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Sample records for ph curing time

  1. Anomalous Behavior of Cured Epoxy Resins: Density at Room Temperature versus Time and Temperature of Cure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    density (at 250 C) of a OGEBA epoxy resin cured with phthalic acid anhydride increased with time of cure at a single cure temperature, reached a maximum...time to vitrification to eventually form a glass. A more appropriate time indicator for the formation of glassy-state material in principle is that... enthalpy relaxation immediately above the assigned Tg, is typical of all slow-cooled, and also of fast-cooled specimens which had vitrified during

  2. Light curing time reduction: in vitro evaluation of new intensive light-emitting diode curing units.

    PubMed

    Mavropoulos, A; Staudt, C B; Kiliaridis, S; Krejci, I

    2005-08-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to establish the minimum necessary curing time to bond stainless steel brackets (Mini Diamond Twin) using new, intensive, light-emitting diode (LED) curing units. Seventy-five bovine primary incisors were divided into five equal groups. A standard light curing adhesive (Transbond XT) was used to bond the stainless steel brackets using different lamps and curing times. Two groups were bonded using an intensive LED curing lamp (Ortholux LED) for 5 and 10 seconds. Two more groups were bonded using another intensive LED curing device (Ultra-Lume LED 5) also for 5 and 10 seconds. Finally, a high-output halogen lamp (Optilux 501) was used for 40 seconds to bond the final group, which served as a positive control. All teeth were fixed in hard acrylic and stored for 24 hours in water at 37 degrees C. Shear bond strength (SBS) was measured using an Instron testing machine. Weibull distribution and analysis of variance were used to test for significant differences. The SBS values obtained were significantly different between groups (P < 0.001). When used for 10 seconds, the intensive LED curing units achieved sufficient SBS, comparable with the control. In contrast, 5 seconds resulted in significantly lower SBS. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was not significantly affected.A curing time of 10 seconds was found to be sufficient to bond metallic brackets to incisors using intensive LED curing units. These new, comparatively inexpensive, curing lamps seem to be an advantageous alternative to conventional halogen lamps for bonding orthodontic brackets.

  3. The coating curing properties study using terahertz time domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jiaojiao; Zhao, Duo; Li, Lijuan

    2015-10-01

    Coating curing curve is one of the most important methods to reflect the coating curing properties. It is of great significance for the coating curing properties. In this paper, by using the reflective Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscope technique, the curing properties of coating with different thicknesses are studied. Three different parameters used for studying the properties of coating curing curve are proposed in this paper. They are respectively the differential time of flight, power spectrum and amplitude for reflective THz time-domain waveform. In this paper, two kinds of coating (with different thicknesses) curing properties curves are established and the relative errors from three parameter analysis methods are compared respectively. This study shows that the study on coating curing properties curves by using the power spectrum of reflective THz time-domain waveform is superior to the amplitude parameter method. But for the thick coating, the differential time of flight for the reflective THz time-domain waveform can also better reflect the coating curing properties.

  4. Curing efficiency of various resin-based materials polymerized through different ceramic thicknesses and curing time

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Won; Cha, Hyun-Suk

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the curing efficiency of various resin-based materials polymerized through ceramic restorations with 3 different thicknesses. Curing efficiency was evaluated by determining the surface microhardness (VHN) of the resin specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four kinds of resin materials were used. Z350 (3M ESPE Filtek™ Z350: A2 Shade), Z250 (3M ESPE Filtek™ Z250: A2 Shade) and Variolink® II (VL: Ivoclar vivadent, base: transparent) either with or without a self-curing catalyst (VLC: Ivoclar vivadent, catalyst: low viscosity/transparent) were filled into the silicone mold (10 mm diameter, 1 mm thick). They were cured through ceramic discs (IPS e.max Press MO-0 ingot ivoclar vivadent, 10 mm diameter, 0.5, 1 and 2 mm thicknesses) by LED light-curing units for 20 and 40 seconds. Vicker's microhardness numbers (VHNs) were measured on the bottom surfaces by a microhardness tester. Data were analyzed using a 3- way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS The thickness of ceramic disc increased, the VHNs of all four resin types were decreased (P<.05). The mean VHN values of the resins light cured for 40 seconds were significantly higher than that of LED for 20 seconds in all four resin materials (P<.05). VLC showed significantly higher VHN values than VL regardless of other conditions (P<.05). Z350 and Z250 showed higher values than VL or VLC (P<.01). CONCLUSION Thinner ceramic disc with increased curing time resulted higher VHN values of all resin materials. The use of a catalyst produced a greater hardness with all polymerization methods. Restorative resin materials (Z350, Z250) showed higher VHN values than resin cement materials (VL, VLC). PMID:22053242

  5. Cure models for the analysis of time-to-event data in cancer studies.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaoyu; Sima, Camelia S; Brennan, Murray F; Panageas, Katherine S

    2013-11-01

    In settings when it is biologically plausible that some patients are cured after definitive treatment, cure models present an alternative to conventional survival analysis. Cure models can inform on the group of patients cured, by estimating the probability of cure, and identifying factors that influence it; while simultaneously focusing on time to recurrence and associated factors for the remaining patients.

  6. Decreased Cutaneous Resonance Running Time in Cured Leprosy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Song, S.P.; Elias, P.M.; Lv, C.Z.; Shi, Y.J.; Guang, P.; Zhang, X.J.; Feingold, K.R.; Man, M.Q.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objectives Leprosy prominently involves both the skin and peripheral neural tissues and some symptoms persist after microbial cure. Because alterations in the dermis also occur in leprosy, we assessed here whether there were changes in cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT), a parameter that is influenced by collagen properties, in cured leprosy subjects. Methods A reviscometer was used to measure the CRRT at various directions on the dorsal hand and the flexural forearms of 76 cured leprosy subjects aged 50–85 years and 68 age-matched normal subjects. Results In comparison to normal subjects, CRRTs on the hands and the forearms were significantly reduced in all directions in cured leprosy, except at the 1–7, 2–8 and 3–9 o'clock directions on the forearms. CRRTs were reduced significantly at both the 4–10 and 5–11 o'clock directions on the forearm in lepromatous (73.33 ± 4.19 at 4–10 o'clock and 67.44 ± 2.71 at 5–11 o'clock direction) and borderline lepromatous types (77.58 ± 5.84 at 4–10 o'clock and 79.85 ± 6.81 at 5–11 o'clock direction) as compared with normal (143.10 ± 7.75 at 4–10 o'clock and 125.18 ± 8.14 at 5–11 o'clock direction). On the hand, CRRTs at all directions, except that at 4–10 o'clock direction, were also significantly reduced in lepromatous and borderline lepromatous types in comparison with normal. Significant differences in CRRT at some directions were found among the various subtypes of leprosy. Conclusion CRRTs were abnormal in the cured leprosy subjects as a whole, but varied with leprosy subtypes, which suggested that the extent of reduction of CRRTs correlates with the severity of immune alteration. These results suggest that CRRT measurements could be a useful approach to quantify the extent of some residual abnormalities in cured leprosy and perhaps could also be used to evaluate the efficacy of treatment. PMID:19648783

  7. Effects of pH, sodium chloride, and curing salt on the infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts.

    PubMed

    Pott, S; Koethe, M; Bangoura, B; Zöller, B; Daugschies, A; Straubinger, R K; Fehlhaber, K; Ludewig, M

    2013-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common zoonotic parasites in the world. The parasite causes no or mild symptoms in immunocompetent humans. However, a high potential hazard exists for seronegative pregnant women and immunocompromised patients. The consumption of meat containing tissue cysts or oocyst-contaminated vegetables and fruits or the handling of cat feces poses a high risk of infection with T. gondii. It is known that raw minced meat, raw fresh sausages, and locally produced raw meat products are possible causes of T. gondii infection. The infectivity of T. gondii tissue cysts in meat products depends, among other factors, on the pH and the salt concentration. Therefore, the impact of these two factors on the tissue cysts was examined. For this purpose, dissected musculature and brain from experimentally infected mice (donor mice) were placed in a cell culture medium (RPMI 1640). The medium was adjusted to different pH values (pH 5, 6, and 7) with lactic acid and to different salt concentrations (2.0, 2.5, and 3.0%) with sodium chloride (NaCl) or nitrite-enriched curing salt (NCS) for the various tests. After storage at 4°C for different time periods, the materials were fed to bioassay mice. Later, the brains were examined for presence of T. gondii to assess the infectivity. The data show that T. gondii tissue cysts have a high pH tolerance. Cysts were infectious in the muscle for up to 26 days (pH 5). In contrast to their tolerance to pH, cysts were very sensitive to salt. Muscle cysts survived at an NaCl concentration of up to 2.0% only, and for no longer than 8 days. At NaCl concentrations of 2.5 and 3.0%, the cysts lost their infectivity after 1 day. When NCS instead of NaCl was used under the same conditions, T. gondii muscle cysts retained infectivity for only 4 days at 2.0%. Consequently, NCS (NaCl plus 0.5% nitrite) has a stronger effect on T. gondii cysts than does common table salt. Sausages produced with low NaCl concentration and short

  8. The effects of early post-mortem pH and ultimate pH on level and amount of destructured zones in cooked cured hams.

    PubMed

    Hugenschmidt, Gabriel; Hadorn, Ruedi; Scheeder, Martin R L; Silacci, Paolo; Scherrer, Daniel; Wenk, Caspar

    2010-08-01

    Effects of early (1h p.m. and 3h p.m.) and ultimate pH (24h p.m.) on level and amount of destructured zones in cooked cured hams were evaluated. In experiment 1, electrically stimulated (50 V, 14 Hz, 2 x 90s) and non-stimulated carcass halves, both in combination with two cooling procedures (2 degrees C from 30 min p.m. vs. 120 min p.m.) resulted in 1.5-35.2g/kg destructured zones in silversides and 58.4-120.0 g/kg destructured zones in topsides. A high temperature 1h p.m. in silversides (P=0.067) and topsides (P=0.054) was identified as the most important predictor for the defect. In experiment 2, cooked cured hams from topsides selected according to ultimate pH groups (pH<5.5, pH 5.5-5.7, pH>5.7) showed between 12.3 and 61.8 g/kg destructured zones. Ultimate pH was specified as most important, however, statistically still not significant (P=0.135) predictor for the defect. Chemical analysis resulted in low crude ash and high dry matter content as being characteristic for the defect.

  9. Microhardness of composite resin cured through different primary tooth thicknesses with different light intensities and curing times: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mazhari, Fatemeh; Ajami, Behjatolmolok; Moazzami, Saied Mostafa; Baghaee, Bahareh; Hafez, Bahareh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased exposure time and light intensity on microhardness of cured composite through different thicknesses of tooth structure in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventy cylindrical resin composite specimens were prepared. All specimens were divided into 17 experimental and control groups. “Light-emitting diode” light curing unit (LCU) applied directly or through 1, 2, and 3 mm thicknesses tooth slices for experimental groups. The irradiation protocols were 25 and 50 s at 650 mW/cm2 and 15 and 30 s at 1100 mW/cm2. The “quartz-tungsten-halogen” LCU (400 mW/cm2) for 40 s was used in control group. Microhardness was measured by the Vickers hardness test. Results: Indirectly cured specimens and those cured through a 1 mm thick tooth structure, an increase in intensity caused hardness drop. In the specimens cured through 2 and 3 mm thick tooth structures, increased intensity and/or exposure time did not show any appropriate changes on microhardness. Conclusion: Irradiation through a 1.0 mm thick tooth slice resulted in reduced microhardness although it was still within the clinically acceptable level. The hardness values of the specimens cured through 2 or 3 mm thick tooth slices fell below the clinically acceptable level even after doubling the exposure time and/or light intensity. PMID:27095897

  10. The pH effect of solvent in silanization on fluoride released and mechanical properties of heat-cured acrylic resin containing fluoride-releasing filler.

    PubMed

    Nakornchai, Natha; Arksornnukit, Mansuang; Kamonkhantikul, Krid; Takahashi, Hidekazu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an acidic-adjusted pH of solvent in silanization on the amount of fluoride released and mechanical properties of heat-cured acrylic resin containing a silanized fluoride-releasing filler. The experimental groups were divided into 4 groups; non-silanized, acidic-adjusted pH, non-adjusted pH, and no filler as control. For fluoride measurement, each specimen was placed in deionized water which was changed every day for 7 days, every week for 7 weeks and measured. The flexural strength and flexural modulus were evaluated after aging for 48 h, 1, and 2 months. Two-way ANOVA indicated significant differences among groups, storage times, and its interaction in fluoride measurement and flexural modulus. For flexural strength, there was significant difference only among groups. Acidic-adjusted pH of solvent in silanization enhanced the amount of fluoride released from acrylic resin, while non-adjusted pH of solvent exhibited better flexural strength of acrylic resin.

  11. Clinical effect of reducing curing times with high-intensity LED lights

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Justin D.; Wolf, Bethany J.; Leite, Luis P.; Zhou, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical performance of brackets cured with a high-intensity, light-emitting diode (LED) with a shorter curing time. Materials and Methods Thirty-four patients and a total of 680 brackets were examined using a randomized split-mouth design. The maxillary right and mandibular left quadrants were cured for 6 seconds with a high-intensity LED light (3200 mW/cm2) and the maxillary left and mandibular right quadrants were cured for 20 seconds with a standard-intensity LED light (1200 mW/cm2). Alternating patients had the quadrants inverted for the curing protocol. The number and date of each first-time bracket failure was recorded from 199 to 585 days posttreatment. Results The bracket failure rate was 1.18% for both curing methods. The proportion of bracket failure was not significantly different between curing methods (P = 1.000), genders (P = 1.000), jaws (P = .725), sides (P = .725), or quadrants (P = .547). Posterior teeth exhibited a greater proportion of failures (2.21%) relative to anterior teeth (0.49%), although the difference was not statistically significant (P = .065). Conclusions No difference was found in bond failure rates between the two curing methods. Both methods showed bond failure rates low enough to be considered clinically sufficient. The high-intensity LED light used with a shorter curing time may be considered an advantage due to the reduced chair time. PMID:25760887

  12. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for monitoring the curing of dental composites

    PubMed Central

    Schwerdtfeger, Michael; Lippert, Sina; Koch, Martin; Berg, Andreas; Katletz, Stefan; Wiesauer, Karin

    2012-01-01

    We apply terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy for monitoring the curing process of three different light-curing dental composites. Exact knowledge of the sample thickness is required for a precise determination of the THz dielectric parameters, as the materials exhibit shrinkage when they are cured. We find very small but significant changes of the THz refractive index and absorption coefficient during stepwise light exposure. The changes in the refractive index are correlated with changes in the density of the materials. Furthermore, the refractive index and the sample thickness are found to give the most reliable result for monitoring the curing process of the dental composites. PMID:23162722

  13. IMPACT OF TIME / TEMPERATURE CURING CONDITIONS AND ALUMINATE CONCENTRATIONS ON SALTSTONE PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Harbour, J.; Edwards, T.; Williams, V.

    2009-05-05

    This report addresses the impact of (1) the time and temperature curing conditions (profile) and (2) the impact of higher aluminate concentrations in the decontaminated salt solution on Saltstone processing and performance properties. The results demonstrate that performance properties as well as some of the processing properties of Saltstone are highly sensitive to the conditions of time and temperature under which curing occurs. This sensitivity is in turn dependent on the concentration of aluminate in the salt feed solution. In general, the performance properties and indicators (Young's modulus, compressive strength and total porosity) are reduced when curing is initially carried out under high temperature. However, this reduction in performance properties is dependent on the sequence of temperatures (the time/temperature profile) experienced during the curing process. That is, samples that are subjected to a 1, 2, 3 or 4 day curing time at 60 C followed by final curing at 22 C lead to performance properties that are significantly different than the properties of grouts allowed to cure for 1, 2, 3 or 4 days at 22 C followed by a treatment at 60 C. The performance properties of Saltstone cured in the sequence of higher temperature first are generally less (and in some cases significantly less) than performance properties of Saltstone cured only at 22 C. This loss in performance was shown to be mitigated by increased slag content or cement content in the premix at the expense of fly ash. For the sequence in which the Saltstone is initially cured at 22 C followed by a higher temperature cure, the performance properties can be equal to or greater than the properties observed with curing only at 22 C curing. The results in this report indicate that in order to meaningfully measure and report the performance properties of Saltstone, one has to know the time/temperature profile conditions under which the Saltstone will be cured. This will require thermal modeling and

  14. Effect of post cure time and temperature on the properties of two phenolic-fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucy, M. H.; Price, H. L.

    1975-01-01

    Some effects of post-cure time and temperature on the physicomechanical properties of a phenolic-asbestos and a phenolic-glass composite are studied. The molding and post-curing procedures are discussed along with physical and mechanical test results. It is found that the specific gravity of the panels tested decreased slightly but the hardness always increased with post cure, and that the mechanical properties had different patterns of response to increasing post-cure time and temperature. For tensile properties, strength decreased, modulus increased, and elongation at break exhibited little change. In general, the phenolic-asbestos showed more positive response to post cure than did the phenolic-glass. Mold venting is found to impart better properties to the composites concerned.

  15. Quality characteristics of a dry-cured lamb leg as affected by tumbling after dry-salting and processing time.

    PubMed

    Villalobos-Delgado, Luz H; Caro, Irma; Blanco, Carolina; Morán, Lara; Prieto, Nuria; Bodas, Raul; Giráldez, Francisco J; Mateo, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate selected quality characteristics of a dry-cured lamb leg with different tumbling treatments after salting. The characteristics were measured at different processing times. Three batches of dry-cured lamb legs (nine legs per batch) were prepared with no-, short- and long-tumbling treatments, and microbial counts, NaCl, aw, proximate composition, pH, free fatty acids, water soluble nitrogen, volatile compounds, texture and colour were evaluated at days 1, 22 and 71 of processing. Furthermore, a descriptive sensory analysis (flavour and texture) was performed in the final product (day 71). Time-related changes were observed for most of the characteristics studied. The effect of tumbling was only observed for the sensory attribute pastiness that was higher in tumbled legs. Methyl-branched butanal was only detected in tumbled legs.

  16. Stability of α-tocotrienol and α-tocopherol in salami-type sausages and curing brine depending on nitrite and pH.

    PubMed

    Gerling, Eva-Maria; Ternes, Waldemar

    2014-12-01

    We studied the stability of the valuable vitamer nutrients α-tocotrienol and α-tocopherol and options for their protection in salami-type sausages (blended with α-tocotrienol-rich barley oil) and curing brine. Four different sausage formulations were produced containing nitrite curing salt; nitrite curing salt and ascorbic acid (300mg/kg); nitrite curing salt and carnosic acid (45mg/kg); or sodium chloride. Initial vitamer contents (100mg/kg) did not decrease significantly during ripening and decreased only slightly during storage. Ascorbic acid and carnosic acid were found to be effective in preserving the vitamers in fresh sausages. Freeze-drying of sausages resulted in a significant loss of vitamers (97%), particularly after 14-day storage at room temperature, even in the presence of shielding gases. The vitamer content in the curing brine decreased with decreasing pH in the presence of nitrite. A nitrite concentration of 136mg/L at pH4 resulted in significant loss (90%) of the vitamers. Sufficient stability of the vitamers in salami-type sausage and curing brine can be achieved by processing, formulation, and storage conditions.

  17. Effect of drying processes and curing time of chitosan-lysine semi-IPN beads on chlorpheniramine maleate delivery.

    PubMed

    Kumari, K; Kundu, P P

    2009-02-01

    Beads of semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) have been synthesized from chitosan and lysine with varying amounts of glutaraldehyde solution used as a cross-linker. The cross-linked beads are dried by different drying processes such as air-drying, oven-drying and freeze-drying. These semi-IPNs are characterized under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Swelling studies of these beads are carried out in different pH (2.0 and 7.4) solutions. The effect of concentration of cross-linking agent and curing period on the swelling as well as on the drug release is analysed. The results indicate that the size of matrix depend on the curing time of beads, concentration of glutaraldehyde and technique of drying. The freeze-dried beads exhibit a relatively higher percentage of swelling in the range of 66-89% as compared to oven-dried beads (53-74%) and air-dried beads (39-61%). The drug loaded beads which are cured for different time intervals followed by drying are tested for in-vitro release of chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) drug. The rate of drug release from freeze-dried beads is much faster than that from the oven-dried and air-dried beads.

  18. Shear bond strength of orthodontic color-change adhesives with different light-curing times

    PubMed Central

    Bayani, Shahin; Ghassemi, Amirreza; Manafi, Safa; Delavarian, Mohadeseh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of light-curing time on the shear bond strength (SBS) of two orthodontic color-change adhesives (CCAs). Materials and Methods: A total of 72 extracted premolars were randomly assigned into 6 groups of 12 teeth each. Subsequent to primer application, a metal bracket was bonded to the buccal surface using an orthodontic adhesive. Two CCAs (Greengloo and Transbond Plus) were tested and one conventional light-cured adhesive (Resilience) served as control. For each adhesive, the specimens were light-cured for two different times of 20 and 40 s. All the specimens underwent mechanical testing using a universal testing machine to measure the SBS. Adhesive remnant index (ARI) was used to assess the remnant adhesive material on the tooth surface. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. The significance level for all statistical tests was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: The SBSs of the tested groups were in the range of 14.05-31.25 MPa. Greengloo adhesive showed the highest SBS values when light-cured for 40 s, and Transbond Plus adhesive showed the lowest values when light-cured for 20 s. ARI scores of Transbond Plus adhesive were significantly higher than those of controls, while other differences in ARI values were not significant. Conclusion: Within the limitations of his study, decreasing the light-curing time from 40 to 20 s decreased the SBS of the tested adhesives; however, this decline in SBS was statistically significant only in Transbond Plus adhesive PMID:26005468

  19. Effect of curing time on moisture content and mechanical properties of peanut pods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to study the damage mechanisms of peanut pods and kernels during picking up and picking, and determine the optimal harvest time by two-stage, peanut samples were taken from the western of Liaoning Province, and the peanut plants just being dug out were put in the field curing for 7~8 days, ...

  20. Post-curing conversion kinetics as functions of the irradiation time and increment thickness

    PubMed Central

    SCOTTI, Nicola; VENTURELLO, Alberto; BORGA, Francesco Andrea Coero; PASQUALINI, Damiano; PAOLINO, Davide Salvatore; GEOBALDO, Francesco; BERUTTI, Elio

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the variation of conversion degree (DC) in the 12 hours following initial photoactivation of a low-shrinkage composite resin (Venus Diamond). Material and Methods: The conversion degree was monitored for 12 hours using Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) F-TIR Spectroscopy. The composite was placed in 1 or 2 mm rings and cured for 10 or 20 seconds with a LED lamp. ATR spectra were acquired from the bottom surface of each sample immediately after the initial photoactivation (P=0), 30 minutes (P=0.5) and 12 hours after photoactivation (P=12) in order to obtain the DC progression during the post-curing period. Interactions between thickness (T), irradiation time (I) and post-curing (P) on the DC were calculated through ANOVA testing. Results: All the first order interactions were statistically significant, with the exception of the T-P interaction. Furthermore, the shift from P=0 to P=0.5 had a statistically higher influence than the shift from P=0.5 to P=12. The post-curing period played a fundamental role in reaching higher DC values with the low-shrinkage composite resin tested in this study. Moreover, both the irradiation time and the composite thickness strongly influenced the DC. Conclusions: Increased irradiation time may be useful in obtaining a high conversion degree (DC) with a low-shrinkage nano-hybrid composite resin, particularly with 2 mm composite layers. PMID:23739861

  1. Estimation of dry-cured ham composition using dielectric time domain reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Fulladosa, E; Duran-Montgé, P; Serra, X; Picouet, P; Schimmer, O; Gou, P

    2013-04-01

    Development of real-time, non-destructive methods to characterize dry-cured ham is of interest to the food industry. Since dielectric properties change depending on the composition of the food product studied, time domain reflectometry (TDR) could be a useful method to characterize dry-cured ham. In this study, samples with different compositions were measured with a TDR device equipped with an open-ended coaxial line sensor. Partial least square regression (PLSR) analysis was used to develop predictive models to determine salt, water and fat contents and a(w) in dry-cured ham. Results show that salt content (RMSEV=0.22%), water content (RMSEV=1.67%) and a(w) (RMSEV=0.0087) can be accurately determined, though fat content is determined with less precision (RMSEV=2.81%). Saltiness, dryness and fatness of the samples, in the studied range, did not affect the accuracy of the predictions. Developed predictive models were accurate enough to consider the TDR device as a useful tool for characterizing and classifying dry-cured ham in industry.

  2. [Methods Used for Monitoring Cure Reactions in Real-time in an Autoclave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John B.; Wise, Kent L.; Jensen, Brian J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the research was to investigate methods for monitoring cure reactions in real-time in an autoclave. This is of particular importance to NASA Langley Research Center because polyimides were proposed for use in the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) program. Understanding the cure chemistry behind the polyimides would allow for intelligent processing of the composites made from their use. This work has led to two publications in peer-reviewed journals and a patent. The journal articles are listed as Appendix A which is on the instrument design of the research and Appendix B which is on the cure chemistry. Also, a patent has been awarded for the instrumental design developed under this grant which is given as Appendix C. There has been a significant amount of research directed at developing methods for monitoring cure reactions in real-time within the autoclave. The various research efforts can be categorized as methods providing either direct chemical bonding information or methods that provide indirect chemical bonding information. Methods falling into the latter category are fluorescence, dielectric loss, ultrasonic and similar type methods. Correlation of such measurements with the underlying chemistry is often quite difficult since these techniques do not allow monitoring of the curing chemistry which is ultimately responsible for material properties. Direct methods such as vibrational spectroscopy, however, can often be easily correlated with the underlying chemistry of a reaction. Such methods include Raman spectroscopy, mid-IR absorbance, and near-IR absorbance. With the recent advances in fiber-optics, these spectroscopic techniques can be applied to remote on-line monitoring.

  3. Effect of UV curing time on physical and electrical properties and reliability of low dielectric constant materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Kai-Chieh; Cheng, Yi-Lung; Chang, Wei-Yuan; Chang, Yu-Min; Leu, Jihperng

    2014-11-01

    This study comprehensively investigates the effect of ultraviolet (UV) curing time on the physical, electrical, and reliability characteristics of porous low-k materials. Following UV irradiation for various periods, the depth profiles of the chemical composition in the low-k dielectrics were homogeneous. Initially, the UV curing process preferentially removed porogen-related CH{sub x} groups and then modified Si-CH{sub 3} and cage Si-O bonds to form network Si-O bonds. The lowest dielectric constant (k value) was thus obtained at a UV curing time of 300 s. Additionally, UV irradiation made porogen-based low-k materials hydrophobic and to an extent that increased with UV curing time. With a short curing time (<300 s), porogen was not completely removed and the residues degraded reliability performance. A long curing time (>300 s) was associated with improved mechanical strength, electrical performance, and reliability of the low-k materials, but none of these increased linearly with UV curing time. Therefore, UV curing is necessary, but the process time must be optimized for porous low-k materials on back-end of line integration in 45 nm or below technology nodes.

  4. Ultraviolet blood irradiation: Is it time to remember "the cure that time forgot"?

    PubMed

    Wu, Ximing; Hu, Xiaoqing; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-04-01

    Ultraviolet blood irradiation (UBI) was extensively used in the 1940s and 1950s to treat many diseases including septicemia, pneumonia, tuberculosis, arthritis, asthma, and even poliomyelitis. The early studies were carried out by several physicians in USA and published in the American Journal of Surgery. However, with the development of antibiotics, the use of UBI declined and it has now been called "the cure that time forgot." Later studies were mostly performed by Russian workers, and in other Eastern countries, and the modern view in Western countries is that UBI remains highly controversial. This review discusses the potential of UBI as an alternative approach to current methods used to treat infections, as an immune-modulating therapy and as a method for normalizing blood parameters. Low and mild doses of UV kill microorganisms by damaging the DNA, while any DNA damage in host cells can be rapidly repaired by DNA repair enzymes. However, the use of UBI to treat septicemia cannot be solely due to UV-mediated killing of bacteria in the bloodstream, as only 5-7% of blood volume needs to be treated with UV to produce the optimum benefit, and higher doses can be damaging. There may be some similarities to extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) using psoralens and UVA irradiation. However, there are differences between UBI and ECP in that UBI tends to stimulate the immune system, while ECP tends to be immunosuppressive. With the recent emergence of bacteria that are resistant to all known antibiotics, UBI should be more investigated as an alternative approach to infections, and as an immune-modulating therapy.

  5. Ultraviolet blood irradiation: Is it time to remember “the cure that time forgot”?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ximing; Hu, Xiaoqing; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet blood irradiation (UBI) was extensively used in the 1940s and 1950s to treat many diseases including septicemia, pneumonia, tuberculosis, arthritis, asthma and even poliomyelitis. The early studies were carried out by several physicians in USA and published in the American Journal of Surgery. However with the development of antibiotics, the use of UBI declined and it has now been called “the cure that time forgot”. Later studies were mostly performed by Russian workers and in other Eastern countries, and the modern view in Western countries is that UBI remains highly controversial. This review discusses the potential of UBI as an alternative approach to current methods used to treat infections, as an immune-modulating therapy and as a method for normalizing blood parameters. Low and mild doses of UV kill microorganisms by damaging the DNA, while any DNA damage in host cells can be rapidly repaired by DNA repair enzymes. However the use of UBI to treat septicemia cannot be solely due to UV-mediated killing of bacteria in the bloodstream, as only 5–7% of blood volume needs to be treated with UV to produce the optimum benefit, and higher doses can be damaging. There may be some similarities to extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) using psoralens and UVA irradiation. However there are differences between UBI and ECP in that UBI tends to stimulate the immune system, while ECP tends to be immunosuppressive. With the recent emergence of bacteria that are resistant to all known antibiotics, UBI should be more investigated as an alternative approach to infections, and as an immune-modulating therapy. PMID:26894849

  6. Ballistics ordnance gelatine - How different concentrations, temperatures and curing times affect calibration results.

    PubMed

    Maiden, Nicholas R; Fisk, Wesley; Wachsberger, Christian; Byard, Roger W

    2015-08-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether different concentrations of ordnance gelatine, water types, temperatures and curing times would have an effect on projectile penetration of a gelatine tissue surrogate. Both Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) specified gelatines were compared against the FBI calibration standard. 10% w/w and 20% w/w concentrations of gelatine with Bloom numbers of 250 and 285 were prepared and cured at variable temperatures (3-20°C) for 21 hours-3 weeks. Each block was shot on four occasions on the same range using steel calibre 4.5 mm BBs fired from a Daisy(®) air rifle at the required standard velocity of 180 ± 4.5 m/s, to ascertain the mean penetration depth. The results showed no significant difference in mean penetration depth using the three different water types (p > 0.05). Temperature changes and curing times did affect penetration depth. At 10°C, mean penetration depth with 20% gelatine 285 Bloom for the two water types tested was 49.7 ± 1.5 mm after 21 h curing time, whereas the same formulation at 20°C using two different water types was 79.1 ± 2.1 mm after 100 h curing time (p < 0.001). Neither of the NATO 20% concentrations of gelatine at 10°C or a 20% concentration of 285 Bloom gelatine at 10°C met the same calibration standard as the FBI recommended 10% formulation at 4°C. A 20% concentration of 285 Bloom at 20°C met the same calibration/penetration criteria as a 10% concentration of 250 Bloom at 4 °C after 100 h of curing, therefore matching the FBI calibration standard for a soft tissue simulant for wound ballistics research. These results demonstrate significant variability in simulant properties. Failure to standardise ballistic simulants may invalidate experimental results.

  7. Timing of binary and millisecond PKSMB/PH pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eatough, Ralph; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Kramer, Michael; Lyne, Andrew; Hobbs, George; Burgay, Marta; Camilo, Fernando; Stairs, Ingrid; Keith, Michael; Lorimer, Duncan Ross; Jaroenjittichai, Phrudth

    2010-04-01

    This proposal concentrates the timing observations of binary and millisecond pulsars discovered by us in the Parkes Multibeam (PKSMB) and high-latitude (PH) surveys. In order to fully exploit the scientific promises of our discoveries it is essential to perform continued timing observations. It is crucial that the observing sessions be spaced at three-to-five week intervals. The pulsars will be visible during LST 10:00-19:00 and the project should be scheduled within this interval.

  8. Timing of binary and millisecond PKSMB/PH pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eatough, Ralph; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Kramer, Michael; Lyne, Andrew; Hobbs, George; Burgay, Marta; Camilo, Fernando; Stairs, Ingrid; Keith, Michael; Lorimer, Duncan Ross; Jaroenjittichai, Phrudth

    2009-10-01

    This proposal concentrates the timing observations of binary and millisecond pulsars discovered by us in the Parkes Multibeam (PKSMB) and high-latitude (PH) surveys. In order to fully exploit the scientific promises of our discoveries it is essential to perform continued timing observations. It is crucial that the observing sessions be spaced at three-to-five week intervals. The pulsars will be visible during LST 10:00-19:00 and the project should be scheduled within this interval.

  9. Timing of binary and millisecond PKSMB/PH pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eatough, Ralph; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Verbiest, Joris P. W.; Kramer, Michael; Lyne, Andrew; Hobbs, George; Burgay, Marta; Camilo, Fernando; Stairs, Ingrid; Keith, Michael; Lorimer, Duncan Ross

    2010-10-01

    This proposal concentrates the timing observations of binary and millisecond pulsars discovered by us in the Parkes Multibeam (PKSMB) and high-latitude (PH) surveys. In order to fully exploit the scientific promises of our discoveries it is essential to perform continued timing observations. It is crucial that the observing sessions be spaced at three-to-five week intervals. The pulsars will be visible during LST 10:00-19:00 and the project should be scheduled within this interval.

  10. Timing of binary and millisecond PKSMB/PH pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Michael; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Lyne, Andrew; Hobbs, George; McLaughlin, Maura; Burgay, Marta; D'Amico, Nichi; Camilo, Fernando; Stairs, Ingrid; Faulkner, Andrew; Lorimer, Duncan Ross

    2007-04-01

    This proposal concentrates the timing observations of binary and millisecond pulsars discovered by us in the Parkes Multibeam (PKSMB) and high-latitude (PH) surveys. In order to fully exploit the scientific promises of our discoveries it is essential to perform continued timing observations. It is crucial that the observing sessions be spaced at three-to-five week intervals. The pulsars will be visible during LST 10:00-19:00 and the project should be scheduled within this interval.

  11. Timing of binary and millisecond PKSMB/PH pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Michael; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Lyne, Andrew; Hobbs, George; McLaughlin, Maura; Burgay, Marta; D'Amico, Nichi; Stairs, Ingrid; Faulkner, Andrew; Eatough, Ralph; Lorimer, Duncan Ross

    2008-04-01

    This proposal concentrates the timing observations of binary and millisecond pulsars discovered by us in the Parkes Multibeam (PKSMB) and high-latitude (PH) surveys. In order to fully exploit the scientific promises of our discoveries it is essential to perform continued timing observations. It is crucial that the observing sessions be spaced at three-to-five week intervals. The pulsars will be visible during LST 10:00-19:00 and the project should be scheduled within this interval.

  12. Timing of binary and millisecond PKSMB/PH pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Michael; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Lyne, Andrew; Hobbs, George; McLaughlin, Maura; Burgay, Marta; D'Amico, Nichi; Stairs, Ingrid; Faulkner, Andrew; Eatough, Ralph; Lorimer, Duncan Ross

    2007-10-01

    This proposal concentrates the timing observations of binary and millisecond pulsars discovered by us in the Parkes Multibeam (PKSMB) and high-latitude (PH) surveys. In order to fully exploit the scientific promises of our discoveries it is essential to perform continued timing observations. It is crucial that the observing sessions be spaced at three-to-five week intervals. The pulsars will be visible during LST 10:00-19:00 and the project should be scheduled within this interval.

  13. Timing of binary and millisecond PKSMB/PH pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Michael; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Lyne, Andrew; Hobbs, George; McLaughlin, Maura; Burgay, Marta; D'Amico, Nichi; Camilo, Fernando; Stairs, Ingrid; Faulkner, Andrew; Lorimer, Duncan Ross

    2006-10-01

    This proposal concentrates the timing observations of binary and millisecond pulsars discovered by us in the Parkes Multibeam (PKSMB) and high-latitude (PH) surveys. In order to fully exploit the scientific promises of our discoveries it is essential to perform continued timing observations. It is crucial that the observing sessions be spaced at three-to-five week intervals. The pulsars will be visible during LST 10:00-19:00 and the project should be scheduled within this interval.

  14. Timing of binary and millisecond PKSMB/PH pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eatough, Ralph; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Kramer, Michael; Lyne, Andrew; Hobbs, George; McLaughlin, Maura; Burgay, Marta; D'Amico, Nichi; Stairs, Ingrid; Faulkner, Andrew; Lorimer, Duncan Ross

    2009-04-01

    This proposal concentrates the timing observations of binary and millisecond pulsars discovered by us in the Parkes Multibeam (PKSMB) and high-latitude (PH) surveys. In order to fully exploit the scientific promises of our discoveries it is essential to perform continued timing observations. It is crucial that the observing sessions be spaced at three-to-five week intervals. The pulsars will be visible during LST 10:00-19:00 and the project should be scheduled within this interval.

  15. Timing of binary and millisecond PKSMB/PH pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Michael; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Lyne, Andrew; Hobbs, George; McLaughlin, Maura; Burgay, Marta; D'Amico, Nichi; Stairs, Ingrid; Faulkner, Andrew; Eatough, Ralph; Lorimer, Duncan Ross

    2008-10-01

    This proposal concentrates the timing observations of binary and millisecond pulsars discovered by us in the Parkes Multibeam (PKSMB) and high-latitude (PH) surveys. This session we have also incorporated P417, timing of a new class of pulsars, into this proposal. In order to fully exploit the scientific promises of our discoveries it is essential to perform continued timing observations. It is crucial that the observing sessions be spaced at three-to-five week intervals. The pulsars will be visible during LST 05:00-19:00 and the project should be scheduled within this interval.

  16. Time course of pH change in plant epidermis using microscopic pH imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Risako; Shimizu, Megumi; Kazama, Haruko; Sakaue, Hirotaka

    2010-11-01

    We established a microscopic pH imaging system to track the time course of pH change in plant epidermis in vivo. In the previous research, we have found out that anthocyanin containing cells have higher pH. However, it was not clear whether the anthocyanin increased the pH or anthocyanin was synthesized result from the higher pH. Therefore, we further investigated the relationship between anthocyanin and pH change. To track the time course of pH change in plant epidermis, we established a system using luminescent imaging technique. We used HPTS (8-Hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-Trisulfonate) as pH indicator and applied excitation ratio imaging method. Luminescent image was converted to a pH distribution by obtained in vitro calibration using known pH solution. Cellular level observation was enabled by merging microscopic color picture of the same region to the pH change image. The established system was applied to epidermal cells of red-tip leaf lettuce, Lactuca Sativa L. and the time course was tracked in the growth process. We would discuss about the relationship between anthocyanin and pH change in plant epidermis.

  17. Timing of binary and millisecond PKSMB/PH pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Michael; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Lyne, Andrew; Hobbs, George; McLaughlin, Maura; Burgay, Marta; D'Amico, Nichi; Camilo, Fernando; Stairs, Ingrid; Faulkner, Andrew; Lorimer, Duncan Ross

    2006-04-01

    This proposal consolidates and concentrates the timing observations of binary and millisecond pulsars discovered by us in the Parkes Multibeam (PKSMB) and high-latitude (PH) surveys. In order to fully exploit the scientific promises of our discoveries it is essential to perform continued timing observations. It is crucial that the observing sessions be spaced at three-to-five week intervals. The pulsars will be visible during LST 08:30 -- 22:30 and the project should be scheduled within this interval.

  18. Effect of ceramic type, thickness, and time of irradiation on degree of polymerization of dual – cure resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Rashi; Taneja, Sonali; Kumari, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of ceramic type, thickness, and time of irradiation on degree of polymerization of dual-cure resin cement. Materials and Methods: Dual-cure resin cement (SoloCem) was used to prepare disk-shaped samples (0.5 mm thick × 5 mm diameter). Study group samples (n = 5) were light-cured for 40, 60, and 80 s through all ceramic leucite-reinforced (Cergo Kiss), lithium disilicate-reinforced (IPS e.max), and monolithic zirconia-reinforced (Ziecon) of three thicknesses (2, 3, and 4 mm). Negative control group samples were cured through metal disks and positive control samples were cured without the presence of ceramic. The degree of conversion (DC) was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The recorded data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance, followed by post hoc analysis (Tukey HSD). Results and Conclusion: Greatest light transmission and DC were seen through Cergo Kiss, followed by IPS e.max Press and Ziecon, with insignificant difference between the latter two. The attenuation of light irradiance increased with increasing thickness of ceramic disks, with statistically significant values between 3 and 4 mm. Increasing time of irradiation to cure dual-cure resin cement did not always result in greater degree of polymerization. PMID:27656058

  19. Temperature Rise Induced by Light Curing Unit Can Shorten Enamel Acid-Etching Time

    PubMed Central

    Najafi Abrandabadi, Ahmad; Sheikh-Al-Eslamian, Seyedeh Mahsa; Panahandeh, Narges

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this in-vitro study was to assess the thermal effect of light emitting diode (LED) light curing unit on the enamel etching time. Materials and Methods: Three treatment groups with 15 enamel specimens each were used in this study: G1: Fifteen seconds of etching, G2: Five seconds of etching, G3: Five seconds of etching plus LED light irradiation (simultaneously). The micro shear bond strength (μSBS) of composite resin to enamel was measured. Results: The mean μSBS values ± standard deviation were 51.28±2.35, 40.47±2.75 and 50.00±2.59 MPa in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. There was a significant difference between groups 1 and 2 (P=0.013) and between groups 2 and 3 (P=0.032) in this respect, while there was no difference between groups 1 and 3 (P=0.932). Conclusion: Simultaneous application of phosphoric acid gel over enamel surface and light irradiation using a LED light curing unit decreased enamel etching time to five seconds without compromising the μSBS. PMID:27559352

  20. Optimal Composite Curing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handel, Paul; Guerin, Daniel

    The Optimal Composite Curing System (OCCS) is an intelligent control system which incorporates heat transfer and resin kinetic models coupled with expert knowledge. It controls the curing of epoxy impregnated composites, preventing part overheating while maintaining maximum cure heatup rate. This results in a significant reduction in total cure time over standard methods. The system uses a cure process model, operating in real-time, to determine optimal cure profiles for tool/part configurations of varying thermal characteristics. These profiles indicate the heating and cooling necessary to insure a complete cure of each part in the autoclave in the minimum amount of time. The system coordinates these profiles to determine an optimal cure profile for a batch of thermally variant parts. Using process specified rules for proper autoclave operation, OCCS automatically controls the cure process, implementing the prescribed cure while monitoring the operation of the autoclave equipment.

  1. Effect of curing time on the bond strength of a bracket-bonding system cured with a light-emitting diode or plasma arc light.

    PubMed

    Dall'Igna, Carine Maccarini; Marchioro, Ernani Menezes; Spohr, Ana Maria; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of two light units, a light-emitting diode (LED) and a plasma arc light (PAC), on the shear bond strength (SBS) of brackets bonded to enamel. Ninety bovine teeth were divided into six groups, according to the light-curing unit and exposure times used. In the LED (Ortholux; 3M-Unitek) group, the specimens were light cured for 5, 10, and 15 seconds. In the PAC (Apollo 95E; DenMed Technologies) group, the specimens were light cured for 3, 6, and 9 seconds. The brackets were bonded with Transbond XT (3M-Unitek), stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 24 hours and then submitted to SBS testing in a universal testing machine. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was used to evaluate the amount of adhesive remaining on the teeth. According to analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparisons test, the highest mean SBS was obtained with the LED at 15 seconds (16.68 MPa), which did not significantly differ from the LED 10 (14.76 MPa) or 5 (13.92 MPa) second groups (P > 0.05). The LED 10 and 5 second groups were not significantly different from the PAC 9 second group (12.66 MPa) or from the PAC 6 second group (9.96 MPa). The lowest mean SBS was obtained with the PAC 3 second group (8.29 MPa), which did not differ significantly from the PAC 6 second group. The method of light curing did not influence the ARI, with score 3 predominant. The LED at 5 seconds and the PAC at 3 seconds provided sufficient mean SBS to resist either orthodontic or masticatory forces.

  2. Susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemics on networks with general infection and cure times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cator, E.; van de Bovenkamp, R.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2013-06-01

    The classical, continuous-time susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) Markov epidemic model on an arbitrary network is extended to incorporate infection and curing or recovery times each characterized by a general distribution (rather than an exponential distribution as in Markov processes). This extension, called the generalized SIS (GSIS) model, is believed to have a much larger applicability to real-world epidemics (such as information spread in online social networks, real diseases, malware spread in computer networks, etc.) that likely do not feature exponential times. While the exact governing equations for the GSIS model are difficult to deduce due to their non-Markovian nature, accurate mean-field equations are derived that resemble our previous N-intertwined mean-field approximation (NIMFA) and so allow us to transfer the whole analytic machinery of the NIMFA to the GSIS model. In particular, we establish the criterion to compute the epidemic threshold in the GSIS model. Moreover, we show that the average number of infection attempts during a recovery time is the more natural key parameter, instead of the effective infection rate in the classical, continuous-time SIS Markov model. The relative simplicity of our mean-field results enables us to treat more general types of SIS epidemics, while offering an easier key parameter to measure the average activity of those general viral agents.

  3. Curing time effect on the fraction of {sup 137}Cs from cement-ion exchange resins-bentonite clay composition

    SciTech Connect

    Plecas, Ilija; Dimovic, Slavko

    2007-07-01

    To assess the safety of disposal of radioactive waste material in cement, curing conditions and time of leaching radionuclides {sup 137}Cs have been studied. Leaching tests in cement-ion exchange resins-bentonite matrix, were carried out in accordance with a method recommended by IAEA. Curing conditions and curing time prior to commencing the leaching test are critically important in leach studies since the extent of hydration of the cement materials determines how much hydration product develops and whether it is available to block the pore network, thereby reducing leaching. Incremental leaching rates R{sub n}(cm/d) of {sup 137}Cs from cement ion exchange resins-bentonite matrix after 180 days were measured. The results presented in this paper are examples of results obtained in a 20-year concrete testing project which will influence the design of the engineer trenches system for future central Serbian radioactive waste storing center. (authors)

  4. Classification of dry-cured hams according to the maturation time using near infrared spectra and artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Prevolnik, M; Andronikov, D; Žlender, B; Font-i-Furnols, M; Novič, M; Škorjanc, D; Čandek-Potokar, M

    2014-01-01

    An attempt to classify dry-cured hams according to the maturation time on the basis of near infrared (NIR) spectra was studied. The study comprised 128 samples of biceps femoris (BF) muscle from dry-cured hams matured for 10 (n=32), 12 (n=32), 14 (n=32) or 16 months (n=32). Samples were minced and scanned in the wavelength range from 400 to 2500 nm using spectrometer NIR System model 6500 (Silver Spring, MD, USA). Spectral data were used for i) splitting of samples into the training and test set using 2D Kohonen artificial neural networks (ANN) and for ii) construction of classification models using counter-propagation ANN (CP-ANN). Different models were tested, and the one selected was based on the lowest percentage of misclassified test samples (external validation). Overall correctness of the classification was 79.7%, which demonstrates practical relevance of using NIR spectroscopy and ANN for dry-cured ham processing control.

  5. The Impact of Ripening Time on Technological Quality Traits, Chemical Change and Sensory Characteristics of Dry-cured Loin

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kyoung Mi; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ripening time on the technological quality traits, fatty acid compositions and sensory characteristics of dry-cured loin was studied. Pork loins (n = 102) at 24 h post-mortem were used to produce dry-cured loins. The dry-cured loins were assessed at 30, 60, and 90 days of ripening for the aforementioned characteristics. Our results showed that the water activity (aw) decreased (p<0.05) up to 60 days and did not change thereafter. The lipid oxidation and weight loss levels significantly (p<0.05) increased with increased ripening time. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) L* decreased for 90 days while CIE a* increased for 60 days and did not increase thereafter. More noticeably, the levels of most of unsaturated fatty acids and total polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly decreased as increasing ripening time up to 90 days. The 30 days-ripened loins had lower (p<0.05) color, flavor and overall acceptability scores than the loins ripened for 60 and 90 days, however, no differences in sensory traits occurred between the 60 and 90 day-ripened samples. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it is suggested that the ripening duration between 30 and 60 days could be more appropriate for producing dry-cured loin product with higher quality and economic benefits. PMID:25715685

  6. The Impact of Ripening Time on Technological Quality Traits, Chemical Change and Sensory Characteristics of Dry-cured Loin.

