reference solutions for each measurement. Alkalinity titrations may also be made in terms of true pH. Standard methods, such as colorimetric titrations, were rejected as unreliable or too cumbersome for rapid field use. The true pH of the end point of the alkalinity titration as a function of temperature, ionic strength, and total alkalinity has been calculated. Total alkalinity in potable waters is the most important factor influencing the end point pH, which varies from 5.38 (0 ? C, 5 ppm (parts per million) HC0a-) to 4.32 (300 ppm HC0a-,35 ? C), for the ranges of variables considered. With proper precautions, the pH may be determined to =i:0.02 pH and the alkalinity to =i:0.6 ppm HCO3- for many naturally occurring bodies of fresh water.

  8. The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health?

    PubMed Central

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K.

    2012-01-01

    This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine. PMID:22013455

  9. The alkaline diet: is there evidence that an alkaline pH diet benefits health?

    PubMed

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K

    2012-01-01

    This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine.

  10. Alkaline pH Homeostasis in Bacteria: New Insights

    PubMed Central

    Padan, Etana; Bibi, Eitan; Ito, Masahiro; Krulwich, Terry A.

    2011-01-01

    The capacity of bacteria to survive and grow at alkaline pH values is of widespread importance in the epidemiology of pathogenic bacteria, in remediation and industrial settings, as well as in marine, plant-associated and extremely alkaline ecological niches. Alkali-tolerance and alkaliphily, in turn, strongly depend upon mechanisms for alkaline pH homeostasis, as shown in pH shift experiments and growth experiments in chemostats at different external pH values. Transcriptome and proteome analyses have recently complemented physiological and genetic studies, revealing numerous adaptations that contribute to alkaline pH homeostasis. These include elevated levels of transporters and enzymes that promote proton capture and retention (e.g. the ATP synthase and monovalent cation/proton antiporters), metabolic changes that lead to increased acid production, and changes in the cell surface layers that contribute to cytoplasmic proton retention. Targeted studies over the past decade have followed up the long-recognized importance of monovalent cations in active pH homeostasis. These studies show the centrality of monovalent cation/proton antiporters in this process while microbial genomics provides information about the constellation of such antiporters in individual strains. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic genome databases has identified orthologes from bacteria to humans that allow better understanding of the specific functions and physiological roles of the antiporters. Detailed information about the properties of multiple antiporters in individual strains is starting to explain how specific monovalent cation/proton antiporters play dominant roles in alkaline pH homeostasis in cells that have several additional antiporters catalyzing ostensibly similar reactions. New insights into the pH-dependent Na+/H+ antiporter NhaA that plays an important role in Escherichia coli have recently emerged from the determination of the structure

  11. Biochemical Stabilization of Glucagon at Alkaline pH

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Melanie A.; Castle, Jessica R.; El Youssef, Joseph; Bakhtiani, Parkash A.; Bergstrom, Colin P.; Carroll, Julie M.; Breen, Matthew E.; Leonard, Gerald L.; David, Larry L.; Roberts, Charles T.; Ward, W. Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: For patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, a bihormonal artificial endocrine pancreas system utilizing glucagon and insulin has been found to stabilize glycemic control. However, commercially available formulations of glucagon cannot currently be used in such systems because of physical instability characterized by aggregation and chemical degradation. Storing glucagon at pH 10 blocks protein aggregation but results in chemical degradation. Reductions in pH minimize chemical degradation, but even small reductions increase protein aggregation. We hypothesized that common pharmaceutical excipients accompanied by a new excipient would inhibit glucagon aggregation at an alkaline pH. Methods and Results: As measured by tryptophan intrinsic fluorescence shift and optical density at 630 nm, protein aggregation was indeed minimized when glucagon was formulated with curcumin and albumin. This formulation also reduced chemical degradation, measured by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Biological activity was retained after aging for 7 days in an in vitro cell-based bioassay and also in Yorkshire swine. Conclusions: Based on these findings, a formulation of glucagon stabilized with curcumin, polysorbate-80, l-methionine, and albumin at alkaline pH in glycine buffer may be suitable for extended use in a portable pump in the setting of a bihormonal artificial endocrine pancreas. PMID:24968220

  12. Interpretation of pH, acidity, and alkalinity in fisheries and aquaculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Measurements of pH, acidity, and alkalinity are commonly used to describe water quality. The three variables are interrelated and are sometimes confused. The pH of water is an intensity factor, while the acidity and alkalinity of waters are capacity factors. More precisely, acidity and alkalinity ar...

  13. Mechanisms of Glucagon Degradation at Alkaline pH

    PubMed Central

    Caputo, Nicholas; Castle, Jessica R.; Bergstrom, Colin P.; Carroll, Julie M.; Bakhtiani, Parkash A.; Jackson, Melanie A.; Roberts, Charles T.; David, Larry L.; Ward, W. Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon is unstable and undergoes degradation and aggregation in aqueous solution. For this reason, its use in portable pumps for closed loop management of diabetes is limited to very short periods. In this study, we sought to identify the degradation mechanisms and the bioactivity of specific degradation products. We studied degradation in the alkaline range, a range at which aggregation is minimized. Native glucagon and analogs identical to glucagon degradation products were synthesized. To quantify biological activity in glucagon and in the degradation peptides, a protein kinase A-based bioassay was used. Aged, fresh, and modified peptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LCMS). Oxidation of glucagon at the Met residue was common but did not reduce bioactivity. Deamidation and isomerization were also common and were more prevalent at pH 10 than 9. The biological effects of deamidation and isomerization were unpredictable; deamidation at some sites did not reduce bioactivity. Deamidation of Gln 3, isomerization of Asp 9, and deamidation with isomerization at Asn 28 all caused marked potency loss. Studies with molecular-weight-cutoff membranes and LCMS revealed much greater fibrillation at pH 9 than 10. Further work is necessary to determine formulations of glucagon that minimize degradation and fibrillation. PMID:23651991

  14. Decision making in C. elegans chemotaxis to alkaline pH

    PubMed Central

    Murayama, Takashi; Maruyama, Ichi N

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of environmental and tissue pH is critical for animal survival. The nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), is attracted to mildly alkaline pH, but avoids strongly alkaline pH. However, little is known about how the behavioral switching or decision making occurs. Genetic dissection and Ca2+ imaging have previously demonstrated that ASEL and ASH are the major sensory neurons responsible for attraction and repulsion, respectively. Here we report that unlike C. elegans wild type, mutants deficient in ASEL or ASH were repelled by mildly alkaline pH, or were attracted to strongly alkaline pH, respectively. These results suggest that signals through ASEL and ASH compete to determine the animal’s alkaline-pH chemotaxis. Furthermore, mutants with 2 ASEL neurons were more efficiently attracted to mildly alkaline pH than the wild type with a single ASEL neuron, indicating that higher activity of ASEL induces stronger attraction to mildly alkaline pH. This stronger attraction was overridden by normal activity of ASH, suggesting that ASH-mediated avoidance dominates ASEL-mediated attraction. Thus, C. elegans chemotactic behaviors to alkaline pH seems to be determined by signal strengths from the sensory neurons ASEL and ASH, and the behavior decision making seems to be the result of competition between the 2 sensory neurons. PMID:24563708

  15. Online estimation of VFA, alkalinity and bicarbonate concentrations by electrical conductivity measurement during anaerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aceves-Lara, Cesar-Arturo; Latrille, Eric; Conte, T; Steyer, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the use of electrical conductivity for measurement of volatile fatty acids (VFA), alkalinity and bicarbonate concentrations, during the anaerobic fermentation process. Two anaerobic continuous processes were studied: the first was a laboratory reactor for hydrogen production from molasses and the second was a pilot process for anaerobic digestion (AD) of vinasses producing methane. In the hydrogen production process, the total VFA concentration, but not bicarbonate concentration, was well estimated from the on-line electrical conductivity measurements with a simple linear regression model. In the methane production process, the bicarbonate concentration and the VFA concentration were well estimated from the simultaneous on-line measurements of pH and electrical conductivity by means of non-linear regression with neural network models. Moreover, the total alkalinity concentration was well estimated from electrical conductivity measurements with a simple linear regression model. This demonstrates the use of electrical conductivity for monitoring the AD processes.

  16. SIMPLE WAYS TO IMPROVE PH AND ALKALINITY MEASUREMENTS FOR WATER UTILITIES AND LABORATORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both pH and total alkalinity determinations are critical in characterizing chemical properties of water, being important to implementing good process control, determining corrosivity and other water quality properties, and assessing changes in water characteristics. Poor charac...

  17. SIMPLE WAYS TO IMPROVE PH AND ALKALINITY MEASUREMENTS FOR WATER UTILITIES AND LABORATORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both pH and total alkalinity determinations are critical in characterizing chemical properties of water, being important to implementing good process control, determining corrosivity and other water quality properties, and assessing changes in water characteristics. Poor charac...

  18. Numerical interdependence in pH, acidity and alkalinity of a polluted river water.

    PubMed

    Shashi; Singh, J; Dwivedi, Anil K

    2009-09-01

    Acidity and alkalinity are independent parameters and they directly or indirectly regulate the pH of a medium. These are the prime factors which control the nature of the reactions in a medium. The present study was designed to explore the numerical interdependence of the three parameters and also, to develop the regression models. For physico-chemical analysis of the selected parameters, water quality of a polluted tropical river was analysed fortnightly, for complete one year. Correlation coefficients between pH-acidity and acidity-alkalinity were negative while that between pH and alkalinity were positive. The value calculated by the developed multiple regression models, explain pH, acidity and alkalinity up to 57, 65 and 79% respectively, suggesting their utility and relevance.

  19. Cementitious porous pavement in stormwater quality control: pH and alkalinity elevation.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Xuheng; Sansalone, John

    2011-01-01

    A certain level of alkalinity acts as a buffer and maintains the pH value in a stable range in water bodies. With rapid urban development, more and more acidic pollutants flow to watersheds with runoff and drop alkalinity to a very low level and ultimately degrade the water environment. Cementitious porous pavement is an effective tool for stormwater acidic neutralization. When stormwater infiltrates cement porous pavement (CPP) materials, alkalinity and pH will be elevated due to the basic characteristics of cement concrete. The elevated alkalinity will neutralize acids in water bodies and maintain the pH in a stable level as a buffer. It is expected that CPP materials still have a certain capability of alkalinity elevation after years of service, which is important for CPP as an effective tool for stormwater management. However, few previous studies have reported on how CPP structures would elevate runoff alkalinity and pH after being exposed to rainfall-runoff for years. In this study, three groups of CPP specimens, all exposed to rainfall-runoff for 3 years, were used to test the pH and alkalinity elevation properties. It was found that runoff pH values were elevated from 7.4 to the range of 7.8-8.6 after infiltrating through the uncoated specimens, and from 7.4 to 8.5-10.7 after infiltrating through aluminum-coated specimens. Runoff alkalinity elevation efficiencies are 11.5-14.5% for uncoated specimens and 42.2% for coated specimens. The study shows that CPP is an effective passive unit operation for stormwater acid neutralization in our built environment.

  20. An alkaline active xylanase: insights into mechanisms of high pH catalytic adaptation.

    PubMed

    Mamo, Gashaw; Thunnissen, Marjolein; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Mattiasson, Bo

    2009-09-01

    The alkaliphilic bacterium, Bacillus halodurans S7, produces an alkaline active xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8), which differs from many other xylanases in being operationally stable under alkaline conditions as well as at elevated temperature. Compared to non-alkaline active xylanases, this enzyme has a high percent composition of acidic amino acids which results in high ratio of negatively to positively charged residues. A positive correlation was observed between the charge ratio and the pH optima of xylanases. The recombinant xylanase was crystallized using a hanging drop diffusion method. The crystals belong to the space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) and the structure was determined at a resolution of 2.1 A. The enzyme has the common eight-fold TIM-barrel structure of family 10 xylanases; however, unlike non-alkaline active xylanases, it has a highly negatively charged surface and a deeper active site cleft. Mutational analysis of non-conserved amino acids which are close to the acid/base residue has shown that Val169, Ile170 and Asp171 are important to hydrolyze xylan at high pH. Unlike the wild type xylanase which has optimum pH at 9-9.5, the triple mutant xylanase (V169A, I170F and D171N), which was constructed using sequence information of alkaline sensitive xylanses was optimally active around pH 7. Compared to non-alkaline active xylanases, the alkaline active xylanases have highly acidic surfaces and fewer solvent exposed alkali labile residues. Based on these results obtained from sequence, structural and mutational analysis, the possible mechanisms of high pH stability and catalysis are discussed. This will provide useful information to understand the mechanism of high pH adaptation and engineering of enzymes that can be operationally stable at high pH.

  1. Method of determining pH by the alkaline absorption of carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, David T.

    1992-01-01

    A method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides in alkaline solutions in a remote location using the tendency of hydroxides to absorb carbon dioxide. The method includes the passing of carbon dioxide over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the carbon dioxide solution. A comparison of the measurements yields the absorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to absorption fraction.

  2. Transient removal of alkaline zones after excitation of Chara cells is associated with inactivation of high conductance in the plasmalemma

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The action potential (AP) of excitable plant cells is a multifunctional physiological signal. Its generation in characean algae suppresses the pH banding for 15–30 min and enhances the heterogeneity of spatial distribution of photosynthetic activity. This suppression is largely due to the cessation of H+ influx (OH− efflux) in the alkaline cell regions. Measurements of local pH and membrane conductance in individual space-clamped alkaline zones (small cell areas bathed in an isolated pool of external medium) showed that the AP generation is followed by the transient disappearance of alkaline zone in parallel with a large decrease in membrane conductance. These changes, specific to alkaline zones, were only observed under continuous illumination following a relaxation period of at least 15 min after previous excitation. The excitation of dark-adapted cells produced no conductance changes in the post-excitation period. The results indicate that the origin of alkaline zones in characean cells is not due to operation of electroneutral H+/HCO3− symport or OH−/HCO3− antiport. It is concluded that the membrane excitation is associated with inactivation of plasmalemma high conductance in the alkaline cell regions. PMID:19820298

  3. Zinc ions and alkaline pH alter the phosphorylation state of human erythrocyte membrane proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Fennell, R.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Since the phosphorylation state of the red cell membrane proteins in vitro is likely to be regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, this research was carried out to investigate the possible role of membrane-bound phosphatase activities. These studies were conducted with red blood cell ghosts and IOVs from normal individuals and from an individual with hereditary spherocytosis. In vitro phosphorylation with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P) ATP was conducted in the presence and the absence of Zn{sup ++}, or erythrocyte ghosts and IOVs were pretreated for 30 minutes at 37{degree}C and pH 7-11 in the presence and the absence of calf intestine alkaline phosphatase. The resulting phosphoproteins were analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, stained with Coomassie blue, and fluorographed. In the presence of Zn{sup ++}, the red blood ghosts, with or without pretreatment, demonstrated enhanced phosphorylation of membrane proteins, including band 4.2. Preincubation at pH 10 in the presence of absence of exogenous phosphatase further stimulates phosphorylation of these proteins. Under similar conditions, the erythrocyte membranes also demonstrated the ability to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl phosphate and to remove {sup 32}P from red blood cell phosphoproteins.

  4. Change of pH during excess sludge fermentation under alkaline, acidic and neutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yue; Peng, Yongzhen; Liu, Ye; Jin, Baodan; Wang, Bo; Wang, Shuying

    2014-12-01

    The change in pH during excess sludge (ES) fermentation of varying sludge concentrations was investigated in a series of reactors at alkaline, acidic, and neutral pHs. The results showed that the changes were significantly affected by fermentative conditions. Under different conditions, pH exhibited changing profiles. When ES was fermented under alkaline conditions, pH decreased in a range of (10±1). At the beginning of alkaline fermentation, pH dropped significantly, at intervals of 4h, 4h, and 5h with sludge concentrations of 8665.6mg/L, 6498.8mg/L, and 4332.5mg/L, then it would become moderate. However, under acidic conditions, pH increased from 4 to 5. Finally, under neutral conditions pH exhibited a decrease then an increase throughout entire fermentation process. Further study showed short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), ammonia nitrogen and cations contributed to pH change under various fermentation conditions. This study presents a novel strategy based on pH change to predict whether SCFAs reach their stable stage.

  5. Direct detection of acidity, alkalinity, and pH with membrane electrodes.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Gastón A; Ghahraman Afshar, Majid; Bakker, Eric

    2012-12-04

    An electrochemical sensing protocol based on supported liquid ion-selective membranes for the direct detection of total alkalinity of a sample that contains a weak base such as Tris (pK(a) = 8.2) is presented here for the first time. Alkalinity is determined by imposing a defined flux of hydrogen ions from the membrane to the sample with an applied current. The transition time at which the base species at the membrane-sample interface depletes owing to diffusion limitation is related to sample alkalinity in this chronopotentiometric detection mode. The same membrane is shown to detect pH (by zero current potentiometry) and acidity and alkalinity (by chronopotentiometry at different current polarity). This principle may become a welcome tool for the in situ determination of these characteristics in complex samples such as natural waters.

  6. Does Alkaline Colonic pH Predispose to Clostridium difficile Infection?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Purba; Yakubov, Stanley; Tin, Kevin; Zea, Diego; Garankina, Olga; Ghitan, Monica; Chapnick, Edward K; Homel, Peter; Lin, Yu Shia; Koegel, Michael M

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile caused nearly 500,000 infections and was associated with approximately 29,000 deaths in 2011, according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. C. difficile is a bacterium that causes diarrhea and, often, severe illness in healthcare facilities, as well as the community. Our objective was to determine whether alkaline colonic pH predisposes to colonization and infection with C. difficile. A total of 228 patients with diarrhea and/or abdominal pain, leukocytosis, and fever were included. Stool pH was measured, and C. difficile antigen and toxin in stool were detected. Of 228 patients, 30 (13.2%) tested positive for C. difficile (antigen+/toxin+) and 171 (75%) were C. difficile negative (antigen-/toxin-). Of 171 patients who tested negative, 93 (54.4%) had stool pH >7.0 and 78 (45.6%) had pH ≤7.0. Among the 30 patients who tested positive, 26 (86.7%) had stool pH >7.0 (P = 0.002). Among the 27 colonized patients (antigen+/toxin-), 12 (44.4%) had stool pH >7.0 (P = 0.34). For all patients with stool pH ≤7.0, 96% tested negative for C. difficile infection (P = 0.002). A strong association between C. difficile infection and alkaline stool pH was found.

  7. Method of determining pH by the alkaline absorption of carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1992-10-06

    A method is described for measuring the concentration of hydroxides in alkaline solutions in a remote location using the tendency of hydroxides to absorb carbon dioxide. The method includes the passing of carbon dioxide over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the carbon dioxide solution. A comparison of the measurements yields the absorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to absorption fraction. 2 figs.

  8. Alkaline secretion by frog gastric glands measured with pH microelectrodes in the gland lumen.

    PubMed

    Debellis, L; Caroppo, R; Fromter, E; Curci, S

    1998-11-15

    1. In the present work we have measured the pH of the secreted fluid within the gland lumen of isolated but intact gastric mucosa of Rana esculenta. Tissues were mounted in a double chamber allowing continuous perfusion of the mucosal and serosal compartment, and the measurements were made with double-barrelled pH glass microelectrodes inserted into the glands from the serosal surface under microscopic inspection. 2. During inhibition of H+ secretion by cimetidine (100 microM) the luminal gland pH (pHgl) averaged 7.60 +/- 0.05 pH units (mean +/- s.e.m.; n = 35), a value significantly higher than bath solution pH (7.45 +/- 0.02; P < 0.001) and also higher than intracellular pH of oxyntopeptic cells (pHi), which averaged 7.53 +/- 0.06 (n = 18). 3. Stimulation of acid secretion with histamine (500 microM) reversibly decreased pHgl to values which could be as low as 2.5. Together with electrophysiological criteria this response was routinely used to verify the proper location of the microelectrode tip within the gland lumen. 4. Stimulation with carbachol (100 microM) or pentagastrin (50 microM) in the presence of cimetidine rapidly and reversibly increased pHgl by 0.10 +/- 0.01 pH units (n = 24; P < 0.001) and 0.09 +/- 0.02 pH units (n = 6; P < 0.05), respectively. 5. The observation that gastric gland fluid is more alkaline than the bath solutions and that carbachol or pentagastrin further alkalinize it strongly suggests that oxyntopeptic cells participate in gastric alkaline secretion at least under cholinergic stimulation.

  9. pH recovery from intracellular alkalinization in Retzius neurones of the leech central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Frey, G; Schlue, W R

    1993-01-01

    1. Neutral-carrier pH-sensitive microelectrodes were used to investigate intracellular pH (pHi) recovery from alkalinization in leech Retzius neurones in Hepes- and in CO2-HCO3(-)-buffered solution. The Retzius neurones were alkaline loaded by the addition and subsequent removal of 16 mM acetate, by changing from 5% CO2-27 mM HCO3- to 2% CO2-11 mM HCO3- or by changing from CO2-HCO3(-)- to Hepes-buffered solution. 2. In Hepes-buffered solution (pH 7.4) the mean pHi was 7.29 +/- 0.11 and the mean membrane potential -44.7 +/- 5.9 mV (mean +/- S.D.; n = 83). 3. The rate of pHi recovery from alkalinization increased with decreasing pH of the bathing medium (pHb). pHi changed about 0.30 pH units for a pHb unit change. 4. A decrease of extracellular buffer concentration (Hepes concentration lowered from 20 to 5 mM) caused an acidification of extracellular and intracellular pH and an acceleration of pHi recovery from alkalinization. 5. A depolarization of the Retzius cell membrane-induced by increasing the K+ concentration of the bathing medium from 4 to 20 mM (delta Em = 16.5 +/- 5.5 mV) or from 4 to 40 mM (delta Em = 24.8 +/- 3.5 mV)--evoked a decrease of pHi and an acceleration of pHi recovery from alkalinization. 6. The H+ current blocker Zn2+ (0.5 mM) inhibited pHi recovery from alkalinization at resting membrane potential as well as during depolarization. The inhibition was more pronounced during depolarization. 7. In Cl(-)-free, CO2-HCO3(-)-buffered solution pHi recovery from an alkaline load by changing from 5% CO2-27 mM HCO3- to 2% CO2-11 mM HCO3- was slowed by 48-71%. The rate of pHi recovery from an alkaline load induced by changing from CO2-HCO3- to Hepes buffer was reduced by 33-56% in Cl(-)-free solution. The removal of external Cl- did not affect pHi recovery in Hepes-buffered solution. 8. The pHi recovery from alkalinization was DIDS-insensitive in CO2-HCO3(-)- as in Hepes-buffered solutions and was not slowed in the absence of external Na+. 9. It is

  10. Alkaline biodegradable implants for osteoporotic bone defects--importance of microenvironment pH.

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Wang, T; Yang, C; Darvell, B W; Wu, J; Lin, K; Chang, J; Pan, H; Lu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Change of microenvironment pH by biodegradable implants may ameliorate unbalanced osteoporotic bone remodeling. The present work demonstrated that a weak alkaline condition stimulated osteoblasts differentiation while suppressed osteoclast generation. In vivo, implants with an alkaline microenvironment pH (monitored by a pH microelectrode) exhibited a promising healing effect for the repair of osteoporotic bone defects. Under osteoporotic conditions, the response of the bone microenvironment to an endosseous implant is significantly impaired, and this substantially increases the risk of fracture, non-union and aseptic implant loosening. Acid-base equilibrium is an important factor influencing bone cell behaviour. The present purpose was to study the effect of a series of alkaline biodegradable implant materials on regeneration of osteoporotic bone defect, monitoring the microenvironment pH (μe-pH) over time. The proliferation and differentiation potential of osteoporotic rat bone marrow stromal cells and RAW 264.7 cells were examined under various pH conditions. Ovariectomized rat bone defects were filled with specific biodegradable materials, and μe-pH was measured by pH microelectrode. New osteoid and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclast-like cells were examined by Goldner's trichrome and TRAP staining, respectively. The intermediate layer between implants and new bone were studied using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) linear scanning. In vitro, weak alkaline conditions stimulated osteoporotic rat bone marrow stromal cells (oBMSC) differentiation, while inhibiting the formation of osteoclasts. In vivo, μe-pH differs from that of the homogeneous peripheral blood and exhibits variations over time particular to each material. Higher initial μe-pH was associated with more new bone formation, late response of TRAP-positive osteoclast-like cells and the development of an intermediate 'apatitic' layer in vivo. EDX suggested that

  11. Extremely alkaline (pH > 12) ground water hosts diverse microbial community.

    PubMed

    Roadcap, George S; Sanford, Robert A; Jin, Qusheng; Pardinas, José R; Bethke, Craig M

    2006-01-01

    Chemically unusual ground water can provide an environment for novel communities of bacteria to develop. Here, we describe a diverse microbial community that inhabits extremely alkaline (pH > 12) ground water from the Lake Calumet area of Chicago, Illinois, where historic dumping of steel slag has filled in a wetland. Using microbial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequencing and microcosm experiments, we confirmed the presence and growth of a variety of alkaliphilic beta-Proteobacteria, Bacillus, and Clostridium species at pH up to 13.2. Many of the bacterial sequences most closely matched those of other alkaliphiles found in more moderately alkaline water around the world. Oxidation of dihydrogen produced by reaction of water with steel slag is likely a primary energy source to the community. The widespread occurrence of iron-oxidizing bacteria suggests that reduced iron serves as an additional energy source. These results extend upward the known range of pH tolerance for a microbial community by as much as 2 pH units. The community may provide a source of novel microbes and enzymes that can be exploited under alkaline conditions.

  12. Specific molten globule conformation of stem bromelain at alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Dave, Sandeep; Mahajan, Sahil; Chandra, Vemika; Dkhar, H Kitdorlang; Sambhavi; Gupta, Pawan

    2010-07-01

    Stem bromelain (SBM), a therapeutic protein, is rapidly absorbed across the gut epithelium. Because SBM encounters an alkaline pH at its principal site of absorption, we investigated the alkaline-induced denaturation of SBM. From pH 7 to 10, the protein's secondary structure remained the same, although a slight loss of tertiary structure was observed. Above pH 10, there was a significant and irreversible loss of secondary and tertiary structure. At pH 10, SBM showed enhanced tryptophan fluorescence, however, the number of accessible tryptophans remained the same. The thermodynamics of temperature transition at pH 7 and 10 were strikingly different, with the former showing a two-phase transition endotherm, and the latter a broad non-two-state transition. At pH 10, SBM showed a significant increase in 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonate binding relative to the native state, suggestive of a specific molten globule (SMG) state. These studies suggest a distinct conformational rearrangement in SBM, at the protein's isoelectric point.

  13. Improved volatile fatty acids anaerobic production from waste activated sludge by pH regulation: Alkaline or neutral pH?

    PubMed

    Ma, Huijun; Chen, Xingchun; Liu, He; Liu, Hongbo; Fu, Bo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the anaerobic fermentation was carried out for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production at different pH (between 7.0 and 10.0) conditions with untreated sludge and heat-alkaline pretreated waste activated sludge. In the fermentation with untreated sludge, the extent of hydrolysis of organic matters and extent of acidification at alkaline pH are 54.37% and 30.37%, respectively, resulting in the highest VFAs yield at 235.46mg COD/gVS of three pH conditions. In the fermentation with heat-alkaline pretreated sludge, the acidification rate and VFAs yield at neutral pH are 30.98% and 240.14mg COD/gVS, respectively, which are higher than that at other pH conditions. With the glucose or bovine serum albumin as substrate for VFAs production, the neutral pH showed a higher VFAs concentration than the alkaline pH condition. The results of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis indicated that the alkaline pH caused low microbial richness. Based on the results in this study, we demonstrated that the alkaline pH is favor of hydrolysis of organic matter in sludge while neutral pH improved the acidogenesis for the VFAs production from sludge. Our finding is obvious different to the previous research and helpful for the understanding of how heat-alkaline pretreatment and alkaline fermentation influence the VFAs production, and beneficial to the development of VFAs production process.

  14. Strongly alkaline pH avoidance mediated by ASH sensory neurons in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Sassa, Toshihiro; Murayama, Takashi; Maruyama, Ichi N

    2013-10-25

    High pH is a noxious stimulus to animals, and their ability to avoid dangerously alkaline pH is critical for survival. However, the means by which they sense high pH has not been determined. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) avoids environmental pH above 10.5. In contrast, C. elegans mutants with structurally, developmentally, and/or functionally abnormal sensory cilia fail to avoid high pH, suggesting that sensory neurons in the cilia participate in sensing. Genetic rescue of the mutants indicates that ASH polymodal sensory neurons play a vital role in the process. Consistently, specific laser ablation of ASH neurons made animals insensitive to high pH. Furthermore, avoidance assays of other mutants also indicated that transient receptor potential vanilloid type (TRPV) ion channels encoded by osm-9 and ocr-2 are involved in sensing. Indeed, genetic rescue of osm-9 mutants by specifically expressing OSM-9 in ASH showed that TRPV channels play an essential role in sensing of high pH. Ca(2+) imaging in vivo also revealed that ASH neurons were activated by high pH stimulation, but ASH of osm-9 or ocr-2 mutants were not. These results demonstrate that in C. elegans, high pH is sensed by ASH nociceptors through opening of OSM-9/OCR-2 TRPV channels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. pH measurement of low-conductivity waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busenberg, Eurybiades; Plummer, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    pH is an important and commonly measured parameter of precipitation and other natural waters. The various sources of errors in pH measurement were analyzed and procedures for improving the accuracy and precision of pH measurements in natural waters with conductivities of < 100 uS/cm at 25 C are suggested. Detailed procedures are given for the preparation of dilute sulfuric acid standards to evaluate the performance of pH electrodes in low conductivity waters. A daily check of the pH of dilute sulfuric acid standards and deionized water saturated with a gas mixture of low carbon dioxide at partial pressure (air) prior to the measurement of the pH of low conductivity waters is suggested. (Author 's abstract)

  16. Design of stability at extreme alkaline pH in streptococcal protein G.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Benjamin; Angus, Katy; Taylor, Linda; Warwicker, Jim; Derrick, Jeremy P

    2008-04-30

    Protein G (PrtG) is widely used as an affinity-based ligand for the purification of IgG. It would be desirable to improve the resistance of affinity chromatography ligands, such as PrtG, to commercial cleaning-in-place procedures using caustic alkali (0.5 M NaOH). It has been shown that Asn residues are the most susceptible at extreme alkaline pH: here, we show that replacement of all three Asn residues within the IgG-binding domain of PrtG only improves stability towards caustic alkali by about 8-fold. Study of the effects of increasing pH on PrtG by fluorescence and CD shows that the protein unfolds progressively between pH 11.5 and 13.0. Calculation of the variation in electrostatic free energy with pH indicated that deprotonation of Tyr, Lys and Arg side-chains at high pH would destabilize PrtG. Introduction of the triple mutation Y3F/T16I/T18I into PrtG stabilized it by an extra 6.8 kcal/mol and the unfolding of the protein occurred at a pH of about 13, or 1.5 pH units higher than wild type. The results show that strategies for the stabilization of proteins at extreme alkaline pH should consider thermodynamic stabilization that will retain the tertiary structure of the protein and modification of surface electrostatics, as well as mutation of alkali-susceptible residues.

  17. Abiotic Synthesis of Methane Under Alkaline Hydrothermal Conditions: the Effect of pH in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foustoukos, D. I.; Qi, F.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2004-12-01

    Abiotic formation of methane in hydrothermal reaction zones at mid-ocean ridges likely occurs by Fischer-Tropsch catalytic processes involving reaction of CO2-bearing fluids with mineral surfaces. The elevated concentrations of dissolved methane and low molecular weight hydrocarbons observed in high temperature vent fluids issuing from ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems, in particular, suggest that Fe and Cr-bearing mineral phases attribute as catalysts, enhancing abiotic production of alkanes. The chemi-adsorption of dissolved CO2 on the catalytic mineral surface, however, might be influenced by a pH dependent surface electron charge developed within the mineral-fluid interface. Thus, a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the role of pH on rates of carbon reduction in fluids coexisting with Fe-oxides at 390 degree C and 400 bars. At two distinct pH conditions, acidic (pH = 5) and alkaline (pH = 8.8), the abiotic production of isotopically labelled CH4(aq) was monitored during FeO reaction with aqueous NaCl-NaHCO3-H2-bearing fluid (0.56 mol/kg NaCl, 0.03 mol/kg NaH13CO3). Despite the lower H2(aq) concentrations (120 mmol/kg) in the high pH system, concentrations of abiogenic methane attained values of 195 umol/kg and 120 umol/kg respectively, suggesting enhanced catalytic properties of mineral under moderately high pH. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), performed on unreacted and final solid products, reveal the significantly greater abundances of alkyl (C-C-) groups on the surface of FeO oxidized at elevated pH, in comparison with mineral reacted at low pH conditions. Thus, enhanced adsorption of dissolved CO2 and the resulting Fischer-Tropsch formation of alkyl groups likely contributes to methane production observed at alkaline conditions. Introducing the effect of pH in the Fischer-Tropsch mechanism of alkane formation has important implications for the recently discovered Lost City ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal system, where elevated pH

  18. Geochemistry of extremely alkaline (pH>12) ground water in slag-fill aquifers.

    PubMed

    Roadcap, George S; Kelly, Walton R; Bethke, Craig M

    2005-01-01

    Extremely alkaline ground water has been found underneath many shuttered steel mills and slag dumps and has been an impediment to the cleanup and economic redevelopment of these sites because little is known about the geochemistry. A large number of these sites occur in the Lake Calumet region of Chicago, Illinois, where large-scale infilling of the wetlands with steel slag has created an aquifer with pH values as high as 12.8. To understand the geochemistry of the alkaline ground water system, we analyzed samples of ground water and the associated slag and weathering products from four sites. We also considered several potential remediation schemes to lower the pH and toxicity of the water. The principal cause of the alkaline conditions is the weathering of calcium silicates within the slag. The resulting ground water at most of the sites is dominated by Ca2+ and OH- in equilibrium with Ca(OH)2. Where the alkaline ground water discharges in springs, atmospheric CO2 dissolves into the water and thick layers of calcite form. Iron, manganese, and other metals in the metallic portion of the slag have corroded to form more stable low-temperature oxides and sulfides and have not accumulated in large concentrations in the ground water. Calcite precipitated at the springs is rich in a number of heavy metals, suggesting that metals can move through the system as particulate matter. Air sparging appears to be an effective remediation strategy for reducing the toxicity of discharging alkaline water.

  19. The Effects of Alkaline pH on Microleakage of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calcium Enriched Mixture Apical Plugs

    PubMed Central

    Mirhadi, Hossein; Moazzami, Fariborz; Rangani Jahromi, Saeed; Safarzade, Sareh

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Alkaline pH can affect the physical and chemical properties and sealing ability of apical plug material. Calcium hydroxide is used as an intracanal medication to complete disinfection of root canals. It raises the pH of environment to alkaline value. Purpose The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effect of alkaline pH on the sealing ability of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apical plugs. Materials and Method Seventy single-rooted human maxillary anterior teeth were randomly divided to two experimental groups for Angelus MTA and CEM cement (n=30) and two control groups (n=5). Each group was divided into two subgroups of 15 for neutral and alkaline pH, and 1 negative and 1 positive control groups of 5. The root canals were cleaned and shaped by using ProTaper rotary system (Dentsply Maillefer; Ballaigues, Switzerland) and the terminal 3mm of the roots were resected. Then, MTA and CEM cement were condensed in apical region with 3mm thickness. The samples were exposed to two environments with different pH values of 13 and 7.4. The leakage was assessed by using the fluid filtration technique at 1, 7, 14, 30 days intervals. Data were analyzed by the repeated measures MANOVA. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of microleakage between neutral and alkaline pH of CEM cement and MTA (p> 0.05). The sealing ability of MTA in an alkaline pH of 13 was significantly less than CEM cement in this pH (p< 0.05). Conclusion An environment with alkaline pH had no adverse effect on the sealing ability of MTA and CEM cement used as apical plugs. CEM cement had better sealing ability in alkaline pH. PMID:26966703

  20. The Effects of Alkaline pH on Microleakage of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calcium Enriched Mixture Apical Plugs.

    PubMed

    Mirhadi, Hossein; Moazzami, Fariborz; Rangani Jahromi, Saeed; Safarzade, Sareh

    2016-03-01

    Alkaline pH can affect the physical and chemical properties and sealing ability of apical plug material. Calcium hydroxide is used as an intracanal medication to complete disinfection of root canals. It raises the pH of environment to alkaline value. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effect of alkaline pH on the sealing ability of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apical plugs. Seventy single-rooted human maxillary anterior teeth were randomly divided to two experimental groups for Angelus MTA and CEM cement (n=30) and two control groups (n=5). Each group was divided into two subgroups of 15 for neutral and alkaline pH, and 1 negative and 1 positive control groups of 5. The root canals were cleaned and shaped by using ProTaper rotary system (Dentsply Maillefer; Ballaigues, Switzerland) and the terminal 3mm of the roots were resected. Then, MTA and CEM cement were condensed in apical region with 3mm thickness. The samples were exposed to two environments with different pH values of 13 and 7.4. The leakage was assessed by using the fluid filtration technique at 1, 7, 14, 30 days intervals. Data were analyzed by the repeated measures MANOVA. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of microleakage between neutral and alkaline pH of CEM cement and MTA (p> 0.05). The sealing ability of MTA in an alkaline pH of 13 was significantly less than CEM cement in this pH (p< 0.05). An environment with alkaline pH had no adverse effect on the sealing ability of MTA and CEM cement used as apical plugs. CEM cement had better sealing ability in alkaline pH.

  1. Corrosion control in water supply systems: effect of pH, alkalinity, and orthophosphate on lead and copper leaching from brass plumbing.

    PubMed

    Tam, Y S; Elefsiniotis, P

    2009-10-01

    This study explored the potential of lead and copper leaching from brass plumbing in the Auckland region of New Zealand. A five-month field investigation, at six representative locations, indicated that Auckland's water can be characterized as soft and potentially corrosive, having low alkalinity and hardness levels and a moderately alkaline pH. More than 90% of the unflushed samples contained lead above the maximum acceptable value (MAV) of 10 microg/L (New Zealand Standards). In contrast, the copper level of unflushed samples remained consistently below the corresponding MAV of 2 mg/L. Flushing however reduced sharply metal concentrations, with lead values well below the MAV limit. Generally, metal leaching patterns showed a limited degree of correlation with the variations in temperature, dissolved oxygen and free chlorine residual at all sampling locations. Furthermore, a series of bench-scale experiments was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of pH and alkalinity adjustment, as well as orthophosphate addition as corrosion control tools regarding lead and copper dissolution. Results demonstrated that lead and copper leaching was predominant during the first 24 hr of stagnation, but reached an equilibrium state afterwards. Since the soluble fraction of both metals was small (12% for lead, 29% for copper), it is apparent that the non-soluble compounds play a predominant role in the dissolution process. The degree of leaching however was largely affected by the variations in pH and alkalinity. At pH around neutrality, an increase in alkalinity promoted metal dissolution, while at pH 9.0 the effect of alkalinity on leaching was marginal. Lastly, addition of orthophosphate as a corrosion inhibitor was more effective at pH 7.5 or higher, resulting in approximately 70% reduction in both lead and copper concentrations.

  2. pH neutralization and zonation in alkaline-saline tank waste plumes.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jiamin; Larsen, Joern T; Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Zheng, Zuoping

    2004-03-01

    At the Hanford Site in Washington State, the pH values of contaminant plumes resulting from leaking of initially highly alkaline-saline radioactive waste solutions into the subsurface are now found to be substantially neutralized. However, the nature of plume pH neutralization has not previously been understood. As a master geochemical variable, pH needs to be understood in order to predict the fate and transport of contaminants carried by the waste plumes. Through this laboratory study, we found that the plume pH values spanned a broad range from 14 (within the near-source region) down to the value of 7 (lower than the pH value of the initial soil solution) while the plume was still connected to an actively leaking source. We defined two zones within a plume: the silicate dissolution zone (SDZ, pH 14-10) and the neutralized zone (NZ, pH 10-7). Quartz dissolution at elevated temperature and precipitation of secondary silicates (including sodium metasilicate, cancrinite, and zeolites) are the key reactions responsible for the pH neutralization within the SDZ. The rapid and thorough cation exchange of Na+ replacing Ca2+/Mg2+, combined with transport, resulted in a dynamic Ca2+/Mg2+-enriched plume front. Subsequent precipitation of calcite, sodium silicate, and possibly talc led to dramatically reduced pH within the plume front and the neutralized zone. During aging (after the plume source became inactive), continued quartz dissolution and the secondary silicate precipitation drove the pH value lower, toward pH 11 at equilibrium within the SDZ, whereas the pH values in the NZ remained relatively unchanged with time. A pH profile of 11 from the plume source to pH 7 at the plume front is expected for a historical plume. This laboratory-based study provided realistic plume pH profiles (consistent with that measured from borehole samples) and identified underlying mechanisms responsible for pH evolution.

  3. Proton conductance and intracellular pH recovery from an acid load in chicken enterocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Peral, M J; Ilundáin, A A

    1995-01-01

    1. Chicken enterocytes present a Na(+)-independent proton transport mechanism involved in pHi recovery from an acid load. In the current study the nature of this proton transport system is investigated. 2. The pHi of acid-loaded cells increased when transferred to Na(+)-free, pH 7.4 buffers, both at 6 and 65 mM extracellular potassium concentration. Addition of nigericin accelerated the rate of cell alkalinization. 3. When acid-loaded cells were transferred to a Na(+)-free, pH 6.5 buffer, the cells acidified further, regardless of the extracellular potassium concentration. The addition of nigericin increased the rate of acidification at 6 mM K+ but produced an alkalinization at 65 mM K+. 4. The rate of the Na(+)-independent regulatory cell alkalinization was inhibited by SCH 28080, DCCD, NBD-Cl, rotenone or Zn2+. Addition of valinomycin reversed the inhibition induced by SCH 28080, DCCD and NBD-Cl but not that induced by Zn2+ or rotenone. Zn2+ inhibition was abolished by the metal chelator DTPA. 5. Cytosolic acidification increased the rate of Na(+)-independent regulatory cell alkalinization. 6. The results suggest that the Na(+)-independent proton transport system is a Zn(2+)-sensitive proton-conducting pathway which is regulated by the cytosolic proton concentration. PMID:7602517

  4. Geographic distance and pH drive bacterial distribution in alkaline lake sediments across Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jinbo; Liu, Yongqin; Lin, Xiangui; Zhang, Huayong; Zeng, Jun; Hou, Juzhi; Yang, Yongping; Yao, Tandong; Knight, Rob; Chu, Haiyan

    2012-09-01

    Continent-scale biogeography has been extensively studied in soils and marine systems, but little is known about biogeographical patterns in non-marine sediments. We used barcode pyrosequencing to quantify the effects of local geochemical properties and geographic distance for bacterial community structure and membership, using sediment samples from 15 lakes on the Tibetan Plateau (4-1670 km apart). Bacterial communities were surprisingly diverse, and distinct from soil communities. Four of 26 phyla detected were dominant: Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, albeit 20.2% of sequences were unclassified at the phylum level. As previously observed in acidic soil, pH was the dominant factor influencing alkaline sediment community structure, phylotype richness and phylogenetic diversity. In contrast, archaeal communities were less affected by pH. More geographically distant sites had more dissimilar communities (r=0.443, P=0.030). Variance partitioning analysis showed that geographic distance (historical contingencies) contributed more to bacterial community variation (12.2%) than any other factor, although the environmental factors explained more variance when combined (28.9%). Together, our results show that pH is the best predictor of bacterial community structure in alkaline sediments, and confirm that both geographic distance and chemical factors govern bacterial biogeography in lake sediments. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase regulates protective surface microclimate pH in rat duodenum.

    PubMed

    Mizumori, Misa; Ham, Maggie; Guth, Paul H; Engel, Eli; Kaunitz, Jonathan D; Akiba, Yasutada

    2009-07-15

    Regulation of localized extracellular pH (pH(o)) maintains normal organ function. An alkaline microclimate overlying the duodenal enterocyte brush border protects the mucosa from luminal acid. We hypothesized that intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) regulates pH(o) due to pH-sensitive ATP hydrolysis as part of an ecto-purinergic pH regulatory system, comprised of cell-surface P2Y receptors and ATP-stimulated duodenal bicarbonate secretion (DBS). To test this hypothesis, we measured DBS in a perfused rat duodenal loop, examining the effect of the competitive alkaline phosphatase inhibitor glycerol phosphate (GP), the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase inhibitor ARL67156, and exogenous nucleotides or P2 receptor agonists on DBS. Furthermore, we measured perfusate ATP concentration with a luciferin-luciferase bioassay. IAP inhibition increased DBS and luminal ATP output. Increased luminal ATP output was partially CFTR dependent, but was not due to cellular injury. Immunofluorescence localized the P2Y(1) receptor to the brush border membrane of duodenal villi. The P2Y(1) agonist 2-methylthio-ADP increased DBS, whereas the P2Y(1) antagonist MRS2179 reduced ATP- or GP-induced DBS. Acid perfusion augmented DBS and ATP release, further enhanced by the IAP inhibitor l-cysteine, and reduced by the exogenous ATPase apyrase. Furthermore, MRS2179 or the highly selective P2Y(1) antagonist MRS2500 co-perfused with acid induced epithelial injury, suggesting that IAP/ATP/P2Y signalling protects the mucosa from acid injury. Increased DBS augments IAP activity presumably by raising pH(o), increasing the rate of ATP degradation, decreasing ATP-mediated DBS, forming a negative feedback loop. The duodenal epithelial brush border IAP-P2Y-HCO(3-) surface microclimate pH regulatory system effectively protects the mucosa from acid injury.

  6. Anoxic Biodegradation of Isosaccharinic Acids at Alkaline pH by Natural Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Simon P.; Charles, Christopher J.; Doulgeris, Charalampos; McCarthy, Alan J.; Rooks, Dave J.; Loughnane, J. Paul; Laws, Andrew P.; Humphreys, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    One design concept for the long-term management of the UK’s intermediate level radioactive wastes (ILW) is disposal to a cementitious geological disposal facility (GDF). Under the alkaline (10.0<pH>13.0) anoxic conditions expected within a GDF, cellulosic wastes will undergo chemical hydrolysis. The resulting cellulose degradation products (CDP) are dominated by α- and β-isosaccharinic acids (ISA), which present an organic carbon source that may enable subsequent microbial colonisation of a GDF. Microcosms established from neutral, near-surface sediments demonstrated complete ISA degradation under methanogenic conditions up to pH 10.0. Degradation decreased as pH increased, with β-ISA fermentation more heavily influenced than α-ISA. This reduction in degradation rate was accompanied by a shift in microbial population away from organisms related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides to a more diverse Clostridial community. The increase in pH to 10.0 saw an increase in detection of Alcaligenes aquatilis and a dominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens within the Archaeal population. Methane was generated up to pH 10.0 with acetate accumulation at higher pH values reflecting a reduced detection of acetoclastic methanogens. An increase in pH to 11.0 resulted in the accumulation of ISA, the absence of methanogenesis and the loss of biomass from the system. This study is the first to demonstrate methanogenesis from ISA by near surface microbial communities not previously exposed to these compounds up to and including pH 10.0. PMID:26367005

  7. Transcriptome Profiling of Shewanella oneidensis Gene Expressionfollowing Exposure to Acidic and Alkaline pH

    SciTech Connect

    Leaphart, Adam B.; Thompson, Dorothea K.; Huang, Katherine; Alm,Eric; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Arkin, Adam P.; Brown, Steven D.; Wu, Liyou; Yan,Tingfen; Liu, Xueduan; Wickham, Gene S.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2007-04-02

    The molecular response of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 tovariations in extracellular pH was investigated based on genomewide geneexpression profiling. Microarray analysis revealed that cells elicitedboth general and specific transcriptome responses when challenged withenvironmental acid (pH 4) or base (pH 10) conditions over a 60-minperiod. Global responses included the differential expression of genesfunctionally linked to amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulationand signal transduction, transport, cell membrane structure, andoxidative stress protection. Response to acid stress included theelevated expression of genes encoding glycogen biosynthetic enzymes,phosphate transporters, and the RNA polymerase sigma-38 factor (rpoS),whereas the molecular response to alkaline pH was characterized byupregulation of nhaA and nhaR, which are predicted to encode an Na+/H+antiporter and transcriptional activator, respectively, as well assulfate transport and sulfur metabolism genes. Collectively, theseresults suggest that S. oneidensis modulates multiple transporters, cellenvelope components, and pathways of amino acid consumption and centralintermediary metabolism as part of its transcriptome response to changingexternal pH conditions.

  8. Predicting Carbonate Species Ionic Conductivity in Alkaline Anion Exchange Membranes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    anion exchange membranes. Andrew M. Kiss, Timothy D . Myles, Kyle N. Grew, Aldo A. Peracchio, George J. Nelson, and Wilson K. S. Chiu University of...Alkaline Anion Exchange Membranes Andrew M. Kiss1, Timothy D . Myles1, Kyle N. Grew2, Aldo A. Peracchio1, George J. Nelson1, and Wilson K. S. Chiu1* 1...Vol. 301, 93-106, 2007. 16. Satterfleld,M.B., Benziger,J.B., J. Phys. Chem. B, Vol. 112,12, 3693 -3704, 2008. 17. Motupally,S., Becker,A.J

  9. Use of natural mordenite to remove chromium (III) and to neutralize pH of alkaline waste waters.

    PubMed

    Córdova-Rodríguez, Valduvina; Rodríguez-Iznaga, Inocente; Acosta-Chávez, Raquel María; Chávez-Rivas, Fernando; Petranovskii, Vitalii; Pestryakov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The natural mordenite from Palmarito de Cauto deposit (PZ), Cuba, was studied in this work as an ion exchanger to remove Cr(3+) cations from alkaline aqueous solutions at different pH and chromium concentrations. The mordenite stability under cyclic treatment processes with alkaline solutions and its capacity to decrease the pH of the solutions was also analyzed. It was shown that PZ removes Cr(3+) ions from alkaline solutions, and it happens independently of the starting chromium concentration and the pH of the exchange solution used. This material has an important neutralizing effect on alkaline solutions, expressed in a significant pH decrease from the early stages of the treatments. For solutions with initial pH equal to 11, it decreases to a value of around seven. The stability of this material is not affected significantly after continuous cyclic treatment with NaOH solution, which shows that mordenite, in particular from Palmarito de Cauto deposit, has high stability in alkaline solutions. The results are important as they suggest that natural zeolites may be of interest in treatments of alkaline industrial waste effluents.

  10. Electrospray ionization of alkali and alkaline earth metal species. Electrochemical oxidation and pH effects

    PubMed

    Ross; Ikonomou; Orians

    2000-08-01

    The utility of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for characterizing dissolved metal species has generated considerable interest in the use of this technique for metal speciation. However, the development of accurate speciation methods based on ESI-MS requires a detailed understanding of the mechanisms by which dissolved metal species are ionized during electrospray. We report how the analysis of alkali and alkaline earth metal species provides new information about some of the processes that affect electrospray ion yield. Selected metal ions and organic ligands were combined in 50 : 50 water-acetonitrile buffered with acetic acid or ammonium acetate and analyzed by flow injection ESI-MS using mild electrospray conditions. Species formed by alkali metal ions with thiol and oxygen-donating ligands were detected in acidic and neutral pH solutions. Electrochemical oxidation of N, N-diethyldithiocarbamate and glutathione during electrospray was indicated by detection of the corresponding disulfides as protonated or alkali metal species. The extent of ligand oxidation depended on solution pH and the dissociation constant of the thiol group. Tandem mass spectrometric experiments suggested that radical cations such as [NaL](+.) (where L=N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate) can be generated by in-source fragmentation of disulfide species. Greater complexation of alkali metals at neutral pH was indicated by a corresponding decrease in the relative abundance of the free metal ion. The number of alkali metal ions bound by glutathione and phthalic acid also increased with increasing pH, in accordance with thermodynamic equilibrium theory. Alkaline earth metal species were detected only in acidic solutions, the absence of 8-hydroxyquinoline complexes being attributed to their relative instability and subsequent dissociation during electrospray. Hence, accurate speciation by ESI-MS depends on experimental conditions and the intrinsic properties of each analyte. Copyright

  11. Uranium(VI) Diffusion in Sodium-Montmorillonite at Alkaline pH Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinnacher, R. M.; Davis, J. A.; Tournassat, C.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Diffusive transport of uranium(VI) in montmorillonite clay and bentonite has important implications for uranium(VI) mobility in engineered barrier systems or host rocks in high level radioactive waste repositories, and clay-rich soils and sediments in the environment. The prediction of uranium(VI) adsorption and diffusion in clay-rich media, however, is complicated by (1) the complexity of the mineralogical structure of montmorillonite, in terms of its pore-size distributions and available surface site types, and (2) the complex uranium(VI) solution speciation, which can include cationic, uncharged, and anionic complexes, depending on solution conditions. For instance, a partial or full exclusion of anions from negatively charged clay interlayer spaces could change the effective 'anion-accessible' porosity and decrease the diffusive flux of these solutes under steady state conditions. In contrast, weak cation exchange reactions can result in 'surface diffusion' of adsorbed cations, such as UO2OH+, in addition to diffusion in the liquid phase, resulting in greater diffusive fluxes at steady state. In order to investigate these complex interactions, we performed two, lab-scale uranium(VI) through-diffusion experiments in lightly compacted Na-montmorillonite at slightly different, alkaline pH conditions (average pH values of 8.69 and 8.87). Observed uranium(VI) diffusive fluxes were decreased by approximately an order of magnitude in comparison to a tritium tracer. This indicates a relevance of 'anion exclusion' effects, the full or partial exclusion of anionic U(VI)-carbonato species from clay interlayer spaces. In addition, uranium(VI) sorption reactions were shown to be relevant in the diffusion experiments, even at alkaline pH values of around 8.7 and 8.9, where uranium(VI) sorption is low compared to other pH conditions. Despite the similarity of pH conditions, different degrees of uranium(VI) retardation were determined for the two systems. Additionally, we

  12. Improved methane production from waste activated sludge with low organic content by alkaline pretreatment at pH 10.

    PubMed

    Feng, L Y; Yang, L Q; Zhang, L X; Chen, H L; Chen, J

    2013-01-01

    Sludge with low organic content always results in an unsatisfactory performance, even failure of anaerobic digestion. The alkaline pretreatment effect on anaerobic digestion of sludge with low organic content has seldom been studied although it gives many benefits for sludge with high organic content. In this study the influence of alkaline pretreatment (pH 10, an effective alkaline pH) on the solubilization and methane production from waste activated sludge (WAS) with low organic content was investigated. Results from biochemical methane potential (BMP) experiments showed that anaerobic biodegradability of WAS was greatly improved by alkaline pretreatment at pH 10. Methane production from the current WAS under conditions of pretreatment time 4 h and digestion time 15 d was 139.6 mL/g VS (volatile solids), much higher than that from the unpretreated WAS with digestion time of 20 d (75.2 mL/g VS). Also, the solubilization of WAS was significantly accelerated by alkaline pretreatment. Mechanism exploration indicated that the general activities of anaerobic microorganisms, specific activities of key enzymes and the amounts of methanogens were enhanced by alkaline pretreatment at pH 10, showing good agreement with methane production.

  13. Floc Formation Reduces the pH Stress Experienced by Microorganisms Living in Alkaline Environments.

    PubMed

    Charles, C J; Rout, S P; Patel, K A; Akbar, S; Laws, A P; Jackson, B R; Boxall, S A; Humphreys, P N

    2017-03-15

    The survival of microorganisms within a cementitious geological disposal facility for radioactive wastes heavily depends on their ability to survive the calcium-dominated, hyperalkaline conditions resulting from the dissolution of the cementitious materials. The results from this study show that the formation of flocs, composed of a complex mixture of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), provides protection against alkaline pH values up to 13.0. The flocs were dominated by Alishewanella and Dietzia spp., producing a mannose-rich carbohydrate fraction incorporating extracellular DNA, resulting in Ca(2+) sequestration. EPS provided a ∼10-μm thick layer around the cells within the center of the flocs, which were capable of growth at pH values of 11.0 and 11.5, maintaining internal pH values of 10.4 and 10.7, respectively. Microorganisms survived at a pH of 12.0, where an internal floc pH of 11.6 was observed, as was a reduced associated biomass. We observed limited floc survival (<2 weeks) at a pH of 13.0. This study demonstrates that flocs maintain lower internal pHs in response to the hyperalkaline conditions expected to occur within a cementitious geological disposal facility for radioactive wastes and indicates that floc communities within such a facility can survive at pHs up to 12.0.IMPORTANCE The role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the survival of microorganisms in hyperalkaline conditions is poorly understood. Here, we present the taxonomy, morphology, and chemical characteristics of an EPS-based microbial floc, formed by a consortium isolated from an anthropogenic hyperalkaline site. Short-term (<2 weeks) survival of the flocs at a pH of 13 was observed, with indefinite survival observed at a pH of 12.0. Measurements from micro-pH electrodes (10-μm-diameter tip) demonstrated that flocs maintain lower internal pHs in response to hyperalkaline conditions (pH 11.0, 11.5, and 12.0), demonstrating that floc formation and EPS production are

  14. Floc Formation Reduces the pH Stress Experienced by Microorganisms Living in Alkaline Environments

    PubMed Central

    Charles, C. J.; Rout, S. P.; Patel, K. A.; Akbar, S.; Laws, A. P.; Jackson, B. R.; Boxall, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The survival of microorganisms within a cementitious geological disposal facility for radioactive wastes heavily depends on their ability to survive the calcium-dominated, hyperalkaline conditions resulting from the dissolution of the cementitious materials. The results from this study show that the formation of flocs, composed of a complex mixture of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), provides protection against alkaline pH values up to 13.0. The flocs were dominated by Alishewanella and Dietzia spp., producing a mannose-rich carbohydrate fraction incorporating extracellular DNA, resulting in Ca2+ sequestration. EPS provided a ∼10-μm thick layer around the cells within the center of the flocs, which were capable of growth at pH values of 11.0 and 11.5, maintaining internal pH values of 10.4 and 10.7, respectively. Microorganisms survived at a pH of 12.0, where an internal floc pH of 11.6 was observed, as was a reduced associated biomass. We observed limited floc survival (<2 weeks) at a pH of 13.0. This study demonstrates that flocs maintain lower internal pHs in response to the hyperalkaline conditions expected to occur within a cementitious geological disposal facility for radioactive wastes and indicates that floc communities within such a facility can survive at pHs up to 12.0. IMPORTANCE The role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the survival of microorganisms in hyperalkaline conditions is poorly understood. Here, we present the taxonomy, morphology, and chemical characteristics of an EPS-based microbial floc, formed by a consortium isolated from an anthropogenic hyperalkaline site. Short-term (<2 weeks) survival of the flocs at a pH of 13 was observed, with indefinite survival observed at a pH of 12.0. Measurements from micro-pH electrodes (10-μm-diameter tip) demonstrated that flocs maintain lower internal pHs in response to hyperalkaline conditions (pH 11.0, 11.5, and 12.0), demonstrating that floc formation and EPS

  15. The characterization of soybean oil body integral oleosin isoforms and the effects of alkaline pH on them.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanyun; Zhao, Luping; Ying, Yusang; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei; Chen, Yeming

    2015-06-15

    Oil body, an organelle in seed cell (naturally pre-emulsified oil), has great potentials to be used in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and other applications requiring stable oil-in-water emulsions. Researchers have tried to extract oil body by alkaline buffers, which are beneficial for removing contaminated proteins. But it is not clear whether alkaline buffers could remove oil body integral proteins (mainly oleosins), which could keep oil body integrity and stability. In this study, seven oleosin isoforms were identified for soybean oil body (three isoforms, 24 kDa; three isoforms, 18 kDa; one isoform, 16kDa). Oleosins were not glycoproteins and 24 kDa oleosin isoforms possessed less thiol groups than 18 kDa ones. It was found that alkaline pH not only removed contaminated proteins but also oleosins, and more and more oleosins were removed with increasing alkaline pH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Minimising alkalinity and pH spikes from Portland cement-bound Bauxsol (seawater-neutralized red mud) pellets for pH circum-neutral waters.

    PubMed

    Despland, Laure M; Clark, Malcolm W; Aragno, Michel; Vancov, Tony

    2010-03-15

    Bauxsol reagents (powder, slurry, or pellet forms) are powerful tools in environmental remediation and water and sewage treatment However, when used in circum-neutral water treatments, cement-bound Bauxsol pellets produce a sustained pH and alkalinity spike due to the presence of unreacted CaO in the cement binder. This study developed a pellet treatment system to minimize the alkalinity/pH spike. The recipe for pelletization consisted of Bauxsol powder, ordinary Portland cement (OPC), hydrophilic fumed silica, aluminum powder, a viscosity modifier, and water. Several batches (including different ratios and sizes) were run using modified makeup waters (H(2)0 + CO(2) or NaHCO(3)) or curing brines (CO(2), NaHCO(3), or Mg/CaCl(2)). Alkalinity, pH stability, and slake durability tests were performed on pellets before and/or after curing. The best result for reducing the alkalinity/pH spike was obtained from a MgCl(2), CaCl(2) bath treatment using a Bauxsol:cement ratio of 2.8:1 (pH 8.28; alkalinity 75.1 mg/L) for a 100 g batch or 245:1 (pH 8.05; alkalinity 35.4 mg/L) for a 1 kg batch. Although brine curing does provide a control on pH/alkalinity release, the pellets may still contain unreacted CaO. Therefore, a freshwater rinse of pellets before treating circum-neutral waters is recommended as is the continued investigation of alternative pellet binders.

  17. Solid State Sensor for Simultaneous Measurement of Total Alkalinity and pH of Seawater.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Ellen M; Sandoval, Sergio; Erten, Ahmet; Takeshita, Yuichiro; Kummel, Andrew C; Martz, Todd R

    2017-09-22

    A novel design is demonstrated for a solid state, reagent-less sensor capable of rapid and simultaneous measurement of pH and Total Alkalinity (AT) using ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) technology to provide a simplified means of characterization of the aqueous carbon dioxide system through measurement of two "master variables": pH and AT. ISFET-based pH sensors that achieve 0.001 precision are widely used in various oceanographic applications. A modified ISFET is demonstrated to perform a nanoliter-scale acid-base titration of AT in under 40 s. This method of measuring AT, a Coulometric Diffusion Titration, involves electrolytic generation of titrant, H(+), through the electrolysis of water on the surface of the chip via a microfabricated electrode eliminating the requirement of external reagents. Characterization has been performed in seawater as well as titrating individual components (i.e., OH(-), HCO3(-), CO3(2-), B(OH)4(-), PO4(3-)) of seawater AT. The seawater measurements are consistent with the design in reaching the benchmark goal of 0.5% precision in AT over the range of seawater AT of ∼2200-2500 μmol kg(-1) which demonstrates great potential for autonomous sensing.

  18. Fluorescent probes and bioimaging: alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and pH.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Hu, Ying; Yoon, Juyoung

    2015-07-21

    All living species and life forms have an absolute requirement for bio-functional metals and acid-base equilibrium chemistry owing to the critical roles they play in biological processes. Hence, a great need exists for efficient methods to detect and monitor biometals and acids. In the last few years, great attention has been paid to the development of organic molecule based fluorescent chemosensors. The availability of new synthetic fluorescent probes has made fluorescence microscopy an indispensable tool for tracing biologically important molecules and in the area of clinical diagnostics. This review highlights the recent advances that have been made in the design and bioimaging applications of fluorescent probes for alkali metals and alkaline earth metal cations, including lithium, sodium and potassium, magnesium and calcium, and for pH determination within biological systems.

  19. A single pH fluorescent probe for biosensing and imaging of extreme acidity and extreme alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jian-Bin; Wang, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Yong-Bin; Li, Zhi-Qing; Liu, Yu-Hong; Huo, Fang-Jun; Yin, Cai-Xia; Shi, Ya-Wei; Wang, Juan-Juan

    2017-07-04

    A simple tailor-made pH fluorescent probe 2-benzothiazole (N-ethylcarbazole-3-yl) hydrazone (Probe) is facilely synthesized by the condensation reaction of 2-hydrazinobenzothiazole with N-ethylcarbazole-3-formaldehyde, which is a useful fluorescent probe for monitoring extremely acidic and alkaline pH, quantitatively. The pH titrations indicate that Probe displays a remarkable emission enhancement with a pKa of 2.73 and responds linearly to minor pH fluctuations within the extremely acidic range of 2.21-3.30. Interestingly, Probe also exhibits strong pH-dependent characteristics with pKa 11.28 and linear response to extreme-alkalinity range of 10.41-12.43. In addition, Probe shows a large Stokes shift of 84 nm under extremely acidic and alkaline conditions, high selectivity, excellent sensitivity, good water-solubility and fine stability, all of which are favorable for intracellular pH imaging. The probe is further successfully applied to image extremely acidic and alkaline pH values fluctuations in E. coli cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Distribution of Surface pH and Total Alkalinity at the Sea of Okhotsk and the East Sea in October 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, J.; Kang, D.; Jin, Y.; Obzhirov, A.

    2008-12-01

    Surface pH, total alkalinity, temperature and salinity were measured at the Sea of Okhotsk and the East Sea (along a track from Vladivostok to the northeastern slope of Sakhalin Island through Soya Strait: 42°N, 132°E - 55°N, 145°E) in October 2007. Continuous pH measurements were conducted using an underway potentiometric pH system modified from Tishchenko et al. (2002) and discrete total alkalinity measurements were made by direct titration with hydrochloric acid. Warm saline surface waters were observed in the East Sea (from Vladivostok to Soya Strait), and relatively cold less-saline waters were observed in the Sea of Okhotsk (at the eastern slopes of Sakhalin Island). In the East Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk, surface pH ranged from 8.063 to 8.158 and 8.047 to 8.226, and total alkalinity normalized to salinity 35 ranged from 2323 to 2344 μmol kg-1 and 2367 to 2422 μmol kg-1, respectively. Due to the freshwater input from rivers and geochemical activity in the water column and sediment, the Sea of Okhotsk generally showed much wider ranges of water properties and richer in carbonate parameters than those of the East Sea. Particularly, water properties changed dramatically at the eastern slopes of Sakhalin Island; surface salinity decreased southward by about 0.5-1 psu and pH and normalized total alkalinity increased southward by about 0.05-0.1 and 20-50 μmol kg-1, respectively. Thus, pCO2 concentration calculated from pH and total alkalinity, ranged from 350-375 μatm in the north to 280-300 μatm in the south of the Okhotsk Sea. The high pH and normalized total alkalinity, and low pCO2 and salinity in the south might be the result of surface water mixing with fresh water discharge from rivers and/or the results of massive primary production along the eastern coast of Sakhalin Island. In the most study area, surface pCO2 ranged from 280 to 370 μatm and was undersaturated relative to atmosphere. Therefore, the Sea of Okhotsk and the East Sea acted as

  1. pH and Organic Carbon Dose Rates Control Microbially Driven Bioremediation Efficacy in Alkaline Bauxite Residue.