    PubMed

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kyoung Mi; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2015-05-01

    The effect of ripening time on the technological quality traits, fatty acid compositions and sensory characteristics of dry-cured loin was studied. Pork loins (n = 102) at 24 h post-mortem were used to produce dry-cured loins. The dry-cured loins were assessed at 30, 60, and 90 days of ripening for the aforementioned characteristics. Our results showed that the water activity (aw) decreased (p<0.05) up to 60 days and did not change thereafter. The lipid oxidation and weight loss levels significantly (p<0.05) increased with increased ripening time. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) L* decreased for 90 days while CIE a* increased for 60 days and did not increase thereafter. More noticeably, the levels of most of unsaturated fatty acids and total polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly decreased as increasing ripening time up to 90 days. The 30 days-ripened loins had lower (p<0.05) color, flavor and overall acceptability scores than the loins ripened for 60 and 90 days, however, no differences in sensory traits occurred between the 60 and 90 day-ripened samples. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it is suggested that the ripening duration between 30 and 60 days could be more appropriate for producing dry-cured loin product with higher quality and economic benefits.

  7. Optimization of the Temperature-Time Curve for the Curing Process of Thermoset Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksendrić, Dragan; Carlone, Pierpaolo; Ćirović, Velimir

    2016-10-01

    An intelligent optimization model aiming at off-line or pre-series optimization of the thermal curing cycle of polymer matrix composites is proposed and discussed. The computational procedure is based on the coupling of a finite element thermochemical process model, dynamic artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms. Objective of the optimization routine is the maximization of the composite degree of cure by the definition of the autoclave temperature. Obtained outcomes evidenced the capability of the method as well as its efficiency with respect to hard computing or experimental procedures.

  8. The effects of light intensity and light-curing time on the degree of polymerization of dental composite resins.

    PubMed

    Baek, Chang-Jun; Hyun, Seok-Hee; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Seol, Hyo-Joung; Kim, Hyung-Il; Kwon, Yong Hoon

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of light intensity and light-curing time on the polymerization of composite resins. Four composite resins were light-cured with different light-curing conditions. In the non-thermocycled case, specimens showed almost the same or similar microhardness values if energy density was identical or similar. As the energy density decreased, maximum polymerization shrinkage decreased. At higher energy densities, specimens had a lower coefficient of thermal expansion than at lower energy densities. At the same or similar energy density, most resin products showed coefficient values which were not statistically different. After 10,000 thermocycles, specimens showed decreases of 2.4-16.5% and 4.6-25.2% in microhardness and coefficient of thermal expansion respectively. Within the limitations of the present study, it was found that light-curing composite resins with higher energy density was beneficial to acquiring higher microhardness values and lower coefficients of thermal expansion.

  9. Influence of curing times on the effectiveness of treatments with acetic acid on the control of P. digitatum on lemons.

    PubMed

    Venditti, T; D'Hallewin, G; Dore, A; Molinu, M G

    2011-01-01

    The restricted number of postharvest fungicides used in packing houses is leading to the selection of resistant strains of Penicillium digitatum (citrus green mould), one of the most common and serious pathogens during storage and marketing of lemons. Furthermore a growing concern for human health and a greater awareness for environmental conservation have multiplied the studies on new ecological technologies. Among the alternatives to synthetic postharvest fungicides, the use of acetic acid (classified as GRAS) together with a physical method such as curing, have led to encouraging results. In the present study is reported the combined use of curing, performed at reduced times compared to those reported to be effective, followed by acetic acid (AAC) treatments. Lemons of the variety "Limone di Massa" artificially inoculated with P. digitatum at a concentration of 10(4) spores/mL were cured for 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours and then treated with three different concentrations of AAC (25, 50 and 75 microL/L) for 15 min. Fruit was then stored at 20 degrees C and 80% relative humidity (RH) for 9 days, when the number of decayed fruits was monitored. The same combined treatments were also carried out on naturally infected lemons, stored for 6 or 8 weeks at 5 degrees C and 90% RH. After 9 days of storage the lowest percentage of infected wounds, in artificially inoculated fruit, was 0% after 6 hours of curing followed by AAC fumigation performed at 50 microL/L, while lemons untreated or cured for three hours showed the worst results with 71.4 and 61.9% of rotted fruit respectively. In naturally infected lemons the best results were achieved with curing performed for 24 hours followed by AAC fumigation at 50 microL/L. In these cases the combined treatment reduced decay by the 91.0 and 66.5% after 6 or 8 weeks of storage respectively, if compared to untreated fruit. The weight loss was not affected by any of the treatments. These results show that a good control of green mould

  10. Effects of light-curing time on the cytotoxicity of a restorative composite resin on odontoblastlike cells

    PubMed Central

    ARANHA, Andreza Maria Fábio; GIRO, Elisa Maria Aparecida; HEBLING, Josimeri; LESSA, Fernanda Campos Rosetti; COSTA, Carlos Alberto de Souza

    2010-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the cytotoxicity of an experimental restorative composite resin subjected to different light-curing regimens. Methods Forty round-shaped specimens were prepared and randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n=10), as follows: in Group 1, no light-curing; in Groups 2, 3 and 4, the composite resin specimens were light-cured for 20, 40 or 60 s, respectively. In Group 5, filter paper discs soaked in 5 μL PBS were used as negative controls. The resin specimens and paper discs were placed in wells of 24-well plates in which the odontoblast-like cells MDPC-23 (30,000 cells/cm2) were plated and incubated in a humidified incubator with 5% CO2 and 95% air at 37ºC for 72 h. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by the cell metabolism (MTT assay) and cell morphology (SEM). The data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann- Whitney tests (p<0.05). Results In G1, cell metabolism decreased by 86.2%, indicating a severe cytotoxicity of the non-light-cured composite resin. On the other hand, cell metabolism decreased by only 13.3% and 13.5% in G2 and G3, respectively. No cytotoxic effects were observed in G4 and G5. In G1, only a few round-shaped cells with short processes on their cytoplasmic membrane were observed. In the other experimental groups as well as in control group, a number of spindle-shaped cells with long cytoplasmic processes were found. Conclusion Regardless of the photoactivation time used in the present investigation, the experimental composite resin presented mild to no toxic effects to the odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells. However, intense cytotoxic effects occurred when no light-curing was performed. PMID:21085801

  11. Simultaneous acoustic and dielectric real time curing monitoring of epoxy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkikas, G.; Saganas, Ch.; Grammatikos, S. A.; Aggelis, D. G.; Paipetis, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    The attainment of structural integrity of the reinforcing matrix in composite materials is of primary importance for the final properties of the composite structure. The detailed monitoring of the curing process on the other hand is paramount (i) in defining the optimal conditions for the impregnation of the reinforcement by the matrix (ii) in limiting the effects of the exotherm produced by the polymerization reaction which create unwanted thermal stresses and (iii) in securing optimal behavior in matrix controlled properties, such as off axis or shear properties and in general the durability of the composite. Dielectric curing monitoring is a well known technique for distinguishing between the different stages of the polymerization of a typical epoxy system. The technique successfully predicts the gelation and the vitrification of the epoxy and has been extended for the monitoring of prepregs. Recent work has shown that distinct changes in the properties of the propagated sound in the epoxy which undergoes polymerization is as well directly related to the gelation and vitrification of the resin, as well as to the attainment of the final properties of the resin system. In this work, a typical epoxy is simultaneously monitored using acoustic and dielectric methods. The system is isothermally cured in an oven to avoid effects from the polymerization exotherm. Typical broadband sensors are employed for the acoustic monitoring, while flat interdigital sensors are employed for the dielectric scans. All stages of the polymerization process were successfully monitored and the validity of both methods was cross checked and verified.

  12. A geometric process model for M/PH(M/PH)/1/K queue with new service machine procurement lead time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miaomiao; Tang, Yinghui; Fu, Yonghong

    2013-06-01

    In this article, we consider a geometric process model for M/PH(M/PH)/1/K queue with new service machine procurement lead time. A maintenance policy (N - 1, N) based on the number of failures of the service machine is introduced into the system. Assuming that a failed service machine after repair will not be 'as good as new', and the spare service machine for replacement is only available by an order. More specifically, we suppose that the procurement lead time for delivering the spare service machine follows a phase-type (PH) distribution. Under such assumptions, we apply the matrix-analytic method to develop the steady state probabilities of the system, and then we obtain some system performance measures. Finally, employing an important Lemma, the explicit expression of the long-run average cost rate for the service machine is derived, and the direct search method is also implemented to determine the optimal value of N for minimising the average cost rate.

  13. Supporting Quality Timely PhD Completions: Delivering Research Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasson, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The case study used a three-phase organising process to explain how design and implementation of an accessible and interactive electronic thesis submission form streamlined quality assurance of theses and their timely dissemination via an online thesis repository. The quality of the theses submitted is assured by key academics in their final sign…

  14. Prediction of the curing time to achieve maturity of the nano-cement based concrete using the Weibull distribution model: A complementary data set.

    PubMed

    Jo, Byung Wan; Chakraborty, Sumit; Kim, Heon

    2015-09-01

    This data article provides a comparison data for nano-cement based concrete (NCC) and ordinary Portland cement based concrete (OPCC). Concrete samples (OPCC) were fabricated using ten different mix design and their characterization data is provided here. Optimization of curing time using the Weibull distribution model was done by analyzing the rate of change of compressive strength of the OPCC. Initially, the compressive strength of the OPCC samples was measured after completion of four desired curing times. Thereafter, the required curing time to achieve a particular rate of change of the compressive strength has been predicted utilizing the equation derived from the variation of the rate of change of compressive strength with the curing time, prior to the optimization of the curing time (at the 99.99% confidence level) using the Weibull distribution model. This data article complements the research article entitled "Prediction of the curing time to achieve maturity of the nano-cement based concrete using the Weibull distribution model" [1].

  15. HCV kinetic and modeling analyses indicate similar time to cure among sofosbuvir combination regimens with daclatasvir, simeprevir or ledipasvir

    SciTech Connect

    Dahari, Harel; Canini, Laetitia; Graw, Frederik; Uprichard, Susan L.; Araújo, Evaldo S. A.; Penaranda, Guillaume; Coquet, Emilie; Chiche, Laurent; Riso, Aurelie; Renou, Christophe; Bourliere, Marc; Cotler, Scott J.; Halfon, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Recent clinical trials of direct-acting-antiviral agents (DAAs) against hepatitis C virus (HCV) achieved >90% sustained virological response (SVR) rates, suggesting that cure often took place before the end of treatment (EOT). We sought to evaluate retrospectively whether early response kinetics can provide the basis to individualize therapy to achieve optimal results while reducing duration and cost. 58 chronic HCV patients were treated with 12-week sofosbuvir + simeprevir (n = 19), sofosbuvir + daclatasvir (n = 19), or sofosbuvir + ledipasvir in three French referral centers. HCV was measured at baseline, day 2, every other week, EOT and 12 weeks post EOT. Furthermore, mathematical modeling was used to predict the time to cure, i.e., <1 virus copy in the entire extracellular body fluid. All but one patient who relapsed achieved SVR. Mean age was 60 ± 11 years, 53% were male, 86% HCV genotype-1, 9% HIV coinfected, 43% advanced fibrosis (F3), and 57% had cirrhosis. At weeks 2, 4 and 6, 48%, 88% and 100% of patients had HCV <15 IU/ml, with 27%, 74% and 91% of observations having target not detected, respectively. Modeling results predicted that 23 (43%), 16 (30%), 7 (13%), 5 (9%) and 3 (5%) subjects were predicted to reach cure within 6, 8, 10, 12 and 13 weeks of therapy, respectively. The modeling suggested that the patient who relapsed would have benefitted from an additional week of sofosbuvir + ledipasvir. Adjusting duration of treatment according to the modeling predicts reduced medication costs of 43–45% and 17–30% in subjects who had HCV <15 IU/ml at weeks 2 and 4, respectively. Finally, the use of early viral kinetic analysis has the potential to individualize duration of DAA therapy with a projected average cost saving of 16–20% per 100-treated persons.

  16. HCV kinetic and modeling analyses indicate similar time to cure among sofosbuvir combination regimens with daclatasvir, simeprevir or ledipasvir

    DOE PAGES

    Dahari, Harel; Canini, Laetitia; Graw, Frederik; ...

    2016-06-01

    Recent clinical trials of direct-acting-antiviral agents (DAAs) against hepatitis C virus (HCV) achieved >90% sustained virological response (SVR) rates, suggesting that cure often took place before the end of treatment (EOT). We sought to evaluate retrospectively whether early response kinetics can provide the basis to individualize therapy to achieve optimal results while reducing duration and cost. 58 chronic HCV patients were treated with 12-week sofosbuvir + simeprevir (n = 19), sofosbuvir + daclatasvir (n = 19), or sofosbuvir + ledipasvir in three French referral centers. HCV was measured at baseline, day 2, every other week, EOT and 12 weeks postmore » EOT. Furthermore, mathematical modeling was used to predict the time to cure, i.e., <1 virus copy in the entire extracellular body fluid. All but one patient who relapsed achieved SVR. Mean age was 60 ± 11 years, 53% were male, 86% HCV genotype-1, 9% HIV coinfected, 43% advanced fibrosis (F3), and 57% had cirrhosis. At weeks 2, 4 and 6, 48%, 88% and 100% of patients had HCV <15 IU/ml, with 27%, 74% and 91% of observations having target not detected, respectively. Modeling results predicted that 23 (43%), 16 (30%), 7 (13%), 5 (9%) and 3 (5%) subjects were predicted to reach cure within 6, 8, 10, 12 and 13 weeks of therapy, respectively. The modeling suggested that the patient who relapsed would have benefitted from an additional week of sofosbuvir + ledipasvir. Adjusting duration of treatment according to the modeling predicts reduced medication costs of 43–45% and 17–30% in subjects who had HCV <15 IU/ml at weeks 2 and 4, respectively. Finally, the use of early viral kinetic analysis has the potential to individualize duration of DAA therapy with a projected average cost saving of 16–20% per 100-treated persons.« less

  17. Time-domain fluorescence methods as applied to pH sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippitsch, Max E.; Draxler, Sonja; Leiner, Marc J. P.

    1993-04-01

    Sensors based on luminescence suffer from the fact that during the operating time of the instrument changes in source intensity, light throughput, detector sensitivity, indicator quantum yield, and indicator concentration are inevitable and have to be overcome by extensive referencing and recalibration procedures. Sensors based on luminescence decay time should not suffer from these drawbacks. Decay-time sensing has relied so far on dynamic quenching, which is not well suited for pH measurements. Several other mechanisms are described in this contribution. The conditions necessary for an indicator to be useful in a decay time based pH sensing scheme are clarified and the suitability of this scheme is demonstrated.

  18. Curing time effect on the fraction of {sup 137}Cs from immobilized radioactive evaporator sludge by cement

    SciTech Connect

    Dimovic, Slavko; Plecas, Ilija

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Traditional methods of processing evaporator concentrates from NPP are evaporation and cementation. These methods allow to transform a liquid radioactive waste into the rather inert form, suitable for a final disposal. To assess the safety for disposal of radioactive mortar-waste composition, the leaching of {sup 137}Cs from immobilized radioactive evaporator concentrate into a surrounding fluid has been studied. Leaching tests were carried out in accordance with a method recommended by IAEA. Curing conditions and curing time prior to commencing the leaching test are critically important in leach studies since the extent of hydration of the cement materials determines how much hydration product develops and whether it is available to block the pore network, thereby reducing leaching. Incremental leaching rates Rn(cm/d) of {sup 137}Cs from evaporator concentrates after 180 days were measured. The results presented in this paper are examples of results obtained in a 20-year concrete testing project which will influence the design of the engineer trenches system for future central Serbian radioactive waste storing center. (authors)

  19. pH Dependence of the Photoactive Yellow Protein Photocycle Investigated by Time-Resolved Crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Shailesh; Šrajer, Vukica; Purwar, Namrta; Henning, Robert; Schmidt, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Visualizing the three-dimensional structures of a protein during its biological activity is key to understanding its mechanism. In general, protein structure and function are pH-dependent. Changing the pH provides new insights into the mechanisms that are involved in protein activity. Photoactive yellow protein (PYP) is a signaling protein that serves as an ideal model for time-dependent studies on light-activated proteins. Its photocycle is studied extensively under different pH conditions. However, the structures of the intermediates remain unknown until time-resolved crystallography is employed. With the newest beamline developments, a comprehensive time series of Laue data can now be collected from a single protein crystal. This allows us to vary the pH. Here we present the first structure, to our knowledge, of a short-lived protein-inhibitor complex formed in the pB state of the PYP photocycle at pH 4. A water molecule that is transiently stabilized in the chromophore active site prevents the relaxation of the chromophore back to the trans configuration. As a result, the dark-state recovery is slowed down dramatically. At pH 9, PYP stops cycling through the pB state altogether. The electrostatic environment in the chromophore-binding site is the likely reason for this altered kinetics at different pH values. PMID:22339869

  20. pH Dependence of the Photoactive Yellow Protein Photocycle Investigated by Time-Resolved Crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Shailesh; Šrajer, Vukica; Purwar, Namrta; Henning, Robert; Schmidt, Marius

    2012-05-24

    Visualizing the three-dimensional structures of a protein during its biological activity is key to understanding its mechanism. In general, protein structure and function are pH-dependent. Changing the pH provides new insights into the mechanisms that are involved in protein activity. Photoactive yellow protein (PYP) is a signaling protein that serves as an ideal model for time-dependent studies on light-activated proteins. Its photocycle is studied extensively under different pH conditions. However, the structures of the intermediates remain unknown until time-resolved crystallography is employed. With the newest beamline developments, a comprehensive time series of Laue data can now be collected from a single protein crystal. This allows us to vary the pH. Here we present the first structure, to our knowledge, of a short-lived protein-inhibitor complex formed in the pB state of the PYP photocycle at pH 4. A water molecule that is transiently stabilized in the chromophore active site prevents the relaxation of the chromophore back to the trans configuration. As a result, the dark-state recovery is slowed down dramatically. At pH 9, PYP stops cycling through the pB state altogether. The electrostatic environment in the chromophore-binding site is the likely reason for this altered kinetics at different pH values.

  1. Influence of 2% chlorhexidine on pH, calcium release and setting time of a resinous MTA-based root-end filling material.

    PubMed

    Jacinto, Rogério Castilho; Linhares-Farina, Giane; Sposito, Otávio da Silva; Zanchi, César Henrique; Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    The addition of chlorhexidine (CHX) to a resinous experimental Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (E-MTA) based root-end filling material is an alternative to boost its antimicrobial activity. However, the influence of chlorhexidine on the properties of this material is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 2% chlorhexidine on the pH, calcium ion release and setting time of a Bisphenol A Ethoxylate Dimethacrylate/Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (Bis-EMA/MTA) based dual-cure experimental root-end filling material (E-MTA), in comparison with E-MTA without the addition of CHX and with conventional white MTA (W-MTA). The materials were placed in polyethylene tubes, and immersed in deionized water to determine pH (digital pH meter) and calcium ion release (atomic absorption spectrometry technique). The setting time of each material was analyzed using Gilmore needles. The data were statistically analyzed at a significance level of 5%. E-MTA + CHX showed an alkaline pH in the 3 h period of evaluation, the alkalinity of which decreased but remained as such for 15 days. The pH of E-MTA + CHX was higher than the other two materials after 7 days, and lower after 30 days (p < 0.05). All of the materials were found to release calcium ions throughout the 30 days of the study. The addition of CHX increased the calcium ion release of E-MTA to levels statistically similar to W-MTA. E-MTA showed shorter initial and final setting time, compared with W-MTA (p < 0.05). The addition of 2% CHX to MTA prevented setting of the material. The addition of CHX to E-MTA increased its pH and calcium ion release. However, it also prevented setting of the material.

  2. Real-time feedback control of pH within microfluidics using integrated sensing and actuation.

    PubMed

    Welch, David; Christen, Jennifer Blain

    2014-03-21

    We demonstrate a microfluidic system which applies engineering feedback principles to control the pH of a solution with a high degree of precision. The system utilizes an extended-gate ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) along with an integrated pseudo-reference electrode to monitor pH values within a microfluidic reaction chamber. The monitored reaction chamber has an approximate volume of 90 nL. The pH value is controlled by adjusting the flow through two input channels using a pulse-width modulated signal applied to on-chip integrated valves. We demonstrate real-time control of pH through the feedback-controlled stepping of 0.14 pH increments in both the increasing and decreasing direction. The system converges to the pH setpoint within approximately 20 seconds of a step change. The integration of feedback theory into a microfluidic environment is a necessary step for achieving complete control over the microenvironment.

  3. Cure SMA

    MedlinePlus

    ... the SMA drug pipeline. Together, we're making real progress toward a treatment and a cure. Latest ... Announce SPINRAZA (nusinersen) Meets Primary Endpoint at Interim Analysis of Phase 3 CHERISH Study Biogen and Ionis ...

  4. Predicting the "graduate on time (GOT)" of PhD students using binary logistics regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariff, S. Sarifah Radiah; Rodzi, Nur Atiqah Mohd; Rahman, Kahartini Abdul; Zahari, Siti Meriam; Deni, Sayang Mohd

    2016-10-01

    Malaysian government has recently set a new goal to produce 60,000 Malaysian PhD holders by the year 2023. As a Malaysia's largest institution of higher learning in terms of size and population which offers more than 500 academic programmes in a conducive and vibrant environment, UiTM has taken several initiatives to fill up the gap. Strategies to increase the numbers of graduates with PhD are a process that is challenging. In many occasions, many have already identified that the struggle to get into the target set is even more daunting, and that implementation is far too ideal. This has further being progressing slowly as the attrition rate increases. This study aims to apply the proposed models that incorporates several factors in predicting the number PhD students that will complete their PhD studies on time. Binary Logistic Regression model is proposed and used on the set of data to determine the number. The results show that only 6.8% of the 2014 PhD students are predicted to graduate on time and the results are compared wih the actual number for validation purpose.

  5. Factors Affecting Timely Completion of a PhD: A Complex Systems Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitchforth, Jegar; Beames, Stephanie; Thomas, Aleysha; Falk, Matthew; Farr, Charisse; Gasson, Susan; Thamrin, Sri Astuti; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2012-01-01

    Completing a PhD on time is a complex process, influenced by many interacting factors. In this paper we take a Bayesian Network approach to analyzing the factors perceived to be important in achieving this aim. Focusing on a single research group in Mathematical Sciences, we develop a conceptual model to describe the factors considered to be…

  6. Influence of etching time and bonding strategies on the microshear bond strength of self- and light-cured pit-and-fissure sealants.

    PubMed

    Souza-Junior, Eduardo José; Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra; Montes, Marcos Antônio Japiassú Resende; Alonso, Roberta Caroline Bruschi; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of extended etching and bonding strategies on the microshear bond strength of three sealant materials. Two pit-and-fissure sealants [FluroShield, Dentsply (light-cured) and AlphaSeal, DFL (self-cured)] and one light-cured flowable composite resin (Permaflo, Ultradent) were evaluated according to different enamel etching times (15 s or 30 s) and bonding procedures (no adhesive application, application of primer/hydrophobic resin or hydrophobic resin only). Intact enamel blocks were obtained from bovine teeth and sealed via the tested protocols. After 24 h, the microshear bond strength test was performed in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Failure modes were classified by stereomicroscopy. Data were submitted to a three-way ANOVA and to Tukey's test (α=0.05). There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) among the materials. Permaflo showed higher bond strength when etched for 30 s alone. Enamel overetching decreased the bond strength of the light-cured sealant. Primer/bond previous treatment improved bond performance for AlphaSeal. In conclusion, from the tested conditions, all sealant materials presented similar bond strength values in relation to bonding protocol and etching time. The flowable composite can be used as a pit-and-fissure sealant. The use of a three-step adhesive system was essential for the self-cured sealant application.

  7. Micro Electrochemical pH Sensor Applicable for Real-Time Ratiometric Monitoring of pH Values in Rat Brains.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Limin; Tian, Yang

    2016-02-16

    To develop in vivo monitoring meter for pH measurements is still the bottleneck for understanding the role of pH plays in the brain diseases. In this work, a selective and sensitive electrochemical pH meter was developed for real-time ratiometric monitoring of pH in different regions of rat brains upon ischemia. First, 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ) was employed and optimized as a selective pH recognition element to establish a 2H(+)/2e(-) approach over a wide range of pH from 5.8 to 8.0. The pH meter demonstrated remarkable selectivity toward pH detection against metal ions, amino acids, reactive oxygen species, and other biological species in the brain. Meanwhile, an inner reference, 6-(ferrocenyl)hexanethiol (FcHT), was selected as a built-in correction to avoid the environmental effect through coimmobilization with 1,2-NQ. In addition, three-dimensional gold nanoleaves were electrodeposited onto the electrode surface to amplify the signal by ∼4.0-fold and the measurement was achieved down to 0.07 pH. Finally, combined with the microelectrode technique, the microelectrochemical pH meter was directly implanted into brain regions including the striatum, hippocampus, and cortex and successfully applied in real-time monitoring of pH values in these regions of brain followed by global cerebral ischemia. The results demonstrated that pH values were estimated to 7.21 ± 0.05, 7.13 ± 0.09, and 7.27 ± 0.06 in the striatum, hippocampus, and cortex in the rat brains, respectively, in normal conditions. However, pH decreased to 6.75 ± 0.07 and 6.52 ± 0.03 in the striatum and hippocampus, upon global cerebral ischemia, while a negligible pH change was obtained in the cortex.

  8. Effects of curing protocol and storage time on the micro-hardness of resin cements used to lute fiber-reinforced resin posts

    PubMed Central

    RAMOS, Marcelo Barbosa; PEGORARO, Thiago Amadei; PEGORARO, Luiz Fernando; CARVALHO, Ricardo Marins

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the micro-hardness profile of two dual cure resin cements (RelyX - U100®, 3M-ESPE and Panavia F 2.0®, Kuraray) used for cementing fiber-reinforced resin posts (Fibrekor® - Jeneric Pentron) under three different curing protocols and two water storage times. Material and methods Sixty 16mm long bovine incisor roots were endodontically treated and prepared for cementation of the Fibrekor posts. The cements were mixed as instructed, dispensed in the canal, the posts were seated and the curing performed as follows: a) no light activation; b) light-activation immediately after seating the post, and; c) light-activation delayed 5 minutes after seating the post. The teeth were stored in water and retrieved for analysis after 7 days and 3 months. The roots were longitudinally sectioned and the microhardness was determined at the cervical, middle and apical regions along the cement line. The data was analyzed by the three-way ANOVA test (curing mode, storage time and thirds) for each cement. The Tukey test was used for the post-hoc analysis. Results Light-activation resulted in a significant increase in the microhardness. This was more evident for the cervical region and for the Panavia cement. Storage in water for 3 months caused a reduction of the micro-hardness for both cements. The U100 cement showed less variation in the micro-hardness regardless of the curing protocol and storage time. Conclusions The micro-hardness of the cements was affected by the curing and storage variables and were material-dependent. PMID:23138743

  9. 25 CFR 162.592 - What will BIA do if a lessee does not cure a violation of a WSR lease on time?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What will BIA do if a lessee does not cure a violation of a WSR lease on time? 162.592 Section 162.592 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Lease...

  10. 25 CFR 162.592 - What will BIA do if a lessee does not cure a violation of a WSR lease on time?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What will BIA do if a lessee does not cure a violation of a WSR lease on time? 162.592 Section 162.592 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Lease...

  11. The effects of time, temperature, and pH on the stability of PDU bacterial microcompartments

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Edward Y; Slininger, Marilyn F; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial microcompartments (MCPs) are subcellular organelles that are composed of a protein shell and encapsulated metabolic enzymes. It has been suggested that MCPs can be engineered to encapsulate protein cargo for use as in vivo nanobioreactors or carriers for drug delivery. Understanding the stability of the MCP shell is critical for such applications. Here, we investigate the integrity of the propanediol utilization (Pdu) MCP shell of Salmonella enterica over time, in buffers with various pH, and at elevated temperatures. The results show that MCPs are remarkably stable. When stored at 4°C or at room temperature, Pdu MCPs retain their structure for several days, both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, Pdu MCPs can tolerate temperatures up to 60°C without apparent structural degradation. MCPs are, however, sensitive to pH and require conditions between pH 6 and pH 10. In nonoptimal conditions, MCPs form aggregates. However, within the aggregated protein mass, MCPs often retain their polyhedral outlines. These results show that MCPs are highly robust, making them suitable for a wide range of applications. PMID:25053115

  12. Time to the Doctorate and Labor Demand for New PhD Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groen, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the influence of labor demand for new PhD recipients on time to the doctorate. I use student-level data on all doctorates awarded by U.S. universities in seven humanities and social science fields together with the annual number of job listings by field from 1975 to 2005. An increase in the number of job listings in a field…

  13. Effect of packaging method and storage time on physicochemical characteristics of dry-cured pork neck products at 10°c.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Suk; Jin, Sang-Keun; Yang, Mi-Ra; Ahn, Dong Uk; Park, Jae-Hong; Kang, Suk-Nam

    2014-11-01

    Dry-cured pork neck samples were stored at 10°C for 90 days under vacuum packaging (VP) or modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; 25% CO2+75% N2) conditions. The pH, moisture, water activity, total aerobic bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae counts of dry-cured pork neck products with MAP were significantly lower than those with VP (p<0.05) after 90 days of storage. However, CIE b* and 2-thiobarbituric acid reacted substance (TBARS) values of the pork product with MAP were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those with VP. Total aerobic bacterial counts and Enterobacteriaceae counts of samples with MAP were lower than those with VP after 30 days of storage. Sensory results indicated that aroma, flavor and tenderness scores of the samples with both VP and MAP decreased during storage and the scores after >60 days of storage were lower than those at Day 1. In conclusion, despite presenting higher lipid oxidation, the samples stored in packages containing 25% CO2 for 90 days at 10°C have lower bacterial counts than vacuum-packed samples. Therefore, further studies should be performed on the packaging of dry-cured meat at adjusted concentrations of CO2.

  14. The effect of a light-emitting diode on shear bond strength of ceramic brackets bonded to feldspathic porcelain with different curing times.

    PubMed

    Elekdag-Turk, Selma; Sarac, Y Sinasi; Turk, Tamer; Sarac, Duygu

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different curing times of a light-emitting diode (LED) unit on shear bond strength (SBS) of ceramic brackets bonded to feldspathic porcelain. Ceramic brackets were bonded with a light-cured adhesive to 96 feldspathic porcelain facets. Air-borne particle abrasion was performed using 25 mum aluminium trioxide (Al(2)O(3)) with an air abrasion device from a distance of approximately 10 mm at a pressure of 2.5 bars for 4 seconds, then the porcelain surfaces were etched with 9.6 per cent hydrofluoric acid for 2 minutes. After surface preparation of the porcelain specimens, silane was applied. In groups 1 and 2, the adhesive was cured with a quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) unit for 10 and 20 seconds, respectively. The LED was used in the standard mode for 3, 5, and 10 seconds for groups 3, 4, and 5, respectively. For the other three groups, the LED was used in the fast mode for 3, 5, and 10 seconds, respectively. The SBS of the brackets was measured on a universal testing machine. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores, damage to the porcelain, and fracture of the ceramic bracket bases were determined. No significant differences were observed for SBS between the eight groups (P=0.087). There was no significant difference between the groups' ARI scores, porcelain damage, and bracket base fracture (P=0.340, P=0.985, and P=0.340, respectively). There was a greater frequency of ARI scores of 0 for all groups. Fifty per cent of the porcelain facets displayed damage. Nineteen ceramic bracket base fractures were observed. No significant difference was found for the SBS of the groups with QTH and LED units and curing times. It is reliable to use LED with a 3-second curing time since it provided adequate bond strength for ceramic brackets bonded to porcelain surfaces.

  15. In Site Analysis of a High Temperature Cure Reaction in Real Time Using Modulated Fiber-Optic FT-Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John; Aust, Jeffrey F.; Wise, Kent L.; Jensen, Brian J.

    1999-01-01

    The vibrational spectrum of a high temperature (330 C) polymerization reaction was successfully monitored in real time using a modulated fiber-optic FT-Raman spectrometer. A phenylethynyl terminated monomer was cured, and spectral evidence for two different reaction products was acquired. The products are a conjugated polyene chain and a cyclized trimer. This is the first report describing the use of FT-Raman spectroscopy to monitor a high temperature (greater than 250 C) reaction in real time.

  16. Estimation of intervention effects using recurrent event time data in the presence of event dependence and a cured fraction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Lam, K F; Cheung, Yin Bun

    2014-06-15

    Recurrent event data with a fraction of subjects having zero event are often seen in randomized clinical trials. Those with zero event may belong to a cured (or non-susceptible) fraction. Event dependence refers to the situation that a person's past event history affects his future event occurrences. In the presence of event dependence, an intervention may have an impact on the event rate in the non-cured through two pathways-a primary effect directly on the outcome event and a secondary effect mediated through event dependence. The primary effect combined with the secondary effect is the total effect. We propose a frailty mixture model and a two-step estimation procedure for the estimation of the effect of an intervention on the probability of cure and the total effect on event rate in the non-cured. A summary measure of intervention effects is derived. The performance of the proposed model is evaluated by simulation. Data on respiratory exacerbations from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial are re-analyzed for illustration.

  17. [Effect of pH and fermentation time on yield and optical purity of lactic acid from kitchen wastes fermentation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming

    2007-04-01

    Batch experiments were carried out to analyze the effect of pH and fermentation time on the yield of total lactic acid and the distribution of L- and D-lactic acid among total lactic acid during the non-sterilized fermentation of kitchen wastes. The results show that the concentration of reduced sugar (calculated as organic carbon) is low, and its concentration was higher at neutral and alkali conditions (pH 6 - 8) than at acidic conditions (non-controlled pH and pH = 5). The maximum total lactic acid production rate and yield is 0.59 g x (L x h)(-1) and 0.62 g per gram VS at pH 7, respectively. The proportion of lactic acid (calculated as organic carbon) among the TOC reaches 78% and 89% at controlled pH 7 and 8, respectively. The L-lactic acid is the predominant isomer form at pH 8. Lactic acid concentration depends on pH, fermentation time and interaction from the response surface analysis. pH and fermentation time have a significant effect on the optical purity of lactic acid. At acidic conditions, the ratio of L-lactic acid to the total lactic acid increases with the fermentation time before 120 h, and the ratio reaches 0.9 at 120 h. At alkaline conditions, the ratio keeps at above 0.86 in the whole experimental fermentation time and reachs the maximum value (0.93) at 48 h. It decreases with fermentation time at pH 7. To obtain high lactic acid yield and optical purity simultaneously, it is suggested that pH should be contralled at 8.

  18. Comparative static curing versus dynamic curing on tablet coating structures.

    PubMed

    Gendre, Claire; Genty, Muriel; Fayard, Barbara; Tfayli, Ali; Boiret, Mathieu; Lecoq, Olivier; Baron, Michel; Chaminade, Pierre; Péan, Jean Manuel

    2013-09-10

    Curing is generally required to stabilize film coating from aqueous polymer dispersion. This post-coating drying step is traditionally carried out in static conditions, requiring the transfer of solid dosage forms to an oven. But, curing operation performed directly inside the coating equipment stands for an attractive industrial application. Recently, the use of various advanced physico-chemical characterization techniques i.e., X-ray micro-computed tomography, vibrational spectroscopies (near infrared and Raman) and X-ray microdiffraction, allowed new insights into the film-coating structures of dynamically cured tablets. Dynamic curing end-point was efficiently determined after 4h. The aim of the present work was to elucidate the influence of curing conditions on film-coating structures. Results demonstrated that 24h of static curing and 4h of dynamic curing, both performed at 60°C and ambient relative humidity, led to similar coating layers in terms of drug release properties, porosity, water content, structural rearrangement of polymer chains and crystalline distribution. Furthermore, X-ray microdiffraction measurements pointed out different crystalline coating compositions depending on sample storage time. An aging mechanism might have occur during storage, resulting in the crystallization and the upward migration of cetyl alcohol, coupled to the downward migration of crystalline sodium lauryl sulfate within the coating layer. Interestingly, this new study clearly provided further knowledge into film-coating structures after a curing step and confirmed that curing operation could be performed in dynamic conditions.

  19. Monitoring anaerobic sequential batch reactors via fractal analysis of pH time series.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Acosta, H O; Hernandez-Martinez, E; Jáuregui-Jáuregui, J A; Alvarez-Ramirez, J; Puebla, H

    2013-08-01

    Efficient monitoring and control schemes are mandatory in the current operation of biological wastewater treatment plants because they must accomplish more demanding environmental policies. This fact is of particular interest in anaerobic digestion processes where the availability of accurate, inexpensive, and suitable sensors for the on-line monitoring of key process variables remains an open problem nowadays. In particular, this problem is more challenging when dealing with batch processes where the monitoring strategy has to be performed in finite time, which limits the application of current advanced monitoring schemes as those based in the proposal of nonlinear observers (i.e., software sensors). In this article, a fractal time series analysis of pH fluctuations in an anaerobic sequential batch reactor (AnSBR) used for the treatment of tequila vinasses is presented. Results indicated that conventional on-line pH measurements can be correlated with off-line determined key process variables, such as COD, VFA and biogas production via some fractality indexes.

  20. Extension of a Cox proportional hazards cure model when cure information is partially known

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu; Lin, Yong; Lu, Shou-En; Li, Chin-Shang; Shih, Weichung Joe

    2014-01-01

    When there is evidence of long-term survivors, cure models are often used to model the survival curve. A cure model is a mixture model consisting of a cured fraction and an uncured fraction. Traditional cure models assume that the cured or uncured status in the censored set cannot be distinguished. But in many practices, some diagnostic procedures may provide partial information about the cured or uncured status relative to certain sensitivity and specificity. The traditional cure model does not take advantage of this additional information. Motivated by a clinical study on bone injury in pediatric patients, we propose a novel extension of a traditional Cox proportional hazards (PH) cure model that incorporates the additional information about the cured status. This extension can be applied when the latency part of the cure model is modeled by the Cox PH model. Extensive simulations demonstrated that the proposed extension provides more efficient and less biased estimations, and the higher efficiency and smaller bias is associated with higher sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic procedures. When the proposed extended Cox PH cure model was applied to the motivating example, there was a substantial improvement in the estimation. PMID:24511081

  1. Effect of initiator concentration, exposure time and particle size of the filler upon the mechanical properties of a light-curing radiopaque dental composite.

    PubMed

    Kalliyana Krishnan, V; Yamuna, V

    1998-10-01

    Concentration of camphorquinone initiator, exposure time of the light source and particle size of a radiopaque glass filler have been varied for an indigenously developed light-curing dental composite and the changes in the microhardness, compressive strength and diametral tensile strength studied. Higher initiator concentration and exposure times are found to improve the microhardness values while a concentration above 0.25% does not signify any drastic improvement in compressive and diametral strength. Changes in properties are found to be statistically significant at low initiator concentrations. A filler particle size around 1 microm is found to give better properties compared with larger sizes.

  2. In Situ Analysis of a High-Temperature Cure Reaction in Real Time Using Modulated Fiber-Optic FT-Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aust, Jeffrey F.; Cooper, John B.; Wise, Kent L.; Jensen, Brian J.

    1999-01-01

    The vibrational spectrum of a high-temperature (330 C) polymerization reaction was successfully monitored in real time with the use of a modulated fiber-optic Fourier transform (FT)-Raman spectrometer. A phenylethynyl-terminated monomer was cured, and spectral evidence for two different reaction products was acquired. The products are a conjugated polyene chain and a cyclized trimer. This is the first report describing the use of FT-Raman spectroscopy to monitor a high temperature (greater than 250 C) reaction in real time.

  3. Nano-chemo-mechanical signature of conventional oil-well cement systems: Effects of elevated temperature and curing time

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowiak, Konrad J.; Thomas, Jeffrey J.; Musso, Simone; James, Simon; Akono, Ange-Therese; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2015-01-15

    With ever more challenging (T,p) environments for cementing applications in oil and gas wells, there is a need to identify the fundamental mechanisms of fracture resistant oil well cements. We report results from a multi-technique investigation of behavior and properties of API class G cement and silica-enriched cement systems subjected to hydrothermal curing from 30 °C to 200 °C; including electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis, electron microscopy, neutron scattering (SANS), and fracture scratch testing. The results provide a new insight into the link between system chemistry, micro-texture and micro-fracture toughness. We suggest that the strong correlation found between chemically modulated specific surface and fracture resistance can explain the drop in fracture properties of neat oil-well cements at elevated temperatures; the fracture property enhancement in silica-rich cement systems, between 110° and 175 °C; and the drop in fracture properties of such systems through prolonged curing over 1 year at 200 °C.

  4. Aging of nickel added to soils as predicted by soil pH and time.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yibing; Lombi, Enzo; McLaughlin, Mike J; Oliver, Ian W; Nolan, Annette L; Oorts, Koen; Smolders, Erik

    2013-08-01

    Although aging processes are important in risk assessment for metals in soils, the aging of Ni added to soils has not been studied in detail. In this study, after addition of water soluble Ni to soils, the changes over time in isotopic exchangeability, total concentrations and free Ni(2+) activity in soil pore water, were investigated in 16 European soils incubated outdoors for 18 months. The results showed that after Ni addition, concentrations of Ni in soil pore water and isotopic exchangeability of Ni in soils initially decreased rapidly. This phase was followed by further decreases in the parameters measured but these occurred at slower rates. Increasing soil pH increased the rate and extent of aging reactions. Semi-mechanistic models, based on Ni precipitation/nucleation on soil surfaces and micropore diffusion, were developed and calibrated. The initial fast processes, which were attributed to precipitation/nucleation, occurred over a short time (e.g. 1h), afterwards the slow processes were most likely controlled by micropore diffusion processes. The models were validated by comparing predicted and measured Ni aging in three additional, widely differing soils aged outdoors for periods up to 15 months in different conditions. These models could be used to scale ecotoxicological data generated in short-term studies to longer aging times.

  5. Real-time pH monitoring of industrially relevant enzymatic reactions in a microfluidic side-entry reactor (μSER) shows potential for pH control.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Pia; Marques, Marco P C; Sulzer, Philipp; Wohlgemuth, Roland; Mayr, Torsten; Baganz, Frank; Szita, Nicolas

    2017-01-20

    Monitoring and control of pH is essential for the control of reaction conditions and reaction progress for any biocatalytic or biotechnological process. Microfluidic enzymatic reactors are increasingly proposed for process development, however typically lack instrumentation, such as pH monitoring. We present a microfluidic side-entry reactor (μSER) and demonstrate for the first time real-time pH monitoring of the progression of an enzymatic reaction in a microfluidic reactor as a first step towards achieving pH control. Two different types of optical pH sensors were integrated at several positions in the reactor channel which enabled pH monitoring between pH 3.5 and pH 8.5, thus a broader range than typically reported. The sensors withstood the thermal bonding temperatures typical of microfluidic device fabrication. Additionally, fluidic inputs along the reaction channel were implemented to adjust the pH of the reaction. Time-course profiles of pH were recorded for a transketolase and a penicillin G acylase catalyzed reaction. Without pH adjustment, the former showed a pH increase of 1 pH unit and the latter a pH decrease of about 2.5 pH units. With pH adjustment, the pH drop of the penicillin G acylase catalyzed reaction was significantly attenuated, the reaction condition kept at a pH suitable for the operation of the enzyme, and the product yield increased. This contribution represents a further step towards fully instrumented and controlled microfluidic reactors for biocatalytic process development.

  6. Effect of pH and retention time on volatile fatty acids production during mixed culture fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jankowska, Ewelina; Chwiałkowska, Joanna; Stodolny, Mikołaj; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2015-08-01

    Mixed culture fermentation consists of stable microbial population hence waste could be potentially used as a substrates. The aim of the work was to investigate the impact of pH and retention time on the anaerobic mixed culture fermentation. Trials at different pH (4-12) in unbuffered systems were conducted for 5, 10 and 15days. The highest VFAs concentration was achieved after 15days at pH 10 (0.62g/gVSadded), promising results were also achieved for pH 11 (0.54g/gVSadded). For pH 4 and short retention time propionic acid was the major product instead of acetic acid. For batches run at 15days (besides pH 6) caproic acid presence was noticed whereas at pH 11 occurrence of succinic was quantified. Significant correlation between operational factors and fermentation's effluents was proved. Throughout changing simple operating parameters one could design process to produce desirable concentration and composition of VFAs.

  7. Time-to-Fatigue and Intramuscular pH measured via NIRS during Handgrip Exercise in Trained and Sedentary Individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, M. E.; Lee, S. M. C.; Stroud, L.; Scott, P.; Hagan, R. D.; Soller, B.R.

    2009-01-01

    In exercising muscles force production and muscular endurance are impaired by a decrease in intramuscular pH. The effects of aerobic training (AT) on preventing acidosis and prolonging exercise time in muscles not specifically targeted by the training are unknown. Purpose: To compare interstitial pH, measured non-invasively with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) during rhythmic handgrip exercise in sedentary subjects and those who participate in AT activities that target the lower body. Methods: Maximal isometric force (MIF) was measured on three separate days in AT (n=5) and sedentary (n=8) subjects using a handgrip dynamometer (HGD). Isometric muscular endurance (IME) was measured during five trials, each separated by at least 48 hrs. For each IME trial subjects rhythmically squeezed (4 sec at 40% of MVC) and relaxed (2 sec) to fatigue or failure to reach the target force in three consecutive contractions or four non-consecutive contractions. Interstitial pH was derived from spectra collected using a NIRS sensor adhered to the skin over the FDP. The first four IME trials served to familiarize subjects with the protocol; the fifth trial was used for analysis. NIRS-derived pH was averaged in 30 sec increments. Between group differences in MIF and exercise time were tested using paired t-tests. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze effects of AT and exercise time on pH. Results: MIF was not different between groups (mean SD; aerobic=415.6 95.4 N vs. sedentary =505.1 107.4 N). Time to fatigue was greater in the AT than in the sedentary group (mean SD: 611 173 sec vs. 377 162 sec, p<0.05). pH was not different between groups at any time point. Average pH decreased (p<0.05) in both groups from rest (pH=7.4) through 90 sec of exercise (pH=6.9), but did not decrease further throughout the remainder of exercise. Conclusion: Although between group differences in pH were not detected, differences during the onset of exercise

  8. Assessing the prediction accuracy of cure in the Cox proportional hazards cure model: an application to breast cancer data.

    PubMed

    Asano, Junichi; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Hamada, Chikuma

    2014-01-01

    A cure rate model is a survival model incorporating the cure rate with the assumption that the population contains both uncured and cured individuals. It is a powerful statistical tool for prognostic studies, especially in cancer. The cure rate is important for making treatment decisions in clinical practice. The proportional hazards (PH) cure model can predict the cure rate for each patient. This contains a logistic regression component for the cure rate and a Cox regression component to estimate the hazard for uncured patients. A measure for quantifying the predictive accuracy of the cure rate estimated by the Cox PH cure model is required, as there has been a lack of previous research in this area. We used the Cox PH cure model for the breast cancer data; however, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) could not be estimated because many patients were censored. In this study, we used imputation-based AUCs to assess the predictive accuracy of the cure rate from the PH cure model. We examined the precision of these AUCs using simulation studies. The results demonstrated that the imputation-based AUCs were estimable and their biases were negligibly small in many cases, although ordinary AUC could not be estimated. Additionally, we introduced the bias-correction method of imputation-based AUCs and found that the bias-corrected estimate successfully compensated the overestimation in the simulation studies. We also illustrated the estimation of the imputation-based AUCs using breast cancer data.

  9. Revisiting the Posttherapeutic Cure Criterion in Chagas Disease: Time for New Methods, More Questions, Doubts, and Polemics or Time to Change Old Concepts?

    PubMed Central

    de Lana, Marta; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2015-01-01

    One of the most relevant issues beyond the effectiveness of etiological treatment of Chagas disease is the lack of consensual/feasible tools to identify and certify the definitive parasitological cure. Several methods of distinct natures (parasitological, serological, and molecular) have been continuously proposed and novel perspectives are currently under investigation. Although the simultaneous use of distinct tests may offer better contributions and advances, it also leads to controversies of interpretation, with lack of mutual consent of cure criterion amongst researchers and physicians. In fact, when distinct host compartments (blood/tissues) are evaluated and explored, novel questions may arise due to the nature and sensitivity limit of each test. This short analytical review intends to present a chronological and critical overview and discuss the state-of-the-art distinct devices available for posttherapeutic cure assessment in Chagas disease, their contributions, meanings, and interpretation, aiming to point out the major gaps and propose novel insight for future perspectives of posttherapeutic management of Chagas disease patients. PMID:26583124

  10. Effect of marinating time and low pH on marinade performance and sensory acceptability of poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Yusop, Salma M; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Kerry, John F; Kerry, Joseph P

    2010-08-01

    The effects of marinating time (30, 60, 120 and 180 min) and acidic marinade pH (3.0, 3.2, 3.4, 3.6, 3.8, 4.0 and 4.2) on the instrumental and sensory properties of cooked Chinese-style marinated chicken were investigated. With increasing marinating time up to 180 min, a significant (P<0.05) increase in surface redness (a* value) and the dark pink sensory attribute was observed, along with a corresponding decrease in lightness (L* value) and colour penetration. Increased marinating times of 120-180 min were found to produce more acceptable end products with increased scores for colour, aroma and flavour attributes. Marinade uptake was greater at higher marinade pH levels of 3.8, 4.0 and 4.2, with the highest marinade uptake (3.34%) recorded at pH 4.0. As changes to core meat pH were not observed, the effect of marinating time (up to 180 min) and marinade pH on the instrumental and sensory properties of Chinese-style marinated chicken were located principally at the surface of samples. Consumers considered surface colour as contributing to acceptability of marinated chicken to a greater degree compared to colour penetration.

  11. Effect of temperature, high pressure and freezing/thawing of dry-cured ham slices on dielectric time domain reflectometry response.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Celorio, Marc; Garcia-Gil, Núria; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint; Fulladosa, Elena

    2015-02-01

    Dielectric Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) is a useful technique for the characterization and classification of dry-cured ham according to its composition. However, changes in the behavior of dielectric properties may occur depending on environmental factors and processing. The effect of temperature, high pressure (HP) and freezing/thawing of dry-cured ham slices on the obtained TDR curves and on the predictions of salt and water contents when using previously developed predictive models, was evaluated in three independent experiments. The results showed that at temperatures below 20 °C there is an increase of the predicted salt content error, being more important in samples with higher water content. HP treatment caused a decrease of the reflected signal intensity due to the major mobility of available ions promoting an increase of the predicted salt content. Freezing/thawing treatment caused an increase of the reflected signal intensity due to the microstructural damages and the loss of water and ions, promoting a decrease of the predicted salt content.

  12. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of dry-cured Halal goat meat. Effect of salting time and addition of olive oil and paprika covering.

    PubMed

    Cherroud, Sanâa; Cachaldora, Aida; Fonseca, Sonia; Laglaoui, Amin; Carballo, Javier; Franco, Inmaculada

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this work was to define a simple technological process for dry-cured Halal goat meat elaboration. The aims of this study were to analyze physicochemical parameters and to enumerate the microbial population at the end of the different manufacturing processes (two salting times and the addition of olive oil and paprika covering) on 36 units of meat product. A total of 532 strains were isolated from several selective culture media and then identified using classical and molecular methods. In general, salt effect and the addition of olive oil and paprika were significant for all the studied microbial groups as well as on NaCl content and water activity. Molecular analysis proves that staphylococci, especially Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus equorum, were the most common naturally occurring microbiota. The best manufacturing process would be obtained with a longer salting time and the addition of the olive oil and paprika covering.

  13. Effect of curing conditions on the dimensional and thermal stability of calcium phosphate cement for elevated temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Blom, Johan; Rahier, Hubert; Wastiels, Jan

    2014-12-15

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are attractive materials for elevated temperature applications, like moulds to process thermoplastics up to 300 °C. The CPC resulting from the reaction of wollastonite with phosphoric acid cured at room temperature however contains hydrated phases like brushite, and is thus not stable when exposed to temperatures above 200 °C. A non-contact method based on digital image correlation demonstrated that isothermal curing at 60 °C reduces the thermal shrinkage up to 300 °C by 25%. This curing method results in the direct formation of the more stable monetite in a shorter curing time. The correlated results of TGA, pH of the filtration water, and DSC analysis on partially cured material indicate this. XRD diffractograms and SEM images in combination with EDX show the evolution of the transformation of wollastonite into monetite, and the structure and morphology of the formed material.

  14. Curing units' ability to cure restorative composites and dual-cured composite cements under composite overlay.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Ho; Kim, Su-Sun; Cho, Yong-Sik; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Noh, Byng-Duk

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of using conventional low-power density QTH (LQTH) units, high-power density QTH (HQTH) units, argon (Ar) laser and Plasma arc curing (PAC) units for curing dual-cured resin cements and restorative resin composites under a pre-cured resin composite overlay. The microhardness of the two types of restorative resins (Z100 and Tetric Ceram) and a dual-cured resin cement (Variolink II) were measured after they were light cured for 60 seconds in a 2 mm Teflon mold. The recorded microhardness was determined to be the optimum microhard-ness (OM). Either one of the two types of restorative resins (Z100, Tetric Ceram) or the dual cured resin cement (Variolink II) were placed under a 1.5-mm thick and 8 mm diameter pre-cured Targis (Vivadent/Ivoclar AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein) overlay. The specimens that were prepared for each material were divided into four groups depending upon the curing units used (HQTH, PAC, Laser or LQTH) and were further subdi-vided into subgroups according to light curing time. The curing times used were 30, 60, 90 and 120 seconds for HQTH; 12, 24, 36 and 48 seconds for the PAC unit; 15, 30, 45 and 60 for the Laser and 60, 120 or 180 seconds for the LQTH unit. Fifteen specimens were assigned to each sub- group. The microhardness of the upper and and lower composite surfaces under the Targis overlay were measured using an Optidur Vickers hardness-measuring instrument (Göttfert Feinwerktechnik GmbH, Buchen, Germany). In each material, for each group, a three-way ANOVA with Tukey was used at the 0.05 level of significance to compare the microhardnesses of the upper and lower composite surfaces and the previously measured OM of the material. From the OM of each material, 80% OM was calculated and the time required for the microhardness of the upper and lower surface of the specimen to reach 100% and 80% of OM was determined. In Z100 and Tetric Ceram, when the composites were light cured for 120 seconds using the HQTH lamp

  15. Initial bioadhesion on dental materials as a function of contact time, pH, surface wettability, and isoelectric point.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christine; Lüders, Anne; Hoth-Hannig, Wiebke; Hannig, Matthias; Ziegler, Christiane

    2010-03-16

    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on surfaces of dental enamel and of dental materials was investigated by scanning force spectroscopy. This method provides adhesion forces which can be measured as a function of contact time between protein and surface, pH, wettability, and isoelectric point of the surface. Whereas the chosen ceramic and composite materials resemble very well the adhesion on natural enamel, a much stronger adhesion was found for the more hydrophobic surfaces, that is, gold, titanium, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE). On hydrophilic surfaces, adhesion is mainly influenced by the electrostatic forces between protein and surface. However, the conformational change of BSA at pH values above pH 8 has to be taken into account. On the very hydrophobic PTFE surface, the special interface structure between PTFE and water plays an important role which governs BSA adhesion.

  16. RTEMIS: Real-time Tumoroid and Environment Monitoring Using Impedance Spectroscopy and pH Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Frank A., Jr.

    This research utilizes Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy, a technique classically used for electrochemical analysis and material characterization, as the basis for a non-destructive, label-free assay platform for three dimensional (3D) cellular spheroids. In this work, a linear array of microelectrodes is optimized to rapidly respond to changes located within a 3D multicellular model. In addition, this technique is coupled with an on chip micro-pH sensor for monitoring the environment around the cells. Finally, the responses of both impedance and pH are correlated with physical changes within the cellular model. The impedance analysis system realized through this work provides a foundation for the development of high-throughput drug screening systems that utilize multiple parallel sensing modalities including pH and impedance sensing in order to quickly assess the efficacy of specific drug candidates. The slow development of new drugs is mainly attributed to poor predictability of current chemosensitivity and resistivity assays, as well as genetic differences between the animal models used for tests and humans. In addition, monolayer cultures used in early experimentation are fundamentally different from the complex structure of organs in vivo. This requires the study of smaller 3D models (spheroids) that more efficiently replicate the conditions within the body. The main objective of this research was to develop a microfluidic system on a chip that is capable of deducing viability and morphology of 3D tumor spheroids by monitoring both the impedance of the cellular model and the pH of their local environment. This would provide a fast and reliable method for screening pharmaceutical compounds in a high-throughput system.

  17. A Time-Accurate Upwind Unstructured Finite Volume Method for Compressible Flow with Cure of Pathological Behaviors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loh, Ching Y.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.

    2007-01-01

    A time-accurate, upwind, finite volume method for computing compressible flows on unstructured grids is presented. The method is second order accurate in space and time and yields high resolution in the presence of discontinuities. For efficiency, the Roe approximate Riemann solver with an entropy correction is employed. In the basic Euler/Navier-Stokes scheme, many concepts of high order upwind schemes are adopted: the surface flux integrals are carefully treated, a Cauchy-Kowalewski time-stepping scheme is used in the time-marching stage, and a multidimensional limiter is applied in the reconstruction stage. However even with these up-to-date improvements, the basic upwind scheme is still plagued by the so-called "pathological behaviors," e.g., the carbuncle phenomenon, the expansion shock, etc. A solution to these limitations is presented which uses a very simple dissipation model while still preserving second order accuracy. This scheme is referred to as the enhanced time-accurate upwind (ETAU) scheme in this paper. The unstructured grid capability renders flexibility for use in complex geometry; and the present ETAU Euler/Navier-Stokes scheme is capable of handling a broad spectrum of flow regimes from high supersonic to subsonic at very low Mach number, appropriate for both CFD (computational fluid dynamics) and CAA (computational aeroacoustics). Numerous examples are included to demonstrate the robustness of the methods.

  18. Effect of initial product temperature and initial pH on foaming time during vacuum evaporation of liquid whole eggs.

    PubMed

    Girton, A R; Macneil, J H; Anantheswaran, R C

    1999-10-01

    During earlier studies on vacuum concentration of liquid egg white, the phenomena of foaming during the initial stages of the process were reported. In these studies, it was also shown that no concentration took place during the foaming period that varied from test to test. To minimize the total process time, this present study was undertaken to investigate what variables contributed to foaming, how they could be controlled, and what effect they had on product quality and functional properties. This study investigated the relationships among initial product temperature, initial pH, and foaming of liquid whole eggs. Two temperatures (9 and 20 C) and three pH levels (6.5, 7.3, and 8.5) were studied using a vacuum evaporation system with a maximum vacuum of 5 kPa. Tests showed that higher initial pH levels had decreased foaming times. At the end of foaming experiments, the liquid whole egg was evaluated to determine the extent of functional property change during foaming. A decrease in foaming time resulted in a decrease in whip time. The cakes made from the processed liquid whole egg had larger volumes than those from the unprocessed control. Furthermore, the liquid whole egg, which foamed the longest, had higher (P < 0.05) cake volumes. Our current experiments also verified our earlier findings that no product concentration takes place during the foaming process.

  19. Evaluation of Degreasers as Brine Curing Additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The length of time needed for brine curing of raw hides and skins, a minimum of 18 h, is a time-consuming and expensive process. In this paper we initially report the results of an investigation of the stratigraphic distribution of sodium chloride and water in fleshed hides cured for varying interv...

  20. Effect of Time, Water Flow, and pH on Centripetal Passage of Radiophosphorus across Roots of Intact Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Emmert, Fred H.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of time, rate of the water flow, and ambient pH on centripetal passage of radiophosphorus across intact bean roots to the xylem were studied. Isotope which completed passage and entered the xylem stream, as well as amounts delivered to the plant top, served to measure centripetal passage. Centripetal passage of radiophosphorus increased parabolically reaching a maximum after 1 hr and maintained this level during the 2nd hr. This pattern was consistent for all conditions studied. The curve suggested that passage did not progress as an abrupt front, but rather that it occurred through a phosphorus pool before reaching the xylem. Differences in rate of water flow through test plants, accomplished by adjusting the humidity of the foliage environment, did not significantly affect centripetal passage of radiophosphorus. Water flow did, however, profoundly influence composition of the xylem stream by altering the solvent to isotope ratio. Centripetal passage of radiophosphorus was not affected by solution pH in the acid range (pH 4.8, 5.2, 6.4), but was inhibited in the more alkaline range (pH 7.0, 7.5, 8.0). The similarity of these findings to those in the literature for phosphorus uptake by individual cells suggests that cell uptake may constitute the primary rate-limiting step in the over-all process of ion passage to the xylem. PMID:16658169

  1. Predictors of full-time faculty appointment among MD–PhD program graduates: a national cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Andriole, Dorothy A.; Jeffe, Donna B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The authors sought to identify variables associated with MD–PhD program graduates’ academic medicine careers. Methods We analyzed data for a national cohort of MD–PhD program graduates from 2000 to 2005, using multivariable logistic regression to identify independent predictors of full-time academic medicine faculty appointment through 2013. Results Of 1,860 MD–PhD program graduates in 2000–2005, we included 1,846 (99.2%) who had completed residency training before 2014. Of these 1,846 graduates, 968 (52.4%) held full-time faculty appointments. Graduates who attended schools with Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) funding (vs. no MSTP funding; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14–1.74) and participated in ≥1 year of research during residency (vs. no documented research year; aOR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.50–2.28) were more likely to have held full-time faculty appointments. Asian/Pacific Islander (aOR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60–0.93) and under-represented minority (URM; aOR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.48–0.98) graduates (each vs. white graduates), graduates who reported total debt of ≥$100,000 (vs. no debt) at graduation (aOR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39–0.88), and graduates in surgical practice (aOR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.48–0.84) and other practice (aOR, 0.66, 95% CI, 0.54–0.81) specialties (each vs. ‘medicine, pediatrics, pathology, or neurology’) were less likely to have held full-time faculty appointments. Gender was not independently associated with likelihood of full-time faculty appointment. Conclusions Over half of all MD–PhD program graduates in our study had full-time faculty appointments. Our findings regarding variables independently associated with full-time faculty appointments can inform the design of strategies to promote academic medicine career choice among MD–PhD program graduates. Further research is warranted to identify other factors amenable to intervention, in addition to those included in our study

  2. Predictors of full-time faculty appointment among MD-PhD program graduates: a national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Andriole, Dorothy A; Jeffe, Donna B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The authors sought to identify variables associated with MD-PhD program graduates' academic medicine careers. Methods We analyzed data for a national cohort of MD-PhD program graduates from 2000 to 2005, using multivariable logistic regression to identify independent predictors of full-time academic medicine faculty appointment through 2013. Results Of 1,860 MD-PhD program graduates in 2000-2005, we included 1,846 (99.2%) who had completed residency training before 2014. Of these 1,846 graduates, 968 (52.4%) held full-time faculty appointments. Graduates who attended schools with Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) funding (vs. no MSTP funding; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-1.74) and participated in ≥1 year of research during residency (vs. no documented research year; aOR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.50-2.28) were more likely to have held full-time faculty appointments. Asian/Pacific Islander (aOR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60-0.93) and under-represented minority (URM; aOR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.48-0.98) graduates (each vs. white graduates), graduates who reported total debt of ≥$100,000 (vs. no debt) at graduation (aOR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39-0.88), and graduates in surgical practice (aOR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.48-0.84) and other practice (aOR, 0.66, 95% CI, 0.54-0.81) specialties (each vs. 'medicine, pediatrics, pathology, or neurology') were less likely to have held full-time faculty appointments. Gender was not independently associated with likelihood of full-time faculty appointment. Conclusions Over half of all MD-PhD program graduates in our study had full-time faculty appointments. Our findings regarding variables independently associated with full-time faculty appointments can inform the design of strategies to promote academic medicine career choice among MD-PhD program graduates. Further research is warranted to identify other factors amenable to intervention, in addition to those included in our study, which will foster the further

  3. Assessing the fit of parametric cure models.

    PubMed

    Wileyto, E Paul; Li, Yimei; Chen, Jinbo; Heitjan, Daniel F

    2013-04-01

    Survival data can contain an unknown fraction of subjects who are "cured" in the sense of not being at risk of failure. We describe such data with cure-mixture models, which separately model cure status and the hazard of failure among non-cured subjects. No diagnostic currently exists for evaluating the fit of such models; the popular Schoenfeld residual (Schoenfeld, 1982. Partial residuals for the proportional hazards regression-model. Biometrika 69, 239-241) is not applicable to data with cures. In this article, we propose a pseudo-residual, modeled on Schoenfeld's, to assess the fit of the survival regression in the non-cured fraction. Unlike Schoenfeld's approach, which tests the validity of the proportional hazards (PH) assumption, our method uses the full hazard and is thus also applicable to non-PH models. We derive the asymptotic distribution of the residuals and evaluate their performance by simulation in a range of parametric models. We apply our approach to data from a smoking cessation drug trial.

  4. Modeling HIV Cure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelson, Alan; Conway, Jessica; Cao, Youfang

    A large effort is being made to find a means to cure HIV infection. I will present a dynamical model of post-treatment control (PTC) or ``functional cure'' of HIV-infection. Some patients treated with suppressive antiviral therapy have been taken off of therapy and then spontaneously control HIV infection such that the amount of virus in the circulation is maintained undetectable by clinical assays for years. The model explains PTC occurring in some patients by having a parameter regime in which the model exhibits bistability, with both a low and high steady state viral load being stable. The model makes a number of predictions about how to attain the low PTC steady state. Bistability in this model depends upon the immune response becoming exhausted when over stimulated. I will also present a generalization of the model in which immunotherapy can be used to reverse immune exhaustion and compare model predictions with experiments in SIV infected macaques given immunotherapy and then taken off of antiretroviral therapy. Lastly, if time permits, I will discuss one of the hurdles to true HIV eradication, latently infected cells, and present clinical trial data and a new model addressing pharmacological means of flushing out the latent reservoir. Supported by NIH Grants AI028433 and OD011095.

  5. A New Kind of Curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A new curing method using automated tape placement (ATP) with electron beam (EB), or e-beam, produces a combination known as in situ e-beam curing. Through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Science Research Laboratory, Inc., created the in situ e-beam curing technique, which uses a low-energy electron beam gun to cure various composite materials. One important benefit is the technique's utilization of room temperature curing, which lessens the chance of mismatching the thermal expansion coefficients of different materials. For instance, metals and composites will expand at different rates when heated, but the low-energy e-beam gun reduces the expansion differential. Using a low-energy gun also results in less x-ray shielding, significantly reduced capital costs, reduced facility space, and increased processing capabilities for larger parts. However, using a low-energy gun also means that each tape layer is treated individually because the gun can penetrate only one layer at a time. The e-beam gun emits lower energy x-rays, which are more easily shielded than those emitted by previous guns. The low-energy system is relatively portable due to its light weight and small size. The gun weighs about 70 pounds and can be easily mounted on a robotic arm or an ATP head.

  6. Cleaner Vacuum-Bag Curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemons, J. M.; Penn, B. G.; Ledbetter, Frank E., III; Daniels, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    Improvement upon recommended procedures saves time and expense. Autoclave molding in vacuum bag cleaner if adhesive-backed covering placed around caul plate as well as on mold plate. Covering easy to remove after curing and leaves caul plate free of resin deposits.

  7. Radiation curing of epoxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Lawrence W.; Singh, Ajit

    The literature on radiation polymerization of epoxy compounds has been reviewed to assess the potential use of radiation for curing these industrially important monomers. Chemical curing of epoxies may proceed by either cationic or anionic mechanisms depending on the nature of the curing agent, but most epoxies polymerize by cationic mechanisms under the influence of high-energy radiation. Radiation-induced cationic polymerization of epoxy compounds is inhibited by trace quantities of water because of proton transfer from the chain-propagating epoxy cation to water. Several different methods with potential for obtaining high molecular weight polymers by curing epoxies with high-energy radiation have been studied. Polymeric products with epoxy-like properties have been produced by radiation curing of epoxy oligomers with terminal acrylate groups and mixtures of epoxies with vinyl monomers. Both of these types of resin have good potential for industrial-scale curing by radiation treatment.

  8. Ohmic Curing of Printed Silver Conductive Traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberson, D. A.; Wicker, R. B.; MacDonald, E.

    2012-09-01

    Ohmic heating was demonstrated as a novel curing method (or curing enhancement) useful in decreasing the resistivity of conductive traces printed with both micro- and nanoparticle-loaded inks while (1) only locally heating the substrate and (2) curing in a matter of seconds compared with the range of 30 min to 1 h required by traditional oven-curing. In one experiment using traces composed of microparticle ink, which required initial air-drying as a preprocess step, application of an ohmic curing cycle resulted in resistivity of 80 nΩ m, roughly six times that of bulk silver. In a second experiment employing nanoparticle inks, which required an initial thermal cure as a preprocess, a resistivity of 43 nΩ m, roughly three times that of bulk silver, was attained after the application of an ohmic curing cycle. Electrical characterization of the ohmic curing process was performed in real time to understand the impact of cycling and duration on the resulting conductivity. Finally, the effect of printed trace length on the ohmic curing process was explored and found to have a near-linear relationship with the reduction in resistance when the applied electrical current was normalized to measured resistance. The microstructural changes which occurred as a result of ohmic curing such as particle sintering and grain growth were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results presented in this work demonstrate the use of ohmic heating to overcome temperature limitations imposed on a thermal curing process by substrate material properties or other sources.

  9. Sorption of MS2 bacteriophage to layered double hydroxides: effects of reaction time, pH, and competing anions.

    PubMed

    You, Youwen; Vance, George F; Sparks, Donald L; Zhuang, Jie; Jin, Yan

    2003-01-01

    Batch sorption and column breakthrough studies were conducted to investigate the potential of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) to remove bacteriophage MS2 from contaminated waters. All four of the LDHs evaluated in this study had very high retention capacities for MS2. Sorption results showed that MS2 could be completely removed from 5.2 x 10(2) plaque-forming units (pfu)/mL solution by Mg-Al LDH 2 (i.e., 2:1 Mg to Al ratio LDH), with the highest sorption capacity observed in this study of 1.51 x 10(10) pfu/g. Attachment of MS2 to LDHs was a rapid process and reached quasi-equilibrium after a 1-h reaction time. Within the pH range studied (pH 4-9), Mg-Al LDH 2 showed high sorption potential for MS2 at all pH values but sorption decreased slightly with increasing solution pH. Background solution anions influenced virus sorption, with SO4(2-) and HPO4(2-) decreasing sorption significantly whereas the presence of NO3- had little effect on the attachment of MS2 to Mg-Al LDH 2. The addition of another virus (phiX174) only caused a slight decrease in the retention of MS2 by Mg-Al LDH 2, suggesting that there was insignificant competitive sorption between MS2 and phiX174 on LDH surfaces. Results from column experiments indicate that there was no MS2 breakthrough from columns packed with Mg-Al LDH 2-coated sand, suggesting complete MS2 retention at the virus concentration tested. The high mass recovery by beef extract solution revealed that the removal of viruses by the LDH was due to sorption of MS2 to LDH surfaces, rather than inactivation.

  10. Curing efficiency of modern LED units.

    PubMed

    Rencz, Adam; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2012-02-01

    Recent reports claim that modern light-emitting diode (LED) curing units improve curing efficiency by increasing the units' irradiance. In this context also, short polymerisation times up to 5 s are proposed. The aim of this study was to examine whether there are differences in the curing efficiency of modern LED curing units by assessing their effect on two different composite materials and by varying the irradiation time. A nano- and a micro-hybrid resin-based composite (RBC) were polymerised for 5, 10 and 20 s with three commercial and a Prototype LED unit (Elipar™ S10). Cylindrical specimens (6 mm in depth, 4 mm in diameter) were prepared in three increments, each 2-mm thick, and were consecutively cured. Degree of cure was measured for 20 min in real time at the bottom of the samples, starting with the photoinitiation. The micro-mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity, E and Vickers hardness, HV) were measured as a function of depth, in 100-μm steps, on the above described samples stored in distilled water for 24 h at 37°C. Data were analysed with multivariate ANOVA followed by Tukey's test, t test and partial eta-squared statistics. In descending order of the strength of their effect, the type of RBC, depth, polymerisation time and curing unit were significant factors affecting the micro-mechanical parameters (p < 0.05). The degree of cure at 6-mm depth was less but significantly influenced by the curing unit and curing time and was independent from the type of RBC. A 5-s irradiation time is not recommended for these units. Whereas a 5-s irradiation is acceptable at the sample's surface, a minimum of 20 s of irradiation is necessary for an adequate polymerisation 2 mm beyond the surface.

  11. Real time identification of large space structures. Ph.D. Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, Janice E.

    1987-01-01

    Identification of frequencies, damping ratios, and mode shapes of large space structures (LSSs) are examined in real time. Real time processing allows for quick updates of model processing after a reconfiguration of structural failure. Recursive lattice least squares (RLLS) was selected as the baseline algorithm for the identification. Simulation results on a one dimensional LSS demonstrated that it provides good estimates, was not ill-conditioned in the presence of under-excited modes, allowed activity by a supervisory control system which prevented damage to the LSS or excessive drift, and was capable of real-time processing for typical LSS models. A suboptimal version of RLLS, which is equivalent to simulated parallel processing, was derived. A NASTRAN model of the dual keel U.S. space station was used to demonstrate the input/identification algorithm package in a more realistic simulation. Because the first eight flexible modes were very close together, the identification was much more difficult than in the simple examples. Even so, the model was accurately identified in real time.

  12. Stability and Relative Stability of Linear Systems with Many Constant Time Delays. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Larry Keith

    1976-01-01

    A method of determining the stability of linear systems with many constant time delays is developed. This technique, an extension of the tau-decomposition method, is used to examine not only the stability but also the relative stability of retarded systems with many delays and a class of neutral equations with one delay. Analytical equations are derived for partitioning the delay space of a retarded system with two time delays. The stability of the system in each of the regions defined by the partitioning curves in the parameter plane is determined using the extended tau-decomposition method. In addition, relative stability boundaries are defined using the extended tau-decompositon method in association with parameter plane techniques. Several applications of the extended tau-decomposition method are presented and compared with stability results obtained from other analyses. In all cases the results obtained using the method outlined herein coincide with and extend those of previous investigations. The extended tau-decomposition method applied to systems with time delays requires less computational effort and yields more complete stability analyses than previous techniques.

  13. Use of Cox's Cure Model to Establish Clinical Determinants of Long-Term Disease-Free Survival in Neoadjuvant-Chemotherapy-Treated Breast Cancer Patients without Pathologic Complete Response.

    PubMed

    Asano, Junichi; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Hamada, Chikuma; Yonemori, Kan; Hirata, Taizo; Shimizu, Chikako; Tamura, Kenji; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    In prognostic studies for breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), the ordinary Cox proportional-hazards (PH) model has been often used to identify prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS). This model assumes that all patients eventually experience relapse or death. However, a subset of NAC-treated breast cancer patients never experience these events during long-term follow-up (>10 years) and may be considered clinically "cured." Clinical factors associated with cure have not been studied adequately. Because the ordinary Cox PH model cannot be used to identify such clinical factors, we used the Cox PH cure model, a recently developed statistical method. This model includes both a logistic regression component for the cure rate and a Cox regression component for the hazard for uncured patients. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical factors associated with cure and the variables associated with the time to recurrence or death in NAC-treated breast cancer patients without a pathologic complete response, by using the Cox PH cure model. We found that hormone receptor status, clinical response, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status, histological grade, and the number of lymph node metastases were associated with cure.

  14. Exploring the physiologic role of human gastroesophageal reflux by analyzing time-series data from 24-h gastric and esophageal pH recordings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Luo; Mu, John C; Sloan, Sheldon; Miner, Philip B; Gardner, Jerry D

    2014-07-16

    Our previous finding of a fractal pattern for gastric pH and esophageal pH plus the statistical association of sequential pH values for up to 2 h led to our hypothesis that the fractal pattern encodes information regarding gastric acidity and that depending on the value of gastric acidity, the esophagus can signal the stomach to alter gastric acidity by influencing gastric secretion of acid or bicarbonate. Under our hypothesis values of gastric pH should provide information regarding values of esophageal pH and vice versa. We used vector autoregression, a theory-free set of inter-related linear regressions used to measure relationships that can change over time, to analyze data from 24-h recordings of gastric pH and esophageal pH. We found that in pH records from normal subjects, as well as from subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease alone and after treatment with a proton pump inhibitor, gastric pH values provided important information regarding subsequent values of esophageal pH and values of esophageal pH provided important information regarding subsequent values of gastric pH. The ability of gastric pH and esophageal pH to provide information regarding subsequent values of each other was reduced in subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease compared to normal subjects. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that depending on the value of gastric acidity, the esophagus can signal the stomach to alter gastric acidity, and that this ability is impaired in subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  15. Gastric pH influences the appearance of double peaks in the plasma concentration-time profiles of cimetidine after oral administration in dogs.

    PubMed

    Mummaneni, V; Amidon, G L; Dressman, J B

    1995-05-01

    The plasma concentration-time profiles of cimetidine often exhibit two peaks following oral administration of a single dose in the fasted state, while the concurrent administration of some antacids results in a lower extent as well as rate of absorption. In the present work, absorption of cimetidine after a single dose in the fasted state was studied as a function of gastric pH in male beagle dogs to determine whether gastric pH plays a role in the double peak phenomenon and/or can account for the decrease in bioavailability when antacids are coadministered. The extent of absorption of cimetidine was not influenced significantly by gastric pH, indicating that elevation of gastric pH is not the cause of decreases in the bioavailability of cimetidine when it is administered with antacids. Distinct double peaks or plateaux were noted in 8 of 10 plasma profiles when the gastric pH was 3 or below. Irregular absorption behavior was observed in 2 of 6 profiles in the pH range of 3 to 5, while single peaks were observed in all 10 profiles when the gastric pH was maintained at pH > or = 5. It was concluded that gastric pH is a major factor in the generation of cimetidine double peaks. Changes in gastric pH also resulted in changes in the apparent kinetics of absorption. Below pH 5, absorption mostly followed zero-order kinetics (9 of 16 profiles) or a more complex kinetic process involving at least two components to the absorption phase (5 of 16 profiles). At gastric pH > or = 5, however, absorption followed first order kinetics in 7 of 10 profiles. These differences in kinetics of absorption are postulated to arise from variations in gastric emptying as a function of pH and/or carryover effects of gastric pH into the upper intestine.

  16. Time dependent deformation and stress in the lithosphere. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, M.

    1980-01-01

    Efficient computer programs incorporating frontal solution and time stepping procedure were developed for the modelling of geodynamic problems. This scheme allows for investigating the quasi static phenomena including the effects of the rheological structure of a tectonically active region. From three dimensional models of strike slip earthquakes, it was found that lateral variation of viscosity affects the characteristics of surface deformations. The vertical deformation is especially informative about the viscosity structure in a strike slip fault zone. A three dimensional viscoelastic model of a thrust earthquake indicated that the transient disturbance on plate velocity due to a great plate boundary earthquake is significant at intermediate distances, but becomes barely measurable 1000 km away from the source.

  17. Psychophysical Models for Signal Detection with Time Varying Uncertainty. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gai, E.

    1975-01-01

    Psychophysical models for the behavior of the human operator in detection tasks which include change in detectability, correlation between observations and deferred decisions are developed. Classical Signal Detection Theory (SDT) is discussed and its emphasis on the sensory processes is contrasted to decision strategies. The analysis of decision strategies utilizes detection tasks with time varying signal strength. The classical theory is modified to include such tasks and several optimal decision strategies are explored. Two methods of classifying strategies are suggested. The first method is similar to the analysis of ROC curves, while the second is based on the relation between the criterion level (CL) and the detectability. Experiments to verify the analysis of tasks with changes of signal strength are designed. The results show that subjects are aware of changes in detectability and tend to use strategies that involve changes in the CL's.

  18. Adhesion of alkane as a functional group on muscovite and quartz: dependence on pH and contact time.

    PubMed

    Juhl, K M S; Pedersen, C S; Bovet, N; Dalby, K N; Hassenkam, T; Andersson, M P; Okhrimenko, D; Stipp, S L S

    2014-12-09

    The interactions between mineral surfaces and organic molecules in water control many processes in nature and in the production of modern materials. To improve the understanding of fluid-surface interactions, we investigated the interface behavior of quartz and muscovite, a model for clay minerals, in aqueous solutions where the pH and composition were controlled. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) in chemical force mapping (CFM) mode to measure adhesion using tips functionalized with alkyl, -CH3. By combining adhesion forces measured as a function of pH, with data from streaming potential experiments and DLVO calculations, we were able to determine the surface charge density. We observed increased adhesion between the mineral surface and the hydrophobic tips as the contact time increased from 7 ms to ∼2 s. The diffusion of dissolved ions takes time, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations did not indicate a strong hydration of the mineral surfaces. Therefore, we interpret that the loss of ions from the confined space between the tip and sample is a likely explanation of the correlation between the dwell time and adhesion. The maximum adhesion increase with dwell time for muscovite, i.e., 400 ± 77 pN, was considerably larger than for quartz, 84 ± 15 pN, which fits with the different surface structure and composition of the two minerals. We propose two mechanisms to explain these results: (1) cations that are structured in the solution and on the surface remain associated at the tip-sample interface initially but diffuse away during extended contact time and (2) adventitious carbon, the organic material that comes spontaneously from air and solution, can diffuse to the tip-sample interface during contact. This material decreases the surface energy by aggregating near the alkyl tip and increases adhesion between the tip and sample.

  19. Cationic cure kinetics of a polyoxometalate loaded epoxy nanocomposite

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Benjamin J.

    2012-08-06

    The reaction cure kinetics of a novel polyoxometalate (POM) loaded epoxy nanocomposite is described. The POM is dispersed in the epoxy resin up to volume fractions of 0.1. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements show the cure of the epoxy resin to be sensitive to the POM loading. A kinetics study of the cure exotherm confirms that POM acts as a catalyst promoting cationic homopolymerization of the epoxy resin. The cure reaction is shown to propagate through two cure regimes. A fast cure at short time is shown to be propagation by the activated chain end (ACE) mechanism. A slow cure at long time is shown to be propagation by the activated monomer (AM) mechanism. The activation energies for the fast and slow cure regimes agree well with other epoxy based systems that have been confirmed to propagate by the ACE and AM mechanisms.

  20. Influence of polymerization method, curing process, and length of time of storage in water on the residual methyl methacrylate content in dental acrylic resins.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Gulsen; Guvener, Bora; Bural, Canan; Uresin, Yagiz

    2006-02-01

    This study compared the influence of different polymerization methods (heat, auto-, and microwave energy), different curing processes (in the case of heat- and autopolymerized specimens), and length of storage of the polymerized specimens in distilled water at 37 degrees C on the residual methyl methacrylate (MMA) content in dental acrylic resin specimens. Residual MMA of 120 resin specimens were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. For the heat-polymerized resins, the lowest residual MMA content was obtained when they were given a long-term terminal boil and then stored in the distilled water for at least 1 day. For the autopolymerized resins, the lowest residual MMA content was obtained when they were additionally cured in water at 60 degrees C and then stored in the distilled water at least 1 day. For the microwave-polymerized resins, the lowest residual MMA content was obtained when they were stored in the distilled water at least 1 month. The lowest overall residual MMA content was obtained from heat-polymerized specimens that were given a long-term terminal boil cure and then stored in the distilled water at least 1 day. Different polymerization methods and curing processes have different effects on residual MMA content. It is thus shown that storing a dental acrylic resin specimen in distilled water at 37 degrees C is a simple but effective method of reducing its residual MMA content.

  1. Effect of light-cure initiation time on polymerization and orthodontic bond strength with a resin-modified glass-ionomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jess

    Introduction: The polymerization and acid-base reactions in resin-modified glass-ionomers (RMGI) are thought to compete with and inhibit one another. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of visible light-cure (VLC) delay on the polymerization efficiency and orthodontic bond strength of a dual-cured RMGI. Methods: An RMGI light-cured immediately, 2.5, 5, or 10 minutes after mixing comprised the experimental groups. Isothermal and dynamic temperature scan differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of the RMGI was performed to determine extents of VLC polymerization and acid-base reaction exotherms. Human premolars (n = 18/group) were bonded with the RMGI. Shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were determined. Results: DSC results showed the 10 minute delay RMGI group experienced significantly (P <0.05) lower VLC polymerization compared to the other groups. Acid-base reaction exotherms were undetected in all groups except the 10 minute delay group. No significant differences (P >0.05) were noted among the groups for mean shear bond strength. A chi-square test showed no significant difference (P = 0.428) in ARI scores between groups. Conclusions: Delay in light-curing may reduce polymerization efficiency and alter the structure of the RMGI, but orthodontic shear bond strength does not appear to be compromised.

  2. Improved cure method for single component silicone rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lippitt, M. W.

    1969-01-01

    Water is incorporated in a carrier and then thoroughly mixed with the single component silicone rubber containing acetic anhydride as a curing agent. Because curing occurs with the water supplied internally, controlled curing is possible within a reasonable period of time, regardless of the thickness of the material.

  3. Time-to-Credit Gender Inequities of First-Year PhD Students in the Biological Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Feldon, David F.; Peugh, James; Maher, Michelle A.; Roksa, Josipa; Tofel-Grehl, Colby

    2017-01-01

    Equitable gender representation is an important aspect of scientific workforce development to secure a sufficient number of individuals and a diversity of perspectives. Biology is the most gender equitable of all scientific fields by the marker of degree attainment, with 52.5% of PhDs awarded to women. However, equitable rates of degree completion do not translate into equitable attainment of faculty or postdoctoral positions, suggesting continued existence of gender inequalities. In a national cohort of 336 first-year PhD students in the biological sciences (i.e., microbiology, cellular biology, molecular biology, developmental biology, and genetics) from 53 research institutions, female participants logged significantly more research hours than males and were significantly more likely than males to attribute their work hours to the demands of their assigned projects over the course of the academic year. Despite this, males were 15% more likely to be listed as authors on published journal articles, indicating inequality in the ratio of time to credit. Given the cumulative advantage that accrues for students who publish early in their graduate careers and the central role that scholarly productivity plays in academic hiring decisions, these findings collectively point to a major potential source of persisting underrepresentation of women on university faculties in these fields. PMID:28130271

  4. Mesophilic Acidogenesis of Food Waste-Recycling Wastewater: Effects of Hydraulic Retention Time, pH, and Temperature.

    PubMed

    Han, Gyuseong; Shin, Seung Gu; Lee, Joonyeob; Lee, Changsoo; Jo, Minho; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2016-11-01

    The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), pH, and operating temperature (T OP) on the degradation of food waste-recycling wastewater (FRW) were investigated in laboratory-scale hydrolysis/acidogenesis reactors. Response surface analysis was used to approximate the production of volatile organic acids and degradation of volatile suspended solids (VSS), carbohydrate, protein, and lipid with regard to the independent variables (1 ≤ HRT ≤ 3 days, 4 ≤ pH ≤ 6, 25 ≤ T OP ≤ 45 °C). Partial cubic models adequately approximated the corresponding response surfaces at α < 5 %. The physiological conditions for maximum acidification (0.4 g TVFA + EtOH/g VSadded) and the maximal degradation of VSS (47.5 %), carbohydrate (92.0 %), protein (17.7 %), and lipid (73.7 %) were different. Analysis of variance suggested that pH had a great effect on the responses in most cases, while T OP and HRT, and their interaction, were significant in some cases. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that Sporanaerobacter acetigenes, Lactobacillus sp., and Eubacterium pyruvivorans-like microorganisms might be main contributors to the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of FRW. Biochemical methane potential test confirmed higher methane yield (538.2 mL CH4/g VSadded) from an acidogenic effluent than from raw FRW.

  5. Development of a downhole tool measuring real-time concentration of ionic tracers and pH in geothermal reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Ryan F.; Boyle, Timothy J.; Limmer, Steven; Yelton, William G.; Bingham, Samuel; Stillman, Greg; Lindblom, Scott; Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    2014-06-01

    For enhanced or Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) geothermal brine is pumped to the surface via the production wells, the heat extracted to turn a turbine to generate electricity, and the spent brine re-injected via injection wells back underground. If designed properly, the subsurface rock formations will lead this water back to the extraction well as heated brine. Proper monitoring of these geothermal reservoirs is essential for developing and maintaining the necessary level of productivity of the field. Chemical tracers are commonly used to characterize the fracture network and determine the connectivity between the injection and production wells. Currently, most tracer experiments involve injecting the tracer at the injection well, manually collecting liquid samples at the wellhead of the production well, and sending the samples off for laboratory analysis. While this method provides accurate tracer concentration data at very low levels of detection, it does not provide information regarding the location of the fractures which were conducting the tracer between wellbores. Sandia is developing a high-temperature electrochemical sensor capable of measuring tracer concentrations and pH downhole on a wireline tool. The goal of this effort is to collect real-time pH and ionic tracer concentration data at temperatures up to 225 °C and pressures up to 3000 psi. In this paper, a prototype electrochemical sensor and the initial data obtained will be presented detailing the measurement of iodide tracer concentrations at high temperature and pressure in a newly developed laboratory scale autoclave.

  6. Time-to-Credit Gender Inequities of First-Year PhD Students in the Biological Sciences.

    PubMed

    Feldon, David F; Peugh, James; Maher, Michelle A; Roksa, Josipa; Tofel-Grehl, Colby

    2017-01-01

    Equitable gender representation is an important aspect of scientific workforce development to secure a sufficient number of individuals and a diversity of perspectives. Biology is the most gender equitable of all scientific fields by the marker of degree attainment, with 52.5% of PhDs awarded to women. However, equitable rates of degree completion do not translate into equitable attainment of faculty or postdoctoral positions, suggesting continued existence of gender inequalities. In a national cohort of 336 first-year PhD students in the biological sciences (i.e., microbiology, cellular biology, molecular biology, developmental biology, and genetics) from 53 research institutions, female participants logged significantly more research hours than males and were significantly more likely than males to attribute their work hours to the demands of their assigned projects over the course of the academic year. Despite this, males were 15% more likely to be listed as authors on published journal articles, indicating inequality in the ratio of time to credit. Given the cumulative advantage that accrues for students who publish early in their graduate careers and the central role that scholarly productivity plays in academic hiring decisions, these findings collectively point to a major potential source of persisting underrepresentation of women on university faculties in these fields.

  7. Temperature, water activity and pH during conidia production affect the physiological state and germination time of Penicillium species.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Van Long, Nicolas; Vasseur, Valérie; Coroller, Louis; Dantigny, Philippe; Le Panse, Sophie; Weill, Amélie; Mounier, Jérôme; Rigalma, Karim

    2017-01-16

    Conidial germination and mycelial growth are generally studied with conidia produced under optimal conditions to increase conidial yield. Nonetheless, the physiological state of such conidia most likely differs from those involved in spoilage of naturally contaminated food. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of temperature, pH and water activity (aw) during production of conidia on the germination parameters and compatible solutes of conidia of Penicillium roqueforti and Penicillium expansum. Low temperature (5°C) and reduced aw (0.900 aw) during sporulation significantly reduced conidial germination times whereas the pH of the sporulation medium only had a slight effect at the tested values (2.5, 8.0). Conidia of P. roqueforti produced at 5°C germinated up to 45h earlier than those produced at 20°C. Conidia of P. roqueforti and P. expansum produced at 0.900 aw germinated respectively up to 8h and 3h earlier than conidia produced at 0.980 aw. Furthermore, trehalose and mannitol assessments suggested that earlier germination might be related to delayed conidial maturation even though no ultra-structural modifications were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of considering environmental conditions during sporulation in mycological studies. The physiological state of fungal conidia should be taken into account to design challenge tests or predictive mycology studies. This knowledge may also be of interest to improve the germination capacity of fungal cultures commonly used in fermented foods.

  8. Silicone rubber curing by high intensity infrared radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, T.; Tsai, J.; Cherng, C.; Chen, J.

    1994-08-10

    A high-intensity (12 kW) and compact (80 cm) infrared heating oven for fast curing (12 seconds) of tube-like silicone rubber curing studies is reported. Quality inspection by DSC and DMA and results from pilot-scale curing oven all suggest that infrared heating provides a better way of vulcanization regarding to curing time, quality, cost, and spacing over conventional hot air heating. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  9. Silicone rubber curing by high intensity infrared radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tung-Way; Tsai, Jen-Hui; Cherng, Chung-Pin; Chen, Jan-Ku

    1994-08-01

    A high-intensity (12 kW) and compact (80 cm) infrared heating oven for fast curing (12 seconds) of tube-like silicone rubber curing studies is reported. Quality inspection by DSC and DMA and results from pilot-scale curing oven all suggest that infrared heating provides a better way of vulcanization regarding to curing time, quality, cost, and spacing over conventional hot air heating.

  10. Electron Beam Curing of Polymer Matrix Composites - CRADA Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, C. J.; Howell, Dave; Norris, Robert E.

    1997-05-01

    The major cost driver in manufacturing polymer matrix composite (PMC) parts and structures, and one of the elements having the greatest effect on their quality and performance, is the standard thermal cure process. Thermal curing of PMCs requires long cure times and high energy consumption, creates residual thermal stresses in the part, produces volatile toxic by-products, and requires expensive tooling that is tolerant of the high cure temperatures.

  11. Influence of the physiological variability of fasted gastric pH and tablet retention time on the variability of in vitro dissolution and simulated plasma profiles.

    PubMed

    Kovačič, Nataša Nagelj; Pišlar, Mitja; Ilić, Ilija; Mrhar, Aleš; Bogataj, Marija

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to show that the physiological variability of fasted gastric pH and tablet gastric retention time contributes to the overall variability of simulated plasma profiles of diclofenac. Those two parameters were implemented into dissolution study and plasma profiles were simulated under assumptions that in vitro dissolution well represents that occurring in vivo, and that absorption profiles are identical to dissolution profiles, as diclofenac is a highly permeable drug. Dissolution experiments were performed using USP 2 apparatus and two consecutive dissolution media, namely, an acidic medium of various pH (ranging from 1-3), where tablets were kept for a certain time (10-200 min), and phosphate buffer (pH 6.8). It was shown that the acid pH value and acid retention time of tablets affect in vitro drug release, and consequently also influence the simulated plasma profiles. Lower acid pH resulted in lower plasma peaks at each studied acid retention time. Longer acid retention time caused lower plasma concentrations at lower acid pH values, whereas at pH 3 higher plasma concentrations were noted. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the variability of both parameters represents an important contribution to the overall variability of plasma profiles.

  12. Reflection-mode micro-spherical fiber-optic probes for in vitro real-time and single-cell level pH sensing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingbo; Wang, Hanzheng; Lan, Xinwei; Cheng, Baokai; Chen, Sisi; Shi, Honglan; Xiao, Hai; Ma, Yinfa

    2015-02-01

    pH sensing at the single-cell level without negatively affecting living cells is very important but still a remaining issue in the biomedical studies. A 70 μm reflection-mode fiber-optic micro-pH sensor was designed and fabricated by dip-coating thin layer of organically modified aerogel onto a tapered spherical probe head. A pH sensitive fluorescent dye 2', 7'-Bis (2-carbonylethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) was employed and covalently bonded within the aerogel networks. By tuning the alkoxide mixing ratio and adjusting hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) priming procedure, the sensor can be optimized to have high stability and pH sensing ability. The in vitro real-time sensing capability was then demonstrated in a simple spectroscopic way, and showed linear measurement responses with a pH resolution up to an average of 0.049 pH unit within a narrow, but biological meaningful pH range of 6.12-7.81. Its novel characterizations of high spatial resolution, reflection mode operation, fast response and high stability, great linear response within biological meaningful pH range and high pH resolutions, make this novel pH probe a very cost-effective tool for chemical/biological sensing, especially within the single cell level research field.