    PubMed

    Santini, Talitha C; Malcolm, Laura I; Tyson, Gene W; Warren, Lesley A

    2016-10-18

    Bioremediation of alkaline tailings, based on fermentative microbial metabolisms, is a novel strategy for achieving rapid pH neutralization and thus improving environmental outcomes associated with mining and refining activities. Laboratory-scale bioreactors containing bauxite residue (an alkaline, saline tailings material generated as a byproduct of alumina refining), to which a diverse microbial inoculum was added, were used in this study to identify key factors (pH, salinity, organic carbon supply) controlling the rates and extent of microbially driven pH neutralization (bioremediation) in alkaline tailings. Initial tailings pH and organic carbon dose rates both significantly affected bioremediation extent and efficiency with lower minimum pHs and higher extents of pH neutralization occurring under low initial pH or high organic carbon conditions. Rates of pH neutralization (up to 0.13 mM H(+) produced per day with pH decreasing from 9.5 to ≤6.5 in three days) were significantly higher in low initial pH treatments. Representatives of the Bacillaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, which contain many known facultative anaerobes and fermenters, were identified as key contributors to 2,3-butanediol and/or mixed acid fermentation as the major mechanism(s) of pH neutralization. Initial pH and salinity significantly influenced microbial community successional trajectories, and microbial community structure was significantly related to markers of fermentation activity. This study provides the first experimental demonstration of bioremediation in bauxite residue, identifying pH and organic carbon dose rates as key controls on bioremediation efficacy, and will enable future development of bioreactor technologies at full field scale.

  2. Escherichia coli is able to grow with negligible sodium ion extrusion activity at alkaline pH.

    PubMed Central

    Ohyama, T; Imaizumi, R; Igarashi, K; Kobayashi, H

    1992-01-01

    The Escherichia coli mutant NM81, which is deficient in the nhaA gene for the sodium/proton antiporter, still has a sodium ion extrusion activity because of a second antiporter encoded by nhaB (E. Padan, N. Maisler, D. Taglicht, R. Karpel, and S. Schuldiner, J. Biol. Chem. 264:20297-20302, 1989). By chance, we have found that E. coli pop6810 already contains a mutation affecting the sodium ion circulation, probably in or near nhaB, and that its delta nhaA mutant, designated RS1, has no sodium ion extrusion activity at alkaline pH. The growth of RS1 was inhibited completely by 0.1 M sodium, whereas growth inhibition of NM81 was observed only at sodium concentrations greater than 0.2 M. RS1 grew at a normal rate in an alkaline medium containing a low sodium concentration. Furthermore, RS1 grew with a negligible proton motive force in the alkaline medium containing carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. The transport activities for proline and serine were not impaired in RS1, suggesting that these transport systems could be driven by the proton motive force at alkaline pH. These findings led us to conclude that the operation of the sodium/proton antiporter is not essential for growth at alkaline pH but that the antiporter is required for maintaining a low internal sodium concentration when the growth medium contains a high concentration of these ions. PMID:1332943

  3. Low temperature alkaline pH hydrolysis of oxygen-free Titan tholins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassé, C.; Buch, A.; Raulin, F.; Coll, P.; Poch, O.; Ramirez, S.

    2013-09-01

    Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is known for its dense and nitrogen-rich atmosphere. The organic aerosols which are produced in Titan's atmosphere are objects of astrobiological interest. In this paper we focus on their potential chemical evolution when they reach the surface and interact with putative ammonia-water cryomagma[1]. In this context we have studied the evolution of alkaline pH hydrolysis of Titan tholins (produced by an experimental setup using a plasma DC discharge named PLASMA) at ambient and low temperature. However, we identified oxygenated molecules in non-hydrolyzed tholins meaning that oxygen gets in the PLASMA reactor during the tholins synthesis [2]. Following this preliminary study the synthesis protocol has been improved by isolating the whole device in a specially designed glove box which protect the PLASMA experiment from the laboratory atmosphere. After confirming the non-presence of oxygen in tholins produced with this new experimental setup, the study of oxygen-free tholins' evolution has been carried out. A recent study shows that the subsurface ocean may contain a lower fraction of ammonia (about 5wt% or less [3]), as previously described by other teams [2,4]. Thus new hydrolysis experiments will take this lower value into account. Additionally, a new report [5] provides upper and lower limits for the bulk content of Titan's interior for various gas species. It also shows that most of them are likely stored and dissolved in the subsurface water ocean. But considering the plausible acido-alkaline properties of the ammonia-water ocean, additional species could be dissolved in the ocean and present in the magma. They were also included in our hydrolysis experiments. Taking into account these new data, four different hydrolysis have been applied to oxygen-free tholins. For each type of hydrolysis, we also follow the influence of the hydrolysis temperature on the organic molecules production. The preliminary qualitative and quantitative

  4. Effect of pH alkaline salts of fatty acids on the inhibition of bacteria associated with poultry processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine the effect of pH on the ability of alkaline salts of three fatty acids (FA) to inhibit growth of bacteria associated with poultry processing. FA solutions were prepared by dissolving 0.5 M concentrations of caprylic, capric, or lauric acid in separate ali...

  5. HYDROXYL RADICAL/OZONE RATIOS DURING OZONATION PROCESSES. II. THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE, PH, ALKALINITY, AND DOM PROPERTIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of temperature, pH, alkalinity, and type and concentration of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the rate of ozone (O3) decomposition, O3-exposure, .OH-exposure and the ratio Rct of the concentrations of .OH and O3 has been studied. For a standardized single ozon...

  6. Effect of influent pH and alkalinity on the removal of chlorophenols in sequential anaerobic-aerobic reactors.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Partha Sarathi; Gupta, S K

    2009-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of influent pH and alkalinity on the performance of sequential UASB and RBC reactors for the removal of 2-CP and 2,4-DCP from two different simulated wastewaters. The performance of methanogens at low (<6.0) to high (>8.0) pH values and at sufficiently high alkalinity (1500-3500 mg/l as CaCO(3)) is described in this paper. Sequential reactors were capable of handling wastewaters with influent pH, 5.5-8.5. However, with influent pH 7.0+/-0.1 UASB reactor showed best performance for 2-CP (99%) and 2,4-DCP (88%) removals. Increase in alkalinity/COD ratio in the influent (>1.1) caused gradual decrease in the chlorophenol removal in UASB reactors. The UASB reactors could not tolerate wastewater with higher alkalinity/COD ratio (2.6) and showed significant deterioration of its performance in terms of chlorophenols removal achieving only 74.7% 2-CP and 60% 2,4-DCP removals, respectively.

  7. Treatment of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis with a sublethal concentration of trisodium phosphate or alkaline pH induces thermotolerance.

    PubMed

    Sampathkumar, Balamurugan; Khachatourians, George G; Korber, Darren R

    2004-08-01

    The responses of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis to a sublethal dose of trisodium phosphate (TSP) and its equivalent alkaline pH made with NaOH were examined. Pretreatment of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis cells with 1.5% TSP or pH 10.0 solutions resulted in a significant increase in thermotolerance, resistance to 2.5% TSP, resistance to high pH, and sensitivity to acid and H(2)O(2). Protein inhibition studies with chloramphenicol revealed that thermotolerance, unlike resistance to high pH, was dependent on de novo protein synthesis. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of total cellular proteins from untreated control cells resolved as many as 232 proteins, of which 22 and 15% were absent in TSP- or alkaline pH-pretreated cells, respectively. More than 50% of the proteins that were either up- or down-regulated by TSP pretreatment were also up- or down-regulated by alkaline pH pretreatment. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE analysis of detergent-insoluble outer membrane proteins revealed the up-regulation of at least four proteins. Mass spectrometric analysis showed the up-regulated proteins to include those involved in the transport of small hydrophilic molecules across the cytoplasmic membrane and those that act as chaperones and aid in the export of newly synthesized proteins by keeping them in open conformation. Other up-regulated proteins included common housekeeping proteins like those involved in amino acid biosynthesis, nucleotide metabolism, and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis. In addition to the differential expression of proteins following TSP or alkaline pH treatment, changes in membrane fatty acid composition were also observed. Alkaline pH- or TSP-pretreated cells showed a higher saturated and cyclic to unsaturated fatty acid ratio than did the untreated control cells. These results suggest that the cytoplasmic membrane could play a significant role in the induction of thermotolerance and resistance to other stresses following TSP

  8. Treatment of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis with a Sublethal Concentration of Trisodium Phosphate or Alkaline pH Induces Thermotolerance

    PubMed Central

    Sampathkumar, Balamurugan; Khachatourians, George G.; Korber, Darren R.

    2004-01-01

    The responses of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis to a sublethal dose of trisodium phosphate (TSP) and its equivalent alkaline pH made with NaOH were examined. Pretreatment of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis cells with 1.5% TSP or pH 10.0 solutions resulted in a significant increase in thermotolerance, resistance to 2.5% TSP, resistance to high pH, and sensitivity to acid and H2O2. Protein inhibition studies with chloramphenicol revealed that thermotolerance, unlike resistance to high pH, was dependent on de novo protein synthesis. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of total cellular proteins from untreated control cells resolved as many as 232 proteins, of which 22 and 15% were absent in TSP- or alkaline pH-pretreated cells, respectively. More than 50% of the proteins that were either up- or down-regulated by TSP pretreatment were also up- or down-regulated by alkaline pH pretreatment. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE analysis of detergent-insoluble outer membrane proteins revealed the up-regulation of at least four proteins. Mass spectrometric analysis showed the up-regulated proteins to include those involved in the transport of small hydrophilic molecules across the cytoplasmic membrane and those that act as chaperones and aid in the export of newly synthesized proteins by keeping them in open conformation. Other up-regulated proteins included common housekeeping proteins like those involved in amino acid biosynthesis, nucleotide metabolism, and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis. In addition to the differential expression of proteins following TSP or alkaline pH treatment, changes in membrane fatty acid composition were also observed. Alkaline pH- or TSP-pretreated cells showed a higher saturated and cyclic to unsaturated fatty acid ratio than did the untreated control cells. These results suggest that the cytoplasmic membrane could play a significant role in the induction of thermotolerance and resistance to other stresses following TSP or

  9. Low temperature alkaline pH hydrolysis of oxygen-free Titan tholins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassé, Coralie; Buch, Arnaud; Raulin, François; Coll, Patrice; Poch, Olivier; Ramirez, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    The largest moon of Saturn, Titan, is known for its dense, nitrogen-rich atmosphere. The organic aerosols which are produced in Titan's atmosphere are of great astrobiological interest, particularly because of their potential evolution when they reach the surface and may interact with putative ammonia-water cryomagma[1]. In this context we have followed the evolution of alkaline pH hydrolysis (25wt% ammonia-water) of Titan tholins (produced by an experimental setup using a plasma DC discharge named PLASMA) at low temperature. Urea has been identified as one of the main product of tholins hydrolysis along with several amino acids (alanine, glycine and aspartic acid). However, those molecules have also been detected in non-hydrolyzed tholins. One explanation is a possible oxygen leak in the PLASMA reactor during the tholins synthesis[2]. Following this preliminary study the synthesis protocol has been improved by isolating the whole device in a specially designed glove box which protect the PLASMA experiment from the laboratory atmosphere. Once we confirmed the non-presence of oxygen in tholins, we performed alkaline pH hydrolysis of oxygen-free tholins. Then we verify that the organic compounds cited above are still produced in-situ. Moreover, a recent study shows that the subsurface ocean may contain a lower fraction of ammonia (about 5wt% or less[3]), than the one used until now in this kind of experimental study[2, 4]. Thus, we have carried out new hydrolysis experiments which take this lower value into account. Additional studies have provided new highlights on the bulk composition of Titan for various gas species. Indeed, the observed Saturn's atmosphere enrichment constrains the composition of the planetesimals present in the feeding zone of Saturn. The enrichment in volatiles in Saturn's atmosphere has been reproduced by assuming the presence of specific gas species[5, 6], in particular CO2 and H2S. In the present study we assume that those gas species have

  10. Quaternary structure of partially liganded intermediates of sheep carbon monoxide hemoglobin at alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Gray, R D

    1975-01-25

    A rapid change in absorbance was observed in the Soret region during the interval between photolysis of sheep carbon monoxide hemoglobin and the subsequent reassociation of CO in the dark. The rate constant for this spectral change was about 4000 s--1 at 20 degrees in 0.05 M solium borate, pH 9.3. The wavelength dependence of the amplitude of the absorbance change is similar to that observed when deoxygenated alpha and theta chains are allowed to recombine (Brunori, M., Antonini, E., Wyman, J., and Anderson, S. R. (1968) J. Mol. Biol. 34, 357-359), and therefore reflects changes in the quanternary structure of the hemoglobin tetramer induced by ligand displacement. The amplitude of this conformation-dependent spectral change was not a linear function of the fraction of bound CO removed by photolysis. The results suggest that of the possible intermediate species present after partial photolysis, only Hb4 and Hb4(CO) change from the ligand-bound to the ligand-free sturcture prior to CO reassociation under these alkaline conditions.

  11. Modeling the effect of membrane conductivity on the performance of alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raya, Isaac P.; Ellis, Michael W.; Hernandez-Guerrero, Abel; Elizalde-Blancas, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    The present work proposes and demonstrates a methodology to capture the effect of operating conditions on ionic conductivity of membranes immersed in alkaline media. Based on reported experimental results for an anion exchange membrane (A-201 by Tokuyama) and a cation exchange membrane (Nafion 211), two novel expressions are developed for the ionic conductivity by incorporating the effects of solution concentration and temperature. The expression for the cationic conductivity is applied in a cell-level model to predict the performance of an alkaline direct borohydride fuel cell; it is found that the membrane ionic conductivity significantly affects the cell performance and capturing its functionality is essential to accurately predict the fuel cell performance.

  12. Sewage sludge pretreatment by microwave irradiation combined with activated carbon fibre at alkaline pH for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dedong; Guo, Sixiao; Ma, Nina; Wang, Guowen; Ma, Chun; Hao, Jun; Xue, Mang; Zhang, Xinxin

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on the effects of microwave-assisted activated carbon fibre (ACF) (MW-ACF) treatment on sewage sludge at alkaline pH. The disintegration and biodegradability of sewage sludge were studied. It was found that the MW-ACF process at alkaline pH provided a rapid and efficient process to disrupt the microbial cells in the sludge. The results suggested that when irradiated at 800 W MW for 110 s with a dose of 1.0 g ACF/g solid concentration (SS) at pH 10.5, the MW-ACF pretreatment achieved 55% SS disintegration, 23% greater than the value of MW alone (32%). The concentration of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, supernatant soluble chemical oxygen demand, protein, and polysaccharide increased by 60%, 144%, 145%, 74%, and 77%, respectively. An increase in biogas production by 63.7% was achieved after 20 days of anaerobic digestion (AD), compared to the control. The results indicated that the MW-ACF pretreatment process at alkaline pH provides novel sludge management options in disintegration of sewage sludge for further AD.

  13. Highly stable, anion conductive, comb-shaped copolymers for alkaline fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Nanwen; Leng, Yongjun; Hickner, Michael A; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2013-07-10

    To produce an anion-conductive and durable polymer electrolyte for alkaline fuel cell applications, a series of quaternized poly(2,6-dimethyl phenylene oxide)s containing long alkyl side chains pendant to the nitrogen-centered cation were synthesized using a Menshutkin reaction to form comb-shaped structures. The pendant alkyl chains were responsible for the development of highly conductive ionic domains, as confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The comb-shaped polymers having one alkyl side chain showed higher hydroxide conductivities than those with benzyltrimethyl ammonium moieties or structures with more than one alkyl side chain per cationic site. The highest conductivity was observed for comb-shaped polymers with benzyldimethylhexadecyl ammonium cations. The chemical stabilities of the comb-shaped membranes were evaluated under severe, accelerated-aging conditions, and degradation was observed by measuring IEC and ion conductivity changes during aging. The comb-shaped membranes retained their high ion conductivity in 1 M NaOH at 80 °C for 2000 h. These cationic polymers were employed as ionomers in catalyst layers for alkaline fuel cells. The results indicated that the C-16 alkyl side chain ionomer had a slightly better initial performance, despite its low IEC value, but very poor durability in the fuel cell. In contrast, 90% of the initial performance was retained for the alkaline fuel cell with electrodes containing the C-6 side chain after 60 h of fuel cell operation.

  14. Highly Stable, Anion Conductive, Comb-Shaped Copolymers for Alkaline Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, NW; Leng, YJ; Hickner, MA; Wang, CY

    2013-07-10

    To produce an anion-conductive and durable polymer electrolyte for alkaline fuel cell applications, a series of quaternized poly(2,6-dimethyl phenylene oxide)s containing long alkyl side chains pendant to the nitrogen-centered cation were synthesized using a Menshutkin reaction to form comb-shaped structures. The pendant alkyl chains were responsible for the development of highly conductive ionic domains, as confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The comb-shaped polymers having one alkyl side chain showed higher hydroxide conductivities than those with benzyltrimethyl ammonium moieties or structures with more than one alkyl side chain per cationic site. The highest conductivity was observed for comb-shaped polymers with benzyldimethylhexadecyl ammonium cations. The chemical stabilities of the comb-shaped membranes were evaluated under severe, accelerated-aging conditions, and degradation was observed by measuring IEC and ion conductivity changes during aging. The comb-shaped membranes retained their high ion conductivity in 1 M NaOH at 80 degrees C for 2000 h. These cationic polymers were employed as ionomers in catalyst layers for alkaline fuel cells. The results indicated that the C-16 alkyl side chain ionomer had a slightly better initial performance, despite its low IEC value, but very poor durability in the fuel cell. In contrast, 90% of the initial performance was retained for the alkaline fuel cell with electrodes containing the C-6 side chain after 60 h of fuel cell operation.

  15. Medium initial pH and carbon source stimulate differential alkaline cellulase time course production in Stachybotrys microspora.

    PubMed

    Ben Hmad, Ines; Abdeljalil, Salma; Saibi, Walid; Amouri, Bahia; Gargouri, Ali

    2014-03-01

    The production profile of cellulases of the mutant strain A19 from the filamentous fungus Stachybotrys microspora was studied in the presence of various carbon sources (glucose, lactose, cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and wheat bran) and a range of medium initial pH (5, 7, and 8). Two extracellular cellulases from the Stachybotrys strain (endoglucanases and β-glucosidases) were monitored by enzymatic assay, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and zymogram analysis. Glucose and lactose repressed CMCase time course production while they permitted a strong β-glucosidase one. On Avicel cellulose, CMC, and wheat bran, both activities were highly produced. Wheat bran (WB) is the best carbon source with an optimum of production at days 5 and 6. The production kinetics of both activities were shown to depend on the medium initial pH, with a preference for neutral or alkaline pH in the majority of conditions. The exception concerned the β-glucosidase which was much more produced at acidic pH, on glucose and cellulose. Most interestingly, a constitutive and conditional expression of an alkaline endoglucanase was revealed on the glucose-based medium at an initial pH of 8 units. The zymogram analysis confirmed such conclusions and highlighted that carbon sources and the pH of the culture medium directed a differential induction of various endoglucanases and β-glucosidases.

  16. Effect of metal ions and EGTA on the optical properties of concanavalin A at alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Mohammad Tashfeen; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2005-02-01

    In our earlier communications, we reported the effect of salts and alcohols on alpha-chymotrypsinogen [1] and the existence of stable intermediates at low pH in bromelain [2] and glucose oxidase [3]. In the present study, the role of metal ions and EGTA on the conformation of concanavalin A at alkaline pH was studied by near- and far-UV circular dichroism, fluorescence emission spectroscopy and binding of a hydrophobic dye, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS). Far-UV CD spectra showed the transition from an ordered secondary structure at pH 7 with a trough at 223 nm to a relatively unordered state at pH 12. Near-UV CD spectra showed the loss of signal at 290 nm, thereby indicating the disruption of native three dimensional structure. Maximum ANS binding occurred at pH 12 suggesting the presence of an intermediate or molten globule-like state at alkaline pH.

  17. Evaluation of pH, alkalinity and temperature during air stripping process for ammonia removal from landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Campos, Juacyara Carbonelli; Moura, Denise; Costa, Ana Paula; Yokoyama, Lidia; Araujo, Fabiana Valeria da Fonseca; Cammarota, Magali Christe; Cardillo, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the air stripping technology for the removal of ammonia from landfill leachates. In this process, pH, temperature, airflow rate and operation time were investigated. Furthermore, the relationship between the leachate alkalinity and the ammonia removal efficiency during the process was studied. The leachate used in the tests was generated in the Gramacho Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil). The best results were obtained with a temperature of 60(o)C, and they were independent of the pH value for 7 h of operation (the ammonia nitrogen removal was greater than 95%). A strong influence of the leachate alkalinity on the ammonia nitrogen removal was observed; as the alkalinity decreased, the ammonia concentration also decreased because of prior CO2 removal, which increased the pH and consequently favored the NH3 stripping. The air flow rate, in the values evaluated (73, 96 and 120 L air.h(-1).L(-1) of leachate), did not influence the results.

  18. On the Mechanism by which Alkaline pH Prevents Expression of an Acid-Expressed Gene

    PubMed Central

    Espeso, Eduardo A.; Arst, Herbert N.

    2000-01-01

    Previous work has shown that zinc finger transcription factor PacC mediates the regulation of gene expression by ambient pH in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. This regulation ensures that the syntheses of molecules functioning in the external environment, such as permeases, secreted enzymes, and exported metabolites, are tailored to the pH of the growth environment. A direct role for PacC in activating the expression of an alkaline-expressed gene has previously been demonstrated, but the mechanism by which alkaline ambient pH prevents the expression of any eukaryotic acid-expressed gene has never been reported. Here we show that a double PacC binding site in the promoter of the acid-expressed gabA gene, encoding γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) permease, overlaps the binding site for the transcriptional activator IntA, which mediates ω-amino acid induction. Using bacterially expressed fusion proteins, we have shown that PacC competes with IntA for DNA binding in vitro at this site. Thus, PacC repression of GABA permease synthesis is direct and occurs by blocking induction. A swap of IntA sites between promoters for gabA and amdS, a gene not subject to pH regulation, makes gabA expression pH independent and amdS acid expressed. PMID:10779325

  19. Alkalinity and pH effects on nitrification in a membrane aerated bioreactor: an experimental and model analysis.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, John W; Semmens, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    A nitrifying biofilm was grown in a laboratory-scale membrane aerated bioreactor (MABR) to calibrate and test a one-dimensional biofilm model incorporating chemical equilibria to calculate local pH values. A previously developed model (Shanahan and Semmens, 2004) based upon AQUASIM was modified to incorporate the impact of local pH changes within the biofilm on the kinetics of nitrification. Shielded microelectrodes were used to measure the concentration profiles of dissolved oxygen, ammonium, nitrate, and pH within the biofilm and the overlying boundary layer under actual operating conditions. Operating conditions were varied to assess the impact of bicarbonate loading (alkalinity), ammonium loading, and intra-membrane oxygen partial pressure on biofilm performance. Nitrification performance improved with increased ammonium and bicarbonate loadings over the range of operating conditions tested, but declined when the intra-membrane oxygen partial pressure was increased. Minor discrepancies between the measured and predicted concentration profiles within the biofilm were attributed to changes in biofilm density and vertical heterogeneities in biofilm structure not accounted for by the model. Nevertheless, predicted concentration profiles within the biofilm agreed well with experimental results over the range of conditions studied and highlight the fact that pH changes in the biofilm are significant especially in low alkalinity waters. The influent pH and buffer capacity of a wastewater may therefore have a significant impact on the performance of a membrane-aerated bioreactor with respect to nitrification, and nitrogen removal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Scanning electron micrograph and surface hardness of mineral trioxide aggregate in the presence of alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Saghiri, Ali Mohammad; Vosoughhosseini, Sepideh; Aeinehchi, Mohammad; Ranjkesh, Bahram

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate morphologic microstructure and surface hardness of white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) after exposure to a range of alkaline environments during hydration. WMTA was mixed and packed into 60 glass tubes. Four groups, each containing 15 tubes, were exposed to pH values of 7.4, 8.4, 9.4, and 10.4, respectively, for 3 days. In 12 tubes in each group, Vickers surface hardness was measured after exposure to alkaline environments. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance and a post hoc Tukey test. Three specimens in each group were prepared to be evaluated under a scanning electron microscope using scattered electron (SE) and backscattered electron (BSE) detectors. The mean surface hardness values +/- standard deviation after exposure to pH values of 7.4, 8.4, 9.4, and 10.4 were 58.28 +/- 8.21, 68.84 +/- 7.19, 67.32 +/- 7.22, and 59.22 +/- 9.14, respectively. The difference between these values was statistically significant (p = 0.000). There were statistically significant differences between pH values of 8.4 and 9.4 and pH values of 7.4 and 10.4 (p > 0.05). The SE detector revealed needle-shaped crystals at pH values of 7.4 and 8.4 and an amorphous microstructure at pH values of 9.4 and 10.4 on WMTA surface. The BSE detector showed more unhydrated structure and pores at pH values of 7.4 and 10.4 compared with pH values of 8.4 and 9.4. Surface hardness can be influenced by different alkaline pH values. The BSE detector can reveal more microstructure details of WMTA in conjunction with the SE detector. More porosity and unhydrated structure are observed in WMTA exposed to pH values of 7.4 and 10.4.

  1. Upper ocean carbon cycling inferred from direct pH observations made by profiling floats and estimated alkalinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. S.; Plant, J. N.; Jannasch, H. W.; Coletti, L. J.; Elrod, V.; Sakamoto, C.; Riser, S.

    2015-12-01

    The annual cycle of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is a key tracer of net community production and carbon export in the upper ocean. In particular, the DIC concentration is much less sensitive to air-sea gas exchange, when compared to oxygen, another key tracer of upper ocean metabolism. However, the annual DIC cycle is observed with a seasonal resolution at only a few time-series stations in the open ocean. Here, we consider the annual carbon cycle that has been observed using profiling floats equipped with pH sensors. Deep-Sea DuraFET pH sensors have been deployed on profiling floats for over three years and they can provide temporal and spatial resolution of 5 to 10 days and 5 to 10 m in the upper ocean over multi-year periods. In addition to pH, a second carbon system parameter is required to compute DIC. Total alkalinity can be derived from the float observations of temperature, salinity and oxygen using equations in these variables that are fitted to shipboard observations of alkalinity obtained in the global repeat hydrography programs (e.g., Juranek et al., GRL, doi:10.1029/2011GL048580, 2011), as the relationships should be stable in time in the open ocean. Profiling floats with pH have been deployed from Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) cruises since late 2012 and an array of floats with pH have been deployed since early 2014 in the Southern Ocean as part of the SOCCOM program. The SOCCOM array should grow to nearly 200 floats over the next 5 years. The sensor data was quality controlled and adjusted by comparing observations at 1500 m depth to the deep climatology of pH (derived from DIC and alkalinity) computed with the GLODAP data set. After adjustment, the surface DIC concentrations were calculated from pH and alkalinity. This yields a data set that is used to examine annual net community production in the oligotrophic North Pacific and in the South Pacific near 150 West from 40 South to 65 South.

  2. The immobilization of all spermatozoa in vitro by bitter lemon drink and the effect of alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Nwoha, P U

    1992-12-01

    Researchers at Obafemi Awolowo University in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, collected semen samples from 7 healthy men 25-30 years old who had abstained from sex for at least 5 days in order to examine the spermicidal action of 4 soft drinks (Krest bitter lemon, Afri-Cola, Coca-Cola, and Pepsi-Cola), the effect of increased temperature of the drinks on spermicidal action, and the effect of changing the soft drinks from an acid, as it comes from the factory, (ph 2.4) to an alkaline (pH 7.5). Increasing the temperature of the soft drinks from room temperature (22 degrees Celsius) to body temperatures (37 degrees Celsius) did not significantly change the spermicidal action any of the soft drinks. All soft drinks with an acid pH, except Coca-Cola, had a significantly lower percent of sperm motility than those with an alkaline pH (0-42.3% vs. 20-52.1%; p .001). In fact, Krest bitter lemon in its factory form (acid pH) completely immobilized all spermatozoa within 1 minute after the researchers diluted the semen with the soft drink. Alkaline Coca-Cola had a significantly lower percent of sperm motility than did acid Coca-Cola (35.8% vs. 46.5%; p .001). Other than Krest bitter lemon, the significant decreases in sperm motility were not enough to prevent pregnancy. These findings indicated that researchers should test Krest bitter lemon for effectiveness as a postcoital contraceptive. If indeed it proves effective, it has great potential as such a contraceptive among the poor in the densely population developed countries since it is readily available and inexpensive.

  3. Improvement of the optimum pH of Aspergillus niger xylanase towards an alkaline pH by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Xie, Jingcong; Zhang, Xuesong; Zhao, Linguo

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to shift the optimal pH of the xylanase B (XynB) from Aspergillus niger towards alkalinity, target mutation sites were selected by alignment between Aspergillus niger xylanase B and other xylanases that have alkalophilic pH optima that highlight charged residues in the eight-residues-longer loop in the alkalophilic xylanase. Multiple engineered XynB mutants were created by site-directed mutagenesis with substitutions Q164K and Q164K+D117N. The variant XynB-117 had the highest optimum pH (at 5.5), which corresponded to a basic 0.5 pH unit shift when compared with the wild-type enzyme. However, the optimal pH of the XynB- 164 mutation was not changed, similar to the wild type. These results suggest that the residues at positions 164 and 117 in the eight-residues-longer loop and the cleft's edge are important in determining the pH optima of XynB from Aspergillus niger.

  4. Influence of salivary enzymes and alkaline pH environment on fatigue behavior of resin composites.

    PubMed

    Mirmohammadi, Hesam; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J; Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Feilzer, Albert J

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of enzymatic activity and alkaline medium on flexural strength and rotary fatigue resistance of direct and indirect resin composite restorative materials. Three direct resin composite materials Filtek Z100, Filtek Z250 and Filtek Silorane (3M ESPE), and two indirect resin composite materials; Sinfony (3M ESPE) and an experimental composite (Heraeus Kulzer) were used to fabricate bar-shaped specimens (2 x 2 x 25 mm; n=10) to determine the flexural strength (Fs) by means of a 3-point bending test according to ISO 4049. Additional specimens of the same dimensions (n=20) were used to prepare hour-glass shaped specimens which were immersed in distilled water for 48 hours, transferred to one of five aqueous media at 37 degrees C for 2 weeks; phosphate buffer, distilled water, 0.1N NaOH, 1 unit/ml Amylase, 0.1 unit/ml Esterase, and a group in 0.1N NaOH at 60 degrees C. Rotary fatigue resistance (RFR) was determined in a rotating-bending cantilever test with the highest stress located at the constriction of the hour glass. The rotary fatigue resistance tests were conducted according to the staircase approach (10(4) cycles, 1.0 Hz) and the mean RFR was calculated using logistic regression analysis. NaOH produced a significant decrease in Fs of all materials. The effect of enzymatic biodegradation on Fs of Filtek Z100 and Filtek Z250 was found to be significant, however, for Silorane and indirect composites it was not significant. Except for NaOH the influence of the different aqueous solutions on RFR was not significant for all tested materials.

  5. Phytoplankton diversity and cyanobacterial dominance in a hypereutrophic shallow lake with biologically produced alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    López-Archilla, Ana Isabel; Moreira, David; López-García, Purificación; Guerrero, Carmen

    2004-04-01

    In this work, we have characterized the diversity of phytoplanktonic species in a highly alkaline and hypereutrophic shallow lake, Santa Olalla (southwestern Spain), the evolution of their relative abundances, and that of several physicochemical parameters over 2 years. In the absence of an external input of alkaline water, Santa Olalla's stable high pH (average pH 9.52, with several maxima >10.5) is explained by an extremely high photosynthetic primary productivity. A variety of phytoplankton species was observed even during pH maxima. These included several species of green algae, diatoms, and euglenoids and several cyanobacteria from the orders Nostocales and Chroococcales. Quantitatively, cyanobacteria dominated. A blooming event due to Aphanothece clathrata was observed at one pH maximum, during which the diversity as measured by the Shannon-Weaver index was extremely low. Santa Olalla's cyanobacteria are alkaliphilic and/or extremely alkalitolerant and appear to be responsible for the generation and maintenance of stable high-pH conditions in their environment.

  6. Computational design of a pH stable enzyme: understanding molecular mechanism of penicillin acylase's adaptation to alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Suplatov, Dmitry; Panin, Nikolay; Kirilin, Evgeny; Shcherbakova, Tatyana; Kudryavtsev, Pavel; Svedas, Vytas

    2014-01-01

    Protein stability provides advantageous development of novel properties and can be crucial in affording tolerance to mutations that introduce functionally preferential phenotypes. Consequently, understanding the determining factors for protein stability is important for the study of structure-function relationship and design of novel protein functions. Thermal stability has been extensively studied in connection with practical application of biocatalysts. However, little work has been done to explore the mechanism of pH-dependent inactivation. In this study, bioinformatic analysis of the Ntn-hydrolase superfamily was performed to identify functionally important subfamily-specific positions in protein structures. Furthermore, the involvement of these positions in pH-induced inactivation was studied. The conformational mobility of penicillin acylase in Escherichia coli was analyzed through molecular modeling in neutral and alkaline conditions. Two functionally important subfamily-specific residues, Gluβ482 and Aspβ484, were found. Ionization of these residues at alkaline pH promoted the collapse of a buried network of stabilizing interactions that consequently disrupted the functional protein conformation. The subfamily-specific position Aspβ484 was selected as a hotspot for mutation to engineer enzyme variant tolerant to alkaline medium. The corresponding Dβ484N mutant was produced and showed 9-fold increase in stability at alkaline conditions. Bioinformatic analysis of subfamily-specific positions can be further explored to study mechanisms of protein inactivation and to design more stable variants for the engineering of homologous Ntn-hydrolases with improved catalytic properties.

  7. Computational Design of a pH Stable Enzyme: Understanding Molecular Mechanism of Penicillin Acylase's Adaptation to Alkaline Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Suplatov, Dmitry; Panin, Nikolay; Kirilin, Evgeny; Shcherbakova, Tatyana; Kudryavtsev, Pavel; Švedas, Vytas

    2014-01-01

    Protein stability provides advantageous development of novel properties and can be crucial in affording tolerance to mutations that introduce functionally preferential phenotypes. Consequently, understanding the determining factors for protein stability is important for the study of structure-function relationship and design of novel protein functions. Thermal stability has been extensively studied in connection with practical application of biocatalysts. However, little work has been done to explore the mechanism of pH-dependent inactivation. In this study, bioinformatic analysis of the Ntn-hydrolase superfamily was performed to identify functionally important subfamily-specific positions in protein structures. Furthermore, the involvement of these positions in pH-induced inactivation was studied. The conformational mobility of penicillin acylase in Escherichia coli was analyzed through molecular modeling in neutral and alkaline conditions. Two functionally important subfamily-specific residues, Gluβ482 and Aspβ484, were found. Ionization of these residues at alkaline pH promoted the collapse of a buried network of stabilizing interactions that consequently disrupted the functional protein conformation. The subfamily-specific position Aspβ484 was selected as a hotspot for mutation to engineer enzyme variant tolerant to alkaline medium. The corresponding Dβ484N mutant was produced and showed 9-fold increase in stability at alkaline conditions. Bioinformatic analysis of subfamily-specific positions can be further explored to study mechanisms of protein inactivation and to design more stable variants for the engineering of homologous Ntn-hydrolases with improved catalytic properties. PMID:24959852

  8. Release of alkaline phosphatase from cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by manipulation of cation concentration and of pH.

    PubMed

    Cheng, K J; Ingram, J M; Costerton, J W

    1970-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 contains an inducible alkaline phosphatase. The enzyme is readily removed from 14-hr cells by washes in 0.2 m MgCl(2), pH 8.4. Similar washes in tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer, 20% sucrose, monovalent ions, or water partially release enzyme from the cells. The release of alkaline phosphatase is correlated with an increased release of protein and retention of internal enzymes. The effect of 0.2 m MgCl(2) washing upon the cells is minimal since both viability and growth rates remain unchanged as compared to water washing. Although cells are plasmolyzed in both 0.2 m MgCl(2) and 20% sucrose, it is evident that plasmolysis alone is unable to account for total enzyme release and that a divalent metal, i.e. Mg(2+), augments the release pattern. Growing cells in the presence of increasing concentrations of MgCl(2) or at increased pH values results in an almost total secretion of the enzyme to the culture filtrate. The findings suggest that P. aeruginosa alkaline phosphatase is linked to the exocytoplasmic region through divalent metal ion, presumably Mg(2+), bridges.

  9. Tendency for oxidation of annelid hemoglobin at alkaline pH and dissociated states probed by redox titration.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Jose Ailton Conceicao; Landini, Gustavo Fraga; Santos, Jose Luis Rocha; Norberto, Douglas Ricardo; Bonafe, Carlos Francisco Sampaio

    2005-08-01

    The redox titration of extracellular hemoglobin of Glossoscolex paulistus (Annelidea) was investigated in different pH conditions and after dissociation induced by pressure. Oxidation increased with increasing pH, as shown by the reduced amount of ferricyanide necessary for the oxidation of hemoglobin. This behavior was the opposite of that of vertebrate hemoglobins. The potential of half oxidation (E1/2) changed from -65.3 to +146.8 mV when the pH increased from 4.50 to 8.75. The functional properties indicated a reduction in the log P50 from 1.28 to 0.28 in this pH range. The dissociation at alkaline pH or induced by high pressure, confirmed by HPLC gel filtration, suggested that disassembly of the hemoglobin could be involved in the increased potential for oxidation. These results suggest that the high stability and prolonged lifetime common to invertebrate hemoglobins is related to their low tendency to oxidize at acidic pH, in contrast to vertebrate hemoglobins.

  10. Metabolic flux modeling of detoxification of acetic acid by Ralstonia eutropha at slightly alkaline pH levels.

    PubMed

    Yu, J; Wang, J

    2001-06-20

    Ralstonia eutropha grows on and produces polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from fermentation acids. Acetic acid, one major organic acid from acidogenesis of organic wastes, has an inhibitory effect on the bacterium at slightly alkaline pH (6 g HAc/L at pH 8). The tolerance of R. eutropha to acetate, however, was increased significantly up to 15 g/L at the slightly alkaline pH level with high cell mass concentration. A metabolic cell model with five fluxes is proposed to depict the detoxification mechanism including mass transfer and acetyl-CoA formation of acetic acid and the formation of three final metabolic products, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), active biomass, and CO(2). The fluxes were measured under different conditions such as cell mass concentration, acetic acid concentration, and medium composition. The experimental results indicate that the acetate detoxification by high cell mass concentration is attributed to the increased fluxes at high extracellular acetate concentrations. The fluxes could be doubled to reduce and hence detoxify the accumulated intracellular acetate anions.

  11. Push-out bond strength of mineral trioxide aggregate in the presence of alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Saghiri, Ali Mohammad

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a range of alkaline pH values on the push-out strength of white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA). The standardized lumens of root slices prepared from extracted single-rooted human teeth were filled with white ProRoot MTA. The specimens were then randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 20) and wrapped in pieces of gauze soaked in synthetic tissue fluid (STF) (pH, 7.4) and STF buffered in potassium hydroxide at pH values of 8.4, 9.4, or 10.4. The samples were incubated for 3 days at 37 °C. The push-out bond strengths were then measured by using a universal testing machine. Failure modes after the push-out test were examined under a light microscope at ×40 magnification. The data were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests. The greatest (9.46 ± 0.63 MPa) and lowest (5.68 ± 0.83 MPa) mean push-out bond strengths were observed after exposure to pH values of 8.4 and 10.4, respectively. There were significant differences between the groups (P = .001). The bond failure was adhesive for all experimental groups. Push-out bond strength of WMTA could be influenced by different alkaline pH values. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Towards high conductivity in anion-exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Nanwen; Guiver, Michael D; Binder, Wolfgang H

    2013-08-01

    Quaternized poly(2,6-dimethylphenylene oxide) materials (PPOs) containing clicked 1,2,3-triazoles were first prepared through Cu(I) -catalyzed "click chemistry" to improve the anion transport in anion-exchange membranes (AEMs). Clicked 1,2,3-triazoles incorporated into AEMs provided more sites to form efficient and continuous hydrogen-bond networks between the water/hydroxide and the triazole for anion transport. Higher water uptake was observed for these triazole membranes. Thus, the membranes showed an impressive enhancement of the hydroxide diffusion coefficient and, therefore, the anion conductivities. The recorded hydroxide conductivity was 27.8-62 mS cm(-1) at 20 °C in water, which was several times higher than that of a typical PPO-based AEM (TMA-20) derived from trimethylamine (5 mS cm(-1) ). Even at reduced relative humidity, the clicked membrane showed superior conductivity to a trimethylamine-based membrane. Moreover, similar alkaline stabilities at 80 °C in 1 M NaOH were observed for the clicked and non-clicked membranes. The performance of a H2 /O2 single cell assembled with a clicked AEM was much improved compared to that of a non-clicked TMA-20 membrane. The peak power density achieved for an alkaline fuel cell with the synthesized membrane 1a(20) was 188.7 mW cm(-2) at 50 °C. These results indicated that clicked AEM could be a viable strategy for improving the performance of alkaline fuel cells. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Alkaline cyanide degradation by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 in a batch reactor. Influence of pH.

    PubMed

    Huertas, M J; Sáez, L P; Roldán, M D; Luque-Almagro, V M; Martínez-Luque, M; Blasco, R; Castillo, F; Moreno-Vivián, C; García-García, I

    2010-07-15

    Water containing cyanide was biologically detoxified with the bacterial strain Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 in a batch reactor. Volatilization of toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was avoided by using an alkaline medium for the treatment. The operational procedure was optimized to assess cyanide biodegradation at variable pH values and dissolved oxygen concentrations. Using an initial pH of 10 without subsequent adjustment allowed total cyanide to be consumed at a mean rate of approximately 2.81 mg CN(-) L(-1) O.D.(-1) h(-1); however, these conditions posed a high risk of HCN formation. Cyanide consumption was found to be pH-dependent. Thus, no bacterial growth was observed with a controlled pH of 10; on the other hand, pH 9.5 allowed up to 2.31 mg CN(-) L(-1) O.D.(-1) h(-1) to be converted. The combination of a high pH and a low dissolved oxygen saturation (10%) minimized the release of HCN. This study contributes new basic knowledge about this biological treatment, which constitutes an effective alternative to available physico-chemical methods for the purification of wastewater containing cyanide or cyano-metal complexes. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Coordinate responses to alkaline pH stress in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Serra-Cardona, Albert; Canadell, David; Ariño, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Alkalinization of the medium represents a stress condition for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to which this organism responds with profound remodeling of gene expression. This is the result of the modulation of a substantial number of signaling pathways whose participation in the alkaline response has been elucidated within the last ten years. These regulatory inputs involve not only the conserved Rim101/PacC pathway, but also the calcium-activated phosphatase calcineurin, the Wsc1-Pkc1-Slt2 MAP kinase, the Snf1 and PKA kinases and oxidative stress-response pathways. The uptake of many nutrients is perturbed by alkalinization of the environment and, consequently, an impact on phosphate, iron/copper and glucose homeostatic mechanisms can also be observed. The analysis of available data highlights cases in which diverse signaling pathways are integrated in the gene promoter to shape the appropriate response pattern. Thus, the expression of different genes sharing the same signaling network can be coordinated, allowing functional coupling of their gene products. PMID:28357292

  15. Contrasting pH buffering patterns in neutral-alkaline soils along a 3600 km transect in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W.; Nelson, P. N.; Li, M.-H.; Cai, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Shan, Y.; Wang, R.; Han, X.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Soil pH buffering capacity (pHBC) plays a crucial role in predicting acidification rates, yet its large-scale patterns and controls are poorly understood, especially for neutral-alkaline soils. Here, we evaluated the spatial patterns and drivers of pHBC along a 3600 km long transect (1900 km sub-transect with carbonate containing soils and 1700 km sub-transect with non-carbonate containing soils) across northern China. Soil pHBC was greater in the carbonate containing soils than in the non-carbonate containing soils. Acid addition decreased soil pH in the non-carbonate containing soils more markedly than in the carbonate containing soils. Within the carbonate soil sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively correlated with cation exchange capacity (CEC), carbonate content and exchangeable sodium (Na) concentration, but negatively correlated with initial pH and clay content, and not correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Within the non-carbonate sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively related to initial pH, clay content, CEC and exchangeable Na concentration, but not related to SOC content. Carbonate content was the primary determinant of pHBC in the carbonate containing soils and CEC was the main determinant of buffering capacity in the non-carbonate containing soils. Soil pHBC was positively related to aridity index and carbonate content across the carbonate containing soil sub-transect. Our results indicated that mechanisms controlling pHBC differ among neutral-alkaline soils of northern China, especially between carbonate and non-carbonate containing soils, leading to different rates, risks, and impacts of acidification. This understanding should be incorporated into the acidification risk assessment and landscape management in a changing world.

  16. Contrasting pH buffering patterns in neutral-alkaline soils along a 3600 km transect in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W. T.; Nelson, P. N.; Li, M.-H.; Cai, J. P.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Zhang, Y. G.; Yang, S.; Wang, R. Z.; Wang, Z. W.; Wu, Y. N.; Han, X. G.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Soil pH buffering capacity (pHBC) plays a crucial role in predicting acidification rates, yet its large-scale patterns and controls are poorly understood, especially for neutral-alkaline soils. Here, we evaluated the spatial patterns and drivers of pHBC along a 3600 km long transect (1900 km sub-transect with carbonate-containing soils and 1700 km sub-transect with non-carbonate-containing soils) across northern China. Soil pHBC was greater in the carbonate-containing soils than in the non-carbonate-containing soils. Acid addition decreased soil pH in the non-carbonate-containing soils more markedly than in the carbonate-containing soils. Within the carbonate soil sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively correlated with cation exchange capacity (CEC), carbonate content and exchangeable sodium (Na) concentration, but negatively correlated with initial pH and clay content, and not correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Within the non-carbonate sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively related to initial pH, clay content, CEC and exchangeable Na concentration, but not related to SOC content. Carbonate content was the primary determinant of pHBC in the carbonate-containing soils and CEC was the main determinant of buffering capacity in the non-carbonate-containing soils. Along the transect, soil pHBC was different in regions with different aridity index. Soil pHBC was positively related to aridity index and carbonate content across the carbonate-containing soil sub-transect. Our results indicated that mechanisms controlling pHBC differ among neutral-alkaline soils of northern China, especially between carbonate- and non-carbonate-containing soils. This understanding should be incorporated into the acidification risk assessment and landscape management in a changing world.

  17. Isolation of a Sulfur-oxidizing Bacterium That can Grow under Alkaline pH, from Corroded Concrete.

    PubMed

    Maeda, T; Negishi, A; Oshima, Y; Nogami, Y; Kamimura, K; Sugio, T

    1998-01-01

    To study the early stages of concrete corrosion by bacteria, sulfur-oxidizing bacterium strain RO-1, which grows in an alkaline thiosulfate medium (pH 10.0) was isolated from corroded concreate and characterized. Strain RO-1 was a Gram negative, rod-shaped bacterium (0.5-0.6×0.9-1.5 μm). The mean G+C content of the DNA of strain RO-1 was 65.0 mol%. Optimum pH and temperature for growth were 8.0. and 30-37°C, respectively. When grown in thiosulfate medium with pH 10.0, growth rate of the strain was 48% of that observed at the optimum pH for growth. Strain RO-1 used sulfide, thiosulfate, and glucose, but not elemental sulfur or tetrathionate, as a sole energy source. Strain RO-1 grew under anaerobic conditions in pepton-NO3 (-) medium containing sodium nitrate as an electron acceptor, and had enzyme activities that oxidized sulfide, elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, sulfite, and glucose, but not tetrathionate. The bacterium had an activity to assimilate (14)CO2 into the cells when thiosulfate was used as an energy source. These results suggest that strain RO-1 is Thiobacillus versutus. Strain RO-1 exuded Ca(2+) from concrete blocks added to thiosulfate medium with pH 9.0 and the pH of the medium decreased from 9.0 to 5.5 after 22 days of cultivation. In contrast, Thiobacillus thiooxidans strain NB1-3 could not exude Ca(2+) in the same thiosulfate medium, suggesting that strain RO-1, but not T. thiooxidans NB1-3, is involved in the early stage of concrete corrosion because concrete structures just after construction contain calcium hydroxide and have a pH of 12-13.

  18. Two Pore Channel 2 (TPC2) Inhibits Autophagosomal-Lysosomal Fusion by Alkalinizing Lysosomal pH*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yingying; Hao, Bai-Xia; Graeff, Richard; Wong, Connie W. M.; Wu, Wu-Tian; Yue, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal degradation pathway, yet the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), one of the most potent Ca2+ mobilizing messengers, elicits Ca2+ release from lysosomes via the two pore channel 2 (TPC2) in many cell types. Here we found that overexpression of TPC2 in HeLa or mouse embryonic stem cells inhibited autophagosomal-lysosomal fusion, thereby resulting in the accumulation of autophagosomes. Treatment of TPC2 expressing cells with a cell permeant-NAADP agonist, NAADP-AM, further induced autophagosome accumulation. On the other hand, TPC2 knockdown or treatment of cells with Ned-19, a NAADP antagonist, markedly decreased the accumulation of autophagosomes. TPC2-induced accumulation of autophagosomes was also markedly blocked by ATG5 knockdown. Interestingly, inhibiting mTOR activity failed to increase TPC2-induced autophagosome accumulation. Instead, we found that overexpression of TPC2 alkalinized lysosomal pH, and lysosomal re-acidification abolished TPC2-induced autophagosome accumulation. In addition, TPC2 overexpression had no effect on general endosomal-lysosomal degradation but prevented the recruitment of Rab-7 to autophagosomes. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TPC2/NAADP/Ca2+ signaling alkalinizes lysosomal pH to specifically inhibit the later stage of basal autophagy progression. PMID:23836916

  19. Two pore channel 2 (TPC2) inhibits autophagosomal-lysosomal fusion by alkalinizing lysosomal pH.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingying; Hao, Bai-Xia; Graeff, Richard; Wong, Connie W M; Wu, Wu-Tian; Yue, Jianbo

    2013-08-16

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal degradation pathway, yet the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), one of the most potent Ca(2+) mobilizing messengers, elicits Ca(2+) release from lysosomes via the two pore channel 2 (TPC2) in many cell types. Here we found that overexpression of TPC2 in HeLa or mouse embryonic stem cells inhibited autophagosomal-lysosomal fusion, thereby resulting in the accumulation of autophagosomes. Treatment of TPC2 expressing cells with a cell permeant-NAADP agonist, NAADP-AM, further induced autophagosome accumulation. On the other hand, TPC2 knockdown or treatment of cells with Ned-19, a NAADP antagonist, markedly decreased the accumulation of autophagosomes. TPC2-induced accumulation of autophagosomes was also markedly blocked by ATG5 knockdown. Interestingly, inhibiting mTOR activity failed to increase TPC2-induced autophagosome accumulation. Instead, we found that overexpression of TPC2 alkalinized lysosomal pH, and lysosomal re-acidification abolished TPC2-induced autophagosome accumulation. In addition, TPC2 overexpression had no effect on general endosomal-lysosomal degradation but prevented the recruitment of Rab-7 to autophagosomes. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TPC2/NAADP/Ca(2+) signaling alkalinizes lysosomal pH to specifically inhibit the later stage of basal autophagy progression.

  20. Potential benefits of pH 8.8 alkaline drinking water as an adjunct in the treatment of reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Koufman, Jamie A; Johnston, Nikki

    2012-07-01

    At the cellular level, tissue-bound pepsin is fundamental to the pathophysiologic mechanism of reflux disease, and although the thresholds for laryngeal damage in laryngopharyngeal reflux and for esophageal damage in gastroesophageal reflux disease differ, both forms of damage are due to pepsin, which requires acid for its activation. In addition, human pepsin remains stable at pH 7.4 and may be reactivated by hydrogen ions from any source. Thus, most tap and bottled waters (typically pH 6.7 to 7.4) would not be expected to affect pepsin stability. The purposes of these in vitro studies were to investigate whether artesian well water containing natural bicarbonate (pH 8.8) might irreversibly denature (inactivate) human pepsin, and to establish its potential acid-buffering capacity. Laboratory studies were performed to determine whether human pepsin was inactivated by pH 8.8 alkaline water. In addition, the buffering capacity of the alkaline water was measured and compared to that of the two most popular commercially available bottled waters. The pH 8.8 alkaline water irreversibly inactivated human pepsin (in vitro), and its hydrochloric acid-buffering capacity far exceeded that of the conventional-pH waters. Unlike conventional drinking water, pH 8.8 alkaline water instantly denatures pepsin, rendering it permanently inactive. In addition, it has good acid-buffering capacity. Thus, the consumption of alkaline water may have therapeutic benefits for patients with reflux disease.

  1. The Aspergillus PacC zinc finger transcription factor mediates regulation of both acid- and alkaline-expressed genes by ambient pH.

    PubMed Central

    Tilburn, J; Sarkar, S; Widdick, D A; Espeso, E A; Orejas, M; Mungroo, J; Peñalva, M A; Arst, H N

    1995-01-01

    The pH regulation of gene expression in Aspergillus nidulans is mediated by pacC, whose 678 residue-derived protein contains three putative Cys2His2 zinc fingers. Ten pacCc mutations mimicking growth at alkaline pH remove between 100 and 214 C-terminal residues, including a highly acidic region containing an acidic glutamine repeat. Nine pacC+/- mutations mimicking acidic growth conditions remove between 299 and 505 C-terminal residues. Deletion of the entire pacC coding region mimics acidity but leads additionally to poor growth and conidiation. A PacC fusion protein binds DNA with the core consensus GCCARG. At alkaline ambient pH, PacC activates transcription of alkaline-expressed genes (including pacC itself) and represses transcription of acid-expressed genes. pacCc mutations obviate the need for pH signal transduction. Images PMID:7882981

  2. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)—a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage—and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. Methods: This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Results: Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018) and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001) was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components. PMID:27606111

  3. Processes controlling the variations of pH, alkalinity, and CO2 partial pressure in the porewater of coal ash disposal site.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kangjoo; Kim, Seok-Hwi; Park, Sung-Min; Kim, Jinsam; Choi, Mansik

    2010-09-15

    Alkalinity, pH, and pCO2 are generally regarded as the most important parameters affecting trace element leaching from coal ashes. However, little is known about how those parameters are actually regulated in the field condition. This study investigated the processes controlling those parameters by observing undisturbed porewater chemistry in a closed ash disposal site. The site is now covered with 30-50 cm thick soils according to the management scheme suggested by the Waste Management Law of Korea and our results show the important role of soil cover regulating those parameters in the shallow porewater. Without the soil cover, the shallow porewater shows low pCO2 and alkalinity, and highly alkaline pH. In contrast, the porewater shows much higher alkalinity and near neutral pH range when the site was covered with the low permeability soils. This difference was caused by the CO2 supply condition changes associated with the changes in infiltration rate. The geochemical modeling shows that the calcite precipitations induced by porewater aging, dolomitization, and weathering of solid phases are the main processes controlling alkalinity, pH, and pCO2 in the deep saline porewaters. The weathering of coal ash plays the most important role decreasing the alkalinity in the deep porewater. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optical and electronic properties of conductive ternary nitrides with rare- or alkaline-earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassavetis, S.; Hodroj, A.; Metaxa, C.; Logothetidis, S.; Pierson, J. F.; Patsalas, P.

    2016-12-01

    Conductive nitrides, such as TiN, are key engineering materials for electronics, photonics, and plasmonics; one of the essential issues for such applications is the ability of tuning the conduction electron density, the resistivity, and the electron scattering. While enhancing the conduction electron density and blueshifting the intraband absorption towards the UV were easily achieved previously, reducing the conduction electron density and redshifting the intraband absorption into the infrared are still an open issue. The latter is achieved in this work by alloying TiN by rare earth (RE = Sc, Y, La) or alkaline earth (AE = Mg, Ca) atoms in Ti substitutional positions. The produced TixRE1-xN and TixAE1-xN thin film samples were grown by a hybrid arc evaporation/sputtering process, and most of them are stable in the B1 cubic structure. Their optical properties were studied in an extensive spectral range by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The ellipsometric spectra were analyzed and quantified by the Drude-Lorentz model, which provided the conduction electron density, the electron mean free path, and the resistivity. The observed interband transitions are firmly assigned, and the optical and electrical properties of TixRE1-xN and TixAE1-xN are quantitatively correlated with their composition and crystal structure.

  5. Proteolytic Activity at Alkaline pH in Oat Leaves, Isolation of an Aminopeptidase 1

    PubMed Central

    Casano, Leonardo M.; Desimone, Marcelo; Trippi, Victorio S.

    1989-01-01

    Proteolytic activity in oat leaf extracts was measured with both azocasein and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) as substrates over a wide range of pH (3.0-9.2). With either azocasein or Rubisco activity peaks appeared at pH 4.8, 6.6, and 8.4. An aminopeptidase (AP) which hydrolyzes leucine-nitroanilide was partially purified. Purification consisted of a series of six steps which included ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, and two ionic exchange chromatographies. The enzyme was purified more than 100-fold. The apparent Km for leucine-nitroanilide is 0.08 millimolar at its pH optimum of 8.4. AP may be a cystein protease since it is inhibited by heavy metals and activated by 2-mercaptoethanol. Isolated chloroplasts were also able to hydrolyze leucine-nitroanilide at a pH optimum of 8.4, indicating that AP could be localized inside the photosynthetic organelles. PMID:16667194

  6. Characterization of steady-state activities of cytochrome c oxidase at alkaline pH: mimicking the effect of K-channel mutations in the bovine enzyme.

    PubMed

    Riegler, David; Shroyer, Lois; Pokalsky, Christine; Zaslavsky, Dmitry; Gennis, Robert; Prochaska, Lawrence J

    2005-01-07

    The cytochrome c oxidase activity of the bovine heart enzyme decreases substantially at alkaline pH, from 650 s(-1) at pH 7.0 to less than 10 s(-1) at pH 9.75. In contrast, the cytochrome c peroxidase activity of the enzyme shows little or no pH dependence (30-50 s(-1)) at pH values greater than 8.5. Under the conditions employed, it is demonstrated that the dramatic decrease in oxidase activity at pH 9.75 is fully reversible and not due to a major alkaline-induced conformational change in the enzyme. Furthermore, the Km values for cytochrome c interaction with the enzyme were also not significantly different at pH 7.8 and pH 9.75, suggesting that the pH dependence of the activity is not due to an altered interaction with cytochrome c at alkaline pH. However, at alkaline pH, the steady-state reduction level of the hemes increased, consistent with a slower rate of electron transfer from heme a to heme a3 at alkaline pH. Since it is well established that the rate of electron transfer from heme a to heme a3 is proton-coupled, it is reasonable to postulate that at alkaline pH, proton uptake becomes rate-limiting. The fact that this is not observed when hydrogen peroxide is used as a substrate in place of O2 suggests that the rate-limiting step is proton uptake via the K-channel associated with the reduction of the heme a3/CuB center prior to the reaction with O2. This step is not required for the reaction with H2O2, as shown previously in the examination of mutants of bacterial oxidases in which the K-channel was blocked. It is concluded that at pH values near 10, the delivery of protons via the K-channel becomes the rate-limiting step in the catalytic cycle with O2, so that the behavior of the bovine enzyme resembles that of the K-channel mutants in the bacterial enzymes.

  7. pH Alkalinization by Chloroquine Suppresses Pathogenic Burkholderia Type 6 Secretion System 1 and Multinucleated Giant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Senft, Jeffrey L.; Lockett, Stephen J.; Brett, Paul J.; Burtnick, Mary N.; DeShazer, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Burkholderia mallei and B. pseudomallei cause glanders and melioidosis, respectively, in humans and animals. A hallmark of pathogenesis is the formation of granulomas containing multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) and cell death. These processes depend on type 6 secretion system 1 (T6SS-1), which is required for virulence in animals. We examined the cell biology of MNGC formation and cell death. We found that chloroquine diphosphate (CLQ), an antimalarial drug, inhibits Burkholderia growth, phagosomal escape, and subsequent MNGC formation. This depends on CLQ's ability to neutralize the acid pH because other alkalinizing compounds similarly inhibit escape and MNGC formation. CLQ inhibits bacterial virulence protein expression because T6SS-1 and some effectors of type 3 secretion system 3 (T3SS-3), which is also required for virulence, are expressed at acid pH. We show that acid pH upregulates the expression of Hcp1 of T6SS-1 and TssM, a protein coregulated with T6SS-1. Finally, we demonstrate that CLQ treatment of Burkholderia-infected Madagascar hissing cockroaches (HCs) increases their survival. This study highlights the multiple mechanisms by which CLQ inhibits growth and virulence and suggests that CLQ be further tested and considered, in conjunction with antibiotic use, for the treatment of diseases caused by Burkholderia. PMID:27799332

  8. Effect of Alkaline pH on Polishing and Etching of Single and Polycrystalline Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, R. Prasanna; Prasad, Y. Nagendra; Kwon, Tae-Young; Kang, Young-Jae; Park, Jin-Goo

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, the polishing and etching behavior of single and polycrystalline silicon were studied. Prior to chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process, the surfaces were treated with dilute hydrofluoric acid (DHF) to remove native oxides. The surface analysis shows that the poly contains trace amount of oxygen even after DHF treatment. The static and dynamic etch rates, and removal rates were measured as a function of slurry pH. The single silicon showed a higher static etch rate than the poly. After static etch rate measurements, poly showed higher surface roughness and more hydrophilic which indicates that the surface of poly is different from single crystal silicon. The friction force between pad and substrate and pad temperature was also measured as a function of pH during polishing in order to get more understanding of polishing process. At all the pH values being investigated, poly showed lower dynamic and removal rates, higher friction force and higher temperature. This indicates that the removal of poly in CMP is predominantly by mechanical actions. Also, these results, suggest a mechanism in which the oxygen present in the poly grain boundaries strongly influences the etching and removal mechanism.

  9. Robust, high-productivity phototrophic carbon capture at high pH and alkalinity using natural microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Christine E; Urschel, Sydney; Dong, Xiaoli; Brady, Allyson L; Slater, Greg F; Strous, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) has come to be seen as one of the most viable technologies to provide the negative carbon dioxide emissions needed to constrain global temperatures. In practice, algal biotechnology is the only form of BECCS that could be realized at scale without compromising food production. Current axenic algae cultivation systems lack robustness, are expensive and generally have marginal energy returns. Here it is shown that microbial communities sampled from alkaline soda lakes, grown as biofilms at high pH (up to 10) and high alkalinity (up to 0.5 kmol m(-3) NaHCO3 and NaCO3) display excellent (>1.0 kg m(-3) day(-1)) and robust (>80 days) biomass productivity, at low projected overall costs. The most productive biofilms contained >100 different species and were dominated by a cyanobacterium closely related to Phormidium kuetzingianum (>60%). Frequent harvesting and red light were the key factors that governed the assembly of a stable and productive microbial community.

  10. Diversity and food web structure of nematode communities under high soil salinity and alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Salamún, Peter; Kucanová, Eva; Brázová, Tímea; Miklisová, Dana; Renčo, Marek; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

    2014-10-01

    A long-term and intensive magnesium (Mg) ore processing in Slovenské Magnezitové Závody a.s. in Jelšava has resulted in a high Mg content and alkaline pH of the soil environment, noticeable mainly in the close vicinity of the smelter. Nematode communities strongly reacted to the contamination mostly by a decrease in abundance of the sensitive groups. Nematodes from c-p 1 group and bacterivores, tolerant to pollution played a significant role in establishing the dominance at all sites. With increasing distance from the pollution source, the nematode communities were more structured and complex, with an increase in proportion of sensitive c-p 4 and 5 nematodes, composed mainly of carnivores and omnivores. Various ecological indices (e.g. MI2-5, SI, H') indicated similar improvement of farther soil ecosystems.

  11. Multidrug resistance protein MdtM adds to the repertoire of antiporters involved in alkaline pH homeostasis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In neutralophilic bacteria, monovalent metal cation/H+ antiporters play a key role in pH homeostasis. In Escherichia coli, only four antiporters (NhaA, NhaB, MdfA and ChaA) are identified to function in maintenance of a stable cytoplasmic pH under conditions of alkaline stress. We hypothesised that the multidrug resistance protein MdtM, a recently characterised homologue of MdfA and a member of the major facilitator superfamily, also functions in alkaline pH homeostasis. Results Assays that compared the growth of an E. coli ΔmdtM deletion mutant transformed with a plasmid encoding wild-type MdtM or the dysfunctional MdtM D22A mutant at different external alkaline pH values (ranging from pH 8.5 to 10) revealed a potential contribution by MdtM to alkaline pH tolerance, but only when millimolar concentrations of sodium or potassium was present in the growth medium. Fluorescence-based activity assays using inverted vesicles generated from transformants of antiporter-deficient (ΔnhaA, ΔnhaB, ΔchaA) E. coli TO114 cells defined MdtM as a low-affinity antiporter that catalysed electrogenic exchange of Na+, K+, Rb+ or Li+ for H+. The K+/H+ antiport reaction had a pH optimum at 9.0, whereas the Na+/H+ exchange activity was optimum at pH 9.25. Measurement of internal cellular pH confirmed MdtM as contributing to maintenance of a stable cytoplasmic pH, acid relative to the external pH, under conditions of alkaline stress. Conclusions Taken together, the results support a role for MdtM in alkaline pH tolerance. MdtM can therefore be added to the currently limited list of antiporters known to function in pH homeostasis in the model organism E. coli. PMID:23701827

  12. Mechanisms on the Impacts of Alkalinity, pH, and Chloride on Persulfate-Based Groundwater Remediation.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Orozco, Ruben; Camargos, Natalia; Liu, Haizhou

    2017-04-04

    Persulfate (S2O8(2-))-based in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) has gained more attention in recent years due to the generation of highly reactive and selective sulfate radical (SO4(•-)). This study examined the effects of important groundwater chemical parameters, i.e., alkalinity, pH, and chloride on benzene degradation via heterogeneous persulfate activation by three Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-containing aquifer minerals: ferrihydrite, goethite, and pyrolusite. A comprehensive kinetic model was established to elucidate the mechanisms of radical generation and mineral surface complexation. Results showed that an increase of alkalinity up to 10 meq/L decreased the rates of persulfate decomposition and benzene degradation, which was associated with the formation of unreactive surface carbonato complexes. An increase in pH generally accelerated persulfate decomposition due to enhanced formation of reactive surface hydroxo complexation. A change in the chloride level up to 5 mM had a negligibly effect on the reaction kinetics. Kinetics modeling also suggested that SO4(•-) was transformed to hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) and carbonate radical (CO3(•-)) at higher pHs. Furthermore, the yields of two major products of benzene oxidation, i.e., phenol and aldehyde, were positively correlated with the branching ratio of SO4(•-) reacting with benzene, but inversely correlated with that of HO(•) or CO3(•-), indicating that SO4(•-) preferentially oxidized benzene via pathways involving fewer hydroxylation steps compared to HO(•) or CO3(•-).

  13. Catalytically active alkaline molten globular enzyme: Effect of pH and temperature on the structural integrity of 5-aminolevulinate synthase.