  13. Effects of supplemental hay and corn silage versus full-time grazing on ruminal pH and chewing activity of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Graf, C M; Kreuzer, M; Dohme, F

    2005-02-01

    Grazing young, highly digestible swards with and without supplemental hay or corn silage (5.5 kg of DM/d) offered overnight was tested for its effects on ruminal pH and chewing activity. A double 3 x 3 Latin square arrangement with 6 rumen-cannulated Brown Swiss cows (29 kg/d of milk) was applied. Herbage intake was quantified by controlled-release alkane capsules. Chewing activity was determined using an automatic microcomputer-based system for digital recording of the jaw movements. Except during milking, ruminal pH was measured continuously over 7 d by applying a device consisting of an indwelling pH electrode and a data-recording unit integrated in the cannula's cover. The grazing system had no significant effect on body weight, milk yield or composition (except milk urea), or total DM intake (13.5, 13.8, and 15.7 kg/d with full-time grazing, hay, and corn silage supplementation). No differences occurred for ruminating time per day and time per kilogram of DM intake. Full-time grazing cows spent more time eating per day (+26%) and time per kilogram of DM intake (+31%) than the other cows. Ruminal pH and time with pH <5.8 at night did not differ. Throughout the day, hay-supplemented cows had a significantly lower pH (-0.23) than full-time grazing cows, and the period of pH <5.8 was longer compared with corn-silage fed cows (77 vs. 11 min). Nocturnal supplement feeding gave no advantage over full-time grazing, and supplemental hay led to lower daytime pH.

  14. One-step microwave foaming and curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.; Lee, R.; Sorathia, U. A. K.; Wilcoxson, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    Process that combines microwave foaming and curing of polyimide precursors in single step produces fire-resistant foam slabs of much larger volume than has previously been possible. By adding selected conductive fillers to powder precursors and by using high-power microwave oven, foam slabs with dimensions in excess of 61 by 61 by 7.6 cm are made. Typical foaming and curing and curing time is 35 minutes in microwave oven with additional 1 to 2 hour postcure in conventional oven.

  15. Can liver transplantation provide the statistical cure?

    PubMed

    Cucchetti, Alessandro; Vitale, Alessandro; Cescon, Matteo; Gambato, Martina; Maroni, Lorenzo; Ravaioli, Matteo; Ercolani, Giorgio; Burra, Patrizia; Cillo, Umberto; Pinna, Antonio D

    2014-02-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) represents the only chance of long-term survival for patients with end-stage liver disease. When the mortality rate for transplant patients returns to the same level as that for the general population, they can be considered statistically cured. However, cure models in the setting of LT have never been applied. Data from 1371 adult patients undergoing LT for the first time between January 1999 and December 2012 at 2 Italian centers were reviewed in order to establish probabilities of being cured by LT. A parametric Weibull model was applied to compare the mortality rate after LT to the rate expected for the general population (matched by sex and age). The observed 3-, 5-, and 10-year overall survival rates after LT were 77.8%, 73.3%, and 65.6%, respectively, and they did not differ between the 2 centers (P = 0.37). The cure fraction for the entire study population was 63.4% (95% confidence interval = 52.6%-72.0%), and the time to cure was 10 years with a 90% confidence level. The best cure fraction was observed for younger recipients without hepatitis C virus (HCV) who had favorable donor-recipient matches, that is, low Donor Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (D-MELD) scores (90.1%); conversely, the lowest probability was observed for elderly HCV recipients with high D-MELD scores (34.6%). The time to cure was 6.22 years for non-HCV patients and 14.78 years for HCV patients. The median survival time for uncured patients was 2.29 years. Among uncured recipients, the longest survival time was observed for younger patients (7.31 years). In conclusion, we provide here a new clinical measure for LT suggesting that survival after transplantation can approximate that of the general population and provide a statistical cure.

  16. Cured products from different animal species.

    PubMed

    Paleari, Maria Antonietta; Moretti, Vittorio Maria; Beretta, Giuseppe; Mentasti, Tiziana; Bersani, Carla

    2003-04-01

    An assessment was made of the proximate composition, pH and a(W) of raw beef, horsemeat and the meat of wild boar, deer and goat. The same assessment, together with one of fatty acids, cholesterol and free amino acids, was made of the same meats as cured products. The raw meat of the different animal species was found to have a reduced lipid, but high protein content. The cured meat of the horse and wild boar had low saturated fatty acid levels; the wild boar, goatmeat and beef were quantitatively similar with regard to monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) while in the horsemeat the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were more raised, at an intermediate level in deer and extremely reduced in the beef final product. The cholesterol content in the cured product was markedly reduced in the horsemeat. The free amino acids content in the cured deer, wild boar and goat meat was more elevated, than in beef and horse cured meat.

  17. Effect of the gastrointestinal environment on pH homeostasis of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis cells as measured by real-time fluorescence ratio-imaging microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Thorsen, Line; Ryssel, Mia; Nielsen, Dennis S; Siegumfeldt, Henrik; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Jespersen, Lene

    2014-04-01

    In the present work, an in vitro model of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) was developed to obtain real-time observations of the pH homeostasis of single cells of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. strains as a measure of their physiological state. Changes in the intracellular pH (pHi) were determined using fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy (FRIM) for potential probiotic strains of Lactobacillus plantarum UFLA CH3 and Lactobacillus brevis UFLA FFC199. Heterogeneous populations were observed, with pHi values ranging from 6.5 to 7.5, 3.5 to 5.6 and 6.5 to 8.0 or higher during passage of saliva (pH 6.4), gastric (pH 3.5) and intestinal juices (pH 6.4), respectively. When nutrients were added to gastric juice, the isolate L. brevis significantly decreased its pH(i) closer to the extracellular pH (pH(ex)) than in gastric juice without nutrients. This was not the case for L. plantarum. This study is the first to produce an in vitro GIT model enabling real-time monitoring of pH homeostasis of single cells in response to the wide range of pH(ex) of the GIT. Furthermore, it was possible to observe the heterogeneous response of single cells. The technique can be used to determine the survival and physiological conditions of potential probiotics and other microorganisms during passage through the GIT.

  18. Tracking Polymer Cure Via Embedded Optical Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, David L.; Davidson, T. Fred

    1993-01-01

    Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy applied in interior of specimen of material by bringing infrared light through specimen in optical fiber. Light interacts with material via evanescent-wave effect. Spectra obtained in this way at various times during curing process also combined with data from ultrasonic, thermographic, and dielectric-impedance monitoring, and other measurement techniques to obtain more complete characterization of progress of curing process.

  19. Energy curable compositions having improved cure speeds

    DOEpatents

    Halm, Leo W.

    1993-01-01

    A composition and method provide improved physical properties and cure speed of polyurethane precursors, with or without free radical polymerizable monomers or oligomers present, by use of a two component catalyst system. The resin blend can be activated with a latent organometallic catalyst combined with an organic peroxide which can be a hydroperoxide or an acyl peroxide to decrease the cure time while increasing the break energy and tangent modulus of the system.

  20. Energy curable compositions having improved cure speeds

    DOEpatents

    Halm, L.W.

    1993-05-18

    The composition and method provide improved physical properties and cure speed of polyurethane precursors, with or without free radical polymerizable monomers or oligomers present, by use of a two component catalyst system. The resin blend can be activated with a latent organometallic catalyst combined with an organic peroxide which can be a hydroperoxide or an acyl peroxide to decrease the cure time while increasing the break energy and tangent modulus of the system.

  1. An ultrasensitive method of real time pH monitoring with complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor.

    PubMed

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-02-09

    CMOS sensors are becoming a powerful tool in the biological and chemical field. In this work, we introduce a new approach on quantifying various pH solutions with a CMOS image sensor. The CMOS image sensor based pH measurement produces high-accuracy analysis, making it a truly portable and user friendly system. pH indicator blended hydrogel matrix was fabricated as a thin film to the accurate color development. A distinct color change of red, green and blue (RGB) develops in the hydrogel film by applying various pH solutions (pH 1-14). The semi-quantitative pH evolution was acquired by visual read out. Further, CMOS image sensor absorbs the RGB color intensity of the film and hue value converted into digital numbers with the aid of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to determine the pH ranges of solutions. Chromaticity diagram and Euclidean distance represent the RGB color space and differentiation of pH ranges, respectively. This technique is applicable to sense the various toxic chemicals and chemical vapors by situ sensing. Ultimately, the entire approach can be integrated into smartphone and operable with the user friendly manner.

  2. The cure of cancer: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Francisci, Silvia; Capocaccia, Riccardo; Grande, Enrico; Santaquilani, Mariano; Simonetti, Arianna; Allemani, Claudia; Gatta, Gemma; Sant, Milena; Zigon, Giulia; Bray, Freddie; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska

    2009-04-01

    Cancer survival analyses based on cancer registry data do not provide direct information on the main aim of cancer treatment, the cure of the patient. In fact, classic survival indicators do not distinguish between patients who are cured, and patients who will die of their disease and in whom prolongation of survival is the main objective of treatment. In this study, we applied parametric cure models to the cancer incidence and follow-up data provided by 49 EUROCARE-4 (European Cancer Registry-based study, fourth edition) cancer registries, with the aims of providing additional insights into the survival of European cancer patients diagnosed from 1988 to 1999, and of investigating between-population differences. Between-country estimates the proportion of cured patients varied from about 4-13% for lung cancer, from 9% to 30% for stomach cancer, from 25% to 49% for colon and rectum cancer, and from 55% to 73% for breast cancer. For all cancers combined, estimates varied between 21% and 47% in men, and 38% and 59% in women and were influenced by the distribution of cases by cancer site. Countries with high proportions of cured and long fatal case survival times for all cancers combined were characterised by generally favourable case mix. For the European pool of cases both the proportion of cured and the survival time of fatal cases were associated with age, and increased from the early to the latest diagnosis period. The increases over time in the proportions of Europeans estimated cured of lung, stomach and colon and rectum cancers are noteworthy and suggest genuine progress in cancer control. The proportion of cured of all cancers combined is a useful general indicator of cancer control as it reflects progress in diagnosis and treatment, as well as success in the prevention of rapidly fatal cancers.

  3. Influence of potential, chlorides, pH, and precharging time on embrittlement of cathodically polarized prestressing steel

    SciTech Connect

    Hartt, W.H.; Kumria, C.C. ); Kessler, R.J. )

    1993-05-01

    Corrosion of prestressing steel in concrete has become a major technological problem in highways, buildings, and pipeline structures. While cathodic protection is recognized as an appropriate technique to mitigate corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete, the possibility of environmental cracking (hydrogen embrittlement) in the case of prestressing tendon has limited application to this usage. To establish the appropriateness of cathodic protection for prestressing steel, constant extension rate testing was performed on smooth and notched wire specimens in deaerated Ca(OH)[sub 2] solutions as a function of potential, [Cl-], pH, and precharging time. Results indicated potential is the most important of these variables, and a threshold value of [minus]0.90 V[sub SCE] was identified below which embrittlement is enhanced. Notched specimens, which may best simulate the geometry of corroded tendon, particularly were susceptible when compared to smooth tendon. Failure of some tendons in this condition could occur upon application of cathodic protection, even when potential is positive to [minus]0.90 V[sub SCE]. Other aspects of cathodic protection utility for prestressed concrete are reviewed.

  4. Thermal rheological analysis of cure process of epoxy prepreg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Liangfeng

    2002-01-01

    The cure process of epoxy prepreg used as composite pipe joints was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Bohlin Rheometer and other techniques. Isothermal DSC measurements were conducted between 110 and 220°C, at 10°C intervals. The results show that the complete cure reaction could be achieved at 220°C. The isothermal cure process was simulated with the four-parameter autocatalytic model. Except in the late stage of cure reaction, the model agrees well with the experimental data, especially at high temperatures. To account for the effect of diffusion on the cure rate, a diffusion factor was introduced into the model. The modified model greatly improved the predicated data at the late stage of cure reaction. The dynamic cure process was different from the isothermal cure process in that it is composed of two cure reactions. For dynamic cure process, a three-parameter autocatalytic model was used. The parameters in the model were determined by two methods. One was based on Kissinger and Ozawa approach. The whole curing process was modeled with two reactions. Another method was based on Borchardt and Daniels kinetic approach with whole curing process was modeled with one reaction. The fitting results by first and second method agreed well with experimental value in the late and early cure stage, separately. Rheological properties of epoxy prepreg are closely related to the cure process. With the development of cure reaction, gelation occurs and epoxy prepreg becomes difficult to process. As temperature increases, the gel time decreases. Viscosity profiles were described by different models. Except the first and nth order viscosity models, new viscosity models were proposed. The proposed new viscosity models are better than the old models for both isothermal and dynamic cure processes. To graphically represent the phase changes of the cure process, the isothermal cure diagrams of time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and conversion

  5. Extracellular amylases of starch-fermenting yeast: pH effect on export and residence time in the periplasm

    SciTech Connect

    Calleja, G.B.; Levy-Rick, S.R.; Nasim, A.; Lusena, C.V.

    1987-01-01

    Aerobic cultures of S. alluvius in Wickerham's yeast-nitrogen-base medium with starch as sole carbon source become strongly acidic and contain no detectable extra-cellular amylolytic activity during stationary phase, when the activity in buffered cultures is maximal. The extracellular amylases are irreversibly inactivated at the low pH value (less than 3.5) attained by the cultures. When adequately buffered, the medium yields maximal extracellular amylolytic activity. About 0.2 M phosphate buffer is adequate for substrate concentrations of up to 0.5% starch; higher starch concentrations require more buffer. Unbuffered cultures that are adjusted once with alkali to pH 5.5 also allow maximal extracellular amylolytic activity, provided the adjustment is made prior to the end of exponential growth. Automatic pH control allows use of high starch concentrations of up to 4%. Export is optimal at pH values higher than the optima for enzyme activity and stability and for population growth. The need for pH adjustment prior to the appearance of amylolytic activity in the medium suggests pH dependence of the export process itself and/or acid inactivation of enzymes transiently resident in the periplasm. (Refs. 23).

  6. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy study of the influence of pH and contact time on the adhesion of Shewanella putrefaciens bacterial cells to the surface of hematite.

    PubMed

    Elzinga, Evert J; Huang, Jen-How; Chorover, Jon; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2012-12-04

    Attachment of live cells of Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN-32 to the surface of hematite (α-Fe(2)O(3)) was studied with in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy at variable pH (4.5-7.7) and contact times up to 24 h. The IR spectra indicate that phosphate based functional groups on the cell wall play an important role in mediating adhesion through formation of inner-sphere coordinative bonds to hematite surface sites. The inner-sphere attachment mode of microbial P groups varies with pH, involving either a change in protonation or in coordination to hematite surface sites as pH is modified. At all pH values, spectra collected during the early stages of adhesion show intense IR bands associated with reactive P-groups, suggestive of preferential coordination of P-moieties at the hematite surface. Spectra collected after longer sorption times show distinct frequencies from cell wall protein and carboxyl groups, indicating that bacterial adhesion occurring over longer time scales is to a lesser degree associated with preferential attachment of P-based bacterial functional groups to the hematite surface. The results of this study demonstrate that pH and reaction time influence cell-mineral interactions, implying that these parameters play an important role in determining cell mobility and biofilm formation in aqueous geochemical environments.

  7. New advanced shotcrete admixtures: Internal curing

    SciTech Connect

    Melbye, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    Tunnels and other underground construction projects have one of the worst curing conditions due to the ventilation that blows continuously dry (cold or hot) air into the tunnel. It can be compared with concrete exposed to a windy area. One would think that tunnels have ideal curing conditions with high humidity (water leakage), no wind and no sun exposure. However, this is not the case. MBT has developed a new system for more efficient and secure curing of wet shotcrete, repair mortars as well as concrete. Internal curing means that a special admixture is added to the concrete/mortar during batching as a normal admixture. This admixture produces an internal barrier in the shotcrete/concrete which secures safer hydration and better chemical resistance than the application of conventional curing agents. The benefits resulting from the new technology are impressive: The time consuming application and, in the case of various shotcrete layers, removal of curing agents are no longer necessary; curing is guaranteed from the very beginning of hydration; and there is no negative influence on bonding between layers. As a consequence of th is optimum curing effect, all other shotcrete characteristics are improved: density, final strengths, freeze/thaw and chemical resistances, watertightness, less cracking and shrinkage. In addition, MEYCO TCC 735 also improves pumpability and workability of shotcrete, even with low-grade aggregates. It particularly improves the pumpability of steel fiber reinforced shotcrete mixes. In combination with the MEYCO TCC system it contrives to even increase the beneficial effects of the slump killing system by further improving fiber orientation, reducing fiber rebound and thus raising toughness values.

  8. Computer-controlled system for the real-time measurements of membrane potential, internal and external pH's, delta pH, proton fluxes, and O2 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendler, Richard W.

    1991-04-01

    The construction of sturdy ion-selective electrodes for tetraphenyl phosphonium ion (TPP+), and salicylate is described. Instrumentation and procedures are presented for real-time studies of membrane potentials and pH gradients that form across the membranes of organelles that are capable of transducing metabolic or radiant energy into an electrochemical potential for protons. The system is based on input signals from a TPP+-selective electrode, fluorescence from a pH-sensitive dye, a pH electrode, and an O2 electrode. A microcomputer is used to perform extensive computations based on the raw input data and to display various aspects of the progress of an experiment both on a CRT monitor and a recorder.

  9. Effect of adhesive hydrophilicity and curing-time on the permeability of resins bonded to water vs. ethanol-saturated acid-etched dentin

    PubMed Central

    Cadenaro, Milena; Breschi, Lorenzo; Rueggeberg, Frederick A.; Agee, Kelli; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Carrilho, Marcela; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study examined the ability of five comonomer blends (R1-R5) of methacrylate-based experimental dental adhesives solvated with 10 mass% ethanol, at reducing the permeability of acid-etched dentin. The resins were light-cured for 20, 40 or 60 s. The acid-etched dentin was saturated with water or 100% ethanol. Method Human unerupted third molars were converted into crown segments by removing the occlusal enamel and roots. The resulting crown segments were attached to plastic plates connected to a fluid-filled system for quantifying fluid flow across smear layer-covered dentin, acid-etched dentin and resin-bonded dentin. The degree of conversion of the resins was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Result Application of the most hydrophobic comonomer blend (R1) to water-saturated dentin produced the smallest reductions in dentin permeability (31.9, 44.1 and 61.1% after light-curing for 20, 40 or 60 s respectively). Application of the same blend to ethanol-saturated dentin reduced permeability of 74.1, 78.4 and 81.2%, respectively (p<0.05). Although more hydrophilic resins produced larger reductions in permeability, the same trend of significantly greater reductions in ethanol-saturated dentin over that of water-saturated dentin remained. This result can be explained by the higher solubility of resins in ethanol vs. water. Significance The largest reductions in permeability produced by resins were equivalent but not superior, to those produced by smear layers. Resin sealing of dentin remains a technique-sensitive step in bonding etch-and-rinse adhesives to dentin. PMID:18571228

  10. Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2006-04-26

    The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An

  11. Cytosolic pH gradients in cultured neuronal cell lines studied by laser scanning confocal microscopy, real-time confocal microscopy, and spectral imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Armass, Sergio; Sennoune, Souad; Martinez, Gloria M.; Ortega, Filiberta; Martinez-Zaguilan, Raul

    2002-06-01

    Changes in intracellular pH are important for the regulation of many physiological processes including: cell growth and differentiation, exocytosis, synaptic transmission, cell motility and invasion, to name a few. In pathological states such as cancer and diabetes, pH regulation is known to be altered. Nevertheless the physiological and pathological significance of this ion, there are still many gaps in our knowledge. The advent of fluorescent pH probes to monitor this ion, has substantially accelerated its study. New advances in the methods of detection of this ion by fluorescence-based approaches have also helped us to understand more about the regulation of cytosolic pH. This study evaluates the usefulness of real time confocal imaging microscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy, and spectral imaging microscopy to the study of pH. These approaches exhibit unsurpassed temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution and are complementary. We employed cell lines derived from the brain exhibiting soma and dendrites. The existence of cell polarity suggests that the different protein composition/micro environment in discrete subcellular domains may affect the properties of fluorescent ion indicators. We performed in situ calibration of pH probes in discrete cellular regions of the neuronal cell lines to eliminate any bias in data interpretation because of differences in cell thickness/micro environment. We show that there are distinct in situ calibration parameters in different cellular domains. These indicate that in situ titrations in discrete cellular domains are needed to assign pH values. We concluded that there are distinct pH micro domains in discrete cellular regions of neuronal cell lines.

  12. Annealing time dependence of the physical, electrical and pH response characteristics of spin coated TiO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkefle, M. A.; Rahman, R. A.; Yusoff, K. A.; Abdullah, W. F. H.; Rusop, M.; Herman, S. H.

    2015-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin film was deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate and used as sensing membrane of EGFET pH sensor. The thin film was fabricated using sol- gel spin coating method. All samples were annealed at 400 °C but the annealing time was varied. This is done to study the effects of annealing time on physical and electrical properties of titanium dioxide thin film. The sensitivity of each sample towards H+ ion was measured and result shows that sample annealed for 45 minutes has the highest sensitivity (52.6 mV/pH). It is found that increasing annealing duration will increase the pH sensitivity but a limit will be reached at certain point. Longer annealing processes done beyond this point will results in lower pH sensitivity.

  13. Cure rates for tuberculosis in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2012 compared with coverage by, and time of establishment of, Family Health units, and socio-economic and demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Prado Junior, José Carlos; Virgilio, Thiago Costa; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade

    2016-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has high prevalence and is considered a world emergency by the World Health Organization (WHO), being the greatest cause of death from infectious diseases in adults. It is directly associated with access to health services and socio-economic factors. A reform of Primary Care in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro began in 2010, with coverage increasing from 7% in that year to 48.2% in 2014. This article compares the proportion of cures of TB, coverage by the Family Health Strategy (FHS), how long it has been in place, and socio-economic and demographic factors in the municipality of Rio, based on new cases notified in the year 2012. An association was found between cure of TB and the variable gender, being 40% greater in females - odds ratio 1.4 (CI95% 1.21-1.62); and with residence in favelas - OR 0.86 (CI95% 0.73-1.02), but there was no association with coverage of the FHS (OR 1.06; CI95% 0.92-1.22), nor with the time for which the teams had been in place. FHS coverage in the municipality of Rio was put in place as priority in areas of greater vulnerability; at the time of this study, more than 91% of the teams had been in place for less than five years before the date of diagnosis. These factors probably contributed to it not being possible to detect better results in the cure of tuberculosis in areas covered by the FHS in the year 2012.

  14. Real-time UV imaging identifies the role of pH in insulin dissolution behavior in hydrogel-based subcutaneous tissue surrogate.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Sabrine S; Jensen, Henrik; Cornett, Claus; Møller, Eva H; Østergaard, Jesper

    2015-03-10

    For parenteral biopharmaceuticals, subcutaneous diffusion and, in the case of solid implants or suspensions, dissolution may govern the clinical profile of the drug product. Insight into the dissolution and diffusion processes of biopharmaceuticals after parenteral administration is fundamental in the development of new protein drug formulations. Using insulin as a model compound, the aim of this work was to develop a UV imaging-based method to study the real-time dissolution and diffusion behavior of solid protein drugs under stagnant conditions in a hydrogel matrix mimicking the subcutaneous tissue. Dissolution of proteins and peptides is a complex phenomenon as it may be coupled to the complicated acid base properties of these substances. UV imaging allowed the real-time dissolution and diffusion processes of insulin at different pH values and of different insulins to be studied. Dissolution rates were obtained, and the quantitative performance of the developed UV imaging method was verified. It was shown that the UV imaging dissolution method was able to differentiate between the behavior of different insulins and that human insulin dissolution was highly dependent on pH. pH effects in the microenvironment of the human insulin compacts at pH 7.40 and 3.00 were observed by UV-Vis imaging, explaining the different dissolution kinetics of human insulin at pH 7.40 and 3.00 as compared to pH 5.40. In conclusion, UV-Vis imaging may be a useful tool for studying dissolution, diffusion and pH effects in the vicinity of solid protein drug in a hydrogel matrix with the aim of achieving a better understanding of in vivo dissolution processes.

  15. Process for curing bismaleimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, John A. (Inventor); OTHY S.imides alone. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to vinyl pyridine group containing compounds and oligomers, their advantageous copolymerization with bismaleimide resins, and the formation of reinforced composites based on these copolymers. When vinyl pyridines including vinyl stilbazole materials and vinyl styrylpyridine oligomer materials are admixed with bismaleimides and cured to form copolymers the cure temperatures of the copolymers are substantially below the cure temperatures of the bismaleimides alone.

  16. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  17. Effects of pH and storage time on the adhesive and rheological properties of cottonseed meal-based products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adhesive bonding is a key factor for efficiently utilizing timber and other lignocellulosic resources. To increase the basic knowledge of cottonseed meal-based adhesives and optimize the operational parameters for practical applications, in this study, we investigated the effects of pH and storage t...

  18. Time-to-Credit Gender Inequities of First-Year PhD Students in the Biological Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldon, David F.; Peugh, James; Maher, Michelle A.; Roksa, Josipa; Tofel-Grehl, Colby

    2017-01-01

    Equitable gender representation is an important aspect of scientific workforce development to secure a sufficient number of individuals and a diversity of perspectives. Biology is the most gender equitable of all scientific fields by the marker of degree attainment, with 52.5% of PhDs awarded to women. However, equitable rates of degree completion…

  19. Over Time, How Do Post-Ph.D. Scientists Locate Teaching and Supervision within Their Academic Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    While building a strong research profile is usually seen as key for those seeking a traditional academic position, teaching is also understood as central to academic practice. Still, we know little of how post-Ph.D. researchers seeking academic posts locate teaching and supervision in their academic practice, nor how their views may shift as they…

  20. In situ cure monitoring of advanced fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Graham R.; Crosby, Peter A.; Fernando, Gerard F.; France, Chris M.; Spooncer, Ronald C.; Waters, David N.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of in-situ cure monitoring and cure modelling by three methods: (a) evanescent wave spectroscopy, (b) refractive index change, (c) near- infrared spectroscopy. Optical fibers were embedded into aerospace epoxy resins during the manufacturing process of the composite. The cure characteristics were then tracked in real- time during the processing of the material via evanescent wave interaction. This technique is based upon monitoring of characteristic infrared absorption bands of the resin system to find the concentration of the epoxy and amine hardener as a function of cure time. Hence this technique is suitable for on-line process monitoring and optimization. Results obtained from the optical fiber sensors were used to model the curing behavior of the resin system. The results were compared with near-infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry experiments carried out under similar conditions. The feasibility of utilizing refractive index changes to monitor the extent of cure has also been demonstrated.

  1. Time resolved calorimetry of photo-induced folding in horse heart cytochrome c at high pH.

    PubMed

    Word, Tarah A; Larsen, Randy W

    2017-02-01

    Here the molar volume and enthalpy changes associated with the early events in the folding of ferrocytochrome c (Cc) at high pH have been examined using time resolved photoacoustic calorimetry (PAC). The data reveal an overall volume change of 1.3 ± 0.3 mL mol(-1) and an enthalpy change of 13 ± 7 kcal mol (-1) occurring subsequent to photodissociation of the unfolded CO bound Cc species in <∼20 ns. Two additional kinetic phases are observed that are associated with non-native His binding (ΔH and ΔV of 2 ± 4 kcal mol(-1) and -0.5 mL mol(-1), τ ∼ 2.5 μs ) and Met binding (ΔH and ΔV -0.4 ± 2 kcal mol(-1) and -0.1 ± 0.1 mL mol(-1), τ∼ 660 ns). Considering only protein conformational changes (excluding volume and enthalpies associated with heme ligation events) the initial conformational event exhibits a ΔH and ΔV of 6 ± 3 kcal mol(-1) and -3±0.1 mL mol(-1), respectively, that are attributed to a small contraction of the unfolded protein. The corresponding enthalpy associated with both native and non-native ligand binding are found to be -5±4 kcal mol(-1) (Fe-Met) and +20 ± 4 kcal mol(-1) (Fe-His) with the change in volume for both phases being essential negligible. This would indicate that non-native ligand binding likely occurs from an already collapsed conformation.

  2. Stress In A Fiber During Curing Of Surrounding Matrix Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Madhukar, Madhu S.; Kosuri, Ranga P.

    1995-01-01

    Experiments run to determine variation in tensile stress in single fiber during curing of matrix resin surrounding fiber. Study part of effort to understand physical mechanisms affecting residual stresses in matrix/fiber composites, with view toward optimizing curing cycles (in particular, optimizing temperature-vs.-time schedules of final cooldowns to ambient temperature) to minimize residual stresses. Results signify primary mechanisms affecting residual stress in fibers are thermal expansion and contraction and cure shrinkage of matrix material.

  3. Characterization of the relationship of the cure cycle chemistry to cure cycle processing properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranbuehl, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    Dynamic dielectric analysis (DDA) is used to study curing polymer systems and thermoplastics. Measurements are made over a frequency range of six decades. This wide range of frequencies increases the amount of information which can be obtained. The data is analyzed in terms of the frequency dependence of the complex permittivity epsilon sup *, specific conductivity sigma (ohm/cm) and the relaxation time tau, parameters which are characteristic of the cure state of the material and independent of the size of the sample.

  4. Infrared curing simulations of liquid composites molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakouzi, S.; Pancrace, J.; Schmidt, F. M.; Le Maoult, Y.; Berthet, F.

    2011-05-01

    Infrared radiation is an effective energy source to cure thermosetting polymers. Its usage is expected to reduce curing time in comparison with thermal heating and mold thermally regulated. In addition, because of the polymerization mechanism and instant on-off control of this power, an improvement in the final properties of the material is also expected. In this paper, we studied the infrared interaction with carbon (or glass) fibers reinforced epoxy matrix, where Liquid resin infusion (LRI) is used to manufacture the composite. Temperature of the composite is a key parameter that affects its mechanical properties and is controlled by the infrared emitters and the exothermic heat released from the polymerization. Radiative heat flux is computed using the in-lab developed software RAYHEAT. Then, the heat flux (or absorbed energy for glass fibers) is exported to the finite element based program COMSOLMULTIPHYSICS where heat balance equation is solved. This equation is coupled with the exothermic heat released during the curing process in order to predict the composite temperature versus time and degree of cure. Numerical simulations will be performed on planar parts (sheet shape) as well as curvilinear shapes. Experimental validations of the infrared curing carbon (glass)-epoxy composite system are presented in this paper Sheet surface temperature distribution are measured thanks to infrared camera. Kinetic parameters were estimated from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experimental data.

  5. Infrared curing simulations of liquid composites molding

    SciTech Connect

    Nakouzi, S.; Pancrace, J.; Schmidt, F. M.; Le Maoult, Y.; Berthet, F.

    2011-05-04

    Infrared radiation is an effective energy source to cure thermosetting polymers. Its usage is expected to reduce curing time in comparison with thermal heating and mold thermally regulated. In addition, because of the polymerization mechanism and instant on-off control of this power, an improvement in the final properties of the material is also expected. In this paper, we studied the infrared interaction with carbon (or glass) fibers reinforced epoxy matrix, where Liquid resin infusion (LRI) is used to manufacture the composite. Temperature of the composite is a key parameter that affects its mechanical properties and is controlled by the infrared emitters and the exothermic heat released from the polymerization. Radiative heat flux is computed using the in-lab developed software RAYHEAT. Then, the heat flux (or absorbed energy for glass fibers) is exported to the finite element based program COMSOLMULTIPHYSICS where heat balance equation is solved. This equation is coupled with the exothermic heat released during the curing process in order to predict the composite temperature versus time and degree of cure. Numerical simulations will be performed on planar parts (sheet shape) as well as curvilinear shapes. Experimental validations of the infrared curing carbon (glass)-epoxy composite system are presented in this paper Sheet surface temperature distribution are measured thanks to infrared camera. Kinetic parameters were estimated from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experimental data.

  6. Relaxed Poisson cure rate models.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Josemar; Cordeiro, Gauss M; Cancho, Vicente G; Balakrishnan, N

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to make the standard promotion cure rate model (Yakovlev and Tsodikov, ) more flexible by assuming that the number of lesions or altered cells after a treatment follows a fractional Poisson distribution (Laskin, ). It is proved that the well-known Mittag-Leffler relaxation function (Berberan-Santos, ) is a simple way to obtain a new cure rate model that is a compromise between the promotion and geometric cure rate models allowing for superdispersion. So, the relaxed cure rate model developed here can be considered as a natural and less restrictive extension of the popular Poisson cure rate model at the cost of an additional parameter, but a competitor to negative-binomial cure rate models (Rodrigues et al., ). Some mathematical properties of a proper relaxed Poisson density are explored. A simulation study and an illustration of the proposed cure rate model from the Bayesian point of view are finally presented.

  7. Effect of Annealing Time Process on the pH Sensitivity of Spin-coated TiO2/ ZnO Bilayer Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, R. A.; Zulkefle, M. A.; Yusof, K. A.; Abdullah, W. F. H.; Rusop, M.; Herman, S. H.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation on titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) bilayer film, which is used as sensing membrane for extended-gate field effect transistor (EGFET) for pH sensing application. TiO2/ZnO thin films were deposited using sol-gel spin coating method on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. After the deposition, the bilayer films were annealed at constant temperatures which is 400 °C for 15, 30, 40 and 60 minutes. The sensitivity of the TiO2 thin film towards pH buffer solution was measured by dipping the sensing membrane in pH4, pH7 and pH10 buffer solution. By varying the annealing time, we found that the TiO2/ZnO thin film annealed at 400°C for 15 minutes gave the highest sensitivity compared to other annealing conditions, with the value of 64.87 mV/pH.

  8. Modeling the dynamic volatile fatty acids profiles with pH and hydraulic retention time in an anaerobic baffled reactor during the startup period.

    PubMed

    Shi, En; Li, Jianzheng; Leu, Shao-Yuan; Antwi, Philip

    2016-12-01

    To predict the dynamic profiles in volatile fatty acids (VFAs) with pH and hydraulic retention time (HRT) during the startup of a 4-compartment ABR, a mathematical model was constructed by introducing pH and thermodynamic inhibition functions into the biochemical processes derived from the ADM1. The calibration of inhibition parameter for propionate uptake effectively improved the prediction accuracy of VFAs. The developed model could simulate the VFAs profiles very well no matter the observable change of pH or/and HRT. The simulation results indicated that both H2-producing acetogenesis and methanogenesis in the ABR would be inhibited with a pH less than 4.61, and the propionate oxidation could be thermodynamically restricted even with a neutral pH. A decreased HRT would enhanced the acidogenesis and H2-producing acetogenesis in the first 3 compartments, but no observable increase in effluent VFAs could be found due to the synchronously enhanced methanogenesis in the last compartment.

  9. Effect of Curing Profile on Kaolin-based Geopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heah, C. Y.; Kamarudin, H.; Bakri, A. M. Mustafa Al; Binhussain, M.; Luqman, M.; Nizar, I. Khairul; Ruzaidi, C. M.; Liew, Y. M.

    Depending on the processing conditions, geopolymers can exhibit a wide variety of properties and characteristics. Curing profile serves as a crucial parameter in synthesis of geopolymers. In this paper, the influence of curing temperature and curing time on the properties of kaolin-based geopolymer was studied. The samples were separated into several curing conditions; including curing at ambient temperature, 40 °C, 60 °C, 80 °C and 100 °C for 1 day, and up to 3 days. The compressive strength and SEM analysis of geopolymer products were evaluated. Results showed that curing condition has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of kaolin-based geopolymer. Generally, curing at ambient temperature was not feasible, while increase in temperature favored the strength development. In addition, prolonged curing time improved the geopolymerization process, and led to higher strength gain. However, curing at high temperature for a long period of time caused failure of the sample at a later age.

  10. Simultaneous removal of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn from stormwater using high-efficiency industrial sorbents: Effect of pH, contact time and humic acid.

    PubMed

    Genç-Fuhrman, Hülya; Mikkelsen, Peter S; Ledin, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The effect of contact time, solution pH, and the presence of humic acid (HA) on the combined removal of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn is investigated in batch tests using alumina, granulated activated carbon (GAC), and bauxsol coated sand (BCS) as sorbents. It is found that the equilibrium time for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn is about 4h, while no clear equilibrium is observed for As and Cr. It is also found that increasing the pH until pH~8 enhanced Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn removal, but increasing the pH above this point had no major effect. In the cases of As and Cr, higher pH values (i.e. >7) decreased their removal. The presence of both 20 and 100mg/L HA suppressed the heavy metal removal except for Cr, and the suppression was higher at the higher HA concentration. Geochemical simulations suggest that this is due to the formation of dissolved HA-metal complexes preventing effective metal sorption. In the case of Cr, the presence of HA increased the removal when using alumina or BCS, while hindering the removal when using GAC. The findings show that the pH-value of the stormwater to be treated must be in the range of 6-7 in order to achieve removal of the full spectrum of metals. The results also show that natural organic matter may severely influence the removal efficiency, such that, for most metals the removal was reduced to the half, while for Cr it was increased to the double for alumina and BCS. Consequently, a properly working filter set up may not work properly anymore when receiving high loads of natural organic acids during the pollen season in spring or during defoliation in autumn and early winter, and during mixing of runoff with snowmelt having a low pH.

  11. Cure behavior of epoxy polymers used in microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taweeplengsangsuke, Jantrawan

    2000-10-01

    occurrence of etherification at high cure temperature. Evolution of cure stress depends not only on the crosslink density (which impact the volume shrinkage) and modulus of resin, but the correlation between the time scales that display the heat of reaction and the gelation also affect the magnitude of cure stress.

  12. Early warning smartphone diagnostics for water security and analysis using real-time pH mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Arafat; Canning, John; Ast, Sandra; Rutledge, Peter J.; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2015-12-01

    Early detection of environmental disruption, unintentional or otherwise, is increasingly desired to ensure hazard minimization in many settings. Here, using a field-portable, smartphone fluorimeter to assess water quality based on the pH response of a designer probe, a map of pH of public tap water sites has been obtained. A custom designed Android application digitally processed and mapped the results utilizing the global positioning system (GPS) service of the smartphone. The map generated indicates no disruption in pH for all sites measured, and all the data are assessed to fall inside the upper limit of local government regulations, consistent with authority reported measurements. This implementation demonstrates a new security concept: network environmental forensics utilizing the potential of novel smartgrid analysis with wireless sensors for the detection of potential disruption to water quality at any point in the city. This concept is applicable across all smartgrid strategies within the next generation of the Internet of Things and can be extended on national and global scales to address a range of target analytes, both chemical and biological.

  13. Why cure, why now?

    PubMed Central

    Kuritzkes, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is highly effective at preventing morbidity and mortality due to infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but does not eradicate the virus. Consequently, cART must be administered life-long. Recent progress has stimulated research towards a cure of HIV infection. Approaches under investigation include hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, latency reactivating agents, immune based therapies, and cell-based therapies. Each of these approaches carries potential risks that must be weighed against the availability of safe and effective cART. Balancing the risks and benefits of this research poses unique challenges to potential study participants, clinicians and investigators. PMID:27273887

  14. New "cures" for ailing communications.

    PubMed

    Johnston, B

    1988-07-01

    The benefits of voice processing technologies applied "one piece at a time" in the proper fashion can provide four "cures" to communications problems: The image of the healthcare facility in the eyes of the public will improve because calls are handled more quickly, efficiently, and professionally than before. Providing faster patient care information and eliminating delays in medical staff and personnel communications creates the opportunity to give better patient care and customer service. Elimination of time wasting "telephone tag" and "memo blizzards" will result in an increase in employee productivity. Personnel can be reassigned to more productive tasks. The net effect of voice processing on the healthcare industry is a continued merging of computers and telephones, resulting in a voice capability system which includes the telephone system, the call processing system, the voice messaging system, the voice response system, and the host computer system, all being accessed by the same terminal. Just the basic plain-vanilla touchtone telephone will handle it all.

  15. The Lourdes Medical Cures Revisited†

    PubMed Central

    François, Bernard; Sternberg, Esther M.; Fee, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the cures recorded in Lourdes, France, between 1858, the year of the Visions, and 1976, the date of the last certified cure of the twentieth century. Initially, the records of cures were crude or nonexistent, and allegations of cures were accepted without question. A Medical Bureau was established in 1883 to examine and certify the cures, and the medical methodology improved steadily in the subsequent years. We discuss the clinical criteria of the cures and the reliability of medical records. Some 1,200 cures were said to have been observed between 1858 and 1889, and about one hundred more each year during the “Golden Age” of Lourdes, 1890–1914. We studied 411 patients cured in 1909–14 and thoroughly reviewed the twenty-five cures acknowledged between 1947 and 1976. No cure has been certified from 1976 through 2006. The Lourdes phenomenon, extraordinary in many respects, still awaits scientific explanation. Lourdes concerns science as well as religion. PMID:22843835

  16. Effectiveness of Membrane-Forming Curing Compounds for Curing Concrete

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    Type I portland cement designated WES-48, C-I and a graded silica sand from Ottawa, IL, C-109, was used in preparing the mortar for testing. The test...report for the portland cement is shown in Table 1. Membrane-Forming Curing Compounds 6. Nine curing compounds obtained from four manufacturers were...evaluating the effectiveness of cure of portland - cement mortar were investigated that included: water absorptivity at different depths, capillary porosity

  17. Crime, criminals, and cures: medical model revisited.

    PubMed

    Sampson, R J

    2000-06-01

    David Lykken's target article assesses the causes of crime and advocates a controversial "cure"--parental licensure. Although Lykken gets many of the facts about criminals right, ultimately the disease metaphor breaks down. Crime requires three things--motivated offenders ("criminals"), suitable targets or victims, and the absence of capable guardians to prevent the act. Typical of medical model approaches, failure to consider the convergence in time and space of the three necessary elements for crime results in a misdiagnosis. In this invited commentary, I briefly note three reasons why Lykken's cure, along with the medical model in general, is unlikely to bear fruit.

  18. Prevent and cure disuse bone loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jee, Webster S. S.

    1994-01-01

    Anabolic agents like parathyroid hormone and postagladin E-like substances were studied in dogs and rats to determine their effectiveness in the prevention and cure of bone loss due to immobilization. It was determined that postagladin E2 administration prevented immobilization while at the same time it added extra bone in a dose responsive manner. Although bone mass returns, poor trabecular architecture remains after normal ambulation recovery from immobilization. Disuse related bone loss and poor trabecular architecture were cured by post-immobilization postagladin E2 treatment.

  19. Lower-curing-temperature PMR polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    Studies were performed to achieve a lower-curing-temperature PMR polyimide. The use of m-aminostyrene as the end-cap instead of the monoalkyl ester of 5-normbornene-2,3 dicarboxylic acid was investigated in typical PMR formulations. Model compound studies were also performed. Differential scanning calorimetry studies were performed on model compounds and neat resins to establish their melting and curing characteristics. The elevated temperature weight loss characteristics of neat resins and graphite fiber composites were determined. The room temperature and short-time 260 C (500 F) mechanical properties of the composites were also determined. The use of m-aminostyrene end-caps reduced the final cure temperature of PMR resins by about 55 C (100 F), but the composites prepared with these resins are limited to use temperatures of about 260 C (500 F).

  20. Adsorption of arsenic ions on Brazilian sepiolite: effect of contact time, pH, concentration, and calorimetric investigation.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Denis L; Batista, Adriano C; da Costa, Paulo C Corrêa; Viana, Rúbia R; Airoldi, Claudio

    2010-06-01

    The original sepiolite clay mineral has been collected from Amazon region, Brazil. The compound 2-aminomethylpyridine (AMP) was anchored onto Amazon sepiolite surface by heterogeneous route. The natural (SPT) and modified (SPT(AMP)) sepiolite samples were characterized by elemental analysis, SEM, N(2) adsorption, and nuclear magnetic nuclei of (29)Si and (13)C. The well-defined peaks obtained in the (13)C NMR spectrum in the 0-160 ppm region confirmed the attachment of organic functional groups as pendant chains bonded into the porous clay. The ability of these materials to remove As(V) from aqueous solution was followed by a series of adsorption isotherms at room temperature and pH 4.0. The maximum number of moles adsorbed was determined to be 7.26×10(-2) and 11.70×10(-2) mmol g(-1) for SPT and SPT(AMP), respectively. In order to evaluate the clay samples as adsorbents in dynamic system, a glass column was fulfilled with clay samples (1.0 g) and it was fed with 2.0×10(-2) mmol dm(-3) As(V) at pH 4.0. The energetic effects caused by metal cations adsorption were determined through calorimetric titrations. Thermodynamics indicated the existence of favorable conditions for such As(V)-nitrogen interactions.

  1. Evaluation of the curing depth of two translucent composite materials using a halogen and two LED curing units.

    PubMed

    Polydorou, Olga; Manolakis, Alexandros; Hellwig, Elmar; Hahn, Petra

    2008-03-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the influence of one halogen and two light-emitting diode (LED) curing units on the curing depth of a conventional hybrid and two translucent resin composites by measuring the Knoop microhardness. In the first part of the study, a conventional hybrid resin composite and three curing units (one halogen: 40 s polymerization time, two LEDs: 10 and 20 s) were used. Ten cylindrical resin composite samples were prepared for each curing unit and each polymerization time tested. After polymerization, the soft part of the samples was removed. The samples were embedded in a polyacrylic resin and separated in the middle towards the direction, top-bottom. On the section plane, Knoop microhardness measurements were performed every 1 mm, starting at 0.5 mm under the surface. In the second part of the study, two translucent resin composites and a conventional hybrid composite resin were cured with the three curing units, and the microhardness was measured as mentioned above. The difference between the curing units tested was found statistically significant (p = 0.0009), as well as the difference between the materials concerning curing depth (p = 0.0001). Both translucent materials achieved microhardness values equal to the 80% of the surface values, in depths 3.5-5.5 mm, depending on the curing units used.

  2. Audacious Cures for America's Ailing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gevirtzman, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The problems in our nation's schools, and the cures for those problems, have been mired in confusion, innuendo, and deception. It is time someone separated the truths about our schools from the lies. Now retired from education, and finally free to speak up, veteran high school teacher Bruce J. Gevirtzman reveals his shocking ideas for fixing our…

  3. Gastrointestinal pH and Transit Time Profiling in Healthy Volunteers Using the IntelliCap System Confirms Ileo-Colonic Release of ColoPulse Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Jacoba M.; Schellekens, Reinout C. A.; van Rieke, Hèlen M.; Wanke, Christoph; Iordanov, Ventzeslav; Stellaard, Frans; Wutzke, Klaus D.; Dijkstra, Gerard; van der Zee, Margot; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction ColoPulse tablets are an innovative development in the field of oral dosage forms characterized by a distal ileum and colon-specific release. Previous studies in humans showed release in the ileo-colonic region, but the relationship between gastrointestinal pH and release was not experimentally proven in vivo. This information will complete the in vivo release-profile of ColoPulse tablets. Materials and Methods Release from ColoPulse tablets was studied in 16 healthy volunteers using the dual label isotope strategy. To determine gastrointestinal pH profiles and transit times the IntelliCap system was used. A ColoPulse tablet containing 13C-urea and an uncoated, immediate release tablet containing 15N2-urea were taken simultaneously followed by a standardized breakfast after three hours. Five minutes after intake of the tablets the IntelliCap capsule was swallowed and pH was measured until excretion in the feces. Breath and urine samples were collected for isotope analysis. Results Full analysis could be performed in 12 subjects. Median bioavailability of 13C -urea was 82% (95% CI 74–94%, range 61–114%). The median lag time (5% release of 13C) was 5:42 h (95% CI 5:18–6:18 h, range 2:36–6:36 h,) There was no statistically significant difference between lag time based on isotope signal and colon arrival time (CAT) based on pH (median 5:42 vs 5:31 h p = 0.903). In all subjects an intestinal pH value of 7.0 was reached before release of 13C from the ColoPulse tablet occurred. Discussion and Conclusions From the combined data from the IntelliCap system and the 13C -isotope signal it can be concluded that release from a ColoPulse tablet in vivo is not related to transit times but occurs in the ileo-colonic region after pH 7.0 is reached. This supports our earlier findings and confirms that the ColoPulse system is a promising delivery system for targeting the distal ileum and colon. Trial Registration ISRCTN Registry 18301880 PMID:26177019

  4. Effects of standing estrus and supplemental estradiol on changes in uterine pH during a fixed-time artificial insemination protocol.

    PubMed

    Perry, G A; Perry, B L

    2008-11-01

    Cows that exhibit estrus within 24 h of fixed-time AI have elevated concentrations of estradiol and greater pregnancy rates compared with cows not in estrus. Our objective was to determine whether estradiol, estrus, or both had an effect on uterine pH during a fixed-time AI protocol. Beef cows were treated with the CO-Synch protocol (100 mircog of GnRH on d -9; 25 mg of PGF(2alpha) on d -2; and 100 mircog of GnRH on d 0). One-half of the cows received an injection of estradiol cypionate (ECP; 1 mg) 12 h after PGF(2alpha). Cows detected in standing estrus within 24 h of the second GnRH injection were considered to be in standing estrus. Uterine pH was determined in all animals 12, 24, and 48 h after the PGF(2alpha) injection. For Exp. 1, pH was also determined 72 and 96 h after the PGF(2alpha) injection; in Exp. 2, pH was also determined at 54, 60, 66, 72, 78, 84, 90, and 96 h after the PGF(2alpha) injection or until ovulation. A treatment x time interaction (P < 0.01) influenced concentrations of estradiol. All cows had similar (P > 0.15) concentrations of estradiol at the time of ECP administration, but after ECP treatment all cows treated with ECP and control cows that exhibited estrus had greater (P < 0.01) concentrations of estradiol compared with nontreated cows that did not exhibit estrus. In all animals, estradiol diminished 48 h after the PGF(2alpha) (time of the second GnRH injection), but ECP-treated cows, regardless of estrus, had elevated (P < 0.02) concentrations of estradiol compared with control cows. There was a treatment x time interaction (P < 0.001) on uterine pH. All cows had similar uterine pH (P > 0.19) 24 h after the PGF(2alpha) injection. Control cows that did not exhibit estrus had a greater uterine pH compared with control cows that exhibited estrus (P < 0.01) and ECP cows that exhibited estrus (P = 0.05) 48 h after the PGF(2alpha) injection (7.0 +/- 0.1 vs. 6.7 +/- 0.1 and 6.8 +/- 0.1, respectively). Estradiol cypionate-treated cows not

  5. Large natural pH, CO2 and O2 fluctuations in a temperate tidal salt marsh on diel, seasonal, and interannual time scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baumann, Hannes; Wallace, Ryan; Tagliaferri, Tristen N.; Gobler, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal marine organisms experience dynamic pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions in their natural habitats, which may impact their susceptibility to long-term anthropogenic changes. Robust characterizations of all temporal scales of natural pH and DO fluctuations in different marine habitats are needed; however, appropriate time series of pH and DO are still scarce. We used multiyear (2008–2012), high-frequency (6 min) monitoring data to quantify diel, seasonal, and interannual scales of pH and DO variability in a productive, temperate tidal salt marsh (Flax Pond, Long Island, US). pHNBS and DO showed strong and similar seasonal patterns, with average (minimum) conditions declining from 8.2 (8.1) and 12.5 (11.4) mg l−1 at the end of winter to 7.6 (7.2) and 6.3 (2.8) mg l−1 in late summer, respectively. Concomitantly, average diel fluctuations increased from 0.22 and 2.2 mg l−1 (February) to 0.74 and 6.5 mg l−1 (August), respectively. Diel patterns were modulated by tides and time of day, eliciting the most extreme minima when low tides aligned with the end of the night. Simultaneous in situ pCO2 measurements showed striking fluctuations between ∼330 and ∼1,200 (early May), ∼2,200 (mid June), and ∼4,000 μatm (end of July) within single tidal cycles. These patterns also indicate that the marsh’s strong net heterotrophy influences its adjacent estuary by ‘outwelling’ acidified and hypoxic water during ebb tides. Our analyses emphasize the coupled and fluctuating nature of pH and DO conditions in productive coastal and estuarine environments, which have yet to be adequately represented by experiments.

  6. Mathematical Model of Raw Hide Curing with Brine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most common method of preserving raw hides is brine curing with sodium chloride. However, this process has three important disadvantages: first, the length of time that it takes, which is a minimum of 18 hours; second, the insufficient degree of curing reached in some hides due to an overload a...

  7. [Towards the definition of cure].

    PubMed

    Touzet, Patrick

    Is the term cure adapted to psychiatry? Firstly, it is important to establish what this status represents. What is immediately clear is that the term cure cannot be addressed in isolation. Considering the term leads us to question notions such as those of disease and the norm, without forgetting the actual purpose of care. Cure can then be envisaged more as a 'possible' for caregivers.

  8. Reduction in time required for synthesis of high specific surface area silica from pyrolyzed rice husk by precipitation at low pH.

    PubMed

    Li, Dawei; Chen, Dengyu; Zhu, Xifeng

    2011-07-01

    Porous silica with a high specific surface area (SSA) was prepared from pyrolyzed rice husk (PRH) by adding H(3)PO(4) to sodium silicate solution (SSS) until the pH values of 5.7, 5.0, 4.1 and 3.2 were achieved. The preparation process involved producing SSS from PRH, forming silica-polyethylene glycol (PEG) composites using SSS, H(3)PO(4) and PEG, and calcinating the composites. The required preparation time was below 10h, and the SSA of the sample prepared at pH 3.2 reached 1018 m(2)/g. Decreasing pH significantly increased the amount of PEG incorporated into the silica-PEG composites, and hence more pores were generated in the lower pH sample when the PEG was destroyed by calcination at 500°C. The process developed in this study could lead to more efficient conversion of rice husk into high value-added porous materials that might be used for the adsorption of gas and heavy metal ions.

  9. Critical parameters for electron beam curing of cationic epoxies and property comparison of electron beam cured cationic epoxies versus thermal cured resins and composites

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, C.J.; Norris, R.E.; Yarborough, K.; Havens, S.J.; Lopata, V.J.

    1997-01-16

    Electron beam curing of composites is a nonthermal, nonautoclave curing process offering the following advantages compared to conventional thermal curing: substantially reduced manufacturing costs and curing times; improvements in part quality and performance; reduced environmental and health concerns; and improvements in material handling. In 1994 a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), sponsored by the Department of Energy Defense Programs and 10 industrial partners, was established to advance electron beam curing of composites. The CRADA has successfully developed hundreds of new toughened and untoughened resins, offering unlimited formulation and processing flexibility. Several patent applications have been filed for this work. Composites made from these easily processable, low shrinkage material match the performance of thermal cured composites and exhibit: low void contents comparable to autoclave cured composites (less than 1%); superb low water absorption values in the same range as cyanate esters (less than 1%); glass transition temperatures rivaling those of polyimides (greater than 390 C); mechanical properties comparable to high performance, autoclave cured composites; and excellent property retention after cryogenic and thermal cycling. These materials have been used to manufacture many composite parts using various fabrication processes including hand lay-up, tow placement, filament winding, resin transfer molding and vacuum assisted resin transfer molding.

  10. Dielectric cure monitoring: Preliminary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, B. E.; Semmel, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been conducted on two types of dielectric cure monitoring systems employing both epoxy resins and phenolic composites. An Audrey System was used for 23 cure monitoring runs with very limited success. Nine complete cure monitoring runs have been investigated using a Micromet System. Two additional measurements were performed to investigate the Micromet's sensitivity to water absorption in a post-cure carbon-phenolic material. While further work is needed to determine data significance, the Micromet system appears to show promise as a feedback control device during processing.

  11. Delayed cure bismaleimide resins

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.

    1984-08-07

    Polybismaleimides prepared by delayed curing of bis-imides having the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the --(CH.sub.2).sub.n -- group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine.

  12. (31)P-MRS of healthy human brain: ATP synthesis, metabolite concentrations, pH, and T1 relaxation times.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jimin; Sherry, A Dean; Malloy, Craig R

    2015-11-01

    The conventional method for measuring brain ATP synthesis is (31)P saturation transfer (ST), a technique typically dependent on prolonged pre-saturation with γ-ATP. In this study, ATP synthesis rate in resting human brain is evaluated using EBIT (exchange kinetics by band inversion transfer), a technique based on slow recovery of γ-ATP magnetization in the absence of B1 field following co-inversion of PCr and ATP resonances with a short adiabatic pulse. The unidirectional rate constant for the Pi → γ-ATP reaction is 0.21 ± 0.04 s(-1) and the ATP synthesis rate is 9.9 ± 2.1 mmol min(-1)  kg(-1) in human brain (n = 12 subjects), consistent with the results by ST. Therefore, EBIT could be a useful alternative to ST in studying brain energy metabolism in normal physiology and under pathological conditions. In addition to ATP synthesis, all detectable (31)P signals are analyzed to determine the brain concentration of phosphorus metabolites, including UDPG at around 10 ppm, a previously reported resonance in liver tissues and now confirmed in human brain. Inversion recovery measurements indicate that UDPG, like its diphosphate analogue NAD, has apparent T1 shorter than that of monophosphates (Pi, PMEs, and PDEs) but longer than that of triphosphate ATP, highlighting the significance of the (31)P-(31)P dipolar mechanism in T1 relaxation of polyphosphates. Another interesting finding is the observation of approximately 40% shorter T1 for intracellular Pi relative to extracellular Pi, attributed to the modulation by the intracellular phosphoryl exchange reaction Pi ↔ γ-ATP. The sufficiently separated intra- and extracellular Pi signals also permit the distinction of pH between intra- and extracellular environments (pH 7.0 versus pH 7.4). In summary, quantitative (31)P MRS in combination with ATP synthesis, pH, and T1 relaxation measurements may offer a promising tool to detect biochemical alterations at early stages of brain dysfunctions and diseases.

  13. Infiltration/cure modeling of resin transfer molded composite materials using advanced fiber architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loos, Alfred C.; Weideman, Mark H.; Long, Edward R., Jr.; Kranbuehl, David E.; Kinsley, Philip J.; Hart, Sean M.

    1991-01-01

    A model was developed which can be used to simulate infiltration and cure of textile composites by resin transfer molding. Fabric preforms were resin infiltrated and cured using model generated optimized one-step infiltration/cure protocols. Frequency dependent electromagnetic sensing (FDEMS) was used to monitor in situ resin infiltration and cure during processing. FDEMS measurements of infiltration time, resin viscosity, and resin degree of cure agreed well with values predicted by the simulation model. Textile composites fabricated using a one-step infiltration/cure procedure were uniformly resin impregnated and void free. Fiber volume fraction measurements by the resin digestion method compared well with values predicted using the model.

  14. Start up partial nitrification at low temperature with a real-time control strategy based on blower frequency and pH.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shengbo; Wang, Shuying; Yang, Qing; Yang, Pei; Peng, Yongzhen

    2012-05-01

    In this study, the performance of partial nitrification via nitrite at low temperature was investigated in a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with a working volume of 7.0m(3). A novel real-time control strategy, based on blower frequency (BF) and pH, was designed and evaluated. The nitrogen break point (NBP) in the BF curve and the nitrate/nitrite apex point (NAP) in the pH curve were used to identify the endpoint of the aerobic and anoxic phases, respectively. The nitrite accumulation rate (NAR) rapidly increased from 19.8% to 90%. Partial nitrification was achieved at low temperature (11-16°C) in 40 days and was stably maintained for as long as 140 days by applying a real-time control strategy based on pH and BF. Fluorescence in situ hybirdization (FISH) results demonstrated that ammonia oxidation bacteria (AOB) had developed into the dominant nitrifying bacteria compared to nitrite oxidation bacteria (NOB) in the system.

  15. Ambient curing fire resistant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamermesh, C. L.; Hogenson, P. A.; Tung, C. Y.; Sawko, P. M.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of development of an ambient curing foam is described. The thermal stability and flame spread index of the foams were found to be comparable to those of the high-temperature cured polyimide foams by Monsanto two-foot tunnel test and NASA T-3 Fire test. Adaptation of the material to spray in place applications is described

  16. Dose-related elevations in venous pH with citrate ingestion do not alter 40-km cycling time-trial performance.

    PubMed

    Schabort, E J; Wilson, G; Noakes, T D

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether sodium citrate enhances endurance cycling performance and, if so, what dosage(s) produces this effect. Eight trained [peak power output: 362 (48) W; power:weight: 5.1 (0.4) W x kg(-1), mean (SD)] male cyclists were requested to complete four, 40-km time-trials, each separated by 3-7 days, on their own bicycles, mounted on a Kingcycle ergometer. To mimic the stochastic nature of cycle road races, the time-trials included four 500-m, four 1-km and two 2-km sprints. The experimental conditions involved the ingestion of three dosages of sodium citrate dissolved in 400 ml water: 0.2 g x kg(-1), 0.4 g x kg(-1) and 0.6 g x kg(-1) body mass (b.m.) and a placebo (calcium carbonate, 0.1 g x kg(-1) b.m.). Subjects were asked to complete both the sprints and total distance in the fastest time possible. Venous blood samples were collected before, as well as at 10-km intervals during the trials for the analysis of plasma lactate and glucose concentrations and for the measurement of blood pH and PCO2 levels. Immediately before, as well as during exercise, pH was significantly higher in the group ingesting the highest citrate dose (range 7.36-7.45) compared to the placebo (range 7.31-7.39) and the two lower citrate dosages. Despite this, no significant differences in power output (P = 0.886) or time taken to complete the 40 km (P = 0.754) were measured between the four trials. The average performance times (in min:s, with SD in parentheses) and average power output (in W) for the 40-km time-trials were: 58:46 (5:06) [265 (62) W], 60:24 (6:07) [251 (59) W], 61:47 (5:07) [243 (44) W] and 60:02 (5.05) [255 (55) W] for the 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 g x kg(-1) b.m. sodium citrate and placebo trials, respectively. There were also no significant differences measured between treatments in terms of time, power output, speed or heart rate during the 500-m, 1-km and 2-km sprints. The ingestion of increasing sodium citrate dosages before

  17. Numerical natural rubber curing simulation, obtaining a controlled gradient of the state of cure in a thick-section part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Labban, A.; Mousseau, P.; Bailleul, J. L.; Deterre, R.

    2007-04-01

    Although numerical simulation has proved to be a useful tool to predict the rubber vulcanization process, few applications in the process control have been reported. Because the end-use rubber properties depend on the state of cure distribution in the parts thickness, the prediction of the optimal distribution remains a challenge for the rubber industry. The analysis of the vulcanization process requires the determination of the thermal behavior of the material and the cure kinetics. A nonisothermal vulcanization model with nonisothermal induction time is used in this numerical study. Numerical results are obtained for natural rubber (NR) thick-section part curing. A controlled gradient of the state of cure in the part thickness is obtained by a curing process that consists not only in mold heating phase, but also a forced convection mold cooling phase in order to stop the vulcanization process and to control the vulcanization distribution. The mold design that allows this control is described. In the heating phase, the state of cure is mainly controlled by the chemical kinetics (the induction time), but in the cooling phase, it is the heat diffusion that controls the state of cure distribution. A comparison among different cooling conditions is shown and a good state of cure gradient control is obtained.

  18. Arterial pH and Blood Lactate Levels of Anesthetized Mongolian Khulan ( Equus hemionus hemionus) in the Mongolian Gobi Correlate with Induction Time.

    PubMed

    Gerritsmann, Hanno; Stalder, Gabrielle L; Kaczensky, Petra; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Payne, John; Boldbaatar, Sukhbaatar; Walzer, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Research and conservation of wide-ranging wild equids in most cases necessitate capture and handling of individuals. For free-roaming Mongolian khulan ( Equus hemionus hemionus), also known as the khulan, capture involves a strenuous, high-speed chase, and physiologic responses have yet to be elucidated. We analyzed sequential arterial blood gas (ABG) samples as a proxy for respiratory and metabolic status of khulan during capture-related anesthesia. We recorded precise chase and induction times and monitored vital parameters and ABG from free-ranging khulan during anesthesia performed for GPS collaring. At the initiation of anesthesia, animals had ABG values similar to those recorded for thoroughbred horses ( Equus caballus ) after maximal exercise. Longer induction times resulted in higher arterial pH (P<0.001) and lower blood lactate (P<0.002). This trend of improvement continued over the course of anesthesia. The most important factor explaining pH and lactate was the time that elapsed between cessation of the chase and obtaining the first ABG sample, which, under field conditions, is tightly linked to induction time. All animals recovered uneventfully. Our data show that khulan recover and shift their metabolic status back toward expected normal values during opioid-based field anesthesia.

  19. Modelling the effect of temperature, pH, water activity, and organic acids on the germination time of Penicillium camemberti and Penicillium roqueforti conidia.

    PubMed

    Kalai, Safaa; Anzala, Lexane; Bensoussan, Maurice; Dantigny, Philippe

    2017-01-02

    In this study, the influence of environmental factors on the germination time of Penicillium camemberti and Penicillium roqueforti conidia was evaluated. To do so, the effects of i/temperature, pH, water activity, and ii/organic acids were determined using models based on i/cardinal values, and ii/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) respectively. Cardinal values for germination of conidia were not observed to be species dependent. Minimum temperatures were estimated to be below the freezing point, with an optimum of 26.9°C, and a maximum of 33.5°C. For both species, minimal and optimal aw values were found to be 0.83 and 0.99, respectively, while for pH these values corresponded to 2.9, and 5.6. MIC values could not be determined for lactic acid because conidia of both species germinated in up to 1M concentrations, the highest concentration tested. At pH5.6, P. camemberti (MIC=0.197M) was more sensitive to propionic acid than P. roqueforti (MIC=0.796M).

  20. Development of a resin curing model for UV nanoimprint.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Woo; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2005-10-01

    UV nanoimprint lithography uses UV light as an energy source. It is performed at room temperature and low pressure, and has its own merits as compared to thermal nanoimprint. In this paper, a measurement system was developed to measure the degree of resin curing in UV nanoimprint to improve our understanding of the resin solidification phenomenon. A curing model was then established based on the measurement results. The measurement system measured the degree of cure in real time and was composed of a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy system, a UV light source, and an optical guide. Also, new UV-curable resins that had low viscosity values were developed for the UV nanoimprint process, and imprint tests using these resins were performed successfully. The curing model considered the UV irradiation time, power, and curing temperature, which are important parameters in the UV nanoimprint process. The degree of cure had an exponential relation to UV irradiation time, power, and temperature; thus, the curing model was expressed as an exponential function of the UV irradiation time, power, and temperature. The developed model was verified for various UV-curable resins.

  1. Cure of incurable lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    De Nardo, Gerald L.

    2006-10-01

    The most potent method for augmenting the cytocidal power of monoclonal antibody (MAb) treatment is to conjugate radionuclides to the MAb to deliver systemic radiotherapy (radioimmunotherapy; RIT). The antigen, MAb, and its epitope can make a difference in the performance of the drug. Additionally, the radionuclide, radiochemistry, chelator for radiometals and the linker between the MAb and chelator can have a major influence on the performance of drugs (radiopharmaceuticals) for RIT. Smaller radionuclide carriers, such as antibody fragments and mimics, and those used for pretargeting strategies, have been described and evaluated. All of these changes in the drugs and strategies for RIT have documented potential for improved performance and patient outcomes. RIT is a promising new therapy that should be incorporated into the management of patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) soon after these patients have proven incurable. Predictable improvements using better drugs, strategies, and combinations with other drugs seem certain to make RIT integral to the management of patients with NHL, and likely lead to cure of currently incurable NHL.

  2. DBP formation in hot and cold water across a simulated distribution system: effect of incubation time, heating time, pH, chlorine dose, and incubation temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boning; Reckhow, David A

    2013-10-15

    This paper demonstrates that disinfection byproducts (DBP) concentration profiles in heated water were quite different from the DBP concentrations in the cold tap water. Chloroform concentrations in the heated water remained constant or even decreased slightly with increasing distribution system water age. The amount of dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) was much higher in the heated water than in the cold water; however, the maximum levels in heated water with different distribution system water ages did not differ substantially. The levels of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) in the heated water were similar to the TCAA levels in the tap water, and a slight reduction was observed after the tap water was heated for 24 h. Regardless of water age, significant reductions of nonregulated DBPs were observed after the tap water was heated for 24 h. For tap water with lower water ages, there were significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), chloropicrin (CP), and 1,1-dichloropropane (1,1-DCP) after a short period of heating. Heating of the tap water with low pH led to a more significant increase of chloroform and a more significant short-term increase of DCAN. High pH accelerated the loss of the nonregulated DBPs in the heated water. The results indicated that as the chlorine doses increased, levels of chloroform and DCAA in the heated water increased significantly. However, for TCAA, the thermally induced increase in concentration was only notable for the chlorinated water with very high chlorine dose. Finally, heating may lead to higher DBP concentrations in chlorinated water with lower distribution system temperatures.

  3. Mathematical Model Of Curing Behavior Of A Polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, Willard C.; Beyer, Rodney B.; Liu, Edmund K. S.

    1995-01-01

    Mathematical model predicts selected aspects of chemical, thermal and mechanical responses of polymeric liner and propellant materials during curing process. Predictions made both prior to processing and during process in quasi-real time. Developed specifically for use in designing and analyzing process in which bondline materials (including polymeric liners) and propellant cast and cured in rocket motor. With modifications, model applicable to curing of other polymeric materials. Further development may provide direct "in-line" program for calculations, including comparisons, in real time. This will constitute basis for more sophisticated control of process.

  4. Variable frequency microwave (VFM) curing, processing of thermoset prepreg laminates. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Paulauskas, F.L.

    1996-09-30

    The objective of this work was to investigate the beneficial effect of the variable frequency microwave (VFM) technology to cure thermosetting prepreg laminates. Further, it was to investigate the interrelationship and effect on the curing process of frequency, band width, and curing time with different types of laminates. Previous studies of microwave-assisted curing of neat resins (epoxy) and unidirectional glass and carbon fiber laminates with a fixed frequency of 2.45 GHz, have shown that a substantial reduction in the curing time was obtained. Results of this earlier work indicate that the microwave-assisted curing of multidirectional glass fiber laminates also show a substantial reduction of the required curing time. This may be explained by the penetration of microwave energy directly and throughout the laminate with enhancement of the kinetics of the chemical reaction. The fixed frequency microwave radiation of 2.45 GHz has been demonstrated to be a partially acceptable method to cure unidirectional carbon fiber laminates. Multidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy laminates demonstrate a lack of coupling during the curing process. A direct curing of these laminates was not possible by microwave radiation with the experimental approach used in agreement with previous work. In addition to this short coming, the unidirectional laminate samples cured with the fixed frequency are visually nonuniform. Localized areas of darker colors (burn, hot spots, overheating) are attributed to the formation of standing waves within the microwave cavity. For this reason, the laminates are subject to proper rotation while curing through fixed frequency. The present research indicates that variable frequency microwave technology is a sound and acceptable processing method to effectively cure uni-, bi- or multi-directional thermosetting glass fiber laminates. Also, this methodology will effectively cure unidirectional thermosetting carbon fiber laminates. For all these cases, this

  5. Effects of the Treating Time on Microstructure and Erosion Corrosion Behavior of Salt-Bath-Nitrided 17-4PH Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuanhua; Li, Mingxing; Fan, Hongyuan; Zeng, Dezhi; Xiong, Ji

    2013-08-01

    The effects of salt-bath nitriding time on the microstructure, microhardness, and erosion-corrosion behavior of nitrided 17-4PH stainless steel at 703 K (430 °C) were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and erosion-corrosion testing. The experimental results revealed that the microstructure and phase constituents of the nitrided surface alloy are highly process condition dependent. When 17-4PH stainless steel was subjected to complex salt-bathing nitriding, the main phase of the nitrided layer was expanded martensite ( α`), expanded austenite (S), CrN, Fe4N, and Fe2N. The thickness of nitrided layers increased with the treating time. The salt-bath nitriding improves effectively the surface hardness. The maximum values measured from the treated surface are observed to be 1100 HV0.1 for 40 hours approximately, which is about 3.5 times as hard as the untreated material (309 HV0.1). Low-temperature nitriding can improve the erosion-corrosion resistance against two-phase flow. The sample nitrided for 4 hours has the best corrosion resistance.

  6. Characterization of the relationship of the cure cycle chemistry to cure cycle processing properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranbuehl, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Dynamic Dielectric measurements made over a wide range of frequency provide a sensitive and convenient means for monitoring the cure process in thermosets and thermoplastics. The measurement of dielectric relaxation is one of only a few instrumental techniques available for studying molecular properties in both the liquid and solid states. Furthermore, it is probably the only convenient experimental technique for studying the polymerization process of going from a monomeric liquid of varying viscosity to a crosslinked, insoluble, high temperature solid. The objective of the research is to develop on-line dielectric instrumentation for quantitative nondestructive material evaluation and closed loop smart cure cycle control. The key is to relate the chemistry of the cure cycle process to the dielectric properties of the polymer system by correlating the time, temperature, and frequency dependent dielectric measurements with chemical characterization measurements. Measurement of the wide variation in magnitude of the complex permittivity with both frequency and state of cure, coupled with chemical characterization work, have been shown in the laboratory to have the potential to determine: resin quality, composition and age; cure cycle window boundaries; onset of flow and point of maximum flow; extent of and completion of reaction; evolution of volatiles; T sub g; and, crosslinking and molecular weight buildup.

  7. Measurement of surface stay times for physical adsorption of gases. Ph.D. Thesis - Va. Univ.; [using molecular beam time of flight technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmoth, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    A molecular beam time-of-flight technique is studied as a means of determining surface stay times for physical adsorption. The experimental approach consists of pulsing a molecular beam, allowing the pulse to strike an adsorbing surface and detecting the molecular pulse after it has subsequently desorbed. The technique is also found to be useful for general studies of adsorption under nonequilibrium conditions including the study of adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. The shape of the detected pulse is analyzed in detail for a first-order desorption process. For mean stay times, tau, less than the mean molecular transit times involved, the peak of the detected pulse is delayed by an amount approximately equal to tau. For tau much greater than these transit times, the detected pulse should decay as exp(-t/tau). However, for stay times of the order of the transit times, both the molecular speed distributions and the incident pulse duration time must be taken into account.

  8. Effect of three types of light-curing units on 5-year colour changes of light-cured composite.

    PubMed

    Tak, Onjen; Altintas, Subutay Han; Ozturk, Nilgun; Usumez, Aslihan

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine colour changes in a composite cured with tungsten-halogen, light-emitting diode (LED) or a plasma arc after 5 years. Five specimens 10 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height were prepared using Hybrid (Clearfil AP-X) composite for each test group. The corresponding specimens were cured with a tungsten-halogen curing light, a LED unit or with a plasma arc. Specimens were stored in light-proof boxes for 5 years after the curing procedure to avoid further exposure to light and stored in 37 degrees C in 100% humidity. Colorimetric values of the specimens immediately after curing and after 5 years were measured using colorimeter. The DeltaE*( ab ) values varied significantly depending on the curing unit used (p < 0.001). Curing time did not affect the colour changes of the specimens (p = 0.4). The results of this study suggest that composite materials undergo measurable changes due to the curing unit exposure.

  9. Time-domain finite elements in optimal control with application to launch-vehicle guidance. PhD. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, Robert R.

    1991-01-01

    A time-domain finite element method is developed for optimal control problems. The theory derived is general enough to handle a large class of problems including optimal control problems that are continuous in the states and controls, problems with discontinuities in the states and/or system equations, problems with control inequality constraints, problems with state inequality constraints, or problems involving any combination of the above. The theory is developed in such a way that no numerical quadrature is necessary regardless of the degree of nonlinearity in the equations. Also, the same shape functions may be employed for every problem because all strong boundary conditions are transformed into natural or weak boundary conditions. In addition, the resulting nonlinear algebraic equations are very sparse. Use of sparse matrix solvers allows for the rapid and accurate solution of very difficult optimization problems. The formulation is applied to launch-vehicle trajectory optimization problems, and results show that real-time optimal guidance is realizable with this method. Finally, a general problem solving environment is created for solving a large class of optimal control problems. The algorithm uses both FORTRAN and a symbolic computation program to solve problems with a minimum of user interaction. The use of symbolic computation eliminates the need for user-written subroutines which greatly reduces the setup time for solving problems.

  10. Might real-time pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic optimisation of high-dose continuous-infusion meropenem improve clinical cure in infections caused by KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae?

    PubMed

    Pea, Federico; Della Siega, Paola; Cojutti, Piergiorgio; Sartor, Assunta; Crapis, Massimo; Scarparo, Claudio; Bassetti, Matteo

    2017-02-01

    The effect of real-time pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) optimisation of high-dose continuous-infusion meropenem on the clinical outcome of patients receiving combination antimicrobial therapy for treatment of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) infections was retrospectively assessed. Data for all patients with KPC-Kp-related infections who received antimicrobial combination therapy containing high-dose continuous-infusion meropenem optimised by means of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) were retrieved. Optimal PK/PD exposure was considered a steady-state concentration to minimum inhibitory concentration ratio (Css/MIC) of 1-4. Univariate binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of clinical outcome. Among the 30 eligible patients, 53.3% had infections caused by meropenem-resistant KPC-Kp (MIC ≥ 16 mg/L). Tigecycline and colistin were the two antimicrobials most frequently combined with meropenem. Mean doses of continuous-infusion meropenem ranged from 1.7 to 13.2 g/daily. The Css/MIC ratio was ≥1 in 73.3% of cases and ≥4 in 50.0%. Clinical outcome was successful in 73.3% of cases after a median treatment length of 14.0 days. In univariate analysis, a significant correlation with successful clinical outcome was found for a Css/MIC ratio ≥1 (OR = 10.556, 95% CI 1.612-69.122; P = 0.014), a Css/MIC ratio ≥4 (OR = 12.250, 95% CI 1.268-118.361; P = 0.030) and a Charlson co-morbidity index of ≥4 (OR = 0.158, 95% CI 0.025-0.999; P = 0.05). High-dose continuous-infusion meropenem optimised by means of real-time TDM may represent a valuable tool in improving clinical outcome when dealing with the treatment of infections caused by KPC-Kp with a meropenem MIC ≤ 64 mg/L.

  11. Prediction of Listeria spp. growth as affected by various levels of chemicals, pH, temperature and storage time in a model broth.

    PubMed

    Razavilar, V; Genigeorgis, C

    1998-04-14

    The effects of concentration of NaCl (0.5 to 12.5%), methyl paraben (0.0 to 0.2%), sodium propionate (0.3%), sodium benzoate (0.1%), potassium sorbate (0.3%), pH (> 5.9) temperature (4 to 30 degrees C), storage time (up to 58 d) and inoculum (> 10(5) to > 10(-2) per ml) on the log10 probability percentage of one cell of Listeria spp. to initiate growth in a broth system were evaluated in a factorial design study. At pH 5.96 and temperature ranging from 4 to 30 degrees C the concentrations of sodium propionate, potassium sorbate, and sodium benzoate examined allowed growth of L. monocytogenes with lag phases at 4 degrees C of 18, 27 and 21 days, respectively. For 0.1 and 0.2% methyl paraben growth of all Listeria spp. was initiated at 8 degrees C and 30 degrees C, respectively. At pH 6, concentration of 12% NaCl supported the growth of L. monocytogenes at 8 to 30 degrees C, whereas 12.5% inhibited all Listeria species. Four regression equations were derived relating probability of growth initiation to temperature, concentrations of NaCl and preservatives storage time, and Listeria species specific effects. From these equations, the number of cells needed for growth initiation can be calculated. The impact of this type of quantitative study and its possible application on the development of microbial standards for foods is discussed.

  12. Real-time detection and data acquisition system for the left ventricular outline. Ph.D. Thesis - Stanford Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiber, J. H. C.

    1976-01-01

    To automate the data acquisition procedure, a real-time contour detection and data acquisition system for the left ventricular outline was developed using video techniques. The X-ray image of the contrast-filled left ventricle is stored for subsequent processing on film (cineangiogram), video tape or disc. The cineangiogram is converted into video format using a television camera. The video signal from either the TV camera, video tape or disc is the input signal to the system. The contour detection is based on a dynamic thresholding technique. Since the left ventricular outline is a smooth continuous function, for each contour side a narrow expectation window is defined in which the next borderpoint will be detected. A computer interface was designed and built for the online acquisition of the coordinates using a PDP-12 computer. The advantage of this system over other available systems is its potential for online, real-time acquisition of the left ventricular size and shape during angiocardiography.

  13. Diamine curing agents for polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, V. L.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    Three aromatic diamines have properties that make them promising candidates as curing agents for converting isocyanates to polyurethanes with higher adhesive strengths, higher softening temperatures, better toughness, and improved abrasion resistance.

  14. Photothermal Monitoring Of Curing Of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rooney, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Time-resolved infrared radiometry (TRIR) adapted to monitoring curing of some polymers in production. Proposal part of continuing effort to perfect production of hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene for use in liners of solid-fuel rocket motors. Applicable to monitoring changing states of many other materials in process. TRIR, non-contact technique implemented with remotely situated equipment and better suited to use in production.

  15. Probing the General Time Scale Question of Boronic Acid Binding with Sugars in Aqueous Solution at Physiological pH

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Nanting; Laughlin, Sarah; Wang, Yingji; Feng, You; Zheng, Yujun

    2012-01-01

    The boronic acid group is widely used in chemosensor design due to its ability to reversibly bind diol-containing compounds. The thermodynamic properties of the boronic acid-diol binding process have been investigated extensively. However, there are few studies of the kinetic properties of such binding processes. In this report, stopped-flow method was used for the first time to study the kinetic properties of the binding between three model arylboronic acids, 4-, 5-, and 8-isoquinolinylboronic acids, and various sugars. With all the boronic acid-diol pair sexamined, reactions were complete within seconds. The kon values with various sugars follow the order of D-fructose >D-tagatose>D-mannose >D-glucose. This trend tracks the thermodynamic binding affinities for these sugars and demonstrates that the “on” rate is the key factor determining the binding constant. PMID:22464680

  16. Transformation of deoxynivalenol and its acetylated derivatives in Chinese steamed bread making, as affected by pH, yeast, and steaming time.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li; Wang, Bujun

    2016-07-01

    We hereby report the transformation of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives (3-ADON and 15-ADON) by spiking targeted mycotoxins to Fusarium mycotoxin-free flour in the process of making Chinese steamed bread (CSB). The impacts of pH, yeast level, and steaming time on the transformation of 3-ADON to DON were investigated. DON, 3-ADON, and 15-ADON were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Spiked DON was stable throughout the CSB making process. Spiked 3-ADON and 15-ADON were partially deacetylated and transformed to DON during kneading (54.1-60.0% and 59.3-77.5%, respectively), fermentation (64.0-76.9% and 78.2-91.6%, respectively), and steaming (47.2-52.7% and 52.4-61.9%, respectively). The ADONs level increased after steaming compared with their level in the previous step. The pH level and steaming duration significantly (P<0.05) affected the conversion of 3-ADON during the CSB making process. Briefly, alkaline conditions and short steaming times favored the deacetylation of 3-ADON. The level of yeast did not remarkably (P<0.05) alter the transformation between ADONs and DON.

  17. Nutrient leaching, soil pH and changes in microbial community increase with time in lead-contaminated boreal forest soil at a shooting range area.

    PubMed

    Selonen, Salla; Setälä, Heikki

    2017-02-01

    Despite the known toxicity of lead (Pb), Pb pellets are widely used at shotgun shooting ranges over the world. However, the impacts of Pb on soil nutrients and soil microbes, playing a crucial role in nutrient cycling, are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unknown whether these impacts change with time after the cessation of shooting. To shed light on these issues, three study sites in the same coniferous forest in a shooting range area were studied: an uncontaminated control site and an active and an abandoned shooting range, both sharing a similar Pb pellet load in the soil, but the latter with a 20-year longer contamination history. Soil pH and nitrate concentration increased, whilst soil phosphate concentration and fungal phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) decreased due to Pb contamination. Our results imply that shooting-derived Pb can influence soil nutrients and microbes not only directly but also indirectly by increasing soil pH. However, these mechanisms cannot be differentiated here. Many of the Pb-induced changes were most pronounced at the abandoned range, and nutrient leaching was increased only at that site. These results suggest that Pb disturbs the structure and functions of the soil system and impairs a crucial ecosystem service, the ability to retain nutrients. Furthermore, the risks of shooting-derived Pb to the environment increase with time.

  18. Correlation of cure monitoring techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S. S.; Mopsik, F. I.; Hunston, D. L.

    Six different composite matrix or neat resin cure-monitoring methods are presently used to follow the cure process in a model epoxy system, and the results obtained are compared. Differential scanning calorimetry, viscosity monitoring, the ultrasonic shear wave propagation technique, dielectric spectrometry, and two different fluorescence intensity techniques are compared with a view to common traits and differences. Dielectric fluorescence and ultrasonic measurement techniques are noted to be applicable to on-line process monitoring.

  19. Pulsed NMR study of the curing process of epoxy resin.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Hiroki; Tanaka, Chikako; Yaginuma, Michiko; Shinohara, Emi; Asano, Atsushi; Kurotsu, Takuzo

    2008-07-01

    To analyze a curing process of epoxy resin in terms of molecular motion, we adapted a pulsed NMR method. Three kinds of (1)H spin-spin relaxation times (T(2L) (long), T(2S) (short) and T(2M) (intermediate)) were estimated from observed solid echo train signals as the curing process proceeded. A short T(2S) value below 20 micros suggests the existence of a motion-restricted chain, that is, cured elements of resin, and its fraction, P(S), sigmoidally increased with the curing time. On the other hand, the fraction of T(2L), P(L), decreased with the reaction time reciprocally against P(S), suggesting the disappearance of highly mobile molecules raised from pre-cured resin. The spin-lattice relaxation time, T(1), was also measured to check another aspect of molecular motion in the process. T(1) of the mixed epoxy resin and curing agent gradually increased just after mixing both of them. This corresponds to an increment of a less-mobile fraction, of which the correction time is more than 10(-6) s, and also means that the occurrence of a network structure whose mobility is strongly restricted by chemically bonded bridges between the epoxy resin and curing agent. The time courses of these parameters coincided with those of IR peaks pertinent to the curing reaction. Therefore, pulsed NMR is a useful tool to monitor the hardening process of epoxy resin in real time non-distractively in terms of the molecular motion of protons.

  20. Plasmid curing of Oenococcus oeni.

    PubMed

    Mesas, Juan M; Rodríguez, M Carmen; Alegre, M Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Two strains of Oenococcus oeni, RS1 (which carries the plasmid pRS1) and RS2 (which carries the plasmids pRS2 and pRS3), were grown in the presence of different curing agents and at different temperatures. Sublethal temperature together with acriflavine generated all possible types of cured strains, i.e., lacking pRS1 (from strain RS1), and lacking pRS2, pRS3, or both (from strain RS2). Sublethal temperature together with acridine orange only generated cured strains lacking pRS3. These results suggest that acriflavine is a better curing agent than acridine orange for O. oeni, and that pRS3 is the most sensitive to these curing agents. We also observed spontaneous loss of pRS2 or both pRS2 and pRS3 by electroporation. The ability to cure O. oeni strains of plasmids provides a critical new tool for the genetic analysis and engineering of this commercially important bacterium.

  1. Enumeration of human colonic bacteria producing phenolic and indolic compounds: effects of pH, carbohydrate availability and retention time on dissimilatory aromatic amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Smith, E A; Macfarlane, G T

    1996-09-01

    Concentrations of phenolic compounds in human gut contents were more than fourfold higher in the distal colon (6.2 mmol kg-1) compared to the proximal bowel (1.4 mmol kg-1). Tryptophan metabolites were never found in more than trace amounts in large intestinal contents and phenol substituted fatty acids were the major products of aromatic amino acid fermentation that accumulated in the proximal colon, whereas phenol and p-cresol were more important in the distal gut, accounting for 70% of all products of dissimilatory aromatic amino acid metabolism. In vitro incubations of colonic material showed that phenol was produced most rapidly (1.0 mumol g-1 h-1), whereas indole was formed comparatively slowly (0.06 mumol g-1 h-1). Most probable number (MPN) estimations demonstrated that large populations of phenol and indole producing bacteria occur in the large intestine (range log10 9.8-11.5 (g dry wt faeces)-1, mean 10.6, N = 7). With respect to phenolic compounds, phenylacetate and phenylpropionate producers predominated, while indoleacetate-forming bacteria were the major tryptophan-utilizing organisms. Quantitation of products of dissimilatory aromatic amino acid metabolism in MPN tubes showed that phenol and phenylpropionate mainly accumulated at low sample dilutions, whereas phenylacetate, p-cresol, indoleacetate and indolepropionate were formed in greatest amounts at high sample dilutions. The significance of pH and carbohydrate availability with respect to aromatic amino acid metabolism was shown in batch culture fermentation studies, where net production of phenolic compounds by mixed populations of intestinal bacteria was reduced by approximately 33% during growth at pH 5.5 compared to pH 6.8, and by 60% in the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. Experiments with 16 species of intestinal bacteria belonging to six different genera showed that environmental factors such as low pH and high carbohydrate availability markedly reduced dissimilatory aromatic amino

  2. Comprehensive study of dynamic curing effect on tablet coating structure.

    PubMed

    Gendre, Claire; Genty, Muriel; da Silva, Julio César; Tfayli, Ali; Boiret, Mathieu; Lecoq, Olivier; Baron, Michel; Chaminade, Pierre; Péan, Jean Manuel

    2012-08-01

    The dissolution method is still widely used to determine curing end-points to ensure long-term stability of film coatings. Nevertheless, the process of curing has not yet been fully investigated. For the first time, joint techniques were used to elucidate the mechanisms of dynamic curing over time from ethylcellulose (Aquacoat)-based coated tablets. X-ray micro-computed tomography (XμCT), Near Infrared (NIR), and Raman spectroscopies as well as X-ray microdiffraction were employed as non-destructive techniques to perform direct measurements on tablets. All techniques indicated that after a dynamic curing period of 4h, reproducible drug release can be achieved and no changes in the microstructure of the coating were any longer detected. XμCT analysis highlighted the reduced internal porosity, while both NIR and Raman measurements showed that spectral information remained unaltered after further curing. X-ray microdiffraction revealed densification of the coating layer with a decrease in the overall coating thickness of about 10 μm as a result of curing. In addition, coating heterogeneity attributed to cetyl alcohol was observed from microscopic images and Raman analysis. This observation was confirmed by X-ray microdiffraction that showed that crystalline cetyl alcohol melted and spread over the coating surface with curing. Prior to curing, X-ray microdiffraction also revealed the existence of two coating zones differing in crystalline cetyl alcohol and sodium lauryl sulfate concentrations which could be explained by migration of these constituents within the coating layer. Therefore, the use of non-destructive techniques allowed new insights into tablet coating structures and provided precise determination of the curing end-point compared to traditional dissolution testing. This thorough study may open up new possibilities for process and formulation control.

  3. Micromechanical properties of veneer luting resins after curing through ceramics.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Elif; Hickel, Reinhard; Bolay, Sükran; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of light-cured luting resin after curing under the ceramic restoration in comparison to dual-cured luting resin, by evaluating the micromechanical properties. Two hundred seventy thin luting composite films of ca. 170 μm in thickness were prepared by using two light-cured luting resins (Variolink Veneer, Ivoclar Vivadent; RelyX Veneer, 3M ESPE) and a dual-cured luting resin (Variolink II, Ivoclar Vivadent). The composites were cured by using a LED-unit (Bluephase®, Ivoclar Vivadent) with three different curing times (10, 20, and 30 s) under two ceramics (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent; IPS Empress® CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) of different thicknesses (0, 0.75, and 2 mm). Forty-five groups were included, each containing six thin films. The samples were stored after curing for 24 h at 37°C by maintaining moisture conditions with distilled water. Micromechanical properties of the composites were measured with an automatic microhardness indenter (Fisherscope H100C, Germany). For each sample, ten indentations were made, thus totalizing 60 measurements per group. Micromechanical properties of the luting resins were statistically analyzed (SPSS 17.0). Significant differences were observed between the micromechanical properties of the luting resins (p < 0.05). Variolink II showed the highest values in modulus of elasticity (E = 11 ± 0.5)* and Vickers hardness (HV = 48.2 ± 3.2)* and the lowest values in creep (Cr = 4.3 ± 0.1)* and elastic-plastic deformation (We/Wtot = 38.6 ± 0.7)* followed by RelyX Veneer (E = 6.9 ± 0.3, HV = 33 ± 2.5, Cr = 4.6 ± 0.2, We/Wtot = 41.8 ± 1.0)* and Variolink Veneer (E = 4.4 ± 0.4, HV = 20.1 ± 2.6, Cr = 5 ± 0.2, We/Wtot = 43.7 ± 1.3)*. Dual-cured luting resin expressed higher values in the micro-mechanical properties compared to the light-cured luting resins. The effect of luting resin type on the micromechanical properties of the luting resins was higher than the effect of

  4. Probabilistic model for the spoilage wine yeast Dekkera bruxellensis as a function of pH, ethanol and free SO2 using time as a dummy variable.

    PubMed

    Sturm, M E; Arroyo-López, F N; Garrido-Fernández, A; Querol, A; Mercado, L A; Ramirez, M L; Combina, M

    2014-01-17

    The present study uses a probabilistic model to determine the growth/no growth interfaces of the spoilage wine yeast Dekkera bruxellensis CH29 as a function of ethanol (10-15%, v/v), pH (3.4-4.0) and free SO2 (0-50 mg/l) using time (7, 14, 21 and 30 days) as a dummy variable. The model, built with a total of 756 growth/no growth data obtained in a simile wine medium, could have application in the winery industry to determine the wine conditions needed to inhibit the growth of this species. Thereby, at 12.5% of ethanol and pH 3.7 for a growth probability of 0.01, it is necessary to add 30 mg/l of free SO2 to inhibit yeast growth for 7 days. However, the concentration of free SO2 should be raised to 48 mg/l to achieve a probability of no growth of 0.99 for 30 days under the same wine conditions. Other combinations of environmental variables can also be determined using the mathematical model depending on the needs of the industry.

  5. Comparison of probabilistic and deterministic predictions of time to growth of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by pH and temperature in food.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Leymaya; Martínez, Antonio; Fernández, Pablo S; Muñoz-Cuevas, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic models are useful for estimating the risk of foodborne illness and they can be integrated, besides other sources of variability, into microbial risk assessment. A stochastic approach to evaluate growth of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes influenced by different factors affecting microbial growth (pH and storage temperature) was performed. An individual-based approach of growth through optical density measurements was used. From results obtained, histograms of the lag phase were generated and distributions were fitted. Histograms presented increased variation when the factors applied were suboptimal for L. monocytogenes and they were combined. The extreme value distribution was ranked as the best one in most cases, whereas normal was the poorest fitting distribution. To evaluate the influence of pH and storage temperature on L. monocytogenes CECT 5672 in real food, commercial samples of courgette and carrot soup were inoculated with this pathogen. It was able to grow in both soups at storage temperatures from 4°C to 20°C. Using the distributions adjusted, predictions of time to growth (10² cfu/g) of L. monocytogenes were established by Monte Carlo simulation and they were compared with deterministic predictions and observations in foods.

  6. Factors affecting dry-cured ham consumer acceptability.

    PubMed

    Morales, R; Guerrero, L; Aguiar, A P S; Guàrdia, M D; Gou, P

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were (1) to compare the relative importance of price, processing time, texture and intramuscular fat in purchase intention of dry-cured ham through conjoint analysis, (2) to evaluate the effect of dry-cured ham appearance on consumer expectations, and (3) to describe the consumer sensory preferences of dry-cured ham using external preference mapping. Texture and processing time influenced the consumer preferences in conjoint analysis. Red colour intensity, colour uniformity, external fat and white film presence/absence influenced consumer expectations. The consumer disliked hams with bitter and metallic flavour and with excessive saltiness and piquantness. Differences between expected and experienced acceptability were found, which indicates that the visual preference of consumers does not allow them to select a dry-cured ham that satisfies their sensory preferences of flavour and texture.

  7. Electron Beam Cured Epoxy Resin Composites for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dorsey, George F.; Havens, Stephen J.; Lopata, Vincent J.; Meador, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam curing of Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC's) is a nonthermal, nonautoclave curing process that has been demonstrated to be a cost effective and advantageous alternative to conventional thermal curing. Advantages of electron beam curing include: reduced manufacturing costs; significantly reduced curing times; improvements in part quality and performance; reduced environmental and health concerns; and improvement in material handling. In 1994 a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), sponsored by the Department of Energy Defense Programs and 10 industrial partners, was established to advance the electron beam curing of PMC technology. Over the last several years a significant amount of effort within the CRADA has been devoted to the development and optimization of resin systems and PMCs that match the performance of thermal cured composites. This highly successful materials development effort has resulted in a board family of high performance, electron beam curable cationic epoxy resin systems possessing a wide range of excellent processing and property profiles. Hundreds of resin systems, both toughened and untoughened, offering unlimited formulation and processing flexibility have been developed and evaluated in the CRADA program.