    PubMed

    Stojanovski, Bosko M; Breydo, Leonid; Hunter, Gregory A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Ferreira, Gloria C

    2014-12-01

    5-Aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS), a pyridoxal-5'phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, catalyzes the first step of heme biosynthesis in mammals. Circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopies were used to examine the effects of pH (1.0-3.0 and 7.5-10.5) and temperature (20 and 37°C) on the structural integrity of ALAS. The secondary structure, as deduced from far-UV CD, is mostly resilient to pH and temperature changes. Partial unfolding was observed at pH2.0, but further decreasing pH resulted in acid-induced refolding of the secondary structure to nearly native levels. The tertiary structure rigidity, monitored by near-UV CD, is lost under acidic and specific alkaline conditions (pH10.5 and pH9.5/37°C), where ALAS populates a molten globule state. As the enzyme becomes less structured with increased alkalinity, the chiral environment of the internal aldimine is also modified, with a shift from a 420nm to 330nm dichroic band. Under acidic conditions, the PLP cofactor dissociates from ALAS. Reaction with 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid corroborates increased exposure of hydrophobic clusters in the alkaline and acidic molten globules, although the reaction is more pronounced with the latter. Furthermore, quenching the intrinsic fluorescence of ALAS with acrylamide at pH1.0 and 9.5 yielded subtly different dynamic quenching constants. The alkaline molten globule state of ALAS is catalytically active (pH9.5/37°C), although the kcat value is significantly decreased. Finally, the binding of 5-aminolevulinate restricts conformational fluctuations in the alkaline molten globule. Overall, our findings prove how the structural plasticity of ALAS contributes to reaching a functional enzyme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Aerobic granulation utilizing fermented municipal wastewater under low pH and alkalinity conditions in a sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Leong, Jason; Rezania, Babak; Mavinic, Don S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to achieve aerobic granulation utilizing fermented municipal wastewater under low pH, and alkalinity conditions. Stable granulation was achieved after a 166-day start-up period. Due to low influent strength, supplemental carbon addition, in the form of sucrose, was added to the feed storage tank on the 82nd day of start-up to facilitate granulation. This increased the system's organic loading rate from 1.43 ± 0.14 to 2.53 ± 0.18 kg COD/m(3)/d, and reduced the influent pH due to fermentation of the added sucrose. Although granulation was successful, the nutrient removal was limited. Removal rates at an influent pH of 6.23 ± 0.06 were 54.4% ± 8.3% for phosphorus, 21.9% ± 4.1% for ammonium, and 84.0% ± 3.0% for total chemical oxygen demand (COD). During the second phase of experimentation, increased amounts of sucrose were added to the feed, which resulted in increased volatile fatty acid concentrations and pH reduction to 5.62 ± 0.12 due to fermentation. Under further reduced pH conditions, phosphorus, ammonium, and total COD removal were found to be 58.9% ± 4.7%, 37.9% ± 4.7%, and 87.1% ± 0.9%, respectively. Settling volume indexes, SVI10 and SVI30, were found to be 148.8 ± 28.9 mL/g, for the influent pH of 6.23 ± 0.06, and 157.5 ± 40.6 mL/g, for the influent pH of 5.62 ± 0.12. This high SVI is indicative of the formation of lower-density granules in comparison to high-ash-content granules. The absence of denitrification-induced chemical phosphorus precipitation within the granule was likely a contributing factor to the low granule density observed in the system.

  15. Signaling pathways coordinating the alkaline pH response confer resistance to the hevein-type plant antimicrobial peptide Pn-AMP1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Youngho; Chiang, Jennifer; Tran, Grant; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Hahn, Bum-Soo; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Koo, Ja-Choon

    2016-12-01

    Genome-wide screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that signaling pathways related to the alkaline pH stress contribute to resistance to plant antimicrobial peptide, Pn-AMP1. Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered to be promising candidates for controlling phytopathogens. Pn-AMP1 is a hevein-type plant AMP that shows potent and broad-spectrum antifungal activity. Genome-wide chemogenomic screening was performed using heterozygous and homozygous diploid deletion pools of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a chemogenetic model system to identify genes whose deletion conferred enhanced sensitivity to Pn-AMP1. This assay identified 44 deletion strains with fitness defects in the presence of Pn-AMP1. Strong fitness defects were observed in strains with deletions of genes encoding components of several pathways and complex known to participate in the adaptive response to alkaline pH stress, including the cell wall integrity (CWI), calcineurin/Crz1, Rim101, SNF1 pathways and endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT complex). Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of these genes revealed that the most highly overrepresented GO term was "cellular response to alkaline pH". We found that 32 of the 44 deletion strains tested (72 %) showed significant growth defects compared with their wild type at alkaline pH. Furthermore, 9 deletion strains (20 %) exhibited enhanced sensitivity to Pn-AMP1 at ambient pH compared to acidic pH. Although several hundred plant AMPs have been reported, their modes of action remain largely uncharacterized. This study demonstrates that the signaling pathways that coordinate the adaptive response to alkaline pH also confer resistance to a hevein-type plant AMP in S. cerevisiae. Our findings have broad implications for the design of novel and potent antifungal agents.

  16. Computer simulation of immobilized pH gradients at acidic and alkaline extremes - A quest for extended pH intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, Richard A.; Bier, Milan; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    1986-01-01

    Computer simulations of the concentration profiles of simple biprotic ampholytes with Delta pKs 1, 2, and 3, on immobilized pH gradients (IPG) at extreme pH values (pH 3-4 and pH 10-11) show markedly skewed steady-state profiles with increasing kurtosis at higher Delta pK values. Across neutrality, all the peaks are symmetric irrespective of their Delta pK values, but they show very high contribution to the conductivity of the background gel and significant alteration of the local buffering capacity. The problems of skewness, due to the exponential conductivity profiles at low and high pHs, and of gel burning due to a strong electroosmotic flow generated by the net charges in the gel matrix, also at low and high pHs, are solved by incorporating in the IPG gel a strong viscosity gradient. This is generated by a gradient of linear polyacrylamide which is trapped in the gel by the polymerization process.

  17. Action potentials occur spontaneously in squid giant axons with moderately alkaline intracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Clay, J R; Shrier, A

    2001-10-01

    This report demonstrates a novel finding from the classic giant axon preparation of the squid. Namely, the axon can be made to fire autonomously (spontaneously occurring action potentials) when the intracellular pH (pH(i)) was increased to about 7.7, or higher. (Physiological pH(i) is 7.3.) The frequency of firing was 33 Hz (T = 5 degrees ). No changes in frequency or in the voltage waveform itself were observed when pH(i) was increased from 7.7 up to 8.5. In other words, the effect has a threshold at a pH(i) of about 7.7. A mathematical model that is sufficient to mimic these results is provided using a modified version of the Clay (1998) description of the axonal ionic currents.

  18. A G-protein α subunit, GOA-1, plays a role in C. elegans avoidance behavior of strongly alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Sassa, Toshihiro; Maruyama, Ichi N

    2013-11-01

    The ability of animals to avoid strongly alkaline pH is critical for survival. However, the means by which they sense high pH has not been determined. We have previously found that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) avoids environmental pH above 10.5. Detection involves ASH nociceptive neurons as the major sensors. Upon stimulation, transient receptor potential vanilloid-type (TRPV) ion channels encoded by osm-9 and ocr-2 play an essential role in Ca(2+) entry into ASH. Here we report that C. elegans mutants deficient in a G-protein α subunit, GOA-1, failed to avoid strongly alkaline pH with normal Ca(2+) influx into ASH. These results suggest that GOA-1 regulates signal transmission downstream of Ca(2+) influx through OSM-9/OCR-2 TRPV channels in ASH.

  19. Temperature dependence of bistability in squid giant axons with alkaline intracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Clay, J R; Shrier, A

    2002-06-01

    Raising the intracellular pH (pHi) above 7.7 in intracellularly perfused squid giant axons causes spontaneous firing of action potentials. The firing frequency ranged from 20 Hz at 0 degrees C to 200 Hz at 23 degrees C. Above 23 degrees C, the axons were quiescent. They were bistable for 13

  20. Estimation and Comparison of Salivary Calcium, Phosphorous, Alkaline Phosphatase and pH Levels in Periodontal Health and Disease: A Cross-sectional Biochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rufi Murad; Varma, Siddhartha; Suragimath, Girish; Zope, Sameer

    2016-07-01

    In oral diagnostics there is a great challenge to determine biomarkers for screening and evaluating the disease activity. Biomarkers can also serve as a useful tool to measure the efficacy of the therapy. To evaluate and compare the levels of salivary calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and pH levels in periodontally healthy subjects and patients with gingivitis and periodontitis. The present study consisted of 150 subjects aged between 20-45 years who were divided into three groups; periodontally healthy, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. Prior to the clinical examination the demographic details, relevant information of the subject, gingival index, plaque index, Oral Hygiene Index (OHI) and pH were recorded. Biochemical assay of saliva i.e., inorganic calcium, phosphorous and alkaline phosphatase were estimated by colorimetric method. ANOVA and Tukey's test were applied for statistical analysis. The mean levels of biomarkers studied were; inorganic calcium (12.55μg/dl), phosphorous (14.50μg/dl), alkaline phosphatase (49.62μg/dl) and pH (11.65). There was a gradual increase in these levels as the condition progressed from health to gingivitis or periodontitis which was statistically significant at p<0.001. Based on these results, it can be concluded that, the biomarkers like salivary calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and pH can be considered for evaluating the diagnosis and prognosis of periodontal tissues in disease and health.

  1. Performance and application of a fluidized bed limestone reactor designed for control of alkalinity, hardness and pH at the Warm Springs Regional Fisheries Center

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Springs serving the Warm Springs Regional Fisheries Center, Warm Springs, Georgia, have pH, alkalinity, and hardness levels that lie under the range required for successful fish propagation while free CO2 is well above allowable targets. We evaluate a pretreatment process that exploits limestone's (...

  2. Application of a fluidized bed reactor charged with aragonite for control of alkalinity, pH and carbon dioxide in marine recirculating aquaculture systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paul S Wills, PhD; Pfeiffer, Timothy; Baptiste, Richard; Watten, Barnaby J.

    2016-01-01

    Control of alkalinity, dissolved carbon dioxide (dCO2), and pH are critical in marine recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in order to maintain health and maximize growth. A small-scale prototype aragonite sand filled fluidized bed reactor was tested under varying conditions of alkalinity and dCO2 to develop and model the response of dCO2 across the reactor. A large-scale reactor was then incorporated into an operating marine recirculating aquaculture system to observe the reactor as the system moved toward equilibrium. The relationship between alkalinity dCO2, and pH across the reactor are described by multiple regression equations. The change in dCO2 across the small-scale reactor indicated a strong likelihood that an equilibrium alkalinity would be maintained by using a fluidized bed aragonite reactor. The large-scale reactor verified this observation and established equilibrium at an alkalinity of approximately 135 mg/L as CaCO3, dCO2 of 9 mg/L, and a pH of 7.0 within 4 days that was stable during a 14 day test period. The fluidized bed aragonite reactor has the potential to simplify alkalinity and pH control, and aid in dCO2 control in RAS design and operation. Aragonite sand, purchased in bulk, is less expensive than sodium bicarbonate and could reduce overall operating production costs.

  3. High-resolution Imaging of pH in Alkaline Sediments and Water Based on a New Rapid Response Fluorescent Planar Optode

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chao; Yao, Lei; Xu, Di; Xie, Xianchuan; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2016-01-01

    A new dual-lumophore optical sensor combined with a robust RGB referencing method was developed for two-dimensional (2D) pH imaging in alkaline sediments and water. The pH sensor film consisted of a proton-permeable polymer (PVC) in which two dyes with different pH sensitivities and emission colors: (1) chloro phenyl imino propenyl aniline (CPIPA) and (2) the coumarin dye Macrolex® fluorescence yellow 10 GN (MFY-10 GN) were entrapped. Calibration experiments revealed the typical sigmoid function and temperature dependencies. This sensor featured high sensitivity and fast response over the alkaline working ranges from pH 7.5 to pH 10.5. Cross-sensitivity towards ionic strength (IS) was found to be negligible for freshwater when IS <0.1 M. The sensor had a spatial resolution of approximately 22 μm and aresponse time of <120 s when going from pH 7.0 to 9.0. The feasibility of the sensor was demonstrated using the pH microelectrode. An example of pH image obtained in the natrual freshwater sediment and water associated with the photosynthesis of Vallisneria spiral species was also presented, suggesting that the sensor held great promise for the field applications. PMID:27199163

  4. High-resolution Imaging of pH in Alkaline Sediments and Water Based on a New Rapid Response Fluorescent Planar Optode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chao; Yao, Lei; Xu, Di; Xie, Xianchuan; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2016-05-01

    A new dual-lumophore optical sensor combined with a robust RGB referencing method was developed for two-dimensional (2D) pH imaging in alkaline sediments and water. The pH sensor film consisted of a proton-permeable polymer (PVC) in which two dyes with different pH sensitivities and emission colors: (1) chloro phenyl imino propenyl aniline (CPIPA) and (2) the coumarin dye Macrolex® fluorescence yellow 10 GN (MFY-10 GN) were entrapped. Calibration experiments revealed the typical sigmoid function and temperature dependencies. This sensor featured high sensitivity and fast response over the alkaline working ranges from pH 7.5 to pH 10.5. Cross-sensitivity towards ionic strength (IS) was found to be negligible for freshwater when IS <0.1 M. The sensor had a spatial resolution of approximately 22 μm and aresponse time of <120 s when going from pH 7.0 to 9.0. The feasibility of the sensor was demonstrated using the pH microelectrode. An example of pH image obtained in the natrual freshwater sediment and water associated with the photosynthesis of Vallisneria spiral species was also presented, suggesting that the sensor held great promise for the field applications.

  5. High-resolution Imaging of pH in Alkaline Sediments and Water Based on a New Rapid Response Fluorescent Planar Optode.

    PubMed

    Han, Chao; Yao, Lei; Xu, Di; Xie, Xianchuan; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2016-05-20

    A new dual-lumophore optical sensor combined with a robust RGB referencing method was developed for two-dimensional (2D) pH imaging in alkaline sediments and water. The pH sensor film consisted of a proton-permeable polymer (PVC) in which two dyes with different pH sensitivities and emission colors: (1) chloro phenyl imino propenyl aniline (CPIPA) and (2) the coumarin dye Macrolex(®) fluorescence yellow 10 GN (MFY-10 GN) were entrapped. Calibration experiments revealed the typical sigmoid function and temperature dependencies. This sensor featured high sensitivity and fast response over the alkaline working ranges from pH 7.5 to pH 10.5. Cross-sensitivity towards ionic strength (IS) was found to be negligible for freshwater when IS <0.1 M. The sensor had a spatial resolution of approximately 22 μm and aresponse time of <120 s when going from pH 7.0 to 9.0. The feasibility of the sensor was demonstrated using the pH microelectrode. An example of pH image obtained in the natrual freshwater sediment and water associated with the photosynthesis of Vallisneria spiral species was also presented, suggesting that the sensor held great promise for the field applications.

  6. Enzyme adaptation to alkaline pH: Atomic resolution (1.08 Å) structure of phosphoserine aminotransferase from Bacillus alcalophilus

    PubMed Central

    Dubnovitsky, Anatoly P.; Kapetaniou, Evangelia G.; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C.

    2005-01-01

    The crystal structure of the vitamin B6-dependent enzyme phosphoserine aminotransferase from the obligatory alkaliphile Bacillus alcalophilus has been determined at 1.08 Å resolution. The model was refined to an R-factor of 11.7% (Rfree = 13.9%). The enzyme displays a narrow pH optimum of enzymatic activity at pH 9.0. The final structure was compared to the previously reported structure of the mesophilic phosphoserine aminotransferase from Escherichia coli and to that of phosphoserine aminotransferase from a facultative alkaliphile, Bacillus circulans subsp. alkalophilus. All three enzymes are homodimers with each monomer comprising a two-domain architecture. Despite the high structural similarity, the alkaliphilic representatives possess a set of distinctive structural features. Two residues directly interacting with pyridoxal-5′-phosphate are replaced, and an additional hydrogen bond to the O3′ atom of the cofactor is present in alkaliphilic phosphoserine aminotransferases. The number of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions at the dimer interface is increased. Hydrophobic interactions between the two domains in the monomers are enhanced. Moreover, the number of negatively charged amino acid residues increases on the solvent-accessible molecular surface and fewer hydrophobic residues are exposed to the solvent. Further, the total amount of ion pairs and ion networks is significantly reduced in the Bacillus enzymes, while the total number of hydrogen bonds is increased. The mesophilic enzyme from Escherichia coli contains two additional β-strands in a surface loop with a third β-strand being shorter in the structure. The identified structural features are proposed to be possible factors implicated in the alkaline adaptation of phosphoserine aminotransferase. PMID:15608117

  7. Thin-Layer Chemical Modulations by a Combined Selective Proton Pump and pH Probe for Direct Alkalinity Detection.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Majid Ghahraman; Crespo, Gastón A; Bakker, Eric

    2015-07-06

    We report a general concept based on a selective electrochemical ion pump used for creating concentration perturbations in thin layer samples (∼40 μL). As a first example, hydrogen ions are released from a selective polymeric membrane (proton pump) and the resulting pH is assessed potentiometrically with a second membrane placed directly opposite. By applying a constant potential modulation for 30 s, an induced proton concentration of up to 350 mM may be realized. This concept may become an attractive tool for in situ titrations without the need for sampling, because the thin layer eventually re-equilibrates with the contacting bulk sample. Acid-base titrations of NaOH and Na2 CO3 are demonstrated. The determination of total alkalinity in a river water sample is carried out, giving levels (23.1 mM) comparable to that obtained by standard methods (23.6 mM). The concept may be easily extended to other ions (cations, anions, polyions) and may become attractive for environmental and clinical applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Roles of alkaline phosphatase and labile internal mineral in matrix vesicle-mediated calcification. Effect of selective release of membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase and treatment with isosmotic pH 6 buffer.

    PubMed

    Register, T C; McLean, F M; Low, M G; Wuthier, R E

    1986-07-15

    The roles of alkaline phosphatase and labile internal mineral in matrix vesicle-mediated mineralization have been studied by selectively releasing the enzyme from a wide variety of matrix vesicle preparations using treatment with a bacterial phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C and by demineralization of the vesicles using isosmotic pH 6 buffer. Following depletion of 50-90% of the alkaline phosphatase activity or treatment with citrate buffer, the vesicles were tested for their ability to accumulate 45Ca2+ and 32Pi from a synthetic cartilage lymph. Removal of alkaline phosphatase by phospholipase C treatment caused two principal effects, depending on the matrix vesicle preparation. In rapidly mineralizing vesicle fractions which did not require organic phosphate esters (Po) to accumulate mineral ions, release of alkaline phosphatase had only a minor effect. In slowly mineralizing vesicles preparations or those dependent on Po substrates for mineral ion uptake, release of alkaline phosphatase caused significant loss of mineralizing activity. The activity of rapidly calcifying vesicles was shown to be dependent on the presence of labile internal mineral, as demonstrated by major loss in activity when the vesicles were decalcified by various treatments. Ion uptake by demineralized vesicles or those fractionated on sucrose step gradients required Po and was significantly decreased by alkaline phosphatase depletion. Uptake of Pi, however, was not coupled with hydrolysis of the Po substrate. These findings argue against a direct role for alkaline phosphatase as a porter in matrix vesicle Pi uptake, contrary to previous postulates. The results emphasize the importance of internal labile mineral in rapid uptake of mineral ions by matrix vesicles.

  9. Anion Conductance of Frog Muscle Membranes: One Channel, Two Kinds of pH Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Woodbury, J. W.; Miles, P. R.

    1973-01-01

    Anion conductance and permeability sequences were obtained for frog skeletal muscle membranes from the changes in characteristic resistance and transmembrane potential after the replacement of one anion by another in the bathing solution. Permeability and conductance sequences are the same. The conductance sequence at pH = 7.4 is Cl- Br- > NO3- > I- > trichloroacetate ≥ benzoate > valerate > butyrate > proprionate > formate > acetate ≥ lactate > benzenesulfonate ≥ isethionate > methylsulfonate > glutamate ≥ cysteate. The anions are divided into two classes: (a) Chloride-like anions (Cl- through trichloroacetate) have membrane conductances that decrease as pH decreases. The last six members of the complete sequence are also chloride like. (b) Benzoate-like anions (benzoate through acetate) have conductances that increase as pH decreases. At pH = 6.7 zinc ions block Cl- and benzoate conductances with inhibitory dissociation constants of 0.12 and 0.16 mM, respectively. Chloride-like and benzoate-like anions probably use the same channels. The minimum size of the channel aperture is estimated as 5.5 x 6.5 Å from the dimensions of the largest permeating anions. A simple model of the channel qualitatively explains chloride-like and benzoate-like conductance sequences and their dependence on pH. PMID:4542368

  10. Functional measurements on carboxymethylated hemoglobin, a potential blood substitute: effects of sodium chloride on pH values that influence the alkaline Bohr effect.

    PubMed

    Manning, L R; Fantl, W J; Manning, J M

    1990-01-01

    The leakage of chloride from electrodes during measurements of the alkaline Bohr effect of hemoglobin (by the proton release method) amounted to 1-5 mM concentration of the anion depending on the type of electrode employed. This concentration, together with the amount of chloride found to be intrinsically bound to hemoglobin (0.2-0.6 mM), could mask the contribution of chloride to various hemoglobin functions. In addition, the concentration of chloride was found to affect the pH of buffers as measured either with a pH meter or with the dye, cresol red. Thus, for 20 mM phosphate buffer, the pH was lowered almost 0.4 pH units in the presence of 0.30 M chloride. For Tris-acetate buffer, the same concentration of chloride led to an increase in pH of about 0.05 units.

  11. Alkaline pH induces IRR-mediated phosphorylation of IRS-1 and actin cytoskeleton remodeling in a pancreatic beta cell line.

    PubMed

    Deyev, Igor E; Popova, Nadezhda V; Serova, Oxana V; Zhenilo, Svetlana V; Regoli, Marì; Bertelli, Eugenio; Petrenko, Alexander G

    2017-07-01

    Secretion of mildly alkaline (pH 8.0-8.5) juice to intestines is one of the key functions of the pancreas. Recent reports indicate that the pancreatic duct system containing the alkaline juice may adjoin the endocrine cells of pancreatic islets. We have previously identified the insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR) that is expressed in islets as a sensor of mildly alkaline extracellular media. In this study, we show that those islet cells that are in contact with the excretory ducts are also IRR-expressing cells. We further analyzed the effects of alkaline media on pancreatic beta cell line MIN6. Activation of endogenous IRR but not of the insulin receptor was detected that could be inhibited with linsitinib. The IRR autophosphorylation correlated with pH-dependent linsitinib-sensitive activation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), the primary adaptor in the insulin signaling pathway. However, in contrast with insulin stimulation, no protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) phosphorylation was detected as a result of alkali treatment. We observed overexpression of several early response genes (EGR2, IER2, FOSB, EGR1 and NPAS4) upon alkali treatment of MIN6 cells but those were IRR-independent. The alkaline medium but not insulin also triggered actin cytoskeleton remodeling that was blocked by pre-incubation with linsitinib. We propose that the activation of IRR by alkali might be part of a local loop of signaling between the exocrine and endocrine parts of the pancreas where alkalinization of the juice facilitate insulin release that increases the volume of secreted juice to control its pH and bicabonate content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  12. Microprofiles of oxygen, redox potential, and pH, and microbial fermentation products in the highly alkaline gut of the saprophagous larva of Penthetria holosericea (Diptera: Bibionidae).

    PubMed

    Šustr, Vladimír; Stingl, Ulrich; Brune, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The saprophagous larvae of bibionid flies harbor bacteria in their alkaline intestinal tracts, but little is known about the contribution of the gut microbiota to the digestion of their recalcitrant diet. In this study, we measured oxygen and hydrogen partial pressure, redox potential and pH in the midgut, gastric caeca and hindgut of larvae of the bibionid fly Penthetria holosericea with Clark-type O2 and H2 microsensors, platinum redox microelectrodes, and LIX-type pH microelectrodes. The center of the midgut lumen was anoxic, whereas gastric caeca and hindgut were hypoxic. However, redox potential profiles indicated oxidizing conditions throughout the gut, with lowest values in the midgut (+20 to +60mV). Hydrogen production was not detected. The midgut was extremely alkaline (pH around 11), whereas hindgut and gastric caeca were neutral to slightly alkaline. While HPLC analysis showed high concentrations of glucose in the midgut (15mM) and gastric caeca (27mM), the concentrations of microbial fermentation products such as lactate (2-4mM), acetate (<1mM) and succinate (<0.5mM) were low in all gut regions, suggesting that the contribution of microorganisms to the digestive process, particularly in the alkaline midgut, is only of minor importance. We conclude that the digestive strategy of the saprophytic larva of P. holosericea, which feeds selectively on decomposed leaves and its own microbe-rich faeces, differs fundamentally from those of detritivorous and humivorous insects, which host a highly active, fermentative microbiota in their alkaline midgut or hindgut compartments.

  13. Strategies for regulation of hemolymph pH in acidic and alkaline water by the larval mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera; Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Clark, Thomas M; Vieira, Marcus A L; Huegel, Kara L; Flury, Dawn; Carper, Melissa

    2007-12-01

    The responses of larval Aedes aegypti to media of pH 4, 7 and 11 provide evidence for pH regulatory strategies. Drinking rates in pH 4 media were elevated 3- to 5-fold above those observed in pH 7 or 11. Total body water was elevated during acute exposure to acidic media. During chronic exposure, total body water was decreased and Malpighian tubule mitochondrial luminosity, quantified using Mitotracker Green FM, increased. Malpighian tubule secretion rates and energy demands thus appear to increase dramatically during acid exposure. In alkaline media, drinking rates were quite low. Larvae in pH 11 media excreted net acid (0.12 nequiv H(+) g(-1) h(-1)) and the pH indicators azolitmin and bromothymol blue revealed that the rectal lumen is acidic in vivo at all ambient pH values. The anal papillae (AP) were found to be highly permeant to acid-base equivalents. Ambient pH influenced the length, and the mass-specific length, of the AP in the presence of NaCl (59.9 mmol l(-1)). In contrast, the length and mass-specific length of AP were not influenced by ambient pH in low NaCl conditions. Mitochondrial luminosity was reduced in AP of larvae reared in acidic media, and was not elevated in alkaline media, relative to that of larvae reared in neutral media. These data suggest that the AP may compromise acid-base balance in acidic media, and may also be an important site of trade-offs between H(+) homeostasis and NaCl uptake in dilute, acidic media.

  14. pH- and voltage-dependent conductances in toad skin.

    PubMed

    Lacaz-Vieira, F

    1995-11-01

    The present study focuses on two closely related topics on ion conductance in toad skins: (i) the interaction of apical protons with the apical voltage-dependent Cl(-)-activated channels of the mitochondria-rich cells, and (ii) the description and characterization of a novel subject, a voltage-dependent H(+)-activated conductance. The Cl- conductance (GCl) is activated by tissue hyperpolarization (which leads to apical membrane depolarization) and the presence of Cl- ions in the apical solution. Increasing apical proton concentration (from pH 8 to pH 4) impairs the process of activation of the Cl- conductive pathway, slowing the kinetics of It activation and reducing the steady-stage values of Gt and It. This effect is markedly voltage-dependent since no effect is seen at Vt = -100 mv and is fully present at -50 mV. The voltage-dependence of the pH effect suggests that the critical protonation sites of the apical Cl- channels are not freely exposed to the apical solution but dwell within the membrane electric field. An also coherent interpretation is that titration of apical proton binding sites affects the gating of the voltage-dependent Cl- channels, shifting the conductance-vs.-voltage curve to more negative clamping potentials. Tissue conductance in the absence of apical Cl- ions can be importantly affected by the pH of the apical solution (pHa), the effect being markedly dependent on the clamping potential. Generally speaking, the effect of rising apical proton concentration can be conspicuous at negative clamping potentials, while at positive potentials changes in tissue conductance were never observed. For a clamping potential of -100 mV, a turning point somewhere between pHa = 4 and pHa = 3 was observed. Apical acidification to pH 4 has no effect upon tissue conductance while apical acidification to pH 3 leads to a marked, slow and reversible increase of tissue conductance. A striking similitude exists between the voltage-dependent Cl(-)-gated conductance

  15. High pH (and not free ammonia) is responsible for Anammox inhibition in mildly alkaline solutions with excess of ammonium.

    PubMed

    Puyol, D; Carvajal-Arroyo, J M; Li, G B; Dougless, A; Fuentes-Velasco, M; Sierra-Alvarez, R; Field, J A

    2014-10-01

    Ammonium is a substrate of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process but it has been suggested as a substrate-inhibitor because of the action of its unionized form, free ammonia. High pH of the medium is also an important limiting factor of the Anammox bacteria. Both effects are difficult to discriminate. In this work the inhibitory effects of high pH, total ammonia (TA) and NH3 on the Anammox process were investigated simultaneously. Results confirmed that TA caused no inhibition and high pH is a much more important inhibiting factor than NH3 in mildly alkaline conditions, based on a multi-factorial analysis. Values of pH higher than 7.6 caused Anammox inhibition >10 % and should be avoided during the application of the Anammox process in practice.

  16. DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF IONIC LIQUID ELECTROLYTES FOR HYDROXIDE CONDUCTING POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE MEMBRANES IN ALKALINE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, E.

    2012-05-01

    Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) operation is currently limited to specialty applications such as low temperatures and pure HO due to the corrosive nature of the electrolyte and formation of carbonates. AFCs are the cheapest and potentially most efficient (approaching 70%) fuel cells. The fact that non-Pt catalysts can be used, makes them an ideal low cost alternative for power production. The anode and cathode are separated by and solid electrolyte or alkaline porous media saturated with KOH. However, CO from the atmosphere or fuel feed severely poisons the electrolyte by forming insoluble carbonates. The corrosivity of KOH (electrolyte) limits operating temperatures to no more than 80°C. This chapter examines the development of ionic liquids electrolytes that are less corrosive, have higher operating temperatures, do not chemically bond to CO and enable alternative fuels. Work is detailed on the IL selection and characterization as well as casting methods within the polybenzimidazole based solid membrane. This approach is novel as it targets the root of the problem (the electrolyte) unlike other current work in alkaline fuel cells which focus on making the fuel cell components more durable.

  17. Alkaline pH Is a signal for optimal production and secretion of the heat labile toxin, LT in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC).

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Lucia; Ali, Zahra Bagher; Nygren, Erik; Wang, Zhiyun; Karlsson, Stefan; Zhu, Baoli; Quiding-Järbrink, Marianne; Sjöling, Åsa

    2013-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause secretory diarrhea in children and travelers to endemic areas. ETEC spreads through the fecal-oral route. After ingestion, ETEC passes through the stomach and duodenum before it colonizes the lower part of the small intestine, exposing bacteria to a wide range of pH and environmental conditions. This study aimed to determine the impact of external pH and activity of the Cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) on the regulation of production and secretion of heat labile (LT) enterotoxin. ETEC strain E2863wt and its isogenic mutant E2863ΔCRP were grown in LBK media buffered to pH 5, 7 and 9. GM1 ELISA, cDNA and cAMP analyses were carried out on bacterial pellet and supernatant samples derived from 3 and 5 hours growth and from overnight cultures. We confirm that CRP is a repressor of LT transcription and production as has been shown before but we show for the first time that CRP is a positive regulator of LT secretion both in vitro and in vivo. LT secretion increased at neutral to alkaline pH compared to acidic pH 5 where secretion was completely inhibited. At pH 9 secretion of LT was optimal resulting in 600 percent increase of secreted LT compared to unbuffered LBK media. This effect was not due to membrane leakage since the bacteria were viable at pH 9. The results indicate that the transition to the alkaline duodenum and/or exposure to high pH close to the epithelium as well as activation of the global transcription factor CRP are signals that induce secretion of the LT toxin in ETEC.

  18. Combined effects of carbonate alkalinity and pH on survival, growth and haemocyte parameters of the Venus clam Cyclina sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tingting; Lai, Qifang; Yao, Zongli; Lu, Jianxue; Zhou, Kai; Wang, Hui

    2013-08-01

    Carbonate alkalinity (CA) and pH are considered to be two important stress factors that determine the response of aquatic animals to sudden transfers into saline-alkaline water. To evaluate the potential for aquaculture production of Venus clams (Cyclina sinensis) farmed in saline-alkaline water, the combined effects of CA (2.5 (control), 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 meq/l) and pH (8.0 (control), 8.5, 9.0 and 9.5) on survival rate was monitored every day for 10 days. Length gain rate (LGR) and weight gain rate (WGR) were also monitored for two months, and total haemocyte count (THC), phagocytic rate (PR) and haemocyte mortality (HM) were measured for 3, 6, 12 and 24 days under the same water temperature (20 °C) and salinity (15‰) conditions. The results showed that survival rates in treatments of CA ≤ 20.0, combined with pH ≤ 9.0, were 100%. LGR and WGR in treatments of CA 2.5 & pH 8.0 (control), CA 2.5 & pH 8.5 and CA 10.0 & pH 8.0 exhibited the largest values (P > 0.05), while in other treatments, they showed a decreasing trend with an increase in either CA or pH or both (P < 0.05). Similarly, for THC, PR and HM, no significant differences were observed among the fast growth treatments during the entire experimental period (P > 0.05), however, in other treatments, they presented significant differences, especially on day 3 and 6 (P < 0.05), most notably with increases in CA or pH, but returned to control levels on day 12. In conclusion, in this study, a strong interaction between CA and pH was observed. Additionally, it was ascertained that the Venus clam C. sinensis can withstand the stress of CA 20.0 combined pH 9.0, although individuals grows slowly and may take approximately 12 days to recover to the unstressed condition.

  19. Intracellular pH in the OK cell. I. Identification of H+ conductance and observations on buffering capacity.

    PubMed

    Graber, M; DiPaola, J; Hsiang, F L; Barry, C; Pastoriza, E

    1991-12-01

    The regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) in the opossum kidney (OK) cell line was studied in vitro using the pH-sensitive excitation ratio of 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein. Recovery from an NH4Cl acid load disclosed a Na-dependent component blocked by amiloride and a smaller Na-independent component. The Na-independent recovery rate was proportional to the H+ gradient from cell to buffer and was zero in the absence of an electrochemical gradient. The Na-independent recovery was not affected by N-ethylmaleimide, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, HCO3, phloretin, or ZnCl2 but was accelerated in depolarized cells and by membrane-fluidizing drugs and was inhibited by glutaraldehyde. The apparent cellular buffering capacity changed in proportion to this H+ conductance. Consistent with an electrogenic H+ leak, steady-state cell pH alkalinized with depolarization and acidified with hyperpolarization. Removal of buffer Na+ produced a profound acidification, as did amiloride. In 0-Na+ buffers, extremely large cell-to-buffer H+ gradients were present and proportional to buffer pH. 4-Acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid had no effect on steady-state pHi. Measurements of intracellular buffering capacity were derived from the change of cell pH induced by withdrawing NH4Cl. This buffering capacity was increased threefold in Na-free buffers, whereas the value measured by direct titration of cell lysate was the same or less than that of control cells. The NH4Cl-derived buffering capacity varied in direct proportion to the magnitude of the H+ leak. Drugs that changed H+ permeability produced the apparent changes of the measured buffering capacity within a few minutes. We conclude that, in HCO3-free buffer, the OK cell uses two membrane acid-base transport pathways: a Na-H antiporter active at physiological pH and a substantial passive H+ conductance. The results also reveal that the NH4Cl

  20. Effect of Treatment pH on the End Products of the Alkaline Hydrolysis of TNT and RDX

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Comparison of final TOC of TNT alkaline hydrolysis solutions at three pHs........................19 Table 7. Results of ion chromatographic analysis ...25 Table 12. Results of ion chromatographic analysis of unlabeled RDX solutions following extended alkaline hydrolysis at three...8330 explo- sives analysis TOC IC Lime Control ERDC/EL TR-07-4 7 3 Materials and Methods Chemicals Chemicals used in this study included

  1. Improving the expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli BL21 (DE3) under acetate stress: an alkaline pH shift approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hengwei; Wang, Fengqing; Wang, Wei; Yao, Xueling; Wei, Dongzhi; Cheng, Hairong; Deng, Zixin

    2014-01-01

    Excess acetate has long been an issue for the production of recombinant proteins in E. coli cells. Recently, improvements in acetate tolerance have been achieved through the use of genetic strategies and medium supplementation with certain amino acids and pyrimidines. The aim of our study was to evaluate an alternative to improve the acetate tolerance of E. coli BL21 (DE3), a popular strain used to express recombinant proteins. In this work we reported the cultivation of BL21 (DE3) in complex media containing acetate at high concentrations. In the presence of 300 mM acetate, compared with pH 6.5, pH 7.5 improved cell growth by approximately 71%, reduced intracellular acetate by approximately 50%, and restored the expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST), green fluorescent protein (GFP) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP). Further experiments showed that alkaline pHs up to 8.5 had little inhibition in the expression of GST, GFP and CYP. In addition, the detrimental effect of acetate on the reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) by the cell membrane, an index of cellular metabolic capacity, was substantially alleviated by a shift to alkaline pH values of 7.5-8.0. Thus, we suggest an approach of cultivating E. coli BL21 (DE3) at pH 8.0 ± 0.5 to minimize the effects caused by acetate stress. The proposed strategy of an alkaline pH shift is a simple approach to solving similar bioprocessing problems in the production of biofuels and biochemicals from sugars.

  2. Hydrolysis and volatile fatty acids accumulation of waste activated sludge enhanced by the combined use of nitrite and alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Liu, Congcong; Sun, Xiuyun; Sun, Yinglu; Li, Rui; Li, Jiansheng; Shen, Jinyou; Han, Weiqing; Liu, Xiaodong; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-12-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is often limited by the slow hydrolysis and/or poor substrate availability. Increased attention has been given to enhance the hydrolysis and acidification of WAS recently. This study presented an efficient and green strategy based on the combined use of nitrite pretreatment and alkaline pH to stimulate hydrolysis and VFA accumulation from WAS. Results showed that both proteins and polysaccharides increased in the presence of nitrite, indicating the enhancement of sludge solubilization and hydrolysis processes. Mechanism investigations showed that nitrite pretreatment could disintegrate the sludge particle and disperse extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Then, anaerobic digestion tests demonstrated VFA production increased with nitrite treatment. The maximal VFA accumulation was achieved with 0.1 g N/L nitrite dosage and pH 10.0 at a sludge retention time (SRT) of 7 days, which was much higher VFA production in comparison with the blank, sole nitrite pretreatment, or sole pH 10. The potential analysis suggested that the combined nitrite pretreatment and alkaline pH is capable of enhancing WAS digestion with a great benefit for biological nutrient removal (BNR).

  3. The Effect of Carbonate and pH on Hydrogen Oxidation and Oxygen Reduction on Pt-Based Electrocatalysts in Alkaline Media

    DOE PAGES

    John, Samuel St.; Atkinson, Robert W.; Roy, Asa; ...

    2016-01-11

    In this paper, we investigated the performance of several carbon-supported RuxPty electrocatalysts for their alkaline hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction performance in the presence of carbonate and compared their performance with monometallic, carbon-supported Pt. Our results indicate a strong dependence of HOR upon pH for the monometallic Pt catalysts (22 mV/pH) and a weak dependence upon pH for the Ru-containing electrocatalysts (3.7, 2.5, and 4.7 mV/pH on Ru0.2Pt0.8, Ru0.4Pt0.6, and Ru0.8Pt0.2, respectively). These results are consistent with our previous findings that illustrate a change in rds from electron transfer (on monometallic Pt) to dissociative hydrogen adsorption (on RuxPty catalysts). Analysismore » of the kinetic currents to determine the rate-determining step via Tafel slope analysis provides additional data supporting this conclusion. There is no difference in the performance at comparable pH values in the presence or absence of carbonate on monometallic Pt indicating that water/hydroxide is the primary proton acceptor for alkaline HOR in 0.1 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. Finally, we observe no pH or carbonate dependence for the ORR on monometallic Pt.« less

  4. Biodiversity of poly-extremophilic Bacteria: Does combining the extremes of high salt, alkaline pH and elevated temperature approach a physico-chemical boundary for life?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial microorganisms that grow optimally at Na+ concentrations of 1.7 M, or the equivalent of 10% (w/v) NaCl, and greater are considered to be extreme halophiles. This review focuses on the correlation between the extent of alkaline pH and elevated temperature optima and the extent of salt tolerance of extremely halophilic eubacteria; the focus is on those with alkaline pH optima, above 8.5, and elevated temperature optima, above 50°C. If all three conditions are required for optimal growth, these microorganisms are termed "poly-extremophiles". However, only a very few extreme halophiles able to grow optimally under alkaline conditions as well as at elevated temperatures have been isolated so far. Therefore the question is: do the combined extreme growth conditions of the recently isolated poly-extremophiles, i.e., anaerobic halophilic alkalithermophiles, approach a physico-chemical boundary for life? These poly-extremophiles are of interest, as their adaptive mechanisms give insight into organisms' abilities to survive in environments which were previously considered prohibitive to life, as well as to possible properties of early evolutionary and extraterrestrial life forms. PMID:19930649

  5. Pho4 Is Essential for Dissemination of Cryptococcus neoformans to the Host Brain by Promoting Phosphate Uptake and Growth at Alkaline pH

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman-Francis, Keren; Desmarini, Desmarini; Juillard, Pierre G.; Li, Cecilia; Stifter, Sebastian A.; Feng, Carl G.; Sorrell, Tania C.; Grau, Georges E. R.; Bahn, Yong-Sun

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phosphate acquisition by fungi is regulated by the phosphate-sensing and acquisition (PHO) signaling pathway. Cryptococcus neoformans disseminates from the lung to the brain and is the commonest cause of fungal meningitis worldwide. To investigate the contribution of PHO signaling to cryptococcal dissemination, we characterized a transcription factor knockout strain (hlh3Δ/pho4Δ) defective in phosphate acquisition. Despite little similarity with other fungal Pho4 proteins, Hlh3/Pho4 functioned like a typical phosphate-responsive transcription factor in phosphate-deprived cryptococci, accumulating in nuclei and triggering expression of genes involved in phosphate acquisition. The pho4Δ mutant strain was susceptible to a number of stresses, the effect of which, except for alkaline pH, was alleviated by phosphate supplementation. Even in the presence of phosphate, the PHO pathway was activated in wild-type cryptococci at or above physiological pH, and under these conditions, the pho4Δ mutant had a growth defect and compromised phosphate uptake. The pho4Δ mutant was hypovirulent in a mouse inhalation model, where dissemination to the brain was reduced dramatically, and markedly hypovirulent in an intravenous dissemination model. The pho4Δ mutant was not detected in blood, nor did it proliferate significantly when cultured with peripheral blood monocytes. In conclusion, dissemination of infection and the pathogenesis of meningitis are dependent on cryptococcal phosphate uptake and stress tolerance at alkaline pH, both of which are Pho4 dependent. IMPORTANCE Cryptococcal meningitis is fatal without treatment and responsible for more than 500,000 deaths annually. To be a successful pathogen, C. neoformans must obtain an adequate supply of essential nutrients, including phosphate, from various host niches. Phosphate acquisition in fungi is regulated by the PHO signaling cascade, which is activated when intracellular phosphate decreases below a critical

  6. Enhancing the antibacterial effect of 461 and 521 nm light emitting diodes on selected foodborne pathogens in trypticase soy broth by acidic and alkaline pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Ghate, Vinayak; Leong, Ai Ling; Kumar, Amit; Bang, Woo Suk; Zhou, Weibiao; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2015-06-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) with their antibacterial effect present a novel method for food preservation. This effect may be influenced by environmental conditions such as the pH of the food contaminated by the pathogen. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the influence of pH on the antibacterial effect of LEDs before their application to real food matrices. Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in trypticase soy broth were illuminated using 10-W 461 (22.1 mW/cm(2)) and 521 nm (16 mW/cm(2)) LEDs at pH values of 4.5, 6.0, 7.3, 8.0 and 9.5 for 7.5 h at 15 °C. Using the 461 nm LEDs, the populations of E. coli O157:H7 decreased by 2.1 ± 0.02, 1.2 ± 0.08 and 4.1 ± 0.42 log CFU/ml at pH 4.5, 7.3 and 9.5 respectively, after a dosage of 596.7 J/cm(2). For L. monocytogenes, approximately a 5.8 ± 0.03 log reduction was observed after 238.7 J/cm(2) at pH 4.5 using the 461 nm LEDs, while the bacterial concentration was reduced by 1.8 ± 0.01 log at pH 9.5 after 596.7 J/cm(2). Bacterial inactivation using the 521 nm LEDs showed similar trends to the 461 nm LEDs at both acidic and alkaline pH conditions but with lower (1-2 log CFU/ml) reductions after 432 J/cm(2). Lower D-values were observed for L. monocytogenes when exposed to LEDs at acidic pH values, while the sensitivity of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium to LED was markedly increased at an alkaline pH. Regardless of the pH at which the cultures were illuminated, the percentage of sublethal injury increased with the treatment time. These results highlight the enhanced antibacterial effect of the 461 nm LED under acidic and alkaline pH conditions, proving its potential to preserve foods as well as to have synergistic effect with acidic and alkaline antimicrobials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transcriptional analysis of the F0F1 ATPase operon of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 reveals strong induction by alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Barriuso-Iglesias, Mónica; Barreiro, Carlos; Flechoso, Fabio; Martín, Juan F

    2006-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum, a soil Gram-positive bacterium used for industrial amino acid production, was found to grow optimally at pH 7.0-9.0 when incubated in 5 litre fermenters under pH-controlled conditions. The highest biomass was accumulated at pH 9.0. Growth still occurred at pH 9.5 but at a reduced rate. The expression of the pH-regulated F0 F1 ATPase operon (containing the eight genes atpBEFHAGDC) was induced at alkaline pH. A 7.5 kb transcript, corresponding to the eight-gene operon, was optimally expressed at pH 9.0. The same occurred with a 1.2 kb transcript corresponding to the atpB gene. RT-PCR studies confirmed the alkaline pH induction of the F0 F1 operon and the existence of the atpI gene. The atpI gene, located upstream of the F0 F1 operon, was expressed at a lower level than the polycistronic 7.5 kb mRNA, from a separate promoter (P-atp1). Expression of the major promoter of the F0 F1 operon, designated P-atp2, and the P-atp1 promoter was quantified by coupling them to the pET2 promoter-probe vector. Both P-atp1 and P-atp2 were functional in C. glutamicum and Escherichia coli. Primer extension analysis identified one transcription start point inside each of the two promoter regions. The P-atp1 promoter fitted the consensus sequence of promoters recognized by the vegetative sigma factor of C. glutamicum, whereas the -35 and -10 boxes of P-atp2 fitted the consensus sequence for sigma(H)-recognized Mycobacterium tuberculosis promoters C(C)/(G)GG(A)/(G)AC 17-22 nt (C)/(G)GTT(C)/(G), known to be involved in expression of heat-shock and other stress-response genes. These results suggest that the F0 F1 operon is highly expressed at alkaline pH, probably using a sigma (H) RNA polymerase.

  8. Field and laboratory measurement of pH in low-conductivity natural waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, C.; Thomas, A. G.

    1985-07-01

    The accurate measurement of pH is fundamental to most environmental and hydrogeological studies. Many mineral and ion exchange equilibria are controlled by acidity levels and establishment of saturation indices requires accuracies to within 0.1 pH units. Correspondingly, in studies of the impact of acidic deposition, accurate pH measurement of rainfall, surface runoff and unsaturated zone/groundwater it is essential to establish the proton sources and sinks in the various hydrological pathways. Measurement of pH both in the field and laboratory almost universally involves electrode systems based on silver-silver chloride and calomel cells; these devices, although convenient, inexpensive and portable, are in many instances not sufficiently accurate for low-conductivity waters such as rainfall and many upland streams. Numerous studies for biological and inorganic systems as well as inter-laboratory comparisons have demonstrated this problem (Illingworth, 1981; Tyree, 1981; Mason, 1984; Covington et al., 1985a); hydrogen ion activity/concentration discrepancies of up to an order of magnitude are observed even under laboratory conditions (pH = -log H + activity and for very low ionic strengths H + activity ⋍ H+ concentration). Such inaccuracies will be exacerbated in the more testing environment of field measurement. Improved electrodes based on a free-diffusion liquid junction and flowing sample are being designed (Covington et al., 1983, 1985b), however, these are not readily available and may not be suitable for field use. A description of the sources of these errors is given and suggestions are made for pragmatic solutions to the problems encountered. It is concluded that a fresh approach to field and laboratory measurement of the pH of low-conductivity waters is urgently needed.

  9. Ensuring PhD development of responsible conduct of research behaviors: who's responsible?

    PubMed

    Titus, Sandra L; Ballou, Janice M

    2014-03-01

    The importance of public confidence in scientific findings and trust in scientists cannot be overstated. Thus, it becomes critical for the scientific community to focus on enhancing the strategies used to educate future scientists on ethical research behaviors. What we are lacking is knowledge on how faculty members shape and develop ethical research standards with their students. We are presenting the results of a survey with 3,500 research faculty members. We believe this is the first report on how faculty work with and educate their PhD students on basic research standards. Specifically, we wanted to determine whether individual faculty members, who are advisors or mentors, differ in how they implemented components of responsible conduct of research (RCR) with their PhD students. Mentors were more likely than advisors or supervisors to report working with all of their PhDs, who graduated in the last 5 years, on the 17 recognized critical components of RCR training and research skill development. We also found about half of the faculty members believe RCR is an institutional responsibility versus a faculty responsibility. Less than a quarter have had opportunities to participate in faculty training to be a better mentor, advisor, or research teacher, and about one third of faculty did not or could not remember whether they had guidelines related to their responsibilities to PhD students. We discuss the implications of our findings and focus on ways that PhD research mentoring can be enhanced.

  10. Snow leopard (Panthera uncia) spermatozoa are sensitive to alkaline pH, but motility in vitro is not influenced by protein or energy supplements.

    PubMed

    Roth, T L; Swanson, W F; Collins, D; Burton, M; Garell, D M; Wildt, D E

    1996-01-01

    To better understand the biology of snow leopard spermatozoa and to facilitate developing assisted reproduction, a series of studies was conducted to: 1) identify the component(s) of complex culture media responsible for the detrimental effect on sperm survival in vitro, 2) optimize medium for supporting sperm viability, and 3) evaluate sperm capacitation in vitro. Constituents of complex media were added systematically to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) to isolate the factor(s) influencing snow leopard sperm motility in vitro. Sperm capacitation was also assessed following incubation in PBS with bovine serum albumin (BSA), fetal calf serum (FCS), or heparin. For maintaining sperm motility, there was no benefit (P > or = 0.05) to supplementing PBS with low (5%) or high (20%) concentrations of snow leopard serum (SLS) versus FCS or BSA. Likewise, adding supplemental energy substrates (pyruvate, glucose, lactate, or glutamine) did not enhance or hinder (P > or = 0.05) sperm motility. However, motility rapidly decreased (P < 0.05) with the addition of NaHCO3 to PBS or Ham's F10 nutrient mixture. Surprisingly, Ham's F10 with no buffering component or with both NaHCO3 and N-Z-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) maintained sperm motility at levels similar (P > or = 0.05) to PBS. Although sperm motility in all treatments decreased with time, there was a strong inverse relationship (P < 0.01; r = 0.90) between motility and sample pH at 6 hours. Spermatozoa incubated in PBS containing FCS, BSA, or heparin did not undergo the acrosome reaction when exposed to calcium ionophore. In summary, alkaline pH has a profound detrimental effect on snow leopard sperm motility, and capacitation does not occur under conditions that normally promote this event in other felid species. These results clearly demonstrate a high degree of interspecific variation among felids in fundamental sperm function, and they provide evidence for the necessity of basic research when

  11. [Advances of alkaline amylase production and applications].

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiquan; Liu, Long; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2012-04-01

    Alkaline amylase is one of alkaline enzymes with optimum pH in the alkaline range, and it could keep stability and efficiently hydrolyze starch under alkaline conditions. Alkaline amylase finds wide applications in textile, detergent, pharmaceutical, food and other fields. Alkaline amylases could be produced by alkaliphilic microorganisms. In this work, the advances of alkaline amylase production and applications were reviewed.

  12. Continuous-flow electrophoresis: Membrane-associated deviations of buffer pH and conductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolka, A. J. K.; Mcguire, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    The deviations in buffer pH and conductivity which occur near the electrode membranes in continuous-flow electrophoresis were studied in the Beckman charged particle electrophoresis system and the Hanning FF-5 preparative electrophoresis instrument. The nature of the membranes separating the electrode compartments from the electrophoresis chamber, the electric field strength, and the flow rate of electrophoresis buffer were all found to influence the formation of the pH and conductivity gradients. Variations in electrode buffer flow rate and the time of electrophoresis were less important. The results obtained supported the hypothesis that a combination of Donnan membrane effects and the differing ionic mobilities in the electrophoresis buffer was responsible for the formation of the gradients. The significance of the results for the design and stable operation of continuous-flow electrophoresis apparatus was discussed.

  13. A conserved cytoplasmic region of ROMK modulates pH sensitivity, conductance, and gating.

    PubMed

    Choe, H; Zhou, H; Palmer, L G; Sackin, H

    1997-10-01

    ROMK channels play a key role in overall K balance by controlling K secretion across the apical membrane of mammalian cortical collecting tubule. In contrast to the family of strong inward rectifiers (IRKs), ROMK channels are markedly sensitive to intracellular pH. Using Xenopus oocytes, we have confirmed this pH sensitivity at both the single-channel and whole cell level. Reduction of oocyte pH from 6.8 to 6.4 (using a permeant acetate buffer) reduced channel open probability from 0.76 +/- 0.02 to near zero (n = 8), without altering single-channel conductance. This was due to the appearance of a long-lived closed state at low internal pH. We have confirmed that a lysine residue (K61 on ROMK2; K80 on ROMK1), NH2 terminal to the first putative transmembrane segment (M1), is primarily responsible for conferring a steep pH sensitivity to ROMK (B. Fakler, J. Schultz, J. Yang, U. Schulte, U. Bråandle, H. P. Zenner, L. Y. Jan, and J. P. Ruppersberg. EMBO J. 15: 4093-4099, 1996). However, the apparent pKa of ROMK also depends on another residue in a highly conserved, mildly hydrophobic area: T51 on ROMK2 (T70 on ROMK1). Replacing this neutral threonine (T51) with a negatively charged glutamate shifted the apparent pKa for inward conductance from 6.5 +/- 0.01 (n = 8, wild type) to 7.0 +/- 0.02 (n = 5, T51E). On the other hand, replacing T51 with a positively charged lysine shifted the apparent pKa in the opposite direction, from 6.5 +/- 0.01 (n = 8, wild type) to 6.0 +/- 0.02 (n = 9, T51K). The opposite effects of the glutamate and lysine substitutions at position 51 (ROMK2) are consistent with a model in which T51 is physically close to K61 and alters either the local pH or the apparent pKa via an electrostatic mechanism. In addition to its effects on pH sensitivity, the mutation T51E also decreased single-channel conductance from 34.0 +/- 1.0 pS (n = 8, wild type) to 17.4 +/- 1 pS (n = 9, T51E), reversed the voltage gating of the channel, and significantly increased

  14. Enhanced production of heterologous proteins by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei via disruption of the alkaline serine protease SPW combined with a pH control strategy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoxiu; Zhu, Yao; Wei, Dongzhi; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei has received attention as a host for heterologous protein production because of its high secretion capacity and eukaryotic post-translational modifications. However, the heterologous production of proteins in T. reesei is limited by its high expression of proteases. The pH control strategies have been proposed for eliminating acidic, but not alkaline, protease activity. In this study, we verified the expression of a relatively major extracellular alkaline protease (GenBank accession number: EGR49466.1, named spw in this study) from 20 candidates through real-time polymerase chain reaction. The transcriptional level of spw increased about 136 times in response to bovine serum albumin as the sole nitrogen source. Additionally, extracellular protease activity was reduced by deleting the spw gene. Therefore, using this gene expression system, we observed enhanced production and stability of the heterologous alkaline endoglucanase EGV from Humicola insolens using the Δspw strain as compared to the parental strain RUT-C30.

  15. The Effect of Carbonate and pH on Hydrogen Oxidation and Oxygen Reduction on Pt-Based Electrocatalysts in Alkaline Media

    SciTech Connect

    John, Samuel St.; Atkinson, Robert W.; Roy, Asa; Unocic, Raymond R.; Papandrew, Alexander B.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.

    2016-01-11

    In this paper, we investigated the performance of several carbon-supported RuxPty electrocatalysts for their alkaline hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction performance in the presence of carbonate and compared their performance with monometallic, carbon-supported Pt. Our results indicate a strong dependence of HOR upon pH for the monometallic Pt catalysts (22 mV/pH) and a weak dependence upon pH for the Ru-containing electrocatalysts (3.7, 2.5, and 4.7 mV/pH on Ru0.2Pt0.8, Ru0.4Pt0.6, and Ru0.8Pt0.2, respectively). These results are consistent with our previous findings that illustrate a change in rds from electron transfer (on monometallic Pt) to dissociative hydrogen adsorption (on RuxPty catalysts). Analysis of the kinetic currents to determine the rate-determining step via Tafel slope analysis provides additional data supporting this conclusion. There is no difference in the performance at comparable pH values in the presence or absence of carbonate on monometallic Pt indicating that water/hydroxide is the primary proton acceptor for alkaline HOR in 0.1 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. Finally, we observe no pH or carbonate dependence for the ORR on monometallic Pt.

  16. [Inhibitory effects of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng decoction on yeast-to-hyphae transition of Candida albicans isolates from VVC in alkaline pH environment].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng-xiang; Xia, Dan; Shi, Gao-xiang; Shao, Jing; Wang, Tian-ming; Tang, Chuan-chao; Wang, Chang-zhong

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effects of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng decoction ( BAEB) on yeast-to-hyphae transition of Candida albicans isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in alkaline pH. Serial 2-fold dilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Baitouweng decoction extracts against C. albicans isolates from VVC, XTT assay was applied to determine the metabolic activity of C. albicans hypha treated by BAEB for 6 h. The morphological change of C. albicans treated by BAEB was inspected at different pH by inverted microscope, fluorescence microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Solid agar plate and semi-solid agar were utilized to evaluate colony morphology and invasive growth of C. albicans, respectively. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was adopted to observe the expressions of hyphae-specific genes including HWP1, ALS3, CSH1, SUN41 and CaPDE2. The MIC of BAEB against C. albicans is less than that of other extracts; hyphae grow best at pH 8. 0; 512 mg · L(-1) and 1,024 mg · L(-1) BAEB could inhibit formation of hyphae and influence colony morphology. When treated by 512 mg · L(-1) and 1,024 mg · L(-1) BAEB, the colonies became smooth; while by 0 and 256 mg · L(-1) BAEB, the colonies became wrinkled. In semi-solid agar, the length of hyphae decreased steadily as the concentration of BAEB lowered. The expression of HWP1, ALS3, CSHl, SUN41 were downregulated by 5.12, 4.26, 3.2 and 2.74 folds, and CaPDE2 was upregulated by 2.38 fold. BAEB could inhibit yeast-to-hyphae transition of C. albicans isolates from VVC in alkaline pH.

  17. New test method for the evaluation of the preservation efficacy of soaps at very alkaline pH made by saponification.

    PubMed

    Témoin-Fardini, S; Servant, J; Sellam, S

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a test method to evaluate the preservation efficacy for a specific product, a very high-alkaline liquid soap (pH around 10) made by a saponification process. Several manufacturers have experienced contamination issues with these high-pH soaps despite passing a classic preservative efficacy challenge test or even a multi-inoculation challenge test. Bacteria were isolated from contaminated soaps and were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. High-alkaline-pH unpreserved soaps were tested using the Thor Personal Care internal multichallenge test method (TM206) with classical microorganisms and then with the bacterial strains isolated from various contaminated soaps (TM768). Preservatives were added to these soaps and assessed for their efficacy using the newly developed test. Four different species of bacteria (Nesterenkonia lacusekhoensis, Dermacoccus sp., Halomonas sp. and Roseomonas sp.) were identified by sequencing among the contaminants of the various soaps tested. Among these, only one bacterial species, Nesterenkonia lacusekhoensis, appeared to be responsible for the specific contamination of these high-alkaline soaps. Thus, one specific wild-type strain of Nesterenkonia lacusekhoensis, named as strain 768, was used in a new multi-inoculation test (TM768). Unlike the single inoculation challenge test, the multi-inoculation test using the Nesterenkonia strain 768 was able to predict the sensitivity of a product towards this bacterium. Among the 27 different preservatives tested, 10 were able to protect the formula against contamination with this bacterium. This study enabled the development of a test method to evaluate the efficacy of preservation using a specific bacterium, Nesterenkonia lacusekhoensis, responsible for the contamination of very alkaline soaps made by saponification and identify an appropriate preservative system. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  18. Regulation of the reserve carbohydrate metabolism by alkaline pH and calcium in Neurospora crassa reveals a possible cross-regulation of both signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Virgilio, Stela; Cupertino, Fernanda Barbosa; Ambrosio, Daniela Luz; Bertolini, Maria Célia

    2017-06-09

    Glycogen and trehalose are storage carbohydrates and their levels in microorganisms vary according to environmental conditions. In Neurospora crassa, alkaline pH stress highly influences glycogen levels, and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the response to pH stress also involves the calcineurin signaling pathway mediated by the Crz1 transcription factor. Recently, in yeast, pH stress response genes were identified as targets of Crz1 including genes involved in glycogen and trehalose metabolism. In this work, we present evidence that in N. crassa the glycogen and trehalose metabolism is modulated by alkaline pH and calcium stresses. We demonstrated that the pH signaling pathway in N. crassa controls the accumulation of the reserve carbohydrates glycogen and trehalose via the PAC-3 transcription factor, which is the central regulator of the signaling pathway. The protein binds to the promoters of most of the genes encoding enzymes of glycogen and trehalose metabolism and regulates their expression. We also demonstrated that the reserve carbohydrate levels and gene expression are both modulated under calcium stress and that the response to calcium stress may involve the concerted action of PAC-3. Calcium activates growth of the Δpac-3 strain and influences its glycogen and trehalose accumulation. In addition, calcium stress differently regulates glycogen and trehalose metabolism in the mutant strain compared to the wild-type strain. While glycogen levels are decreased in both strains, the trehalose levels are significantly increased in the wild-type strain and not affected by calcium in the mutant strain when compared to mycelium not exposed to calcium. We previously reported the role of PAC-3 as a transcription factor involved in glycogen metabolism regulation by controlling the expression of the gsn gene, which encodes an enzyme of glycogen synthesis. In this work, we extended the investigation by studying in greater detail the effects of pH on the metabolism of the

  19. Design of ternary alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides with potential good p-type conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Mao -Hua; Singh, David J.; Zhang, Lijun; Li, Yuwei; Xu, Qiaoling; Ma, Yanming; Zheng, Weitao

    2016-04-19

    Oxides with good p-type conductivity have been long sought after to achieve high performance all-oxide optoelectronic devices. Divalent Sn(II) based oxides are promising candidates because of their rather dispersive upper valence bands caused by the Sn-5s/O-2p anti-bonding hybridization. There are so far few known Sn(II) oxides being p-type conductive suitable for device applications. Here, we present via first-principles global optimization structure searches a material design study for a hitherto unexplored Sn(II)-based system, ternary alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides in the stoichiometry of MSn2O3 (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). We identify two stable compounds of SrSn2O3 and BaSn2O3, which can be stabilized by Sn-rich conditions in phase stability diagrams. Their structures follow the Zintl behaviour and consist of basic structural motifs of SnO3 tetrahedra. Unexpectedly they show distinct electronic properties with band gaps ranging from 1.90 (BaSn2O3) to 3.15 (SrSn2O3) eV, and hole effective masses ranging from 0.87 (BaSn2O3) to above 6.0 (SrSn2O3) m0. Further exploration of metastable phases indicates a wide tunability of electronic properties controlled by the details of the bonding between the basic structural motifs. Lastly, this suggests further exploration of alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides for potential applications requiring good p-type conductivity such as transparent conductors and photovoltaic absorbers.

  20. Design of ternary alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides with potential good p-type conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Mao -Hua; Singh, David J.; Zhang, Lijun; Li, Yuwei; Xu, Qiaoling; Ma, Yanming; Zheng, Weitao

    2016-04-19

    Oxides with good p-type conductivity have been long sought after to achieve high performance all-oxide optoelectronic devices. Divalent Sn(II) based oxides are promising candidates because of their rather dispersive upper valence bands caused by the Sn-5s/O-2p anti-bonding hybridization. There are so far few known Sn(II) oxides being p-type conductive suitable for device applications. Here, we present via first-principles global optimization structure searches a material design study for a hitherto unexplored Sn(II)-based system, ternary alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides in the stoichiometry of MSn2O3 (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). We identify two stable compounds of SrSn2O3 and BaSn2O3, which can be stabilized by Sn-rich conditions in phase stability diagrams. Their structures follow the Zintl behaviour and consist of basic structural motifs of SnO3 tetrahedra. Unexpectedly they show distinct electronic properties with band gaps ranging from 1.90 (BaSn2O3) to 3.15 (SrSn2O3) eV, and hole effective masses ranging from 0.87 (BaSn2O3) to above 6.0 (SrSn2O3) m0. Further exploration of metastable phases indicates a wide tunability of electronic properties controlled by the details of the bonding between the basic structural motifs. Lastly, this suggests further exploration of alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides for potential applications requiring good p-type conductivity such as transparent conductors and photovoltaic absorbers.

  1. Design of ternary alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides with potential good p-type conductivity

    DOE PAGES

    Du, Mao -Hua; Singh, David J.; Zhang, Lijun; ...