  8. Curing Behavior and Viscoelasticity of Dual-Curable Adhesives Based on High-Reactivity Azo Initiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Gyu; Shim, Gyu-Seong; Park, Ji-Won; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Moon, Sang-Eun; Kim, Young-Kwan; No, Dong-Hun; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Han, Kwan-Young

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the curing behavior of dual-curable acrylic resin to solve problems associated with curing of adhesives in shaded areas during display manufacture. A low-temperature curing-type thermal initiator, 2,2'-azobis (4-methoxy-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile), with a 30°C half-life decomposition temperature was used in the investigation. Dual-curable adhesives were prepared according to the thermal initiator content and ultraviolet (UV) radiation dose. The effects of thermal initiator and UV irradiation on the curing behavior and viscoelasticity were investigated. Using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and gel-fraction analysis, an evaluation was carried out to determine the degree of curing after dual UV/thermal curing. In addition, the real-time curing behavior was evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and a UV/advanced rheometric expansion system. A lift-off test was carried out to verify the effects of dual curing on adhesion performance. Application of UV irradiation before thermal curing suppressed the thermal curing efficiency. Also, the network structure formed after dual curing with low UV dose showed higher crosslinking density. Therefore, the thermal initiator radical effectively influenced uncured areas with low curing temperature and initiator content without causing problems in UV-curable zones.

  9. Shear Bond Strength of Acidic Primer, Light-Cure Glass Ionomer, Light-Cure and Self Cure Composite Adhesive Systems - An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    D, Krishnakanth Reddy; V, Kishore M S; Safeena, Safeena

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine shear bond strength and the effect on the bracket/ adhesive failure mode when an acidic primer and other etchants were used to condition the enamel surface before bonding. Materials & Methods: Group I: Brackets bonded with Ultimate cure-on-light Light-cure composite adhesive system. Group II: Brackets bonded with Ortho-one no-mix. Self-cure composite adhesive system. Group III: Brackets bonded with Light-cure glass ionomer adhesive system. Group IV: Brackets bonded with Transbond plus self etching primer. Results: The results of this study indicated that the shear bond strength when using Transbond plus self etching primer showed the highest bond strength Group- IV(8.69 2.54 MPa) followed by Ultimate cure-on-light Group-I (8.62 1.84 MPa), Ortho-one no-mix (Bisco Inc. USA)Group-II (8.07 1.72 MPa), and least bond strength was seen in G.C. Fuji Ortho L.C. Group-III (6.01 1.6) MPa Conclusion: Use of self etching primer saves chairside time and satisfactory high bond strength was obtained. Care should be taken during debonding of ceramic brackets How to cite this article: Reddy K D, Kishore M S V, Safeena S. Shear Bond Strength of Acidic Primer, Light-Cure Glass Ionomer, Light-Cure and Self Cure Composite Adhesive Systems - An In Vitro Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):73-78. PMID:24155606

  10. Development of an Ultrafast-Curing Wound Dressing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-15

    AD V TE4337-53-85 DEVELOPMENT OF AN SULTRAFAST-CURING WOUND DRESSING ANNUAL REPORT 0 Michael Szycher, Ph.D. and Jonathan L. Rolfe March 15, 1985...in this report are not to be construed as.. j an official Department of the Army position unless so A designated by other authorized documents. 85 12...10 037 SECURITY CLASSI’ICATION OF THIS’PAGE .... REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Ia. REPORT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION lb. RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS Unc lassif ied

  11. Micro-leakage of a Fissure Sealant Cured Using Quartz-tungsten-halogen and Plasma Arc Light Curing Units

    PubMed Central

    Bahrololoomi, Zahra; Soleimani, Ali Asghar; Jafari, Najmeh; Varkesh, Bentolhoda

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Newer curing units such as plasma arc can polymerize the sealants in much shorter curing times. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different curing units on the micro-leakage of a fissure sealant material. Materials and methods. Sixty two extracted premolars without caries were randomly divided into two groups of 31 samples. Occlusal surfaces of all teeth were cleansed. Then, teeth surfaces were etched by 37% phosphoric acid. After rinsing and drying, occlusal surfaces of teeth were sealed by a fissure sealant. The sealant was then cured using either a halogen light curing unit or a plasma arc curing light. After sealing, the teeth were thermocycled for 500 cycles. The teeth were then sectioned and examined for micro-leakage. Statistical analyses were performed with Mann-Whitney test. Results. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding micro-leakage (P = 0.42). Conclusion. Results showed that there was no significant difference between two different curing units. Therefore, plasma arc unit might be a useful alternative for sealant polymerization. PMID:25587389

  12. Micro-leakage of a Fissure Sealant Cured Using Quartz-tungsten-halogen and Plasma Arc Light Curing Units.

    PubMed

    Bahrololoomi, Zahra; Soleimani, Ali Asghar; Jafari, Najmeh; Varkesh, Bentolhoda

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Newer curing units such as plasma arc can polymerize the sealants in much shorter curing times. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different curing units on the micro-leakage of a fissure sealant material. Materials and methods. Sixty two extracted premolars without caries were randomly divided into two groups of 31 samples. Occlusal surfaces of all teeth were cleansed. Then, teeth surfaces were etched by 37% phosphoric acid. After rinsing and drying, occlusal surfaces of teeth were sealed by a fissure sealant. The sealant was then cured using either a halogen light curing unit or a plasma arc curing light. After sealing, the teeth were thermocycled for 500 cycles. The teeth were then sectioned and examined for micro-leakage. Statistical analyses were performed with Mann-Whitney test. Results. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding micro-leakage (P = 0.42). Conclusion. Results showed that there was no significant difference between two different curing units. Therefore, plasma arc unit might be a useful alternative for sealant polymerization.

  13. Leaching properties of slag generated by a gasification/vitrification unit: the role of pH, particle size, contact time and cooling method used.

    PubMed

    Moustakas, K; Mavropoulos, A; Katsou, E; Haralambous, K J; Loizidou, M

    2012-03-15

    The environmental impact from the operation of thermal waste treatment facilities mainly originates from the air emissions, as well as the generated solid residues. The objective of this paper is to examine the slag residue generated by a demonstration plasma gasification/vitrification unit and investigate the composition, the leaching properties of the slag under different conditions, as well as the role of the cooling method used. The influence of pH, particle size and contact time on the leachability of heavy metals are discussed. The main outcome is that the vitrified slag is characterized as inert and stable and can be safely disposed at landfills or used in the construction sector. Finally, the water-cooled slag showed better resistance in relation to heavy metal leachability compared to the air-cooled slag.

  14. Effects of varying levels of vegetable juice powder and incubation time on color, residual nitrate and nitrite, pigment, pH, and trained sensory attributes of ready-to-eat uncured ham.

    PubMed

    Sindelar, J J; Cordray, J C; Sebranek, J G; Love, J A; Ahn, D U

    2007-08-01

    Vegetable juice powder (VJP) and a starter culture containing Staphylococcus carnosus have been identified as necessary ingredients for the manufacture of uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added meat products with quality and sensory attributes similar to traditional cured products. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of varying concentrations of VJP and incubation time (MIN-HOLD) on quality characteristics, including lipid oxidation, color, and cured meat pigment concentrations, of ham over a 90-d storage period, compare residual nitrate and nitrite content, and determine if differences exist in sensory properties of finished products. Four ham treatments (TRT) (TRT 1: 0.20% VJP, 0 MIN-HOLD; TRT 2: 0.20% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD; TRT 3: 0.35% VJP, 0 MIN-HOLD; TRT 4: 0.35% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD) and a sodium nitrite-added control (C) were used for this study. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed between TRTs and C for CIE L*, a*, b*, and cured color measured by reflectance ratio. Lipid oxidation (TBARS) for combined TRTs and C revealed little change over time while the C had less (P < 0.05) lipid oxidation than TRTs 2 and 4 for combined days. No differences (P > 0.05) were reported for cured pigment concentration between TRTs and C. Trained sensory panel intensity ratings for ham and vegetable aroma, and flavor, color, and firmness showed that a high concentration (0.35%) of VJP resulted in the highest scores for undesirable vegetable aroma and flavor. Treatment combinations with a low concentration (0.20%) of VJP were comparable to the C for all sensory attributes.

  15. [Mineral water as a cure].

    PubMed

    Nocco, Priska Binz

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  16. Effect of pH, ionic strength, dissolved organic carbon, time, and particle size on metals release from mine drainage impacted streambed sediments.

    PubMed

    Butler, Barbara A

    2009-03-01

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) input to a stream typically results in the stream having a reduced pH, increased concentrations of metals and salts, and decreased biological productivity. Removal and/or treatment of these AMD sources is desired to return the impacted stream(s) to initial conditions, or at least to conditions suitable for restoration of the aquatic ecosystem. Some expected changes in the water chemistry of the stream following removal of AMD input include an increase in pH, a decrease in ionic strength, and an increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations from increased biological activity in the absence of toxic metals concentrations. These changes in water chemistry may cause the existing contaminated bed sediments to become a source of metals to the stream water. Streambed sediments, collected from North Fork Clear Creek (NFCC), Colorado, currently impacted by AMD, were assessed for the effects of pH, ionic strength, DOC concentration, time, and particle size on metals release using a factorial design. The design included two levels for each chemical parameter (ionic strength = 40 and 80% lower than ambient; pH = 6 and 8; and DOC = 1 and 3 mg/l higher than ambient), ten sampling times (from zero to 48 h), and two size fractions of sediments (63 microm < or = x < 2 mm and < 63 microm). Greater concentrations of metals were released from the smaller sized sediments compared with the larger, with the exception of Cu. A mild acid digestion (0.6M HCl) evaluated the amount of each metal that could be removed easily from each of the sediment size fractions. Release of all metals over all time points, treatments, and from both sediment sizes was less than 1% of the extractable concentrations, with the exception of Mn, which ranged from 4 to 7% from the smaller sized sediment. Greater percentages of the 0.6M HCl-extractable concentrations of Cu, Fe, and Zn were released from the larger sized sediment, while this was true for release of Cd and Mn from

  17. Dynamically cured thermoplastic olefin polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Hazelton, D.R.; Puydak, R.C.; Booth, D.A.

    1986-08-19

    A thermoplastic composition is described comprising a polyolefin resin, a first rubber component selected from the group consisting of polyisobutylene, and ethylene propylene copolymer (EPM) and EPDM and a second rubber component selected from the group consisting of halogenated butyl rubber and polychoroprene, the second rubber component being cured utilizing a curative other than a peroxide, which is a vulcanizing agent for the second rubber but not for the first rubber, the second rubber being cured to a fully vulcanized state by dynamic vulcanization in the presence of the polyolefin resin and first rubber compound.

  18. Changes in the temperature of a dental light-cured composite resin by different light-curing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastelli, A. N. S.; Jacomassi, D. P.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature increase during the polymerization process through the use of three different light-curing units with different irradiation times. One argon laser (Innova, Coherent), one halogen (Optilight 501, Demetron), and one blue LED (LEC 1000, MM Optics) LCU with 500 mW/cm2 during 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 s of irradiation times were used in this study. The composite resin used was a microhybrid Filtek Z-250 (3M/ESPE) at color A2. The samples were made in a metallic mold 2 mm in thickness and 4 mm in diameter and previously light-cured during 40 s. A thermocouple (Model 120 202 EAJ, Fenwal Electronic, Milford, MA, USA) was introduced in the composite resin to measure the temperature increase during the curing process. The highest temperature increase was recorded with a Curing Light 2500 halogen LCU (5 and 31°C after 5 and 60 s, respectively), while the lowest temperature increase was recorded for the Innova LCU based on an argon laser (2 and 11°C after 5 and 60 s, respectively). The temperature recorded for LCU based on a blue LED was 3 and 22°C after 5 and 60 s, respectively. There was a quantifiable amount of heat generated during the visible light curing of a composite resin. The amount of heat generated was influenced by the characteristics of the light-curing units used and the irradiation times.

  19. Delayed cure bismaleimide resins

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-08-12

    Prior art polybismaleimides begin to polymerize at or just above the melting point of the monomer. This patent describes new bismaleimide resins which have an increased pot life and provide longer time periods in which the monomer remains fluid. The resins can be polymerized into molded articles with a high uniformity of properties. (DLC)

  20. Resolving Early Stages of Homogeneous Iron(III) Oxyhydroxide Formation from Iron(III) Nitrate Solutions at pH 3 Using Time-Resolved SAXS

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements coupled to a stopped-flow device has permitted the observation of the kinetics of Fe(III) oxyhydroxide (FeOx) formation and transformation from around 1 s to 30 min after initiation under environmentally relevant conditions at pH 3. The Unified Model approach was used to determine the evolution of multiple key parameters (particle scattering mass, mean particle volume, particle concentration, particle dimensionality, and particle size) for two separate structural levels as a function of time, with the results obtained enabling clarification of the mechanisms underlying FeOx formation and transformation under these conditions. Colloidal primary particles (radius of gyration 2–10 nm) that were observable by SAXS formed within 1 s of stopping the flow and subsequently grew over several minutes, first by cluster–cluster addition and then by a monomer-addition mechanism. Aggregation of these primary particles via a secondary cluster–cluster addition mechanism simultaneously resulted in a distinct population of larger (25–40 nm radius of gyration) secondary particles. The primary particles evolved into compact spheroidal forms with fractally rough surfaces, while the secondary particles were relatively open mass fractal structures. Comparison of the observed rates of these processes with those predicted for Fe polymerization indicates that kinetics of primary particle formation were likely controlled initially by rates of exchange between water molecules coordinated with Fe and those in the bulk solution. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying FeOx formation and transformation, and the kinetics of these mechanisms, at pH 3. PMID:24601665

  1. Cure characterization of thick polyester composite structures using dielectric and finite difference analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Day, D.R.

    1993-12-31

    Disposable and permanently mounted dielectric sensors were used to characterize the cure in polyester sheet molding compound (SMC) at various locations through the thickness of the part in a simulated molding environment. Using established techniques, the dielectric and temperature information were combined to yield local cure state information for each sensor. Parts under five millimeters thick were found to cure rather uniformly while parts greater than this had increasing degrees of nonuniformity in cure behavior through the thickness. These observed cure state data were compared to finite difference model predictions. The model predictions, which were confirmed by the sensor cure data, may be used to optimize part design and production by predicting the curing behavior and molding cycle time required for new structures.

  2. Elution of TEGDMA and BisGMA from a resin and a resin composite cured with halogen or plasma light.

    PubMed

    Munksgaard, E C; Peutzfeldt, A; Asmussen, E

    2000-08-01

    Plasma arc light units for curing resin composites have been introduced with the claim of relatively short curing times. The purpose of the present study was to measure and compare elution of monomers from an experimental BisGMA-TEGDMA resin and a commercial resin composite when cured with a halogen unit and when cured with a plasma arc unit. Specimens of the materials were immersed in methanol, and the amounts of monomers released with time were analyzed by HPLC. By use of Fick's laws of diffusion, the amount of eluted monomers from the specimen at infinity was estimated. The elution from resin specimens and from resin composite specimens cured with the plasma arc light unit was 7 and 4 times higher, respectively, compared to the elution from specimens cured with the halogen unit. It was concluded that the plasma arc light curing unit did not provide optimal cure when used as recommended by the manufacturer.

  3. Inhibition of a Plasmodium vinckei cysteine proteinase cures murine malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, P J; Lee, G K; Smith, R E

    1993-01-01

    Intraerythrocytic malaria parasites degrade hemoglobin as a principal source of amino acids for parasite protein synthesis. We have previously identified a Plasmodium falciparum trophozoite cysteine proteinase as a putative hemoglobinase and shown that specific inhibitors of this proteinase block the hydrolysis of globin and the development of cultured parasites. We now show that the murine malaria parasite Plasmodium vinckei has an analogous cysteine proteinase with similar biochemical properties to the P. falciparum proteinase, including an acid pH optimum, a preference for the peptide proteolytic substrate benzyloxycarbonyl (Z)-Phe-Arg-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin, and nonomolar inhibition by seven peptide fluoromethyl ketone proteinase inhibitors. Thus, P. vinckei offers a model system for the in vivo testing of the antimalarial properties of cysteine proteinase inhibitors. One of the proteinase inhibitors studied, morpholine urea (Mu)-Phe-Homophenylalanine (HPhe)-CH2F strongly inhibited the P. vinckei cysteine proteinase in vitro and rapidly blocked parasite cysteine proteinase activity in vivo. When administered four times a day for 4 d to P. vinckei-infected mice, Mu-Phe-HPhe-CH2F elicited long-term cures in 80% of the treated animals. These results show that peptide proteinase inhibitors can be effective antimalarial compounds in vivo and suggest that the P. falciparum cysteine proteinase is a promising target for chemotherapy. Images PMID:8450035

  4. Breather cloth for vacuum curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    Finely-woven nylon cloth that has been treated with Teflon improves vacuum adhesive bonding of coatings to substrates. Cloth is placed over coating; entire assembly, including substrate, coating, and cloth, is placed in plastic vacuum bag for curing. Cloth allows coating to "breathe" when bag is evacuated. Applications include bonding film coatings to solar concentrators and collectors.

  5. Cure shrinkage in casting resins

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J. Brock

    2015-02-01

    A method is described whereby the shrinkage of a casting resin can be determined. Values for the shrinkage of several resin systems in frequent use by Sandia have been measured. A discussion of possible methods for determining the stresses generated by cure shrinkage and thermal contraction is also included.

  6. Dielectric Analysis of Thermoset Cure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-07

    the polymerization of thermosetting polymers, 3. Polyst . Sci., 31, 30S (1959) 58. Warfield, R. V. * Petro*, M. C.: A study of the polymerization of...cure: isothemal curs kinetics, Ihermochimica Acta, 14. 41 (1976) 64. ludd. N. C. W.: Investigation of the polymerization of an unsaturated polyester

  7. Plant Habitat (PH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  8. Technical note: Evaluation of a real-time wireless pH measurement system relative to intraruminal differences of digesta in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Klevenhusen, F; Pourazad, P; Wetzels, S U; Qumar, M; Khol-Parisini, A; Zebeli, Q

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and precision of indwelled wireless sensors relative to intrareticuloruminal differences in dairy cows transitioned from a forage to a high-concentrate diet. A feeding trial was performed with 8 rumen-cannulated Holstein cows. The cows were stepwise switched from 0 to 60% concentrate in the diet and fed 5 wk. Samples from the free ruminal liquid (FRL) from the ventral rumen and from the particle-associated ruminal liquid (PARL) in the rumen mat were manually taken at 0, 4, and 8 h after the morning feeding on d 0, 7, 14, and 34 of the experiment through the ruminal cannula to measure pH in FRL and PARL using a pH electrode. Additionally indwelling reticular wireless pH sensors were used to measure reticular pH every 10 min throughout the experiment. Precision and accuracy properties as a measure of reproducibility of the methods were statistically evaluated. Data showed significant differences among pH readings of indwelling sensors and pH measurements taken by means of a conventional electrode in both FRL and PARL (P<0.05). These differences became more evident when 60% concentrate diet was fed. Across all experimental days, the pH of the FRL was greatest and the pH reported by indwelling sensors intermediate, whereas the pH of PARL was lowest. The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) analysis revealed a high agreement between indwelling sensors and FRL (CCC=0.709) but a low agreement with the pH of PARL (CCC=0.495). In conclusion, the study indicated that wireless sensors can satisfactorily reflect the pH of FRL but poorly reflect that of PARL.

  9. Depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins.

    PubMed

    Pedalino, Inaam; Hartup, Grant R; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, manufacturers have introduced flowable composite resins that reportedly can be placed in increments of 4 mm or greater. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins (SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Venus Bulk Fill) and a conventional flowable composite resin (Revolution Formula 2). Depth of cure was measured in terms of bottom-maximum Knoop hardness number (KHN) ratios and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4049 scrape technique. Shades A2 and A3 of SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Revolution Formula 2 were tested. Venus Bulk Fill was tested in its only available shade (universal). Specimens in thicknesses of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm were polymerized for 20 or 40 seconds, and a hardness tester was used to determine the hardness ratios for each shade at each thickness. For the scraping technique, after specimens were exposed to the curing light, unpolymerized composite resin was removed with a plastic instrument, the polymerized composite was measured, and the length was divided by 2 per ISO guidelines. According to the KHN ratios and the scrape test, Venus Bulk Fill predictably exceeded the manufacturer's claim of a 4-mm depth of cure at both 20 and 40 seconds of curing time. The overall results for depth of cure showed that Venus Bulk Fill ≥ SureFil SDR Flow ≥ Grandio Flow ≥ Revolution Formula 2.

  10. Designing Cure Cycles for Matrix/Fiber Composite Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung

    2006-01-01

    A methodology has been devised for designing cure cycles to be used in the fabrication of matrix/fiber composite parts (including laminated parts). As used here, cure cycles signifies schedules of elevated temperature and pressure as functions of time, chosen to obtain desired rates of chemical conversion of initially chemically reactive matrix materials and to consolidate the matrix and fiber materials into dense solids. Heretofore, cure cycles have been designed following an empirical, trial-and-error approach, which cannot be relied upon to yield optimum results. In contrast, the present methodology makes it possible to design an optimum or nearly optimum cure cycle for a specific application. Proper design of a cure cycle is critical for achieving consolidation of a reactive matrix/fiber layup into a void-free laminate. A cure cycle for a composite containing a reactive resin matrix usually consists of a two-stage ramp-and-hold temperature profile. The temperature and the duration of the hold for each stage are unique for a given composite material. The first, lower-temperature ramp-and hold stage is called the B stage in composite- fabrication terminology. At this stage, pressure is not applied, and volatiles (solvents and reaction by-products) are free to escape. The second, higher-temperature stage is for final forced consolidation.

  11. Electron Beam-Cure Polymer Matrix Composites: Processing and Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrenn, G.; Frame, B.; Jensen, B.; Nettles, A.

    2001-01-01

    Researchers from NASA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are evaluating a series of electron beam curable composites for application in reusable launch vehicle airframe and propulsion systems. Objectives are to develop electron beam curable composites that are useful at cryogenic to elevated temperatures (-217 C to 200 C), validate key mechanical properties of these composites, and demonstrate cost-saving fabrication methods at the subcomponent level. Electron beam curing of polymer matrix composites is an enabling capability for production of aerospace structures in a non-autoclave process. Payoffs of this technology will be fabrication of composite structures at room temperature, reduced tooling cost and cure time, and improvements in component durability. This presentation covers the results of material property evaluations for electron beam-cured composites made with either unidirectional tape or woven fabric architectures. Resin systems have been evaluated for performance in ambient, cryogenic, and elevated temperature conditions. Results for electron beam composites and similar composites cured in conventional processes are reviewed for comparison. Fabrication demonstrations were also performed for electron beam-cured composite airframe and propulsion piping subcomponents. These parts have been built to validate manufacturing methods with electron beam composite materials, to evaluate electron beam curing processing parameters, and to demonstrate lightweight, low-cost tooling options.

  12. Investigations on N-nitrosopyrrolidine in dry-cured bacon.

    PubMed

    Fiddler, W; Pensabene, J W; Gates, R A; Foster, J M; Smith, W J

    1989-01-01

    Dry-cured or "country-style" bacon is a low volume specialty product typically made by small producers whose production practices vary widely. These practices include the direct application of dry-cure formulations containing varying concentrations of salt, sugar, flavoring agents, sodium nitrite, and sometimes sodium nitrate, and the use of lengthy curing and processing times. Because of the possibility of generating higher levels of N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) after frying in this product type compared with pump-cured bacon, an investigation was carried out on dry-cured bacon obtained from cooperating state or federally inspected establishments. Three different samples from each of the 16 plants were analyzed. Only one sample from each of 2 different producers exceeded the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) action level of 17 ppb NPYR, indicating that the majority of samples tested were in compliance. A significant correlation (P less than 0.01) was found between residual NaNO2 prior to frying and NPYR after frying. The elimination of added nitrate in the dry-cure formulations is recommended.

  13. Changes on physico-chemical, textural, lipolysis and volatile compounds during the manufacture of dry-cured foal "cecina".

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M

    2014-01-01

    The changes in the physico-chemical and textural properties, lipolysis and volatile compounds during the manufacture of dry-cured foal "cecina" were studied. The pH increased during the last stages of processing but gradually declined over the curing period. TBARS values, hardness and chewiness increased with processing time from 0.14, 2.74 and 0.83 to 3.49 mg malonaldehyde/kg, 20.33 kg and 5.05 kg∗mm, respectively. Ripening time also affected the colour parameters: lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) (P<0.001). The total average content of free fatty acid (FFA) increased significantly from 433.7 mg/100 g of fat in the raw pieces to 2655.5 mg/100 g of fat at the end of the drying-ripening stage. The main FFA at the end of the manufacturing process was palmitic acid (C16:0), followed by oleic (C18:1cis9), stearic (C18:0) and linoleic (C18:2n-6). A total of fifty five volatile compounds were identified during the manufacture of dry-cured foal "cecina", including esters, aldehydes, aliphatic hydrocarbons, branched hydrocarbons, alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, furans, ketones. Aldehydes reached their maximum level at the end of the post-salting stage. In the final product, esters became the dominant chemical compounds.

  14. Lower-curing-temperature PMR polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delvigs, P.

    1982-01-01

    Partial substitution of a p-aminostyrene end-cap for the monomethyl ester of 5-norbornene-2, 3-dicarboxylic acid lowered the final cure temperature of typical PMR resins from 600 F to 500 F. The weight loss characteristics of neat resins and graphite fiber composites prepared by using the mixed end-cap approach were determined at 600 F. The room temperature and short-time elevated temperature mechanical properties of the composites at 550 F and 600 F were determined. The mechanical property retention characteristics of the composites at 550 F and 600 F are discussed.

  15. Accelerated Cure Project for Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content Accelerating research toward a cure for multiple sclerosis Home Contact Us Search form Search Connect Volunteer ... is to accelerate efforts toward a cure for multiple sclerosis by rapidly advancing research that determines its causes ...

  16. FDA Warns Against Bogus Autism 'Cures'

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_164602.html FDA Warns Against Bogus Autism 'Cures' Unproven therapies won't help and could ... Don't fall for products claiming to cure autism, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration warns. There's ...

  17. Influence of argon laser curing on resin bond strength.

    PubMed

    Hinoura, K; Miyazaki, M; Onose, H

    1993-04-01

    Light cured resin composites are usually cured with halogen lamps whose light output decreases with time and distance to the resin surface. This study compared bond strengths of resins to tooth structure cured with either an argon laser or a conventional halogen light. The enamel and dentin of bovine incisors were ground on the buccal surface with wet #600 grit SiC paper. A 4 x 2 mm mold was placed on the tooth surface and Scotchbond 2/Silux and Clearfil Photobond/Photo Clearfil A were placed into the molds and cured using a Quick Light or an argon laser for exposure times of 10, 20, and 30 seconds, and distances of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mm from the resin surface. The intensity of the Quick Light was measured as 510 mW/cm2 at 470 +/- 15 nm and the intensity of the argon laser was adjusted to 510 mW/cm2 before curing. Shear bond tests at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min were performed after 24 hours of storage in water. The bond strengths obtained with the halogen lamp and the laser were not significantly different at the same exposure times and at 0.0 or 0.5 mm from the resin surface. The laser cured bond strengths did not decrease with increasing distance whereas there was a significant decrease in halogen bond strengths at distances greater than 0.5 mm for both resins. The use of the laser might provide a clinical advantage in cases where the curing light source cannot be brought into proximity to the surface of the resin.

  18. Comparison of halogen, plasma and LED curing units.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, Rie; McCabe, John F; Hirano, Susumu

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the characteristics of two kinds of recently developed light-curing unit; plasma arc and blue light emitting diodes (LED), in comparison with a conventional tungsten-halogen light-curing unit. The light intensity and spectral distribution of light from these light-curing units, the temperature rise of the bovine enamel surface and the depth of cure of composites exposed to each unit were investigated. The light intensity and depth of cure were determined according to ISO standards. The spectral distributions of emitted light were measured using a spectro-radiometer. The temperature increase induced by irradiation was measured by using a thermocouple. Generally, light intensities in the range 400-515 nm emitted from the plasma arc were greater than those from other types. Light in the UV-A region was emitted from some plasma arc units. The required irradiation times were six to nine seconds for the plasma arc units and 40 to 60 seconds for the LED units to create a depth of cure equal to that produced by the tungsten-halogen light with 20 seconds of irradiation. The temperature increased by increasing the irradiation time for every light-curing unit. The temperature increases were 15 degrees C to 60 degrees C for plasma arc units, around 15 degrees C for a conventional halogen unit and under 10 degrees C for LED units. Both the plasma arc and LED units required longer irradiation times than those recommended by their respective manufacturers. Clinicians should be aware of potential thermal rise and UV-A hazard when using plasma arc units.

  19. Monitoring Polymer Curing Via Electromagnetic Impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, William T.; Covington, John C.; Kranbuehl, David E.; Hoff, Melanie; Delos, Susan

    1992-01-01

    New nondestructive in-situ electromagnetic-impedance measurement technique senses cure-processing properties of high-temperature, high-performance thermostat and thermoplastic resins. Continuous frequency-dependent measurement and analysis performed during curing cycle. Monitors and measures molecular properties of polymeric resin in liquid and solid states. Applications include nondestructive means for evaluation of materials, determination of "window" boundaries of curing cycles of thermoplastics and thermoset resins, and for online, closed-loop control of curing cycles.

  20. Out-of-Autoclave Cure Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Brian S.

    2015-01-01

    As the size of aerospace composite parts exceeds that of even the largest autoclaves, the development of new out-of-autoclave processes and materials is necessary to ensure quality and performance. Many out-of-autoclave prepreg systems can produce high-quality composites initially; however, due to long layup times, the resin advancement commonly causes high void content and variations in fiber volume. Applied Poleramic, Inc. (API), developed an aerospace-grade benzoxazine matrix composite prepreg material that offers more than a year out-time at ambient conditions and provides exceptionally low void content when out-of-autoclave cured. When compared with aerospace epoxy prepreg systems, API's innovation offers significant improvements in terms of out-time at ambient temperature and the corresponding tack retention. The carbon fiber composites developed with the optimized matrix technology have significantly better mechanical performance in terms of hot-wet retention and compression when compared with aerospace epoxy matrices. These composites also offer an excellent overall balance of properties. This matrix system imparts very low cure shrinkage, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and low density when compared with most aerospace epoxy prepreg materials.

  1. 7 CFR 51.1412 - Well cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Well cured. 51.1412 Section 51.1412 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Well cured. Well cured means that the kernel separates freely from the shell, breaks cleanly when...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1412 - Well cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Well cured. 51.1412 Section 51.1412 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.1412 Well cured. Well cured means that...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1412 - Well cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Well cured. 51.1412 Section 51.1412 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Well cured. Well cured means that the kernel separates freely from the shell, breaks cleanly when...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1412 - Well cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well cured. 51.1412 Section 51.1412 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.1412 Well cured. Well cured means that...

  5. Urine pH, container composition, and exposure time influence adsorptive loss of 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Jamerson, Matthew H; McCue, Joseph J; Klette, Kevin L

    2005-10-01

    11-nor-delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (11-nor-delta9-THC-COOH) is the primary cannabinoid present in the urine of individuals who have used marijuana and is the target analyte identified at forensic urinalysis drug testing laboratories. The preparation, storage, transport, and processing of control materials for gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of human urine specimens is critical to accurate compound identification and quantification. Previous studies have suggested that adsorptive loss of 11-nor-delta9-THC-COOH is influenced by container composition and storage temperature. In this study, urine solutions of 11-nor-delta9-THC-COOH (7.5, 15, 60, and 500 ng/mL) at three physiologically-relevant pHs (4.6, 6.5, and 8.4) were prepared and subjected to storage and processing in containers of different compositions (polypropylene and borosilicate glass). Analyte identification and quantification were achieved using tetramethylammonium hydroxide/iodomethane-based derivatization followed by GC separation and electron-impact MS. These analyses demonstrate that adsorptive loss of 11-nor-delta9-THC-COOH is a phenomenon found in acidic urine solutions and is relatively absent in urine solutions that are near-neutral or basic. Furthermore, the data indicate that the adsorptive loss of 11-nor-delta9-THC-COOH is dependent on solution-container exposure time and is similar between containers of two distinct compositions. These results suggest that for optimal analytical control performance, solution pH and control processing times are critical elements.

  6. Low-temperature curing of a nitrile-epoxy adhesive. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tira, J.S.

    1981-04-01

    Adhesive strength and glass transition temperature were correlated with cure times at 85/sup 0/C and above. The effect of moisture on adhesive cure and strength was tested. With a 3-hour cure at 85/sup 0/C, lap shear strength met specification requirements. The adhesive was found to absorb moisture with time, especially if one or both polyethylene covers are removed. Placing the adhesive in a desiccator for 30 minutes produced excellent room temperature shear strengths. Preconditioning (removal of moisture) is critical for elevated temperature cures.

  7. Dielectric cure monitoring of the 55A filament wound case resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnutt, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were conducted to correlate data from dielectric cure monitoring of 55A filament would case resins using the Micromet System II with differential scanning calorimetry and resin strength tests. Strength tests for resin bonding at various time intervals and DSC are standard accepted techniques for monitoriong resin cure cycles. They are time consuming, destructive, and non-continuous. The Micromet System II will yield reliable information on degree of cure and other parameters, which should allow better quality control on filament wound case resin cure.

  8. Composite Curing Process Nondestructive Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    selected cure cycles, and conservative methods have been adopted to offset potentially degrading conditions. This approach invariably increases...fluoresce in ordinary solvents will, however, fluoresce strongly in viscous media such as glycerol at low temperatures. A number of studies on the...viscosity solvents is due to fasL nonradiative deactivation (relaxation) of the excited state by intramolecular torsional motions. When such torsional

  9. Hybrid Helmet Cure Cycle Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Distribution List 11 iv List of Figures Figure 1. DSC scans of cured and uncured carbon fiber-epoxy prepreg ...thermoplastic fabrics, molded with thermoset prepregs was designed at ARL. Proposed manufacturing of the helmet involved pressure molding a number...of plies of aramid fabric with a thermoplastic film, and two plies of carbon fiber-epoxy prepreg , BT250-E (Bryte Technologies, Inc.) that would add

  10. Vitamin (B1, B2, B3 and B6) content and oxidative stability of Gastrocnemius muscle from dry-cured hams elaborated with different nitrifying salt contents and by two ageing times.

    PubMed

    Gratacós-Cubarsí, M; Sárraga, C; Castellari, M; Guàrdia, M D; Regueiro, J A García; Arnau, J

    2013-11-01

    The effect of the amount of added nitrate and nitrate plus nitrite to dry-cured hams on the vitamin (B1, B2, B3, B6) content, the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activities and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was assessed in Gastrocnemius muscle at the end of two ripening processes. Five different curing mixtures (Hi-N: 600 KNO3; Lo-N: 150 KNO3; Hi-Mix: 600 KNO3+600 NaNO2; Lo-Mix: 150 KNO3+150 NaNO2; Hi-Mix/Asc: 600 KNO3+600 NaNO2+500 sodium ascorbate, expressed as mg of salts added on surface per kg of fresh ham) were evaluated in dry-cured hams aged for 11.5months (standard process, SP) and 22months (long process, LP). Minor differences in target parameters between the hams due to the process were found. The amount of nitrate when it was added alone or as a mixture of nitrate and nitrite, as well as the ascorbate addition to dry-cured hams did not affect vitamin B1, B2 and B3 contents. The level of vitamin B6 was affected by both the amount and the mixture of salts; the addition of nitrite reduced around 40% the content of vitamin B6, but it was not affected by nitrate or ascorbate. The activity of SOD and CAT decreased with the amount of nitrate and nitrite, while GSHPx and TBARS resulted unaffected.

  11. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  12. Cure shrinkage of thermoset composites

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.D. )

    1993-01-01

    The shrinkage of thermoset composites during cure was studied using a volumetric dilatometer. The material systems studied were AS4 carbon fiber/Hercules' 3501-6 epoxy, IM7 carbon fiber/Hercules 8551-7A toughened epoxy and IM7 carbon fiber/BASF's 5250-4 bismaleimide. Shrinkage of the samples due to both polymerization and thermal expansion effects was seen. The volume changes of the materials during cure were then compared to results from dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and dielectric cure monitoring. Maximums in volume corresponded to minimums in storage and loss modulus from DMA and maximums in the dielectric loss factor. Resin shrinkage during the 177 deg C (350 F) hold corresponded to the onset of polymerization seen by the rapid increase in the storage modulus and the decrease in the dielectric loss factor response due to reduced ion mobility. These results show that volumetric dilatometry can be an effective tool in the development of materials processing strategies and can be useful in studying residual stresses in composites. 9 refs.

  13. Freud's psychoanalysis: a moral cure.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Johan

    2014-08-01

    That psychoanalytical treatment in its classical Freudian sense is primarily a moral or ethical cure is not a very controversial claim. However, it is far from obvious how we are to understand precisely the moral character of psychoanalysis. It has frequently been proposed that this designation is valid because psychoanalysis strives neither to cure psychological symptoms pharmaceutically, nor to superficially modify the behaviour of the analysand, but to lead the analysand through an interpretive process during which he gradually gains knowledge of the unconscious motives that determine his behaviour, a process that might ideally liberate him to obtain, in relation to his inner desires, the status of a moral agent. There resides something appealing in these claims. But it is the author's belief that there is an even deeper moral dimension applying to psychoanalytical theory and praxis. Freudian psychoanalysis is a moral cure due to its way of thematizing psychological suffering as moral suffering. And this means that the moral subject - the being that can experience moral suffering - is not primarily something that the psychoanalytical treatment strives to realize, but rather the presupposition for the way in which psychoanalysis theorizes psychological problems as such.

  14. From HCV To HBV Cure.

    PubMed

    Schinazi, Raymond F; Asselah, Tarik

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 170 million people are chronically infected with HCV and 350 million are chronically infected with HBV worldwide. It is estimated that more than one million patients die from complications related to chronic viral hepatitis, mainly HCC which is one of the most frequent cancers in many countries, especially Africa, the Middle East and Asia. HCV drug development has been impressive, and this revolution led to several direct-acting antiviral agents achieving an HCV cure after only 6-12 weeks. This progress could theorically lead to HCV global elimination making HCV and its consequences a rarity. HBV research and development programs can learn from the HCV experience, to achieve an HBV functional or sterilizing cure. This review will summarize key steps which have been realized for an HCV cure, and discuss the next steps to achieve for an HCV elimination. And also, how this HCV revolution has inspired scientists and clinicians to achieve the same for HBV.

  15. Cure of cancer for seven cancer sites in the Flemish Region.

    PubMed

    Silversmit, Geert; Jegou, David; Vaes, Evelien; Van Hoof, Elke; Goetghebeur, Els; Van Eycken, Liesbet

    2017-03-01

    Cumulative relative survival curves for many cancers reach a plateau several years after diagnosis, indicating that the cancer survivor group has reached "statistical" cure. Parametric mixture cure model analysis on grouped relative survival curves provide an interesting way to determine the proportion of statistically cured cases and the mean survival time of the fatal cases in particular for population-based cancer registries. Based on the relative survival data from the Belgian Cancer Registry, parametric cure models were applied to seven cancer sites (cervix, colon, corpus uteri, skin melanoma, pancreas, stomach and oesophagus), at the Flemish Regional level for the incidence period 1999-2011. Statistical cure was observed for the examined cancer sites except for oesophageal cancer. The estimated cured proportion ranged from 5.9% [5.7, 6.1] for pancreatic cancer to 80.8% [80.5, 81.2] for skin melanoma. Cure results were further stratified by gender or age group. Stratified cured proportions were higher for females compared to males in colon cancer, stomach cancer, pancreas cancer and skin melanoma, which can mainly be attributed to differences in stage and age distribution between both sexes. This study demonstrates the applicability of cure rate models for the selected cancer sites after 14 years of follow-up and presents the first population-based results on the cure of cancer in Belgium.

  16. Photo-Curing: UV Radiation curing of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inman, Christina A.

    2004-01-01

    The Polymers Branch of the Materials Division is dedicated to the development of high-performance for a variety of applications. Areas of significant interest include high- temperature polymers, low density, and high strength insulating materials, conductive polymers, and high density polymer electrolytes. This summer our group is working diligently on a photo-curing project. There is interest in the medical community feel the need for a new and improved balloon that will be used for angioplasty (a form of heart surgery). This product should maintain flexibility but add many other properties. Like possibly further processability and resistance to infection. Our group intends on coming up with this product by using photo-enolization (or simply, photo-curing) by Diels-Alder trapping. The main objective was to synthesize a series of new polymers by Diels-Alder cycloaddition of photoenols with more elastomeric properties. Our group was responsible for performing the proper photo-curing techniques of the polymers with diacrylates and bismaleimides, synthesizing novel monomers, and evaluating experimental results. We attempted to use a diacrylate to synthesize the polymer because of previous research done within the Polymers Branch here at NASA. Most acrylates are commercially available, have more elastometric properties than a typical rigid aromatic structure has and they contain ethylene oxides in the middle of their structure that create extensive flexibility. The problem we encountered with the acrylates is that they photo chemically and thermally self polymerize and create diradicals at low temperatures; these constraints caused a lot of unnecessary side reactions. We want to promote solely, diketone polymerization because this type of polymerization has the ability to cause very elastic polymers. We chose to direct our attention towards the usage of maleimides because they are known for eliminating these unnecessary side reactions.

  17. Curing depth of composite resin light cured by LED and halogen light-curing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calixto, L. R.; Lima, D. M.; Queiroz, R. S.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Bagnato, V. S.; Andrade, M. F.

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the polymerization effectiveness of a composite resin (Z-250) utilizing microhardness testing. In total, 80 samples with thicknesses of 2 and 4 mm were made, which were photoactivated by a conventional halogen light-curing unit, and light-curing units based on LED. The samples were stored in water distilled for 24 h at 37°C. The Vickers microhardness was performed by the MMT-3 microhardness tester. The microhardness means obtained were as follows: G1, 72.88; G2, 69.35; G3, 67.66; G4, 69.71; G5, 70.95; G6, 75.19; G7, 72.96; and G8, 71.62. The data were submitted to an analysis of variance (ANOVA’s test), adopting a significance level of 5%. The results showed that, in general, there were no statistical differences between the halogen and LED light-curing units used with the same parameters.

  18. Dissociation energies of PH and PH+.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, R. R.; Nazeer Ahammed, Y.; Srinivasa Rao, A.; Rao, T. V. R.

    1995-12-01

    Dissociation energies for the ground electronic states of diatomic PH and PH+ are determined by fitting empirical potential functions to the respective RKRV curves using correlation coefficients. The estimated ground state dissociation energies of PH and PH+ are 3.10 and 3.20 eV respectively by the curve fitting procedure using the Lippincott potential function. The computed values are in good agreement with experimental values.

  19. Effects of Temperature and Humidity on Wilethane 44 Cure

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Weigle

    2006-10-01

    Wilethane 44 is a polyurethane adhesive developed by the Materials Team within ESA-MEE at Los Alamos National Laboratory as a replacement for Hexcel Corporation Urethane 7200. Urethane 7200 is used in numerous weapon systems, but it was withdrawn from the market in 1989. The weapons complex requires a replacement material for use in the W76-1 LEP and the W88, as well as for assembly of JTAs for other warheads. All polyurethane systems are susceptible to moisture reacting with unreacted isocyanate groups. This side reaction competes with the curing reaction and results in CO{sub 2} formation. Therefore, a polyurethane adhesive can exhibit foaming if appropriate environmental controls are not in place while it cures. A designed experiment has been conducted at TA-16-304 to determine the effects of ambient conditions on the properties of cured Wilethane 44. Temperature was varied from 15 C to 30 C and relative humidity from 15% to 40%. The density, hardness at 24 hours, and butt tensile strength on aluminum substrates were measured and fitted to quadratic equations over the experimental space. Additionally, the loss and storage moduli during cure were monitored as a function of cure temperature. These experiments provide a stronger basis for establishing appropriate environmental conditions and cure times when using Wilethane 44. The current guidelines are a working time of 90 minutes, a cure time of 18 hours, and a relative humidity of less than 25%, regardless of ambient temperature. Viscosity measurements revealed that the working time is a strong function of temperature and can be as long as 130 minutes at 15 C or as short as 90 minutes at 30 C. The experiments also showed that the gel time is much longer than originally thought, as long as 13 hours at 15 C. Consequently, it may be necessary to extend the required cure time at temperatures below 20 C. Allowable humidity varies as a function of temperature from 34% at 15 C to 15% at 30 C.

  20. Effects of pH and hydraulic retention time on hydrogen production versus methanogenesis during anaerobic fermentation of organic household solid waste under extreme-thermophilic temperature (70 degrees C).

    PubMed

    Liu, Dawei; Zeng, Raymond J; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-08-15

    Two continuously stirred tank reactors were operated with household solid waste at 70 degrees C, for hydrogen and methane production. The individual effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT as 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 days) at pH 7 or pH (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7) at 3-day HRT was investigated on the hydrogen production versus methanogenesis. It was found that at pH 7, the maximum hydrogen yield was 107 mL-H(2)/g VS(added) (volatile solid added) but no stable hydrogen production was obtained as after some time methanogenesis was initiated at all tested HRTs. This demonstrated that sludge retention time alone was not enough for washing out the methanogens at pH 7 under extreme-thermophilic conditions. Oppositely, we showed that keeping the pH level at 5.5 was enough to inhibit methane and produce hydrogen stably at 3-day HRT. However, the maximum stable hydrogen yield was low at 21 mL-H(2)/g VS(added).

  1. Dynamic cure measurement of dental polymer composites using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlins, Peter H.; Palin, Will M.; Shortall, Adrian C.

    2008-02-01

    Dental amalgam is being increasingly replaced by Light-activated resin-based dental composites. However, these materials are limited by inefficient setting reactions as a function of depth, constraining the maximum extent of cure and reducing biocompatibility. In this paper we demonstrate a novel metrological tool for dynamic monitoring of refractive index and thickness change through curing resins using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. We present real-time measurements from pre- to post-cure of a series of un-filled bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether dimethacrylate (bisGMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) resins with different inhibitor concentrations. Our results demonstrate that refractive index measurements are sensitive to the extent of cure of such resins and that the inhibitor concentration strongly affects the cure dynamics and final extent of cure.

  2. Formation of metal-nicotianamine complexes as affected by pH, ligand exchange with citrate and metal exchange. A study by electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rellán-Alvarez, Rubén; Abadía, Javier; Alvarez-Fernández, Ana

    2008-05-01

    Nicotianamine (NA) is considered as a key element in plant metal homeostasis. This non-proteinogenic amino acid has an optimal structure for chelation of metal ions, with six functional groups that allow octahedral coordination. The ability to chelate metals by NA is largely dependent on the pK of the resulting complex and the pH of the solution, with most metals being chelated at neutral or basic pH values. In silico calculations using pKa and pK values have predicted the occurrence of metal-NA complexes in plant fluids, but the use of soft ionization techniques (e.g. electrospray), together with high-resolution mass spectrometers (e.g. time-of-flight mass detector), can offer direct and metal-specific information on the speciation of NA in solution. We have used direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (time-of-flight) ESI-MS(TOF) to study the complexation of Mn, Fe(II), Fe(III), Ni, Cu by NA. The pH dependence of the metal-NA complexes in ESI-MS was compared to that predicted in silico. Possible exchange reactions that may occur between Fe-NA and other metal micronutrients as Zn and Cu, as well as between Fe-NA and citrate, another possible Fe ligand candidate in plants, were studied at pH 5.5 and 7.5, values typical of the plant xylem and phloem saps. Metal-NA complexes were generally observed in the ESI-MS experiments at a pH value approximately 1-2 units lower than that predicted in silico, and this difference could be only partially explained by the estimated error, approximately 0.3 pH units, associated with measuring pH in organic solvent-containing solutions. Iron-NA complexes are less likely to participate in ligand- and metal-exchange reactions at pH 7.5 than at pH 5.5. Results support that NA may be the ligand chelating Fe at pH values usually found in phloem sap, whereas in the xylem sap NA is not likely to be involved in Fe transport, conversely to what occurs with other metals such as Cu and Ni. Some considerations that need to be

  3. Is Curing Behavior Dependent on Morphology in Reactive Polyurethanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Young Gyu; Hashida, Tomoko; Krishnamoothy, Jayaraman; Hsu, Shaw Ling

    2004-03-01

    Reactive polyurethanes usually are formulated as ternary polymer blends whose components are often crystalline polyester, amorphous polyether, and acrylate with high glass transition temperature. Therefore, the morphology developed is highly dependent on the composition and thermal history. Ambient water vapor reacts with the isocyanate-terminated prepolymers, which leads to increase in molecular weight and mechanical properties achievable. Previously, there have been limited studies describing this reaction process. We have investigated the morphological and compositional effects on curing kinetics and chemical reactions induced by water vapor diffusion into prepolymer using time-resolved reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. It was found that the curing kinetics is strongly related to the prepolymer composition, which affects the molecular mobility, hydrophilicity, phase separation, and crystallization. In addition, we found that the curing rate decreased significantly with the development of liquid/liquid phase separation.