    2016-04-19

    Oxides with good p-type conductivity have been long sought after to achieve high performance all-oxide optoelectronic devices. Divalent Sn(II) based oxides are promising candidates because of their rather dispersive upper valence bands caused by the Sn-5s/O-2p anti-bonding hybridization. There are so far few known Sn(II) oxides being p-type conductive suitable for device applications. Here, we present via first-principles global optimization structure searches a material design study for a hitherto unexplored Sn(II)-based system, ternary alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides in the stoichiometry of MSn2O3 (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). We identify two stable compounds of SrSn2O3 and BaSn2O3, which can bemore » stabilized by Sn-rich conditions in phase stability diagrams. Their structures follow the Zintl behaviour and consist of basic structural motifs of SnO3 tetrahedra. Unexpectedly they show distinct electronic properties with band gaps ranging from 1.90 (BaSn2O3) to 3.15 (SrSn2O3) eV, and hole effective masses ranging from 0.87 (BaSn2O3) to above 6.0 (SrSn2O3) m0. Further exploration of metastable phases indicates a wide tunability of electronic properties controlled by the details of the bonding between the basic structural motifs. Lastly, this suggests further exploration of alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides for potential applications requiring good p-type conductivity such as transparent conductors and photovoltaic absorbers.« less

  2. Loosening of globular structure under alkaline pH affects accessibility of β-lactoglobulin to tyrosinase-induced oxidation and subsequent cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Riitta; Torkkeli, Mika; Hellman, Maarit; Permi, Perttu; Serimaa, Ritva; Buchert, Johanna; Mattinen, Maija-Liisa

    2011-07-10

    Globular proteins such as β-lactoglobulin (BLG) are poorly accessible to enzymes. We have studied susceptibility of BLG to oxidation by Trichoderma reesei (TrTyr) and Agaricus bisporus (AbTyr) tyrosinases and subsequent intermolecular cross-linking with respect to pH-induced structural changes. We evaluated pH-induced structural changes in BLG using circular dichroism, tryptophan fluorescence and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements, where after these results were correlated with the analysis of cross-linking by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Oxygen consumption measurement and changes in radii of gyration determined by SAXS during the enzyme-induced oxidation at the respective reaction conditions were also followed. Intermolecular cross-linking of BLG by TrTyr was found at pH 9 but not at pH 7.5. AbTyr was unable to catalyze cross-linking at pH 7.5 or pH 9. Increased accessibility and cross-linking by TrTyr was addressed to loosening of the three dimensional structure of the protein, increased flexibility of the backbone as well as partial hydrolysis. In addition to basic research of the effect of protein folding on enzymatic cross-linking the research results have significance on the exploitation of TrTyr at alkaline conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica contains NapA-type Na+/H+ antiporters with novel ion specificity that are involved in salt tolerance at alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Wutipraditkul, Nuchanat; Waditee, Rungaroon; Incharoensakdi, Aran; Hibino, Takashi; Tanaka, Yoshito; Nakamura, Tatsunosuke; Shikata, Masamitsu; Takabe, Tetsuko; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2005-08-01

    Aphanothece halophytica is a halotolerant alkaliphilic cyanobacterium which can grow at NaCl concentrations up to 3.0 M and at pH values up to 11. The genome sequence revealed that the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 contains five putative Na+/H+ antiporters, two of which are homologous to NhaP of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and three of which are homologous to NapA of Enterococcus hirae. The physiological and functional properties of NapA-type antiporters are largely unknown. One of NapA-type antiporters in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 has been proposed to be essential for the survival of this organism. In this study, we examined the isolation and characterization of the homologous gene in Aphanothece halophytica. Two genes encoding polypeptides of the same size, designated Ap-napA1-1 and Ap-napA1-2, were isolated. Ap-NapA1-1 exhibited a higher level of homology to the Synechocystis ortholog (Syn-NapA1) than Ap-NapA1-2 exhibited. Ap-NapA1-1, Ap-NapA1-2, and Syn-NapA1 complemented the salt-sensitive phenotypes of an Escherichia coli mutant and exhibited strongly pH-dependent Na+/H+ and Li+/H+ exchange activities (the highest activities were at alkaline pH), although the activities of Ap-NapA1-2 were significantly lower than the activities of the other polypeptides. Only one these polypeptides, Ap-NapA1-2, complemented a K+ uptake-deficient E. coli mutant and exhibited K+ uptake activity. Mutagenesis experiments suggested the importance of Glu129, Asp225, and Asp226 in the putative transmembrane segment and Glu142 in the loop region for the activity. Overexpression of Ap-NapA1-1 in the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 enhanced the salt tolerance of cells, especially at alkaline pH. These findings indicate that A. halophytica has two NapA1-type antiporters which exhibit different ion specificities and play an important role in salt tolerance at alkaline pH.

  4. Production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its relation to alkaline pH tolerance.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, Hisashi; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Kamisaka, Yasushi; Kimura, Kazuyoshi; Uemura, Hiroshi

    2009-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids of 16- and 18-carbon atoms and no polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with more than two double bonds. To study the biological significance of PUFAs in yeast, we introduced Kluyveromyces lactis Delta12 fatty acid desaturase (KlFAD2) and omega3 fatty acid desaturase (KlFAD3) genes into S. cerevisiae to produce linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids in S. cerevisiae. The strain producing linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids showed an alkaline pH-tolerant phenotype. DNA microarray analyses showed that the transcription of a set of genes whose expressions are under the repression of Rim101p were downregulated in this strain, suggesting that Rim101p, a transcriptional repressor which governs the ion tolerance, was activated. In line with this activation, the strain also showed elevated resistance to Li(+) and Na(+) ions and to zymolyase, a yeast lytic enzyme preparation containing mainly beta-1,3-glucanase, indicating that the cell wall integrity was also strengthened in this strain. Our findings demonstrate a novel influence of PUFA production on transcriptional control that is likely to play an important role in the early stage of alkaline stress response. The Accession No. for microarray data in the Center for Information Biology Gene Expression database is CBX68.

  5. Performance and application of a fluidized bed limestone reactor designed for control of alkalinity, hardness and pH at the Warm Springs Regional Fisheries Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watten, Barnaby J.; Mudrak, Vincent A.; Echevarria, Carlos; Sibrell, Philip; Summerfelt, Steven T.; Boyd, Claude E.

    2017-01-01

    Springs serving the Warm Springs Regional Fisheries Center, Warm Springs, Georgia, have pH, alkalinity, and hardness levels thatlie under the range required for successful fish propagation while free CO2 is well above allowable targets. We evaluate a pretreatment process that exploits limestone’s (CaCO3) ability to react away hydrogen ions (H+) and carbon dioxide (CO2) while increasing alkalinity (HCO3−) and calcium (Ca2+) concentrations, i.e. CaCO3 + H+ ↔ HCO3− + Ca2+ CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O ↔ Ca2+ + 2HCO3− Limestone sand was tested in both pilot and full scale fluidized bed reactors (CycloBio®). We first established the bed expansion characteristics of three commercial limestone products then evaluated the effect of hydraulic flux and bed height on dissolution rate of a single selected product (Type A16 × 120). Pilot scale testing at 18C showed limestone dissolution rates were relatively insensitive to flux over the range 1.51–3.03 m3/min/m2 but were sensitive (P < 0.001; R2 = 0.881) to changes in bed height (BH, cm) over the range 83–165 cm following the relation: (Alkalinity, mg/L) = 123.51 − (3788.76 (BH)). Differences between filtered and non-filtered alkalinity were small(P > 0.05) demonstrating that limestone was present in the reactor effluent primarily in the form of dissolved Ca(HCO3)2. Effluent alkalinity exceeded our target level of 50 mg/L under most operating conditions evaluated with typical pilot scale values falling within the range of 90–100 mg/L despite influent concentrations of about 4 mg/L. Concurrently, CO2 fell from an average of 50.6 mg/L to 8.3 mg/L (90%), providing for an increase in pH from 5.27 to a mean of 7.71. The ability of the test reactor to provide changes in water chemistry variables that exceeded required changes allowed for a dilution ratio of 0.6. Here, alkalinity still exceeded 50 mg/L, the CO2 concentration remained well below our limit of 20 mg/L (15.4 mg/L) and the pH was near neutral (7.17). Applying the

  6. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers: Retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-08-01

    Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage-and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018) and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001) was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015). Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components.

  7. Using Simulation in Nursing PhD Education: Facilitating Application of Responsible Conduct of Research Principles.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Margaret F; Supiano, Katherine; Wilson, Rebecca; Lassche, Madeline; Latendresse, Gwen

    Simulation is a standard clinical nursing educational approach; however, simulation is rarely used in nonclinical nursing education. In doctor of philosophy (PhD) programs, ethical content about responsible conduct of research (RCR) is traditionally didactic, presented early in the program of study. Ethics content merits review before students begin the dissertation phase; thus, the purpose of this project was to design and implement simulated scenarios to help students apply RCR principles prior to beginning independent research. Two scenarios were developed: (a) a potential protocol change discussed in a research team meeting and (b) an in-home data collection experience with an elderly participant and her daughter. Actors were trained faculty volunteers, playing roles outside their usual academic positions. Faculty facilitated scenarios by posing questions as cues related to desired learning outcomes as scenarios unfolded. Eleven nursing PhD students and 6 faculty participated. Debriefing facilitated discussion of RCR principles, common research quandaries, and suggested scenario revisions. Faculty, expert observation, and video-review showed that younger and less experienced students tried to give the "right" answer rather than implement RCR appropriate solutions. Students with more clinical experience had difficulty adopting the less familiar researcher role. Overall, simulation is a novel and useful way to enhance RCR content in PhD programs.

  8. Extracellular pH alkalinization by Cl-/HCO3- exchanger is crucial for TASK2 activation by hypotonic shock in proximal cell lines from mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    L'Hoste, S; Barriere, H; Belfodil, R; Rubera, I; Duranton, C; Tauc, M; Poujeol, C; Barhanin, J; Poujeol, P

    2007-02-01

    We have previously shown that K(+)-selective TASK2 channels and swelling-activated Cl(-) currents are involved in a regulatory volume decrease (RVD; Barriere H, Belfodil R, Rubera I, Tauc M, Lesage F, Poujeol C, Guy N, Barhanin J, Poujeol P. J Gen Physiol 122: 177-190, 2003; Belfodil R, Barriere H, Rubera I, Tauc M, Poujeol C, Bidet M, Poujeol P. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 284: F812-F828, 2003). The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism responsible for the activation of TASK2 channels during RVD in proximal cell lines from mouse kidney. For this purpose, the patch-clamp whole-cell technique was used to test the effect of pH and the buffering capacity of external bath on Cl(-) and K(+) currents during hypotonic shock. In the presence of a high buffer concentration (30 mM HEPES), the cells did not undergo RVD and did not develop outward K(+) currents (TASK2). Interestingly, the hypotonic shock reduced the cytosolic pH (pH(i)) and increased the external pH (pH(e)) in wild-type but not in cftr (-/-) cells. The inhibitory effect of DIDS suggests that the acidification of pH(i) and the alkalinization of pH(e) induced by hypotonicity in wild-type cells could be due to an exit of HCO(3)(-). In conclusion, these results indicate that Cl(-) influx will be the driving force for HCO(3)(-) exit through the activation of the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger. This efflux of HCO(3)(-) then alkalinizes pH(e), which in turn activates TASK2 channels.

  9. A low-temperature-active alkaline pectate lyase from Xanthomonas campestris ACCC 10048 with high activity over a wide pH range.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Peng; Meng, Kun; Wang, Yaru; Luo, Huiying; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Tu, Tao; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2012-11-01

    Alkaline pectate lyases are favorable for the textile industry. Here, we report the gene cloning and expression of a low-temperature-active alkaline pectate lyase (PL D) from Xanthomonas campestris ACCC 10048. Deduced PL D consists of a putative 27-residue signal peptide and a catalytic domain of 320 residues belonging to family PF09492. Recombinant PL D (r-PL D) produced in Escherichia coli was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity with a single step of Ni(2+)-NTA affinity chromatography and showed an apparent molecular weight of ~38 kDa. The pH and temperature optima of r-PL D were found to be 9.0 °C and 30 °C, respectively. Compared with its microbial counterparts, r-PL D had higher activity over a wide pH range (>45 % of the maximum activity at pH 3.0-12.0) and at lower temperatures (>35 % of activity even at 0 °C). The K(m) and V(max) values of r-PL D for polygalacturonic acid were 4.9 gl(-1) and 30.1 μmolmin(-1) mg(-1), respectively. Compared with the commercial compound pectinase from Novozymes, r-PL D showed similar efficacy in reducing the intrinsic viscosity of polygalacturonic acid (35.1 % vs. 36.5 %) and in bioscouring of jute (10.25 % vs. 10.82 %). Thus, r-PL D is a valuable additive candidate for the textile industry.

  10. Intracellular pH regulates basolateral K+ and Cl- conductances in colonic epithelial cells by modulating Ca2+ activation

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The role of intracellular pH as a modulator of basolateral K+ and Cl- conductances in epithelial cells was studied using digitonin- permeabilized colonic cell layers so that cytosolic pH could be clamped at specific values, while basolateral K+ and Cl- conductances were activated by stepwise increases in intracellular free Ca2+. Increasing the intracellular pH from 6.6 to 8.0 enhanced the sensitivity of both ionic conductances to intracellular Ca2+, but changing extracellular pH had no effect. Maximal K+ and Cl- currents activated by Ca2+ were not affected by changes in intracellular pH, suggesting that protons do not alter the conduction properties of the channels. Hill analysis of the Ca2+ activation process revealed that raising the cytosolic pH from 6.6 to 8.0 reduced the K1/2 for Ca2+ activation. In the absence of Ca2+, changes in intracellular pH did not have a significant effect on the basolateral K+ and Cl- conductances. These results are consistent with the notion that changes in cytosolic pH can modulate basolateral conductances by modifying the action of calcium, perhaps by acting at or near the activation site to provide a mechanism of variable "gain control." PMID:1719125

  11. Catalysis and stability of an alkaline protease from a haloalkaliphilic bacterium under non-aqueous conditions as a function of pH, salt and temperature.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sandeep; Rakholiya, Kalpna D; Raval, Vikram H; Singh, Satya P

    2012-09-01

    A haloalkaliphilic bacterium, isolated from Coastal Gujarat (India) was identified as Oceanobacillus sp. (GQ162111) based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. The organism grew and secreted extra cellular protease in presence of various organic solvents. At 30% (v/v) concentration of hexane, heptane, isooctane, dodecane and decane, significant growth and protease production was evident. The alkaline protease was purified in a single step on phenyl sepharose 6 FF with 28% yield. The molecular mass as judged by SDS-PAGE was 30 kDa. The temperature optimum of protease was 50°C and the enzyme retained 70% activity in 10% (v/v) isooctane. Effect of salt and pH was investigated in combination to assess the effect of isooctane. In organic solvents, the enzyme was considerably active at pH 8-11, with optimum activity at pH 10. Salt at 2 M was optimum for activity and enzyme maintained significant stability up to 18 h even at 3 M salt concentration. Patters of growth, protease production, catalysis and stability of the enzyme are presented. The study resumes significance as limited information is available on the interaction of haloalkaliphilic bacteria and their enzymes with organic solvents.

  12. Chemical equilibrium model for interfacial activity of crude oil in aqueous alkaline solution: the effects of pH, alkali and salt

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, M.; Yen, T.F.

    1980-11-01

    A chemical equilibrium model for interfacial activity of crude in aqueous alkaline solution is proposed. The model predicts the observed effects of pH and concentrations of alkali and salt on the interfacial tension (IFT). The model proposed was shown to describe the observed effects of acid content, pH, and sodium ions on the interfacial activity of crude oil in water. Once the pH of the interface reaches the pKa of the acids, sometimes with the help of addition of some salt, the IFT experiences a sudden steep drop to the range of 10/sup -2/ dynes/cm. After that, further addition of sodium either in the form of NaOH or NaCl is going to increase the IFT due to a shift of equilibriumn to the formation of undissociated soap. This was confirmed by the difference in the observed effect of sodium on the IFT of the extracted soap molecules which are dissociated easily and those which are associated highly and precipitated easily. These soap molecules have dissociation constant values ranging from below 10/sup -2/ to above one. 13 references.

  13. Growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL-B523 in an alkaline medium: suboptimal pH growth inhibition of a lactic acid bacterium.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Barry F; Fogler, H Scott

    2005-01-05

    Bacterial profile modification (BPM), a form of tertiary oil recovery, diverts water from the water-flooded high-permeability zone into the oil-bearing low-permeability zone. During field use, exopolymer-producing bacteria plug the high-permeability zone only in the immediate vicinity of the injection point (the near-well bore region). For effective BPM the plug must penetrate far into the formation. Slowing the specific growth rate, lengthening the lag phase, and slowing the polymerization rate are techniques that can prolong the onset of biopolymer gelation and extend the depth of the biological plug. In batch experiments, the growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL-B523 was inhibited by the synergistic effects of high substrate loading and an alkaline pH. Exponential growth was delayed up to 190 h. It was observed that cell division was significantly retarded until the medium pH, reduced by the acid byproducts of fermentation, reached a critical value of 6.79 +/- 0.06. A mathematical model was developed to describe the relationship between specific growth rate, lag time, and medium pH.

  14. On the effect of alkaline pH and cofactor availability in the conformational and oligomeric state of Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Giovannercole, F; Mérigoux, C; Zamparelli, C; Verzili, D; Grassini, G; Buckle, M; Vachette, P; De Biase, D

    2017-01-05

    Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase (EcGad) is a homohexameric pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme. It is the structural component of the major acid resistance system that protects E. coli from strong acid stress (pH < 3), typically encountered in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. In fact EcGad consumes one proton/catalytic cycle while yielding γ-aminobutyrate and carbon dioxide from the decarboxylation of l-glutamate. Two isoforms of Gad occur in E. coli (GadA and GadB) that are 99% identical in sequence. GadB is the most intensively investigated. Prompted by the observation that some transcriptomic and proteomic studies show EcGad to be expressed in conditions far from acidic, we investigated the structural organization of EcGadB in solution in the pH range 7.5-8.6. Small angle X-ray scattering, combined with size exclusion chromatography, and analytical ultracentrifugation analysis show that the compact and entangled EcGadB hexameric structure undergoes dissociation into dimers as pH alkalinizes. When PLP is not present, the dimeric species is the most abundant in solution, though evidence for the occurrence of a likely tetrameric species was also obtained. Trp fluorescence emission spectra as well as limited proteolysis studies suggest that PLP plays a key role in the acquisition of a folding necessary for the canonical catalytic activity.

  15. Multi-laminated copper nanoparticles deposited on conductive substrates for electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol in alkaline electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lun-Peng; Guo, Peng; Wang, Yan; Ding, Shi-Qi; He, Jian-Bo

    2014-09-01

    A simple electrodeposition approach to grow multi-laminated copper particles on two conductive substrates is presented. Morphological and structural characterization was performed using SEM and XRD. The copper crystallites are preferentially oriented with {111} planes parallel to the substrate surfaces, providing an optimum interface for methanol oxidation. There are a large number of edges, corners, and atomic steps around individual multi-laminated nanostructured particles. The excellent electrocatalytic activity of the particles to methanol oxidation in alkaline solutions is demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry. The presence of the conductive poly(2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole) interlayer between the Cu particles and the carbon paste substrate results in larger specific surface areas of the particles and smaller charge-transfer resistances of methanol oxidation reaction in the lower potential range. Such an anisotropic laminated structure of non-noble metal nanomaterials deserves further investigation for finding a suitable alternative to noble metal-based anodic catalysts in fuel cells.

  16. Determination of the equilibrium formation constants of two U(VI)-peroxide complexes at alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Meca, S; Martínez-Torrents, A; Martí, V; Giménez, J; Casas, I; de Pablo, J

    2011-08-21

    The formation of uranyl-peroxide complexes was studied at alkaline media by using UV-Visible spectrophotometry and the STAR code. Two different complexes were found at a H(2)O(2)/U(VI) ratio lower than 2. A graphical method was used in order to obtain the formation constants of such complexes and the STAR program was used to refine the formation constants values because of its capacity to treat multiwavelength absorbance data and refining equilibrium constants. The values obtained for the two complexes identified were: UO(2)(2+) + H(2)O(2) + 4OH(-) <−> UO(2)(O(2))(OH)(2)(2-) + 2H(2)O: log β°(1,1,4) = 28.1 ± 0.1 (1). UO(2)(2+) + 2H(2)O(2) + 6OH(-) <−> UO(2)(O(2))(2)(OH)(2)(4-) + 4H(2)O: log β°(1,2,6) = 36.8 ± 0.2 (2). At hydrogen peroxide concentrations higher than 10(-5) mol dm(-3), and in the absence of carbonate, the UO(2)(O(2))(2)(OH)(2)(4-) complex is predominant in solution, indicating the significant peroxide affinity of peroxide ions for uranium and the strong complexes of uranium(VI) with peroxide.

  17. On the Characterization of Intermediates in the Isodesmic Aggregation Pathway of Hen Lysozyme at Alkaline pH

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Vijay Kumar; Swain, Tulsi; Chandra, Nividh; Swaminathan, Rajaram

    2014-01-01

    Protein aggregation leading to formation of amyloid fibrils is a symptom of several diseases like Alzheimer’s, type 2 diabetes and so on. Elucidating the poorly understood mechanism of such phenomena entails the difficult task of characterizing the species involved at each of the multiple steps in the aggregation pathway. It was previously shown by us that spontaneous aggregation of hen-eggwhite lysozyme (HEWL) at room temperature in pH 12.2 is a good model to study aggregation. Here in this paper we investigate the growth kinetics, structure, function and dynamics of multiple intermediate species populating the aggregation pathway of HEWL at pH 12.2. The different intermediates were isolated by varying the HEWL monomer concentration in the 300 nM—0.12 mM range. The intermediates were characterized using techniques like steady-state and nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Growth kinetics of non-fibrillar HEWL aggregates were fitted to the von Bertalanffy equation to yield a HEWL concentration independent rate constant (k = (6.6±0.6)×10−5 s−1). Our results reveal stepwise changes in size, molecular packing and enzymatic activity among growing HEWL aggregates consistent with an isodesmic aggregation model. Formation of disulphide bonds that crosslink the monomers in the aggregate appear as a unique feature of this aggregation. AFM images of multiple amyloid fibrils emanating radially from amorphous aggregates directly confirmed that on-pathway fibril formation was feasible under isodesmic polymerization. The isolated HEWL aggregates are revealed as polycationic protein nanoparticles that are robust at neutral pH with ability to take up non-polar molecules like ANS. PMID:24489883

  18. Rhesus glycoprotein and urea transporter genes in rainbow trout embryos are upregulated in response to alkaline water (pH 9.7) but not elevated water ammonia.

    PubMed

    Sashaw, Jessica; Nawata, Michele; Thompson, Sarah; Wood, Chris M; Wright, Patricia A

    2010-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that genes for the putative ammonia transporter, Rhesus glycoproteins (Rh) and the facilitated urea transporter (UT) are expressed before hatching in rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss Walbaum) embryos. We tested the hypothesis that Rh and UT gene expressions are regulated in response to environmental conditions that inhibit ammonia excretion during early life stages. Eyed-up embryos (22 days post-fertilization (dpf)) were exposed to control (pH 8.3), high ammonia (1.70 mmol l(-1) NH4HCO3) and high pH (pH 9.7) conditions for 48h. With exposure to high water ammonia, ammonia excretion rates were reversed, tissue ammonia concentration was elevated by 9-fold, but there were no significant changes in mRNA expression relative to control embryos. In contrast, exposure to high water pH had a smaller impact on ammonia excretion rates and tissue ammonia concentrations, whereas mRNA levels for the Rhesus glycoprotein Rhcg2 and urea transporter (UT) were elevated by 3.5- and 5.6-fold, respectively. As well, mRNAs of the genes for H+ATPase and Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE2), associated with NH3 excretion, were also upregulated by 7.2- and 13-fold, respectively, in embryos exposed to alkaline water relative to controls. These results indicate that the Rhcg2, UT and associated transport genes are regulated in rainbow trout embryos, but in contrast to adults, there is no effect of high external ammonia at this stage of development. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantification of the dissolved inorganic carbon species and of the pH of alkaline solutions exposed to CO2 under pressure: a novel approach by Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Beuvier, Thomas; Calvignac, Brice; Bardeau, Jean-François; Bulou, Alain; Boury, Frank; Gibaud, Alain

    2014-10-07

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) content of aqueous systems is a key function of the pH, of the total alkanility (TA), and of the partial pressure of CO2. However, common analytical techniques used to determine the DIC content in water are unable to operate under high CO2 pressure. Here, we propose to use Raman spectroscopy as a novel alternative to discriminate and quantitatively monitor the three dissolved inorganic carbon species CO2(aq), HCO3(-), and CO3(2-) of alkaline solutions under high CO2 pressure (from P = 0 to 250 bar at T = 40 °C). In addition, we demonstrate that the pH values can be extracted from the molalities of CO2(aq) and HCO3(-). The results are in very good agreement with those obtained from direct spectrophotometric measurements using colored indicators. This novel method presents the great advantage over high pressure conventional techniques of not using breakable electrodes or reference additives and appears of great interest especially in marine biogeochemistry, in carbon capture and storage and in material engineering under high CO2 pressure.

  20. Development of a selective enterococcus medium based on manganese ion deficiency, sodium azide, and alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Efthymiou, C J; Joseph, S W

    1974-09-01

    Rogosa broth, without its salt supplement and dissolved in deionized water, was adapted for the selective isolation and enumeration of enterococci. This medium supported good growth of enterococci, but it suppressed growth of other lactic acid bacteria. The sensitivity and specificity of the medium were tested after addition of various increasing concentrations of NaN(3) against known strains of enterococci and other bacteria. Many strains of Streptococcus faecium showed low azide tolerance; optimal growth was obtained at a concentration of 0.01% NaN(3), which totally or partially inhibited unrelated species of lactic acid bacteria. The selectivity of the medium was further increased by pH adjustment to 9.6. Carbonate and Tween 80 were added to overcome partial inhibition of enterococcal growth by the new combination of selective conditions. The final medium was evaluated in agar form in isolations from human and animal feces, polluted water, meat, and dairy products. Counts were obtained after 16 to 17 h of incubation at 37 C. The isolates satisfactorily conformed to the group characteristics of enterococci.

  1. Development of a Selective Enterococcus Medium Based on Manganese Ion Deficiency, Sodium Azide, and Alkaline pH

    PubMed Central

    Efthymiou, C. J.; Joseph, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Rogosa broth, without its salt supplement and dissolved in deionized water, was adapted for the selective isolation and enumeration of enterococci. This medium supported good growth of enterococci, but it suppressed growth of other lactic acid bacteria. The sensitivity and specificity of the medium were tested after addition of various increasing concentrations of NaN3 against known strains of enterococci and other bacteria. Many strains of Streptococcus faecium showed low azide tolerance; optimal growth was obtained at a concentration of 0.01% NaN3, which totally or partially inhibited unrelated species of lactic acid bacteria. The selectivity of the medium was further increased by pH adjustment to 9.6. Carbonate and Tween 80 were added to overcome partial inhibition of enterococcal growth by the new combination of selective conditions. The final medium was evaluated in agar form in isolations from human and animal feces, polluted water, meat, and dairy products. Counts were obtained after 16 to 17 h of incubation at 37 C. The isolates satisfactorily conformed to the group characteristics of enterococci. Images PMID:4214072

  2. An automated procedure for the simultaneous determination of specific conductance and pH in natural water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eradmann, D.E.; Taylor, H.E.

    1978-01-01

    An automated, continuous-flow system is utilized to determine specific conductance and pH simultaneously in natural waters. A direct electrometric procedure is used to determine values in the range pH 4-9. The specific conductance measurements are made with an electronically modified, commercially available conductivity meter interfaced to a separate module containing the readout control devices and printer. The system is designed to switch ranges automatically to accommodate optimum analysis of widely varying conductances ranging from a few ??mhos cm-1 to 15,000 ??mho cm-1. Thirty samples per hour can be analyzed. Comparison of manual and automated procedures for 40 samples showed that the average differences were 1.3% for specific conductance and 0.07 units for pH. The relative standard deviation for 25 replicate values for each of five samples was significantly less than 1% for the specific conductance determination; the standard deviation for the pH determination was ??? 0.06 pH units. ?? 1978.

  3. Experimental investigations of the effect the electrical conductivity of medium has on the performance of pH meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionov, A. K.; Karashchuk, S. A.

    2013-07-01

    Results from tests of pH meters carried out in ammonia media having low electric conductivity (less than 5.0 μS/cm) are presented. The check media for the tests were prepared in a special manner the use of which makes it possible to reproduce the pH value of solution with an error not exceeding ˜0.04pH in the range of electrical conductivities above 0.1 μS/cm. The instrument measurement error was determined at different electrical conductivities of medium. Different electrodes were tested, the majority of which were domestically produced ones intended for general industrial applications. Some results were also obtained for one dedicated electrode from a foreign manufacturer. The test results show that the instrument gives a biased pH value for such media. The bias has a random value, which nonetheless is stable in the majority of cases, depends on the electrical conductivity of medium being monitored, and may be quite essential for small electrical conductivities (0.5pH or more). A conclusion is drawn about the need to calibrate the instruments with respect to standard media having electrical conductivity close to that of the medium being monitored. Analytic relations characterizing the check media used fort tests (check solutions) are presented.

  4. Effects of alkalinity on ammonia removal, carbon dioxide stripping, and system pH in semi-commercial scale water recirculating aquaculture systems operated with moving bed bioreactors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    When operating water recirculating systems (RAS) with high make-up water flushing rates in locations that have low alkalinity in the raw water, such as Norway, knowledge about the required RAS alkalinity concentration is important. Flushing RAS with make-up water containing low alkalinity washes out...

  5. Alkaline Cytosolic pH and High Sodium Hydrogen Exchanger 1 (NHE1) Activity in Th9 Cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Yogesh; Zhou, Yuetao; Shi, Xiaolong; Zhang, Shaqiu; Umbach, Anja T; Salker, Madhuri S; Lang, Karl S; Lang, Florian

    2016-11-04

    CD4(+) T helper 9 (Th9) cells are a newly discovered Th cell subset that produce the pleiotropic cytokine IL-9. Th9 cells can protect against tumors and provide resistance against helminth infections. Given their pivotal role in the adaptive immune system, understanding Th9 cell development and the regulation of IL-9 production could open novel immunotherapeutic opportunities. The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1; gene name Slc9α1)) is critically important for regulating intracellular pH (pHi), cell volume, migration, and cell survival. The pHi influences cytokine secretion, activities of membrane-associated enzymes, ion transport, and other effector signaling molecules such as ATP and Ca(2+) levels. However, whether NHE1 regulates Th9 cell development or IL-9 secretion has not yet been defined. The present study explored the role of NHE1 in Th9 cell development and function. Th cell subsets were characterized by flow cytometry and pHi was measured using 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein-acetoxymethyl ester (BCECF-AM) dye. NHE1 functional activity was estimated from the rate of realkalinization following an ammonium pulse. Surprisingly, in Th9 cells pHi and NHE1 activity were significantly higher than in all other Th cell subsets (Th1/Th2/Th17 and induced regulatory T cells (iTregs)). NHE1 transcript levels and protein abundance were significantly higher in Th9 cells than in other Th cell subsets. Inhibition of NHE1 by siRNA-NHE1 or with cariporide in Th9 cells down-regulated IL-9 and ATP production. NHE1 activity, Th9 cell development, and IL-9 production were further blunted by pharmacological inhibition of protein kinase Akt1/Akt2. Our findings reveal that Akt1/Akt2 control of NHE1 could be an important physiological regulator of Th9 cell differentiation, IL-9 secretion, and ATP production.

  6. pH. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on the effect of pH on plant growth. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about soil pH and its effect on plants. The following topics are among those discussed: acidity and alkalinity; the…

  7. Tracing of γ-radiation-induced electrical conductivity and pH change of hexamethylenetetramine aqueous solutions and its applications.

    PubMed

    Sife-Eldeen, Kh A

    2013-04-01

    The interest in studying γ-radiation effects on hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) is due to its importance in nuclear fuel technology. The current study indicates that γ-radiation induces electrical conductivity (RIC) and pH changes in HMTA aqueous solutions. The effects of HMTA concentration, absorbed radiation dose, absorbed dose rate and storage time on RIC and pH changes were studied. HMTA aqueous solutions could be considered as a promising γ-radiation dosimeter, in both technical and medical fields.

  8. Escherichia coli YqjA, a Member of the Conserved DedA/Tvp38 Membrane Protein Family, Is a Putative Osmosensing Transporter Required for Growth at Alkaline pH

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sujeet

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability to persist and grow under alkaline conditions is an important characteristic of many bacteria. In order to survive at alkaline pH, Escherichia coli must maintain a stable cytoplasmic pH of about 7.6. Membrane cation/proton antiporters play a major role in alkaline pH homeostasis by catalyzing active inward proton transport. The DedA/Tvp38 family is a highly conserved membrane protein family of unknown function present in most sequenced genomes. YqjA and YghB are members of the E. coli DedA family with 62% amino acid identity and partially redundant functions. We have shown that E. coli with ΔyqjA and ΔyghB mutations cannot properly maintain the proton motive force (PMF) and is compromised in PMF-dependent drug efflux and other PMF-dependent functions. Furthermore, the functions of YqjA and YghB are dependent upon membrane-embedded acidic amino acids, a hallmark of several families of proton-dependent transporters. Here, we show that the ΔyqjA mutant (but not ΔyghB) cannot grow under alkaline conditions (ranging from pH 8.5 to 9.5), unlike the parent E. coli. Overexpression of yqjA restores growth at alkaline pH, but only when more than ∼100 mM sodium or potassium is present in the growth medium. Increasing the osmotic pressure by the addition of sucrose enhances the ability of YqjA to support growth under alkaline conditions in the presence of low salt concentrations, consistent with YqjA functioning as an osmosensor. We suggest that YqjA possesses proton-dependent transport activity that is stimulated by osmolarity and that it plays a significant role in the survival of E. coli at alkaline pH. IMPORTANCE The ability to survive under alkaline conditions is important for many species of bacteria. Escherichia coli can grow at pH 5.5 to 9.5 while maintaining a constant cytoplasmic pH of about 7.6. Under alkaline conditions, bacteria rely upon proton-dependent transporters to maintain a constant cytoplasmic pH. The DedA/Tvp38 protein family

  9. Escherichia coli YqjA, a Member of the Conserved DedA/Tvp38 Membrane Protein Family, Is a Putative Osmosensing Transporter Required for Growth at Alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sujeet; Doerrler, William T

    2015-07-01

    The ability to persist and grow under alkaline conditions is an important characteristic of many bacteria. In order to survive at alkaline pH, Escherichia coli must maintain a stable cytoplasmic pH of about 7.6. Membrane cation/proton antiporters play a major role in alkaline pH homeostasis by catalyzing active inward proton transport. The DedA/Tvp38 family is a highly conserved membrane protein family of unknown function present in most sequenced genomes. YqjA and YghB are members of the E. coli DedA family with 62% amino acid identity and partially redundant functions. We have shown that E. coli with ΔyqjA and ΔyghB mutations cannot properly maintain the proton motive force (PMF) and is compromised in PMF-dependent drug efflux and other PMF-dependent functions. Furthermore, the functions of YqjA and YghB are dependent upon membrane-embedded acidic amino acids, a hallmark of several families of proton-dependent transporters. Here, we show that the ΔyqjA mutant (but not ΔyghB) cannot grow under alkaline conditions (ranging from pH 8.5 to 9.5), unlike the parent E. coli. Overexpression of yqjA restores growth at alkaline pH, but only when more than ∼100 mM sodium or potassium is present in the growth medium. Increasing the osmotic pressure by the addition of sucrose enhances the ability of YqjA to support growth under alkaline conditions in the presence of low salt concentrations, consistent with YqjA functioning as an osmosensor. We suggest that YqjA possesses proton-dependent transport activity that is stimulated by osmolarity and that it plays a significant role in the survival of E. coli at alkaline pH. The ability to survive under alkaline conditions is important for many species of bacteria. Escherichia coli can grow at pH 5.5 to 9.5 while maintaining a constant cytoplasmic pH of about 7.6. Under alkaline conditions, bacteria rely upon proton-dependent transporters to maintain a constant cytoplasmic pH. The DedA/Tvp38 protein family is a highly conserved

  10. The voltage-activated hydrogen ion conductance in rat alveolar epithelial cells is determined by the pH gradient

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Voltage-activated H+ currents were studied in rat alveolar epithelial cells using tight-seal whole-cell voltage clamp recording and highly buffered, EGTA-containing solutions. Under these conditions, the tail current reversal potential, Vrev, was close to the Nernst potential, EH, varying 52 mV/U pH over four delta pH units (delta pH = pHo - pHi). This result indicates that H+ channels are extremely selective, PH/PTMA > 10(7), and that both internal and external pH, pHi, and pHo, were well controlled. The H+ current amplitude was practically constant at any fixed delta pH, in spite of up to 100-fold symmetrical changes in H+ concentration. Thus, the rate-limiting step in H+ permeation is pH independent, must be localized to the channel (entry, permeation, or exit), and is not bulk diffusion limitation. The instantaneous current- voltage relationship exhibited distinct outward rectification at symmetrical pH, suggesting asymmetry in the permeation pathway. Sigmoid activation kinetics and biexponential decay of tail currents near threshold potentials indicate that H+ channels pass through at least two closed states before opening. The steady state H+ conductance, gH, as well as activation and deactivation kinetic parameters were all shifted along the voltage axis by approximately 40 mV/U pH by changes in pHi or pHo, with the exception of the fast component of tail currents which was shifted less if at all. The threshold potential at which H+ currents were detectably activated can be described empirically as approximately 20-40(pHo-pHi) mV. If internal and external protons regulate the voltage dependence of gH gating at separate sites, then they must be equally effective. A simpler interpretation is that gating is controlled by the pH gradient, delta pH. We propose a simple general model to account for the observed delta pH dependence. Protonation at an externally accessible site stabilizes the closed channel conformation. Deprotonation of this site permits a

  11. High-resolution kinetics of transferrin acidification in BALB/c 3T3 cells: exposure to pH 6 followed by temperature-sensitive alkalinization during recycling.

    PubMed

    Sipe, D M; Murphy, R F

    1987-10-01

    The kinetics of acidification of diferric human transferrin in BALB/c mouse 3T3 cells were determined by flow cytometry using a modification of the fluorescein-rhodamine fluorescence ratio technique. For cells labeled at 0 degrees C and warmed to 37 degrees C, the minimum pH observed was 6.1 +/- 0.2, occurring 5 min after warmup. This step was followed by a slower alkalinization to the pH of the external medium, occurring with a half-time of 5 min. Warmup to 24 degrees C or 17 degrees C resulted in slowing of the time of onset of acidification such that the minimum pH was 6.3 +/- 0.2, attained 15 and 25 min after warmup, respectively; the alkalinization step was completely blocked. The limited acidification observed for transferrin corresponds to the initial phase of acidification normally observed for other (nonrecycled) ligands. Since transferrin is not further acidified, the results confirm the existence of two phases of acidification during endocytosis. Measurements of transferrin dissociation at neutral pH after exposure to mildly acidic pH support the conclusion that the transferrin cycle may be completed without exposure of transferrin to a pH below 6. The mildly acidic pH of the endocytic compartments involved in recycling may play a role in regulating enzymatic processing of endocytosed material.

  12. Electronic interactions within composites of polyanilines formed under acidic and alkaline conditions. Conductivity, ESR, Raman, UV-vis and fluorescence studies.

    PubMed

    Dennany, L; Innis, P C; McGovern, S T; Wallace, G G; Forster, Robert J

    2011-02-28

    The properties of two forms of polyaniline (PAni) synthesised under acidic and basic conditions have been investigated both individually and as combined complexes. The PAni polymerised within alkaline media was redox inactive and non-conducting while the PAni emeraldine salt (ES) was electroactive and conducting. Raman, electron spin resonance, UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopies were used to monitor the changes in electronic properties of these conducting polymer composites. Solution cast films of alkaline synthesised (A-PAni) with the PAni ES resulted in an increase in the high spin polaron population suggesting that it acts as a pseudodopant. The ability of the A-PAni to increase and maintain the population of the polaron charge carrier was confirmed by UV-vis and Raman spectroscopy. Significantly, the presence of the A-PAni in PAni ES helped to sustain higher electrical conductivities at loading levels that were well below the percolation threshold of an insulating polystyrene sulfonate polymeric oligomer model. Fluorescence studies indicated that the A-PAni was fluorescent. However, mixtures of A-PAni with the PAni ES resulted in quenching of the A-PAni emission. The quenching process was observed to involve both static and dynamic processes, with the static quenching being dominant. These results suggest that the two polymers are strongly associated with each other when in the solid state. In stark contrast, the alkaline synthesized PAni did not influence the electrochemical properties of the emeraldine salt. These results deviate significantly from the expected outcome of the addition of an insulating A-PAni additive and highlight the unusual interactions occurring between PAni and its alkaline analogue.

  13. The effect of vapour pressure deficit on stomatal conductance, sap pH and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance in Eucalyptus globulus clones grown under two watering regimes

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Maria Jose; Montes, Fernando; Ruiz, Federico; Lopez, Gustavo; Pita, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Stomatal conductance has long been considered of key interest in the study of plant adaptation to water stress. The expected increase in extreme meteorological events under a climate change scenario may compromise survival in Eucalyptus globulus plantations established in south-western Spain. We investigated to what extent changes in stomatal conductance in response to high vapour pressure deficits and water shortage are mediated by hydraulic and chemical signals in greenhouse-grown E. globulus clones. Methods Rooted cuttings were grown in pots and submitted to two watering regimes. Stomatal conductance, shoot water potential, sap pH and hydraulic conductance were measured consecutively in each plant over 4 weeks under vapour pressure deficits ranging 0·42 to 2·25 kPa. Evapotranspiration, growth in leaf area and shoot biomass were also determined. Key Results There was a significant effect of both clone and watering regime in stomatal conductance and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance, but not in sap pH. Sap pH decreased as water potential and stomatal conductance decreased under increasing vapour pressure deficit. There was no significant relationship between stomatal conductance and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance. Stomata closure precluded shoot water potential from falling below −1·8 MPa. The percentage loss of hydraulic conductance ranged from 40 to 85 %. The highest and lowest leaf-specific hydraulic conductances were measured in clones from the same half-sib families. Water shortage reduced growth and evapotranspiration, decreases in evapotranspiration ranging from 14 to 32 % in the five clones tested. Conclusions Changes in sap pH seemed to be a response to changes in atmospheric conditions rather than soil water in the species. Stomata closed after a considerable amount of hydraulic conductance was lost, although intraspecific differences in leaf-specific hydraulic conductance suggest the possibility of selection for

  14. The effect of vapour pressure deficit on stomatal conductance, sap pH and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance in Eucalyptus globulus clones grown under two watering regimes.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Maria Jose; Montes, Fernando; Ruiz, Federico; Lopez, Gustavo; Pita, Pilar

    2016-05-01

    Stomatal conductance has long been considered of key interest in the study of plant adaptation to water stress. The expected increase in extreme meteorological events under a climate change scenario may compromise survival in Eucalyptus globulus plantations established in south-western Spain. We investigated to what extent changes in stomatal conductance in response to high vapour pressure deficits and water shortage are mediated by hydraulic and chemical signals in greenhouse-grown E. globulus clones. Rooted cuttings were grown in pots and submitted to two watering regimes. Stomatal conductance, shoot water potential, sap pH and hydraulic conductance were measured consecutively in each plant over 4 weeks under vapour pressure deficits ranging 0·42 to 2·25 kPa. Evapotranspiration, growth in leaf area and shoot biomass were also determined. There was a significant effect of both clone and watering regime in stomatal conductance and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance, but not in sap pH. Sap pH decreased as water potential and stomatal conductance decreased under increasing vapour pressure deficit. There was no significant relationship between stomatal conductance and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance. Stomata closure precluded shoot water potential from falling below -1·8 MPa. The percentage loss of hydraulic conductance ranged from 40 to 85 %. The highest and lowest leaf-specific hydraulic conductances were measured in clones from the same half-sib families. Water shortage reduced growth and evapotranspiration, decreases in evapotranspiration ranging from 14 to 32 % in the five clones tested. Changes in sap pH seemed to be a response to changes in atmospheric conditions rather than soil water in the species. Stomata closed after a considerable amount of hydraulic conductance was lost, although intraspecific differences in leaf-specific hydraulic conductance suggest the possibility of selection for improved productivity under water-limiting conditions

  15. Factors affecting alkaline nature of rain water in Agra (India).

    PubMed

    Saxena, A; Sharma, S; Kulshrestha, U C; Srivastava, S S

    1991-01-01

    Rain water was collected and analysed from a reference site, Dayalbagh and Taj Ganj, near the Taj Mahal in Agra. The ionic components Ca, Mg, Na, K, NH(4), Pb, Fe, Zn, SO(4), HCO(3), Cl and F were analysed along with pH, alkalinity and conductance. The average pH of rain water at both sites is 7.05. There is a dominance of alkaline components, particularly Ca. The rain water chemistry shows the importance of calcareous soil-derived materials in controlling the pH of rain water.

  16. Soil pH and electrical conductivity are key edaphic factors shaping bacterial communities of greenhouse soils in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Myeong; Roh, An-Sung; Choi, Seung-Chul; Kim, Eun-Jeong; Choi, Moon-Tae; Ahn, Byung-Koo; Kim, Sun-Kuk; Lee, Young-Han; Joa, Jae-Ho; Kang, Seong-Soo; Lee, Shin Ae; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Song, Jaekyeong; Weon, Hang-Yeon

    2016-12-01

    Soil microorganisms play an essential role in soil ecosystem processes such as organic matter decomposition, nutrient cycling, and plant nutrient availability. The land use for greenhouse cultivation has been increasing continuously, which involves an intensive input of agricultural materials to enhance productivity; however, relatively little is known about bacterial communities in greenhouse soils. To assess the effects of environmental factors on the soil bacterial diversity and community composition, a total of 187 greenhouse soil samples collected across Korea were subjected to bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis. A total of 11,865 operational taxonomic units at a 97% similarity cutoff level were detected from 847,560 sequences. Among nine soil factors evaluated; pH, electrical conductivity (EC), exchangeable cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), and K(+)), available P2O5, organic matter, and NO3-N, soil pH was most strongly correlated with bacterial richness (polynomial regression, pH: R(2) = 0.1683, P < 0.001) and diversity (pH: R(2) = 0.1765, P < 0.001). Community dissimilarities (Bray-Curtis distance) were positively correlated with Euclidean distance for pH and EC (Mantel test, pH: r = 0.2672, P < 0.001; EC: r = 0.1473, P < 0.001). Among dominant phyla (> 1%), the relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were also more strongly correlated with pH and EC values, compared with other soil cation contents, such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), and K(+). Our results suggest that, despite the heterogeneity of various environmental variables, the bacterial communities of the intensively cultivated greenhouse soils were particularly influenced by soil pH and EC. These findings therefore shed light on the soil microbial ecology of greenhouse cultivation, which should be helpful for devising effective management strategies to enhance soil microbial diversity and improving crop productivity.

  17. Systems Characterization of Temperature, Ph and Electrical Conductivity in Aerobic Biodegradation of Wheat Biomass at Differing Mixing Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, M.; Trotman, A.; Aglan, H.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to observe and relate the rate of mixing to pH and electrical conductivity in an aerobic, continuously stirred bioreactor. The objective is to use data collected from successive experiments as a means of a system characterization. Tests were conducted to obtain these data using a continuously stirred 20 L Cytostir glass reaction vessel as a bioreactor operated without built-in temperature or pH control. The tests were conducted on the lab bench at ambient temperatures. The substrate in the bioreactor was ground wheat biomass obtained from the Biomass Production Chamber at NASA Kennedy Space Center. In this study, the data reflect characteristics of the native (uninoculated) systems as well as inoculated systems. In the native systems, it was found that pi levels became stable after approximately 2 to 3 days. The electrical conductivity levels for the native systems tended to decrease over time. In contrast, ion activity was increased after the introduction of bacteria into the system. This could be correlated with the release of nutrients, due to the activity of the bacteria. Also, there were slight increases in pH in the inoculated system, a result which is expected for a system with no active pr controls. The data will be used to test a mathematical model in an automated system.

  18. Systems Characterization of Temperature, Ph and Electrical Conductivity in Aerobic Biodegradation of Wheat Biomass at Differing Mixing Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, M.; Trotman, A.; Aglan, H.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to observe and relate the rate of mixing to pH and electrical conductivity in an aerobic, continuously stirred bioreactor. The objective is to use data collected from successive experiments as a means of a system characterization. Tests were conducted to obtain these data using a continuously stirred 20 L Cytostir glass reaction vessel as a bioreactor operated without built-in temperature or pH control. The tests were conducted on the lab bench at ambient temperatures. The substrate in the bioreactor was ground wheat biomass obtained from the Biomass Production Chamber at NASA Kennedy Space Center. In this study, the data reflect characteristics of the native (uninoculated) systems as well as inoculated systems. In the native systems, it was found that pi levels became stable after approximately 2 to 3 days. The electrical conductivity levels for the native systems tended to decrease over time. In contrast, ion activity was increased after the introduction of bacteria into the system. This could be correlated with the release of nutrients, due to the activity of the bacteria. Also, there were slight increases in pH in the inoculated system, a result which is expected for a system with no active pr controls. The data will be used to test a mathematical model in an automated system.

  19. Thermodynamic characterization of separations on alkaline-stable silica-based C18 columns: why basic solutes may have better capacity and peak performance at higher pH.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Jörgen; Franz, André; Stanley, Brett J; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2007-09-07

    A systematic study was made to explain the large improvements in separation performance and capacity of basic compounds at alkaline conditions. The adsorption of three probe components was investigated on four alkaline-stable silica-based C18 columns at three different pH-levels: 3, 7 and 11. The probes were 3-phenyl-1-propanol (neutral), 2-phenylbutyric acid (acidic) and metoprolol (basic). Adsorption isotherms were acquired over a broad concentration range, in order to detect both high and low energy sites. Before the choice of the proper adsorption isotherm model, the adsorption energy distribution (AED) was calculated yielding the number of different kinds of interaction sites between the solute and the stationary phase. The neutral probe was entirely unaffected by pH and its AED was unimodal (one site) indicating homogenous adsorption. For the acidic probe the interactions were unimodal at pH 3 where the probe is uncharged and at least bimodal (two sites) at pH 7 and 11 where the probe is charged. For the basic probe, the interactions were heterogeneous at both pH 3 and 11. The equilibrium constants of the high and low energy sites were different by a factor of 55-100 at pH 3 and only 6-7 at pH 11. The difference in saturation capacities between the two sites was much smaller at pH 11 where 20% of the total capacity is from the high energy site, as compared to pH 3 where the high energy site was only 2-5% of the total capacity. This explains why peaks of amines (basic solutes) tail at low pH while their peaks are symmetrical at alkaline pH. The Langmuir model fit the unimodal data and the bi-Langmuir model fit the bimodal AED data. The calculated band profiles based on these parameters agreed excellently with the experimental data. The electrostatic-modified Langmuir, on the other hand, did not describe this adsorption process well.

  20. Overexpression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in NIH 3T3 cells lowers membrane potential and intracellular pH and confers a multidrug resistance phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Wei, L Y; Stutts, M J; Hoffman, M M; Roepe, P D

    1995-01-01

    Because of the similarities between the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins, recent observations of decreased plasma membrane electrical potential (delta psi) in cells overexpressing either MDR protein or the CFTR, and the effects of delta psi on passive diffusion of chemotherapeutic drugs, we have analyzed chemotherapeutic drug resistance for NIH 3T3 cells overexpressing different levels of functional CFTR. Three separate clones not previously exposed to chemotherapeutic drugs exhibit resistance to doxorubicin, vincristine, and colchicine that is similar to MDR transfectants not previously exposed to chemotherapeutic drugs. Two other clones expressing lower levels of CFTR are less resistant. As shown previously these clones exhibit decreased plasma membrane delta psi similar to MDR transfectants, but four of five exhibit mildly acidified intracellular pH in contrast to MDR transfectants, which are in general alkaline. Thus the MDR protein and CFTR-mediated MDR phenotypes are distinctly different. Selection of two separate CFTR clones on either doxorubicin or vincristine substantially increases the observed MDR and leads to increased CFTR (but not measurable MDR or MRP) mRNA expression. CFTR overexpressors also exhibit a decreased rate of 3H -vinblastine uptake. These data reveal a new and previously unrecognized consequence of CFTR expression, and are consistent with the hypothesis that membrane depolarization is an important determinant of tumor cell MDR. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 6 PMID:8519988

  1. An analytical relationship between the magnetospheric potential drop and the ionospheric conductance. Ph.D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Krisko, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis the author derives an analytical relationship between the Earth`s magnetospheric potential drop and the ionospheric conductance by adopting a simple two-dimensional model of a magnetic field draping around the tail magnetopause. Two methods are used: (1) matching currents through the tail magnetopause and the Earth`s ionosphere in analogy with the Alfven wing at the Jovian satellite, Io; and (2) minimizing the total power that the solar wind loses to the Earth`s magnetosphere. The author finds, in both cases, the magnetospheric conductance, Sigma(sub is), and compares this result to the revised result of the numerical model of Fedder and Lyon and to the conclusions of Hill et al. and Hill. Considering the derived proportionality factor as a `magnetosheath conductance`, Sigma(sub msh), the author determines that the high-latitude tail magnetospheric `driver` acts as a current generator as opposed to a voltage generator.

  2. Current conduction in junction gate field effect transistors. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, C.

    1970-01-01

    The internal physical mechanism that governs the current conduction in junction-gate field effect transistors is studied. A numerical method of analyzing the devices with different length-to-width ratios and doping profiles is developed. This method takes into account the two dimensional character of the electric field and the field dependent mobility. Application of the method to various device models shows that the channel width and the carrier concentration in the conductive channel decrease with increasing drain-to-source voltage for conventional devices. It also shows larger differential drain conductances for shorter devices when the drift velocity is not saturated. The interaction of the source and the drain gives the carrier accumulation in the channel which leads to the space-charge-limited current flow. The important parameters for the space-charge-limited current flow are found to be the L/L sub DE ratio and the crossover voltage.

  3. Continuous pH, electrical conductivity and temperature measurement at Plynlimon: towards an integrated, reliable and low maintenance instrument system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, P.; Evans, J. G.

    Water quality data for the Nant Tanilwyth stream, Plynlimon (an acidic upland stream, the waters of which are of such low ionic strength that measurement is difficult), has been recorded using a new integrated field instrument system. The negligible drift of the pH electrode allows the system to operate for extended periods (months) without re-calibration, whilst maintaining a standard deviation of 0.19 pH units between its readings and laboratory reference measurements. Conductivity measurements, although within the sensor manufacturer's specification, did not provide meaningful readings at conductivities below 50 μS cm-1. Using the pH data as a surrogate tracer, a high temporal resolution estimate of the stream dynamics, in terms of the contributions of groundwater and soil-water is presented; the dependence of these relative proportions on instantaneous flow and antecedent conditions is shown. It is concluded that, whilst improvements in instrumentation have been made, greater accuracy is still desirable for some scientific applications and ways forward are described.

  4. Rapid solidification of high-conductivity copper alloys. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, Theodore Atlas

    1989-01-01

    The main objective was to develop improved copper alloys of high strength and high thermal and electric conductivity. Chill block melt spinning was used to produce binary alloys of Cu-Cr and Cu-Zr, and ternary alloys of Cu-Cr-Ag. By quenching from the liquid state, up to 5 atomic percent of Cr and Zr were retained in metastable extended solid solution during the rapid solidification process. Eutectic solidification was avoided and the full strengthening benefits of the large volume fraction of precipitates were realized by subsequent aging treatment. The very low solid solubility of Cr and Zr in Cu result in a high conductivity Cu matrix strengthened by second phase precipitates. Tensile properties on as-cast and aged ribbons were measured at room and elevated temperatures. Precipitate coarsening of Cr in Cu was studied by changes in electrical resistance during aging. X-ray diffraction was used to measure the lattice parameter and the degree of supersaturation of the matrix. The microstructures were characterized by optical and electron microscopy.

  5. Microchannel conductivity measurements in microchip for on line monitoring of dephosphorylation rates of organic phosphates using paramagnetic-beads linked alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Kechadi, Mohammed; Sotta, Bruno; Gamby, Jean

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the use of polymer coated microelectrodes for the realtime conductivity monitoring in a microchannel photoablated through the polymer without contact. Based on this strategy, a small conductometry sensor has been developed to record in time conductivity variation when an enzymatic reaction occurs through the channel. The rate constant determination, k2, for the dephosphorylation of organic phosphate-alkaline phosphatase-superparamagnetic beads complex using chemically different substrates such as adenosine monoesterphosphate, adenosine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate was taken as an example to demonstrate selectivity and sensivity of the detection scheme. The k2 value measured for each adenosine phosphate decreases from 39 to 30 s(-1) in proportion with the number (3, 2 and 1) of attached phosphate moiety, thus emphasizing the steric hindrance effect on kinetics.

  6. Deletions of endocytic components VPS28 and VPS32 affect growth at alkaline pH and virulence through both RIM101-dependent and RIM101-independent pathways in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Cornet, Muriel; Bidard, Frédérique; Schwarz, Patrick; Da Costa, Grégory; Blanchin-Roland, Sylvie; Dromer, Françoise; Gaillardin, Claude

    2005-12-01

    Ambient pH signaling involves a cascade of conserved Rim or Pal products in ascomycetous yeasts or filamentous fungi, respectively. Recent evidences in the fungi Aspergillus nidulans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Yarrowia lipolytica, and Candida albicans suggested that components of endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) involved in endocytic trafficking were needed for signal transduction along the Rim pathway. In this study, we confirm these findings with C. albicans and show that Vps28p (ESCRT-I) and Vps32p/Snf7p (ESCRT-III) are required for the transcriptional regulation of known targets of the Rim pathway, such as the PHR1 and PHR2 genes encoding cell surface proteins, which are expressed at alkaline and acidic pH, respectively. We additionally show that deletion of these two VPS genes, particularly VPS32, has a more drastic effect than a RIM101 deletion on growth at alkaline pH and that this effect is only partially suppressed by expression of a constitutively active form of Rim101p. Finally, in an in vivo mouse model, both vps null mutants were significantly less virulent than a rim101 mutant, suggesting that VPS28 and VPS32 gene products affect virulence both through Rim-dependent and Rim-independent pathways.

  7. Effect of pH on the electrical properties and conducting mechanism of SnO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Periathai, R. Sudha; Abarna, S.; Hirankumar, G.; Jeyakumaran, N.; Prithivikumaran, N.

    2017-03-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles have attracted more interests because of their size-dependent optical and electrical properties.SnO2 is an oxygen-deficient n-type semiconductor with a wide band gap of 3.6 eV (300 K). It has many remarkable applications as sensors, catalysts, transparent conducting electrodes, anode material for rechargeable Li- ion batteries and optoelectronic devices. In the present work, the role of pH in determining the electrical and dielectric properties of SnO2 nanoparticles has been studied as a function of temperature ranging from Room temperature (RT) to 114 °C in the frequency range of 7 MHz to 50 mHz using impedance spectroscopic technique. The non linear behavior observed in the thermal dependence of the conductance of SnO2 nanoparticles is explained by means of the surface property of SnO2 nanoparticles where proton hopping mechanism is dealt with. Jonscher's power law has been fitted for the conductance spectra and the frequency exponent ("s" value) gives an insight about the ac conducting mechanism. The temperature dependence of electrical relaxation phenomenon in the material has been observed. The complex electric modulus analysis indicates the possibility of hopping conduction mechanism in the system with non-exponential type of conductivity relaxation.

  8. Effect of external and internal pH changes on K and Cl conductances in the muscle fiber membrane of a giant barnacle.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, S; Gruener, R; Hayashi, H; Sakata, H; Grinnell, A D

    1968-11-01

    The membrane potential and conductance of the giant muscle fiber of a barnacle (Balanus nubilus Darwin) were analyzed in relation to changes in the external (3.5-10.0) and the internal (4.7-9.6) pH, under various experimental conditions. A sharp increase in membrane conductance, associated with a large increase in conductance to Cl ions, was observed when the external pH was lowered to values below 5.0. The ratio of Cl to K conductance in normal barnacle saline is between (1/6)-1/7 at pH 7.7, whereas at pH 4.0 the ratio is about 6-9. The behavior of the membrane in response to pH changes in a Cl-depleted muscle fiber shows that the K conductance decreases with decreasing external pH for the whole range of pH examined. A steep increase in Cl conductance is also observed when the internal pH of the fiber is lowered below 5.0. The K to Cl conductance ratio increases with increasing internal pH in a manner very similar to that found when the external pH is raised above 5.0. These facts suggest that the membrane is amphoteric with positive and negative fixed charge groups having dissociation constants such that at pH greater than 5, negative groups predominate and cations permeate more easily than anions, while at lower pH positive groups predominate, facilitating the passage of anions through the membrane.

  9. New Secondary Batteries Utilizing Electronically Conductive Polypyrrole Cathode. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeu, Taewhan

    1991-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the dynamic behavior in electronically conducting polypyrroles and to provide guidance toward designs of new secondary batteries based on these polymers, two mathematical models are developed; one for the potentiostatically controlled switching behavior of polypyrrole film, and one for the galvanostatically controlled charge/discharge behavior of lithium/polypyrrole secondary battery cell. The first model is used to predict the profiles of electrolyte concentrations, charge states, and electrochemical potentials within the thin polypyrrole film during switching process as functions of applied potential and position. Thus, the detailed mechanisms of charge transport and electrochemical reaction can be understood. Sensitivity analysis is performed for independent parameters, describing the physical and electrochemical characteristic of polypyrrole film, to verify their influences on the model performance. The values of independent parameters are estimated by comparing model predictions with experimental data obtained from identical conditions. The second model is used to predict the profiles of electrolyte concentrations, charge state, and electrochemical potentials within the battery system during charge and discharge processes as functions of time and position. Energy and power densities are estimated from model predictions and compared with existing battery systems. The independent design criteria on the charge and discharge performance of the cell are provided by studying the effects of design parameters.

  10. In-line application of electric field in capillary separation systems: Joule heating, pH and conductivity.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Björn O; Skuland, Inger Lill; Marlin, Nicola D; Andersson, Magnus B O; Blomberg, Lars G

    2008-03-15

    This study concerns the technique electric field-assisted capillary liquid chromatography. In this technique, an electric field is applied over the separation capillary in order to provide an additional selectivity. In this technique, the electric field is applied in-line in the separation capillary and here the electric current is the factor limiting the magnitude of applied electric field. The influence of Joule heating and other factors on the current in such systems has been investigated. The temperature in the capillary was first measured within a standard CE set-up, as function of effect per unit of length. Then the same cooling system was applied to an in-line set-up, to replicate the conditions between the two systems, and thus the temperature. Thus Joule heating effects could then be calculated within the in-line system. It was found that for systems applying an electric field in line, the direct influence from Joule heating was only relatively small. The pH in the capillary was measured in the in-line set-up using cresol red/TRIS solutions as pH probe. Significant changes in pH were observed and the results suggested that electrolysis of water is the dominant electrode reaction in the in-line system. In summary, the observed conductivity change in in-line systems was found to be mainly due to the pH change by hydrolysis of water, but primarily not due the temperature change in the capillary column.

  11. Modifying the Cold Gelation Properties of Quinoa Protein Isolate: Influence of Heat-Denaturation pH in the Alkaline Range.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2015-09-01

    Heat-denaturation of quinoa protein isolate (QPI) at alkali pH and its influence on the physicochemical and cold gelation properties was investigated. Heating QPI at pH 8.5 led to increased surface hydrophobicity and decreases in free and bound sulfhydryl group contents. Heating at pH 10.5 caused a lesser degree of changes in sulfhydryl groups and surface hydrophobicity, and the resulting solutions showed drastically increased solubility. SDS PAGE revealed the presence of large aggregates only in the sample heated at pH 8.5, suggesting that any aggregates present in the sample heated at pH 10.5 were non-covalently bound and disintegrated in the presence of SDS. Reducing conditions partially dissolved the aggregates in the pH 8.5 heated sample indicating the occurrence of disulphide bonding, but caused no major alterations in the separation pattern of the pH 10.5 heated sample. Denaturation pH influenced the cold gelation properties greatly. Solutions heated at pH 8.5 formed a coarse coagulum with maximum G' of 5 Pa. Heat-denaturation at 10.5 enabled the proteins to form a finer and regularly structured gel with a maximum G' of 1140 Pa. Particle size analysis showed that the pH 10.5 heated sample contained a higher level of very small particles (0.1-2 μm), and these readily aggregated into large particles (30-200 μm) when pH was lowered to 5.5. Differences in the nature of aggregates formed during heating may explain the large variation in gelation properties.

  12. Continuous bioproduction of short-chain fatty acids from sludge enhanced by the combined use of surfactant and alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinguang; Liu, Kun; Su, Yinglong; Zheng, Xiong; Wang, Qin

    2013-07-01

    This work reported the enhancement of continuous SCFA production from sludge by the combined use of surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS)) and pH 10 (i.e., SDBS & pH 10). The maximal SCFA production (2056 mg COD/L) was achieved under the SDBS & pH 10 condition at a sludge retention time (SRT) of 12d, which was much higher than that of the blank, sole SDBS, or pH 10. The mechanisms investigation showed that the combined strategy had greater sludge solubilization, higher protein hydrolysis, and lower activity of methanogens. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed that the abundance of bacteria was increased, whereas that of archaea was decreased by SDBS & pH 10. The excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy assay further suggested that SBDS caused protein structure change, which benefited protein hydrolysis.

  13. Combined esophageal intraluminal impedance, pH and skin conductance monitoring to detect discomfort in GERD infants.

    PubMed

    Cresi, Francesco; Castagno, Emanuele; Storm, Hanne; Silvestro, Leandra; Miniero, Roberto; Savino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The clinical significance of weakly acidic reflux in infants is unclear. Skin conductance is a novel not-invasive method to evaluate discomfort. The aim of our study was to evaluate reflux-induced discomfort in infants with gastroesophageal reflux disease using simultaneously combined skin conductance and esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring. Infants with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms were investigated for almost 20 hours divided into 120-second intervals. Temporal relationships between refluxes and discomfort were evaluated calculating the symptom association probability. Twelve infants aged 17-45 days were studied. Out of 194.38 hours of adequate artifact-free MII/pH and skin conductance monitoring, 584 reflux events were observed; 35.78% were positive for stress, of which 16.27% were acid and 83.73% weakly acidic. A significant association between refluxes and discomfort (p<0.05) was present in all infants. The intervals with reflux events showed increased skin conductance values compared to reflux-free intervals (p<0.001); SC values were similar for acid and weakly acidic reflux events. CONCLUSION/SIGNFICANCE: Discomfort was significantly associated with reflux events and did not differ between weakly acidic and acid refluxes. Our results may raise concerns about the over-prescription use of antacid drugs in the management of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in infancy.

  14. Spatial models to predict ash pH and Electrical Conductivity distribution after a grassland fire in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Misiūnė, Ieva

    2015-04-01

    Fire mineralizes the organic matter, increasing the pH level and the amount of dissolved ions (Pereira et al., 2014). The degree of mineralization depends among other factors on fire temperature, burned specie, moisture content, and contact time. The impact of wildland fires it is assessed using the fire severity, an index used in the absence of direct measures (e.g temperature), important to estimate the fire effects in the ecosystems. This impact is observed through the loss of soil organic matter, crown volume, twig diameter, ash colour, among others (Keeley et al., 2009). The effects of fire are highly variable, especially at short spatial scales (Pereira et al., in press), due the different fuel conditions (e.g. moisture, specie distribution, flammability, connectivity, arrangement, etc). This variability poses important challenges to identify the best spatial predictor and have the most accurate spatial visualization of the data. Considering this, the test of several interpolation methods it is assumed to be relevant to have the most reliable map. The aims of this work are I) study the ash pH and Electrical Conductivity (EC) after a grassland fire according to ash colour and II) test several interpolation methods in order to identify the best spatial predictor of pH and EC distribution. The study area is located near Vilnius at 54.42° N and 25.26°E and 154 ma.s.l. After the fire it was designed a plot with a 27 x 9 m space grid. Samples were taken every 3 meters for a total of 40 (Pereira et al., 2013). Ash color was classified according to Úbeda et al. (2009). Ash pH and EC laboratory analysis were carried out according to Pereira et al. (2014). Previous to data comparison and modelling, normality and homogeneity were assessed with the Shapiro-wilk and Levene test. pH data respected the normality and homogeneity, while EC only followed the Gaussian distribution and the homogeneity criteria after a logarithmic transformation. Data spatial correlation was

  15. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) utilization by Delftia acidovorans MC1 at alkaline pH and in the presence of dichlorprop is improved by introduction of the tfdK gene.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Doreen; Müller, Roland H

    2006-06-01

    Growth of Delftia acidovorans MC1 on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and on racemic 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propanoic acid ((RS)-2,4-DP) was studied in the perspective of an extension of the strain's degradation capacity at alkaline pH. At pH 6.8 the strain grew on 2,4-D at a maximum rate (mu max) of 0.158 h(-1). The half-maximum rate-associated substrate concentration (Ks) was 45 microM. At pH 8.5 mu max was only 0.05 h(-1) and the substrate affinity was mucher lower than at pH 6.8. The initial attack of 2,4-D was not the limiting step at pH 8.5 as was seen from high dioxygenase activity in cells grown at this pH. High stationary 2,4-D concentrations and the fact that mu max with dichlorprop was around 0.2 h(-1) at both pHs rather pointed at limited 2,4-D uptake at pH 8.5. Introduction of tfdK from D. acidovorans P4a by conjugation, coding for a 2,4-D-specific transporter resulted in improved growth on 2,4-D at pH 8.5 with mu max of 0.147 h(-1) and Ks of 267 microM. Experiments with labeled substrates showed significantly enhanced 2,4-D uptake by the transconjugant TK62. This is taken as an indication of expression of the tfdK gene and proper function of the transporter. The uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) reduced the influx of 2,4-D. At a concentration of 195 microM 2,4-D, the effect amounted to 90% and 50%, respectively, with TK62 and MC1. Cloning of tfdK also improved the utilization of 2,4-D in the presence of (RS)-2,4-DP. Simultaneous and almost complete degradation of both compounds occurred in TK62 up to D = 0.23 h(-1) at pH 6.8 and up to D = 0.2 h(-1) at pH 8.5. In contrast, MC1 left 2,4-D largely unutilized even at low dilution rates when growing on herbicide mixtures at pH 8.5.