  4. EFFECT OF pH, IONIC STRENGTH, DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON, TIME, AND PARTICLE SIZE ON METALS RELEASE FROM MINE DRAINAGE IMPACTED STREAMBED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) input to a stream typically results in the stream having a reduced pH, increased concentrations of metals and salts, and decreased biological productivity. Removal and/or treatment of these AMD sources is desired to return the impacted stream(s) to initi...

  5. Chromothriptic Cure of WHIM Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, David H.; Gao, Ji-Liang; Liu, Qian; Siwicki, Marie; Martens, Craig; Jacobs, Paejonette; Velez, Daniel; Yim, Erin; Bryke, Christine R.; Hsu, Nancy; Dai, Zunyan; Marquesen, Martha M.; Stregevsky, Elina; Kwatemaa, Nana; Theobald, Narda; Long Priel, Debra A.; Pittaluga, Stefania; Raffeld, Mark A.; Calvo, Katherine R.; Maric, Irina; Desmond, Ronan; Holmes, Kevin L.; Kuhns, Douglas B.; Balabanian, Karl; Bachelerie, Françoise; Porcella, Stephen F.; Malech, Harry L.; Murphy, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chromothripsis is a catastrophic cellular event recently described in cancer in which chromosomes undergo massive deletion and rearrangement. Here we report a case in which chromothripsis spontaneously cured a patient with WHIM syndrome, an autosomal dominant combined immunodeficiency disease caused by gain-of-function mutation of the chemokine receptor CXCR4. In this patient, deletion of the disease allele, CXCR4R334X, as well as 163 other genes from one copy of chromosome 2 occurred in a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) that repopulated the myeloid but not the lymphoid lineage. In competitive mouse bone marrow (BM) transplantation experiments, Cxcr4 haploinsufficiency was sufficient to confer a strong long-term engraftment advantage of donor BM over BM from either wild-type or WHIM syndrome model mice, suggesting a potential mechanism for the patient’s cure. Our findings suggest that partial inactivation of CXCR4 may have general utility as a strategy to promote HSC engraftment in transplantation. PMID:25662009

  6. Effect of Fermented Spinach as Sources of Pre-Converted Nitrite on Color Development of Cured Pork Loin

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ko-Eun

    2017-01-01

    The effect of fermented spinach extracts on color development in cured meats was investigated in this study. The pH values of raw cured meats without addition of fermented spinach extract or nitrite (negative control) were higher (p<0.05) than those added with fermented spinach extract. The pH values of raw and cooked cured meats in treatment groups were decreased with increasing addition levels of fermented spinach extract. The lightness and yellowness values of raw cured meats formulated with fermented spinach extract were higher (p<0.05) than those of the control groups (both positive and negative controls). The redness values of cooked cured meats were increased with increasing fermented spinach extract levels, whereas the yellowness values of cooked cured meats were decreased with increasing levels of fermented spinach extract. The lowest volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were observed in the positive control group with addition of nitrite. TBARS values of cured meats added with fermented spinach extract were decreased with increasing levels of fermented spinach extract and VBN values of curing meat with 30% fermented spinach extract was lower than the other treatments. Total viable bacterial counts in cured meats added with fermented spinach extract ranged from 0.34-1.01 Log CFU/g. E. coli and coliform bacteria were not observed in any of the cured meats treated with fermented spinach extracts or nitrite. Residual nitrite contents in treatment groups were increased with increasing levels of fermented spinach extract added. These results demonstrated that fermented spinach could be added to meat products to improve own curing characteristics. PMID:28316477

  7. ASRM test report: Autoclave cure process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachbar, D. L.; Mitchell, Suzanne

    1992-01-01

    ASRM insulated segments will be autoclave cured following insulation pre-form installation and strip wind operations. Following competitive bidding, Aerojet ASRM Division (AAD) Purchase Order 100142 was awarded to American Fuel Cell and Coated Fabrics Company, Inc. (Amfuel), Magnolia, AR, for subcontracted insulation autoclave cure process development. Autoclave cure process development test requirements were included in Task 3 of TM05514, Manufacturing Process Development Specification for Integrated Insulation Characterization and Stripwind Process Development. The test objective was to establish autoclave cure process parameters for ASRM insulated segments. Six tasks were completed to: (1) evaluate cure parameters that control acceptable vulcanization of ASRM Kevlar-filled EPDM insulation material; (2) identify first and second order impact parameters on the autoclave cure process; and (3) evaluate insulation material flow-out characteristics to support pre-form configuration design.

  8. ASRM test report: Autoclave cure process development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachbar, D. L.; Mitchell, Suzanne

    1992-05-01

    ASRM insulated segments will be autoclave cured following insulation pre-form installation and strip wind operations. Following competitive bidding, Aerojet ASRM Division (AAD) Purchase Order 100142 was awarded to American Fuel Cell and Coated Fabrics Company, Inc. (Amfuel), Magnolia, AR, for subcontracted insulation autoclave cure process development. Autoclave cure process development test requirements were included in Task 3 of TM05514, Manufacturing Process Development Specification for Integrated Insulation Characterization and Stripwind Process Development. The test objective was to establish autoclave cure process parameters for ASRM insulated segments. Six tasks were completed to: (1) evaluate cure parameters that control acceptable vulcanization of ASRM Kevlar-filled EPDM insulation material; (2) identify first and second order impact parameters on the autoclave cure process; and (3) evaluate insulation material flow-out characteristics to support pre-form configuration design.

  9. The effect of cure conditions on the stability of cement waste forms after immersion in water

    SciTech Connect

    Siskind, B.; Adams, J.W.; Clinton, J.H.; Piciulo, P.L.; McDaniel, K.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the effects of curing conditions on the stability of cement-solidified ion-exchange resins after immersion in water. The test specimens consisted of partially depleted mixed-bed bead resins solidified in one of three vendor-supplied Portland I cement formulations, in a reference cement formulation, or in a gypsum-based binder formulation. We cured samples prepared using each formulation in sealed containers for periods of 7, 14, or 28 days as well as in air or with an accelerated heat cure prior to 90-day immersion in water. Two cement formulations exhibited apparent Portland-cement-like behavior, i.e., compressive strength increased or stabilized with increasing cure time. Two cement formulations exhibited behavior apparently unlike that of Portland cement, i.e., compressive strength decreased with increasing cure time. Such non-Portland-cement-like behavior is correlated with higher waste loadings. The gypsum-based formulation exhibited approximately constant compressive strength with cure time. Accelerated heat cures may not give compressive strengths representative of real-time cures. Some physical deterioration (cracking, spalling) of the waste form occurs during immersion.

  10. Modeling of Salt Diffusion in Raw Hide: An Optimization of the Curing Process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most common method of preserving raw hides is brine curing with sodium chloride. However, this process has three important disadvantages: first, the length of time that it takes, which is a minimum of 18 hours; second, the insufficient degree of curing reached in some hides due to an overload a...

  11. Interfacial Properties of Electron Beam Cured Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, C.C.

    1999-12-30

    The objectives of the CRADA are to: Confirm that fiber-resin adhesion is responsible for the observed poor shear properties; Determine the mechanism(s) responsible for poor adhesion between carbon fibers and epoxy resins after e-beam curing; Develop and evaluate resin systems and fiber treatments to improve the properties of e-beam cured, carbon-fiber-reinforced composites; and Develop refined methods for processing e-beam cured, carbon-fiber-reinforced composites.

  12. Light curing of resin-based composites in the LED era.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Norbert; Lohbauer, Ulrich; García-Godoy, Franklin; Frankenberger, Roland

    2008-06-01

    This review thoroughly accumulated information regarding new technologies for state-of-the-art light curing of resin composite materials. Visible light cured resin-based composites allow the dentist to navigate the initiation of the polymerization step for each layer being applied. Curing technology was regularly subjected to changes during the last decades, but meanwhile the LED era is fully established. Today, four main polymerization types are available, i.e. halogen bulbs, plasma are lamps, argon ion lasers, and light emitting diodes. Additionally, different curing protocols should help to improve photopolymerization in terms of less stress being generated. Conclusions were: (1) with high-power LED units of the latest generation, curing time of 2 mm thick increments of resin composite can be reduced to 20 seconds to obtain durable results; (2) curing depth is fundamentally dependent on the distance of the resin composite to the light source, but only decisive when exceeding 6 mm; (3) polymerization kinetics can be modified for better marginal adaptation by softstart polymerization; however, in the majority of cavities this may not be the case; (4) adhesives should be light-cured separately for at least 10 seconds when resin composite is applied directly; (5) photocuring through indirect restorations such as ceramics is still a problem, therefore, both dual-cured adhesives and dual-cured composites and resin coating in any way are recommended; and (6) heat generation with high-power photopolymerization units should not be underestimated as a biological problem for both gingival and pulpal tissues.

  13. Label-free microfluidic free-flow isoelectric focusing, pH gradient sensing and near real-time isoelectric point determination of biomolecules and blood plasma fractions.

    PubMed

    Poehler, Elisabeth; Herzog, Christin; Lotter, Carsten; Pfeiffer, Simon A; Aigner, Daniel; Mayr, Torsten; Nagl, Stefan

    2015-11-21

    We demonstrate the fabrication, characterization and application of microfluidic chips capable of continuous electrophoretic separation via free flow isoelectric focussing (FFIEF). By integration of a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent pH sensor layer under the whole separation bed, on-line observation of the pH gradient and determination of biomolecular isoelectric points (pI) was achieved within a few seconds. Using an optical setup for imaging of the intrinsic fluorescence of biomolecules at 266 nm excitation, labelling steps could be avoided and the native biomolecules could be separated, collected and analysed for their pI. The fabricated microchip was successfully used for the monitoring of the separation and simultaneous observation of the pH gradient during the isoelectric focussing of the proteins α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, blood plasma proteins and the antibiotics ampicillin and ofloxacin. The obtained pIs are in good agreement with literature data, demonstrating the applicability of the system. Mass spectra from the separated antibiotics taken after 15 minutes of continuous separation from different fractions at the end of the microchip validated the separation via microfluidic isoelectric focussing and indicate the possibility of further on- or off-chip processing steps.

  14. Population-based survival-cure analysis of ER-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lan; Johnson, Karen A; Mariotto, Angela B; Dignam, James J; Feuer, Eric J

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the trends over time in age and stage specific population-based survival of estrogen receptor negative (ER-) breast cancer patients by examining the fraction of cured patients and the median survival time for uncured patients. Cause-specific survival data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program for cases diagnosed during 1992-1998 were used in mixed survival cure models to evaluate the cure fraction and the extension in survival for uncured patients. Survival trends were compared with adjuvant chemotherapy data available from an overlapping patterns-of-care study. For stage II N+ disease, the largest increase in cure fraction was 44-60% (P = 0.0257) for women aged >or=70 in contrast to a 7-8% point increase for women aged <50 or 50-69 (P = 0.056 and 0.038, respectively). For women with stage III disease, the increases in the cure fraction were not statistically significant, although women aged 50-69 had a 10% point increase (P = 0.103). Increases in cure fraction correspond with increases in the use of adjuvant chemotherapy, particularly for the oldest age group. In this article, for the first time, we estimate the cure fraction for ER- patients. We notice that at age >o5r=70, the accelerated increase in cure fraction from 1992 to 1998 for women with stage II N+ compared with stage III suggests a selective benefit for chemotherapy in the lower stage group.

  15. Hardness Evaluation of Composite Resins Cured with QTH and LED

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili, Behnaz; Safarcherati, Hengameh; Vaezi, Assila

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Today light cured composites are widely used. Physical and mechanical properties of composites are related to the degree of conversion. Light curing unit (LCU) is an important factor for composite polymerization. Aim of this study is evaluation of composite resins hardness using halogen and LED light curing units. Materials and methods. In this study, 30 samples of Filtek Z250 and C-Fill composite resins were provided. Samples were light cured with Ultralume2, Valo and Astralis7. Vickers hardness number (VHN) was measured in 0, 1, 2 mm depth. Statistical analysis used: Data were analysed by SPSS software and compared with each other by T-test, one-way and two-way ANOVA and Post-hoc Tukey test. Results. In Filtek Z250, at top surface, VHN of Ultralume2 was higher than VHN of Valo (P = 0.02) and Astralis7 (P =0.04), but in depth of 1, 2 mm, VHN of Ultralume2 and Astralis7 were almost the same and both LCUs were more than Valo which the difference between Ultralume2 and Valo was significant in depth of 1mm (0.05) and 2mm (0.02). In C-Fill composite, at top surface, Astralis7 showed higher VHN, but in depth of 2 mm, performance of all devices were rather simi-lar. Conclusion. In Z250, which contains camphorquinone initiator, light cure LED Ultra-lume2 with narrow wavelength showed higher hardness number than Valo. In C-fill, in top surface, Astralis7 with more exposure time, resulted higher VHN. But In depth of 2 mm, various light curing devices had rather similar hardness number. PMID:25024838

  16. Changes on degree of conversion of dual-cure luting light-cured with blue LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandéca, M. C.; El-Mowafy, O.; Saade, E. G.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Bagnato, V. S.; Porto-Neto, S. T.

    2009-05-01

    The indirect adhesive procedures constitute recently a substantial portion of contemporary esthetic restorative treatments. The resin cements have been used to bond tooth substrate and restorative materials. Due to recently introduction of the self-bonding resin luting cement based on a new monomer, filler and initiation technology has become important to study the degree of conversion of these new materials. In the present work the polymerization reaction and the filler content of dual-cured dental resin cements were studied by means of infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetry (TG). Twenty specimens were made in a metallic mold (8 mm diameter × 1 mm thick) from each of 2 cements, Panavia® F2.0 (Kuraray) and RelyX™ Unicem Applicap (3M/ESPE). Each specimen was cured with blue LED with power density of 500 mW/cm2 for 30 s. Immediately after curing, 24 and 48 h, and 7 days DC was determined. For each time interval 5 specimens were pulverized, pressed with KBr and analyzed with FT-IR. The TG measurements were performed in Netzsch TG 209 under oxygen atmosphere and heating rate of 10°C/min from 25 to 700°C. A two-way ANOVA showed DC (%) mean values statistically significance differences between two cements ( p < 0.05). The Tukey’s test showed no significant difference only for the 24 and 48 h after light irradiation for both resin cements ( p > 0.05). The Relx-Y™ Unicem mean values were significantly higher than Panavia® F 2.0. The degree of conversion means values increasing with the storage time and the filler content showed similar for both resin cements.

  17. Development of a Fully Automated Guided Wave System for In-Process Cure Monitoring of CFRP Composite Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Tyler B.; Hou, Tan-Hung; Grimsley, Brian W.; Yaun, Fuh-Gwo

    2016-01-01

    A guided wave-based in-process cure monitoring technique for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites was investigated at NASA Langley Research Center. A key cure transition point (vitrification) was identified and the degree of cure was monitored using metrics such as amplitude and time of arrival (TOA) of guided waves. Using an automated system preliminarily developed in this work, high-temperature piezoelectric transducers were utilized to interrogate a twenty-four ply unidirectional composite panel fabricated from Hexcel (Registered Trademark) IM7/8552 prepreg during cure. It was shown that the amplitude of the guided wave increased sharply around vitrification and the TOA curve possessed an inverse relationship with degree of cure. The work is a first step in demonstrating the feasibility of transitioning the technique to perform in-process cure monitoring in an autoclave, defect detection during cure, and ultimately a closed-loop process control to maximize composite part quality and consistency.

  18. The fluorescence properties of the phenylated fullerenes C 70Ph 4, C 70Ph 6, C 70Ph 8, and C 70Ph 10 in room temperature solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwell, Martin; Gustavsson, Thomas; Marguet, Sylvie; Vaissière, Benoı̂t de La; Wachter, Norbert K.; Birkett, Paul R.; Mialocq, Jean-Claude; Leach, Sydney

    2001-12-01

    The emission and excitation spectra of four phenylated [70] fullerenes, C 70Ph 4, C 70Ph 6, C 70Ph 8, and C 70Ph 10 in cyclohexane and toluene solutions have been measured. The fluorescence spectra and related excited state properties are found to depend strongly on the number of attached phenyl groups, but with no systematic trends. Quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes were measured for C 70Ph 6, C 70Ph 8, and C 70Ph 10, allowing the determination of S1 → S0 radiative transition rates kR. It is found that kR for C 70Ph 10 is about six times larger than for the other compounds. This is consistent with measured absorbtivities for these compounds. The particular character of C 70Ph 10 is also manifested by its higher intersystem crossing rate kISC.

  19. Ultrasonic mixing of epoxy curing agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, W. T.; St.clair, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for mixing solid curing agents into liquid epoxy resins using ultrasonic energy was developed. This procedure allows standard curing agents such as 4,4 prime-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS) and its 3,3 prime-isomer, (3,3 prime-DDS) to be mixed without prior melting of the curing agent. It also allows curing agents such as 4,4 prime-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS) and its 3,3 prime-isomer, (3,3 prime-DDS) to be mixed without prior melting of the curing agent. It also allows curing agents with very high melt temperatures such as 4,4 prime-diaminobenzophenone (4,4 prime-DABP) (242 C) to be mixed without premature curing. Four aromatic diamines were ultrasonically blended into MY-720 epoxy resin. These were 4,4 prime-DDS; 3,3 prime-DDA; 4,4 prime-DABP and 3,3 prime-DABP. Unfilled moldings were cast and cured for each system and their physical and mechanical properties compared.

  20. 7 CFR 29.6010 - Cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured. 29.6010 Section 29.6010 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6010 Cured. Tobacco dried of its sap by either natural or...

  1. Curing of Graphite/Epoxy Composites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    365-371 (1973). 21. Pappalardo , L. T., "DSC Evaluation of B-Stage Epoxy-Glass Prepregs For Multilayer Boards," SPE Technical Papers, 20, 13-16 (1974...Kamal, M. R., "Differential Scanning Calorimetry of Epoxy Cure: Isothermal Cure Kinetics," Thermochimica Acta, 14, 41-59 (1976). 24. Pappalardo , L. T

  2. Plasma arc versus halogen light curing of orthodontic brackets: a 12-month clinical study of bond failures.

    PubMed

    Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Cacciafesta, Vittorio; Scribante, Andrea; Klersy, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical performance of brackets cured with 2 different light-curing units (conventional halogen light and plasma arc light); 83 patients treated with fixed appliances were included in the study. With the "split-mouth" design, each patient's mouth was divided into 4 quadrants. In 42 randomly selected patients, the maxillary left and mandibular right quadrants were cured with the halogen light, and the remaining quadrants were cured with the plasma arc light. In the other 41 patients, the quadrants were inverted. A total of 1434 stainless steel brackets were examined: 717 were cured with a conventional halogen light for 20 seconds; the remaining 717 were cured with the plasma arc light for 5 seconds. The number, cause, and date of bracket failures were recorded for each light-curing unit over 12 months. Statistical analysis was performed with the Fisher exact test, the Kaplan-Meier survival estimates, and the log-rank test. No statistically significant differences were found between the total bond failure rates of the brackets cured with the halogen light and those cured with the plasma arc light. Neither were significant differences found when the clinical performances of the maxillary versus mandibular arches or the anterior versus posterior segments were compared. These findings demonstrate that plasma arc lights are an advantageous alternative to conventional light curing, because they significantly reduce the curing time of orthodontic brackets without affecting the bond failure rate.

  3. Cure Chemistry of Phenylethynyl Terminated Oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Karen H.; Orwoll, Robert A.; Young, Philip R.; Jensen, Brian J.; McNair, Harold M.

    1997-01-01

    The ability to process high performance polymers into quality, void-free composites has been significantly advanced using oligomers terminated with reactive groups which cure or crosslink at elevated temperature without the evolution of volatile byproducts. Several matrix resin systems of considerable interest to the aerospace community utilize phenylethynyl-terminated imide (PETI) technology to achieve this advantage. The present paper addresses the cure chemistry of PETI oligomers. The thermal cure of a low molecular weight model compound was studied using a variety of analytical techniques including differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The studies indicate an extremely complex cure process. Many stable products were isolated and this paper reports current work on identification of those products. The intent of this research is to provide fundamental insight into the molecular structure of the cured PETI engineering materials so that performance and durability can be more fully assessed.

  4. Particle size and pH effects on remediation of chromite ore processing residue using calcium polysulfide (CaS5).

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Wazne, Mahmoud; Jagupilla, Santhi Chandra; Christodoulatos, Christos; Kim, Min Gyu; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon

    2008-07-25

    A long-term bench scale treatability study was performed to assess the ability to remediate chromite ore processing residue (COPR) using calcium polysulfide (CaS(5)). COPR materials were characterized with respect to particle size, pH, curing period and mineralogy. A stoichiometric ratio of sulfide species to hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) of 2 was used for the long-term treatment of COPR. The effectiveness of CaS(5) treatment was assessed using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), alkaline digestion, and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses. The formation of ettringite, known as a heaving agent, was investigated following the treatment of CaS(5), using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) along with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Overall, after a curing period of 18 months, the TCLP total chromium (Cr) and alkaline digestion (Cr(6+)) results obtained from the treatability study showed that the concentrations were lower than 5 mg L(-1) and 9 mg kg(-1), respectively. However, XANES results obtained from samples cured for 18 months showed that all of the treated samples had higher Cr(6+) concentrations than shown using alkaline digestion. The lowest XANES Cr(6+) concentration of 610.2 mg kg(-1) was obtained from the sample with a particle size less than 0.075 mm and a pH value of 9. Particle size reduction prior to the addition of the reductant, along with pH reduction was found to be strongly associated with the treatment performance. Ettringite formation, due to pH increase over time in the samples, where the initial pH was adjusted to 9, was verified by XRPD and SEM-EDX analyses, indicating that a pH less than 9 should be maintained to avoid ettringite formation.

  5. 7 CFR 29.2519 - Fire-cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire-cured. 29.2519 Section 29.2519 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2519 Fire-cured. Tobacco cured...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2519 - Fire-cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire-cured. 29.2519 Section 29.2519 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2519 Fire-cured. Tobacco cured...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2519 - Fire-cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-cured. 29.2519 Section 29.2519 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2519 Fire-cured. Tobacco cured...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2519 - Fire-cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire-cured. 29.2519 Section 29.2519 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2519 Fire-cured. Tobacco cured...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2519 - Fire-cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire-cured. 29.2519 Section 29.2519 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2519 Fire-cured. Tobacco cured...

  10. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319... Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution to the fresh beef tongue shall not result in an increase in the weight of the cured beef tongue of more than...

  11. Curing agent for polyepoxides and epoxy resins and composites cured therewith. [preventing carbon fiber release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A curing for a polyepoxide is described which contains a divalent aryl radical such as phenylene a tetravalent aryl radical such as a tetravalent benzene radical. An epoxide is cured by admixture with the curing agent. The cured epoxy product retains the usual properties of cured epoxides and, in addition, has a higher char residue after burning, on the order of 45% by weight. The higher char residue is of value in preventing release to the atmosphere of carbon fibers from carbon fiber-epoxy resin composites in the event of burning of the composite.

  12. Effectiveness of light emitting diode and halogen light curing units for curing microhybrid and nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Shwetha; Suprabha, BS

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To compare the polymerization efficacy of micro-hybrid and nanocomposites cured with Quartz-tungsten halogen (QTH) and light emitting diode (LED) light curing units (LCUs). The effectiveness of pulse cure mode in LED LCU was also investigated. Materials and Methods: Both micro-hybrid and nanocomposite specimens were cured using four different curing protocols giving a total of eight experimental groups. Ten cylindrical specimens were prepared for each group, and light cured for 40 s on the top surface, thus giving a total of eighty specimens. Vicker hardness measurements were carried out on the top and bottom surfaces after 24 h and hardness ratio was calculated. Results: For both micro-hybrid and nanocomposites, highest mean VHN was observed for the group cured with QTH LCU, and the lowest was observed for the group cured with second LED LCU in standard mode but the difference was significant only in case of nanocomposite. Conclusion: Curing nanocomposites with QTH LCU results in better micro hardness. Pulse cure mode does not effectively increase polymerization efficacy than the standard mode of curing. PMID:23833457

  13. Effects of Various Salts on Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Cured Meat

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Hyun-Wook

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of refined, solar, and bamboo salt on the physico-chemical properties and sensory characteristics of cured pork loin. Moisture, protein, fat, and ash content, lightness, yellowness, cooking yield, and color, juiciness, and tenderness of sensory properties on curing pork loin exhibited no significant differences regardless of the nature of salts. The pH of raw and cooked cured pork loin with added bamboo salt was higher that of other salt treatments. However, the cooking loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force of cured pork loin with added refined salt was lower than those of solar and bamboo salt pork loins cured. The flavor and overall acceptability scores of treatments with refined salt was higher than those of solar and bamboo salt treatments. The unique flavor of bamboo salt can render it as a functional material for marinating meat products. In addition, the results of this study reveal potential use of bamboo salt in meat curing. PMID:27194922

  14. Effect of post-curing on thermal and mechanical behavior of GFRP composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D. S.; Shukla, M. J.; Mahato, K. K.; Rathore, D. K.; Prusty, R. K.; Ray, B. C.

    2015-02-01

    Curing cycle has a strong impact on the thermal and mechanical behavior of thermosetting polymers. The extent of cross-linking which is a strong function of curing temperature and time is directly linked to the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the thermosetting polymer. This transition temperature speaks about the transformation of the polymer from glassy state to rubbery state, hence decides the applicability of the material at certain temperature with certain degree of safety and reliability. Hence assessment of Tg and its possible improvement is quite essential from material point of view. The present study is emphasized on the impact of post curing parameters on thermal as well as mechanical behavior of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite. Post curing was carried out at 3 different temperatures (80°C, 110°C and 140°C) for different time periods (2h, 4h, 6h, 8h and 12h). Short beam Shear (SBS) test was performed on each of the post cured samples to determine the apparent Interlaminar Shear Strength (ILSS) and the corresponding Tg was also evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The results revealed that the ILSS and Tg are significantly affected with post curing parameters. No significant change in ILSS was obtained at 80°C over the entire curing time. In case of 110°C a smooth increment in ILSS was observed with time (even till 12 hrs). For samples post cured at 140°C a rapid improvement in ILSS takes place with time followed by saturation. With all the possible combinations of curing temperature and time, optimum values are noticed at 140°C for 6 hrs.

  15. Multiple imputation for cure rate quantile regression with censored data.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuanshan; Yin, Guosheng

    2017-03-01

    The main challenge in the context of cure rate analysis is that one never knows whether censored subjects are cured or uncured, or whether they are susceptible or insusceptible to the event of interest. Considering the susceptible indicator as missing data, we propose a multiple imputation approach to cure rate quantile regression for censored data with a survival fraction. We develop an iterative algorithm to estimate the conditionally uncured probability for each subject. By utilizing this estimated probability and Bernoulli sample imputation, we can classify each subject as cured or uncured, and then employ the locally weighted method to estimate the quantile regression coefficients with only the uncured subjects. Repeating the imputation procedure multiple times and taking an average over the resultant estimators, we obtain consistent estimators for the quantile regression coefficients. Our approach relaxes the usual global linearity assumption, so that we can apply quantile regression to any particular quantile of interest. We establish asymptotic properties for the proposed estimators, including both consistency and asymptotic normality. We conduct simulation studies to assess the finite-sample performance of the proposed multiple imputation method and apply it to a lung cancer study as an illustration.

  16. LED Curing Lights and Temperature Changes in Different Tooth Sites

    PubMed Central

    Armellin, E.; Bovesecchi, G.; Coppa, P.; Pasquantonio, G.; Cerroni, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this in vitro study was to assess thermal changes on tooth tissues during light exposure using two different LED curing units. The hypothesis was that no temperature increase could be detected within the dental pulp during polymerization irrespective of the use of a composite resin or a light-curing unit. Methods. Caries-free human first molars were selected, pulp residues were removed after root resection, and four calibrated type-J thermocouples were positioned. Two LED lamps were tested; temperature measurements were made on intact teeth and on the same tooth during curing of composite restorations. The data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Wilcoxon test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Pearson's χ2. After ANOVA, the Bonferroni multiple comparison test was performed. Results. Polymerization data analysis showed that in the pulp chamber temperature increase was higher than that without resin. Starlight PRO, in the same condition of Valo lamp, showed a lower temperature increase in pre- and intrapolymerization. A control group (without composite resin) was evaluated. Significance. Temperature increase during resin curing is a function of the rate of polymerization, due to the exothermic polymerization reaction, the energy from the light unit, and time of exposure. PMID:27195282

  17. Help us find the cures.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Delyth

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant advances in research, breast cancer is still the most common form of cancer, with 50,000 cases diagnosed and 12,000 dying of the disease each year in the UK. In October 2013, Breast Cancer Campaign published a Gap Analysis of breast cancer research that provides us with what we need to know about and what we now need to do to overcome - prevent, cure and outlive - breast cancer. In addition to highlighting the gaps in our understanding of breast cancer, the paper identifies five strategic solutions, which require a collaborative approach amongst researchers in academia and industry, funders, donors, policy-makers and parliamentarians, healthcare professionals and patients to achieve significant progress. Breast Cancer Campaign is calling for funding organizations to reverse the decline in resources targeted towards breast cancer research, an improved and collaborative infrastructure to support breast cancer research, multidisciplinary collaboration and improved clinical trial design. We hope that breast cancer can be overcome by 2050, but this can only be achieved through collaboration with others. The actions that will make a difference have been identified and we must act now.

  18. Effect of commercially available egg cures on the survival of juvenile salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clements, S.; Chitwood, R.; Schreck, C.B.

    2011-01-01

    There is some concern that incidental consumption of eggs cured with commercially available cures for the purpose of sport fishing causes mortality in juvenile salmon. We evaluated this by feeding juvenile spring Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) with eggs cured with one of five commercially available cures. We observed significant levels of mortality in both pre-smolts and smolts. Depending on the experiment, 2, 3, or 4 of the cures were associated with mortality. Mortality tended to be higher in the smolts than in the parr, but there was no clear species effect. The majority of mortality occurred within the first 10 d of feeding. Removal of sodium sulfite from the cure significantly reduced the level of mortality. Soaking the eggs prior to feeding did not reduce mortality. We observed a clear relationship between the amount of cured egg consumed each day and the survival time. We conclude that consumption of eggs cured with sodium sulfite has the potential to cause mortality in juvenile steelhead and Chinook salmon in the wild.

  19. Processing-property relationships in autocalve-cured graphite-fiber/epoxy-resin composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.T.

    1988-01-01

    Research was conducted to model processing and investigate relationships between processing and physical/mechanical properties in autoclave-cured unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites. Particular attention was given to the cure kinetics, the temperature distribution inside the composite during cure, the chemorheology, the resin flow, and the physical/mechanical properties of the neat resin and its composites. The TGDDM/DDS epoxy system and unidirectional graphite fiber-reinforced composites were chosen for the study. The kinetics of neat resin and its prepreg were evaluated. Changes in temperature distribution in a composite during cure as a function of cure time and position were predicted by solving an energy-balance equation. A modified WLF equation was proposed as a theoretical model to predict changes of the chemoviscosity during cure; experimental data were generated from a cone-and-plate rheometer. Resin flow during cure was characterized by investigating the cross-section area of the composite. Finally, the effect of the curing process on the physical/mechanical properties of neat resin and composite was evaluated. Matrix-dominated failure mode was assessed. Both strength characterization and fracture mechanics test methods were performed.

  20. Experimental and theoretical study of local curing on thermosetting resins using a CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarparo, Marco A. F.; Munhoz, Andre L. J.; Wagner, Paulo R. S.; Ieradi, Maria C. F.; Kiel, Alvin E.; Allen, Susan D.

    1998-04-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of thermosetting resins used in thermal stereolithography. In usual practice, stereolithography makes use of photosensitive resins where HeCd (0.352 micrometers ) laser ultraviolet laser initiates the curing process. In this work we study the process of local curing through the application of infrared radiation, which has proved to be useful in a new technique for the making of prototypes by means of selective heating with a CO2 laser (10.6 micrometers ). The sample consists of a thermosetting resins (epoxy) with the curing agent (diethylene triamine) and a filler (silica). The ideal composition of the thermosetting resins has proved to be 10 parts epoxy, 1.4 part diethylene triamine (the curing agent) and 0.7 part silica powder. A physical theoretical model is applied for control of the parameters which influence the confinement of the curing in the irradiated bulk. A mathematical model was developed through the solution of the time dependent heat conduction equation in cylindrical co-ordinates, which enables the determination fo the behavior of curing in terms of irradiation conditions. An experimental analysis has determined the temperature range at which the curing process starts and the optimum silica concentration for efficient curing.

  1. Hypoxanthine enhances the cured meat taste.

    PubMed

    Ichimura, Sayaka; Nakamura, Yukinobu; Yoshida, Yuka; Hattori, Akihito

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated the enhancement of cured meat taste during maturation by sensory analysis. We focused on the heat-stable sarcoplasmic fraction (HSSF) to identify the factors related to cured meat taste. Because the dry matter of HSSF contained more than 30% nitrogen, nitrogen compounds such as free amino acids, small peptides and adenosine triphosphate-related compounds seemed to be the important components of HSSF. The samples cured with HSSF for 2 h exhibited the same taste profile as ones cured without HSSF for 168 h. Therefore, the changes in the amount and fractions of nitrogen compounds were examined in HSSF during incubation from 0 to 168 h. The concentration of hypoxanthine (Hx) gradually increased, while inosine-5'-monophosphate decreased during the incubation. The samples cured with pickles containing various concentrations of Hx were subjected to sensory analysis. The addition of Hx, in a dose-dependent fashion, enhanced cured meat taste by maturation for 2 h. It was concluded that Hx is essential for the enhancement of cured meat taste.

  2. Hypoxanthine enhances the cured meat taste

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yukinobu; Yoshida, Yuka; Hattori, Akihito

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the enhancement of cured meat taste during maturation by sensory analysis. We focused on the heat‐stable sarcoplasmic fraction (HSSF) to identify the factors related to cured meat taste. Because the dry matter of HSSF contained more than 30% nitrogen, nitrogen compounds such as free amino acids, small peptides and adenosine triphosphate‐related compounds seemed to be the important components of HSSF. The samples cured with HSSF for 2 h exhibited the same taste profile as ones cured without HSSF for 168 h. Therefore, the changes in the amount and fractions of nitrogen compounds were examined in HSSF during incubation from 0 to 168 h. The concentration of hypoxanthine (Hx) gradually increased, while inosine‐5′‐monophosphate decreased during the incubation. The samples cured with pickles containing various concentrations of Hx were subjected to sensory analysis. The addition of Hx, in a dose‐dependent fashion, enhanced cured meat taste by maturation for 2 h. It was concluded that Hx is essential for the enhancement of cured meat taste. PMID:27169902

  3. 7 CFR 29.3002 - Air-cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Air-cured. Tobacco cured under natural atmospheric conditions. Artificial heat is sometimes used to...-cured tobacco should not carry the odor of smoke or fumes resulting from the application of...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3002 - Air-cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Air-cured. Tobacco cured under natural atmospheric conditions. Artificial heat is sometimes used to...-cured tobacco should not carry the odor of smoke or fumes resulting from the application of...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3002 - Air-cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Air-cured. Tobacco cured under natural atmospheric conditions. Artificial heat is sometimes used to...-cured tobacco should not carry the odor of smoke or fumes resulting from the application of...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3002 - Air-cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Air-cured. Tobacco cured under natural atmospheric conditions. Artificial heat is sometimes used to...-cured tobacco should not carry the odor of smoke or fumes resulting from the application of...

  7. Effect of rheological parameters on curing rate during NBR injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyas, Kamil; Stanek, Michal; Manas, David; Skrobak, Adam

    2013-04-01

    In this work, non-isothermal injection molding process for NBR rubber mixture considering Isayev-Deng curing kinetic model, generalized Newtonian model with Carreau-WLF viscosity was modeled by using finite element method in order to understand the effect of volume flow rate, index of non-Newtonian behavior and relaxation time on the temperature profile and curing rate. It was found that for specific geometry and processing conditions, increase in relaxation time or in the index of non-Newtonian behavior increases the curing rate due to viscous dissipation taking place at the flow domain walls.

  8. A study of the effects of curing and storage conditions on controlled release diphenhydramine HCl pellets coated with Eudragit NE30D.

    PubMed

    Lin, Angela Y; Muhammad, Nouman A; Pope, David; Augsburger, Larry L

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the possible impacts of curing and storage conditions on dissolution of controlled release diphenhydramine HCl pellets coated with EUDRAGIT NE30D. The accumulative percentage of dissolved active drug was used as the response in three statistical experimental design studies: 32 full factorial, Box-Behnken and 2(3) designs. By only considering curing temperature and curing time, both factors were found to significantly affect the dissolution rate, but curing temperature had greater impact than curing time. When considering polymer coating level, curing temperature and curing time together, polymer coating level and curing temperature had important effects on dissolution rate, but curing time became insignificant among these three factors. The addition of the water-soluble additives hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and mannitol made coating films less sensitive to curing, and there was little or no difference in their effect in the model studied. Lower levels of a water-insoluble additive (kaolin) had little impact on dissolution; however, when the level of water-insoluble additive increased, the coating film became more sensitive to curing, especially at the lower curing temperature of 30 degrees C.

  9. Determination of 5-log reduction times for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, or Listeria monocytogenes in acidified foods with pH 3.5 or 3.8 3.

    PubMed

    Breidt, F; Kay, K; Cook, J; Osborne, J; Ingham, B; Arritt, F

    2013-07-01

    A critical factor in ensuring the safety of acidified foods is the establishment of a thermal process that assures the destruction of acid-resistant vegetative pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. For acidified foods such as dressings and mayonnaises with pH values of 3.5 or higher, the high water phase acidity (acetic acid of 1.5 to 2.5% or higher) can contribute to lethality, but there is a lack of data showing how the use of common ingredients such as acetic acid and preservatives, alone or in combination, can result in a 5-log reduction for strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in the absence of a postpackaging pasteurization step. In this study, we determined the times needed at 10° C to achieve a 5-log reduction of E. coli O157:H7, S. enterica, and L. monocytogenes in pickling brines with a variety of acetic and benzoic acid combinations at pH 3.5 and 3.8. Evaluation of 15 different acid-pH combinations confirmed that strains of E. coli O157:H7 were significantly more acid resistant than strains of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes. Among the acid conditions tested, holding times of 4 days or less could achieve a 5-log reduction for vegetative pathogens at pH 3.5 with 2.5% acetic acid or at pH 3.8 with 2.5% acetic acid containing 0.1% benzoic acid. These data indicate the efficacy of benzoic acid for reducing the time necessary to achieve a 5-log reduction in target pathogens and may be useful for supporting process filings and the determination of critical controls for the manufacture of acidified foods.

  10. The curing of high-performance concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeks, Kenneth Wayne

    This dissertation describes the latest information, technology, and research on the curing of high performance concrete (HPC). Expanded somewhat beyond the scope of HPC, it examines the current body of knowledge on the effects of various curing regimes on concrete. The significance and importance of curing are discussed as well as the various definitions of HPC. The current curing requirements, standards, and criteria as proposed by ACI, as well as those of other countries, are reviewed and discussed. The current prescriptive curing requirements may not be applicable to high performance concrete. The research program reported in this dissertation looked at one approach to development of curing criteria for this relatively new class of concrete. The program applies some of the basic concepts of the methodology developed by the German researcher, H. K. Hilsdorf, to the curing of HPC with the objective to determine minimum curing durations for adequate strength development. The approach is to determine what fraction of the standard-cured 28-day strength has to be attained at the end of the curing period to assure that the design strength is attained in the interior of the member. An innovative direct tension test was developed to measure the strength at specific depths from the drying surface of small mortar cylinders (50 x 127 mm (2 x 5 in.)). Two mortar mixtures were investigated, w/c = 0.30 and w/c = 0.45, and three different moist curing regimes, 1-day, 3-day, and 7-day. Specimens were stored in two environmental chambers at 25sp°C, 50% RH; and 25sp°C, 70% RH, until testing at the age of 28 days. Direct tensile tests were conducted using steel disks epoxied to the ends of the specimens. Also, the penetration of the drying front was calculated from the drying data using porosity and degree of hydration relationships. The major observation from these tests was that adequate strength is attained in both mortar mixtures with only one day of moist curing. The drying

  11. Microhardness of resin composites polymerized by plasma arc or conventional visible light curing.

    PubMed

    Park, S Ho; Krejci, I; Lutz, F

    2002-01-01

    was lower when cured with the Apollo 95E for two or three seconds than when cured for six and 12 (2 x 6) seconds, or for 60 seconds with Optilux 500 (p<0.05). For Z100, the amount of linear polymerization shrinkage was lower when cured with the Apollo 95E for two, three and six seconds than for 12 (2 x 6) seconds with Apollo 95E or for 60 seconds with the Optilux 500 (p<0.05). The results of the microhardness test indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in microhardness between groups for the upper surface. However, for the lower surface, when the composites were light cured with Apollo 95E for three seconds as recommended by the manufacturer, microhardness of the lower surface was usually lower than that of the upper surface and did not cure sufficiently. Conclusively, when compared with conventional QTH unit, the PAC unit, Apollo 95E did not properly cure the lower composite surface when the layer thickness exceeded 2 mm. In addition, three seconds of curing time, which the manufacturer recommended, was insufficient for optimal curing of composites.

  12. Acceleration of curing of resin composite at the bottom surface using slow-start curing methods.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Takako; Morigami, Makoto; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two slow-start curing methods on acceleration of the curing of resin composite specimens at the bottom surface. The light-cured resin composite was polymerized using one of three curing techniques: (1) 600 mW/cm(2) for 60 s, (2) 270 mW/cm(2) for 10 s+0-s interval+600 mW/cm(2) for 50 s, and (3) 270 mW/cm(2) for 10 s+5-s interval+600 mW/cm(2) for 50 s. After light curing, Knoop hardness number was measured at the top and bottom surfaces of the resin specimens. The slow-start curing method with the 5-s interval caused greater acceleration of curing of the resin composite at the bottom surface of the specimens than the slow-start curing method with the 0-s interval. The light-cured resin composite, which had increased contrast ratios during polymerization, showed acceleration of curing at the bottom surface.

  13. Curing Composite Materials Using Lower-Energy Electron Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, Catherine A.; Bykanov, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    In an improved method of fabricating composite-material structures by laying up prepreg tapes (tapes of fiber reinforcement impregnated by uncured matrix materials) and then curing them, one cures the layups by use of beams of electrons having kinetic energies in the range of 200 to 300 keV. In contrast, in a prior method, one used electron beams characterized by kinetic energies up to 20 MeV. The improved method was first suggested by an Italian group in 1993, but had not been demonstrated until recently. With respect to both the prior method and the present improved method, the impetus for the use of electron- beam curing is a desire to avoid the high costs of autoclaves large enough to effect thermal curing of large composite-material structures. Unfortunately, in the prior method, the advantages of electron-beam curing are offset by the need for special walls and ceilings on curing chambers to shield personnel from x rays generated by impacts of energetic electrons. These shields must be thick [typically 2 to 3 ft (about 0.6 to 0.9 m) if made of concrete] and are therefore expensive. They also make it difficult to bring large structures into and out of the curing chambers. Currently, all major companies that fabricate composite-material spacecraft and aircraft structures form their layups by use of automated tape placement (ATP) machines. In the present improved method, an electron-beam gun is attached to an ATP head and used to irradiate the tape as it is pressed onto the workpiece. The electron kinetic energy between 200 and 300 keV is sufficient for penetration of the ply being laid plus one or two of the plies underneath it. Provided that the electron-beam gun is properly positioned, it is possible to administer the required electron dose and, at the same time, to protect personnel with less shielding than is needed in the prior method. Adequate shielding can be provided by concrete walls 6 ft (approximately equal to 1.8 m) high and 16 in. (approximately

  14. Light output from six battery operated dental curing lights.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Carlos Alberto Kenji; Turbino, Míriam Lacalle; Harlow, Jessie Eudora; Price, Hannah Louise; Price, Richard Bengt

    2016-12-01

    Light Curing Units (LCUs) are used daily in almost every dental office to photocure resins, but because the light is so bright, the user is unable to tell visually if there are any differences between different LCUs. This study evaluated the light output from six dental LCUs: Elipar Deep Cure-S (3M ESPE), Bluephase G2 (Ivoclar Vivadent), Translux 2Wave (Heraeus Kulzer), Optilight Prime (Gnatus), Slim Blast (First Medica) and Led.B (Guilin Woodpecker) with a fully charged battery, after 50, and again after 100, 20second light exposures. For each situation, the radiant power was measured 10 times with a laboratory-grade power meter. Then, the emission spectrum was measured using a fiber-optic spectrometer followed by an analysis of the light beam profile. It was found there were significant differences in the LCU power and the irradiance values between the LCUs (p<0.01). The Optilight Prime and Slim Blast LCUs showed a significant reduction in light output after a 50 and 100 exposures, while Bluephase G2 exhibited a significant reduction only after 100 exposures (p<0.01). The Bluephase G2 and Translux 2Wave delivered an emission spectrum that had two distinct wavelength emission peaks. Only the Elipar Deep Cure-S and Bluephase G2 LCUs displayed homogeneous light beam profiles, the other LCUs exhibited highly non-homogeneous light beam profiles. It was concluded that contemporary LCUs could have very different light output characteristics. Both manufacturers and researchers should provide more information about the light output from LCUs.

  15. Visible light-curing unit.

    PubMed

    2002-10-01

    Ortholux XT is a high-intensity light source emitting filtered visible blue light in the 400- to 500-nanometer range for polymerization of visible-light-cured resins. The Ortholux handpiece comes with a portable power supply, a light-intensity check in the power supply, a spare lamp, an eyeshield and a mounting kit. The handpiece consists of a pistol grip with a thermoplastic housing that contains the light source, cooling fan, light guide receptacle (8- or 13-millimeter-diameter fused quartz lightguide), optical filter, light switch and timer switch. The timer is operator-selectable with options of five, 10, 15 and 20 seconds and an XT option of up to 600 seconds. The push-button switch allows for timer disruption and reactivation. 3M Unitek reported (3M Unitek, unpublished data submitted to the ADA, date not known) that the cooling fan generates noise below 43 decibels when the internal handpiece temperature is below 100 C. At 120 C, the fan speed increases, generating 52 dBA. The U.S. Air Force Dental Investigative Service reported that the cooling fan is extremely quiet. The light shuts off when it reaches 140 C. The light source is a 75-watt tungsten/halogen lamp. The handpiece weighs less than one pound. The power supply contains the built-in intensity meter that illuminates a green light-emitting diode when the tested light exceeds 400 milliwatts per square centimeter. The power cord is six feet in length. A built-in voltage regulator ensures a steady voltage supply to the unit.

  16. Inelastic micromechanics of curing stresses in composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foye, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    The combined finite element/laminate analysis method is used to study the thermal curing stresses in composite materials with a nonlinearly elastic matrix subject to creep. The application of this analysis to boron/epoxy composites shows that curing stress levels in the laminate are of sufficient magnitude to cause widespread yielding in the matrix. The stress levels, based on the creep analysis of a typical laminate cure cycle, indicate that the residual stresses can vary from 80 to 100% of the residual stress estimates based on linear thermoelastic analysis. It is shown that there is virtually no change in the static longitudinal or shear response of unidirectional and cross-ply boron/epoxy laminates as a result of curing stresses. Results of a series of constant-stress, high temperature creep tests are presented.

  17. Curing of Furfuryl Alcohol-Impregnated Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, J. W.; Brayden, T. H.

    1983-01-01

    Delamination problem in reinforced carbon/carbon parts impregnated with oxalic acid-catalyzed furfuryl alcohol overcome by instituting two additional quality-control tests on alcohol and by changing curing conditions.

  18. Radiation Curing of Natural Fiber Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xueyuan

    This research is a study of the process and feasibility of applying UV to cure natural and recycled fiber composites. The influence of HEMA on the water absorption and mechanical properties of the composites also investigated. Results show that UV curing is feasible in the manufacture of natural and recycle fiber composites. HEMA significantly improved the water resistance of the composite. HEMA-treated natural and recycled fiber composites have better bending strength after water impregnation, than non-treated composites.