  16. Spectroscopic studies on the protective effect of a specific sugar on concanavalin A at acidic, neutral and alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Naeem, Aabgeena; Baig, Masroor Alam

    2005-01-01

    A Systematic investigation of the effect of pH on concanavalin A in the presence of specific and non-specific sugars is made using CD (circular dichroism) and fluorescence. The specific and non-specific sugars for concanavalin A were methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside and methyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside respectively. Far-UV CD showed changes in the MRE value at 217 nm in the presence of the above-mentioned sugars. At pH 7, the CD and fluorescence spectra obtained in the presence of methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside were slightly different from those for the native state and a significant difference was obtained in the presence of methyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside. Near-UV CD spectra showed the retention of a native-like tertiary structure in the presence of the specific sugar upon pH denaturation. Tryptophan fluorescence studies indicated a change in the tryptophan enviornment. The results obtained from our CD data are consistent with those obtained from fluorescence studies. Upon pH exposure of concanavalin A in the presence of methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside and methyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside, the former acted as a protector preventing conformational alteration at different pH while the presence of latter induced a different stable conformational state and this state persists over the pH range from 2 to 10.

  17. Preparing alkaline anion exchange membrane with enhanced hydroxide conductivity via blending imidazolium-functionalized and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Jiang, Zhongyi; Tian, Huimin; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Bei; Cao, Ying; He, Guangwei; Li, Zongyu; Wu, Hong

    2015-08-01

    The development of alkaline anion exchange membrane (AEM) with both high ion conductivity and stabilities is of great significance for fuel cell applications. In this study, a facile acid-base blending method is designed to improve AEM performances. Basic imidazolium-functionalized poly (ether ether ketone) with a high functionalization degree is employed as polymer matrix to pursue high ion-exchange capacity (IEC) as well as high hydroxide conductivity, meanwhile acidic sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) is employed as the cross-linking agent to enhance the stabilities of the blend membranes. Particularly, an in-situ Menshutkin/crosslinking method is exploited to prevent the flocculation in the preparation process of blend membranes. As a result, dense and defect-free blend membranes are obtained. The blend membranes exhibit high level of IEC up to 3.15 mmol g-1, and consequently possess elevated hydroxide conductivity up to 31.59 mS cm-1 at 30 °C. In addition, benefiting from the strong electrostatic interaction introduced by the acid-base blending, the stabilities and methanol resistance of blend membranes are enhanced.

  18. Alkaline hydrothermal conversion of cellulose to bio-oil: influence of alkalinity on reaction pathway change.

    PubMed

    Yin, Sudong; Mehrotra, Anil K; Tan, Zhongchao

    2011-06-01

    The effects of alkalinity on alkaline hydrothermal conversion (alkaline-HTC) of cellulose to bio-oil were investigated in this study. The results showed that the initial alkalinity greatly influenced the reaction pathways. Under initial strong alkaline conditions with final pH greater than 7, alkaline-HTC only followed the alkaline pathway. However, under initial weak alkaline conditions with final pH of less than 7, acidic as well as alkaline pathways were involved. The main mechanism behind this change of reaction pathways under weak alkaline conditions was that carboxylic acids were first formed from cellulose via the alkaline pathway and then neutralized/acidified the alkaline solutions. Once the pH of the alkaline solutions decreased to less than 7, the acidic instead of the alkaline reaction pathway occurred. This change of the reaction pathways with initial alkalinity partly explained the inconsistent results in the literature of alkaline-HTC bio-oil compositions and yields. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anion conductive aromatic block copolymers containing diphenyl ether or sulfide groups for application to alkaline fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Naoki; Ono, Hideaki; Miyake, Junpei; Nishino, Eriko; Asazawa, Koichiro; Watanabe, Masahiro; Miyatake, Kenji

    2014-10-08

    A novel series of aromatic block copolymers composed of fluorinated phenylene and biphenylene groups and diphenyl ether (QPE-bl-5) or diphenyl sulfide (QPE-bl-6) groups as a scaffold for quaternized ammonium groups is reported. The block copolymers were synthesized via aromatic nucleophilic substitution polycondensation, chloromethylation, quaternization, and ion exchange reactions. The block copolymers were soluble in organic solvents and provided thin and bendable membranes by solution casting. The membranes exhibited well-developed phase-separated morphology based on the hydrophilic/hydrophobic block copolymer structure. The membranes exhibited mechanical stability as confirmed by DMA (dynamic mechanical analyses) and low gas and hydrazine permeability. The QPE-bl-5 membrane with the highest ion exchange capacity (IEC = 2.1 mequiv g(-1)) exhibited high hydroxide ion conductivity (62 mS cm(-1)) in water at 80 °C. A noble metal-free fuel cell was fabricated with the QPE-bl-5 as the membrane and electrode binder. The fuel cell operated with hydrazine as a fuel exhibited a maximum power density of 176 mW cm(-2) at a current density of 451 mA cm(-2).

  20. Evaluating the role of metal ions in the bathochromic and hyperchromic responses of cyanidin derivatives in acidic and alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Sigurdson, G T; Robbins, R J; Collins, T M; Giusti, M M

    2016-10-01

    In many food products, colorants derived from natural sources are increasingly popular due to consumer demand. Anthocyanins are one class of versatile and abundant naturally occurring chromophores that produce different hues in nature, especially with metal ions and other copigments assisting. The effects of chelation of metal ions (Mg(2+), Al(3+), Cr(3+), Fe(3+), and Ga(3+)) in factorial excesses to anthocyanin concentration (0-500×) on the spectral characteristics (380-700nm) of cyanidin and acylated cyanidin derivatives were evaluated to better understand the color evolution of anthocyanin-metal chelates in pH 3-8. In all pH, anthocyanins exhibited bathochromic and hyperchromic shifts. Largest bathochromic shifts most often occurred in pH 6; while largest hyperchromic shifts occurred in pH 5. Divalent Mg(2+) showed no observable effect on anthocyanin color while trivalent metal ions caused bathochromic shifts and hue changes. Generally, bathochromic shifts on anthocyanins were greatest with more electron rich metal ions (Fe(3+)≈Ga(3+)>Al(3+)>Cr(3+)).

  1. Effect of pH and temperature on stability and kinetics of novel extracellular serine alkaline protease (70 kDa).

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Biswanath; Basak, Bikram; Mandal, Tamal; Bhattacharya, Pinaki; Dey, Apurba

    2013-03-01

    A novel extracellular serine protease (70 kDa by SDS-PAGE) was purified and characterized. This enzyme retained more than 93% of its initial activity after preincubation for 30 min at 37 °C in the presence of 25% (v/v) tested organic solvents and showed feather degradation activity. The purified enzyme was deactivated at various combinations of pH and temperature to examine the interactive effect of them on enzyme activity. The deactivation process was modeled as first-order kinetics and the deactivation rate constant (k(d)) was found to be minimum at pH 9 and 37 °C. The kinetic analysis of enzyme over a range of pH values indicated two pK values at 6.21 and at 10.92. The lower pK value was likely due to the catalytic histidine in the free enzyme and higher pK value likely reflected deprotonation of the proline moiety of the substrate but ionization of the active site serine is another possibility. Inhibition kinetic showed that enzyme is serine protease because enzyme was competitively inhibited by antipain and aprotinin as these compounds are known to be competitive inhibitors of serine protease. The organic solvent, thermal and pH tolerances of enzyme suggested that it may have potential for use as a biocatalyst in industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An evaluation of in-situ measurements of water temperature, specific conductance, and pH in low ionic strength streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ranalli, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Survey for continuous measurement of water temperature, specific conductance, and pH in four low ionic strength streams in the Catskill Mountains of New York was evaluated through a calculation of their bias, precision, and accuracy and by comparison with laboratory measurements of specific conductance and pH on samples collected concurrently. Results indicate that the mini-monitor measurements of specific conductance and pH in an acidic stream (acid-neutralizing capacity always less than 0) agreed with laboratory measurements well enough that the minimonitors can be used to supplement laboratory measurements (mean difference in pH was 0.02 pH unit and mean difference in specific conductance was 0.72 ??S cm-1. This mean difference was 0.32 ??S cm-1 if the minimonitor data were adjusted by the bias). In less acidic streams (two streams in which the acid-neutralizing capacity was always greater than 0 and one in which the acid-neutralizing capacity was greater than 0 except during high flows), there was poor agreement between laboratory and minimonitor measurements of specific conductance at high flows and pH at all flows. The water-temperature probes measured with sufficiently small bias (-0.1 ??C) and adequate precision (??0.70 ??C) for use with most applications.

  3. Solar light (hv) and H2O2/hv photo-disinfection of natural alkaline water (pH 8.6) in a compound parabolic collector at different day periods in Sahelian region.

    PubMed

    Ndounla, J; Pulgarin, C

    2015-11-01

    The photo-disinfection of natural alkaline surface water (pH 8.6 ± 0.3) for drinking purposes was carried out under solar radiation treatments. The enteric bacteria studied were the wild total coliforms/Escherichia coli (10(4) CFU/ml) and Salmonella spp. (10(4) CFU/ml) naturally present in the water. The photo-disinfection of a 25-l water sample was carried out in a solar compound parabolic collector (CPC) in the absence and in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The addition of H2O2 (10 mg/L) to the sample water was sufficient to enhance the photo-disinfection and ensure an irreversible lethal action on the wild enteric bacteria contents of the sample. The inactivation kinetic of the system was significantly enhanced compared to the one carried out without H2O2 addition. The effect of the solar radiation parameters on the efficiency of the photo-disinfection were assessed. The pH has increased during the treatment in all the photo-disinfection processes (hv and H2O2/hv). The Salmonella spp strain has shown the best effective inactivate time in alkaline water than the one recorded under acidic or near-neutral conditions. The evolution of some physico-chemical parameters of the water (turbidity, NO2(-), NO3(-), NH4(+), HPO4(2-), and bicarbonate (HCO3(-))) was monitored during the treatment. Finally, the possible mechanistic process involved during the enteric bacteria inactivation was suggested.

  4. Lipophilicity measurement of drugs by reversed phase HPLC over Wide pH range using an alkaline-resistant silica-based stationary phase, XBridge Shield RP(18).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangli; Hefesha, Hossam; Tanaka, Hideji; Scriba, Gerhard; Fahr, Alfred

    2008-10-01

    We propose a reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) with an alkaline-resistant silica-based stationary phase, XBridge Shield RP(18), for the determination of the lipophilicity of drugs with diverse chemical nature ranging from acidic to basic. A set of 40 model compounds with well-defined solvatochromic parameters was selected to allow a broad distribution of structural properties. The chromatographic results showed that the lipophilicity index log k(w) obtained with XBridge Shield RP(18) was well correlated with experimental log P(oct) values (r(2)=0.96). Linear solvation free-energy relationship (LSER) analyses revealed that the retention mechanism of the stationary phase and 1-octanol/water partitioning were controlled by almost the same balance of intermolecular forces (hydrophobicity as expressed by the van der Waals volume V(w), H-bond acceptor basicity beta, and dipolarity/polarizability pi*). The results showed that XBridge Shield RP(18) phase overcomes the shortcomings of the silica-based stationary phases, the application of which to lipophilicity measurements had been limited to neutral and acidic compounds.

  5. Isolated secretion granules from parotid glands of chronically stimulated rats possess an alkaline internal pH and inward-directed H/sup +/ pump activity

    SciTech Connect

    Arvan, P.; Castle, J.D.

    1986-10-01

    Secretion granules have been isolated from the parotid glands of rats that have been chronically stimulated with the ..beta..-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. These granules are of interest because they package a quantitatively different set of secretory proteins in comparison with granules from the normal gland. Polypeptides enriched in proline, glycine, and glutamine, which are known to have pI's >10, replace ..cap alpha..-amylase (pI's = 6.8) as the principal content species. The internal pH of granules from the treated rats changes from 7.8 in a potassium sulfate medium to 6.9 in a choline chloride medium. The increased pH over that of normal parotid granules (approx.6.8) appears to protect the change in composition of the secretory contents. Whereas normal mature parotide granules have practically negligible levels of H/sup +/ pumping ATPase activity, the isolated granules from isoproterenol-treated rats undergo a time-dependent internal acidification that requires the presence of ATP and is abolished by an H/sup +/ ionophore. Additionally, an inside-positive granule transmembrane potential develops after ATP addition that depends upon ATP hydrolysis. Two independent methods have been used that exclude the possibility that contaminating organelles are the source of the H/sup +/-ATPase activity. Together these data provide clear evidence for the presence of an H/sup +/ pump in the membranes of parotid granules from chronically stimulated rats. However, despite the presence of H/sup +/-pump activity, fluorescence microscopy with the weak base, acridine orange, reveals that the intragranular pH in live cells is greater than that of the cytoplasm.

  6. A monitor for continuous measurement of temperature, pH, and conductance of wet precipitation: Preliminary results from the Adirondack Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnsson, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes a continuous wet-only precipitation monitor designed by the U.S. Geological Survey to record variations in rainfall temperature, pH, and specific conductance at 1-min intervals over the course of storms. Initial sampling in the Adirondack Mountains showed that rainfall acidity varied over the course of summer storms, with low initial pH values increasing as storm intensity increased.This report describes a continuous wet-only precipitation monitor designed by the U.S. Geological Survey to record variations in rainfall temperature, pH, and specific conductance at 1-min intervals over the course of storms. Initial sampling in the Adirondack Mountains showed that rainfall acidity varied over the course of summer storms, with low initial pH values increasing as storm intensity increased.

  7. Mouse Slc4a11 expressed in Xenopus oocytes is an ideally selective H+/OH- conductance pathway that is stimulated by rises in intracellular and extracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Myers, Evan J; Marshall, Aniko; Jennings, Michael L; Parker, Mark D

    2016-12-01

    The SLC4A11 gene encodes the bicarbonate-transporter-related protein BTR1, which is mutated in syndromes characterized by vision and hearing loss. Signs of these diseases [congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED) and Harboyan syndrome] are evident in mouse models of Slc4a11 disruption. However, the intrinsic activity of Slc4a11 remains controversial, complicating assignment of its (patho)physiological role. Most studies concur that Slc4a11 transports H(+) (or the thermodynamically equivalent species OH(-)) rather than HCO3(-), but disparities have arisen as to whether the transport is coupled to another species such as Na(+) or NH3/NH4(+) Here for the first time, we examine the action of mouse Slc4a11 in Xenopus oocytes. We simultaneously monitor changes in intracellular pH, membrane potential, and conductance as we alter extracellular pH, revealing the electrical and chemical driving forces that underlie the observed ion fluxes. We find that mSlc4a11 is an ideally selective H(+)/OH(-) conductive pathway, the action of which is uncoupled from the cotransport of any other ion. We also find that the activity of mSlc4a11 is independently enhanced by both extracellular and intracellular alkalinization, suggesting OH(-) as the most likely substrate and providing a novel explanation for the apparent NH3-dependence of Slc4a11-mediated currents reported by others. We suggest that the unique properties of Slc4a11 action underlie its value as a pH regulator in corneal endothelial cells. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Sol-gel synthesis of ZnO transparent conductive films: The role of pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addonizio, Maria Luisa; Aronne, Antonio; Daliento, Santolo; Tari, Orlando; Fanelli, Esther; Pernice, Pasquale

    2014-06-01

    The sol-gel synthesis of undoped and B- or Al-doped ZnO thin films were critically examined with particular reference to the influence of the pH of the reaction medium on some of their specific characteristics, such as thickness, morphology, doping level and optical properties, in view of their application in the photovoltaic field. Using triethanolamine (TEA) as chelating agent, a range of basic pH from 7.66 to 8.76 was explored starting from a very concentrated zinc acetate dehydrate (ZAD) solution in ethanol, [Zn2+] = 1.0 M, and keeping the ZAD/TEA = 1. A more basic environment gives more porous films whose thickness and crystallinity are higher than those achieved at lower pH. It was found that the morphology, as well as the sheet resistance (Rs) of films, depends on both pH and doping. Increasing the pH the Rs decreases for both undoped and doped films. At a certain pH undoped films exhibit a granular microstructure and lower Rs than B- or Al-doped films which exhibit a finer texture, characterized by a lower porosity. Optical properties strongly depend on the pH as well. Increasing the pH, a noticeable blue shift effect was observed, that was attributed mainly to structural changes and to a lesser extent to the Burnstein-Moss effect.

  9. Enzymatic Saccharification of Lignocelluloses Should be Conducted at Elevated pH 5.2-6.2

    Treesearch

    T.Q. Lan; Hongming Lou; J.Y. Zhu

    2013-01-01

    This study revealed that cellulose enzymatic saccharification response curves of lignocellulosic substrates were very different from those of pure cellulosic substrates in terms of optimal pH and pH operating window. The maximal enzymatic cellulose saccharification of lignocellulosic substrates occurs at substrate suspension

  10. Alkaline phosphatase: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ujjawal; Pal, Deeksha; Prasad, Rajendra

    2014-07-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP; E.C.3.I.3.1.) is an ubiquitous membrane-bound glycoprotein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters at basic pH values. Alkaline phosphatase is divided into four isozymes depending upon the site of tissue expression that are Intestinal ALP, Placental ALP, Germ cell ALP and tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase or liver/bone/kidney (L/B/K) ALP. The intestinal and placental ALP loci are located near the end of long arm of chromosome 2 and L/B/K ALP is located near the end of the short arm of chromosome 1. Although ALPs are present in many mammalian tissues and have been studied for the last several years still little is known about them. The bone isoenzyme may be involved in mammalian bone calcification and the intestinal isoenzyme is thought to play a role in the transport of phosphate into epithelial cells of the intestine. In this review, we tried to provide an overview about the various forms, structure and functions of alkaline phosphatase with special focus on liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase.

  11. Sodium louroyl sarcosinate (sarkosyl) modulate amyloid fibril formation in hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) at alkaline pH: a molecular insight study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Javed Masood; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Alsenaidy, Mohammad Abdulrahman; Ahmed, Anwar; Sen, Priyankar; Oves, Mohammad; Al-Shabib, Nasser Abdulatif; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2017-05-28

    Amyloid fibril formation is responsible for several neurodegenerative diseases and are formed when native proteins misfold and stick together with different interactive forces. In the present study, we have determined the mode of interaction of the anionic surfactant sarkosyl with hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) [EC No. 3.2.1.17] at two pHs (9.0 and 13.0) and investigated its impact on fibrillogenesis. Our data suggested that sarkosyl is promoting amyloid fibril formation in HEWL at the concentration range between 0.9 and 3.0 mM and no amyloid fibril formation was observed in the concentration range of 3.0-20.0 mM at pH 9.0. The results were confirmed by several biophysical and computational techniques, such as turbidity measurement, dynamic light scattering, Raleigh scattering, ThT fluorescence, intrinsic fluorescence, far-UV CD and atomic force microscopy. Sarkosyl was unable to induce aggregation in HEWL at pH 13.0 as confirmed by turbidity and RLS measurements. HEWL forms larger amyloid fibrils in the presence of 1.6 mM of sarkosyl. The spectroscopic, microscopic and molecular docking data suggest that the negatively charged carboxylate group and 12-carbon hydrophobic tail of sarkosyl stimulate amyloid fibril formation in HEWL via electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction. This study leads to new insight into the process of suppression of fibrillogenesis in HEWL which can be prevented by designing ligands that can retard the electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction between sarkosyl and HEWL.

  12. Anaerobic methanethiol degradation and methanogenic community analysis in an alkaline (pH 10) biological process for liquefied petroleum gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    van Leerdam, Robin C; Bonilla-Salinas, Monica; de Bok, Frank A M; Bruning, H; Lens, Piet N L; Stams, Alfons J M; Janssen, Albert J H

    2008-11-01

    Anaerobic methanethiol (MT) degradation by mesophilic (30 degrees C) alkaliphilic (pH 10) communities was studied in a lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactor inoculated with a mixture of sediments from the Wadden Sea (The Netherlands), Soap Lake (Central Washington), and Russian soda lakes. MT degradation started after 32 days of incubation. During the first 252 days, complete degradation was achieved till a volumetric loading rate of 7.5 mmol MT/L/day, and sulfide, methane, and carbon dioxide were the main reaction products. Temporary inhibition of MT degradation occurred after MT peak loads and in the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), which is the autooxidation product of MT. From day 252 onwards, methanol was dosed to the reactor as co-substrate at a loading rate of 3-6 mmol/L/day to stimulate growth of methylotrophic methanogens. Methanol was completely degraded and also a complete MT degradation was achieved till a volumetric loading rate of 13 mmol MT/L/day (0.77 mmol MT/gVSS/day). However, from day 354 till the end of the experimental run (day 365), acetate was formed and MT was not completely degraded anymore, indicating that methanol-degrading homoacetogenic bacteria had partially outcompeted the methanogenic MT-degrading archea. The archeal community in the reactor sludge was analyzed by DGGE and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The methanogenic archea responsible for the degradation of MT in the reactor were related to Methanolobus oregonensis. A pure culture, named strain SODA, was obtained by serial dilutions in medium containing both trimethyl amine and dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Strain SODA degraded MT, DMS, trimethyl amine, and methanol. Flow sheet simulations revealed that for sufficient MT removal from liquefied petroleum gas, the extraction and biological degradation process should be operated above pH 9.

  13. pH regulation of alkaline wastewater with carbon dioxide: a case study of treatment of brewery wastewater in UASB reactor coupled with absorber.

    PubMed

    Rao, A Gangagni; Reddy, T Sasi Kanth; Prakash, S Surya; Vanajakshi, J; Joseph, Johny; Sarma, P N

    2007-08-01

    Studies were carried out with carbon dioxide absorber (CA) to evaluate the usage of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the biogas as an acidifying agent by Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor. Investigation on the 5l absorber revealed that ratio of brewery wastewater (BW) flow rate to biogas flow rate of 4.6-5.2 was optimum for minimum consumption of CO(2) for acidification. The acidified BW after the absorber was treated in UASB reactor with optimum organic loading rate (OLR) of 23.1 kg COD/m(3)/day and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2h. UASB reactor exhibited good performance with respect to reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and methane yield. The implications of the present study on the full scale anaerobic reactor of medium scale brewery revealed that sufficient cost savings could be made if CO(2) in the biogas or CO(2) that was being wasted (let out to the atmosphere) can be used instead of sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) for pH control.

  14. K[subscript a] and K[subscript b] from pH and Conductivity Measurements: A General Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyasulu, Frazier; Moehring, Michael; Arthasery, Phyllis; Barlag, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The acid ionization constant, K[subscript a], of acetic acid and the base ionization constant, K[subscript b], of ammonia are determined easily and rapidly using a datalogger, a pH sensor, and a conductivity sensor. To decrease sample preparation time and to minimize waste, sequential aliquots of a concentrated standard are added to a known volume…

  15. K[subscript a] and K[subscript b] from pH and Conductivity Measurements: A General Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyasulu, Frazier; Moehring, Michael; Arthasery, Phyllis; Barlag, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The acid ionization constant, K[subscript a], of acetic acid and the base ionization constant, K[subscript b], of ammonia are determined easily and rapidly using a datalogger, a pH sensor, and a conductivity sensor. To decrease sample preparation time and to minimize waste, sequential aliquots of a concentrated standard are added to a known volume…

  16. Significant different conductivities of the two grades of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate), Clevios P and Clevios PH1000, arising from different molecular weights.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yijie; Ouyang, Jianyong

    2012-08-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is promising to be the next-generation transparent electrode of optoelectronic devices. This paper reports the differences between two commercially available grades of PEDOT:PSS: Clevios P and Clevios PH1000. The as-prepared PEDOT:PSS films from Clevios P and Clevios PH1000 solutions have close conductivities of 0.2-0.35 S cm(-1). Their conductivities can be enhanced to 171 and 1164 S cm(-1), respectively, through a treatment with hydrofluoroacetone trihydrate (HFA). The differences between Clevios P and Clevios PH1000 were studied by various characterizations on PEDOT:PSS aqueous solutions and PEDOT:PSS films. The gel particles are larger in Clevios PH1000 solution than in Clevios P solution as revealed by dynamic light scattering and fluorescence spectroscopy of pyrene in these solutions. These results suggest that PEDOT of Clevios PH1000 has a higher average molecular weight than that of Clevios P. The difference in the molecular weight of PEDOT for the two grades of PEDOT:PSS is confirmed by the characterizations on their polymer films, including atomic force microscopy and temperature dependences of the resistances of as-prepared and HFA-treated PEDOT:PSS films. The different molecular weights of PEDOT also gives rise to significant differences in the electrochemical behaviors of the two grades of PEDOT:PSS, as revealed by the cyclic voltammetry, in situ UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy and potentiostatic transient measurements.

  17. Silica in alkaline brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  18. [Variation of alkalinity and its regulation of ABR].

    PubMed

    Su, De-lin; Wang, Jian-long; Huang, Yong-heng; Zhou, Ding

    2006-10-01

    Variation of alkalinity and its relationship with the pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA) and COD along with the different compartments of the ABR were investigated. The experimental results showed that there was a close relationship between variation of alkalinity and VFA concentration along with the ABR compartments. The lowest point of alkalinity and pH value occurred where VFA concentration reached maximum. The effect of alkalinity on the operational performance was through changing pH value. The variation trend of alkalinity and pH along with different compartments was decreased firstly and then increased. The alkalinity should be controlled to guarantee the lowest pH no less than 6.0. The lowest alkalinity should be no less than 800 mg/L when the loading rate (COD) was about 3.7 kg/(m3 x d).

  19. Comparison of enteral and parenteral methods of urine alkalinization in patients receiving high-dose methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Rouch, Jamie A; Burton, Bradley; Dabb, Alix; Brown, Vicky; Seung, Amy H; Kinsman, Katharine; Holdhoff, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Hyperhydration and urinary alkalinization is implemented with all high-dose (HD)-methotrexate infusions to promote excretion and prevent precipitation of methotrexate in the renal tubules. Our institution utilized enteral alkalinizing agents (sodium bicarbonate tablets and sodium citrate/citric acid solution) to alkalinize the urine of patients receiving HD-methotrexate during a parenteral sodium bicarbonate and sodium acetate shortage. The purpose of this study is to establish the safety and efficacy of the enteral route for urine alkalinization. Methods A single-center, retrospective, cohort study was conducted comparing cycles of HD-methotrexate using enteral alkalinizing agents to parenteral sodium bicarbonate. The primary objective was to compare the time, in hours, from administration of first inpatient administered dose of alkalinizing agent to time of achieving goal urine pH. Secondary objectives evaluated total dose of sodium bicarbonate required to achieve goal urine pH, time from start of urine alkalinizing agent until time of achieving methotrexate level safe for discharge, and toxicities associated with methotrexate and the alkalinizing agents. Results A total of 118 patients were included in this study, equally divided into two cohorts based on parenteral versus enteral routes of administration. No statistical difference was determined between the two cohorts regarding time to goal urine pH (6.5 h versus 7.9 h, P = 0.051) or regarding time to methotrexate level deemed safe for discharge (63.5 h versus 62.5 h, p = 0.835). There were no significant differences in methotrexate-induced toxicities. Conclusion Our study found enteral routes of urine alkalinization to be a viable alternative to the traditional parenteral sodium bicarbonate, especially during parenteral sodium bicarbonate and acetate shortages.

  20. Solid / solution interaction: The effect of carbonate alkalinity on adsorbed thorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaFlamme, Brian D.; Murray, James W.

    1987-02-01

    Elevated activities of dissolved Th have been found in Soap Lake, an alkaline lake in Eastern Washington. Dissolved 232Th ranges from less than 0.001 to 4.9 dpm/L compared to about 1.3 × 10 -5 dpm/ L in sea water. The enhanced activity in the lake coincides with an increase in carbonate alkalinity. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of pH, ionic strength and carbonate alkalinity on Th adsorption on goethite. Thorium (10 -13 M total) in the presence of 5.22 mg/L α-FeOOH and 0.1 M NaNO 3 has an adsorption edge from pH 2-5. At pH 9.0 ± 0.6 the percent Th absorbed on the solid began to decrease from 100% at 100 meq/L carbonate alkalinity and exhibited no adsorption above 300 meq/L. The experimental data were modeled to obtain the intrinsic adsorption equilibrium constants for Th hydrolysis species. These adsorption constants were incorporated in the model to interpret the observed effect of carbonate alkalinity on Th adsorption. There are two main effects of the alkalinity. To a significant degree the decrease in Th adsorption is due to competition of HCO -3 and CO 2-3 ions for surface sites. Dissolved Th carbonate complexes also contribute to the increase of Th in solution.

  1. Variation in pH optima of hydrolytic enzyme activities in tropical rain forest soils.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin L

    2010-10-01

    Extracellular enzymes synthesized by soil microbes play a central role in the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in the environment. The pH optima of eight hydrolytic enzymes involved in the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur, were assessed in a series of tropical forest soils of contrasting pH values from the Republic of Panama. Assays were conducted using 4-methylumbelliferone-linked fluorogenic substrates in modified universal buffer. Optimum pH values differed markedly among enzymes and soils. Enzymes were grouped into three classes based on their pH optima: (i) enzymes with acidic pH optima that were consistent among soils (cellobiohydrolase, β-xylanase, and arylsulfatase), (ii) enzymes with acidic pH optima that varied systematically with soil pH, with the most acidic pH optima in the most acidic soils (α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase), and (iii) enzymes with an optimum pH in either the acid range or the alkaline range depending on soil pH (phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase). The optimum pH values of phosphomonoesterase were consistent among soils, being 4 to 5 for acid phosphomonoesterase and 10 to 11 for alkaline phosphomonoesterase. In contrast, the optimum pH for phosphodiesterase activity varied systematically with soil pH, with the most acidic pH optima (3.0) in the most acidic soils and the most alkaline pH optima (pH 10) in near-neutral soils. Arylsulfatase activity had a very acidic optimum pH in all soils (pH ≤3.0) irrespective of soil pH. The differences in pH optima may be linked to the origins of the enzymes and/or the degree of stabilization on solid surfaces. The results have important implications for the interpretation of hydrolytic enzyme assays using fluorogenic substrates.

  2. Variation in pH Optima of Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities in Tropical Rain Forest Soils ▿

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Benjamin L.

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular enzymes synthesized by soil microbes play a central role in the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in the environment. The pH optima of eight hydrolytic enzymes involved in the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur, were assessed in a series of tropical forest soils of contrasting pH values from the Republic of Panama. Assays were conducted using 4-methylumbelliferone-linked fluorogenic substrates in modified universal buffer. Optimum pH values differed markedly among enzymes and soils. Enzymes were grouped into three classes based on their pH optima: (i) enzymes with acidic pH optima that were consistent among soils (cellobiohydrolase, β-xylanase, and arylsulfatase), (ii) enzymes with acidic pH optima that varied systematically with soil pH, with the most acidic pH optima in the most acidic soils (α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase), and (iii) enzymes with an optimum pH in either the acid range or the alkaline range depending on soil pH (phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase). The optimum pH values of phosphomonoesterase were consistent among soils, being 4 to 5 for acid phosphomonoesterase and 10 to 11 for alkaline phosphomonoesterase. In contrast, the optimum pH for phosphodiesterase activity varied systematically with soil pH, with the most acidic pH optima (3.0) in the most acidic soils and the most alkaline pH optima (pH 10) in near-neutral soils. Arylsulfatase activity had a very acidic optimum pH in all soils (pH ≤3.0) irrespective of soil pH. The differences in pH optima may be linked to the origins of the enzymes and/or the degree of stabilization on solid surfaces. The results have important implications for the interpretation of hydrolytic enzyme assays using fluorogenic substrates. PMID:20709838

  3. Alkaline flooding injection strategy

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to improved alkali-surfactant flooding methods, and this includes determining the proper design of injection strategy. Several different injection strategies have been used or suggested for recovering heavy oils with surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding methods. Oil recovery was compared for four different injection strategies: (1) surfactant followed by polymer, (2) surfactant followed by alkaline polymer, (3) alkaline surfactant followed by polymer, and (4) alkali, surfactant, and polymer mixed in a single formulation. The effect of alkaline preflush was also studied under two different conditions. All of the oil recovery experiments were conducted under optimal conditions with a viscous, non-acidic oil from Hepler (KS) oil field. The coreflood experiments were conducted with Berea sandstone cores since field core was not available in sufficient quantity for coreflood tests. The Tucker sand of Hepler field is a Class I fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir, as classified by the Department of Energy, which has been selected as the site of a DOE-sponsored field pilot test.

  4. A variable stoichiometry model for pH homeostasis in bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Macnab, R M; Castle, A M

    1987-01-01

    The composition of the proton-motive force of a hypothetical bacterial cell of wide pH tolerance is analyzed according to a model whereby the electron transport chain and various proton-linked sodium and potassium ion transporting modes are responsible for the development of the membrane potential and the chemical potentials of the three cations. Simultaneous use of two or more modes employing the same metal cation, but at a different stoichiometric ratio with respect to protons, produces nonintegral stoichiometry; the modes could represent either different devices or different states of a single device. Cycling of the cation, driven by proton-motive force, results. The relative conductances of the various modes are postulated to be pH-dependent. The pattern of potentials that results is qualitatively in accord with current knowledge and may reflect the mechanism of pH homeostasis in bacteria. The membrane potential is outwardly directed (positive inside) at extremely acid pH, becoming inwardly directed as the pH increases; the pH gradient across the membrane is large and inwardly directed (alkaline inside) at acid pH, becoming smaller and eventually inverting at alkaline pH values; the transmembrane potassium gradient is outwardly directed (high concentration inside) at all pH values; the transmembrane sodium gradient is inwardly directed at all pH values, following the pH gradient from acid through neutral pH, but then diverging at alkaline pH. PMID:3676443

  5. Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, Charles A.

    2016-07-12

    Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.

  6. The electrical conductivity of the Earth's upper mantle as estimated from satellite measured magnetic field variations. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didwall, E. M.

    1981-01-01

    Low latitude magnetic field variations (magnetic storms) caused by large fluctuations in the equatorial ring current were derived from magnetic field magnitude data obtained by OGO 2, 4, and 6 satellites over an almost 5 year period. Analysis procedures consisted of (1) separating the disturbance field into internal and external parts relative to the surface of the Earth; (2) estimating the response function which related to the internally generated magnetic field variations to the external variations due to the ring current; and (3) interpreting the estimated response function using theoretical response functions for known conductivity profiles. Special consideration is given to possible ocean effects. A temperature profile is proposed using conductivity temperature data for single crystal olivine. The resulting temperature profile is reasonable for depths below 150-200 km, but is too high for shallower depths. Apparently, conductivity is not controlled solely by olivine at shallow depths.

  7. The Bulk Lunar Electrical Conductivity. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report; [from Explorer 35 satellite and the Apollo 12 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavy, Donald Lucien

    1975-01-01

    The electrical conductivity structure was studied of a spherically layered moon consistent with the very low frequency magnetic data collected on the lunar surface and by Explorer 35. In order to obtain good agreement with the lunar surface magnetometer observations, the inclusion of a void cavity behind the moon requires a conductivity at shallow depths higher than that of models having the solar wind impinging on all sides. By varying only the source parameters, a conductivity model can be found that yields a good fit to both the tangential response upstream and the radial response downstream. This model also satisfies the dark side tangential response in the frequency range above 0.006 Hz, but the few data points presently available below this range do not seem to agree with the theory.

  8. Urine pH test

    MedlinePlus

    A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine. ... pH - urine ... meat products, or cheese can decrease your urine pH. ... to check for changes in your urine acid levels. It may be done to ... more effective when urine is acidic or non-acidic (alkaline).

  9. Column leaching test to evaluate the use of alkaline industrial wastes to neutralize acid mine tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Doye, I.; Duchesne, J.

    2005-08-01

    Acid mine drainage is a serious environmental problem caused by the oxidation of sulfide minerals that releases highly acidic, sulfate, and metals-rich drainage. In this study, alkaline industrial wastes were mixed with acid mine tailings in order to obtain neutral conditions. A series of column leaching tests were performed to evaluate the behavior of reactive mine tailings amended with alkaline-additions under dynamic conditions. Column tests were conducted of oxidized mine tailings combined with cement kiln dust, red mud bauxite, and mixtures of cement kiln dust with red mud bauxite. The pH results show the addition of 10% of alkaline materials permits the maintenance of near neutral conditions. In the presence of 10% alkaline material, the concentration of toxic metals such as Al, Cu, Fe, Zn are significantly reduced as well as the number of viable cells (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) compared to control samples.

  10. Development and evaluation of a real-time pH and conductivity rain monitor. Final report for 1984-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Paur, R.J.

    1987-04-01

    Acidic wet deposition (acid rain) is thought to be responsible for a variety of deleterious effects on ecosystems and on natural and man-made materials. Determining and quantitating these effects is complicated by the fact that rain is a low-ionic-strength solution of many different salts and organic compounds. The report describes the features and performance of a monitor that was designed to fractionate a rain event into samples corresponding to 0.3 mm of rain, determine the pH and conductivity of the sample within approximately one minute of collection, and store the remainder of the sample for more-detailed analysis.

  11. A Multi-Parametric Device with Innovative Solid Electrodes for Long-Term Monitoring of pH, Redox-Potential and Conductivity in a Nuclear Waste Repository.

    PubMed

    Daoudi, Jordan; Betelu, Stephanie; Tzedakis, Theodore; Bertrand, Johan; Ignatiadis, Ioannis

    2017-06-13

    We present an innovative electrochemical probe for the monitoring of pH, redox potential and conductivity in near-field rocks of deep geological radioactive waste repositories. The probe is composed of a monocrystalline antimony electrode for pH sensing, four AgCl/Ag-based reference or Cl(-) selective electrodes, one Ag₂S/Ag-based reference or S(2-) selective electrode, as well as four platinum electrodes, a gold electrode and a glassy-carbon electrode for redox potential measurements. Galvanostatic electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy using AgCl/Ag-based and platinum electrodes measure conductivity. The use of such a multi-parameter probe provides redundant information, based as it is on the simultaneous behaviour under identical conditions of different electrodes of the same material, as well as on that of electrodes made of different materials. This identifies the changes in physical and chemical parameters in a solution, as well as the redox reactions controlling the measured potential, both in the solution and/or at the electrode/solution interface. Understanding the electrochemical behaviour of selected materials thus is a key point of our research, as provides the basis for constructing the abacuses needed for developing robust and reliable field sensors.

  12. A Multi-Parametric Device with Innovative Solid Electrodes for Long-Term Monitoring of pH, Redox-Potential and Conductivity in a Nuclear Waste Repository

    PubMed Central

    Daoudi, Jordan; Betelu, Stephanie; Tzedakis, Theodore; Bertrand, Johan; Ignatiadis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    We present an innovative electrochemical probe for the monitoring of pH, redox potential and conductivity in near-field rocks of deep geological radioactive waste repositories. The probe is composed of a monocrystalline antimony electrode for pH sensing, four AgCl/Ag-based reference or Cl− selective electrodes, one Ag2S/Ag-based reference or S2− selective electrode, as well as four platinum electrodes, a gold electrode and a glassy-carbon electrode for redox potential measurements. Galvanostatic electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy using AgCl/Ag-based and platinum electrodes measure conductivity. The use of such a multi-parameter probe provides redundant information, based as it is on the simultaneous behaviour under identical conditions of different electrodes of the same material, as well as on that of electrodes made of different materials. This identifies the changes in physical and chemical parameters in a solution, as well as the redox reactions controlling the measured potential, both in the solution and/or at the electrode/solution interface. Understanding the electrochemical behaviour of selected materials thus is a key point of our research, as provides the basis for constructing the abacuses needed for developing robust and reliable field sensors. PMID:28608820

  13. cAMP/protein kinase A activates cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator for ATP release from rat skeletal muscle during low pH or contractions.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jie; Lu, Lin; Cai, Weisong; Ballard, Heather J

    2012-01-01

    We have shown that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is involved in ATP release from skeletal muscle at low pH. These experiments investigate the signal transduction mechanism linking pH depression to CFTR activation and ATP release, and evaluate whether CFTR is involved in ATP release from contracting muscle. Lactic acid treatment elevated interstitial ATP of buffer-perfused muscle and extracellular ATP of L6 myocytes: this ATP release was abolished by the non-specific CFTR inhibitor, glibenclamide, or the specific CFTR inhibitor, CFTR(inh)-172, suggesting that CFTR was involved, and by inhibition of lactic acid entry to cells, indicating that intracellular pH depression was required. Muscle contractions significantly elevated interstitial ATP, but CFTR(inh)-172 abolished the increase. The cAMP/PKA pathway was involved in the signal transduction pathway for CFTR-regulated ATP release from muscle: forskolin increased CFTR phosphorylation and stimulated ATP release from muscle or myocytes; lactic acid increased intracellular cAMP, pCREB and PKA activity, whereas IBMX enhanced ATP release from myocytes. Inhibition of PKA with KT5720 abolished lactic-acid- or contraction-induced ATP release from muscle. Inhibition of either the Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger (NHE) with amiloride or the Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger (NCX) with SN6 or KB-R7943 abolished lactic-acid- or contraction-induced release of ATP from muscle, suggesting that these exchange proteins may be involved in the activation of CFTR. Our data suggest that CFTR-regulated release contributes to ATP release from contracting muscle in vivo, and that cAMP and PKA are involved in the activation of CFTR during muscle contractions or acidosis; NHE and NCX may be involved in the signal transduction pathway.

  14. cAMP/Protein Kinase A Activates Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator for ATP Release from Rat Skeletal Muscle during Low pH or Contractions

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Weisong; Ballard, Heather J.

    2012-01-01

    We have shown that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is involved in ATP release from skeletal muscle at low pH. These experiments investigate the signal transduction mechanism linking pH depression to CFTR activation and ATP release, and evaluate whether CFTR is involved in ATP release from contracting muscle. Lactic acid treatment elevated interstitial ATP of buffer-perfused muscle and extracellular ATP of L6 myocytes: this ATP release was abolished by the non-specific CFTR inhibitor, glibenclamide, or the specific CFTR inhibitor, CFTRinh-172, suggesting that CFTR was involved, and by inhibition of lactic acid entry to cells, indicating that intracellular pH depression was required. Muscle contractions significantly elevated interstitial ATP, but CFTRinh-172 abolished the increase. The cAMP/PKA pathway was involved in the signal transduction pathway for CFTR-regulated ATP release from muscle: forskolin increased CFTR phosphorylation and stimulated ATP release from muscle or myocytes; lactic acid increased intracellular cAMP, pCREB and PKA activity, whereas IBMX enhanced ATP release from myocytes. Inhibition of PKA with KT5720 abolished lactic-acid- or contraction-induced ATP release from muscle. Inhibition of either the Na+/H+-exchanger (NHE) with amiloride or the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger (NCX) with SN6 or KB-R7943 abolished lactic-acid- or contraction-induced release of ATP from muscle, suggesting that these exchange proteins may be involved in the activation of CFTR. Our data suggest that CFTR-regulated release contributes to ATP release from contracting muscle in vivo, and that cAMP and PKA are involved in the activation of CFTR during muscle contractions or acidosis; NHE and NCX may be involved in the signal transduction pathway. PMID:23226244

  15. Maintaining exponential growth, solution conductivity, and solution pH in low-ionic-strength solution culture using a computer-controlled nutrient delivery system.

    PubMed

    Blair, Laura M; Taylor, Gregory J

    2004-07-01

    Studies of plant nutrient requirements in solution culture have often used nutrient concentrations many-fold higher than levels found in fertile soils, creating an artificial rooting environment that can alter patterns of nutrient acquisition. The relative addition rate (RAR) technique addresses this problem by providing nutrients in exponentially increasing quantities to plant roots in solution culture. A computer-controlled RAR nutrient delivery system has been developed to reduce workload and to facilitate more frequent nutrient additions (4x daily) than is possible with manual additions. In initial experiments, a minimum background solution containing 500 microM nitrogen and all other essential nutrients in optimal proportions was required for the healthy growth of Triticum aestivum. This requirement was reduced to 50 microM nitrogen when calcium in the background solutions was increased to 400 microM. Varying the abundance of ammonium and nitrate in both background and delivery solutions provided a means of controlling plant-induced pH changes in growth solutions. In optimized solutions, plant relative growth rates (RGR) in the order of 0.2 g g(-1) plant d(-1) were maintained over a 22 d experimental period. Variation in RARs provided a means of growing plants with varying RGRs under relatively constant conditions of solution electrical conductivity and pH.

  16. Alkalinity-salinity relationship in the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cintrón Del Valle, S. M.; Najjar, R.; Herrmann, M.; Goldberger, S.; Stets, E.

    2016-12-01

    Estuaries are a significant source of atmospheric CO2, a major greenhouse gas. However, it is not known whether the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States, is a source or sink of CO2. Extensive pH measurements in the Bay offer the possibility of estimating the air-water CO2 flux if robust relationships between alkalinity, the acid neutralizing capacity of a water body, and salinity can be established. Here we conduct a comprehensive analysis of the alkalinity-salinity relationship in the Chesapeake Bay based on more than 18,000 alkalinity measurements made between 1985 and 2015. It was found that seven segments of the Bay could be grouped into three different linear functions, suggesting that alkalinity is conserved in the Bay and has properties that change depending on the freshwater endmember (the riverine source). The highest freshwater endmember was 1.21 mol m-3 for the Potomac River, the lowest one was 0.41 mol m-3 for the York and Rappahannock Rivers, and an intermediate freshwater endmember was 0.79 mol m-3 for the remaining four segments. For some segments, most notably the Potomac River, the scatter of the data increases with decreasing salinity, which is due, in part, to seasonal and interannual variations in the freshwater endmember.

  17. Improvement of chemical monitoring of water-chemistry conditions at thermal power stations based on electric conductivity and pH measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, A. B.; Larin, B. M.

    2016-05-01

    The increased requirements to the quality of the water heat conductor for working superhigh (SHP) and supercritical (SCP) pressure power plants and promising units, including combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) units and power plants with ultrasupercritical parameters (USCPs), can largely be satisfied through specific electric conductivity and pH measurements for cooled heat conductor samples combined with calculations of ionic equilibria and indirect measurements of several specified and diagnostic parameters. The possibility of calculating the ammonia and chloride concentrations and the total concentration of hardness and sodium cations in the feed water of drum-type boilers and the phosphate and salt contents in boiler water was demonstrated. An equation for evaluating the content of potentially acid substances in the feed water of monotube boilers was suggested. The potential of the developed procedure for evaluating the state of waterchemistry conditions (WCCs) in power plants with CCGT units was shown.

  18. [The arsenate Na3Fe2(AsO4) 3: structural study at low temperature and simulation of conduction properties of alkaline cations].

    PubMed

    Ouerfelli, Najoua; Guesmi, Abderrahmen; Mazza, Daniele; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi; Driss, Ahmed

    2008-05-01

    The crystal structure of the low-temperature garnet-like form of trisodium diiron(III) triarsenate, Na(3)Fe(2)(AsO(4))(3), exhibits a three-dimensional framework with small tunnels running along the [111] direction, in which the Na(+) cations are located. This study demonstrates the structural origins of the different ionic conductivities of the low- and high-temperature forms. Sodium conduction properties are simulated by means of the bond-valence-sum (BVS) model; the correlations between the low- and high-temperature crystal structures are discussed. The As, Fe and Na atoms lie on special positions (Wyckoff symbols 24d, 16a and 24c, respectively).

  19. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the lower White River and the Puyallup River estuary, Washington, August-October 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ebbert, James C.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Washington State Department of Ecology, and Puyallup Tribe of Indians monitored water temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the White River at river miles 4.9 and 1.8 from August until mid-October 2002. Water diverted from the White River upstream from the monitoring sites into Lake Tapps is returned to the river at river mile 3.6 between the two sites. The same characteristics were measured in a cross section of the Puyallup River estuary at river mile 1.5 during high and low tides in September 2002. In late August, maximum daily water temperatures in the White River of 21.1°C (degrees Celsius) at river mile 4.9 and 19.6°C at river mile 1.8 exceeded the water-quality standard of 18°C at both monitoring sites. In mid-September, maximum daily water temperatures at river mile 4.9 exceeded the standard on 5 days. From August 2-25, water temperatures at both monitoring sites were similar and little or no water was discharged from Lake Tapps to the White River. Increases in water temperature at river mile 1.8 in late September and early October were caused by the mixing of warmer water discharged from Lake Tapps with cooler water in the White River.Specific conductance in the White River usually was lower at river mile 1.8 than at river mile 4.9 because of mixing with water from Lake Tapps, which has a lower specific conductance. Maximum values of pH in the White River at river mile 4.9 often exceeded the upper limit of the water-quality standard, 8.5 pH units, from early September until mid-October, when turbidity decreased. The pH standard was not exceeded at river mile 1.8. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the White River were often lower at river mile 1.8 than at river mile 4.9 because of mixing with water discharged from Lake Tapps, which has lower dissolved-oxygen concentrations. The lowest concentration of dissolved oxygen observed was 7.9 mg/L (milligrams per liter) at river mile 1.8. The

  20. Effect of the alkaline cation size on the conductivity in gel polymer electrolytes and their influence on photo electrochemical solar cells.

    PubMed

    Bandara, T M W J; Fernando, H D N S; Furlani, M; Albinsson, I; Dissanayake, M A K L; Ratnasekera, J L; Mellander, B-E

    2016-04-28

    The nature and concentration of cationic species in the electrolyte exert a profound influence on the efficiency of nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A series of DSSCs based on gel electrolytes containing five alkali iodide salts (LiI, NaI, KI, RbI and CsI) and polyacrylonitrile with plasticizers were fabricated and studied, in order to investigate the dependence of solar cell performance on the cation size. The ionic conductivity of electrolytes with relatively large cations, K(+), Rb(+) and Cs(+), was higher and essentially constant, while for the electrolytes containing the two smaller cations, Na(+) and Li(+), the conductivity values were lower. The temperature dependence of conductivity in this series appears to follow the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation. The sample containing the smallest cation shows the lowest conductivity and the highest activation energy of ∼36.5 meV, while K(+), Rb(+) and Cs(+) containing samples show an activation energy of ∼30.5 meV. DSSCs based on the gel electrolyte and a TiO2 double layer with the N719 dye exhibited an enhancement in the open circuit voltage with increasing cation size. This can be attributed to the decrease in the recombination rate of electrons and to the conduction band shift resulting from cation adsorption by TiO2. The maximum efficiency value, 3.48%, was obtained for the CsI containing cell. The efficiencies shown in this study are lower compared to values reported in the literature, and this can be attributed to the use of a single salt and the absence of other additives, since the focus of the present study was to analyze the cation effect. The highest short circuit current density of 9.43 mA cm(-2) was shown by the RbI containing cell. The enhancement of the solar cell performance with increasing size of the cation is discussed in terms of the effect of the cations on the TiO2 anode and ion transport in the electrolyte. In liquid electrolyte based DSSCs, the short circuit current density

  1. Synthesis and phase transitions of oxide-ion conducting compound La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} doped with alkaline metals

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnikova, D. S.; Kharitonova, E. P.; Voronkova, V. I.

    2011-03-15

    The specific features of synthesis, polymorthism, and electric conductivity of oxide-ion conducting compounds La{sub 2-x}Me{sub x}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9-y}, where Me = Na, K, Rb, or Cs, have been studied. Ceramic samples were obtained by solid-state synthesis in the temperature range of 960-1100 Degree-Sign C. The regions where solid solutions exist have been found to depend on the temperature of the sample firing. According to the calorimetric and electrophysical data, the phase transition from the monoclinic phase ({alpha}) to the cubic phase ({beta}) in samples doped with potassium and rubidium disappears at x = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively. In these cases the only transition from the cubic {beta}{sub ms} phase to the high-temperature cubic {beta} phase is observed near 450 Degree-Sign C. Doping with sodium and cesium does not suppress the {alpha} {yields} {beta} phase transition.

  2. Combining pH and electrical conductivity measurements to improve titrimetric methods to determine ammonia nitrogen, volatile fatty acids and inorganic carbon concentrations.

    PubMed

    Charnier, C; Latrille, E; Lardon, L; Miroux, J; Steyer, J P

    2016-05-15

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA), inorganic carbon (IC) and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) are key variables in the current context of anaerobic digestion (AD). Accurate measurements like gas chromatography and infrared spectrometry have been developed to follow the concentration of these compounds but none of these methods are affordable for small AD units. Only titration methods answer the need for small plant monitoring. The existing methods accuracy was assessed in this study and reveals a lack of accuracy and robustness to control AD plants. To solve these issues, a new titrimetric device to estimate the VFA, IC and TAN concentrations with an improved accuracy was developed. This device named SNAC (System of titration for total ammonia Nitrogen, volatile fatty Acids and inorganic Carbon) has been developed combining the measurement of electrical conductivity and pH. SNAC were tested on 24 different plant samples in a range of 0-0.16 mol.L(-1) TAN, 0.01-0.21 mol.L(-1) IC and 0-0.04 mol.L(-1) VFA. The standard error was about 0.012 mol.L(-1) TAN, 0.015 mol.L(-1) IC and 0.003 mol.L(-1) VFA. The coefficient of determination R(2) between the estimated and reference data was 0.95, 0.94 and 0.95 for TAN, IC and VFA respectively. Using the same data, current methods based on key pH points lead to standard error more than 14.5 times higher on VFA and more than 1.2 times higher on IC. These results show that SNAC is an accurate tool to improve the management of AD plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamics of pH modification of an acidic protein bait used for tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Heath, Robert R; Vazquez, Aime; Schnell, Elena Q; Villareal, Janett; Kendra, Paul E; Epsky, Nancy D

    2009-12-01

    Several species of Anastrepha and Bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are captured in traps baited with the protein bait NuLure combined with borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate) in an aqueous solution, typically 9% NuLure (vol:vol) with 3% borax (wt:vol). NuLure is an acid hydrolysate of corn and has an acidic pH. Addition of borax makes the solution more alkaline, and increase in alkalinity results in increase of ammonia release from the bait solution. This is a very dynamic system, with resultant pH affected by factors such as the amount of borax added, the pH of the water used for preparation, the age of the bait solution, and the development of microbial growth. Problems with borax include amount needed to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions, which creates difficulties in disposing of spent bait in fruit fly trapping programs. Therefore, research was conducted to evaluate NaOH as an alternative method to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions. Laboratory experiments compared effect of NaOH versus borax for pH modification on changes in pH and ammonia content of NuLure solutions over time. Although NuLure/NaOH solutions could be adjusted to a more alkaline pH than NuLure/borax solutions, borax plays a critical role in pH stability over time. However, the pH of NuLure/NaOH is stabilized when propylene glycol (10% vol:vol) was used to prepare the bait solution. The use of NaOH can provide an alternative to the use of borax to increase bait solution alkalinity.

  4. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH < 6.3 after oxidation had positive Hot Acidity. Samples with similar pH values before oxidation had dissimilar Hot Acidities due to variations in their alkalinities and dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations. Hot Acidity was approximately equal to net acidity calculated based on initial pH and dissolved concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Al minus the

  5. On the apparent CO2 absorption by alkaline soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Wang, W. F.

    2014-02-01

    Alkaline soils in the Gubantonggut Desert were recently demonstrated socking away large quantities of CO2 in an abiotic form. This demands a better understanding of abiotic CO2 exchange in alkaline sites. Reaction of CO2 with the moisture or dew in the soil was conjectured as a potential mechanism. The main goal of this study is to determine the extent to which the dew deposition modulates Land-Atmosphere CO2 exchange at highly alkaline sites (pH ~ 10). Experiments were conducted at the most barren sites (canopy coverage < 5%) to cut down uncertainty. Dew quantities and soil CO2 fluxes were measured using a micro-lysimeters and an automated flux system (LI-COR, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA), respectively. There is an evident increase of dew deposition in nocturnal colder temperatures and decrease in diurnal warmer temperatures. Variations of soil CO2 flux are almost contrary, but the increase in diurnal warmer temperatures is obscure. It was shown that the accumulation and evaporation of dew in the soil motivates the apparent absorption and release of CO2. It was demonstrated that dew amounts in the soil has an exponential relation with the part in Fc beyond explanations of the worldwide utilized Q10 model. Therefore dew deposition in highly alkaline soils exerted a potential CO2 sink and can partly explain the apparent CO2 absorption. This implied a crucial component in the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) at alkaline sites which occupies approximately 5% of the Earth's land surface (7 million km). Further explorations for its mechanisms and representativeness over other arid climate systems have comprehensive perspectives in the quaternary research.

  6. Alkalinity and carbon budgets in the Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Copin-Montegut, C. )

    1993-12-01

    The carbon budget of the Mediterranean Sea has never been assessed. This paper reports the results of numerous measurements of pH and alkalinity in the spring of 1991. This concentration in inorganic carbon was deduced from the measurements. The existence of simple relationships between alkalinity and salinity or inorganic carbon and salinity made it possible to assess the budget of alkalinity and carbon in the Mediterranean Sea. 55 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Nitrogenous Waste Handling by Larval Zebrafish Danio rerio in Alkaline Water.

    PubMed

    Kumai, Yusuke; Harris, Jessica; Al-Rewashdy, Hasanen; Kwong, Raymond W M; Perry, Steve F

    2015-01-01

    Although adult fish excrete their nitrogenous waste primarily as ammonia, larval fish may excrete a higher proportion as urea, an evolutionary strategy that lessens nitrogenous waste toxicity during early development. Previous studies firmly established that ammonia excretion is inhibited in adult fish acutely exposed to alkaline water. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that total nitrogen excretion is maintained in larval zebrafish raised in alkaline water (pH ∼ 10.0) as a result of compensatory adjustments to urea and/or ammonia transport pathways. Raising zebrafish in alkaline water from 0 to 4 d postfertilization (dpf) reduced ammonia excretion at 4 dpf, whereas urea excretion was elevated by 141%. The increase in urea excretion at 4 dpf served to maintain total nitrogen excretion constant, despite the persistent inhibition of ammonia excretion. Whole body ammonia and urea contents were not significantly altered by exposure to alkaline water. Protein and mRNA expression of Rhcg1, an apically expressed ammonia-conducting channel, were significantly elevated after 4-d exposure to alkaline water, whereas the mRNA expression of Rhag, Rhbg, and urea transporter were unaffected. The acute exposure to alkaline water of 4-dpf larvae reared in control water caused a rapid inhibition of ammonia excretion that had partially recovered within 6 h of continued exposure. The partial recovery of ammonia excretion despite continued exposure to alkaline water suggested an increased ammonia excretion capacity. In agreement with an increased capacity to excrete ammonia, the transfer of larvae back to the control (normal pH) water was accompanied by increased rates of ammonia excretion. Urea excretion was not stimulated during 6-h exposure to alkaline water. Following both chronic and acute exposure to alkaline water, the rate of uptake of methylamine (an ammonia analog) was significantly elevated, consistent with increased protein expression of the apical ammonia

  8. Archaeal Communities in a Heterogeneous Hypersaline-Alkaline Soil

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Noya, Yendi E.; Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Sandoval-Yuriar, Alonso; Jiménez-Bueno, Norma G.; Marsch, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    In this study the archaeal communities in extreme saline-alkaline soils of the former lake Texcoco, Mexico, with electrolytic conductivities (EC) ranging from 0.7 to 157.2 dS/m and pH from 8.5 to 10.5 were explored. Archaeal communities in the 0.7 dS/m pH 8.5 soil had the lowest alpha diversity values and were dominated by a limited number of phylotypes belonging to the mesophilic Candidatus Nitrososphaera. Diversity and species richness were higher in the soils with EC between 9.0 and 157.2 dS/m. The majority of OTUs detected in the hypersaline soil were members of the Halobacteriaceae family. Novel phylogenetic branches in the Halobacteriales class were detected in the soil, and more abundantly in soil with the higher pH (10.5), indicating that unknown and uncharacterized Archaea can be found in this soil. Thirteen different genera of the Halobacteriaceae family were identified and were distributed differently between the soils. Halobiforma, Halostagnicola, Haloterrigena, and Natronomonas were found in all soil samples. Methanogenic archaea were found only in soil with pH between 10.0 and 10.3. Retrieved methanogenic archaea belonged to the Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales orders. The comparison of the archaeal community structures considering phylogenetic information (UniFrac distances) clearly clustered the communities by pH. PMID:26074731

  9. Archaeal Communities in a Heterogeneous Hypersaline-Alkaline Soil.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Sandoval-Yuriar, Alonso; Jiménez-Bueno, Norma G; Marsch, Rodolfo; Dendooven, Luc

    2015-01-01

    In this study the archaeal communities in extreme saline-alkaline soils of the former lake Texcoco, Mexico, with electrolytic conductivities (EC) ranging from 0.7 to 157.2 dS/m and pH from 8.5 to 10.5 were explored. Archaeal communities in the 0.7 dS/m pH 8.5 soil had the lowest alpha diversity values and were dominated by a limited number of phylotypes belonging to the mesophilic Candidatus Nitrososphaera. Diversity and species richness were higher in the soils with EC between 9.0 and 157.2 dS/m. The majority of OTUs detected in the hypersaline soil were members of the Halobacteriaceae family. Novel phylogenetic branches in the Halobacteriales class were detected in the soil, and more abundantly in soil with the higher pH (10.5), indicating that unknown and uncharacterized Archaea can be found in this soil. Thirteen different genera of the Halobacteriaceae family were identified and were distributed differently between the soils. Halobiforma, Halostagnicola, Haloterrigena, and Natronomonas were found in all soil samples. Methanogenic archaea were found only in soil with pH between 10.0 and 10.3. Retrieved methanogenic archaea belonged to the Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales orders. The comparison of the archaeal community structures considering phylogenetic information (UniFrac distances) clearly clustered the communities by pH.

  10. Growth of water hyacinth in municipal landfill leachate with different pH.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, A S; Biswas, N; Bewtra, J K

    2004-07-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of municipal landfill leachate pH on the growth of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). These experiments were carried out in a green house environment on leachate samples collected from Essex-Windsor Regional Landfill, Windsor, Ontario, Canada. It was found that water hyacinth plants survived in a pH range of 4.0 to 8.0. Both alkaline pH (above 8.0) and highly acidic pH (below 4.0) had inhibitory effect on the growth of plants. The pH range, for optimum growth of the water hyacinth plants was found to be 5.8 to 6.0. At optimum growth, water hyacinth had an average mean relative growth rate of 0.043 d-1. It was found that nitrogen compounds underwent different transformations depending on the pH of leachate. Plant uptake, nitrification and volatilization were among these transformations.

  11. Disposable all-solid-state pH and glucose sensors based on conductive polymer covered hierarchical AuZn oxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Min; Cho, Seong Je; Cho, Chul-Ho; Kim, Kwang Bok; Kim, Min-Yeong; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2016-05-15

    Poly(terthiophene benzoic acid) (pTBA) layered-AuZn alloy oxide (AuZnOx) deposited on the screen printed carbon electrode (pTBA/AuZnOx/SPCE) was prepared to create a disposable all-solid-state pH sensor at first. Further, FAD-glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized onto the pTBA/AuZnOx/SPCE to fabricate a glucose sensor. The characterizations of the sensor probe reveal that AuZnOx forms a homogeneous hierarchical structure, and that the polymerized pTBA layer on the alloy oxide surface captures GOx covalently. The benzoic acid group of pTBA coated on the probe layer synergetically improved the pH response of the alloy oxide and provide chemical binding sites to enzyme, which resulted in a Nernstian behavior (59.2 ± 0.5 mV/pH) in the pH range of 2-13. The experimental parameters affecting the glucose analysis were studied in terms of pH, temperature, humidity, and interferences. The sensor exhibited a fast response time <1s and a dynamic range between 30 and 500 mg/dL glucose with a detection limit of 17.23 ± 0.32 mg/dL. The reliabilities of the disposable pH and glucose sensors were examined for biological samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Recovery of salmonellae following pH adjusted pre-enrichment of broiler carcasses treated with trisodium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, D V; Fletcher, D L; Buhr, R J; Cason, J A; Berrang, M E

    2005-03-01

    Trisodium phosphate (TSP) has been reported to decrease the recovery of salmonellae from processed poultry carcasses. It has been suggested that the high pH and detergent-like properties of TSP solutions are responsible for the reduction in salmonellae recovery. This project was conducted to determine if controlling pH during salmonellae pre-enrichment alters the effect of TSP on salmonellae recovery. Carcasses were obtained from a commercial processing plant immediately after the final inside-outside carcass washer, prior to any other antimicrobial treatments, and before chilling. Carcasses were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: (1) TSP and alkaline pre-enrichment, (2) TSP and neutral pre-enrichment, (3) non-TSP and alkaline pre-enrichment, 4) non-TSP and neutral pre-enrichment. Carcasses were placed into plastic bags with 500 mL of buffered peptone water (with or without pH adjustment) and shaken for 1 min. Preincubation pH of the rinsate was measured. Carcasses were incubated in the rinse at 37 degrees C for 24 h, and incidence of salmonellae was determined. The pH of the preincubation rinsate was 8.4 for the TSP alkaline pre-enrichment, 7.2 for the TSP neutral pre-enrichment, 8.6 for the non-TSP alkaline pre-enrichment, and 7.1 for the non-TSP neutral pre-enrichment. Salmonellae were detected from 40% of the TSP alkaline pre-enrichment carcasses, 44% of the TSP neutral pre-enrichment carcasses, 54% of the non-TSP alkaline pre-enrichment carcasses, and 38% of the non-TSP neutral pre-enrichment carcasses. Neither TSP treatment nor pre-enrichment pH adjustment significantly influenced carcass salmonellae detection.

  13. Inorganic-organic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible separator is reported for use between the electrodes of Ni-Cd and Ni-Zn batteries using alkaline electrolytes. The separator was made by coating a porous substrate with a battery separator composition. The coating material included a rubber-based resin copolymer, a plasticizer and inorganic and organic fillers which comprised 55% by volume or less of the coating as finally dried. One or more of the filler materials, whether organic or inorganic, is preferably active with the alkaline electrolyte to produce pores in the separator coating. The plasticizer was an organic material which is hydrolyzed by the alkaline electrolyte to improve conductivity of the separator coating.

  14. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding with weak alkalis

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of Project BE4B in FY90 was to develop cost-effective and efficient chemical flooding formulations using surfactant-enhanced, lower pH (weak) alkaline chemical systems. Chemical systems were studied that mitigate the deleterious effects of divalent ions. The experiments were conducted with carbonate mixtures and carbonate/phosphate mixtures of pH 10.5, where most of the phosphate ions exist as the monohydrogen phosphate species. Orthophosphate did not further reduce the deleterious effect of divalent ions on interfacial tension behavior in carbonate solutions, where the deleterious effect of the divalent ions is already very low. When added to a carbonate mixture, orthophosphate did substantially reduce the adsorption of an atomic surfactant, which was an expected result; however, there was no correlation between the amount of reduction and the divalent ion levels. For acidic oils, a variety of surfactants are available commercially that have potential for use between pH 8.3 and pH 9.5. Several of these surfactants were tested with oil from Wilmington (CA) field and found to be suitable for use in that field. Two low-acid crude oils, with acid numbers of 0.01 and 0.27 mg KOH/g of oil, were studied. It was shown that surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding does have merit for use with these low-acid crude oils. However, each low-acid oil tested was found to behave differently, and it was concluded that the applicability of the method must be experimentally determined for any given low-acid crude oil. 19 refs., 10 figs. 4 tabs.

  15. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and…

  16. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  17. Catalytic Diversity in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vent Systems on Ocean Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Ryan D.; Barge, Laura; Chin, Keith B.; Doloboff, Ivria J.; Flores, Erika; Hammer, Arden C.; Sobron, Pablo; Russell, Michael J.; Kanik, Isik

    2016-10-01

    Hydrothermal systems formed by serpentinization can create moderate-temperature, alkaline systems and it is possible that this type of vent could exist on icy worlds such as Europa which have water-rock interfaces. It has been proposed that some prebiotic chemistry responsible for the emergence of life on Earth and possibly other wet and icy worlds could occur as a result ofredox potential and pH gradients in submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents (Russell et al., 2014). Hydrothermal chimneys formed in laboratory simulations of alkaline vents under early Earth conditions have precipitate membranes that contain minerals such as iron sulfides, which are hypothesized to catalyze reduction of CO2 (Yamaguchi et al. 2014, Roldan et al. 2014) leading to further organic synthesis. This CO2 reduction process may be affected by other trace components in the chimney, e.g. nickel or organic molecules. We have conducted experiments to investigate catalytic properties of iron and iron-nickel sulfides containing organic dopants in slightly acidic ocean simulants relevant to early Earth or possibly ocean worlds. We find that the electrochemical properties of the chimney as well as the morphology/chemistry of the precipitate are affected by the concentration and type of organics present. These results imply that synthesis of organics in water-rock systems on ocean worlds may lead to hydrothermal precipitates which can incorporate these organic into the mineral matrix and may affect the role of gradients in alkaline vent systems.Therefore, further understanding on the electroactive roles of various organic species within hydrothermal chimneys will have important implications for habitability as well as prebiotic chemistry. This work is funded by NASA Astrobiology Institute JPL Icy Worlds Team and a NAI Director's Discretionary Fund award.Yamaguchi A. et al. (2014) Electrochimica Acta, 141, 311-318.Russell, M. J. et al. (2014), Astrobiology, 14, 308-43.Roldan, A. (2014) Chem. Comm. 51

  18. Alkaline igneous rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitton, J.G.; Upton, B.G.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this volume, an international team of scientists provides an up-to-date overview of the nature, origin, and evolution of alkaline magmas. Particular attention is paid to carbonatites, lamprophyres, and lamproites which are rock suites of current interest not recently reviewed elsewhere. Recent work on the classical alkaline provinces of East Africa, South Greenland, and the Kola Peninsula is included together with reviews of other areas of alkaline magmatism in North and South America, East Greenland, Europe, West Africa, and the ocean basins. Other papers discuss the impact of experimental isotopic and geochemical studies of the petrogenesis of alkaline rocks. This book will be of interest to petrologists and geochemists studying alkaline igneous rocks, and to other earth scientists as a reference on the rapidly expanding field of igneous petrology.

  19. [Modeling research on impact of pH on metals leaching behavior of air pollution control residues from MSW incinerator].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; He, Pin-Jing; Li, Xin-Jie; Shao, Li-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Metals leaching behavior of air pollution control residues (APC residues) from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) is greatly dependent on the leachate pH. pH-varying leaching tests and Visual MINTEQ modeling were conducted to investigate the mechanism of pH effect on the metals leaching characteristics from MSWI APC residues. Results show that, under acidic environment (for Cd, Zn, and Ni, pH < 8; for Pb, Cu, and Cr, pH < 6; for Al, pH < 4), leaching concentrations of metals increase greatly with the decrease of pH. Release of amphoteric metals, Pb and Zn, can be induced in strong alkaline leachate, reaching to 42 and 2.4 mg x L(-1) at pH 12.5 respectively. The equilibrium modeling results are well in agreement with the analyzed leaching concentrations. Variation of leachate pH changes the metals speciation in the leaching system, thus influencing their leaching concentrations. Speciation and leaching behavior of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ca, and Al mainly depend on their dissolution/precipitation reactions under different leachate pH. Leachability of Cd, Cr, and Ni can be lowered under acidic and neutral leachate pH due to HFO adsorption, while under alkaline conditions, the effect of adsorption is not significant and dissolution/precipitation becomes the major reactions controlling the leaching toxicity of these heavy metals.

  20. The secondary alkaline zinc electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    1991-02-01

    The worldwide studies conducted between 1975 and 1990 with the aim of improving cell lifetimes of secondary alkaline zinc electrodes are overviewed. Attention is given the design features and characteristics of various secondary alkaline zinc cells, including four types of zinc/nickel oxide cell designs (vented static-electrolyte, sealed static-electrolyte, vibrating-electrode, and flowing-electrolyte); two types of zinc/air cells (mechanically rechargeable consolidated-electrode and mechanically rechargeable particulate-electrode); zinc/silver oxide battery; zinc/manganese dioxide cell; and zinc/ferric cyanide battery. Particular consideration is given to recent research in the fields of cell thermodynamics, zinc electrodeposition, zinc electrodissolution, zinc corrosion, electrolyte properties, mathematical and phenomenological models, osmotic pumping, nonuniform current distribution, and cell cycle-life perforamnce.

  1. De Novo Transcriptional Analysis of Alfalfa in Response to Saline-Alkaline Stress

    PubMed Central

    An, Yi-Min; Song, Li-Li; Liu, Ying-Rui; Shu, Yong-Jun; Guo, Chang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Saline-alkaline stress, caused by high levels of harmful carbonate salts and high soil pH, is a major abiotic stress that affects crop productivity. Alfalfa is a widely cultivated perennial forage legume with some tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, especially to saline-alkaline stress. To elucidate the mechanism underlying plant saline-alkaline tolerance, we conducted transcriptome analysis of whole alfalfa seedlings treated with saline-alkaline solutions for 0 day (control), 1 day (short-term treatment), and 7 days (long-term treatment) using ion torrent sequencing technology. A transcriptome database dataset of 53,853 unigenes was generated, and 2,286 and 2,233 genes were differentially expressed in the short-term and long-term treatment, respectively. Gene ontology analysis revealed 14 highly enriched pathways and demonstrated the differential response of metabolic pathways between the short-term and long-term treatment. The expression levels of 109 and 96 transcription factors were significantly altered significantly after 1 day and 7 days of treatment, respectively. Specific responses of peroxidase, flavonoids, and the light pathway component indicated that the antioxidant capacity was one of the central mechanisms of saline-alkaline stress tolerance response in alfalfa. Among the 18 differentially expressed genes examined by real time PCR, the expression levels of eight genes, including inositol transporter, DNA binding protein, raffinose synthase, ferritin, aldo/keto reductase, glutathione S-transferase, xyloglucan endotrans glucosylase, and a NAC transcription factor, exhibited different patterns in response to saline and alkaline stress. The expression levels of the NAC transcription factor and glutathione S-transferase were altered significantly under saline stress and saline-alkaline stress; they were upregulated under saline-alkaline stress and downregulated under salt stress. Physiology assays showed an increased concentration of reactive oxygen

  2. De Novo Transcriptional Analysis of Alfalfa in Response to Saline-Alkaline Stress.

    PubMed

    An, Yi-Min; Song, Li-Li; Liu, Ying-Rui; Shu, Yong-Jun; Guo, Chang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Saline-alkaline stress, caused by high levels of harmful carbonate salts and high soil pH, is a major abiotic stress that affects crop productivity. Alfalfa is a widely cultivated perennial forage legume with some tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, especially to saline-alkaline stress. To elucidate the mechanism underlying plant saline-alkaline tolerance, we conducted transcriptome analysis of whole alfalfa seedlings treated with saline-alkaline solutions for 0 day (control), 1 day (short-term treatment), and 7 days (long-term treatment) using ion torrent sequencing technology. A transcriptome database dataset of 53,853 unigenes was generated, and 2,286 and 2,233 genes were differentially expressed in the short-term and long-term treatment, respectively. Gene ontology analysis revealed 14 highly enriched pathways and demonstrated the differential response of metabolic pathways between the short-term and long-term treatment. The expression levels of 109 and 96 transcription factors were significantly altered significantly after 1 day and 7 days of treatment, respectively. Specific responses of peroxidase, flavonoids, and the light pathway component indicated that the antioxidant capacity was one of the central mechanisms of saline-alkaline stress tolerance response in alfalfa. Among the 18 differentially expressed genes examined by real time PCR, the expression levels of eight genes, including inositol transporter, DNA binding protein, raffinose synthase, ferritin, aldo/keto reductase, glutathione S-transferase, xyloglucan endotrans glucosylase, and a NAC transcription factor, exhibited different patterns in response to saline and alkaline stress. The expression levels of the NAC transcription factor and glutathione S-transferase were altered significantly under saline stress and saline-alkaline stress; they were upregulated under saline-alkaline stress and downregulated under salt stress. Physiology assays showed an increased concentration of reactive oxygen

  3. Acidity and Alkalinity in mine drainage: Practical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Kirby, Carl S.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we emphasize that the Standard Method hot peroxide treatment procedure for acidity determination (hot acidity) directly measures net acidity or net alkalinity, but that more than one water-quality measure can be useful as a measure of the severity of acid mine drainage. We demonstrate that the hot acidity is related to the pH, alkalinity, and dissolved concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Al in fresh mine drainage. We show that the hot acidity accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. We show that the hot acidity method gives consistent, interpretable results on fresh or aged samples. Regional data for mine-drainage quality in Pennsylvania indicated the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5 to 4) or near neutral (pH 6 to 7); approximately 25 percent of the samples had intermediate pH values. This bimodal frequency distribution of pH was distinctive for fully oxidized samples; oxidized samples had acidic or near-neutral pH, only. Samples that had nearneutral pH after oxidation had negative hot acidity; samples that had acidic pH after oxidation had positive hot acidity. Samples with comparable pH values had variable hot acidities owing to variations in their alkalinities and dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations. The hot acidity was comparable to net acidity computed on the basis of initial pH and concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Al minus the initial alkalinity. Acidity computed from the pH and dissolved metals concentrations, assuming equivalents of 2 per mole of Fe and Mn and 3 per mole of Al, was comparable to that computed on the basis of aqueous species and FeII/FeIII. Despite changes in the pH, alkalinity, and metals concentrations, the hot acidities were comparable for fresh and aged samples. Thus, meaningful “net” acidity can be determined from a measured hot acidity or by

  4. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  5. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1995-01-01

    A process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO.sub.2 to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO.sub.2, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product.

  6. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, C.L.W.

    1995-07-25

    A process is described for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO{sub 2}, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. 4 figs.

  7. Quality-assurance results for field pH and specific-conductance measurements, and for laboratory analysis, National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network; January 1980-September 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroder, L.J.; Brooks, M.H.; Malo, B.A.; Willoughby, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Five intersite comparison studies for the field determination of pH and specific conductance, using simulated-precipitation samples, were conducted by the U.S.G.S. for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network. These comparisons were performed to estimate the precision of pH and specific conductance determinations made by sampling-site operators. Simulated-precipitation samples were prepared from nitric acid and deionized water. The estimated standard deviation for site-operator determination of pH was 0.25 for pH values ranging from 3.79 to 4.64; the estimated standard deviation for specific conductance was 4.6 microsiemens/cm at 25 C for specific-conductance values ranging from 10.4 to 59.0 microsiemens/cm at 25 C. Performance-audit samples with known analyte concentrations were prepared by the U.S.G.S.and distributed to the National Atmospheric Deposition Program 's Central Analytical Laboratory. The differences between the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and national Trends Network-reported analyte concentrations and known analyte concentrations were calculated, and the bias and precision were determined. For 1983, concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and chloride were biased at the 99% confidence limit; concentrations of potassium and sulfate were unbiased at the 99% confidence limit. Four analytical laboratories routinely analyzing precipitation were evaluated in their analysis of identical natural- and simulated precipitation samples. Analyte bias for each laboratory was examined using analysis of variance coupled with Duncan 's multiple-range test on data produced by these laboratories, from the analysis of identical simulated-precipitation samples. Analyte precision for each laboratory has been estimated by calculating a pooled variance for each analyte. Interlaboratory comparability results may be used to normalize natural-precipitation chemistry data obtained from two or more of these laboratories. (Author

  8. Daily and seasonal variability of pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and specific conductance in the Colorado River between the forebay of Glen Canyon, Dam and Lees Ferry, northeastern Arizona, 1998-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Marilyn E.; Hart, Robert J.; Marzolf, G. Richard; Bowser, Carl J.

    2001-01-01

    The productivity of the trout fishery in the tailwater reach of the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam depends on the productivity of lower trophic levels. Photosynthesis and respiration are basic biological processes that control productivity and alter pH and oxygen concentration. During 1998?99, data were collected to aid in the documentation of short- and long-term trends in these basic ecosystem processes in the Glen Canyon reach. Dissolved-oxygen, temperature, and specific-conductance profile data were collected monthly in the forebay of Glen Canyon Dam to document the status of water chemistry in the reservoir. In addition, pH, dissolved-oxygen, temperature, and specific-conductance data were collected at five sites in the Colorado River tailwater of Glen Canyon Dam to document the daily, seasonal, and longitudinal range of variation in water chemistry that could occur annually within the Glen Canyon reach.

  9. Alkaline Ammonia Electrolysis on Electrodeposited Platinum for Controllable Hydrogen Production.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Jieun; Choun, Myounghoon; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2016-02-19

    Ammonia is beginning to attract a great deal of attention as an alternative energy source carrier, because clean hydrogen can be produced through electrolytic processes without the emission of COx . In this study, we deposited various shapes of Pt catalysts under potentiostatic mode; the electrocatalytic oxidation behavior of ammonia using these catalysts was studied in alkaline media. The electrodeposited Pt was characterized by both qualitative and quantitative analysis. To discover the optimal structure and the effect of ammonia concentration, the bulk pH value, reaction temperature, and applied current of ammonia oxidation were investigated using potential sweep and galvanostatic methods. Finally, ammonia electrolysis was conducted using a zero-gap cell, producing highly pure hydrogen with an energy efficiency over 80 %. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Effect of organics and alkalinity on the sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) biosensor.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sedky H A; Van Ginkel, Steven W; Oh, Sang-Eun

    2013-01-01

    The environmental risk assessment of toxic chemicals in stream water requires the use of a low cost standardized toxicity bioassay. Here, a biosensor for detection of toxic chemicals in stream water was studied using sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) in continuous mode. The biosensor depends on the ability of SOB to oxidize sulfur particles under aerobic conditions to produce sulfuric acid. The reaction results in an increase in electrical conductivity (EC) and a decrease in pH. The biosensor is based on the inhibition of SOB in the presence of toxic chemicals by measuring changes in EC and pH. We found that the SOB biosensor can detect Cr(6+)at a low concentration (50 ppb) which is lower than many whole-cell biosensors. The effect of organic material in real stream water on SOB activity was studied. Due to the presence of mixotrophic SOB, we found that the presence of organic matter increases SOB activity which decreases the biosensor start up period. Low alkalinity (22 mg L(-1) CaCO(3)) increased effluent EC and decreased effluent pH which is optimal for biosensor operation. While at high alkalinity (820 mg L(-1) CaCO(3), the activity of SOB little decreased. We found that system can detect 50 ppb of Cr(6+) at low alkalinity (22 mg L(-1) CaCO(3)) in few hours while, complete inhibition was observed after 35 h of operation at high alkalinity (820 mg L(-1) CaCO(3)). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more that two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  12. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more than two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  13. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO2, and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined "CO 2-acidity" is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass- action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mg L -1 as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeII, FeIII, Mn, and Al in mg L -1):aciditycalculated=50{1000(10-pH)+[2(FeII)+3(FeIII)]/56+2(Mn)/ 55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO4- and H+, but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+ and Al3+. However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that "net alkalinity" is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation, (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the value obtained in a

  14. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. [Annual report], 1993--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, D.T.

    1995-03-01

    In this report, we present the results of our experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, we have (1) investigated the effect of surfactant on the equilibrium and transient interfacial tension, (2) investigated the kinetics of oil removal from a silica surface, and (3) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension. The results of the studies conducted during the course of this project are presented.

  15. Anion Exchange Membranes for Alkaline Fuel Cell Applications: The Effects of Cations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhe; Lin, Bencai; Yan, Feng

    2017-09-18

    Alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) are attracting great attention, because of their potential use of non-precious electrocatalysts. Anion exchange membrane (AEM) is one of the key components of AEMFCs. An ideal AEM should possess high hydroxide conductivity and sufficient long-term durability at elevated temperatures in high pH solutions. This review provides recent progresses of alkaline stability behavior of cations (including quaternary ammonium, imidazolium, guanidinium, pyridinium, tertiary sulfonium, phosphonium, benzimidazolium and pyrrolidinium) and their analogous AEMs, which have been investigated by both experimental studies and theoretical calculations. Effects, including conjugated effect, steric hindrance effect, σ-π hyperconjugative effect and electron effect on the alkaline stability of cations and their analogous AEMs have been discussed. The attempt of this article is to give an overview of some key factors, for future design of novel cations, and their analogous AEMs with high alkaline stability. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Bacterial treatment of alkaline cement kiln dust using Bacillus halodurans strain KG1

    PubMed Central

    Kunal; Rajor, Anita; Siddique, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate an acid-producing, alkaliphilic bacterium to reduce the alkalinity of cement industry waste (cement kiln dust). Gram-positive isolate KG1 grew well at pH values of 6–12, temperatures of 28–50 °C, and NaCl concentrations of 0–16% and thus was further screened for its potential to reduce the pH of an alkaline medium. Phenotypic characteristics of the KG1 isolate were consistent with those of the genus Bacillus, and the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497 (94.7%). On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness from other phylogenetic neighbors belonging to alkaliphilic Bacillus species, the isolated strain was designated B. halodurans strain KG1, with GenBank accession number JQ307184 (= NCIM 5439). Isolate KG1 reduced the alkalinity (by 83.64%) and the chloride content (by 86.96%) of cement kiln dust and showed a potential to be used in the cement industry for a variety of applications. PMID:26887220

  17. Bacterial treatment of alkaline cement kiln dust using Bacillus halodurans strain KG1.

    PubMed

    Kunal; Rajor, Anita; Siddique, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate an acid-producing, alkaliphilic bacterium to reduce the alkalinity of cement industry waste (cement kiln dust). Gram-positive isolate KG1 grew well at pH values of 6-12, temperatures of 28-50°C, and NaCl concentrations of 0-16% and thus was further screened for its potential to reduce the pH of an alkaline medium. Phenotypic characteristics of the KG1 isolate were consistent with those of the genus Bacillus, and the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497 (94.7%). On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness from other phylogenetic neighbors belonging to alkaliphilic Bacillus species, the isolated strain was designated B. halodurans strain KG1, with GenBank accession number JQ307184 (= NCIM 5439). Isolate KG1 reduced the alkalinity (by 83.64%) and the chloride content (by 86.96%) of cement kiln dust and showed a potential to be used in the cement industry for a variety of applications. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Salt- and alkaline-tolerance are linked in Acacia

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Elisabeth N.; Thornhill, Andrew; Miller, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    Saline or alkaline soils present a strong stress on plants that together may be even more deleterious than alone. Australia's soils are old and contain large, sometimes overlapping, areas of high salt and alkalinity. Acacia and other Australian plant lineages have evolved in this stressful soil environment and present an opportunity to understand the evolution of salt and alkalinity tolerance. We investigate this evolution by predicting the average soil salinity and pH for 503 Acacia species and mapping the response onto a maximum-likelihood phylogeny. We find that salinity and alkalinity tolerance have evolved repeatedly and often together over 25 Ma of the Acacia radiation in Australia. Geographically restricted species are often tolerant of extreme conditions. Distantly related species are sympatric in the most extreme soil environments, suggesting lack of niche saturation. There is strong evidence that many Acacia have distributions affected by salinity and alkalinity and that preference is lineage specific. PMID:25079493

  19. Salt- and alkaline-tolerance are linked in Acacia.

    PubMed

    Bui, Elisabeth N; Thornhill, Andrew; Miller, Joseph T

    2014-07-01

    Saline or alkaline soils present a strong stress on plants that together may be even more deleterious than alone. Australia's soils are old and contain large, sometimes overlapping, areas of high salt and alkalinity. Acacia and other Australian plant lineages have evolved in this stressful soil environment and present an opportunity to understand the evolution of salt and alkalinity tolerance. We investigate this evolution by predicting the average soil salinity and pH for 503 Acacia species and mapping the response onto a maximum-likelihood phylogeny. We find that salinity and alkalinity tolerance have evolved repeatedly and often together over 25 Ma of the Acacia radiation in Australia. Geographically restricted species are often tolerant of extreme conditions. Distantly related species are sympatric in the most extreme soil environments, suggesting lack of niche saturation. There is strong evidence that many Acacia have distributions affected by salinity and alkalinity and that preference is lineage specific.

  20. Eukaryotic diversity at pH extremes

    PubMed Central

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    Extremely acidic (pH < 3) and extremely alkaline (pH > 9) environments support a diversity of single-cell and to a lesser extent, multicellular eukaryotic life. This study compared alpha and beta diversity in eukaryotic communities from seven diverse aquatic environments with pH values ranging from 2 to 11 using massively-parallel pyrotag sequencing targeting the V9 hypervariable region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. A total of 946 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recovered at a 6% cut-off level (94% similarity) across the sampled environments. Hierarchical clustering of the samples segregated the communities into acidic and alkaline groups. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis followed by indicator OTU analysis (IOA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were used to determine which characteristic groups of eukaryotic taxa typify acidic or alkaline extremes and the extent to which pH explains eukaryotic community structure in these environments. Spain's Rio Tinto yielded the fewest observed OTUs while Nebraska Sandhills alkaline lakes yielded the most. Distinct OTUs, including metazoan OTUs, numerically dominated pH extreme sites. Indicator OTUs included the diatom Pinnularia and unidentified opisthokonts (Fungi and Filasterea) in the extremely acidic environments, and the ciliate Frontonia across the extremely alkaline sites. Inferred from NMDS, pH explained only a modest fraction of the variation across the datasets, indicating that other factors influence the underlying community structure in these environments. The findings from this study suggest that the ability for eukaryotes to adapt to pH extremes over a broad range of values may be rare, but further study of taxa that can broadly adapt across diverse acidic and alkaline environments, respectively present good models for understanding adaptation and should be targeted for future investigations. PMID:23335919

  1. Eukaryotic diversity at pH extremes.

    PubMed

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A

    2012-01-01

    Extremely acidic (pH < 3) and extremely alkaline (pH > 9) environments support a diversity of single-cell and to a lesser extent, multicellular eukaryotic life. This study compared alpha and beta diversity in eukaryotic communities from seven diverse aquatic environments with pH values ranging from 2 to 11 using massively-parallel pyrotag sequencing targeting the V9 hypervariable region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. A total of 946 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recovered at a 6% cut-off level (94% similarity) across the sampled environments. Hierarchical clustering of the samples segregated the communities into acidic and alkaline groups. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis followed by indicator OTU analysis (IOA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were used to determine which characteristic groups of eukaryotic taxa typify acidic or alkaline extremes and the extent to which pH explains eukaryotic community structure in these environments. Spain's Rio Tinto yielded the fewest observed OTUs while Nebraska Sandhills alkaline lakes yielded the most. Distinct OTUs, including metazoan OTUs, numerically dominated pH extreme sites. Indicator OTUs included the diatom Pinnularia and unidentified opisthokonts (Fungi and Filasterea) in the extremely acidic environments, and the ciliate Frontonia across the extremely alkaline sites. Inferred from NMDS, pH explained only a modest fraction of the variation across the datasets, indicating that other factors influence the underlying community structure in these environments. The findings from this study suggest that the ability for eukaryotes to adapt to pH extremes over a broad range of values may be rare, but further study of taxa that can broadly adapt across diverse acidic and alkaline environments, respectively present good models for understanding adaptation and should be targeted for future investigations.

  2. Bacterial colonization of a fumigated alkaline saline soil.

    PubMed

    Bello-López, Juan M; Domínguez-Mendoza, Cristina A; de León-Lorenzana, Arit S; Delgado-Balbuena, Laura; Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Gómez-Acata, Selene; Rodríguez-Valentín, Analine; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Victor M; Luna-Guido, Marco; Verhulst, Nele; Govaerts, Bram; Dendooven, Luc

    2014-07-01

    After chloroform fumigating an arable soil, the relative abundance of phylotypes belonging to only two phyla (Actinobacteria and Firmicutes) and two orders [Actinomycetales and Bacillales (mostly Bacillus)] increased in a subsequent aerobic incubation, while it decreased for a wide range of bacterial groups. It remained to be seen if similar bacterial groups were affected when an extreme alkaline saline soil was fumigated. Soil with electrolytic conductivity between 139 and 157 dS m(-1), and pH 10.0 and 10.3 was fumigated and the bacterial community structure determined after 0, 1, 5 and 10 days by analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, while an unfumigated soil served as control. The relative abundance of the Firmicutes increased in the fumigated soil (52.8%) compared to the unfumigated soil (34.2%), while that of the Bacteroidetes decreased from 16.2% in the unfumigated soil to 8.8% in the fumigated soil. Fumigation increased the relative abundance of the genus Bacillus from 14.7% in the unfumigated soil to 25.7%. It was found that phylotypes belonging to the Firmicutes, mostly of the genus Bacillus, were dominant in colonizing the fumigated alkaline saline as found in the arable soil, while the relative abundance of a wide range of bacterial groups decreased.

  3. A Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, A Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in Central Appalachian Streams. This report describes a method to characterize the relationship between the extirpation (the effective extinction) of invertebrate genera and salinity (measured as conductivity) and from that relationship derives a freshwater aquatic life benchmark. This benchmark of 300 µS/cm may be applied to waters in Appalachian streams that are dominated by calcium and magnesium salts of sulfate and bicarbonate at circum-neutral to mildly alkaline pH. This report provides scientific evidence for a conductivity benchmark in a specific region rather than for the entire United States.

  4. A Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, A Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in Central Appalachian Streams. This report describes a method to characterize the relationship between the extirpation (the effective extinction) of invertebrate genera and salinity (measured as conductivity) and from that relationship derives a freshwater aquatic life benchmark. This benchmark of 300 µS/cm may be applied to waters in Appalachian streams that are dominated by calcium and magnesium salts of sulfate and bicarbonate at circum-neutral to mildly alkaline pH. This report provides scientific evidence for a conductivity benchmark in a specific region rather than for the entire United States.

  5. An overview on fermentation, downstream processing and properties of microbial alkaline proteases.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Beg, Q K; Khan, S; Chauhan, B

    2002-12-01

    Microbial alkaline proteases dominate the worldwide enzyme market, accounting for a two-thirds share of the detergent industry. Although protease production is an inherent property of all organisms, only those microbes that produce a substantial amount of extracellular protease have been exploited commercially. Of these, strains of Bacillus sp. dominate the industrial sector. To develop an efficient enzyme-based process for the industry, prior knowledge of various fermentation parameters, purification strategies and properties of the biocatalyst is of utmost importance. Besides these, the method of measurement of proteolytic potential, the selection of the substrate and the assay protocol depends upon the ultimate industrial application. A large array of assay protocols are available in the literature; however, with the predominance of molecular approaches for the generation of better biocatalysts, the search for newer substrates and assay protocols that can be conducted at micro/nano-scale are becoming important. Fermentation of proteases is regulated by varying the C/N ratio and can be scaled-up using fed-batch, continuous or chemostat approaches by prolonging the stationary phase of the culture. The conventional purification strategy employed, involving e.g., concentration, chromatographic steps, or aqueous two-phase systems, depends on the properties of the protease in question. Alkaline proteases useful for detergent applications are mostly active in the pH range 8-12 and at temperatures between 50 and 70 degrees C, with a few exceptions of extreme pH optima up to pH 13 and activity at temperatures up to 80-90 degrees C. Alkaline proteases mostly have their isoelectric points near to their pH optimum in the range of 8-11. Several industrially important proteases have been subjected to crystallization to extensively study their molecular homology and three-dimensional structures.

  6. Alkaline electrochemical cells and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    Equilibrated cellulose ether membranes of increased electrolytic conductivity for use as separators in concentrated alkaline electrochemical cells are investigated. The method of making such membranes by equilibration to the degree desired in an aqueous alkali solution mantained at a temperature below about 10 C is described.

  7. pH Optrode Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabacco, Mary Beth; Zhou, Quan

    1995-01-01

    pH-sensitive chromophoric reagents immobilized in porous optical fibers. Optoelectronic instrumentation system measures acidity or alkalinity of aqueous nutrient solution. Includes one or more optrodes, which are optical-fiber chemical sensors, in sense, analogous to electrodes but not subject to some of spurious effects distorting readings taken by pH electrodes. Concept of optrodes also described in "Ethylene-Vapor Optrodes" (KSC-11579). pH optrode sensor head, with lead-in and lead-out optical fibers, convenient for monitoring solutions located away from supporting electronic equipment.

  8. Kinetic Release of Alkalinity from Particle-Containing Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, K.; Chapra, S. C.; Ramsburg, A.

    2014-12-01

    Oil-in-water emulsions are typically employed during remediation to promote biotic reduction of contaminants. Emulsions, however, hold promise for encapsulated delivery of many types of active ingredients required for successful site remediation or long-term site stewardship. Our research is currently focused on using alkalinity-containing particles held within oil-in-water emulsions to sustain control of subsurface pH. Here we describe results from laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling conducted to quantify the kinetics associated with the emulsion delivery and alkalinity release process. Kinetically stable oil-in-water emulsions containing (~60 nmCaCO3 or ~100 nm MgO particles) were previously developed using soybean oil and Gum Arabic as a stabilizing agent. Batch and column experiments were employed to assess the accessibility and release of the alkalinity from the emulsion. Successive additions of HCl were used in batch systems to produce several pH responses (pH rebounds) that were subsequently modeled to elucidate release mechanisms and rates for varying emulsion compositions and particle types. Initial results suggest that a linear-driving-force model is generally able to capture the release behavior in the batch system when the temporally-constant, lumped mass-transfer coefficient is scaled by the fraction of particle mass remaining within the droplets. This result suggests that the rate limiting step in the release process may be the interphase transfer of reactive species at the oil-water interface. 1-d column experiments were also completed in order to quantify the extent and rate of alkalinity release from emulsion droplets retained in a sandy medium. Alkalinity release from the retained droplets treated a pH 4 influent water for 25-60 pore volumes (the duration depended on particle type and mass loading), and the cessation in treatment corresponded to exhaustion of the particle mass held within the oil. Column experiments were simulated

  9. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of cell biologist Don Francis Petersen, Ph.D., conducted November 29, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This report is a transcript of an interview of Dr. Don Francis Petersen by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Petersen was selected for this interview because of his long research career at Los Alamos and his knowledge of the Atomic Energy Commission`s biomedical program. Dr. Petersen did not personally conduct research on human subjects. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Petersen discusses his remembrances of the early use of radionuclides as biological tracers, aspects of nuclear weapons testing in the 1940`s and 1950`s including fallout studies, the means by which research projects were approved, use of humans in the whole-body counter, and the Health Division Biomedical responsibilities.

  10. Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides (or pH) in alkaline solutions, using the tendency of hydroxides to adsorb CO{sub 2}. The method comprises passing CO{sub 2} over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the CO{sub 2} concentration. Comparison of the measurements yields the adsorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to adsorption fraction. A schematic is given of a process system according to a preferred embodiment of the invention. 2 figs.

  11. Alkaline Capacitors Based on Nitride Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldissi, Matt

    2003-01-01

    High-energy-density alkaline electrochemical capacitors based on electrodes made of transition-metal nitride nanoparticles are undergoing development. Transition- metal nitrides (in particular, Fe3N and TiN) offer a desirable combination of high electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability in aqueous alkaline electrolytes like KOH. The high energy densities of these capacitors are attributable mainly to their high capacitance densities, which, in turn, are attributable mainly to the large specific surface areas of the electrode nanoparticles. Capacitors of this type could be useful as energy-storage components in such diverse equipment as digital communication systems, implanted medical devices, computers, portable consumer electronic devices, and electric vehicles.

  12. Acidity and alkalinity in mine drainage: Theoretical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, Carl S.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    Acidity, net acidity, and net alkalinity are widely used parameters for the characterization of mine drainage, but these terms are not well defined and are often misunderstood. Incorrect interpretation of acidity, alkalinity, and derivative terms can lead to inadequate treatment design or poor regulatory decisions. We briefly explain derivations of theoretical expressions of three types of alkalinities (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidities (mineral, CO2, and total). Theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined “CO2- acidity” is closely related to most standard titration methods used for mine drainage with an endpoint pH of 8.3, but it presents numerous interpretation problems, and it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/massaction approach and employing graphs for visualization, we explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to solution species, including aqueous complexes, commonly found in mine drainage. We define a comprehensive theoretical definition of acidity in mine drainage on the basis of aqueous speciation at the sample pH and the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. This definition indicates the computed acidity in milligrams per liter (mg L-1 ) as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeIII , FeII , Mn, and Al in mg L-1 ): Aciditycomputed = 50. (10(3-pH) + 3.CFeIII/55.8 + 2.CFeII/55.8 + 2.CMn/54.9 + 3.CAl/27.0) underestimates contributions from HSO4 - and H+ , but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+. These errors tend to approximately cancel each other. We demonstrate that “net alkalinity” is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. We demonstrate that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a

  13. ALKALINITY, PH, AND COPPER CORROSION BY-PRODUCT RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contrary to expectations, higher bicarbonate concentrations exacerbate copper corrosion rates and by-product release. In fact, as illustrated by monitoring experiences of large utilities and by laboratory data, the concentration of copper corrosion by-products in drinking water i...

  14. ALKALINITY, PH, AND COPPER CORROSION BY-PRODUCT RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contrary to expectations, higher bicarbonate concentrations exacerbate copper corrosion rates and by-product release. In fact, as illustrated by monitoring experiences of large utilities and by laboratory data, the concentration of copper corrosion by-products in drinking water i...

  15. A finite element model of conduction, convection, and phase change near a solid/melt interface. Ph.D. Thesis - Michigan Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed understanding of heat transfer and fluid flow is required for many aerospace thermal systems. These systems often include phase change and operate over a range of accelerations or effective gravitational fields. An approach to analyzing such systems is presented which requires the simultaneous solution of the conservation laws of energy, momentum, and mass, as well as an equation of state. The variable property form of the governing equations are developed in two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates for a Newtonian fluid. A numerical procedure for solving the governing equations is presented and implemented in a computer program. The Galerkin form of the finite element method is used to solve the spatial variation of the field variables, along with the implicit Crank-Nicolson time marching algorithm. Quadratic Langrangian elements are used for the internal energy and the two components of velocity. Linear Lagrangian elements are used for the pressure. The location of the solid/liquid interface as well as the temperatures are determined form the calculated internal energy and pressure. This approach is quite general in that it can describe heat transfer without phase change, phase change with a sharp interface, and phase change without an interface. Analytical results from this model are compared to those of other researchers studying transient conduction, convection, and phase change and are found to be in good agreement. The numerical procedure presented requires significant computer resources, but this is not unusual when compared to similar studies by other researchers. Several methods are suggested to reduce the computational times.

  16. Efficient utilization of licorice root by alkaline extraction.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Hirokazu; Miyoshi, Shozo; Araho, Daisuke; Kanamoto, Taisei; Terakubo, Shigemi; Nakashima, Hideki; Tsuda, Tadashi; Sunaga, Katsuyoshi; Amano, Shigeru; Ohkoshi, Emika; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Satoh, Kazue; Yamamoto, Masaji

    2014-01-01

    Compared to studies of water extracts of plants, those utilising alkaline extracts are limited. Both water and alkaline extracts from licorice root were compared regarding their biological activities. Licorice root was successively extracted first with water or alkaline solution (pH 9 or 12), and the alkaline (pH 12.0) extract was further separated into 50% ethanol-soluble and -insoluble fractions. Viable cell number was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. Antibacterial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis 381 was determined by turbidity assay. Cytochrome P-450 (CYP)3A4 activity was measured by β-hydroxylation of testosterone using human recombinant CYP3A4. Radical intensity of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals was determined by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Alkaline extraction yielded slightly higher amounts of dried materials compared to water extraction. Alkaline extract showed higher anti-HIV and antibacterial activities, and similar magnitudes of CYP3A4 inhibitory and superoxide and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities, compared to water extract. When alkaline extract was fractionated by 50% ethanol, anti-HIV activity was recovered from the insoluble fraction representing approximately 3% of the alkaline extract, whereas antibacterial activity was concentrated in the soluble fraction rich in glycyrrhizid acid, flavanones and chalcones. All extracts and sub-fractions led to bimodal hormetic dose-response (maximum hormetic response=238%) on the bacterial growth. The present study demonstrated the superiority of alkaline extraction over water extraction for preparing anti-HIV and antibacterial agents at higher yield from licorice root. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qui; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling

    2004-05-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding in the swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to the naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of the injected solution bypasses the target pore space containing oil. The objective of this work is to investigate whether combining these two technologies could broaden the applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium--polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 9.2 to 12.9.

  18. Miniaturization of cytotoxicity tests for concentration range-finding studies prior to conducting the pH 6.7 Syrian hamster embryo cell-transformation assay.

    PubMed

    Plöttner, Sabine; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Brüning, Thomas

    2013-08-15

    The Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell-transformation assay (SHE assay) is a promising alternative method to animal testing for the identification of potential carcinogens in vitro. Prior to conducting the SHE assay the appropriate concentration range for each test chemical must be established, with a maximum concentration causing approximately 50% cytotoxicity. Concentration range-finding is done in separate experiments, which are similar to the final SHE assay but with less replicates and more concentrations. Here we present an alternative for the cytotoxicity testing by miniaturization of the test procedure by use of 24-well plates and surpluses from feeder-cell preparations as target cells. In addition, we integrated the photometry-based neutral red (NR) assay. For validation of the assay, incubations with dimethyl sulf-oxide, p-phenylenediamine-2HCl, aniline, o-toluidine-HCl, 2,4-diaminotoluene, and 2-naphthylamine were carried out in the miniaturized approach and compared with the standard procedure in terms of calculating the relative plating efficiencies (RPEs). To directly compare both methods, concentrations that produced 50% cytotoxicity (IC50) were calculated. Excellent associations were observed between the number of colonies and NR uptake. For all test substances a concentration-dependent, concomitant decrease of NR uptake in the miniaturized approach and RPEs in the standard test was observed after a 7-day incubation. The results from both test setups showed a comparable order of magnitude and the IC50 values differed by a factor <2 (1.4-1.9), depending on the substance in question. Overall, the miniaturized approach should be considered an improved alternative for cytotoxicity testing in the SHE assay, as it saves valuable SHE cells and speeds-up the time, to obtain test results more rapidly.

  19. Electrical Switchability and Dry-Wash Durability of Conductive Textiles

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bangting; Zhang, Bowu; Wu, Jingxia; Wang, Ziqiang; Ma, Hongjuan; Yu, Ming; Li, Linfan; Li, Jingye

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the area of conductive textiles in the scientific and industrial community. Herein, we successfully prepared a conductive textile via covalently grafting polyaniline (PANI) onto cotton by a multi-step treatment process. The conductivity of the resultant fabric could be tuned by immersing in water having different pH values. The conductive and insulating properties of the textile could be conveniently switched by alternately immersing in acidic and alkaline bath solutions. Most importantly, the resultant conductive fabrics were able to withstand 40 simulated dry-wash cycles, with almost no decay in the electrical conductivity, indicating their excellent dry-wash durability. The present strategy for fabricating conductive fabrics with excellent switchability of electrical properties and dry-wash durability is expected to provide inspiration for the production of multifunctional conductive textiles for use in hash or sensitive conditions. PMID:26066704

  20. Electrical Switchability and Dry-Wash Durability of Conductive Textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bangting; Zhang, Bowu; Wu, Jingxia; Wang, Ziqiang; Ma, Hongjuan; Yu, Ming; Li, Linfan; Li, Jingye

    2015-06-01

    There is growing interest in the area of conductive textiles in the scientific and industrial community. Herein, we successfully prepared a conductive textile via covalently grafting polyaniline (PANI) onto cotton by a multi-step treatment process. The conductivity of the resultant fabric could be tuned by immersing in water having different pH values. The conductive and insulating properties of the textile could be conveniently switched by alternately immersing in acidic and alkaline bath solutions. Most importantly, the resultant conductive fabrics were able to withstand 40 simulated dry-wash cycles, with almost no decay in the electrical conductivity, indicating their excellent dry-wash durability. The present strategy for fabricating conductive fabrics with excellent switchability of electrical properties and dry-wash durability is expected to provide inspiration for the production of multifunctional conductive textiles for use in hash or sensitive conditions.

  1. Precipitation strengthened high strength, high conductivity Cu-Cr-Nb alloys produced by chill block melt spinning. Final Report Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.; Michal, Gary M.

    1989-01-01

    A series of Cu-based alloys containing 2 to 10 a/o Cr and 1 to 5 a/o Nb were produced by chill block melt spinning (CBMS). The melt spun ribbons were consolidated and hot rolled to sheet to produce a supersaturated Cu-Cr-Nb solid solution from which the high melting point intermetallic compound Cr2Nb could be precipitated to strengthen the Cu matrix. The results show that the materials possess electrical conductivities in excess of 90 percent that of pure Cu at 200 C and above. The strengths of the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys were much greater than Cu, Cu-0.6 Cr, NARloy-A, and NARloy-Z in the as-melt spun condition. The strengths of the consolidated materials were less than Cu-Cr and Cu-Cr-Zr below 500 C and 600 C respectively, but were significantly better above these temperatures. The strengths of the consolidated materials were greater than NARloy-Z, at all temperatures. The GLIDCOP possessed similar strength levels up to 750 C when the strength of the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys begins to degrade. The long term stability of the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys was measured by the microhardness of aged samples and the growth of precipitates. The microhardness measurements indicate that the alloys overage rapidly, but do not suffer much loss in strength between 10 and 100 hours which confirms the results of the electrical resistivity measurements taken during the aging of the alloys at 500 C. The loss in strength from peak strength levels is significant, but the strength remains exceptionally good. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the as-melt spun samples revealed that Cr2Nb precipitates formed in the liquid Cu during the chill block melt spinning, indicating a very strong driving force for the formation of the precipitates. The TEM of the aged and consolidated materials indicates that the precipitates coarsen considerably, but remain in the submicron range.

  2. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, N.; Torikai, E.; Kawami, Y.; Takenaka, H.

    Results are presented of experimental studies of possible separators and electrodes for use in advanced, high-temperature, high-pressure alkaline water electrolyzers. Material evaluations in alkaline water electrolyzers at temperatures from 100 to 120 C have shown a new type polytetrafluoroethylene membrane impregnated with potassium titanate to be the most promising when the separator is prepared by the hydrothermal treatment of a porous PFTE membrane impregnated with hydrated titanium oxide. Measurements of cell voltages in 30% KOH at current densities from 5 to 100 A/sq dm at temperatures up to 120 C with nickel electrodes of various structures have shown the foamed nickel electrode, with an average pore size of 1-1.5 mm, to have the best performance. When the foamed nickel is coated by fine powdered nickel, carbonyl nickel or Raney nickel to increase electrode surface areas, even lower cell voltages were found, indicating better performance.

  3. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Characteristics of plasmalemma alkaline phosphatase of rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Kwan, C Y

    1983-01-01

    General characteristics of alkaline phosphatase activity of the plasma membrane-enriched fraction isolated from rat mesenteric arteries were investigated. The vascular smooth muscle plasmalemma alkaline phosphatase is a metalloenzyme which is strongly inhibited by chelating agents and this inhibition can be completely overcome by addition of Mg2+ or Ca2+. Zn2+ only partially reactivates the enzyme in the presence of low concentrations of EDTA. The enzymatic hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, beta-glycerophosphate, alpha-glycerophosphate, or 3'-adenosine monophosphate showed an optimal activity in the alkaline region between pH 9 and 11. The alkaline phosphatase activity is distinctly different from the plasmalemma ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase activities with respect to their pH dependence, influence by added divalent metal ions and stability against heat inactivation. Vanadate ion, being structurally similar to the transition state analog of the phosphoryl group, potently inhibits alkaline phosphatase with an apparent Ki of 1.5 microM. The altered alkaline phosphatase activity of vascular smooth muscle in relation to its possible physiological function and pathophysiological manifestation associated with hypertensive disease are discussed.

  5. Acid transformation of bauxite residue: Conversion of its alkaline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Meng; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Chen, Chengrong; Wu, Chuan; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Yiwei

    2017-02-15

    Bauxite residue (BR) is a highly alkaline solid hazardous waste produced from bauxite processing for alumina production. Alkaline transformation appears to reduce the environmental risk of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs) whilst potentially providing opportunities for the sustainable reuse and on-going management of BR. Mineral acids, a novel citric acid and a hybrid combination of acid-gypsum treatments were investigated for their potential to reduce residue pH and total alkalinity and transform the alkaline mineral phase. XRD results revealed that with the exception of andradite, the primary alkaline solid phases of cancrinite, grossular and calcite were transformed into discriminative products based on the transformation used. Supernatants separated from BR and transformed bauxite residue (TBR) displayed distinct changes in soluble Na, Ca and Al, and a reduction in pH and total alkalinity. SEM images suggest that mineral acid transformations promote macro-aggregate formation, and the positive promotion of citric acid, confirming the removal or reduction in soluble and exchangeable Na. NEXAFS analysis of Na K-edge revealed that the chemical speciation of Na in TBRs was consistent with BR. Three acid treatments and gypsum combination had no effect on Na speciation, which affects the distribution of Na revealed by sodium STXM imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nitrogen isotope evidence for alkaline lakes on late Archean continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüeken, E. E.; Buick, R.; Schauer, A. J.

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen isotope ratios in ancient sedimentary rocks are generally interpreted as a proxy for metabolic nitrogen pathways and the redox state of the water column. Fractionation processes occurring under anoxic, alkaline conditions during the dissociation of NH4+ to H+ and volatile NH3 are frequently overlooked, although this mechanism imparts large isotopic fractionations. Here we propose that NH3 volatilization is largely responsible for δ15N values of up to + 50 ‰ at high C/N ratios in the late Archean Tumbiana Formation. This sequence of sedimentary rocks represents a system of lakes that formed on subaerial flood basalts and were partly filled by basaltic volcanic ash. Aqueous alteration of volcanic glass followed by evaporative concentration of ions should have led to the development of high alkalinity with a pH of 9 or higher, as in modern analogues. In this sedimentologically unusual setting, nitrogen isotope ratios thus provide indirect evidence for the oldest alkaline lake system in the rock record. These very heavy lacustrine δ15N values contrast markedly with those of Archean marine sedimentary rocks, making a Precambrian "soda ocean" unlikely. Today, alkaline lakes are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth. Some nutrients, in particular molybdenum, are more soluble at high pH, and certain prebiotic reactions would likely have been favored under alkaline conditions in similar settings earlier in Earth's history. Hence alkaline lakes in the Archean could have been significant for the origin and early evolution of life.

  7. Chloride-inducible transient apoplastic alkalinizations induce stomata closure by controlling abscisic acid distribution between leaf apoplast and guard cells in salt-stressed Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Mithöfer, Axel; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Zörb, Christian; Muehling, Karl H

    2015-11-01

    Chloride stress causes the leaf apoplast transiently to alkalize, an event that is presumed to contribute to the ability of plants to adapt to saline conditions. However, the initiation of coordinated processes downstream of the alkalinization is unknown. We hypothesize that chloride-inducible pH dynamics are a key chemical feature modulating the compartmental distribution of abscisic acid (ABA) and, as a consequence, affecting stomata aperture. Apoplastic pH and stomata aperture dynamics in intact Vicia faba leaves were monitored by microscopy-based ratio imaging and porometric measurements of stomatal conductance. ABA concentrations in leaf apoplast and guard cells were compared with pH dynamics by gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results demonstrate that, upon chloride addition to roots, an alkalizing factor that initiates the pH dynamic propagates from root to leaf in a way similar to xylem-distributed water. In leaves, it induces a systemic transient apoplastic alkalinization that causes apoplastic ABA concentration to increase, followed by an elevation of endogenous guard cell ABA. We conclude that the transient alkalinization, which is a remote effect of chloride stress, modulates the compartmental distribution of ABA between the leaf apoplast and the guard cells and, in this way, is instrumental in inducing stomata closure during the beginning of salinity.

  8. [Effects of simulated acid rain on respiration rate of cropland system with different soil pH].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xue-zhu; Zhang, Gao-chuan; Li, Hui

    2009-10-15

    To evaluate the effects of acid rain on the respiration rate of cropland system, an outdoor pot experiment was conducted with paddy soils of pH 5.48 (S1), pH 6.70 (S1) and pH 8.18 (S3) during the 2005-2007 wheat-growing seasons. The cropland system was exposed to acid rain by spraying the wheat foliage and irrigating the soil with simulated rainwater of T1 (pH 6.0), T2 (pH 6.0, ionic concentration was twice as rainwater T1), and T3 (pH 4.4, ionic concentration was twice as rainwater T1), respectively. The static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method was used to measure CO2 fluxes from cropland system. The results showed that acid rain affected the respiration rate of cropland system through crop plant, and the cropland system could adapt to acid rain. Acid rainwater significantly increased the average respiration rate in alkaline soil (S3) cropland system, while it had no significant effects on the average respiration rate in neutral soil (S2) and acidic soil (S1) cropland systems. During 2005-2006, after the alkaline soil cropland system was treated with rainwater T3, the average respiration rate was 23.6% and 27.6% higher than that of alkaline soil cropland system treated with rainwater T1 and T2, respectively. During March to April, the respiration rate was enhanced with the increase of rainwater ionic concentration, while it was dropped with the decrease of rainwater pH value in acidic soil cropland system. It was demonstrated that soil pH and crop plant played important roles on the respiration rate of cropland system.

  9. Influence of pH of spray solution on optoelectronic properties of cadmium oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodlur, R. M.; Rabinal, M. K.

    2015-03-01

    Highly conducting transparent cadmium oxide thin films were prepared by the conventional spray pyrolysis technique. The pH of the spray solution is varied by adding ammonia/hydrochloric acid. The effect of pH on the morphology, crystallinity and optoelectronic properties of these films is studied. The structural analysis showed all the films in the cubic phase. For the films with pH < 7 (acidic condition), the preferred orientation is along the (111) direction and for those with pH >7 (alkaline condition), the preferred orientation is along the (200) direction. A lowest resistivity of 9.9 × 10-4 Ω·cm (with carrier concentration = 5.1 × 1020 cm-3, mobility = 12.4 cm2/(V·s)) is observed for pH ≈ 12. The resistivity is tuned almost by three orders of magnitude by controlling the bath pH with optical transmittance more than 70%. Thus, the electrical conductivity of CdO films could be easily tuned by simply varying the pH of the spray solution without compromising the optical transparency.

  10. Nitrification Enhancement through pH Control with Rotating Biological Contactors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    Inst. of Sew. Purif., 130 (1964). 31. Engel, M. S. and M. Alexander, " Growth and Autotrophic Metabolism of Nitrosomonas Europaea ," Jour. Bact., 76, 217...relative effectiveness of four different alkaline chemicals on enhancing the nitrifying process under optimum pH conditions was evaluated in Phase II...111 6.12 Relative RBC Heterotrophic Bacteria Growth Under pH Conditions from pH 7.0 to pH 8.5 ....... ............. .. 112 6.13 Batch Alkalinity

  11. Actinide-Aluminate Speciation in Alkaline Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. David L. Clark; Dr. Alexander M. Fedosseev

    2001-12-21

    Investigation of behavior of actinides in alkaline media containing AL(III) showed that no aluminate complexes of actinides in oxidation states (IIII-VIII) were formed in alkaline solutions. At alkaline precipitation IPH (10-14) of actinides in presence of AL(III) formation of aluminate compounds is not observed. However, in precipitates contained actinides (IIV)<(VI), and to a lesser degree actinides (III), some interference of components takes place that is reflected in change of solid phase properties in comparison with pure components or their mechanical mixture. The interference decreases with rise of precipitation PH and at PH 14 is exhibited very feebly. In the case of NP(VII) the individual compound with AL(III) is obtained, however it is not aluminate of neptunium(VII), but neptunate of aluminium(III) similar to neptunates of other metals obtained earlier.

  12. Is Your Drinking Water Acidic? A Comparison of the Varied pH of Popular Bottled Waters.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kellie F

    2015-06-01

    Dental professionals continually educate patients on the dangers of consuming acidic foods and beverages due to their potential to contribute to dental erosion and tooth decay. Excess acid in the diet can also lead to acidosis, which causes negative systemic side effects. However, water is not typically categorized as acidic. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to investigate the pH levels of several popular brands of bottled water and compare them to various other acidic beverages. Two different brands of marketed alkaline water (with a pH of 8.8 or higher) were also studied, tested for acidity and described. A pilot in-vitro study was conducted to determine the pH levels of a convenience sample of popular brands of bottled water, tap water and other known acidic beverages in comparison with the pH values reported on the respective manufacturers' website. Each beverage was tested in a laboratory using a calibrated Corning pH meter model 240, and waters were compared to the corresponding company's testified pH value. Waters were also compared and contrasted based on their process of purification. The data was then compiled and analyzed descriptively. The pH values for the tested beverages and bottled waters were found to be predominantly acidic. Ten out of the 14 beverages tested were acidic (pH<7), 2 municipal (or "tap") waters were neutral (pH=7) and 2 bottled waters were alkaline (pH>7). The majority of waters tested had a more acidic pH when tested in the lab than the value listed in their water quality reports. It is beneficial for the health care provider to be aware of the potential acidity of popular bottled drinking waters and educate patients accordingly. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  13. Field screening of cowpea cultivars for alkaline soil tolerance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  14. Yield performance of cowpea genotypes grown in alkaline soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  15. Predicting species’ tolerance to salinity and alkalinity using distribution data and geochemical modelling: a case study using Australian grasses

    PubMed Central

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C. Haris; Hua, Xia; Bui, Elisabeth; Moray, Camile; Bromham, Lindell

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Salt tolerance has evolved many times independently in different plant groups. One possible explanation for this pattern is that it builds upon a general suite of stress-tolerance traits. If this is the case, then we might expect a correlation between salt tolerance and other tolerances to different environmental stresses. This association has been hypothesized for salt and alkalinity tolerance. However, a major limitation in investigating large-scale patterns of these tolerances is that lists of known tolerant species are incomplete. This study explores whether species’ salt and alkalinity tolerance can be predicted using geochemical modelling for Australian grasses. The correlation between taxa found in conditions of high predicted salinity and alkalinity is then assessed. Methods Extensive occurrence data for Australian grasses is used together with geochemical modelling to predict values of pH and electrical conductivity to which species are exposed in their natural distributions. Using parametric and phylogeny-corrected tests, the geochemical predictions are evaluated using a list of known halophytes as a control, and it is determined whether taxa that occur in conditions of high predicted salinity are also found in conditions of high predicted alkalinity. Key Results It is shown that genera containing known halophytes have higher predicted salinity conditions than those not containing known halophytes. Additionally, taxa occurring in high predicted salinity tend to also occur in high predicted alkalinity. Conclusions Geochemical modelling using species’ occurrence data is a potentially useful approach to predict species’ relative natural tolerance to challenging environmental conditions. The findings also demonstrate a correlation between salinity tolerance and alkalinity tolerance. Further investigations can consider the phylogenetic distribution of specific traits involved in these ecophysiological strategies, ideally by

  16. Predicting species' tolerance to salinity and alkalinity using distribution data and geochemical modelling: a case study using Australian grasses.

    PubMed

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Hua, Xia; Bui, Elisabeth; Moray, Camile; Bromham, Lindell

    2015-02-01

    Salt tolerance has evolved many times independently in different plant groups. One possible explanation for this pattern is that it builds upon a general suite of stress-tolerance traits. If this is the case, then we might expect a correlation between salt tolerance and other tolerances to different environmental stresses. This association has been hypothesized for salt and alkalinity tolerance. However, a major limitation in investigating large-scale patterns of these tolerances is that lists of known tolerant species are incomplete. This study explores whether species' salt and alkalinity tolerance can be predicted using geochemical modelling for Australian grasses. The correlation between taxa found in conditions of high predicted salinity and alkalinity is then assessed. Extensive occurrence data for Australian grasses is used together with geochemical modelling to predict values of pH and electrical conductivity to which species are exposed in their natural distributions. Using parametric and phylogeny-corrected tests, the geochemical predictions are evaluated using a list of known halophytes as a control, and it is determined whether taxa that occur in conditions of high predicted salinity are also found in conditions of high predicted alkalinity. It is shown that genera containing known halophytes have higher predicted salinity conditions than those not containing known halophytes. Additionally, taxa occurring in high predicted salinity tend to also occur in high predicted alkalinity. Geochemical modelling using species' occurrence data is a potentially useful approach to predict species' relative natural tolerance to challenging environmental conditions. The findings also demonstrate a correlation between salinity tolerance and alkalinity tolerance. Further investigations can consider the phylogenetic distribution of specific traits involved in these ecophysiological strategies, ideally by incorporating more complete, finer-scale geochemical information, as

  17. TMC-1 Mediates Alkaline Sensation in C. elegans through Nociceptive Neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Guang; Liu, Jie; Liu, Jianfeng; Xu, X Z Shawn

    2016-07-06

    Noxious pH triggers pungent taste and nocifensive behavior. While the mechanisms underlying acidic pH sensation have been extensively characterized, little is known about how animals sense alkaline pH in the environment. TMC genes encode a family of evolutionarily conserved membrane proteins whose functions are largely unknown. Here, we characterize C. elegans TMC-1, which was suggested to form a Na(+)-sensitive channel mediating salt chemosensation. Interestingly, we find that TMC-1 is required for worms to avoid noxious alkaline environment. Alkaline pH evokes an inward current in nociceptive neurons, which is primarily mediated by TMC-1 and to a lesser extent by the TRP channel OSM-9. However, unlike OSM-9, which is sensitive to both acidic and alkaline pH, TMC-1 is only required for alkali-activated current, revealing a specificity for alkaline sensation. Ectopic expression of TMC-1 confers alkaline sensitivity to alkali-insensitive cells. Our results identify an unexpected role for TMCs in alkaline sensation and nociception.

  18. TMC-1 mediates alkaline sensation in C. elegans through nociceptive neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Guang; Liu, Jie; Liu, Jianfeng; Xu, X.Z. Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Noxious pH triggers pungent taste and nocifensive behavior. While the mechanisms underlying acidic pH sensation has been extensively characterized, little is known about how animals sense alkaline pH in the environment. TMC genes encode a family of evolutionarily conserved membrane proteins, whose functions are largely unknown. Here, we characterize C. elegans TMC-1 which was suggested to form a Na+-sensitive channel mediating salt chemosensation. Interestingly, we find that TMC-1 is required for worms to avoid noxious alkaline environment. Alkaline pH evokes an inward current in nociceptive neurons, which is primarily mediated by TMC-1 and to a lesser extent by the TRP channel OSM-9. However, unlike OSM-9 which is sensitive to both acidic and alkaline pH, TMC-1 is only required for alkali-activated current, revealing a specificity for alkaline sensation. Ectopic expression of TMC-1 confers alkaline sensitivity to alkali-insensitive cells. Our results identify an unexpected role for TMCs in alkaline sensation and nociception. PMID:27321925

  19. [Alkaline phosphatase in Amoeba proteus].

    PubMed

    Sopina, V A

    2005-01-01

    In free-living Amoeba proteus (strain B), 3 phosphatase were found after disc-electrophoresis of 10 microg of protein in PAGE and using 1-naphthyl phosphate as a substrate a pH 9.0. These phosphatases differed in their electrophoretic mobilities - "slow" (1-3 bands), "middle" (one band) and "fast" (one band). In addition to 1-naphthyl phosphate, "slow" phosphatases were able to hydrolyse 2-naphthyl phosphate and p-nitrophenyl phosphate. They were slightly activated by Mg2+, completely inhibited by 3 chelators (EDTA, EGTA and 1,10-phenanthroline), L-cysteine, sodium dodecyl sulfate and Fe2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+ (50 mM), considerably inactivated by orthovanadate, molybdate, phosphatase inhibitor cocktail 1, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, Na2HPO4, DL-dithiothreitol and urea and partly inhibited by H2O2, DL-phenylalanine, 2-mercaptoethanol, phosphatase inhibitor cocktail 2 and Ca2+. Imidazole, L-(+)-tartrate, okadaic acid, NaF and sulfhydryl reagents -p-(hydroxy-mercuri)benzoate and N-ethylmaleimide - had no influence on the activity of "slow" phosphatases. "Middle" and "fast" phosphatases, in contrast to "slow" ones, were not inactivated by 3 chelators. The "middle" phosphatase differed from the "fast" one by smaller resistance to urea, Ca2+, Mn2+, phosphates and H2O2 and greater resistance to dithiothreitol and L-(+)-tartrate. In addition, the "fast" phosphatase was inhibited by L-cysteine but the "middle" one was activated by it. Of 5 tested ions (Mg2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Ca2+ and Zn2+), only Zn2+ reactivated "slow" phosphatases after their inactivation by EDTA treatment. The reactivation of apoenzyme was only partial (about 35 %). Thus, among phosphatases found in amoebae at pH 9.0, only "slow" ones are Zn-metalloenzymes and may be considered as alkaline phosphatases (EC 3.1.3.1). It still remains uncertain, to which particular phosphatase class "middle" and "fast" phosphatases (pH 9.0) may belong.

  20. Alkaline stress response in Enterococcus faecalis: adaptation, cross-protection, and changes in protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Flahaut, S; Hartke, A; Giard, J C; Auffray, Y

    1997-01-01

    The alkaline shock response in Enterococcus faecalis was studied in this work. Cells adapted to an optimum pH of 10.5 were tolerate to pH 11.9 conditions but acquired sensitivity to acid damage. An analysis of stress proteins revealed that 37 polypeptides were amplified. Two of these are DnaK and GroEL. The combined results show that bile salts and alkaline stress responses are closely related. PMID:9023964

  1. Development of a pH/alkalinity treatment model for applications of the lampricide TFM to streams tributary to the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Terry D.; Boogaard, Michael A.; Johnson, David A.; Brege, Dorance C.; Scholefield, Ronald J.; Westman, R. Wayne; Stephens, Brian E.

    2003-01-01

    It has long been known that the toxicity of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) is influenced by chemical and physical properties of water. As the pH, conductivity, and alkalinity of water increase, greater concentrations of TFM are required to kill sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) larvae. Consequently, the concentration of TFM required for effective treatment varies among streams. Brown trout (Salmo trutta) and sea lamprey larvae were exposed to a series of TFM concentrations in a continuous-flow diluter for 12 h. Twenty five exposures were conducted at various water alkalinities and pHs that treatment personnel encounter during lampricide treatments. Survival/mortality data were analyzed for lampricide concentrations that produced 50 and 99.9% mortality (LC50 and LC99.9) for sea lamprey larvae and 25 and 50% mortality (LC25 and LC50) for brown trout. Linear regression analyses were performed for each set of tests for each selected alkalinity by comparing the 12-h post exposure LC99.9 sea lamprey data and LC25 brown trout data at each pH. Mortality data from on-site toxicity tests conducted by lampricide control personnel were compared to predicted values from the pH/alkalinity prediction model. Of the 31 tests examined, 27 resulted in the LC100s (lowest TFM concentration where 100% mortality of sea lamprey was observed after 12 h of exposure) falling within 0.2 mg/L of the predicted sea lamprey minimum lethal (LC99.9) range. The pH/alkalinity prediction model provides managers with an operational tool that reduces the amount of TFM required for effective treatment while minimizing the impact on non-target organisms.

  2. Alkaline phosphatase of Physarum polycephalum is insoluble.

    PubMed

    Furuhashi, Kiyoshi

    2008-02-01

    The plasmodia of Physarum polycephalum grow as multinucleated cells in the presence of sufficient humidity and nutriment. Under non-illuminating conditions, stresses such as low temperature or high concentrations of salts transform the plasmodia into spherules whereas dehydration induces sclerotization. Some phosphatases including protein phosphatase and acid phosphatase have been purified from the plasmodia, but alkaline phosphatase remains to be elucidated. Phosphatase of the plasmodia, spherules and sclerotia was visualized by electrophoresis gel-staining assay using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate. Insoluble fractions of the sclerotia were abundant in phosphatase activity. The phosphatase which was extracted by nonionic detergent was subjected to column chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. Purified phosphatase showed the highest activity at pH 8.8, indicating that this enzyme belongs to alkaline phosphatase. The apparent molecular mass from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under non-reducing condition was estimated to be 100 kDa whereas that under reducing was 105 kDa. An amount of 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate or 0.5 M NaCl had no effects on the activity although the phosphatase showed heat instability, Mg(2+)-dependency and sensitivity to 2-glycerophosphate or NaF. The extracting conditions and enzymatic properties suggest that this alkaline phosphatase which is in a membrane-bound form plays important roles in phosphate metabolism.

  3. Neutralization of acid mine drainage using the final product from CO2 emissions capture with alkaline paper mill waste.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Castillo, Julio; Quispe, Dino; Nieto, José Miguel

    2010-05-15

    In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the applicability of low-cost alkaline paper mill wastes as acidity neutralizing agents for treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). Paper wastes include a calcium mud by-product from kraft pulping, and a calcite powder from a previous study focused on sequestering CO(2) by carbonation of calcium mud. The neutralization process consisted of increase of pH by alkaline additive dissolution, decrease of metals solubility and precipitation of gypsum and poorly crystallized Fe-Al oxy-hydroxides/oxy-hydroxysulphates, which acted as a sink for trace elements to that extent that solutions reached the pre-potability requirements of water for human consumption. This improvement was supported by geochemical modelling of solutions using PHREEQC software, and observations by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction of reaction products. According to PHREEQC simulations, the annual amount of alkaline additive is able to treat AMD (pH 3.63, sulphate 3800 mg L(-1), iron 348 mg L(-1)) with an average discharge of about 114 and 40 Ls(-1) for calcium mud and calcite powder, respectively. Likewise, given the high potential of calcium mud to sequester CO(2) and of resulting calcite powder to neutralize AMD, paper wastes could be a promising solution for facing this double environmental problem.

  4. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  5. Safety of an alkalinizing buffer designed for inhaled medications in humans.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael D; Walsh, Brian K; Dwyer, Scott T; Combs, Casey; Vehse, Nico; Paget-Brown, Alix; Pajewski, Thomas; Hunt, John F

    2013-07-01

    Airway acidification plays a role in disorders of the pulmonary tract. We hypothesized that the inhalation of alkalinized glycine buffer would measurably alkalinize the airways without compromising lung function or causing adverse events. We evaluated the safety of an inhaled alkaline glycine buffer in both healthy subjects and in subjects with stable obstructive airway disease. This work includes 2 open-label safety studies. The healthy controls were part of a phase 1 safety study of multiple inhalations of low-dose alkaline glycine buffer; nebulized saline was used as a comparator in 8 of the healthy controls. Subsequently, a phase 2 study in subjects with stable obstructive airway disease was completed using a single nebulized higher-dose strategy of the alkaline inhalation. We studied 20 non-smoking adults (10 healthy controls and 10 subjects with obstructive airway disease), both at baseline and after inhalation of alkaline buffer. We used spirometry and vital signs as markers of clinical safety. We used changes in fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH as surrogate markers of airway pH modification. Alkaline glycine inhalation was tolerated by all subjects in both studies, with no adverse effects on spirometric parameters or vital signs. Airway alkalinization was confirmed by a median increase in EBC pH of 0.235 pH units (IQR 0.56-0.03, P = .03) in subjects after inhalation of the higher-dose alkaline buffer (2.5 mL of 100 mmol/L glycine). Alkalinization of airway lining fluid is accomplished with inhalation of alkaline glycine buffer and causes no adverse effects on pulmonary function or vital signs.

  6. Assessment of vagotomy status with postprandial urinary alkaline tide.

    PubMed

    Longkumer, Tialiba; Parthasarathy, G; Kate, Vikram; Ananthakrishnan, N; Koner, B C

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess whether the postprandial urinary alkaline tide, as a marker for the completeness of vagotomy, is dependent on the nature of the test meal, whether it is affected by proton pump inhibitor therapy, and whether it is reliable. The postprandial urinary alkaline tide (PUAT) pattern was prospectively assessed in three different study groups and one control group of healthy volunteers. The three study groups were as follows; A (n = 20) i.e. the Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) Group; B (n = 25) i.e. the Truncal Vagotomy (TV) Group; and C (n = 5) i.e. the Recurrent Ulcer (RU) Group. Urinary pH was measured by a pocket digital pH meter. Postprandial urinary alkaline tide in the control group was significantly higher compared to the fasting levels. Liquid diet did not elicit a significant urinary alkaline tide response. There was a statistically significant fall in both fasting urinary pH (5.34 +/- 0.70 vs. 4.80 +/- 0.61, p = 0.031) and the postprandial alkaline tide (6.99 +/- 0.79 vs. 4.94 +/- 0.63, p = 0.0001) after taking proton pump inhibitors. In the truncal vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy group it was found that there was a significant fall in both the mean fasting (5.28 +/- 0.58, vs. 4.92 +/- 0.66, p = 0.032) and the postprandial urinary pH (6.29 +/- 0.92 vs. 5.09 +/- 0.73, p = 0.0001) following surgery. This study establishes that simple measurement of the urinary pH before and after a standard test meal can be used as an accurate routine test for the completion of vagotomy. It also showed that proton pump inhibitors abolish the alkaline tide and therefore must be discontinued before measuring the alkaline tide. Liquid test meal was not effective in eliciting an alkaline tide as compared to a solid meal.

  7. The voltage dependence of the chloride conductance of frog muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hutter, O. F.; Warner, Anne E.

    1972-01-01

    1. The effect of extracellular pH changes on the voltage—current relation of frog muscle membrane has been studied using intracellular microelectrodes. To reduce the cation conductance of the membrane, potassium in Ringer solution was replaced by rubidium. 2. When the relatively impermeant methyl sulphate ion replaced extracellular chloride the membrane conductance was low, time independent and little influenced by extracellular pH changes. The voltage—current relation was linear at both high and low pH values. 3. In rubidium Ringer solution at pH 7·4 the membrane conductance fell as the inside of the fibre was made more negative, in a manner consistent with the predictions of the constant field theory. 4. At a high pH value (9·8) the resting conductance was high, but it fell steeply as the membrane potential was increased; for large hyperpolarizing voltages the membrane current tended to a limiting value. The voltage—current relation crossed those recorded at pH 7·4 and 5·0. 5. In acid Ringer solution (pH 5·0) the resting membrane conductance was low and remained constant until the membrane potential was hyperpolarized more than 30 mV beyond the resting value; the conductance then rose as the membrane potential was further increased. For large hyperpolarizations the membrane conductance was higher at pH 5·0 than at pH 9·8. 6. Experiments using two successive, identical, constant current pulses suggested that the membrane conductance altered during the passage of current across the membrane; in alkaline solution the conductance fell with time, in acid solution it rose. 7. Because no time or voltage dependence of the membrane conductance was seen in the absence of chloride ions it is inferred that the movements of chloride ions across the muscle membrane are responsible for both the time and voltage dependent alterations in membrane conductance seen at different pH values. PMID:4539587

  8. Kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of nitrocellulose.

    PubMed

    Christodoulatos, C; Su, T L; Koutsospyros, A

    2001-01-01

    Cellulose nitrate (nitrocellulose) is an explosive solid substance used in large quantities in various formulations of rocket and gun propellants. Safe destruction of nitrocellulose can be achieved by alkaline hydrolysis, which converts it to biodegradable products that can then be treated by conventional biological processes. The kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of munitions-grade nitrocellulose in sodium hydroxide solutions were investigated in completely mixed batch reactors. Experiments were conducted using solutions of alkaline strength ranging from 0.1 to 15% by mass and temperatures in the range of 30 to 90 degrees C. Regression analysis of the kinetic data revealed that alkaline hydrolysis of nitrocellulose is of the order 1.0 and 1.5 with respect to nitrocellulose and hydroxide concentration, respectively. The activation energy of the hydrolysis reaction was found to be 100.9 kJ/mol with a preexponential Arrhenius constant of 4.73 x 10(13). Nitrite and nitrate, in a 3:1 ratio, were the primary nitrogen species present in the posthydrolysis solution. The kinetic information is pertinent to the development and optimization of nitrocellulose chemical-biological treatment systems.

  9. Plant Habitat (PH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  10. Electrospinning of an Alkaline Polymer Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roddecha, Supacharee; Dong, Zexuan; Wu, Yiquan; Anthamatten, Mitchell

    2010-03-01

    The polymer electrolyte membrane is a key component of the low temperature fuel cell to block fuel and electron crossover, while enabling ions to pass and complete the half-cell reactions. Proton exchange membranes (PEMs) are anion-containing polymers, such as Nafion, which offer proton conduction pathways. Alkaline polymer electrolytes utilize hydroxyl anions as charge carriers and are currently being researched as an alternative to PEMs because they may offer the use of inexpensive metal catalysts. However, hydroxyl anion in an alkaline electrolyte has relatively low mobility compared to that of protons in an acid electrolyte; hence a high concentration of OH^- is required to obtain high ionic conductivity. Here, we report the use of an electrospinning process to prepare nonwoven membranes. Polysulfones are first functionalized with varied ionic content of quaternary ammonium functional groups and then are electrospun to get alkaline electrolyte mat. The morphology at various ionic content, mechanical property, and in-plane conductivity of resulting films will be discussed and compared to solvent-cast films of the same material.

  11. Alkaline flocculation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum induced by brucite and calcite.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, Dries; Pohl, Philip I; Beuckels, Annelies; Foubert, Imogen; Brady, Patrick V; Hewson, John C; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2015-11-01

    Alkaline flocculation holds great potential as a low-cost harvesting method for marine microalgae biomass production. Alkaline flocculation is induced by an increase in pH and is related to precipitation of calcium and magnesium salts. In this study, we used the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as model organism to study alkaline flocculation of marine microalgae cultured in seawater medium. Flocculation started when pH was increased to 10 and flocculation efficiency reached 90% when pH was 10.5, which was consistent with precipitation modeling for brucite or Mg(OH)2. Compared to freshwater species, more magnesium is needed to achieve flocculation (>7.5mM). Zeta potential measurements suggest that brucite precipitation caused flocculation by charge neutralization. When calcium concentration was 12.5mM, flocculation was also observed at a pH of 10. Zeta potential remained negative up to pH 11.5, suggesting that precipitated calcite caused flocculation by a sweeping coagulation mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Alkaline flocculation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum induced by brucite and calcite

    DOE PAGES

    Vandamme, Dries; Pohl, Philip I.; Beuckels, Annelies; ...

    2015-08-20

    Alkaline flocculation holds great potential as a low-cost harvesting method for marine microalgae biomass production. Alkaline flocculation is induced by an increase in pH and is related to precipitation of calcium and magnesium salts. In this study, we used the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as model organism to study alkaline flocculation of marine microalgae cultured in seawater medium. Flocculation started when pH was increased to 10 and flocculation efficiency reached 90% when pH was 10.5, which was consistent with precipitation modeling for brucite or Mg(OH)2. Compared to freshwater species, more magnesium is needed to achieve flocculation (>7.5 mM). Zeta potential measurementsmore » suggest that brucite precipitation caused flocculation by charge neutralization. When calcium concentration was 12.5 mM, flocculation was also observed at a pH of 10. Furthermore, zeta potential remained negative up to pH 11.5, suggesting that precipitated calcite caused flocculation by a sweeping coagulation mechanism.« less

  13. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to alkaline stress.

    PubMed

    Stolyar, Sergey; He, Qiang; Joachimiak, Marcin P; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin Koo; Borglin, Sharon E; Joyner, Dominique C; Huang, Katherine; Alm, Eric; Hazen, Terry C; Zhou, Jizhong; Wall, Judy D; Arkin, Adam P; Stahl, David A

    2007-12-01

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotide microarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarray data to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The data showed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generally similar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled by unique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma S and sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to be absent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E. coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPase genes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone and protease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) was also elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellum synthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identified regulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of a D. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system. Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated in alkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protective involvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, and two putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 and DVU2580).

  14. Autonomous in situ measurements of seawater alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Reggie S; DeGrandpre, Michael D; Beck, James C; Hart, Robert D; Peterson, Brittany; De Carlo, Eric H; Drupp, Patrick S; Hammar, Terry R

    2014-08-19

    Total alkalinity (AT) is an important parameter for describing the marine inorganic carbon system and understanding the effects of atmospheric CO2 on the oceans. Measurements of AT are limited, however, because of the laborious process of collecting and analyzing samples. In this work we evaluate the performance of an autonomous instrument for high temporal resolution measurements of seawater AT. The Submersible Autonomous Moored Instrument for alkalinity (SAMI-alk) uses a novel tracer monitored titration method where a colorimetric pH indicator quantifies both pH and relative volumes of sample and titrant, circumventing the need for gravimetric or volumetric measurements. The SAMI-alk performance was validated in the laboratory and in situ during two field studies. Overall in situ accuracy was -2.2 ± 13.1 μmol kg(-1) (n = 86), on the basis of comparison to discrete samples. Precision on duplicate analyses of a carbonate standard was ±4.7 μmol kg(-1) (n = 22). This prototype instrument can measure in situ AT hourly for one month, limited by consumption of reagent and standard solutions.

  15. The potential for constructed wetlands to treat alkaline bauxite-residue leachate: Phragmites australis growth.

    PubMed

    Higgins, D; Curtin, T; Pawlett, M; Courtney, R

    2016-12-01

    High alkalinity (pH > 12) of bauxite-residue leachates presents challenges for the long-term storage and managements of the residue. Recent evidence has highlighted the potential for constructed wetlands to effectively buffer the alkalinity, but there is limited evidence on the potential for wetland plants to establish and grow in soils inundated with residue leachate. A pot-based trial was conducted to investigate the potential for Phragmites australis to establish and grow in substrate treated with residue leachate over a pH range of 8.6-11.1. The trial ran for 3 months, after which plant growth and biomass were determined. Concentrations of soluble and exchangeable trace elements in the soil substrate and also in the aboveground and belowground biomass were determined. Residue leachate pH did not affect plant biomass or microbial biomass. With the exception of Na, there was no effect on exchangeable trace elements in the substrate; however, increases in soluble metals (As, Cd and Na) were observed with increasing leachate concentration. Furthermore, increases in Al, As and V were observed in belowground biomass and for Cd and Cr in aboveground biomass. Concentrations within the vegetation biomass were less than critical phytotoxic levels. Results demonstrate the ability for P. australis to grow in bauxite-residue leachate-inundated growth media without adverse effects.

  16. Transcriptome profiling reveals the genetic basis of alkalinity tolerance in wheat.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chen; Quan, Tai-Yong; Li, Zhong-Yi; Cui, Kang-Li; Yan, Li; Liang, Yu; Dai, Jiu-Lan; Xia, Guang-Min; Liu, Shu-Wei

    2017-01-05

    Soil alkalinity shows significant constraints to crop productivity; however, much less attention has been paid to analyze the effect of soil alkalinity on plant growth and development. Shanrong No. 4 (SR4) is an alkalinity tolerant bread wheat cultivar selected from an asymmetric somatic hybridization between the bread wheat cultivar Jinan 177 (JN177) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum), which is a suitable material for studying alkalinity tolerant associate genes. The growth of SR4 plant seedlings was less inhibited than that of JN177 when exposed to alkalinity stress conditions. The root cytosolic Na(+)/K(+) ratio in alkalinity stressed SR4 was lower than in JN177, while alkalinity stressed SR4 contained higher level of nutrient elements than in JN177. SR4 plant seedlings accumulated less malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), it also showed higher activity of ROS scavenging enzymes than JN177 under alkalinity stress. The root intracellular pH decreased in both alkalinity stressed JN177 and SR4, however, it was much lower in SR4 than in JN177 under alkalinity stress. The transcriptomes of SR4 and JN177 seedlings exposed to alkalinity stress were analyzed by digital gene expression tag profiling method. Alkalinity stress conditions up- and down-regulated a large number of genes in the seedling roots that play the functions in the categories of transcription regulation, signal transduction and protein modification. SR4 expresses a superior tolerance to alkaline stress conditions which is due to its strong absorbing ability for nutrient ions, a strong regulating ability for intracellular and rhizosphere pH and a more active ROS scavenging ability.

  17. The potential for constructed wetlands to treat alkaline bauxite residue leachate: laboratory investigations.

    PubMed

    R, Buckley; T, Curtin; R, Courtney

    2016-07-01

    High alkalinity (pH > 12) of bauxite residue leachates presents challenges for the long-term storage and managements of the residue. Whilst the use of constructed wetlands is gaining in interest for its use in the treatment of alkaline waters, thus far, there is limited evidence of its suitability for treating NaOH dominated bauxite residue leachate. A series of batch trials were conducted to investigate the potential for constructed wetland conferred mechanisms (dilution water quality, contact with CO2, and substrate type) for treating NaOH solutions to levels permissible for discharge (p < 9). Results demonstrate that significant reductions in solution pH can be achieved depending on the diluting water quality. Levels achieved may not always be suitable for direct discharge (i.e. pH ≤ 9), but further reductions occur with carbonation and soil contact. The extent of pH decrease and the timeframe required are influenced by soil quality, with greater efficiency observed in soils with higher organic matter content. Decrease in solution pH to discharge permit values are possible through a combination of the mechanisms occurring in a constructed wetland. Formation of a calcite precipitate was observed in some treatments and further characterisation by XRD and XPS suggested surface coating with Na2CO3. It is therefore suggested that, under suitable conditions, constructed wetland technology can reduce leachate pH to <9 through mechanisms supporting the precipitation of sodium carbonate from solution. Further trials should investigate the activity under biological conditions representative of an operating constructed wetland.

  18. Important electromigration effects of carbon dioxide in capillary electrophoresis at high pH.

    PubMed

    Malá, Zdena; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2011-06-01

    This paper deals with unwanted effects of carbonate in capillary zone electrophoretic analyses of anions in alkaline BGEs with indirect UV absorption and conductivity detection. Computer simulations and experimental study of selected model systems have shown that carbon dioxide absorbed from air into BGEs and samples induce important electrophoretic effects like formation of new additional zones and/or boundaries that may further induce strong and pronounced temporary changes in the migration of analytes. Examples are reduction of the pH of alkaline BGEs around pH 11 by up to 1 unit or formation of a pronounced detectable carbon dioxide peak comparable with peaks of analytes at 1 mM level. The higher the pH of the BGE, the stronger these effects and the broader their spectrum, involving (i) changes of effective mobilities and selectivity due to changes in pH of the BGE, (ii) occurrence of additional system zones appearing in form of peaks, dips or more complex disturbances in the detection signal, (iii) temporary interactions with the sample components and subsequent modification of the separation process and of its result. This paper reveals all these effects and brings the knowledge necessary to prevent problems with qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the analysis results.

  19. Bifunctional alkaline oxygen electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the identification and testing of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate-temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Recent work on Na(x)Pt3O4, a potential bifunctional catalyst, is described, as well as the application of novel approaches to the development of more efficient bifunctional electrode structures. The three dual-character electrodes considered here showed similar superior performance; the Pt/RhO2 and Rh/RhO2 electrodes showed slightly better performance than the Pt/IrO2 electrode. It is concluded that Na(x)Pt3O4 continues to be a promising bifunctional oxygen electrode catalyst but requires further investigation and development.

  20. Transcriptome analysis of Enterococcus faecalis in response to alkaline stress

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Shujun; Liu, Bin; Jiang, Wei; Sun, Zhe; Liang, Jingping

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly isolated species from endodontic failure root canals; its persistence in treated root canals has been attributed to its ability to resist high pH stress. The goal of this study was to characterize the E. faecalis transcriptome and to identify candidate genes for response and resistance to alkaline stress using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing. We found that E. faecalis could survive and form biofilms in a pH 10 environment and that alkaline stress had a great impact on the transcription of many genes in the E. faecalis genome. The transcriptome sequencing results revealed that 613 genes were differentially expressed (DEGs) for E. faecalis grown in pH 10 medium; 211 genes were found to be differentially up-regulated and 402 genes differentially down-regulated. Many of the down-regulated genes found are involved in cell energy production and metabolism and carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and the up-regulated genes are mostly related to nucleotide transport and metabolism. The results presented here reveal that cultivation of E. faecalis in alkaline stress has a profound impact on its transcriptome. The observed regulation of genes and pathways revealed that E. faecalis reduced its carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and increased nucleotide synthesis to adapt and grow in alkaline stress. A number of the regulated genes may be useful candidates for the development of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of E. faecalis infections. PMID:26300863

  1. The alkalinizing effects of metabolizable bases in the healthy calf.

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, J M; Forsyth, G W

    1986-01-01

    The alkalinizing effect of citrate, acetate, propionate, gluconate, L and DL-lactate were compared in healthy neonatal calves. The calves were infused for a 3.5 hour period with 150 mmol/L solutions of the sodium salts of the various bases. Blood pH, base excess, and metabolite concentrations were measured and the responses compared with sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride infusion. D-gluconate and D-lactate had poor alkalinizing abilities and accumulated in blood during infusion suggesting that they are poorly metabolized by the calf. Acetate, L-lactate and propionate had alkalinizing effects similar to bicarbonate, although those of acetate had a slightly better alkalinizing effect than L-lactate. Acetate was more effectively metabolized because blood acetate concentrations were lower than L-lactate concentrations. There was a tendency for a small improvement in metabolism of acetate and lactate with age. Sodium citrate infusion produced signs of hypocalcemia, presumably because it removed ionized calcium from the circulation. D-gluconate, D-lactate and citrate are unsuitable for use as alkalinizing agents in intravenous fluids. Propionate, acetate and L-lactate are all good alkalinizing agents in healthy calves but will not be as effective in situations where tissue metabolism is impaired. PMID:3024796

  2. Changes in methane oxidation activity and methanotrophic community composition in saline alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Silva, Nancy; Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Marsch, Rodolfo; Dendooven, Luc; Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J

    2014-05-01

    The soil of the former Lake Texcoco is a saline alkaline environment where anthropogenic drainage in some areas has reduced salt content and pH. Potential methane (CH4) consumption rates were measured in three soils of the former Lake Texcoco with different electrolytic conductivity (EC) and pH, i.e. Tex-S1 a >18 years drained soil (EC 0.7 dS m(-1), pH 8.5), Tex-S2 drained for ~10 years (EC 9.0 dS m(-1), pH 10.3) and the undrained Tex-S3 (EC 84.8 dS m(-1), pH 10.3). An arable soil from Alcholoya (EC 0.7 dS m(-1), pH 6.7), located nearby Lake Texcoco was used as control. Methane oxidation in the soil Tex-S1 (lowest EC and pH) was similar to that in the arable soil from Alcholoya (32.5 and 34.7 mg CH4 kg(-1) dry soil day(-1), respectively). Meanwhile, in soils Tex-S2 and Tex-S3, the potential CH4 oxidation rates were only 15.0 and 12.8 mg CH4 kg(-1) dry soil day(-1), respectively. Differences in CH4 oxidation were also related to changes in the methane-oxidizing communities in these soils. Sequence analysis of pmoA gene showed that soils differed in the identity and number of methanotrophic phylotypes. The Alcholoya soil and Tex-S1 contained phylotypes grouped within the upland soil cluster gamma and the Jasper Ridge, California JR-2 clade. In soil Tex-S3, a phylotype related to Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum was detected.

  3. In vivo pH measurement at the site of calcification in an octocoral.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, C; Tambutté, E; Venn, A A; Techer, N; Allemand, D; Tambutté, S

    2017-09-11

    Calcareous octocorals are ecologically important calcifiers, but little is known about their biomineralization physiology, relative to scleractinian corals. Many marine calcifiers promote calcification by up-regulating pH at calcification sites against the surrounding seawater. Here, we investigated pH in the red octocoral Corallium rubrum which forms sclerites and an axial skeleton. To achieve this, we cultured microcolonies on coverslips facilitating microscopy of calcification sites of sclerites and axial skeleton. Initially we conducted extensive characterisation of the structural arrangement of biominerals and calcifying cells in context with other tissues, and then measured pH by live tissue imaging. Our results reveal that developing sclerites are enveloped by two scleroblasts and an extracellular calcifying medium of pH 7.97 ± 0.15. Similarly, axial skeleton crystals are surrounded by cells and a calcifying medium of pH 7.89 ± 0.09. In both cases, calcifying media are more alkaline compared to calcifying cells and fluids in gastrovascular canals, but importantly they are not pH up-regulated with respect to the surrounding seawater, contrary to what is observed in scleractinians. This points to a potential vulnerability of this species to decrease in seawater pH and is consistent with reports that red coral calcification is sensitive to ocean acidification.

  4. Extracellular alkaline proteinase of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Dunaevsky, Ya E; Matveeva, A R; Beliakova, G A; Domash, V I; Belozersky, M A

    2007-03-01

    The main proteinase of the filamentous fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing anthracnoses and serious problems for production and storage of agricultural products has molecular mass of 57 kD and was purified more than 200-fold to homogeneity with the yield of 5%. Maximal activity of the proteinase is at pH 9.0-10.0, and the enzyme is stable at pH 6.0-11.5 (residual activity not less than 70%). The studied enzyme completely kept its activity to 55 degrees C, with a temperature optimum of 45 degrees C. The purified C. gloeosporioides proteinase is stable at alkaline pH values, but rapidly loses its activity at pH values lower than 5.0. Addition of bovine serum albumin stabilizes the enzyme under acidic conditions. Data on inhibitor analysis and substrate specificity of the enzyme allow its classification as a serine proteinase of subtilisin family. It is demonstrated that the extracellular proteinase of C. gloeosporioides specifically effects plant cell wall proteins. It is proposed that the studied proteinase--via hydrolysis of cell wall--provides for penetration of the fungus into the tissues of the host plant.

  5. Alkalinity conversion of bauxite refinery residues by neutralization.

    PubMed

    Johnston, M; Clark, M W; McMahon, P; Ward, N

    2010-10-15

    Red mud remains the largest environmental issue for the alumina industry due to its high pH (>13), fine-grained nature (>90% is <10 microm), elevated sodium concentration (>50 g/kg), and soluble alkalinity (approximately 30 g/kg as equivalent CaCO(3)), which reduce the transport and reuse options of red mud. The neutralization of red mud provides potential reuse options because neutralization lowers pH, increases grain-size (e.g., coagulation), and precipitates or converts alkalinity. This paper investigates the geochemistry of 3 treatments of a red mud to affect neutralization and potentially convert materials from a waste material to a resource. This study investigates two commonly used neutralization techniques, a CO(2)-neutralized red mud (CNRM), a Basecon-neutralized red mud (Basecon), and a more novel approach of a CO(2)-neutralization followed by a Basecon-neutralization (Hybrid) to understand the effects that these treatments have on neutralization process. Data indicate that the neutralization techniques form two distinct geochemical groups when discriminated on total alkalinity alone, that is treatments with, and treatments without alkalinity precipitation. However, each treatment has distinct alkalinity speciation (hydroxide-dominant or carbonate/bicarbonate dominant) and residual Ca, Mg and Al in the treatment solution. Similarly, solids produced differ in their reaction pH and ANC, and contrary pH and ANC, a contrary to other studies, Dawsonite was not seen to precipitate during any neutralization. However, despite this approximately 17 g/kg CO(2) was sequestered during CNRM and hybrid neutralizations and all treatments increased either the transport or reuse options of red mud in some way. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Direct alkalinity detection with ion-selective chronopotentiometry.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Majid Ghahraman; Crespo, Gastón A; Xie, Xiaojiang; Bakker, Eric

    2014-07-01

    We explore the possibility to directly measure pH and alkalinity in the sample with the same sensor by imposing an outward flux of hydrogen ions from an ion-selective membrane to the sample solution by an applied current. The membrane consists of a polypropylene-supported liquid membrane doped with a hydrogen ionophore (chromoionophore I), ion exchanger (KTFBP), and lipophilic electrolyte (ETH 500). While the sample pH is measured at zero current, alkalinity is assessed by chronopotentiometry at anodic current. Hydrogen ions expelled from the membrane undergo acid-base solution chemistry and protonate available base in the diffusion layer. With time, base species start to be depleted owing to the constant imposed hydrogen ion flux from the membrane, and a local pH change occurs at a transition time. This pH change (potential readout) is correlated to the concentration of the base in solution. As in traditional chronopotentiometry, the observed square root of transition time (τ) was found to be linear in the concentration range of 0.1 mM to 1 mM, using the bases tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, ammonia, carbonate, hydroxide, hydrogen phosphate, and borate. Numerical simulations were used to predict the concentration profiles and the chronopotentiograms, allowing the discussion of possible limitations of the proposed method and its comparison with volumetric titrations of alkalinity. Finally, the P-alkalinity level is measured in a river sample to demonstrate the analytical usefulness of the proposed method. As a result of these preliminary results, we believe that this approach may become useful for the in situ determination of P-alkalinity in a range of matrixes.

  7. Spectrophotometric studies on alkaline isomerization of spinach ferredoxin.

    PubMed

    Hasumi, H; Nagata, E; Nakamura, S

    1985-10-01

    The gross protein structure, the microenvironment of the iron-sulfur cluster, and the effect of neutral salts on the molecular structure of spinach ferredoxin were studied by CD and absorption spectroscopy in the alkaline pH range. In the pH range of 7-11, the existence of reversible isomerization which consisted of at least two proton dissociation processes was indicated by the statical CD and absorption spectra. The CD changes in the visible and far-UV regions were dramatic upon elevation of the pH from neutral to alkaline, indicating a significant alteration of the microenvironment of the cluster and a decrease in the ordered secondary structures. The absorption change in the visible region due to pH elevation was small but clearly observed with a high signal-to-noise ratio. The numbers of protons involved in the respective processes and the apparent pK values obtained from the pH-dependence of the CD changes were in good agreement with those obtained from the pH-dependence of the absorption changes in the visible region. In addition, the rate constants obtained from the time courses of the CD and absorption changes agreed with one another. By the addition of 1 M NaCl, the CD and absorption spectra at alkaline pH were reversed almost to those at neutral pH without significant pH change. On the other hand, above pH 11, ferredoxin was found to be irreversibly denatured. Based on analyses of the statical CD and absorption spectra and of the time courses of the CD changes, the probable mechanism of the isomerization was considered to be as follows: (Formula: see text) where H stands for a proton, N-form for native ferredoxin at neutral pH, N*-form for alkaline ferredoxin below pH 11 which still has the iron-sulfur cluster but with disordered secondary structures of the polypeptide chain, and D-form for completely denatured ferredoxin above pH 11. These results lead to the conclusions that (1) the interaction between the protein moiety and the iron-sulfur cluster is

  8. Sphagnum establishment in alkaline fens: Importance of weather and water chemistry.

    PubMed

    Vicherová, Eliška; Hájek, Michal; Šmilauer, Petr; Hájek, Tomáš

    2017-02-15

    Sphagnum expansion to alkaline fens has accelerated during the last decades in Europe, leading to changes in diversity, habitat distributions and carbon storage. The causes are still not clearly understood and involve an interplay between climate change, hydrology, nutrient supply and Sphagnum physiology. We conducted a 4-year field experiment in eight fens in Central European highlands and assessed survival and establishment of individual apical shoot fragments of S. flexuosum, S. warnstorfii and S. squarrosum transplanted along the microtopographical gradient. In a laboratory experiment, we tested combined effects of desiccation and high calcium bicarbonate concentration on Sphagnum survival. We found that in unflooded positions, living shoots of Sphagnum and brown mosses lowered [Ca(2+)] and pH in their capillary water, in contrast to dead fragments; yet without differences between species. Survival and expansion of Sphagnum fragments, which did not die of acute calcium toxicity during first weeks/months, was negatively affected by dry weather and alkaline water chemistry, reflecting Sphagnum intolerance to desiccation and to combined high [Ca(2+)] and pH. Shoot fragments expanded to patches only when precipitation was high. Interestingly, non-toxic concentration of calcium bicarbonate reduced desiccation damage in Sphagnum, probably through protection of membranes or other cell components. This mechanism would facilitate Sphagnum survival in elevated, frequently desiccated microhabitats of calcareous fens such as brown-moss hummocks. However, since water-retaining capacity of few Sphagnum shoots is insufficient to change water chemistry in its surroundings, surface acidification may occur only once the environment (e.g. sufficient humidity) enabled expansion to larger mats. Then, the retained rainwater together with hardly decomposable Sphagnum litter would separate mire surface from groundwater, speeding up successional shift towards poor fens. Sphagnum

  9. Faster onset and more comfortable injection with alkalinized 2% lidocaine with epinephrine 1:100,000.

    PubMed

    Malamed, Stanley F; Tavana, Susan; Falkel, Mic

    2013-02-01

    The pH of lidocaine with epinephrine in dental cartridges ranges between 2.9 and 4.4. In this pH range, less than 0.1% of the anesthetic is in the de-ionized or "active" form. The acidity of the anesthetic may delay onset and contribute to injection pain. The study compared anesthetic latency and injection pain for alkalinized versus non-alkalinized anesthetic in inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANBs). The study buffered the anesthetic directly in the cartridges using a mixing pen device. The study included 20 participants, each receiving one control and one test IANB injection. The control solution was non-alkalinized 2% lidocaine/epinephrine 1:100,000 at pH 3.85. The test solution was 2% lidocaine/ epinephrine 1:100,000 alkalinized to pH 7.31. Latency was measured using endodontic ice confirmed with an electric pulp tester (EPT), and injection pain was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS). ONSET TIME: With the alkalinized anesthetic, 71% of participants achieved pulpal analgesia in 2 minutes or less. With non-alkalinized anesthetic, 12% achieved pulpal analgesia in 2 minutes or less (P = 0.001). The average time to pulpal analgesia for the non-alkalinized anesthetic was 6:37 (range 0:55 to 13:25). Average time to pulpal analgesia for alkalinized anesthetic was 1:51 (range 0:11 to 6:10) (P = 0.001). INJECTION PAIN RESULTS: 72% of the participants rated the alkalinized injection as more comfortable, 11% rated the non-alkalinized injection as more comfortable, and 17% reported no preference (P = 0.013). Forty-four percent of the patients receiving alkalinized anesthetic rated the injection pain as zero ("no pain") on a 100-mm VAS, compared to 6% of the patients who received non-alkalinized anesthetic (P = 0.056). Alkalinizing lidocaine with epinephrine toward physiologic pH immediately before injection significantly reduces anesthetic onset time and increases the comfort of the injection. Clinicians can begin procedures more quickly and give a more comfortable

  10. Changes in the bacterial populations of the highly alkaline saline soil of the former lake Texcoco (Mexico) following flooding.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Neria-González, Isabel; Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J; Estrada-Alvarado, Isabel; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Dendooven, Luc; Marsch, Rodolfo

    2009-07-01

    Flooding an extreme alkaline-saline soil decreased alkalinity and salinity, which will change the bacterial populations. Bacterial 16S rDNA libraries were generated of three soils with different electrolytic conductivity (EC), i.e. soil with EC 1.7 dS m(-1) and pH 7.80 (LOW soil), with EC 56 dS m(-1) and pH 10.11 (MEDIUM soil) and with EC 159 dS m(-1) and pH 10.02 (HIGH soil), using universal bacterial oligonucleotide primers, and 463 clone 16S rDNA sequences were analyzed phylogenetically. Library proportions and clone identification of the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Cloroflexi showed that the bacterial communities were different. Species and genera of the Rhizobiales, Rhodobacterales and Xanthomonadales orders of the alpha- and gamma-subdivision of Proteobacteria were found at the three sites. Species and genera of the Rhodospirillales, Sphingobacteriales, Clostridiales, Oscillatoriales and Caldilineales were found only in the HIGH soil, Sphingomonadales, Burkholderiales and Pseudomonadales in the MEDIUM soil, Myxococcales in the LOW soil, and Actinomycetales in the MEDIUM and LOW soils. It was found that the largest diversity at the order and species level was found in the MEDIUM soil as bacteria of both the HIGH and LOW soils were found in it.

  11. Simultaneous production of biopesticide and alkaline proteases by Bacillus thuringiensis using sewage sludge as a raw material.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, R D; Sikati Foko, V; Barnabe, S; Vidyarthi, A S; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2002-01-01

    The simultaneous production of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) based biopesticide and proteases was studied using synthetic medium and wastewater sludge as a raw material. The studies were conducted in shake flask and computer controlled 15-L capacity fermentors. Measuring viable cell and spore counts, entomotoxicity and protease activity monitored the progress of the biopesticide production process. A higher viable cell count and spore count was observed in synthetic Soya medium, however, higher entomotoxicity and protease activity were observed in wastewater sludge medium. Thus, the wastewater sludge is a better raw material than commercial Soya medium for the biopesticides and enzyme production. The maximum entomotoxicity and protease activity observed in the fermentor was 9,332 IU/microL and 4.58 IU/mL, respectively. The proteases produced by Bt were also characterised. Two types of proteases were detected; neutral proteases with pH optimum 7.0 and alkaline proteases with pH optimum 10-11. Further, two types of alkaline proteases were detected; one having a pH and temperature optimum at 10 and 50 degrees C while the other at 11 and 70 degrees C. The protease thermal stability was found to increase in the presence of CaCl2, indicating the proteases were metalloproteases.

  12. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  13. Evaluation of Alkaline Cleaner Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partz, Earl

    1998-01-01

    Alkaline cleaners used to process aluminum substrates have contained chromium as the corrosion inhibitor. Chromium is a hazardous substance whose use and control are described by environmental laws. Replacement materials that have the characteristics of chromated alkaline cleaners need to be found that address both the cleaning requirements and environmental impacts. This report will review environmentally friendly candidates evaluated as non-chromium alkaline cleaner replacements and methods used to compare those candidates one versus another. The report will also list characteristics used to select candidates based on their declared contents. It will also describe and evaluate methods used to discriminate among the large number of prospective candidates.

  14. Alkaline Comet Assay for Assessing DNA Damage in Individual Cells.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xinzhu; Wang, Zemin; Klaunig, James E

    2015-08-06

    Single-cell gel electrophoresis, commonly called a comet assay, is a simple and sensitive method for assessing DNA damage at the single-cell level. It is an important technique in genetic toxicological studies. The comet assay performed under alkaline conditions (pH >13) is considered the optimal version for identifying agents with genotoxic activity. The alkaline comet assay is capable of detecting DNA double-strand breaks, single-strand breaks, alkali-labile sites, DNA-DNA/DNA-protein cross-linking, and incomplete excision repair sites. The inclusion of digestion of lesion-specific DNA repair enzymes in the procedure allows the detection of various DNA base alterations, such as oxidative base damage. This unit describes alkaline comet assay procedures for assessing DNA strand breaks and oxidative base alterations. These methods can be applied in a variety of cells from in vitro and in vivo experiments, as well as human studies.

  15. Neutral and alkaline cellulases: Production, engineering, and applications.

    PubMed

    Ben Hmad, Ines; Gargouri, Ali

    2017-08-01

    Neutral and alkaline cellulases from microorganisms constitute a major group of the industrial enzymes and find applications in various industries. Screening is the important ways to get novel cellulases. Most fungal cellulases have acidic pH optima, except some fungi like Humicola insolens species. However, new applications require the use of neutral and alkaline cellulases in food, brewery and wine, animal feed, textile and laundry, pulp and paper industries, agriculture as well in scientific research purposes. Indeed, the demand for these enzymes is growing more rapidly than ever before, and becomes the driving force for research on engineering the cellulolytic enzymes. Here, we present an overview of the biotechnological research for neutral and alkaline cellulases. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Phytoremediation of arsenic- and molybdenum-contaminated alkaline wastewater by Eleocharis acicularis in winter in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Shusaku; Okazaki, Kenji; Kurahashi, Toshiyuki; Sakakibara, Masayuki

    2017-06-01

    Phytoremediation using aquatic plants is a sustainable, low-cost measure for remediating water contaminated by toxic heavy metals. In this study, we conducted a channel experiment using Eleocharis acicularis in heavy metal-contaminated mildly alkaline wastewater under unfavorable plant habitat conditions in winter in northeastern Japan. The wastewater from an embankment consisting of Neogene marine sediments had a temperature of 10-15 °C and a pH of about 9, and it contained ∼0.02 mg/L of As and ∼ 0.23 mg/L of Mo. About 16 kg (fresh weight) of E. acicularis was laid in a plastic channel measuring 30 cm in width by 20 m in length, and the channel was enclosed in a tunnel greenhouse. The experiment was conducted for the 3 months from November 2015 at an average flow rate of 0.3 L/min and an air temperature of -4 to 19 °C. No reductions in As or Mo concentrations in the outflow were detected. However, at 3 months, the E. acicularis showed accumulations of ∼7 mg/kg As and ∼18 mg/kg Mo as dry weight, indicating that this remediation method is workable in an unfavorable low-temperature, mildly alkaline environment.

  17. Design factors and performance efficiencies of successive alkalinity producing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jage, C.R.; Zipper, C.E.

    1999-07-01

    Successive Alkalinity Producing Systems (SAPS) are passive treatment wetlands that have been used successfully in renovating acidic mine drainage (AMD) for several years. Unfortunately, design parameters and treatment efficiency of these systems vary widely due to a lack of clear, consistent design and construction guidelines. This study is investigating ten operating SAPS systems in Virginia and West Virginia for the purpose of identifying the relationship of design and construction factors to system performance. Influent and effluent water samples were collected for a period of two years or longer by the operators of each system. Each sample was analyzed for pH, alkalinity, acidity, sulfate, total iron, total manganese, and aluminum. The individual systems were also characterized according to system age, size, and construction materials. Residence times for the ten systems ranged from 4.5 hours to 13.31 days. On average, they were able to raise the pH 0.65 units and generate a net alkalinity of 84.84 mg/l as CaCO{sub 3}. Iron and manganese removal did occur in the SAPS cells, but the majority of the removal took place in post-SAPS settling ponds. Net alkalinity generation was positively correlated with residence time and iron removal rates suggesting a synergistic effect. Seasonal variation in alkalinity production was also noted, possibly indicating changes in alkalinity generation rates by dissimilatory sulfate reduction. These data provide the foundation for the development of a user-oriented SAPS design model based solely on influent AMD chemistry and final treatment goals as input parameters.

  18. Long-term alkalinity decrease and acidification of estuaries in northwestern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinping; Pollack, Jennifer Beseres; McCutcheon, Melissa R; Montagna, Paul A; Ouyang, Zhangxian

    2015-03-17

    More than four decades of alkalinity and pH data (late 1960s to 2010) from coastal bays along the northwestern Gulf of Mexico were analyzed for temporal changes across a climatic gradient of decreasing rainfall and freshwater inflow, from northeast to southwest. The majority (16 out of 27) of these bays (including coastal waters) showed a long-term reduction in alkalinity at a rate of 3.0-21.6 μM yr(-1). Twenty-two bays exhibited pH decreases at a rate of 0.0014-0.0180 yr(-1). In contrast, a northernmost coastal bay exhibited increases in both alkalinity and pH. Overall, the two rates showed a significant positive correlation, indicating that most of these bays, especially those at lower latitudes, have been experiencing long-term acidification. The observed alkalinity decrease may be caused by reduced riverine alkalinity export, a result of precipitation decline under drought conditions, and freshwater diversion for human consumption, as well as calcification in these bays. A decrease in alkalinity inventory and accompanying acidification may have negative impacts on shellfish production in these waters. In addition, subsequent reduction in alkalinity export from these bays to the adjacent coastal ocean may also decrease the buffer capacity of the latter against future acidification.

  19. Regulation of intestinal calcium absorption by luminal calcium content: role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Brun, Lucas R; Brance, María L; Lombarte, Mercedes; Lupo, Maela; Di Loreto, Verónica E; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2014-07-01

    Intestinal alkaline phosphatase is a brush border enzyme that is stimulated by calcium. Inhibition of intestinal alkaline phosphatase increases intestinal calcium absorption. We hypothesized that intestinal alkaline phosphatase acts as a minute-to-minute regulatory mechanism of calcium entry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism by which intestinal luminal calcium controls intestinal calcium absorption. We performed kinetic studies with purified intestinal alkaline phosphatase and everted duodenal sacs and showed that intestinal alkaline phosphatase modifies the luminal pH as a function of enzyme concentration and calcium luminal content. A decrease in pH occurred simultaneously with a decrease in calcium absorption. The inhibition of intestinal alkaline phosphatase by l-phenylalanine caused an increase in calcium absorption. This effect was also confirmed in calcium uptake experiments with isolated duodenal cells. Changes in luminal pH arising from intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity induced by luminal calcium concentration modulate intestinal calcium absorption. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Energetics of Amino Acid Synthesis in Alkaline Hydrothermal Environments.

    PubMed

    Kitadai, Norio

    2015-12-01

    Alkaline hydrothermal systems have received considerable attention as candidates for the origin and evolution of life on the primitive Earth. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the thermodynamic properties of amino acids, which are necessary components for life, at high temperatures and alkaline pH. These properties were estimated using experimental high-temperature volume and heat capacity data reported in the literature for several amino acids, together with correlation algorithms and the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state. This approach enabled determination of a complete set of the standard molal thermodynamic data and the revised HKF parameters for the 20 protein amino acids in their zwitterionic and ionization states. The obtained dataset was then used to evaluate the energetics of amino acid syntheses from simple inorganic precursors (CO2, H2, NH3 and H2S) in a simulated alkaline hydrothermal system on the Hadean Earth. Results show that mixing between CO2-rich seawater and the H2-rich hydrothermal fluid can produce energetically favorable conditions for amino acid syntheses, particularly in the lower-temperature region of such systems. Together with data related to the pH and temperature dependences of the energetics of amino acid polymerizations presented in earlier reports, these results suggest the following. Hadean alkaline hydrothermal settings, where steep pH and temperature gradients may have existed between cool, slightly acidic Hadean ocean water and hot, alkaline hydrothermal fluids at the vent-ocean interface, may be energetically the most suitable environment for the synthesis and polymerization of amino acids.

  1. Energetics of Amino Acid Synthesis in Alkaline Hydrothermal Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadai, Norio

    2015-12-01

    Alkaline hydrothermal systems have received considerable attention as candidates for the origin and evolution of life on the primitive Earth. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the thermodynamic properties of amino acids, which are necessary components for life, at high temperatures and alkaline pH. These properties were estimated using experimental high-temperature volume and heat capacity data reported in the literature for several amino acids, together with correlation algorithms and the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state. This approach enabled determination of a complete set of the standard molal thermodynamic data and the revised HKF parameters for the 20 protein amino acids in their zwitterionic and ionization states. The obtained dataset was then used to evaluate the energetics of amino acid syntheses from simple inorganic precursors (CO2, H2, NH3 and H2S) in a simulated alkaline hydrothermal system on the Hadean Earth. Results show that mixing between CO2-rich seawater and the H2-rich hydrothermal fluid can produce energetically favorable conditions for amino acid syntheses, particularly in the lower-temperature region of such systems. Together with data related to the pH and temperature dependences of the energetics of amino acid polymerizations presented in earlier reports, these results suggest the following. Hadean alkaline hydrothermal settings, where steep pH and temperature gradients may have existed between cool, slightly acidic Hadean ocean water and hot, alkaline hydrothermal fluids at the vent-ocean interface, may be energetically the most suitable environment for the synthesis and polymerization of amino acids.

  2. Production of alkaline protease from Cellulosimicrobium cellulans

    PubMed Central

    Ferracini-Santos, Luciana; Sato, Hélia H

    2009-01-01

    Cellulosimicrobium cellulans is one of the microorganisms that produces a wide variety of yeast cell wall-degrading enzymes, β-1,3-glucanase, protease and chitinase. Dried cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as carbon and nitrogen source for cell growth and protease production. The medium components KH2PO4, KOH and dried yeast cells showed a significant effect (p<0.05) on the factorial fractional design. A second design was prepared using two factors: pH and percentage of dried yeast cells. The results showed that the culture medium for the maximum production of protease was 0.2 g/l of MgSO4.7H2O, 2.0 g/l of (NH4)2SO4 and 8% of dried yeast cells in 0.15M phosphate buffer at pH 8.0. The maximum alkaline protease production was 7.0 ± 0.27 U/ml over the center point. Crude protease showed best activity at 50ºC and pH 7.0-8.0, and was stable at 50ºC. PMID:24031317

  3. Alkaline nanoparticle coatings improve resin bonding of 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogenphosphate-conditioned zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Mengke; Lu, Zhicen; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Huaiqin; Xie, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Creating an alkaline environment prior to 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogenphosphate (MDP) conditioning improves the resin bonding of zirconia. The present study evaluated the effects of four alkaline coatings with different water solubilities and pH values on resin bonding of MDP-conditioned zirconia. Two alkaline nanoparticle coatings were studied in particular. Thermodynamics calculations were performed to evaluate the strengths of MDP-tetragonal phase zirconia chemical bonds at different pH values. Zirconia surfaces with and without alkaline coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; alkaline coatings included NaOH, Ca(OH)2, nano-MgO, and nano-Zr(OH)4. A shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed to evaluate the effects of the four alkaline coatings on bonding; the alkaline coatings were applied to the surfaces prior to conditioning the zirconia with MDP-containing primers. Gibbs free energies of the MDP-tetragonal zirconia crystal model coordination reaction in different pH environments were −583.892 (NaOH), −569.048 [Ca(OH)2], −547.393 (MgO), and −530.279 kJ/mol [Zr(OH)4]. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the alkaline coatings improved bonding in the following order: NaOH > Ca(OH)2 > MgO > Zr(OH)4. Statistical analysis of SBS tests showed a different result. SBSs were significantly different in groups that had different alkaline coatings, but it was not influenced by different primers. All four alkaline coatings increased SBS compared to control groups. Of the four coatings, nano-Zr(OH)4 and -MgO showed higher SBS. Therefore, preparing nano-Zr(OH)4 or -MgO coatings prior to conditioning with MDP-containing primers may potentially improve resin bonding of zirconia in the clinic. PMID:27785013

  4. Alkaline nanoparticle coatings improve resin bonding of 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogenphosphate-conditioned zirconia.

    PubMed

    Qian, Mengke; Lu, Zhicen; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Huaiqin; Xie, Haifeng

    Creating an alkaline environment prior to 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogenphosphate (MDP) conditioning improves the resin bonding of zirconia. The present study evaluated the effects of four alkaline coatings with different water solubilities and pH values on resin bonding of MDP-conditioned zirconia. Two alkaline nanoparticle coatings were studied in particular. Thermodynamics calculations were performed to evaluate the strengths of MDP-tetragonal phase zirconia chemical bonds at different pH values. Zirconia surfaces with and without alkaline coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; alkaline coatings included NaOH, Ca(OH)2, nano-MgO, and nano-Zr(OH)4. A shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed to evaluate the effects of the four alkaline coatings on bonding; the alkaline coatings were applied to the surfaces prior to conditioning the zirconia with MDP-containing primers. Gibbs free energies of the MDP-tetragonal zirconia crystal model coordination reaction in different pH environments were -583.892 (NaOH), -569.048 [Ca(OH)2], -547.393 (MgO), and -530.279 kJ/mol [Zr(OH)4]. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the alkaline coatings improved bonding in the following order: NaOH > Ca(OH)2 > MgO > Zr(OH)4. Statistical analysis of SBS tests showed a different result. SBSs were significantly different in groups that had different alkaline coatings, but it was not influenced by different primers. All four alkaline coatings increased SBS compared to control groups. Of the four coatings, nano-Zr(OH)4 and -MgO showed higher SBS. Therefore, preparing nano-Zr(OH)4 or -MgO coatings prior to conditioning with MDP-containing primers may potentially improve resin bonding of zirconia in the clinic.

  5. Extracellular Alkalinization as a Defense Response in Potato Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moroz, Natalia; Fritch, Karen R.; Marcec, Matthew J.; Tripathi, Diwaker; Smertenko, Andrei; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. An increase in extracellular pH is known to be an early defense response in plants. In this study, we demonstrate extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potatoes. Using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-derived elicitors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also assessed the defense response against a variety of potato pathogens, such as protists (Phytophthora infestans and Spongospora subterranea) and fungi (Verticillium dahliae and Colletotrichum coccodes). Our results show that extracellular pH increases within 30 min in proportion to the number of pathogen spores added. Consistently with the alkalinization effect, the higher transcription level of several defense-related genes and production of reactive oxygen species was observed. Our results demonstrate that the alkalinization response is an effective marker to study early stages of defense response in potatoes. PMID:28174578

  6. Extracellular Alkalinization as a Defense Response in Potato Cells.

    PubMed

    Moroz, Natalia; Fritch, Karen R; Marcec, Matthew J; Tripathi, Diwaker; Smertenko, Andrei; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. An increase in extracellular pH is known to be an early defense response in plants. In this study, we demonstrate extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potatoes. Using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-derived elicitors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also assessed the defense response against a variety of potato pathogens, such as protists (Phytophthora infestans and Spongospora subterranea) and fungi (Verticillium dahliae and Colletotrichum coccodes). Our results show that extracellular pH increases within 30 min in proportion to the number of pathogen spores added. Consistently with the alkalinization effect, the higher transcription level of several defense-related genes and production of reactive oxygen species was observed. Our results demonstrate that the alkalinization response is an effective marker to study early stages of defense response in potatoes.

  7. Mammalian intestinal alkaline phosphatase acts as highly active exopolyphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, B; Schröder, H C

    2001-06-11

    Recent results revealed that inorganic polyphosphates (polyP), being energy-rich linear polymers of orthophosphate residues known from bacteria and yeast, also exist in higher eukaryotes. However, the enzymatic basis of their metabolism especially in mammalian cells is still uncertain. Here we demonstrate for the first time that alkaline phosphatase from calf intestine (CIAP) is able to cleave polyP molecules up to a chain length of about 800. The enzyme acts as an exopolyphosphatase degrading polyP in a processive manner. The pH optimum is in the alkaline range. Divalent cations are not required for catalytic activity but inhibit the degradation of polyP. The rate of hydrolysis of short-chain polyP by CIAP is comparable to that of the standard alkaline phosphatase (AP) substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate. The specific activity of the enzyme decreases with increasing chain length of the polymer both in the alkaline and in the neutral pH range. The K(m) of the enzyme also decreases with increasing chain length. The mammalian tissue non-specific isoform of AP was not able to hydrolyze polyP under the conditions applied while the placental-type AP and the bacterial (Escherichia coli) AP displayed polyP-degrading activity.

  8. The catalytic properties of alkaline phosphatases under various conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atyaksheva, L. F.; Chukhrai, E. S.; Poltorak, O. M.

    2008-11-01

    A comparative study was performed to examine the catalytic properties of alkaline phosphatases from bacteria Escherichia coli and bovine and chicken intestines. The activity of enzyme dimers and tetramers was determined. The activity of the dimer was three or four times higher than that of the tetramer. The maximum activity and affinity for 4-nitrophenylphosphate was observed for the bacterial alkaline phosphatase ( K M = 1.7 × 10-5 M, V max = 1800 μmol/(min mg of protein) for dimers and V max = 420 μmol/(min mg of protein) for tetramers). The Michaelis constants were equal for two animal phosphatases in various buffer media (pH 8.5) ((3.5 ± 0.2) × 10-4 M). Five buffer systems were investigated: tris, carbonate, hepes, borate, and glycine buffers, and the lowest catalytic activity of alkaline phosphatases at equal pH was observed in the borate buffer (for enzyme from bovine intestine, V max = 80 μmol/(min mg of protein)). Cu2+ cations formed a complex with tris-(oxymethyl)-aminomethane ( tris-HCl buffer) and inhibited the intestine alkaline phosphatases by a noncompetitive mechanism.

  9. pH in atomic scale simulations of electrochemical interfaces.

    PubMed

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Chan, Karen; Ahmed, Rizwan; Tripković, Vladimir; Björketun, Mårten E

    2013-07-07

    Electrochemical reaction rates can strongly depend on pH, and there is increasing interest in electrocatalysis in alkaline solution. To date, no method has been devised to address pH in atomic scale simulations. We present a simple method to determine the atomic structure of the metal|solution interface at a given pH and electrode potential. Using Pt(111)|water as an example, we show the effect of pH on the interfacial structure, and discuss its impact on reaction energies and barriers. This method paves the way for ab initio studies of pH effects on the structure and electrocatalytic activity of electrochemical interfaces.

  10. Amelioration of an Ultisol profile acidity using crop straws combined with alkaline slag.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiu-yu; Masud, M M; Li, Zhong-yi; Xu, Ren-kou

    2015-07-01

    The acidity of Ultisols (pH <5) is detrimental to crop production. Technologies should be explored to promote base saturation and liming effect for amelioration of Ultisol pH. Column leaching experiments were conducted to investigate the amelioration effects of canola straw (CS) and peanut straw (PS) in single treatment and in combination whether with alkaline slag (AS) or with lime on Ultisol profile acidity. The treatment without liming materials was set as control, and the AS and lime in single treatment are set for comparison. Results indicated that all the liming materials increase soil profile pH and soil exchangeable base cations at the 0-40-cm depth, except that the lime had amelioration effect just on 0 to 15-cm profile. The amelioration effect of the liming materials on surface soil acidity was mainly dependent on the ash alkalinity in organic materials or acid neutralization capacity of inorganic materials. Specific adsorption of sulfate (SO4(2-)) or organic anions, decarboxylation of organic acids/anions, and the association of H(+) with organic anions induced a "liming effect" of crop residues and AS on subsoil acidity. Moreover, SO4(2-) and chloride (Cl(-)) in PS, CS, and AS primarily induced base cations to move downward to subsoil and exchange with exchangeable aluminum (Al(3+)) and protons (H(+)). These anions also promoted the exchangeable Al to leach out of the soil profile. The CS was more effective than PS in decreasing soil acidity in the subsoil, which mainly resulted from higher sulfur (S) and Cl content in CS compared to PS. The CS combined with AS was the better amendment choice in practical agricultural systems.

  11. Alkaline protease production by a strain of marine yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Wang; Zhenming, Chi; Chunling, Ma

    2006-07-01

    Yeast strain 10 with high yield of protease was isolated from sediments of saltern near Qingdao, China. The protease had the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 45°C. The optimal medium for the maximum alkaline protease production of strain 10 was 2.5g soluble starch and 2.0g NaNO3 in 100mL seawater with initial pH 6.0. The optimal cultivation conditions for the maximum protease production were temperature 24.5°C, aeration rate 8.0L min-1 and agitation speed 150r min-1 Under the optimal conditions, 623.1 U mg-1 protein of alkaline protease was reached in the culture within 30h of fermentation.

  12. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    The Tucker sand of Helper (KS) field is a candidate for surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding. The geology of the Helper site is typical of many DOE Class I reservoirs. The Tucker sand of Helper field was deposited in a fluvial dominated deltaic environment. Helper oil can be mobilized with either chemical system 2 or chemical system 3, as described in this report. Oil fields in the Gulf Coast region are also good candidates for surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding. The results from laboratory tests conducted in Berea sandstone cores with oil brine from Helper (KS) field are encouraging. The crude oil is viscous and non-acidic and, yet, was mobilized by the chemical formulations described in this report. Significant amounts of the oil were mobilized under simulated reservoir conditions. The results in Berea sandstone cores were encouraging and should be verified by tests with field core. Consumption of alkali, measured with field core, was very low. Surfactant loss appeared to be acceptable. Despite the good potential for mobilization of Helper oil, certain reservoir characteristics such as low permeability, compartmentalization, and shallow depth place constraints on applications of any chemical system in the Tucker sand. These constraints are typical of many DOE Class I reservoirs. Although Hepler field is not a perfect reservoir in which to apply surfactant- enhanced alkaline flooding, Hepler oil is particularly amenable to mobilization by surfactant-enhanced alkaline systems. A field test is recommended, dependent upon final evaluation of well logs and cores from the proposed pilot area. 14 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Synergistic degradation of konjac glucomannan by alkaline and thermal method.

    PubMed

    Jin, Weiping; Mei, Ting; Wang, Yuntao; Xu, Wei; Li, Jing; Zhou, Bin; Li, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The application of konjac glucomannan (KGM) in the food industry is always limited by its high viscosity. Hereby, low-viscosity KGM was prepared by alkaline-thermal degradation method. This process was demonstrated by the changes of average molecular weight and a kinetic model was developed. The results revealed that high alkalinity and high temperature had a synergetic effect on degradation. The structure of hydrolysates was evaluated by periodate oxidation and their fluidly properties were researched by rheology measurements. The degradation was divided into two regimes. The rate of the first regime (within 1h) is higher than that of the second one (last 1h). It is found that alkaline hydrolysis and deacetylation have a synergistic effect on the degradation under high alkalinity (pH 9.2) and low temperature condition (25 °C). Finally, rheology parameters showed alkaline-thermal degradation is a promising way that can be applied in practice to degrade KGM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase. Kinetic studies with the tetrameric enzyme.

    PubMed

    Halford, S E; Schlesinger, M J; Gutfreund, H

    1972-03-01

    1. The stability of the tetrameric form of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase was examined by analytical ultracentrifugation. 2. The stopped-flow technique was used to study the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl phosphates by the alkaline phosphatase tetramer at pH7.5 and 8.3. In both cases transient product formation was observed before the steady state was attained. Both transients consisted of the liberation of 1mol of nitrophenol/2mol of enzyme subunits within the dead-time of the apparatus. The steady-state rates were identical with those observed with the dimer under the same conditions. 3. The binding of 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl phosphonate to the alkaline phosphatase tetramer was studied by the temperature-jump technique. The self-association of two dimers to form the tetramer is linked to a conformation change within the dimer. This accounts for the differences between the transient phases in the reactions of the dimer and the tetramer with substrate. 4. Addition of P(i) to the alkaline phosphatase tetramer caused it to dissociate into dimers. The tetramer is unable to bind this ligand. It is suggested that the tetramer undergoes a compulsory dissociation before the completion of its first turnover with substrate. 5. On the basis of these findings a mechanism is proposed for the involvement of the alkaline phosphatase tetramer in the physiology of E. coli.

  15. Treatment of Alkaline Cr(VI)-Contaminated Leachate with an Alkaliphilic Metal-Reducing Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Watts, Mathew P; Khijniak, Tatiana V; Boothman, Christopher; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2015-08-15

    Chromium in its toxic Cr(VI) valence state is a common contaminant particularly associated with alkaline environments. A well-publicized case of this occurred in Glasgow, United Kingdom, where poorly controlled disposal of a cementitious industrial by-product, chromite ore processing residue (COPR), has resulted in extensive contamination by Cr(VI)-contaminated alkaline leachates. In the search for viable bioremediation treatments for Cr(VI), a variety of bacteria that are capable of reduction of the toxic and highly soluble Cr(VI) to the relatively nontoxic and less mobile Cr(III) oxidation state, predominantly under circumneutral pH conditions, have been isolated. Recently, however, alkaliphilic bacteria that have the potential to reduce Cr(VI) under alkaline conditions have been identified. This study focuses on the application of a metal-reducing bacterium to the remediation of alkaline Cr(VI)-contaminated leachates from COPR. This bacterium, belonging to the Halomonas genus, was found to exhibit growth concomitant to Cr(VI) reduction under alkaline conditions (pH 10). Bacterial cells were able to rapidly remove high concentrations of aqueous Cr(VI) (2.5 mM) under anaerobic conditions, up to a starting pH of 11. Cr(VI) reduction rates were controlled by pH, with slower removal observed at pH 11, compared to pH 10, while no removal was observed at pH 12. The reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) resulted in the precipitation of Cr(III) biominerals, which were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (TEM-EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effectiveness of this haloalkaliphilic bacterium for Cr(VI) reduction at high pH suggests potential for its use as an in situ treatment of COPR and other alkaline Cr(VI)-contaminated environments.

  16. Treatment of Alkaline Cr(VI)-Contaminated Leachate with an Alkaliphilic Metal-Reducing Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Mathew P.; Khijniak, Tatiana V.; Boothman, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Chromium in its toxic Cr(VI) valence state is a common contaminant particularly associated with alkaline environments. A well-publicized case of this occurred in Glasgow, United Kingdom, where poorly controlled disposal of a cementitious industrial by-product, chromite ore processing residue (COPR), has resulted in extensive contamination by Cr(VI)-contaminated alkaline leachates. In the search for viable bioremediation treatments for Cr(VI), a variety of bacteria that are capable of reduction of the toxic and highly soluble Cr(VI) to the relatively nontoxic and less mobile Cr(III) oxidation state, predominantly under circumneutral pH conditions, have been isolated. Recently, however, alkaliphilic bacteria that have the potential to reduce Cr(VI) under alkaline conditions have been identified. This study focuses on the application of a metal-reducing bacterium to the remediation of alkaline Cr(VI)-contaminated leachates from COPR. This bacterium, belonging to the Halomonas genus, was found to exhibit growth concomitant to Cr(VI) reduction under alkaline conditions (pH 10). Bacterial cells were able to rapidly remove high concentrations of aqueous Cr(VI) (2.5 mM) under anaerobic conditions, up to a starting pH of 11. Cr(VI) reduction rates were controlled by pH, with slower removal observed at pH 11, compared to pH 10, while no removal was observed at pH 12. The reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) resulted in the precipitation of Cr(III) biominerals, which were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (TEM-EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effectiveness of this haloalkaliphilic bacterium for Cr(VI) reduction at high pH suggests potential for its use as an in situ treatment of COPR and other alkaline Cr(VI)-contaminated environments. PMID:26048926

  17. Managing land application of coal seam water: A field study of land amendment irrigation using saline-sodic and alkaline water on a Red Vertisol.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J McL; Marchuk, A; Raine, S R; Dalzell, S A; Macfarlane, D C

    2016-12-15

    Coal seam (CS) gas operations coproduce water with gas from confined CS aquifers. This CS water represents a potential agricultural resource if the water is able to be chemically amended to comply with management guidelines. Stoichiometric quantities of sulphur and gypsum amendments can be used to neutralise the alkalinity and reduce the sodicity of CS water respectively. These amendments can either be mixed in-line at a water treatment plant or applied directly to land prior to the application of CS water (a practice termed land amendment irrigation - LAI). This study compared the efficacy of LAI with in-line chemical amendment of CS water and irrigation with non-saline, non-sodic and non-alkaline (good quality) water under field conditions in southern Queensland. Soil chemical properties, soluble Ca, Mg, K, Na, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, chloride and alkalinity, as well as saturated hydraulic conductivity were measured to determine the impact of the irrigation treatments on soil chemical and physical conditions. Irrigation of lucerne pasture using solid-set sprinklers applied a total of 6.7 ML/ha of each treatment irrigation water to the experimental plots over a 10-month period. Alkalinity was neutralised using LAI, with no increase in soil alkalinity observed. Soil sodicity did not exceed threshold electrolyte concentration values under either CS water irrigation treatment. Soil chemical and physical properties were comparable for both LAI and in-line chemical amendment of CS water. Soil saturated hydraulic conductivity was maintained under all irrigation treatments. Results showed that the constrained capacity of the irrigation system was unable to meet crop evapotranspiration demand. This resulted in accumulation of salt within the root-zone under the CS water treatments compared to the good quality water treatment. LAI successfully chemically amended Bowen Basin CS water facilitating its beneficial use for agricultural irrigation. Copyright © 2016

  18. Sensitivity of mitomycin C and nitrogen mustard crosslinks to extreme alkaline conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenert, D.C.; Cleaver, J.E.

    1984-09-17

    DNA-DNA crosslinks in cells treated with mitomycin C, nitrogen mustard, or decarbamoyl mitomycin C were measured in alkaline isopycnic gradients as a function of pH. Crosslinks from cells treated with mitomycin C and nitrogen mustard, which react with DNA purines, could be detected at pH 12.5 but not at pH 14. No crosslinks from cells treated with decarbamoyl mitomycin C were detected at either pH. Previous studies with cells exposed to psoralen derivatives plus 360 nm light, which produce DNA-DNA crosslinks with pyrimidines, demonstrated stable crosslinks at pH 14. These studies indicate that DNA-DNA crosslinks involving DNA purines are much less stable at high pH than those involving pyrimidines, and that methods involving exposure to extreme alkaline conditions may give inaccurate information for some agents. 25 references, 1 figure.

  19. Ocean Acidification: Coccolithophore's Light Controlled Effect on Alkalinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbins, W.

    2015-12-01

    Coccolithophorids, which play a significant role in the flux of calcite and organic carbon from the photic region to deeper pelagic and benthic zones, are potentially far more useful than siliceous phytoplankton for ocean fertilization projects designed to sequester CO2. However, the production of H+ ions during calcification (HCO3 + Ca+ —> CaCO3 + H+) has resulted in localized acidification around coccolithophore blooms. It has been hypothesized that under the correct light conditions photosynthesis could proceed at a rate such that CO2 is removed in amounts equimolar or greater than the H+ produced by calcification, allowing stable or increasing alkalinity despite ongoing calcification. Previously, this effect had not been demonstrated under laboratory conditions. Fifteen Emiliania huxleyi cultures were separated into equal groups with each receiving: 0, 6, 12, 18, or 24 hours of light each day for 24 days. Daily pH, cell density, and temperature measurements revealed a strong positive correlation between light exposure and pH, and no significant decline in pH in any of the cultures. Alkalinity increases were temperature independent and not strongly correlated with cell density, implying photosynthetic removal of carbon dioxide as the root cause. The average pH across living cultures increased from 7.9 to 8.3 over the first week and changed little for the reminder of the 24-day period. The results demonstrate coccolithophorids can increase alkalinity across a broad range of cell densities, despite the acidification inherent to the calcification process. If the light-alkalinity effect reported here proves scalable to larger cultures, Emiliania huxleyi are a strong candidate for carbon sequestration via targeted ocean fertilization.

  20. Alkaline mineral water lowers bone resorption even in calcium sufficiency: alkaline mineral water and bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Emma; Krieg, Marc-Antoine; Aeschlimann, Jean-Marc; Burckhardt, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Dietary acid charge enhances bone loss. Bicarbonate or alkali diet decreases bone resorption in humans. We compared the effect of an alkaline mineral water, rich in bicarbonate, with that of an acid one, rich in calcium only, on bone markers, in young women with a normal calcium intake. This study compared water A (per litre: 520 mg Ca, 291 mg HCO(3)(-), 1160 mg SO(4)(-), Potential Renal Acid load (PRAL) +9.2 mEq) with water B (per litre: 547 mg Ca, 2172 mg HCO(3)(-), 9 mg SO(4)(-), PRAL -11.2 mEq). 30 female dieticians aged 26.3 yrs (SD 7.3) were randomized into two groups, followed an identical weighed, balanced diet (965 mg Ca) and drank 1.5 l/d of the assigned water. Changes in blood and urine electrolytes, C-telopeptides (CTX), urinary pH and bicarbonate, and serum PTH were measured after 2 and 4 weeks. The two groups were not different at baseline, and showed a similar increase in urinary calcium excretion. Urinary pH and bicarbonate excretion increased with water B, but not with water A. PTH (p=0.022) and S-CTX (p=0.023) decreased with water B but not with water A. In calcium sufficiency, the acid calcium-rich water had no effect on bone resorption, while the alkaline water rich in bicarbonate led to a significant decrease of PTH and of S-CTX.

  1. The alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite magmatism from Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruberti, E.; Gomes, C. D. B.; Comin-Chiaramonti, P.

    2015-12-01

    Early to Late Cretaceous lasting to Paleocene alkaline magmatism from southern Brazil is found associated with major extensional structural features in and around the Paraná Basin and grouped into various provinces on the basis of several data. Magmatism is variable in size, mode of occurrence and composition. The alkaline rocks are dominantly potassic, a few occurrences showing sodic affinity. The more abundant silicate rocks are evolved undersaturated to saturated in silica syenites, displaying large variation in igneous forms. Less evolved types are restricted to subvolcanic environments and outcrops of effusive suites occur rarely. Cumulatic mafic and ultramafic rock types are very common, particularly in the alkali-carbonatitic complexes. Carbonatite bodies are represented by Ca-carbonatites and Mg-carbonatites and more scarcely by Fe-carbonatites. Available radiometric ages for the alkaline rocks fit on three main chronological groups: around 130 Ma, subcoveal with the Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites of the Paraná Basin, 100-110 Ma and 80-90 Ma (Late Cretaceous). The alkaline magmatism also extends into Paleocene times, as indicated by ages from some volcanic lavas. Geochemically, alkaline potassic and sodic rock types are distinguished by their negative and positive Nb-Ta anomalies, respectively. Negative spikes in Nb-Ta are also a feature common to the associated tholeiitic rocks. Sr-Nd-Pb systematics confirm the contribution of both HIMU and EMI mantle components in the formation of the alkaline rocks. Notably, Early and Late Cretaceous carbonatites have the same isotopic Sr-Nd initial ratios of the associated alkaline rocks. C-O isotopic Sr-Nd isotopic ratios indicate typical mantle signature for some carbonatites and the influence of post-magmatic processes in others. Immiscibility of liquids of phonolitic composition, derived from mafic alkaline parental magmas, has been responsible for the origin of the carbonatites. Close association of alkaline

  2. [Contrastive analysis on soil alkalinization predicting models based on measured reflectance and TM image reflectance].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Xiong, Hei-Gang; Long, Tao; Lu, Wen-Juan

    2011-01-01

    Based on the monitored data of soil pH and measured Vis-NIR reflectance on spot in Qitai oasis alkalinized area in Xinjiang, as well as comparison of the relationship between measured reflectance and soil pH and the relationship between TM reflectance and soil pH, both of the reflectance multivariate linear regression models were built to evaluate soil alkalinization level, and the model accuracy of pH fitting was discussed with error inspection of post-sample. The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between soil pH and reflectance. With pH rising the reflectance increased concurrently. So the alkalinization soil characterized by hardening had good spectral response characteristics. Both measured reflectance and TM image reflectance had good potential ability for change detection of the alkalinization soil. The pH predicting model of measured reflectance had higher accuracy and the major error was from different hardening state. If building model by TM reflectance directly, the accuracy of fitting was lower because of the vegetation information in image spectrum. With the vegetation factor removed with NDVI, the accuracy of TM predicting model was near the accuracy of measured reflectance predicting model, and both of the model levels were good.

  3. Alkaline buffers release EDRF from bovine cultured aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, J. A.; de Nucci, G.; Warner, T. D.; Vane, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    1. Release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) and prostacyclin (PGI2) from bovine cultured aortic endothelial cells (EC) was measured by bioassay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. 2. Bradykinin (BK, 3-30 pmol), adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 2-6 nmol) or the sodium ionophore monensin (40-100 nmol) injected through a column of EC released EDRF. L-Arginine free base (FB; 10-20 mumol) or D-arginine FB (10-20 mumol) injected through the column of EC released similar amounts of EDRF and also caused an increase in pH of the Krebs solution perfusing the EC from 7.5-8.0 to 8.6-9.5. Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) an alkaline buffer which caused the same changes in the pH of the Krebs solution also induced the same release of EDRF. The hydrochloride salts of L- or D-arginine did not cause either release of EDRF when injected through the column of EC or increases in the pH of the Krebs solution. 3. Inhibitors of either diacylglycerol lipase (RHC 80267) or kinase (R59022) inhibited the release of EDRF induced by BK or ADP but potentiated the release induced by L-arginine FB, monensin (40-100 nmol) or alkaline buffer (Na2CO3). R59022 and RHC 80267 infused through the EC increased the basal release of EDRF. 4. When calcium chloride was omitted from the Krebs solution the release of EDRF induced by alkaline buffer (Na2CO3; pH 8.6-9.5) or L-arginine FB (10-20 mumol) was selectively inhibited when compared to that induced by BK (3-30 pmol) or ADP (2-6 nmol). This inhibition was reversed when calcium (2.5 mM) was restored. 5. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA; 30 microM) inhibited release of EDRF induced by BK (10-30 pmol) or alkaline buffers (Na2CO3 or D-arginine FB; pH 8.6-9.5). This inhibition was partially reversed by L- but not D-arginine FB or HCl (30-100 microM). 6. Prostacyclin was released when BK (10 pmol), ADP (2 nmol) or arachidonic acid (30 nmol) were injected through the column of EC. However, monensin (40 nmol) or alkaline buffers (pH 8.6-9.5) did not release

  4. Phosphotyrosine as a substrate of acid and alkaline phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Apostoł, I; Kuciel, R; Wasylewska, E; Ostrowski, W S

    1985-01-01

    A new spectrophotometric method for following dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine has been described. The absorption spectra of phosphotyrosine and tyrosine were plotted over the pH range from 3 to 9. The change in absorbance accompanying the conversion of phosphotyrosine to tyrosine was the greatest at 286 nm. The difference absorption coefficients were calculated for several pH values. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine by acid phosphatases from human prostate gland, from wheat germ and potatoes obeys the Michaelis-Menten equation, whereas alkaline phosphatases calf intestine and E. coli are inhibited by excess of substrate.

  5. A rapid alkaline extraction procedure for screening recombinant plasmid DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Birnboim, H C; Doly, J

    1979-01-01

    A procedure for extracting plasmid DNA from bacterial cells is described. The method is simple enough to permit the analysis by gel electrophoresis of 100 or more clones per day yet yields plasmid DNA which is pure enough to be digestible by restriction enzymes. The principle of the method is selective alkaline denaturation of high molecular weight chromosomal DNA while covalently closed circular DNA remains double-stranded. Adequate pH control is accomplished without using a pH meter. Upon neutralization, chromosomal DNA renatures to form an insoluble clot, leaving plasmid DNA in the supernatant. Large and small plasmid DNAs have been extracted by this method. Images PMID:388356

  6. Microbial Thiocyanate Utilization under Highly Alkaline Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Tourova, Tatyana P.; Lysenko, Anatoly M.; Kuenen, J. Gijs

    2001-01-01

    Three kinds of alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate (CNS−) at pH 10 were found in highly alkaline soda lake sediments and soda soils. The first group included obligate heterotrophs that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source while growing at pH 10 with acetate as carbon and energy sources. Most of the heterotrophic strains were able to oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate to tetrathionate. The second group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles which utilized thiocyanate nitrogen during growth with thiosulfate as the energy source. Genetic analysis demonstrated that both the heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source were related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the gamma subdivision of the division Proteobacteria (the Halomonas group for the heterotrophs and the genus Thioalkalivibrio for autotrophs). The third group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate as a sole source of energy. These bacteria could be enriched on mineral medium with thiocyanate at pH 10. Growth with thiocyanate was usually much slower than growth with thiosulfate, although the biomass yield on thiocyanate was higher. Of the four strains isolated, the three vibrio-shaped strains were genetically closely related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio. The rod-shaped isolate differed from the other isolates by its ability to accumulate large amounts of elemental sulfur inside its cells and by its ability to oxidize carbon disulfide. Despite its low DNA homology with and substantial phenotypic differences from the vibrio-shaped strains, this isolate also belonged to the genus Thioalkalivibrio according to a phylogenetic analysis. The heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that grew with thiocyanate as an N source possessed a relatively high level of cyanase

  7. Priming effect of abscisic acid on alkaline stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li-Xing; Lv, Bing-Sheng; Wang, Ming-Ming; Ma, Hong-Yuan; Yang, Hao-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Long; Jiang, Chang-Jie; Liang, Zheng-Wei

    2015-05-01

    Saline-alkaline stress is characterized by high salinity and high alkalinity (high pH); alkaline stress has been shown to be the primary factor inhibiting rice seedling growth. In this study, we investigated the potential priming effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on tolerance of rice seedlings to alkaline stress simulated by Na2CO3. Seedlings were pretreated with ABA at concentrations of 0 (control), 10, and 50 μM by root-drench for 24 h and then transferred to a Na2CO3 solution that did not contain ABA. Compared to control treatment, pretreatment with ABA substantially improved the survival rate of rice seedlings and increased biomass accumulation after 7 days under the alkaline condition. ABA application at 10 μM also alleviated the inhibitory effects of alkaline stress on the total root length and root surface area. Physiologically, ABA increased relative water content (RWC) and decreased cell membrane injury degree (MI) and Na(+)/K(+) ratios. In contrast, fluridone (an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor) decreased the RWC and increased MI in shoots under the alkaline conditions. These data suggest that ABA has a potent priming effect on the adaptive response to alkaline stress in rice and may be useful for improving rice growth in saline-alkaline paddy fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Properties of whey protein isolates extruded under acidic and alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Onwulata, C I; Isobe, S; Tomasula, P M; Cooke, P H

    2006-01-01

    Whey proteins have wide acceptance and use in many products due to their beneficial nutritional properties. To further increase the amount of whey protein isolates (WPI) that may be added to products such as extruded snacks and meats, texturization of WPI is necessary. Texturization changes the folding of globular proteins to improve interaction with other ingredients and create new functional ingredients. In this study, WPI pastes (60% solids) were extruded in a twin-screw extruder at 100 degrees C with 4 pH-adjusted water streams: acidic (pH 2.0 +/- 0.2) and alkaline (pH 12.4 +/- 0.4) streams from 2 N HCl and 2 N NaOH, respectively, and acidic (pH 2.5 +/- 0.2) and alkaline (pH 11.5 +/- 0.4) electrolyzed water streams; these were compared with WPI extruded with deionized water. The effects of water acidity on WPI solubility at pH 7, color, microstructure, Rapid Visco Analyzer pasting properties, and physical structure were determined. Alkaline conditions increased insolubility caused yellowing and increased pasting properties significantly. Acidic conditions increased solubility and decreased WPI pasting properties. Subtle structural changes occurred under acidic conditions, but were more pronounced under alkaline conditions. Overall, alkaline conditions increased denaturation in the extruded WPI resulting in stringy texturized WPI products, which could be used in meat applications.

  9. Dephosphorylation of bovine casein by milk alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Lorient, D; Linden, G

    1976-02-01

    The pH of optimum activity of alkaline phosphatase from cow's milk depended on the substrate, being 10-1 for rho-nitrophenylphosphate, 8-6 for phosphoserine, 8-0 for phosvitin and 6-8 for casein. Individual casein components were dephosphorylated more rapidly than mixtures of alphas- and beta-caseins or of alphas-, beta-and kappa-caseins and micellar casein. Mixtures of 2 components involving kappa-casein were more readily dephosphorylated than alphas- and beta-casein mixtures. At pH 6-8, lactose, whey proteins and phosphate ions had an inhibitory effect. beta-Lactoglobulin had an inhibitory effect only when the pH of the reaction was lower than the optimum pH value of the enzyme. Mg2+ and Zn2+ were not inhibitory. The optimum conditions for dephosphorylation of casein are described.

  10. Evaluation of near infrared spectroscopy and software sensor methods for determination of total alkalinity in anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Ward, Alastair J; Hobbs, Philip J; Holliman, Peter J; Jones, David L

    2011-03-01

    In this study two approaches to predict the total alkalinity (expressed as mg L(-1)HCO(3)(-)) of an anaerobic digester are examined: firstly, software sensors based on multiple linear regression algorithms using data from pH, redox potential and electrical conductivity and secondly, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). Of the software sensors, the model using data from all three probes but a smaller dataset using total alkalinity values below 6000 mg L(-1)HCO(3)(-) produced the best calibration model (R(2)=0.76 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 969 mg L(-1)HCO(3)(-)). When validated with new data, the NIRS method produced the best model (R(2)=0.87 RMSEP=1230 mg L(-1)HCO(3)(-)). The NIRS sensor correlated better with new data (R(2)=0.54). In conclusion, this study has developed new and improved algorithms for monitoring total alkalinity within anaerobic digestion systems which will facilitate real-time optimisation of methane production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dolomite Dissolution in Alkaline Cementious Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittermayr, Florian; Klammer, Dietmar; Köhler, Stephan; Dietzel, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Chemical alteration of concrete has gained much attention over the past years as many cases of deterioration due to sulphate attack, thaumasite formation (TSA) or alkali silica reactions (ASR) have been reported in various constructions (Schmidt et al, 2009). Much less is known about the so called alkali carbonate reaction (ACR). It is believed that dolomite aggregates can react with the alkalis from the cement, dissolve and form calcite and brucite (Katayama, 2004). Due to very low solubility of dolomite in alkaline solutions this reaction seems doubtful. In this study we are trying to gain new insides about the conditions that can lead to the dissolution of dolomite in concrete. Therefore we investigated concrete samples from Austrian tunnels that show partially dissolved dolomite aggregates. Petrological analysis such as microprobe, SEM and Raman spectroscopy as well as a hydrochemical analysis of interstitial solutions and ground water and modelling with PhreeqC (Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999) are carried out. In addition a series of batch experiments is set up. Modelling approaches by PhreeqC show a thermodynamically possibility in the alkaline range when additional Ca2+ in solution causes dolomite to become more and more undersaturated as calcite gets supersaturated. Interacting ground water is enriched in Ca2+and saturated with respect to gypsum as marine evaporites are found in situ rocks. Furthermore it is more likely that Portlandite (Ca(OH)2) plays a more important role than Na and K in the cement. Portlandite acts as an additional Ca2+ source and is much more abundant than the alkalies. Some interstitial solutions are dominated mainly by Na+ and SO42- and reach concentrations up to 30 g/l TDS. It is believed that solutions can even reach thenardite saturation as efflorescences are found on the tunnel walls. In consequence dolomite solubility increases with increasing ionic strength. pH > 11 further accelerate the process of dedolomitization by the removal

  12. Alkaline ameliorants increase nitrous oxide emission from acidified black soil in Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Han, Zuoqiang; Zhang, Xilin; Qiao, Yanjiao; Wang, Lianfeng

    2011-06-01

    Lime and plant ash are common management used to achieve optimum pH for plant growth and improve soil properties in agricultural soils. Laboratory incubation was conducted to assess N20 emissions as influenced by different soil amendments (lime and plant ash) in a slightly acidic arable soil (pH 5.34). The experimental treatments consisted of CK, lime and plant ash fertilized with NH4(+)-N or N03(-)-N as nitrogen resource. The results show that lime and plant ash dramatically increases the soil pH and N20 emission. For N03(-)-N fertilization, the cumulative N20 emissions from CK, lime and ash are 421, 1669 and 921 μg N20-N/kg, respectively. For NH4(+)-N fertilization, the cumulative N20 emissions from CK, lime and ash are 361, 576 and 559 μg N20-N/kg, respectively. N03(-)-N addition leads to more N20 emission than that of NH4(+)-N addition, and lime increases more N20 emission than that of plant ash. After incubation, N03(-)-N content decreased largely. The findings suggested that alkaline ameliorants increase N20 emissions due to enhancement of soil denitrification. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dissociation energies of PH and PH+.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, R. R.; Nazeer Ahammed, Y.; Srinivasa Rao, A.; Rao, T. V. R.

    1995-12-01

    Dissociation energies for the ground electronic states of diatomic PH and PH+ are determined by fitting empirical potential functions to the respective RKRV curves using correlation coefficients. The estimated ground state dissociation energies of PH and PH+ are 3.10 and 3.20 eV respectively by the curve fitting procedure using the Lippincott potential function. The computed values are in good agreement with experimental values.

  14. Bactericidal and virucidal mechanisms in the alkaline disinfection of compost using calcium lime and ash.

    PubMed

    Hijikata, Nowaki; Tezuka, Rui; Kazama, Shinobu; Otaki, Masahiro; Ushijima, Ken; Ito, Ryusei; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, the bactericidal and virucidal mechanisms in the alkaline disinfection of compost with calcium lime and ash were investigated. Two indicator microorganisms, Escherichia coli and MS2 coliphage, were used as surrogates for enteric pathogens. The alkaline-treated compost with calcium oxide (CaO) or ash resulted primarily in damage to the outer membrane and enzyme activities of E. coli. The alkaline treatment of compost also led to the infectivity loss of the coliphage because of the partial capsid damage and RNA exteriorization due to a raised pH, which is proportional to the amount of alkaline agents added. These results indicate that the alkaline treatment of compost using calcium oxide and ash is effective and can contribute to the safe usage of compost from a mixing type dry toilet. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Increased performance of hydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cells under alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Rago, Laura; Baeza, Juan A; Guisasola, Albert

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the first successful enrichment and operation of alkaline bioelectrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells, MFC, and microbial electrolysis cells, MEC). Alkaline (pH=9.3) bioelectrochemical hydrogen production presented better performance (+117%) compared to conventional neutral conditions (2.6 vs 1.2 litres of hydrogen gas per litre of reactor per day, LH2·L(-1)REACTOR·d(-1)). Pyrosequencing results of the anodic biofilm showed that while Geobacter was mainly detected under conventional neutral conditions, Geoalkalibacter sp. was highly detected in the alkaline MFC (21%) and MEC (48%). This is the first report of a high enrichment of Geoalkalibacter from an anaerobic mixed culture using alkaline conditions in an MEC. Moreover, Alkalibacter sp. was highly present in the anodic biofilm of the alkaline MFC (37%), which would indicate its potentiality as a new exoelectrogen.

  16. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, D.T.

    1996-05-01

    In this report, we present the results of our experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12. 0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, we have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties, (5) investigated the effect of surfactant on the equilibrium and transient interfacial tension, (6) investigated the kinetics of oil removal from a silica surface, and (7) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, accounting for added surfactant. The results of the studies conducted during the course of this project are discussed.

  17. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Final report 1994--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, D.T.

    1995-12-01

    In this report, the authors present the results of their experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, the authors have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil, and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties, (5) investigated the effect of surfactant on the equilibrium and transient interfacial tension, (6) investigated the kinetics of oil removal from a silica surface, and (7) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, accounting for added surfactant. The results of the studies conducted during the course of this project are summarized.

  18. Effect of salinity on the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a saline-alkaline soil.

    PubMed

    Qin, X; Tang, J C; Li, D S; Zhang, Q M

    2012-09-01

     The aim of this paper is to check the effect of salinity on the bioremediation process of petroleum hydrocarbons in the saline-alkaline soil.  In this study, soil salinity was adjusted to different levels by water leaching method and the bioremediation process was conducted for 28 days. Soil pH increased after leaching and decreased during bioremediation process. At initial time, moderate salinity enhanced the biodegradation and addition of microbial consortium was not effective in enhancing degradation rate of petroleum hydrocarbons. At day of 28 days, higher degradation rate was found in treatments with more leaching times with a maximum value of 42·36%. Dehydrogenase activity increased with the progress of bioremediation and positive correlation was found between dehydrogenase activity and degradation rate of petroleum hydrocarbons. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis result showed decreased microbial community diversity with increased salt content.  The result suggested that salinity had great impact on bioremediation, and leaching and addition of inoculated consortium were effective in enhancing biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the saline-alkaline soil.  The result of this study is important for understanding the bioremediation process of petroleum in contaminated soil. New remediation method of petroleum contaminated soil can be developed based on this study. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in treatment of coal chemical industry wastewater using moving bed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Hou, Baolin; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Zhuang, Haifeng; Zhao, Qian; Xu, Peng

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen removal via nitrite (the nitrite pathway) is more suitable for carbon-limited industrial wastewater. Partial nitrification to nitrite is the primary step to achieve nitrogen removal via nitrite. The effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in a continuous process was investigated by progressively increasing the alkalinity dosage ratio (amount of alkalinity to ammonia ratio, mol/mol). There is a close relationship among alkalinity, pH and the state of matter present in aqueous solution. When alkalinity was insufficient (compared to the theoretical alkalinity amount), ammonia removal efficiency increased first and then decreased at each alkalinity dosage ratio, with an abrupt removal efficiency peak. Generally, ammonia removal efficiency rose with increasing alkalinity dosage ratio. Ammonia removal efficiency reached to 88% from 23% when alkalinity addition was sufficient. Nitrite accumulation could be achieved by inhibiting nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) by free ammonia (FA) in the early period and free nitrous acid in the later period of nitrification when alkalinity was not adequate. Only FA worked to inhibit the activity of NOB when alkalinity addition was sufficient. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Systemic and local effects of long-term exposure to alkaline drinking water in rats

    PubMed Central

    Merne, Marina ET; Syrjänen, Kari J; Syrjänen, Stina M

    2001-01-01

    Alkaline conditions in the oral cavity may be caused by a variety of stimuli, including tobacco products, antacids, alkaline drinking water or bicarbonate toothpaste. The effects of alkaline pH on oral mucosa have not been systematically studied. To assess the systemic (organ) and local (oral mucosal) effects of alkalinity, drinking water supplemented with Ca(OH)2 or NaOH, with pH 11.2 or 12 was administered to rats (n = 36) for 52 weeks. Tissues were subjected to histopathological examination; oral mucosal biopsy samples were also subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses for pankeratin, CK19, CK5, CK4, PCNA, ICAM-1, CD44, CD68, S-100, HSP 60, HSP70, and HSP90. At completion of the study, animals in the study groups had lower body weights (up to 29% less) than controls despite equal food and water intake, suggesting a systemic response to the alkaline treatment. The lowest body weight was found in rats exposed to water with the highest pH value and starting the experiment when young (6 weeks). No histological changes attributable to alkaline exposure occurred in the oral mucosa or other tissues studied. Alkaline exposure did not affect cell proliferation in the oral epithelium, as shown by the equal expression of PCNA in groups. The up-regulation of HSP70 protein expression in the oral mucosa of rats exposed to alkaline water, especially Ca(OH)2 treated rats, may indicate a protective response. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) positivity was lost in 6/12 rats treated with Ca(OH)2 with pH 11.2, and loss of CD44 expression was seen in 3/6 rats in both study groups exposed to alkaline water with pH 12. The results suggest that the oral mucosa in rats is resistant to the effects of highly alkaline drinking water. However, high alkalinity may have some unknown systemic effects leading to growth retardation, the cause of which remains to be determined. PMID:11493345

  1. Systemic and local effects of long-term exposure to alkaline drinking water in rats.

    PubMed

    Merne, M E; Syrjänen, K J; Syrjänen, S M

    2001-08-01

    Alkaline conditions in the oral cavity may be caused by a variety of stimuli, including tobacco products, antacids, alkaline drinking water or bicarbonate toothpaste. The effects of alkaline pH on oral mucosa have not been systematically studied. To assess the systemic (organ) and local (oral mucosal) effects of alkalinity, drinking water supplemented with Ca(OH)2 or NaOH, with pH 11.2 or 12 was administered to rats (n = 36) for 52 weeks. Tissues were subjected to histopathological examination; oral mucosal biopsy samples were also subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses for pankeratin, CK19, CK5, CK4, PCNA, ICAM-1, CD44, CD68, S-100, HSP 60, HSP70, and HSP90. At completion of the study, animals in the study groups had lower body weights (up to 29% less) than controls despite equal food and water intake, suggesting a systemic response to the alkaline treatment. The lowest body weight was found in rats exposed to water with the highest pH value and starting the experiment when young (6 weeks). No histological changes attributable to alkaline exposure occurred in the oral mucosa or other tissues studied. Alkaline exposure did not affect cell proliferation in the oral epithelium, as shown by the equal expression of PCNA in groups. The up-regulation of HSP70 protein expression in the oral mucosa of rats exposed to alkaline water, especially Ca(OH)2 treated rats, may indicate a protective response. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) positivity was lost in 6/12 rats treated with Ca(OH)2 with pH 11.2, and loss of CD44 expression was seen in 3/6 rats in both study groups exposed to alkaline water with pH 12. The results suggest that the oral mucosa in rats is resistant to the effects of highly alkaline drinking water. However, high alkalinity may have some unknown systemic effects leading to growth retardation, the cause of which remains to be determined.

  2. Root Damage under Alkaline Stress Is Associated with Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Rui-Xue; Yuan, Hai-Yan; Wang, Ming-Ming; Yang, Hao-Yu; Ma, Hong-Yuan; Liu, Duo; Jiang, Chang-Jie; Liang, Zheng-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Alkaline stress (high pH) severely damages root cells, and consequently, inhibits rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling growth. In this study, we demonstrate the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in root cells under alkaline stress. Seedlings of two rice cultivars with different alkaline tolerances, 'Dongdao-4' (moderately alkaline-tolerant) and 'Jiudao-51' (alkaline-sensitive), were subjected to alkaline stress simulated by 15 mM sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). Alkaline stress greatly reduced seedling survival rate, shoot and root growth, and root vigor. Moreover, severe root cell damage was observed under alkaline stress, as shown by increased membrane injury, malondialdehyde accumulation, and Evan's Blue staining. The expression of the cell death-related genes OsKOD1, OsHsr203j, OsCP1, and OsNAC4 was consistently upregulated, while that of a cell death-suppressor gene, OsBI1, was downregulated. Analysis of the ROS contents revealed that alkaline stress induced a marked accumulation of superoxide anions ([Formula: see text]) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in rice roots. The application of procyanidins (a potent antioxidant) to rice seedlings 24 h prior to alkaline treatment significantly alleviated alkalinity-induced root damage and promoted seedling growth inhibition, which were concomitant with reduced ROS accumulation. These results suggest that root cell damage, and consequently growth inhibition, of rice seedlings under alkaline stress is closely associated with ROS accumulation. The antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase increased under alkaline stress in the roots, probably in response to the cellular damage induced by oxidative stress. However, this response mechanism may be overwhelmed by the excess ROS accumulation observed under stress, resulting in oxidative damage to root cells. Our findings provide physiological insights into the molecular mechanisms of alkalinity-induced damage to root cells, and

  3. Root Damage under Alkaline Stress Is Associated with Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Rui-Xue; Yuan, Hai-Yan; Wang, Ming-Ming; Yang, Hao-Yu; Ma, Hong-Yuan; Liu, Duo; Jiang, Chang-Jie; Liang, Zheng-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Alkaline stress (high pH) severely damages root cells, and consequently, inhibits rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling growth. In this study, we demonstrate the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in root cells under alkaline stress. Seedlings of two rice cultivars with different alkaline tolerances, ‘Dongdao-4’ (moderately alkaline-tolerant) and ‘Jiudao-51’ (alkaline-sensitive), were subjected to alkaline stress simulated by 15 mM sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). Alkaline stress greatly reduced seedling survival rate, shoot and root growth, and root vigor. Moreover, severe root cell damage was observed under alkaline stress, as shown by increased membrane injury, malondialdehyde accumulation, and Evan’s Blue staining. The expression of the cell death-related genes OsKOD1, OsHsr203j, OsCP1, and OsNAC4 was consistently upregulated, while that of a cell death-suppressor gene, OsBI1, was downregulated. Analysis of the ROS contents revealed that alkaline stress induced a marked accumulation of superoxide anions (O2•-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in rice roots. The application of procyanidins (a potent antioxidant) to rice seedlings 24 h prior to alkaline treatment significantly alleviated alkalinity-induced root damage and promoted seedling growth inhibition, which were concomitant with reduced ROS accumulation. These results suggest that root cell damage, and consequently growth inhibition, of rice seedlings under alkaline stress is closely associated with ROS accumulation. The antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase increased under alkaline stress in the roots, probably in response to the cellular damage induced by oxidative stress. However, this response mechanism may be overwhelmed by the excess ROS accumulation observed under stress, resulting in oxidative damage to root cells. Our findings provide physiological insights into the molecular mechanisms of alkalinity-induced damage to root cells, and

  4. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1994-01-01

    According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention is a process for treating alkaline waste materials, including high level radioactive wastes, for vitrification. The process involves adjusting the pH of the wastes with nitric acid, adding formic acid (or a process stream containing formic acid) to reduce mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion, and mixing with class formers to produce a melter feed. The process minimizes production of hydrogen due to noble metal-catalyzed formic acid decomposition during, treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. An important feature of the present invention is the use of different acidifying and reducing, agents to treat the wastes. The nitric acid acidifies the wastes to improve yield stress and supplies acid for various reactions; then the formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2}) to the Mn(II) ion. When the pH of the waste is lower, reduction of mercury compounds and MnO{sub 2}) is faster and less formic acid is needed, and the production of hydrogen caused by catalytically-active noble metals is decreased.

  5. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  6. The BH3 Mimetic Obatoclax Accumulates in Lysosomes and Causes Their Alkalinization.

    PubMed

    Stamelos, Vasileios A; Fisher, Natalie; Bamrah, Harnoor; Voisey, Carolyn; Price, Joshua C; Farrell, William E; Redman, Charles W; Richardson, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Obatoclax belongs to a class of compounds known as BH3 mimetics which function as antagonists of Bcl-2 family apoptosis regulators. It has undergone extensive preclinical and clinical evaluation as a cancer therapeutic. Despite this, it is clear that obatoclax has additional pharmacological effects that contribute to its cytotoxic activity. It has been claimed that obatoclax, either alone or in combination with other molecularly targeted therapeutics, induces an autophagic form of cell death. In addition, obatoclax has been shown to inhibit lysosomal function, but the mechanism of this has not been elucidated. We have evaluated the mechanism of action of obatoclax in eight ovarian cancer cell lines. Consistent with its function as a BH3 mimetic, obatoclax induced apoptosis in three cell lines. However, in the remaining cell lines another form of cell death was evident because caspase activation and PARP cleavage were not observed. Obatoclax also failed to show synergy with carboplatin and paclitaxel, chemotherapeutic agents which we have previously shown to be synergistic with authentic Bcl-2 family antagonists. Obatoclax induced a profound accumulation of LC-3 but knockdown of Atg-5 or beclin had only minor effects on the activity of obatoclax in cell growth assays suggesting that the inhibition of lysosomal function rather than stimulation of autophagy may play a more prominent role in these cells. To evaluate how obatoclax inhibits lysosomal function, confocal microscopy studies were conducted which demonstrated that obatoclax, which contains two basic pyrrole groups, accumulates in lysosomes. Studies using pH sensitive dyes demonstrated that obatoclax induced lysosomal alkalinization. Furthermore, obatoclax was synergistic in cell growth/survival assays with bafilomycin and chloroquine, two other drugs which cause lysosomal alkalinization. These studies explain, for the first time, how obatoclax inhibits lysosomal function and suggest that lysosomal

  7. Solubility of ion and trace metals from stabilized sewage sludge by fly ash and alkaline mine tailing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongling; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2008-01-01

    Stabilized sewage sludge (SS) by fly ash (FA) and alkaline mine tailing as artificial soil, to be applied on the ecological rehabilitation at mining junkyards, offers a potentially viable utilization of the industrial by-product, as well as solves the shortage of soil resource in the mine area. An incubation experiment with different ratios of SS and FA was conducted to evaluate the solubility of ions and trace elements from stabilized sewage sludge. Results showed that fly ash offset a decrease in pH value of sewage sludge. The pH of (C) treatment (FA:SS = 1:1) was stable and tended to neutrality. The SO4(2-) and Cl- concentrations of the solution in the mixture were significantly decreased in the stabilized sewage sludge by alkaline fly ash and mine tailing, compared to the single SS treatment. Stabilized sewage sludge by FA weakened the nitrification of total nitrogen from SS when the proportion of FA in the mixture was more than 50%. The Cr, Ni, and Cu concentrations in the solution were gradually decreased and achieved a stable level after 22 days, for all treatments over the duration of the incubation. Moreover stabilized sewage sludge by fly ash and/or mine tailing notably decreased the trace metal solubility. The final Cr, Cu, and Ni concentrations in the solution for all mixtures of treatments were lower than 2.5, 15, and 50 microg/L, respectively.

  8. [Toxicity and accumulation of copper and nickel in wheat plants cropped on alkaline and acidic field soils].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin-Sun; Wei, Dong-Pu; Guo, Xue-Yan; Ma, Yi-Bing

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the toxicity of added copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) in soils to wheat and metal accumulation in wheat plants. The results showed that the yields of wheat straw and grain were decreased with the increasing concentration of Cu and Ni added to soils. The added Cu concentrations yielding 10% inhibition of wheat yield (EC10) were 499.6 mg x kg(-1) for alkaline soils (Dezhou, pH 8.90), and 55.7 mg x kg(-1) for acidic soils (Qiyang, pH 5.31). The toxicity of Cu or Ni in acidic soils were significantly higher than that in alkaline soils. With increasing addition of Cu or Ni, the contents of Cu in wheat grains initially increased and then keep at constant level, while the accumulation of Ni in grains linearly increased. The contents of Cu and Ni in Qiyang wheat grains were 6.07-9.26 mg x kg(-1) and 0.53-31.78 mg x kg(-1), and those of in Dezhou were 5.24-10. 52 mg x kg(-1) and 0.16-25.33 mg x kg(-1). In both field experimental sites, the contents of Cu in wheat grains meet the national standard for food safety. These findings showed that Cu is more relevant to ecological risk assessments than to food safety assessments for wheat grown in soils that have been contaminated with Cu.

  9. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Alexandra M. F.; Malkin, Sairah Y.; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip J. R.

    2014-07-01

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity generation was examined by comparing measurements in intact and defaunated sediment cores before and after the addition of A. marina in summer and fall 2011. Higher organic matter remineralization rates, shallower O2 penetration, and greater sediment-water solute fluxes were observed in summer, consistent with higher sediment community metabolic rates at a higher temperature. Lugworm activity stimulated porewater exchange (5.1 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), organic matter remineralization (6.2 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), aerobic respiration (2.4 × in summer, 2.1 × in fall), alkalinity release (4.7 × in summer, 4.0 × in fall), nutrient regeneration, and iron cycling. The effects of lugworm activity on net sediment-water fluxes were similar but more pronounced in summer than in fall. Alkalinity release in fall was entirely driven by metabolic carbonate dissolution, while this process explained between 22 and 69% of total alkalinity production in summer, indicating the importance of other processes in this season. By enhancing organic matter remineralization and the reoxidation of reduced metabolites by the sediment microbial community, lugworm activity stimulated the production of dissolved inorganic carbon and metabolic acidity, which in turn enhanced metabolic CaCO3 dissolution efficiency. In summer, evidence of microbial long distance electron transport (LDET) was observed in defaunated sediment. Thus, alkalinity production by net carbonate dissolution was likely supplemented by anaerobic respiration and LDET in summer.

  10. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Alexandra M.F.; Malkin, Sairah Y.; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity generation was examined by comparing measurements in intact and defaunated sediment cores before and after the addition of A. marina in summer and fall 2011. Higher organic matter remineralization rates, shallower O2 penetration, and greater sediment-water solute fluxes were observed in summer, consistent with higher sediment community metabolic rates at a higher temperature. Lugworm activity stimulated porewater exchange (5.1 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), organic matter remineralization (6.2 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), aerobic respiration (2.4 × in summer, 2.1 × in fall), alkalinity release (4.7 × in summer, 4.0 × in fall), nutrient regeneration, and iron cycling. The effects of lugworm activity on net sediment-water fluxes were similar but more pronounced in summer than in fall. Alkalinity release in fall was entirely driven by metabolic carbonate dissolution, while this process explained between 22 and 69% of total alkalinity production in summer, indicating the importance of other processes in this season. By enhancing organic matter remineralization and the reoxidation of reduced metabolites by the sediment microbial community, lugworm activity stimulated the production of dissolved inorganic carbon and metabolic acidity, which in turn enhanced metabolic CaCO3 dissolution efficiency. In summer, evidence of microbial long distance electron transport (LDET) was observed in defaunated sediment. Thus, alkalinity production by net carbonate dissolution was likely supplemented by anaerobic respiration and LDET in summer. PMID:25431515

  11. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation.

    PubMed

    Rao, Alexandra M F; Malkin, Sairah Y; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip J R

    2014-07-05

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity generation was examined by comparing measurements in intact and defaunated sediment cores before and after the addition of A. marina in summer and fall 2011. Higher organic matter remineralization rates, shallower O2 penetration, and greater sediment-water solute fluxes were observed in summer, consistent with higher sediment community metabolic rates at a higher temperature. Lugworm activity stimulated porewater exchange (5.1 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), organic matter remineralization (6.2 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), aerobic respiration (2.4 × in summer, 2.1 × in fall), alkalinity release (4.7 × in summer, 4.0 × in fall), nutrient regeneration, and iron cycling. The effects of lugworm activity on net sediment-water fluxes were similar but more pronounced in summer than in fall. Alkalinity release in fall was entirely driven by metabolic carbonate dissolution, while this process explained between 22 and 69% of total alkalinity production in summer, indicating the importance of other processes in this season. By enhancing organic matter remineralization and the reoxidation of reduced metabolites by the sediment microbial community, lugworm activity stimulated the production of dissolved inorganic carbon and metabolic acidity, which in turn enhanced metabolic CaCO3 dissolution efficiency. In summer, evidence of microbial long distance electron transport (LDET) was observed in defaunated sediment. Thus, alkalinity production by net carbonate dissolution was likely supplemented by anaerobic respiration and LDET in summer.

  12. Pathway and mechanism of pH dependent human hemoglobin tetramer-dimer-monomer dissociations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Xiong; Wu, Zheng-Jie; Huang, Bao-Tian; Luo, Man

    2013-01-01

    Hemoglobin dissociation is of great interest in protein process and clinical medicine as well as in artificial blood research. However, the pathway and mechanisms of pH-dependent human Hb dissociation are not clear, whether Hb would really dissociate into monomers is still a question. Therefore, we have conducted a multi-technique investigation on the structure and function of human Hb versus pH. Here we demonstrate that tetramer hemoglobin can easily dissociate into dimer in abnormal pH and the tetramer → dimer dissociation is reversible if pH returns to normal physiological value. When the environmental pH becomes more acidic (<6.5) or alkaline (>8.0), Hb can further dissociate from dimer to monomer. The proportion of monomers increases while the fraction of dimers decreases as pH declines from 6.2 to 5.4. The dimer → monomer dissociation is accompanied with series changes of protein structure thus it is an irreversible process. The structural changes in the dissociated Hbs result in some loss of their functions. Both the Hb dimer and monomer cannot adequately carry and release oxygen to the tissues in circulation. These findings provide a comprehensive understanding on the pH-dependent protein transitions of human Hb, give guideline to explain complex protein processes and the means to control protein dissociation or re-association reaction. They are also of practical value in clinical medicine, blood preservation and blood substitute development.

  13. Critical factors in the design of cost-effective alkaline flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, P.B.; Peru, D.A.

    1991-02-01

    A review of major alkaline flooding projects highlights the recognized fact that alkali consumption and scale formation are serious deterrents when strong alkalis are used. The review also confirms that there are several mechanisms of oil mobilization besides reducing interfacial tension. Even oils of low acid number may be amenable to alkaline flooding. Moreover, alkalis in a lower pH range - which have minimal reaction with reservoir minerals - can often mobilize oil, especially when enhanced with a low concentration of surfactant. However, the future of alkaline flooding depends critically on improved reservoir analysis, which includes factors that have often been neglected: (1) thorough mineralogical analysis; (2) evaluation of ion-exchange properties; and (3) assessment of carbon dioxide content. An evaluation of high-pH alkaline flooding field tests over the past 60 years shows that the majority of tests did not produce encouraging results. Laboratory and limited field experience with lower pH alkalis suggests that they may be more feasible in selected cases. Alkaline flooding should be rejected if there is as much as 1% gypsum in the rock or as much as 1 mol % CO{sub 2} in the fluid. Otherwise, a flood at moderate pH (around 10) can be considered for low-kaolinite reservoirs. For low-montmorillonite reservoirs with less than 5 meq divalent exchange ions per kg of rock, a very low pH (around 8.5) may be effective when enhanced with surfactant. 55 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. AcalPred: a sequence-based tool for discriminating between acidic and alkaline enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hao; Chen, Wei; Ding, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The structure and activity of enzymes are influenced by pH value of their surroundings. Although many enzymes work well in the pH range from 6 to 8, some specific enzymes have good efficiencies only in acidic (pH<5) or alkaline (pH>9) solution. Studies have demonstrated that the activities of enzymes correlate with their primary sequences. It is crucial to judge enzyme adaptation to acidic or alkaline environment from its amino acid sequence in molecular mechanism clarification and the design of high efficient enzymes. In this study, we developed a sequence-based method to discriminate acidic enzymes from alkaline enzymes. The analysis of variance was used to choose the optimized discriminating features derived from g-gap dipeptide compositions. And support vector machine was utilized to establish the prediction model. In the rigorous jackknife cross-validation, the overall accuracy of 96.7% was achieved. The method can correctly predict 96.3% acidic and 97.1% alkaline enzymes. Through the comparison between the proposed method and previous methods, it is demonstrated that the proposed method is more accurate. On the basis of this proposed method, we have built an online web-server called AcalPred which can be freely accessed from the website (http://lin.uestc.edu.cn/server/AcalPred). We believe that the AcalPred will become a powerful tool to study enzyme adaptation to acidic or alkaline environment.

  15. Temperature dependence of the absorbance of alkaline solutions of 4-nitrophenyl phosphate--a potential source of error in the measurement of alkaline phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Burtis, C A; Seibert, L E; Baird, M A; Sampson, E J

    1977-09-01

    The absorbance of an alkaline solution of 4-nitrophenyl phosphate is a function of temperature. Quantitative evaluation of this phenomenon indicates that it (a) depends on the concentration of the compound and is independent of source, buffer concentration, and pH above 9.0; (b) is reversible; (c) is not a result of alkaline hydrolysis or 4-nitrophenol contamination; and (d) correlates with a temperature-induced shift of its absorbance spectrum. The phenomenon may represent a potential analytical problem in methods for alkaline phosphatase in which this compound is the substrate. If thermal equilibrium is not reached and maintained during an alkaline phosphatase assay, the thermochromic response will be included in the measured rate. The magnitude of this error depends on the thermal response and control characteristics of each particular instrument and the reaction conditions under which such an analysis is performed.

  16. Alkaline Phosphatase in Normal Infants

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Joan M. L.; Stephenson, Pearl

    1971-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase was measured in plasma from children receiving vitamin D supplements in day nurseries in the London area, and from children exposed to sunlight in the West Indies. The distribution of values showed that there was no precise upper limit which could be used in the diagnosis of subclinical vitamin D deficiency. PMID:5576029

  17. Mantle metasomatism and alkaline magmatism

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, E.M.; Pasteris, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The 24 papers in this volume were presented at the Symposium on Alkalic Rocks and Kimberlites, held at the Geological Society of America South-Central Section meeting, April 15-16, 1985, in Fayetteville, Arkansas. This two-day symposium included a total of 55 papers dealing with mantle metasomatism and the origin of alkaline magmas, kimberlites and related rocks, alkalic rocks in oceanic settings, and alkalic rocks in continental settings. Papers presented at this symposium heightened the awareness that alkaline magmatism may occur in virtually all tectonic and petrologic settings. Two papers deal specifically with data from California sites. These research papers on aspects of alkaline rock petrology contribute to a better insight into the complex diversity of alkalic systems, the mantle processes which precede and accompany alkaline magmatism, and kimberlitic and oceanic systems. Abstracts of all papers presented at the symposium and not published in full in the volume are included in an appendix to show the broad scope of data presented at the meeting.

  18. Zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1995-12-31

    The zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte is unusual in that supersaturated zincate solutions can form during discharge and spongy or mossy zinc deposits can form on charge at low overvoltages. The effect of additives on regular pasted ZnO electrodes and calcium zincate electrodes is discussed. The paper also reports on in situ x-ray absorption (XAS) results on mossy zinc deposits.

  19. Manipulation of the apoplastic pH of intact plants mimics stomatal and growth responses to water availability and microclimatic variation.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Sally; Davies, William J

    2008-01-01

    The apoplastic pH of intact Forsythiaxintermedia (cv. Lynwood) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants has been manipulated using buffered foliar sprays, and thereby stomatal conductance (g(s)), leaf growth rate, and plant water loss have been controlled. The more alkaline the pH of the foliar spray, the lower the g(s) and/or leaf growth rate subsequently measured. The most alkaline pH that was applied corresponds to that measured in sap extracted from shoots of tomato and Forsythia plants experiencing, respectively, soil drying or a relatively high photon flux density (PFD), vapour pressure deficit (VPD), and temperature in the leaf microclimate. The negative correlation between PFD/VPD/temperature and g(s) determined in well-watered Forsythia plants exposed to a naturally varying summer microclimate was eliminated by spraying the plants with relatively alkaline but not acidic buffers, providing evidence for a novel pH-based signalling mechanism linking the aerial microclimate with stomatal aperture. Increasing the pH of the foliar spray only reduced g(s) in plants of the abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient flacca mutant of tomato when ABA was simultaneously sprayed onto leaves or injected into stems. In well-watered Forsythia plants exposed to a naturally varying summer microclimate (variable PFD, VPD, and temperature), xylem pH and leaf ABA concentration fluctuated but were positively correlated. Manipulation of foliar apoplastic pH also affected the response of g(s) and leaf growth to ABA injected into stems of intact Forsythia plants. The techniques used here to control physiology and water use in intact growing plants could easily be applied in a horticultural context.

  20. [Effect of calcium on medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid in Salvia miltiorrhiza suspension cultures].

    PubMed

    Liu, Liancheng; Wang, Cong; Dong, Juan'e; Su, Hui; Zhuo, Zequn; Xue, Yaxin

    2013-07-01

    We studied medium alkalinization in Salvia miltiorrhiza suspension cultures treated with salicylic acid and the effect of Ca2+ in this process through application of calcium channel antagonists (Verapamil, LaCl3, LiCl, 2-APB) and ionophore A23187. The results show that salicylic acid could induce significant medium alkalinization in S. miltiorrhiza culture. Verapamil and LaCl3 or LiCl and 2-APB, two different groups of calcium channel antagonist, significantly inhibited the medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid. However, the suppression effect of verapamil or LaCl3 on medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid was higher than that of LiCl or 2-APB. When two types of calcium channel inhibitor (LaCl3 and 2-APB) were used together, the medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid was completely suppressed and even reduced the pH in medium. On the other hand, A23187 could promote the medium alkalinization. Based on the results above, we speculated that salicylic acid could induce significant medium alkalinization in S. miltiorrhiza culture, depending on the calcium from both extracell and intracell. Moreover, calcium from extracell plays a more dominant role in this process. Reveal of relationship in this research between Ca2+ and medium alkalinization can provide theory evidence for mechanism of the plant secondary metabolism.

  1. Effect of alkaline-earth ions on the dynamics of alkali ions in bismuthate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, A.; Ghosh, A.

    2005-12-01

    The effect of alkaline earth ions on the dynamics of Li+ ions in bismuthate glasses has been studied in the temperature range 353-503K and in the frequency range 10Hz-2MHz . The dc conductivity increases and activation energy decreases with the increase of a particular alkaline earth content for the glasses with a fixed alkali content. The increased modification of the network due to the increase in alkaline earth content in the compositions is responsible for the increasing conductivity. Also the compositions with smaller alkaline earth ions were found to exhibit higher conductivity. Although the conductivity increases with the decrease of ionic radii of alkaline earth ions, the activation energy shows a maximum for the Sr ion. The electric modulus and the conductivity formalisms have been employed to study the relaxation dynamics of charge carriers in these glasses. The alkali ions were observed to change their dynamics with the change of the alkaline earth ions. The same anomalous trend for activation energy for the conductivity relaxation frequency and the hopping frequency was also observed for glasses containing SrO. It was also observed that the mobile lithium ion concentrations are independent of nature of alkaline earth ions in these glasses.

  2. Effects of sodium hypochlorite and high pH buffer solution in electrokinetic soil treatment on soil chromium removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community.

    PubMed

    Cang, Long; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Alshawabkeh, Akram N; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2007-04-02

    Effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), applied as an oxidant in catholyte, and high pH buffer solution on soil Cr removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community during enhanced electrokinetic treatments of a chromium (Cr) contaminated red soil are evaluated. Using pH control system to maintain high alkalinity of soil together with the use of NaClO increased the electrical conductivities of soil pore liquid and electroosmotic flux compared with the control (Exp-01). The pH control and NaClO improved the removal of Cr(VI) and total Cr from the soil. The highest removal percentages of soil Cr(VI) and total Cr were 96 and 72%, respectively, in Exp-04 when the pH value of the anolyte was controlled at 10 and NaClO was added in the catholyte. The alkaline soil environment and introduction of NaClO in the soil enhanced the desorption of Cr(VI) from the soil and promoted Cr(III) oxidation to mobile Cr(VI), respectively. However, the elevated pH and introduction of NaClO in the soil, which are necessary for improving the removal efficiency of soil Cr, resulted in a significantly adverse impact on the functional diversity of soil microbial community. It suggests that to assess the negative impact of extreme conditions for enhancing the extraction efficiencies of Cr on the soil properties and function is necessary.

  3. Release of bound procyanidins from cranberry pomace by alkaline hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    White, Brittany L; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L

    2010-07-14

    Procyanidins in plant products are present as extractable or unextractable/bound forms. We optimized alkaline hydrolysis conditions to liberate procyanidins and depolymerize polymers from dried cranberry pomace. Alkaline extracts were neutralized (pH 6-7) and then procyanidins were extracted with ethyl acetate and analyzed by normal phase high performance liquid chromatography. Alkaline hydrolysis resulted in an increase in low molecular weight procyanidins, and the increase was greater at higher temperature, short time combinations. The most procyanidins (DP1-DP3) were extracted at 60 degrees C for 15 min with each concentration of NaOH. When compared to conventional extraction using homogenization with acetone/water/acetic acid (70:29.5:0.5 v/v/v), treatment with NaOH increased procyanidin oligomer extraction by 3.8-14.9-fold, with the greatest increase being DP1 (14.9x) and A-type DP2 (8.4x) procyanidins. Alkaline treatment of the residue remaining after conventional extraction resulted in further procyanidin extraction, indicating that procyanidins are not fully extracted by conventional extraction methods.

  4. Bioenergetics and the Role of Soluble Cytochromes c for Alkaline Adaptation in Gram-Negative Alkaliphilic Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    Matsuno, T.; Yumoto, I.

    2015-01-01

    Very few studies have been conducted on alkaline adaptation of Gram-negative alkaliphiles. The reversed difference of H+ concentration across the membrane will make energy production considerably difficult for Gram-negative as well as Gram-positive bacteria. Cells of the alkaliphilic Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas alcaliphila AL15-21T grown at pH 10 under low-aeration intensity have a soluble cytochrome c content that is 3.6-fold higher than that of the cells grown at pH 7 under high-aeration intensity. Cytochrome c-552 content was higher (64% in all soluble cytochromes c) than those of cytochrome c-554 and cytochrome c-551. In the cytochrome c-552-dificient mutant grown at pH 10 under low-aeration intensity showed a marked decrease in μmax⁡ [h−1] (40%) and maximum cell turbidity (25%) relative to those of the wild type. Considering the high electron-retaining abilities of the three soluble cytochromes c, the deteriorations in the growth of the cytochrome c-552-deficient mutant could be caused by the soluble cytochromes c acting as electron storages in the periplasmic space of the bacterium. These electron-retaining cytochromes c may play a role as electron and H+ condenser, which facilitate terminal oxidation at high pH under air-limited conditions, which is difficult to respire owing to less oxygen and less H+. PMID:25705691

  5. Bioenergetics and the role of soluble cytochromes C for alkaline adaptation in gram-negative alkaliphilic Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, T; Yumoto, I

    2015-01-01

    Very few studies have been conducted on alkaline adaptation of Gram-negative alkaliphiles. The reversed difference of H(+) concentration across the membrane will make energy production considerably difficult for Gram-negative as well as Gram-positive bacteria. Cells of the alkaliphilic Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas alcaliphila AL15-21(T) grown at pH 10 under low-aeration intensity have a soluble cytochrome c content that is 3.6-fold higher than that of the cells grown at pH 7 under high-aeration intensity. Cytochrome c-552 content was higher (64% in all soluble cytochromes c) than those of cytochrome c-554 and cytochrome c-551. In the cytochrome c-552-dificient mutant grown at pH 10 under low-aeration intensity showed a marked decrease in μ max⁡ [h(-1)] (40%) and maximum cell turbidity (25%) relative to those of the wild type. Considering the high electron-retaining abilities of the three soluble cytochromes c, the deteriorations in the growth of the cytochrome c-552-deficient mutant could be caused by the soluble cytochromes c acting as electron storages in the periplasmic space of the bacterium. These electron-retaining cytochromes c may play a role as electron and H(+) condenser, which facilitate terminal oxidation at high pH under air-limited conditions, which is difficult to respire owing to less oxygen and less H(+).

  6. Influence of alkaline suspended particles on the chemical composition of acid deposition in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, C.S.; Lin, Z.J.; Wu, M.Y.; Liu, J.I.; Yuan, C.

    1998-12-31

    This study investigated the influence of alkaline suspended particles on the chemical composition of acid deposition both temporally and spatially in Kaohsiung metropolitan area in Taiwan. During the period of January--December, 1996, both wet and dry deposition samples were collected by automatic acid precipitation samplers at six sampling sites which covered the entire metropolitan area. Major cations (NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K{sup +}, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup +2}, and Mg{sup +2}) and anions (F{sup {minus}}, Cl{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}) of acid deposition samples were analyzed in a central laboratory, while the pH value and conductivity of rainwater samples were measured in situ. Results from chemical analysis indicated that Ca{sup +2} was the most abundant cation in acid deposition samples. Major cations were Ca{sup +2} and NH{sub 4}{sup +}, while major anions were SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. This study also revealed that the pH value, suspended solids, Ca{sup +2}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} of rainwater decreased with rainy time in a sequential rainwater sampling process. It was estimated that approximately 80% of suspended particles could be washed out by rain droplets in the first hour of raining process. Therefore, alkaline suspended particles in the atmosphere played an very important role on the chemical composition of acid precipitation in Kaohsiung metropolitan area in Taiwan.

  7. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in

  8. Advanced oxidation of acridine orange by aqueous alkaline iodine.

    PubMed

    Azmat, Rafia; Qamar, Noshab; Naz, Raheela; Khursheed, Anum

    2016-11-01

    The advanced oxidation process is certainly used for the dye waste water treatment. In this continuation a new advanced oxidation via aqueous alkaline iodine was developed for the oxidation of acridine orange (AO) {3, 6 -bis (dimethylamino) acridine zinc chloride double salt}. Oxidation Kinetics of AO by alkaline solution of iodine was investigated spectrophotometrically at λmax 491 nm. The reaction was monitored at various operational parameters like several concentrations of dye and iodine, pH, salt electrolyte and temperature. The initial steps of oxidation kinetics followed fractional order reaction with respect to the dye while depend upon the incremental amount of iodine to certain extent whereas maximum oxidation of AO was achieved at high pH. Decline in the reaction rate in the presence of salt electrolyte suggested the presence of oppositely charged species in the rate determining step. Kinetic data revealed that the de-colorization mechanism involves triodate (I3(-)) species, instead of hypoidate (OI(-)) and hypiodous acid (HOI), in alkaline medium during the photo-excitation of hydrolyzed AO. Alleviated concentration of alkali result in decreasing of rate of reaction, clearly indicate that the iodine species are active oxidizing species instead of OH radical. Activation parameters at elevated temperatures were determined which revealed that highly solvated state of dye complex existed into solution. Reaction mixture was subjected to UV/Visible and GC mass spectrum analysis that proves the secondary consecutive reaction was operative in rate determining step and finally dye complex end into smaller fragments.

  9. Serum alkaline phosphatase screening for vitamin D deficiency states.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Shehla; Noor, Syed Shahid; Barakzai, Qamaruddin

    2012-07-01

    To determine whether serum vitamin D levels are correlated with serum levels of alkaline phosphatase or not. Cross-sectional, observational study. Multi-centre study, conducted at Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, National Medical Centre and Medicare Hospital, Karachi, from January to October 2009. Patients attending the Orthopaedic OPDs with complaints of pain in different body regions and serum vitamin D3 levels of ² 30 ng/ml were included in the study. Patients with vitamin D deficiency were further categorized into mild deficiency or insufficiency (vit. D3 = 20-29 ng/ml), moderate deficiency (vit. D3 = 5 - 19 ng/ml) and severe deficiency forms (vit. D3 < 5 ng/ml). Pearson correlation was applied to test the correlation of serum alkaline phosphatase levels with serum vitamin D3 levels. P-value < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Out of 110 samples, 26 had mild (23%), 61 had moderate (55%) and 21 had severe (19.1%) vitamin D deficiencies. All of the patients in the three groups had alkaline phosphatase with in normal limits and the total mean value of the enzyme was 135.97 ± 68.141 U/L. The inter group comparison showed highest values of alkaline phosphatase in the moderate vitamin D deficiency group. The correlation coefficient of alkaline phosphatase and serum vitamin D3 levels was r =0.05 (p =0.593). Serum vitamin D3 levels may not be correlated with increased serum alkaline phosphatase levels. Therefore, alkaline phosphatase may not be used as a screening test to rule out vitamin D deficiency.

  10. Reduction of pH buffer requirement in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Sleutels, Tom H J A; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2010-11-01

    Low pH buffer capacity of waste streams limits further development of bioelectrochemical systems (BES) because accumulation of protons potentially leads to acidification of the anodic biofilm. Here we introduce a system that makes it possible to recover alkalinity in an extra recovery compartment. The system consisted of this extra compartment which was located between anode and cathode compartment. The compartment was separated from the anode by a cation exchange membrane and from the cathode by an anion exchange membrane, which made clean hydrogen production possible. To compensate for the charge movement as a result of the flow of electrons, both cations and hydroxyl ions moved into the new recovery compartment. When a synthetic waste stream was fed through this recovery compartment, both pH and conductivity increased. When this stream is then fed to the anode of the BES, no additional buffer was required to produce the same current (3.5 A/m(2)) at an applied voltage of 1 V.

  11. Alkaline stress and iron deficiency regulate iron uptake and riboflavin synthesis gene expression differently in root and leaf tissue: implications for iron deficiency chlorosis.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, En-Jung; Waters, Brian M

    2016-10-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral that has low solubility in alkaline soils, where its deficiency results in chlorosis. Whether low Fe supply and alkaline pH stress are equivalent is unclear, as they have not been treated as separate variables in molecular physiological studies. Additionally, molecular responses to these stresses have not been studied in leaf and root tissues simultaneously. We tested how plants with the Strategy I Fe uptake system respond to Fe deficiency at mildly acidic and alkaline pH by measuring root ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity and expression of selected Fe uptake genes and riboflavin synthesis genes. Alkaline pH increased cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) root FCR activity at full Fe supply, but alkaline stress abolished FCR response to low Fe supply. Alkaline pH or low Fe supply resulted in increased expression of Fe uptake genes, but riboflavin synthesis genes responded to Fe deficiency but not alkalinity. Iron deficiency increased expression of some common genes in roots and leaves, but alkaline stress blocked up-regulation of these genes in Fe-deficient leaves. In roots of the melon (Cucumis melo L.) fefe mutant, in which Fe uptake responses are blocked upstream of Fe uptake genes, alkaline stress or Fe deficiency up-regulation of certain Fe uptake and riboflavin synthesis genes was inhibited, indicating a central role for the FeFe protein. These results suggest a model implicating shoot-to-root signaling of Fe status to induce Fe uptake gene expression in roots.

  12. Golgi Alkalinization by the Papillomavirus E5 Oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Schapiro, Florencia; Sparkowski, Jason; Adduci, Alex; Suprynowicz, Frank; Schlegel, Richard; Grinstein, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    The E5 oncoprotein of bovine papillomavirus type I is a small, hydrophobic polypeptide localized predominantly in the Golgi complex. E5-mediated transformation is often associated with activation of the PDGF receptor (PDGF-R). However, some E5 mutants fail to induce PDGF-R phosphorylation yet retain transforming activity, suggesting an additional mechanism of action. Since E5 also interacts with the 16-kD pore-forming subunit of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase), the oncoprotein could conceivably interfere with the pH homeostasis of the Golgi complex. A pH-sensitive, fluorescent bacterial toxin was used to label this organelle and Golgi pH (pHG) was measured by ratio imaging. Whereas pHG of untreated cells was acidic (6.5), no acidification was detected in E5-transfected cells (pH ∼7.0). The Golgi buffering power and the rate of H+ leakage were found to be comparable in control and transfected cells. Instead, the E5-induced pH differential was attributed to impairment of V-ATPase activity, even though the amount of ATPase present in the Golgi complex was unaltered. Mutations that abolished binding of E5 to the 16-kD subunit or that targeted the oncoprotein to the endoplasmic reticulum abrogated Golgi alkalinization and cellular transformation. Moreover, transformation-competent E5 mutants that were defective for PDGF-R activation alkalinized the Golgi lumen. Neither transformation by sis nor src, two oncoproteins in the PDGF-R signaling pathway, affected pHG. We conclude that alkalinization of the Golgi complex represents a new biological activity of the E5 oncoprotein that correlates with cellular transformation. PMID:10648563

  13. A Constructed Alkaline Consortium and Its Dynamics in Treating Alkaline Black Liquor with Very High Pollution Load

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunyu; Cao, Guangchun; Li, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Ren, Hongyan; Wang, Xia; Feng, Jinhui; Zhao, Liping; Xu, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Background Paper pulp wastewater resulting from alkaline extraction of wheat straw, known as black liquor, is very difficult to be treated and causes serious environmental problems due to its high pH value and chemical oxygen demand (COD) pollution load. Lignin, semicellulose and cellulose are the main contributors to the high COD values in black liquor. Very few microorganisms can survive in such harsh environments of the alkaline wheat straw black liquor. A naturally developed microbial community was found accidentally in a black liquor storing pool in a paper pulp mill of China. The community was effective in pH decreasing, color and COD removing from the high alkaline and high COD black liquor. Findings Thirty-eight strains of bacteria were isolated from the black liquor storing pool, and were grouped as eleven operational taxonomy units (OTUs) using random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR profiles (RAPD). Eleven representative strains of each OTU, which were identified as genera of Halomonas and Bacillus, were used to construct a consortium to treat black liquor with a high pH value of 11.0 and very high COD pollution load of 142,600 mg l−1. After treatment by the constructed consortium, about 35.4% of color and 39,000 mg l−1 (27.3%) CODcr were removed and the pH decreased to 7.8. 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis suggested a two-stage treatment mechanism to elucidate the interspecies collaboration: Halomonas isolates were important in the first stage to produce organic acids that contributed to the pH decline, while Bacillus isolates were involved in the degradation of lignin derivatives in the second stage under lower pH conditions. Conclusions/Significance Tolerance to the high alkaline environment and good controllability of the simple consortium suggested that the constructed consortium has good potential for black liquor treatment

  14. Effects of alkaline concentration, temperature, and additives on the strength of alkaline-induced egg white gel.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Tu, Yonggang; Li, Jianke; Xu, Mingsheng; Yang, Youxian; Nie, Xuliang; Yao, Yao; Du, Huaying

    2014-10-01

    Egg whites can undergo gelation at extreme pH. In this paper, the effects of NaOH concentration (1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3%), temperature (10, 20, 30, and 40°C), and additives (metallic compounds, carbohydrates, stabilizers, and coagulants) on the strength of alkaline-induced egg white gel were investigated. Results showed that NaOH concentration and induced temperature significantly affected the rate of formation and peak strength of the egg white gel. Of the 6 metallic compounds used in this experiment, CuSO₄exhibited the optimal effect on the strength of alkaline-induced egg white gel, followed by MgCl₂, ZnSO4, PbO, and CaCl₂. When CuSO₄concentration was 0.2%, the gel strength increased by 31.92%. The effect of Fe₂(SO₄)₃was negligible. Of the 5 carbohydrate additives, xanthan gum (0.2%) caused the highest increase (54.31%) in the strength of alkaline-induced egg white gel, followed by sodium alginate, glucose, starch, and sucrose. Meanwhile, propylene glycol (0.25%) caused the highest improvement (15.78%) in the strength of alkaline-induced egg white gel among the 3 stabilizing agents and coagulants used, followed by Na₂HPO₄and glucono-δ-lactone. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Effect of Activators on Strength of Hybrid Alkaline Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwi Pratiwi, Wiwik; Fansuri, Hamzah; Jaya Ekaputri, Januarti; Triwulan

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid alkaline cement is a class of alkaline cement resulted from alkali activation of the medium calcium content of aluminosilicate materials. This paper presents an experimental analysis of alkali activators effect on strength of hybrid alkaline cement produced from 80% fly ash and 20% ordinary Portland cement. Two alkali activators were observed i.e. 5% sodium sulfate and a combination of 5% of sodium sulfate-1.1 M SiO2 of sodium silicate solution. Compressive strength tests were performed on 20mmx 40mm cylinder paste specimens while setting time tests were conducted by Vicat needle. Scanning electron microscopy analysis and measurement of fly ash reaction degree were performed to explain the compressive strength of paste. It is concluded that addition of soluble silicate on the dry mix of hybrid cement-sodium sulfate activator reduce compressive strength and shorten the setting time. Both of activators give relative low fly ash reaction degree.

  16. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson

    2004-10-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to sub