  19. Clinical trial comparing plasma arc and conventional halogen curing lights for orthodontic bonding.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Bruno; Liistro, Giuseppe; De Clerck, Hugo

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical trial was to evaluate the reliability and time saved with a plasma arc curing unit (Apollo 95E, Dental/Medical Diagnostic Systems, Woodland Hills, Calif) compared with a conventional curing unit (Ortholux XL 3000, 3M Unitek, St Paul, Minn) for direct bracket bonding with resin adhesive. Forty-five patients were involved in the study, and 608 brackets were bonded in a contralateral quadrant pattern. The patients were followed for a mean (+/- standard deviation) period of 11 +/- 3.2 months. Survival analysis was carried out to compare the failure rate for the 2 techniques. The time required for bonding with each technique was also recorded. The mean survival time was 399 days, and there were no significant differences in survival time between the 2 bonding methods. Twelve bonding failures were reported with each technique. The curing time per bracket was significantly reduced with the plasma curing light compared with a conventional curing unit (65 +/- 19 vs 82 +/- 31 seconds). The plasma arc curing light can save chair-time without affecting the bonding failure rate.

  20. Curing lights--the effects of clinical factors on intensity and polymerisation.

    PubMed

    Strydom, C

    2002-05-01

    Curing lights are used to cure light-sensitive dental materials in clinical situations that range from small, easily accessible restorations to larger ones that are more difficult to access. The degree to which these materials cure depends on the intensity and quality of light to which they are exposed and the curing time. Once the light has left the curing unit, factors such as composite type, composite shade, thickness of resin increment or overlying tooth structure, the distance and orientation of the light tip, and the diameter of the light tip may reduce intensity and provide a lower degree of polymerisation. The only way to overcome this reduction is to increase exposure time. However, surveys have shown that dentists tend to cure for periods that are too short. Reasons for this may be that the dentist is unaware of the importance of adequate light intensity, as well as the influence of all the factors mentioned above that reduce intensity and lower the degree of polymerisation. This paper reviews the clinical factors that may reduce light transmission during polymerisation of composite restorations, and suggests several clinical recommendations to provide general practitioners with information on how to optimise the degree of cure obtained in their surgery.

  1. Inorganic polymers from alkali activation of metakaolin: Effect of setting and curing on structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-04-15

    Geopolymers, obtained by chemical reaction between aluminosilicate oxides and silicates under highly alkaline conditions, are studied in this paper. The proposed mechanism of geopolymer setting and hardening or curing consists of a dissolution, a transportation or an orientation, as well as a polycondensation step. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of the curing time and temperature, the relative humidity and the reagents temperature on the geopolymerization process in order to obtain a resistant matrix usable for inertization of hazardous wastes. The evolution of the process from the precursors dissolution to final geopolymer matrix hardening has been followed by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, SEM/EDS and leaching tests. The results show the significant influence of both curing temperature in the curing stage and of the mould materials on the matrix stability. The easy-to-run preparation procedure for a chemically stable metakaolin geopolymer individuated can be summarized as reagents setting and curing at room temperature and material mould which permits moisture level around 40%. - Graphical abstract: Chemical stability as a function of curing conditions. Highlights: ► Metakaolin in highly alkaline solutions produced solid materials at room temperature. ► Curing time and temperature, relative humidity, reagents temperature were optimized. ► Leaching tests were used to confirm final hardening. ► FTIR spectroscopy, SEM analysis and X-ray diffractometry were used to interpret matrix stability.

  2. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  3. Optimal cure cycle design for autoclave processing of thick composites laminates: A feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Jean W.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal analysis and the calculation of thermal sensitivity of a cure cycle in autoclave processing of thick composite laminates were studied. A finite element program for the thermal analysis and design derivatives calculation for temperature distribution and the degree of cure was developed and verified. It was found that the direct differentiation was the best approach for the thermal design sensitivity analysis. In addition, the approach of the direct differentiation provided time histories of design derivatives which are of great value to the cure cycle designers. The approach of direct differentiation is to be used for further study, i.e., the optimal cycle design.

  4. pH [Measure of Acidity].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Paula

    This autoinstructional program deals with the study of the pH of given substances by using litmus and hydrion papers. It is a learning activity directed toward low achievers involved in the study of biology at the secondary school level. The time suggested for the unit is 25-30 minutes (plus additional time for further pH testing). The equipment…

  5. Direct and real-time quantification of tenofovir release from ph-sensitive microparticles into simulated biological fluids using (1)h nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Tao; Oyler, Nathan A; Youan, Bi-Botti C

    2014-04-01

    In vitro drug release evaluation is a very important step toward the quality control of nano- or micro-particular drug delivery systems. However, most quantitative techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography requires a dialysis membrane to separate the released free drug from these delivery systems, thus are not capable of direct detection and real-time quantification of the drug release kinetics. This study describes, for the first time, a rapid, specific, and direct method for the real-time quantification of in vitro tenofovir (TNF) release from pH-sensitive microparticles using a Varian 400 MHz (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectrometer. Various analytical performance parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of quantification, limit of detection, and robustness were validated according to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The in vitro release of TNF from microparticles in both simulated vaginal fluid (VFS) and the mixture of VFS and simulated semen fluid was monitored and quantified in real time using (1)H-NMR. The capability of real-time quantification of in vitro drug release from microparticles not only provides a more accurate prediction of its biological behavior in vivo, but is also independent of potential interference from the dialysis membrane.

  6. Investigation of the curing variables of asphalt-rubber binder

    SciTech Connect

    Billiter, T.C.; Chun, J.S.; Davison, R.R.

    1996-12-31

    Currently, the paving industry utilizes a curing time of 1 hour at 177{degrees}C (350{degrees}F) for producing asphalt-rubber binder. Billiter et al. showed that at these curing conditions, 1 hour at 177{degrees}C (350{degrees}F), adding rubber to asphalt was beneficial, with the rubber improving the low-temperature creep stiffness at (-15{degrees}C (5{degrees}F)), the temperature susceptibility in the 0{degrees}C-90{degrees}C (32{degrees}F-194{degrees}F) temperature region, increasing G* and {eta}* at 60{degrees}C (140{degrees}F) and 1.0 rad/sec, and decreasing 8 at 60{degrees}C (140{degrees}F) and 1.0 rad/sec. On the other hand, Billiter et al. (2) showed that the addition of rubber was also detrimental, in that the viscosity increased significantly in the compaction temperature region of 149{degrees}C-193{degrees}C (300{degrees}F-380{degrees}F). This increased viscosity can cause compaction problems, with Allison reporting that engineers blamed the compaction problems of asphalt-rubber on undissolved crumb rubber, which they believed had no beneficial effect. Additionally, the engineers reported that improper compaction led to early road failure. This work investigates the variables of binders, curing tenperature and time, and amount of mechancial energy on asphalt properties.

  7. Dataset of producing and curing concrete using domestic treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Asadollahfardi, Gholamreza; Delnavaz, Mohammad; Rashnoiee, Vahid; Fazeli, Alireza; Gonabadi, Navid

    2016-03-01

    We tested the setting time of cement, slump and compressive and tensile strength of 54 triplicate cubic samples and 9 cylindrical samples of concrete with and without a Super plasticizer admixture. We produced concrete samples made with drinking water and treated domestic wastewater containing 300, 400 kg/m(3) of cement before chlorination and then cured concrete samples made with drinking water and treated wastewater. Second, concrete samples made with 350 kg/m(3) of cement with a Superplasticizer admixture made with drinking water and treated wastewater and then cured with treated wastewater. The compressive strength of all the concrete samples made with treated wastewater had a high coefficient of determination with the control concrete samples. A 28-day tensile strength of all the samples was 96-100% of the tensile strength of the control samples and the setting time was reduced by 30 min which was consistent with a ASTMC191 standard. All samples produced and cured with treated waste water did not have a significant effect on water absorption, slump and surface electrical resistivity tests. However, compressive strength at 21 days of concrete samples using 300 kg/m(3) of cement in rapid freezing and thawing conditions was about 11% lower than concrete samples made with drinking water.

  8. Dataset of producing and curing concrete using domestic treated wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Asadollahfardi, Gholamreza; Delnavaz, Mohammad; Rashnoiee, Vahid; Fazeli, Alireza; Gonabadi, Navid

    2015-01-01

    We tested the setting time of cement, slump and compressive and tensile strength of 54 triplicate cubic samples and 9 cylindrical samples of concrete with and without a Super plasticizer admixture. We produced concrete samples made with drinking water and treated domestic wastewater containing 300, 400 kg/m3 of cement before chlorination and then cured concrete samples made with drinking water and treated wastewater. Second, concrete samples made with 350 kg/m3 of cement with a Superplasticizer admixture made with drinking water and treated wastewater and then cured with treated wastewater. The compressive strength of all the concrete samples made with treated wastewater had a high coefficient of determination with the control concrete samples. A 28-day tensile strength of all the samples was 96–100% of the tensile strength of the control samples and the setting time was reduced by 30 min which was consistent with a ASTMC191 standard. All samples produced and cured with treated waste water did not have a significant effect on water absorption, slump and surface electrical resistivity tests. However, compressive strength at 21 days of concrete samples using 300 kg/m3 of cement in rapid freezing and thawing conditions was about 11% lower than concrete samples made with drinking water. PMID:26862577

  9. 7 CFR 29.2269 - Fire-cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire-cured. 29.2269 Section 29.2269 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2269 Fire-cured. Tobacco cured under artificial atmospheric conditions by the use of open fires from which...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2269 - Fire-cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire-cured. 29.2269 Section 29.2269 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2269 Fire-cured. Tobacco cured under artificial atmospheric conditions by the use of open fires from which...

  11. 7 CFR 29.2269 - Fire-cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-cured. 29.2269 Section 29.2269 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2269 Fire-cured. Tobacco cured under artificial atmospheric conditions by the use of open fires from which...

  12. 7 CFR 29.2269 - Fire-cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire-cured. 29.2269 Section 29.2269 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2269 Fire-cured. Tobacco cured under artificial atmospheric conditions by the use of open fires from which...

  13. 7 CFR 29.2269 - Fire-cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire-cured. 29.2269 Section 29.2269 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2269 Fire-cured. Tobacco cured under artificial atmospheric conditions by the use of open fires from which...

  14. [Progress in endogenous plasmid curing of bacteria--a review].

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Song, Cunjiang

    2013-11-04

    To investigate the functions of the bacteria endogenous plasmid, which include bacterial drug resistance, symbiosis, capsular formation and heavy metal resistance, the endogenous plasmid needs to be cured first. We reviewed physical, chemical and molecular biological methods of endogenous plasmid curing, clarified the curing principles. The prospective of research on plasmid curing was also discussed, based on our own studies.

  15. 7 CFR 29.3502 - Air-cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air-cured. 29.3502 Section 29.3502 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3502 Air-cured. Tobacco cured under natural atmospheric conditions without the use...

  16. 7 CFR 29.6002 - Air-cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air-cured. 29.6002 Section 29.6002 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6002 Air-cured. Tobacco cured under natural atmospheric conditions..., pole-burn, and shed-burn in damp weather. Air-cured tobacco should not carry the odor of smoke or...

  17. 7 CFR 29.6002 - Air-cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air-cured. 29.6002 Section 29.6002 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6002 Air-cured. Tobacco cured under natural atmospheric conditions..., pole-burn, and shed-burn in damp weather. Air-cured tobacco should not carry the odor of smoke or...

  18. 7 CFR 58.412 - Coolers or curing rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coolers or curing rooms. 58.412 Section 58.412... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Rooms and Compartments § 58.412 Coolers or curing rooms. Coolers or curing rooms where cheese is held for curing or storage...

  19. DSC and curing kinetics study of epoxy grouting diluted with furfural -acetone slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, H.; Sun, D. W.; Li, B.; Liu, Y. T.; Ran, Q. P.; Liu, J. P.

    2016-07-01

    The use of furfural-acetone slurry as active diluents of Bisphenol-A epoxy resin (DGEBA) groutings has been studied by dynamic and non-isothermal DSC for the first time. Curing kinetics study was investigated by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetries at different heating rates. Activation enery (Ea) was calculated based on Kissinger and Ozawa Methods, and the results showed that Ea increased from 58.87 to 71.13KJ/mol after the diluents were added. The furfural-acetone epoxy matrix could cure completely at the theoretical curing temperature of 365.8K and the curing time of 139mins, which were determined by the kinetic model parameters.

  20. Color Developing Capacity of Plasma-treated Water as a Source of Nitrite for Meat Curing

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Jun Ho; Jeon, Hee-Joon; Choe, Wonho

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of plasma with liquid generates nitrogen species including nitrite (NO−2). Therefore, the color developing capacity of plasma-treated water (PTW) as a nitrite source for meat curing was investigated in this study. PTW, which is generated by surface dielectric barrier discharge in air, and the increase of plasma treatment time resulted in increase of nitrite concentration in PTW. The PTW used in this study contains 46 ppm nitrite after plasma treatment for 30 min. To evaluate the effect of PTW on the cured meat color, meat batters were prepared under three different conditions (control, non-cured meat batter; PTW, meat batter cured with PTW; Sodium nitrite, meat batter cured with sodium nitrite). The meat batters were vacuum-packaged and cooked in a water-bath at 80℃ for 30 min. The typical color of cured meat developed in cooked meat batter treated with sodium nitrite or PTW. The lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) values were similar in all conditions, whereas, the redness (a*) values of cooked meat batter with PTW and sodium nitrite (p<0.05) were significantly higher than the control. These data indicate that PTW can be used as a nitrite source in the curing process of meat without addition of other nitrite sources. PMID:26761900

  1. pH Meter probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hale, C.J.

    1983-11-15

    An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe. 1 fig.

  2. pH Meter probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Charles J.

    1983-01-01

    An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe.

  3. Relationship between time-to-detection (TTD) and the biological parameters of Pichia anomala IG02; modelling of TTD as a function of temperature, NaCl concentration, and pH and quantification of their effects.

    PubMed

    Arroyo López, F N; Durán Quintana, M C; Garrido Fernández, A

    2006-06-01

    The time to detection (TTD) for Pichia anomala IG02 was defined, for inoculum sizes lower than 6 log(10)cfu/ml, as the time elapsed from inoculation to the moment at which an OD of 0.12 was reached. In other cases, TTD can be estimated by interpolation within the time elapsed from the previous readings below OD=0.12 and the next above it. A linear relationship, which depended on the inoculum size, between lnTTD with ln lambda and ln mu(m) was found. These relationships can be used to estimate the biological parameters of cultures with low inoculum levels. In addition, TTD for P. anomala IG02 could be modelled as a function of environmental conditions. The model can also be applied to lambda and mu(m) through their relationships with TTD. The effects of temperature, NaCl content and pH were quantified by the generalized z-values. An increase of 5.97 in NaCl concentration, a decrease of 1.97 units of pH, or a decrease of 6.08 degrees C doubled the TTD or caused a 2.53-fold increase in lambda and a 2.56-fold decrease in the mu(m).

  4. Plasma arc versus halogen light-curing of adhesive-precoated orthodontic brackets: a 12-month clinical study of bond failures.

    PubMed

    Cacciafesta, Vittorio; Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Scribante, Andrea

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the performance of adhesive-precoated brackets cured with 2 different light-curing units (conventional halogen light and plasma arc light). Thirty patients treated with fixed appliances were included in the investigation. Each patient's mouth was divided by the split-mouth design into 4 quadrants. In 15 randomly selected patients, the maxillary left and mandibular right quadrants were cured with the halogen light, and the remaining quadrants were cured with the plasma arc light. In the other 15 patients, the quadrants were inverted. A total of 600 adhesive precoated stainless steel brackets were examined: 300 were cured with a conventional halogen light for 20 seconds, and the others were cured with the plasma arc light for 5 seconds. The number, cause, and date of bracket failures were recorded for each light-curing unit over 12 months. Statistical analysis was performed with the Fisher exact test, Kaplan-Meier survival estimates, and the log-rank test. No statistically significant differences in bond failure rates were found between the adhesive-precoated brackets cured with the halogen light and those cured with the plasma arc light; neither were any significant differences in performance found with each light-curing unit between the maxillary and mandibular arches. Plasma arc lights can be considered an advantageous alternative to conventional light curing, because they enable the clinician to reduce the curing time of adhesive-precoated orthodontic brackets without significantly affecting their bond failure rate.

  5. The first narrow-band XeCl-excilamp application for complex psoriasis curing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitruck, Vadim S.; Sosnin, Edward A.; Obgol'tz, Irina A.

    2006-05-01

    Clinical efficiency estimation of XeCl-excilamp application for psoriasis curing in comparison with other methods of phototherapy for has been carried out for the first time. Curing psoriasis by XeCl-excilamp assistance is shown to be an effective and present-date method. Such a phototherapy advantages suggested are the good tolerance, and absence of intact skin irradiation. The use of chemicals is no longer relevant, and the total doze of irradiation happens to be rather low.

  6. Evaluation of heat-cured resin bases following the addition of denture teeth using a second heat cure.

    PubMed

    Polukoshko, K M; Brudvik, J S; Nicholls, J I; Smith, D E

    1992-04-01

    This study compared heat-cured acrylic resin denture baseplate distortions following a second heat cure used to add the denture teeth. The second heat cure was done with three different water-bath curing temperatures. The distortions were evaluated in three planes by use of a measuring microscope. Recorded distortions were not clinically significant.

  7. Bond strengths of lingual orthodontic brackets bonded with light-cured composite resins cured by transillumination.

    PubMed

    King, L; Smith, R T; Wendt, S L; Behrents, R G

    1987-04-01

    A method of curing light-cured composite resins by transillumination to cement acid-etched fixed partial dentures was adapted to bond solid mesh-backed lingual orthodontic brackets. Results of this investigation showed that the bond strengths of the orthodontic brackets bonded with light-cured composite resins were significantly less (P less than 0.05) than the bond strengths of the orthodontic brackets cemented with traditional adhesives and orthodontic composite resins. Notwithstanding, the bond strengths achieved with the transilluminated light-cured composite resins should be adequate to withstand the forces of mastication and orthodontic movements. There was no correlation of bond strengths of the brackets cemented with the transilluminated light-cured composite resins when compared to the faciolingual widths of the teeth.

  8. PH-NEUTRAL CONCRETE FOR ATTACHED MICROALGAE AND ENHANCED CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION - PHASE I

    SciTech Connect

    Kerry M. Dooley; F. Carl Knopf; Robert P. Gambrell

    1999-05-31

    The novelty/innovation of the proposed work is as follows. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO {sub 2})-based extrusion and molding technology can be used to produce significantly improved (in terms of strength/unit weight, durability, hardness and chemical resistance) cement-based products. SC-CO{sub 2} can rapidly convert the calcium hydroxide in cured cement to calcium carbonate, which increases the density and unconfined compressive strength in the treated region. In cured concrete, this treated region is typically a several-mm thick layer (generally <{approx}5mm, unless treatment time is excessive). However, we have found that by treating the entire cement matrix with SC-CO{sub 2} as part of the curing process, we can carbonate it rapidly, regardless of the thickness. By ''rapidly'' we mean simultaneous carbonation/curing in < 5 ks even for large cement forms, compared to typical carbonation times of several days or even years at low pressures. Carbonation changes the pH in the treated region from {approx}13 to {approx}8, almost exactly compatible with seawater. Therefore the leaching rates from these cements is reduced. These cement improvements are directed to the development of strong but thin artificial reefs, to which can be attached microalgae used for the enhanced fixation of CO{sub 2}. It is shown below that attached microalgae, as algal beds or reefs, are more efficient for CO{sub 2} fixation by a factor of 20, compared to the open ocean on an area basis. We have performed preliminary tests of the pH-neutral cements of our invention for attachment of microalgae populations. We have found pH-neutral materials which attach microalgae readily. These include silica-enriched (pozzolanic) cements, blast-furnace slags and fly ash, which are also silica-rich. We have already developed technology to simultaneously foam, carbonate and cure the cements; this foaming process further increases cement surface areas for microalgae attachment, in some cases to >10 m

  9. Evaluation of the dependence of CEST-EPI measurement on repetition time, RF irradiation duty cycle and imaging flip angle for enhanced pH sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Phillip Zhe; Lu, Jie; Wu, Yin; Xiao, Gang; Wu, Renhua

    2013-09-07

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast mechanism that can detect dilute CEST agents and microenvironmental properties, with a host of promising applications. Experimental measurement of the CEST effect is complex, and depends on not only CEST agent concentration and exchange rate, but also experimental parameters such as RF irradiation amplitude and scheme. Although echo planar imaging (EPI) has been increasingly used for CEST MRI, the relationship between CEST effect and repetition time (TR), RF irradiation duty cycle (DC) and EPI flip angle (α) has not been fully evaluated and optimized to enhance CEST MRI sensitivity. In addition, our study evaluated gradient echo CEST-EPI by quantifying the CEST effect and its signal-to-noise ratio per unit time (SNRput) as functions of TR, DC and α. We found that CEST effect increased with TR and DC but decreased with α. Importantly, we found that SNRput peaked at intermediate TRs of about twice the T1 and α, at approximately 75°, and increased with RF DC. The simulation results were validated using a dual-pH creatine-gel CEST phantom. In summary, our study provides a useful framework for optimizing CEST MRI experiments.

  10. Evaluation of the dependence of CEST-EPI measurement on repetition time, RF irradiation duty cycle and imaging flip angle for enhanced pH sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhe Sun, Phillip; Lu, Jie; Wu, Yin; Xiao, Gang; Wu, Renhua

    2013-09-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast mechanism that can detect dilute CEST agents and microenvironmental properties, with a host of promising applications. Experimental measurement of the CEST effect is complex, and depends on not only CEST agent concentration and exchange rate, but also experimental parameters such as RF irradiation amplitude and scheme. Although echo planar imaging (EPI) has been increasingly used for CEST MRI, the relationship between CEST effect and repetition time (TR), RF irradiation duty cycle (DC) and EPI flip angle (α) has not been fully evaluated and optimized to enhance CEST MRI sensitivity. In addition, our study evaluated gradient echo CEST-EPI by quantifying the CEST effect and its signal-to-noise ratio per unit time (SNRput) as functions of TR, DC and α. We found that CEST effect increased with TR and DC but decreased with α. Importantly, we found that SNRput peaked at intermediate TRs of about twice the T1 and α, at approximately 75°, and increased with RF DC. The simulation results were validated using a dual-pH creatine-gel CEST phantom. In summary, our study provides a useful framework for optimizing CEST MRI experiments.

  11. Evaluation of the dependence of CEST-EPI measurement on repetition time, RF irradiation duty cycle and imaging flip angle for enhanced pH sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Phillip Zhe; Lu, Jie; Wu, Yin; Xiao, Gang; Wu, Renhua

    2013-01-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is an MRI contrast mechanism that can detect dilute CEST agents and microenvironmental properties, with a host of promising applications. Experimental measurement of the CEST effect is complex, and depends on not only CEST agent concentration and exchange rate, but also experimental parameters such as RF irradiation amplitude and scheme. Although echo planar imaging (EPI) has been increasingly used for CEST MRI, the relationship between CEST effect and repetition time (TR), RF irradiation duty cycle (DC) and EPI flip angle (α) has not been fully evaluated and optimized to enhance CEST MRI sensitivity. In addition, our study evaluated gradient echo CEST-EPI by quantifying the CEST effect and its signal-to-noise ratio per unit time (SNRput) as functions of TR, duty cycle and α. We found that CEST effect increased with TR and duty cycle but decreased with α. Importantly, we found that SNRput peaked at intermediate TRs of about twice the T1 and α, at approximately 75°, and increased with RF duty cycle. The simulation results were validated using a dual-pH creatine-gel CEST phantom. In summary, our study provides a useful framework for optimizing CEST MRI experiments. PMID:23939228

  12. Surface and pulpal temperature comparison of tooth whitening using lasers and curing lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Joel M.; Pelino, Jose; Rodrigues, Rively; Zwhalen, Brian J.; Nguyen, Max H.; Wu, Emily

    2000-03-01

    Chemical action of bleaching agents applied to tooth surface is accelerated by increase in temperature. This in vitro study measured the temperature rises on the surface and in the pulp of teeth during whitening using a diode laser, a plasma arc curing (PAC) light and conventional curing lights. Extracted, non-carious single-rooted teeth were exposed to PAC light and laser at times ranging from 10 to 60 seconds and energy ranges of 2 W, 4 W, and 6 W, and to low-intensity curing lights from 1 to 4 minutes. Maximum temperature rises were analyzed for both pulpal and surface temperature. Diode laser exposures at 2 W for all times and at 4 watts for 10 seconds and PAC light exposures at 10 seconds all produced acceptably safe pulpal rises equivalent to conventional light-curing exposures. Exposures at these settings also attained surface temperature rises that were significantly higher than those using conventional light-curing. The diode laser demonstrated bleaching results equivalent to the PAC light, and both were achieved in significantly less times than conventional light- curing.

  13. The research of UV curing injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Pengcheng; Chang, Le; Song, Le; Cai, Tianze; Ding, Yumei; Yang, Weimin

    2015-05-01

    The micro-injection molding technology and the UV (ultraviolet) curing technique are combined to bring about a new plastic forming method, UV curing injection molding. The mean weight of micro-product is an important process characteristic for UV curing injection molding as well as the surface quality of micro-features is another important process characteristic for this new plastic forming method. This research investigates three effects of processing factors on the mass-change rate of micro-product and the surface quality of micro-features. In every particular, the following two factors are considered: UV material system temperature and the packing pressure. The study revealed that as usual, the micro-products gain weight with the imported increasing UV material system temperature and the improved packing pressure. Meanwhile, the increasing packing pressure also improves the surface quality, yet, warming the UV system temperature up has no effect on the quality of the product.

  14. Integrative physicians and an herbal cancer "cure".

    PubMed

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Rosenberg, Shoshana Keren; Samuels, Noah

    2016-08-01

    Oncologists are frequently asked about herbal remedies claiming to "cure" cancer, or at least delay its progression. While complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) should be aimed primarily at improving quality-of-life (QOL) related concerns, "wonder cures" are part of an alternative health belief model providing hope for a "miracle" where conventional treatment has failed. We describe a physician with extensive small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) undergoing chemotherapy, with significant toxicities and impaired daily function. He had come for an integrative physician (IP) consultation, provided by a medical doctor dually trained in CIM and supportive cancer care, taking place in a conventional supportive cancer care service. We describe the IP consultation in general and regarding an herbal remedy which was being promoted as a "cure" for cancer. The subsequent patient-tailored CIM treatment process, in which patients receive evidence-based guidance on treatments which address QOL-related concerns, are presented.

  15. Cure-in-place process for seals

    DOEpatents

    Hirasuna, Alan R.

    1981-01-01

    A cure-in-place process which allows a rubber seal element to be deformed to its service configuration before it is cross-linked and, hence, is a plastic and does not build up internal stress as a result of the deformation. This provides maximum residual strength to resist the differential pressure. Furthermore, the process allows use of high modulus formulations of the rubber seal element which would otherwise crack if cured and then deformed to its service configuration, resulting in a seal which has better gap bridging capability. Basically, the process involves positioning an uncured seal element in place, deforming it to its service configuration, heating the seal element, curing it in place, and then fully seating the seal.

  16. The electron beam cure of epoxy paste adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.D.; Janke, C.J.; Lopata, V.J.

    1998-07-01

    Recently developed epoxy paste adhesives were electron beam cured and experimentally explored to determine their suitability for use in an aerospace-quality aircraft component. There were two major goals for this program. The first was to determine whether the electron beam-curable past adhesives were capable of meeting the requirements of the US Air Force T-38 supersonic jet trainer composite windshield frame. The T-38 windshield frame`s arch is currently manufactured by bonding thin stainless steel plies using an aerospace-grade thermally-cured epoxy film adhesive. The second goal was to develop the lowest cost hand layup and debulk process that could be used to produce laminated steel plies with acceptable properties. The laminate properties examined to determine adhesive suitability include laminate mechanical and physical properties at room, adhesive tack, out-time capability, and the debulk requirements needed to achieve these properties. Eighteen past adhesives and four scrim cloths were experimentally examined using this criteria. One paste adhesive was found to have suitable characteristics in each of these categories and was later chosen for the manufacture of the T-38 windshield frame. This experimental study shows that by using low-cost debulk and layup processes, the electron beam-cured past adhesive mechanical and physical properties meet the specifications of the T-38 composite windshield frame.

  17. A 50-Year Journey to Cure Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Evans, William E.

    2013-01-01

    The 50th anniversary of Seminars in Hematology coincides with the 50th of St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, and both milestones are inexorably linked to studies contributing to the cure of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We thought it fitting, therefore, to mark these events by traveling back in time to point out some of the achievements, institutions, study groups and individuals that have made cure of childhood ALL a reality. In many instances, progress was driven by new ideas, while in others it was driven by new experimental tools that allowed more precise assessment of the biology of leukemic blasts and their utility in selecting therapy. We also discuss a number of contemporary advances that point the way to exciting future directions. Whatever pathways are taken, a clear challenge will be to use emerging genome-based or immunologic-based treatment options in ways that will enhance, rather than duplicate or compromise, recent gains in outcome with classic cytotoxic chemotherapy. The theme of this journey serves as a reminder of the chief ingredient of any research directed to a catastrophic disease such as ALL. It is the audacity of a small group of investigators who confronted a childhood cancer with the goal of cure, not palliation, as their mindset. PMID:23953334

  18. [Can we cure autism? From outcome to intervention].

    PubMed

    Alessandri, M; Thorp, D; Mundy, P; Tuchman, R F

    2005-01-15

    Outcome in autism is variable but with a significant trend toward a poor prognosis and despite reports that outcome in individuals with autism may be improving secondary to early intensive interventions there is still much to be learned about the natural history and the effects of intervention in autism spectrum disorders. While there may not be a known cure for autism, there are a number of viable treatment options available. The primary models of treatment are non pharmacological interventions that include intervention models such as applied behavior analysis and developmental and structured teaching. The role of pharmacological interventions is limited to treating specific symptoms that may be interfering with a child's ability to learn or function within a particular environment. The question of whether or not we can cure autism needs to be discussed in terms of the need to overcome the as of yet poorly understood fundamental disturbance in autism and the need to develop treatment protocols specifically targeting social deficits. At the present time, it is more appropriate to speak of our quest to understand autism than it is to speak of a cure.

  19. Elution characteristics of residual monomers in different light- and auto-curing resins.

    PubMed

    Danesh, Gholamreza; Hellak, Tobias; Reinhardt, Klaus-Jürgen; Végh, András; Schäfer, Edgar; Lippold, Carsten

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to assess different auto-curing resins based on methylmethacrylate (MMA) and new light-curing resins based on urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) regarding the residual monomers remaining in the resin and their elution over time. Specimens from three auto-curing and three light-curing resins were produced following the manufacturer's instructions. The concentration of residual MMA and UDMA monomers present in the resins as well as the quantity of the residual monomers released into artificial saliva solution after immersion times of 1, 3, and 7 days were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and the post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test. The highest and lowest amounts of residual monomers were found in the group of light-curing resins (p<0.05). The light-curing resins Triad Trans Sheet (0.06 wt%) and Primosplint (0.06 wt%) released over the entire immersion time of 7 days the smallest (p<0.05) quantity of UDMA. These two light-curing resins based on UDMA exhibited lower elution of residual monomers than auto-curing resins (MMA). The elution characteristics of the residual monomers do not seem to correlate with the residual monomer concentration in resins. These observations demonstrate that the quantitative determination of residual monomers alone - as required by the ISO specification 20795-1 - does not seem to be sufficient for an assessment of the biological properties of different resins. Instead, the evaluation of elution characteristics appears to be of higher clinical relevance.

  20. Changes in irradiance and energy density in relation to different curing distances.

    PubMed

    Beolchi, Rafael Silva; Moura-Netto, Cacio; Palo, Renato Miotto; Rocha Gomes Torres, Carlos; Pelissier, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the influence of curing distance on the loss of irradiance and power density of four curing light devices. The behavior in terms of power density of four different dental curing devices was analyzed (Valo, Elipar 2, Radii-Cal, and Optilux-401) using three different distances of photopolymerization (0 mm, 4 mm, and 8 mm). All devices had their power density measured using a MARC simulator. Ten measurements were made per device at each distance. The total amount of energy delivered and the required curing time to achieve 16 J/cm(2) of energy was also calculated. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's tests (p < 0.05). The curing distance significantly interfered with the loss of power density for all curing light devices, with the farthest distance generating the lowest power density and consequently the longer time to achieve an energy density of 16 J/cm(2) (p < 0.01). Comparison of devices showed that Valo, in extra power mode, showed the best results at all distances, followed by Valo in high power mode, Valo in standard mode, Elipar 2, Radii-Cal, and Optilux-401 halogen lamp (p < 0.01). These findings indicate that all curing lights induced a significant loss of irradiance and total energy when the light was emitted farther from the probe. The Valo device in extra power mode showed the highest power density and the shortest time to achieve an energy density of 16 J/cm(2) at all curing distances.

  1. Description of Aspergillus flavus growth under the influence of different factors (water activity, incubation temperature, protein and fat concentration, pH, and cinnamon essential oil concentration) by kinetic, probability of growth, and time-to-detection models.

    PubMed

    Kosegarten, Carlos E; Ramírez-Corona, Nelly; Mani-López, Emma; Palou, Enrique; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2017-01-02

    A Box-Behnken design was used to determine the effect of protein concentration (0, 5, or 10g of casein/100g), fat (0, 3, or 6g of corn oil/100g), aw (0.900, 0.945, or 0.990), pH (3.5, 5.0, or 6.5), concentration of cinnamon essential oil (CEO, 0, 200, or 400μL/kg) and incubation temperature (15, 25, or 35°C) on the growth of Aspergillus flavus during 50days of incubation. Mold response under the evaluated conditions was modeled by the modified Gompertz equation, logistic regression, and time-to-detection model. The obtained polynomial regression models allow the significant coefficients (p<0.05) for linear, quadratic and interaction effects for the Gompertz equation's parameters to be identified, which adequately described (R(2)>0.967) the studied mold responses. After 50days of incubation, every tested model system was classified according to the observed response as 1 (growth) or 0 (no growth), then a binary logistic regression was utilized to model A. flavus growth interface, allowing to predict the probability of mold growth under selected combinations of tested factors. The time-to-detection model was utilized to estimate the time at which A. flavus visible growth begins. Water activity, temperature, and CEO concentration were the most important factors affecting fungal growth. It was observed that there is a range of possible combinations that may induce growth, such that incubation conditions and the amount of essential oil necessary for fungal growth inhibition strongly depend on protein and fat concentrations as well as on the pH of studied model systems. The probabilistic model and the time-to-detection models constitute another option to determine appropriate storage/processing conditions and accurately predict the probability and/or the time at which A. flavus growth occurs.

  2. On the probability of cure for heavy-ion radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hanin, Leonid; Zaider, Marco

    2014-07-21

    The probability of a cure in radiation therapy (RT)-viewed as the probability of eventual extinction of all cancer cells-is unobservable, and the only way to compute it is through modeling the dynamics of cancer cell population during and post-treatment. The conundrum at the heart of biophysical models aimed at such prospective calculations is the absence of information on the initial size of the subpopulation of clonogenic cancer cells (also called stem-like cancer cells), that largely determines the outcome of RT, both in an individual and population settings. Other relevant parameters (e.g. potential doubling time, cell loss factor and survival probability as a function of dose) are, at least in principle, amenable to empirical determination. In this article we demonstrate that, for heavy-ion RT, microdosimetric considerations (justifiably ignored in conventional RT) combined with an expression for the clone extinction probability obtained from a mechanistic model of radiation cell survival lead to useful upper bounds on the size of the pre-treatment population of clonogenic cancer cells as well as upper and lower bounds on the cure probability. The main practical impact of these limiting values is the ability to make predictions about the probability of a cure for a given population of patients treated to newer, still unexplored treatment modalities from the empirically determined probability of a cure for the same or similar population resulting from conventional low linear energy transfer (typically photon/electron) RT. We also propose that the current trend to deliver a lower total dose in a smaller number of fractions with larger-than-conventional doses per fraction has physical limits that must be understood before embarking on a particular treatment schedule.

  3. On the probability of cure for heavy-ion radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanin, Leonid; Zaider, Marco

    2014-07-01

    The probability of a cure in radiation therapy (RT)—viewed as the probability of eventual extinction of all cancer cells—is unobservable, and the only way to compute it is through modeling the dynamics of cancer cell population during and post-treatment. The conundrum at the heart of biophysical models aimed at such prospective calculations is the absence of information on the initial size of the subpopulation of clonogenic cancer cells (also called stem-like cancer cells), that largely determines the outcome of RT, both in an individual and population settings. Other relevant parameters (e.g. potential doubling time, cell loss factor and survival probability as a function of dose) are, at least in principle, amenable to empirical determination. In this article we demonstrate that, for heavy-ion RT, microdosimetric considerations (justifiably ignored in conventional RT) combined with an expression for the clone extinction probability obtained from a mechanistic model of radiation cell survival lead to useful upper bounds on the size of the pre-treatment population of clonogenic cancer cells as well as upper and lower bounds on the cure probability. The main practical impact of these limiting values is the ability to make predictions about the probability of a cure for a given population of patients treated to newer, still unexplored treatment modalities from the empirically determined probability of a cure for the same or similar population resulting from conventional low linear energy transfer (typically photon/electron) RT. We also propose that the current trend to deliver a lower total dose in a smaller number of fractions with larger-than-conventional doses per fraction has physical limits that must be understood before embarking on a particular treatment schedule.

  4. Cure-WISE: HETDEX data reduction with Astro-WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snigula, J. M.; Cornell, M. E.; Drory, N.; Fabricius, Max.; Landriau, M.; Hill, G. J.; Gebhardt, K.

    2012-09-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) is a blind spectroscopic survey to map the evolution of dark energy using Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies at redshifts 1:9 < z < 3:5 as tracers. The survey instrument, VIRUS, consists of 75 IFUs distributed across the 22-arcmin field of the upgraded 9.2-m HET. Each exposure gathers 33,600 spectra. Over the projected five year run of the survey we expect about 170 GB of data per night. For the data reduction we developed the Cure pipeline. Cure is designed to automatically find and calibrate the observed spectra, subtract the sky background, and detect and classify different types of sources. Cure employs rigorous statistical methods and complete pixel-level error propagation throughout the reduction process to ensure Poisson-limited performance and meaningful significance values. To automate the reduction of the whole dataset we implemented the Cure pipeline in the Astro-WISE framework. This integration provides for HETDEX a database backend with complete dependency tracking of the various reduction steps, automated checks, and a searchable interface to the detected sources and user management. It can be used to create various web interfaces for data access and quality control. Astro-WISE allows us to reduce the data from all the IFUs in parallel on a compute cluster. This cluster allows us to reduce the observed data in quasi real time and still have excess capacity for rerunning parts of the reduction. Finally, the Astro-WISE interface will be used to provide access to reduced data products to the general community.

  5. Chiropractor charged with claiming HIV cure.

    PubMed

    1999-07-23

    The Missouri Board of Chiropractic Examiners will decide later this year if [name removed]' license should be revoked or suspended because [name removed] allegedly told an HIV-positive patient that he had been cured. [Name removed] denies claiming that the patient was cured by his Interro machine. The patient claims he and his wife then decided to have children. The mother gave birth in 1992, and although the infant is not infected, the mother is. The patient's mother-in-law testified that [name removed] had assured her that the patient's virus had been absolutely eradicated by his treatments.

  6. The mechanisms of cure in psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Lander, Rómulo

    2007-01-01

    The author considers the theoretical contributions of Lacan and Bion in relation to therapeutic action or the mechanisms of the cure. Whereas Bion felt that the analysand should ultimately experience transformation in O, Lacan described the analysand's goal as not to give in to one's desire or to be one's self. The author distinguishes among various types of neurotic and psychotic structures in discussing the limits of the cure, noting that the analyst's acts--as well as his words--can function as analytic interpretations. Lacan's theories of jouissance, the sexual phantom, identification with the analytic function, and post-analytic effects are also discussed.

  7. Curing mechanism of flexible aqueous polymeric coatings.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Muhammad; Ahmed, Abid Riaz; Dashevskiy, Andriy; Kolter, Karl; Bodmeier, Roland

    2017-02-25

    The objective of this study was to explain curing phenomena for pellets coated with a flexible polymeric coating based on poly(vinyl acetate) (Kollicoat(®) SR 30D) with regard to the effect of starter cores, thickness of drug layer, adhesion of coating to drug-layered-cores as well as coating properties. In addition, appropriate approaches to eliminate the curing effect were identified. Sugar or MCC cores were layered with the model drugs carbamazepine, theophylline, propranolol HCl, tramadol HCl and metoprolol HCl using HPMC (5 or 25% w/w, based on drug) as a binder. Drug-layered pellets were coated with Kollicoat(®) SR 30D in a fluidized bed coater using TEC (10% w/w) as plasticizer and talc (35-100% w/w) as anti-tacking agent. Drug release, pellet properties (morphology, water uptake-weight loss and osmolality) and adhesion of the coating to the drug layer were investigated as a function of curing at 60 °C or 60 °C/75% RH for 24 h. The film formation of the aqueous dispersion of Kollicoat(®) SR 30D was complete, and therefore, a strong curing effect (decrease in drug release) at elevated temperature and humidity (60 °C/75% RH) could not be explained by the well-known hydroplasticization and the further gradual coalescence of the colloidal polymer particles. According to the provided mechanistic explanation, the observed curing effect was associated with 1) high flexibility of coating, 2) adhesion between coating and drug layer, 3) water retaining properties of the drug layer, and 4) osmotically active cores. Unwanted curing effects could be minimized/eliminated by the addition of talc or/and pore-forming water soluble polymers in the coating, increasing binder amount or applying an intermediate coating, by increasing the thickness of drug layer or using non-osmotic cores. A new insight into curing phenomena mainly associated with the adhesion between drug layer and coating was provided. Appropriate approaches to avoid unwanted curing effect were identified.

  8. FTIR Monitoring Of Curing Of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druy, Mark A.; Stevenson, William A.; Young, Philip R.

    1990-01-01

    Infrared-sensing optical fiber system developed to monitor principal infrared absorption bands resulting from vibrations of atoms and molecules as chemical bonds form when resin cured. System monitors resin chemistry more directly. Used to obtain Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum from graphite fiber/polyimide matrix resin prepreg. Embedded fiber optic FTIR sensor used to indicate state of cure of thermosetting composite material. Developed primarily to improve quality of advanced composites, many additional potential applications exist because principal of operation applicable to all organic materials and most inorganic gases. Includes monitoring integrities of composite materials in service, remote sensing of hazardous materials, and examination of processes in industrial reactors and furnaces.

  9. Analysis of curing of a sustained release coating formulation by application of NIR spectroscopy to monitor changes associated with glyceryl monostearate.

    PubMed

    Howland, Harris; Fahmy, Raafat; Hoag, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    For controlled release, latex or pseudolatex coatings to function as designed, it must be cured at temperatures at or slightly above the polymer's glass transition temperature. The focus of this study is to develop an understanding of the curing process and to develop near infrared spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring curing. Differential scanning calorimetry studies were used to determine how the thermal properties of glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and its polymorphic forms relate to the extent of Eudragit® polymer coat curing at different curing temperatures. The different GMS melting endotherms were used to monitor the extent of curing and as references for model development. The calculated melting peak areas for the GMS were plotted versus time and found to be dependent on time and temperature used for curing. Principal component analysis and parallel factor analysis were used to investigate the effect of curing on the films and showed that spectral changes could be could be directly related to the changes associated with the GMS during curing. Partial least square models developed could predict the extent of curing and the final state of GMS post curing.

  10. Production implementation of fully automated, closed loop cure control for advanced composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Sean A.; Roberts, Nancy K.

    Economic of advanced composite part production requires development and use of the most aggressive cure cycles possible without sacrificing quality. As cure cycles are shortened and heating rates increase, tolerance windows for process parameters become increasingly narrow. These factors are intensified by condensation curing systems which generate large amounts of volatiles. Management of the situation requires fully automated, closed loop process control and a fundamental understanding of the material system used for the application. No turnkey system for this application is currently available. General Dynamics Pomona Division (GD/PD) has developed an integrated closed loop control system which is now being proofed in production. Realization of this system will enable cure time reductions of nearly 50 percent, while increasing yield and maintaining quality.

  11. Characterization of cure in model photocrosslinking acrylate systems: Relationships among tensile properties, Tg and ultraviolet dose

    SciTech Connect

    Rakas, M.A.

    1996-10-01

    The extent of cure of a thermosetting polymer is governed largely by polymerization kinetics and the difference between the polymerization temperature and the material`s ultimate glass transition temperature (Tg). For prepolymers which cure when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, other factors which strongly determine the extent of cure are the UV intensity and exposure time, and the interrelationship between the optical absorbance of the photoinitiator (PI) and the rate of formation of excited state PI radicals. Beers` Law can be used to understand the relationship between the PI`s molar absorptivity, its concentration, and adhesive film thickness. Many adhesives users are more concerned with bulk properties such as tensile modulus and Tg rather than a numerical measurement of degree of cure. Therefore, this research employed model acrylate formulations and determined changes in tensile properties and Tg as a function of film thickness and UV dose. These results enabled correlation of bulk and photoinitiator properties.

  12. Bayesian cure rate frailty models with application to a root canal therapy study.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guosheng

    2005-06-01

    Due to natural or artificial clustering, multivariate survival data often arise in biomedical studies, for example, a dental study involving multiple teeth from each subject. A certain proportion of subjects in the population who are not expected to experience the event of interest are considered to be "cured" or insusceptible. To model correlated or clustered failure time data incorporating a surviving fraction, we propose two forms of cure rate frailty models. One model naturally introduces frailty based on biological considerations while the other is motivated from the Cox proportional hazards frailty model. We formulate the likelihood functions based on piecewise constant hazards and derive the full conditional distributions for Gibbs sampling in the Bayesian paradigm. As opposed to the Cox frailty model, the proposed methods demonstrate great potential in modeling multivariate survival data with a cure fraction. We illustrate the cure rate frailty models with a root canal therapy data set.

  13. Effects of TiO₂ and curing temperatures on flame retardant finishing of cotton.

    PubMed

    Poon, Chin-Kuen; Kan, Chi-Wai

    2015-05-05

    The performance of flame retardancy of cotton cellulose can be influenced by curing conditions. In this study, cotton cellulose was imparted durable flame retardant properties by a reaction between a flame retardant agent (Pyrovatex CP New) and a cross linking agent (Knittex CHN), in the presence of catalysts phosphoric acid and titanium dioxide (TiO2). After treating cotton fabrics at different curing temperatures for different curing time, its flame retardant performance was evaluated by 45° fabric flammability standard test method. For cotton fabrics cured at 150 and 170°C, good flame retardant characteristics were retained even after three home laundering cycles. The use of TiO2 as a co-catalyst in the treatment improved the flame retardant properties and reduced the loss of tearing strength of cotton fabrics. No significant negative effect in the whiteness index was observed, as compared with conventional flame retardant treatment.

  14. Research into a functional cure for HIV in neonates: the need for ethical foresight

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Seema K; Persaud, Deborah; Wendler, David S; Taylor, Holly A; Gay, Hannah; Kruger, Mariana; Grady, Christine

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, researchers announced that a newborn child from Mississippi, USA might have been functionally cured of HIV by being given combination antiretroviral therapy within hours of birth. Public and media attention has since been captured by the possibility of finding a cure for HIV transmitted from mother to child. Research into the strategy used for the Mississippi patient is crucially important to establish whether it can be replicated and shown to work in diverse populations. At the same time, any ethical issues likely to arise in such studies should be addressed and not ignored in the pursuit of a functional cure. In this Personal View we identify ethical issues that could arise in research towards achievment of a functional cure for HIV in neonates, including difficult trade-offs associated with choosing the study population and questions about the broader social implications of the research, and propose ways to resolve them. PMID:24906850

  15. A Thermo-Viscoelastic Model of Cure Stress Development in Constrained Thermosetting Resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Sindee; Prasatya, Patricia; McKenna, Gregory

    2000-03-01

    The residual stresses in an epoxy resin subjected to three-dimensional constraints are calculated by extending to three dimensions a thermo-viscoelastic model developed previously by Simon et al.[1] to describe the time, temperature, and conversion dependence of the shear modulus for a commercial thermosetting material during cure. Experimental residual stress data as a function of cure are fit to obtain limiting values for the rubber and glassy bulk moduli. The residual stresses are then calculated as a function of cure history using the bulk moduli and the time function obtained in the thermo-viscoelastic model which includes the dependence of the shift factor on temperature and conversion. An important result of the work is that, contrary to some literature works, the stress free temperature in the curing material is not the cure temperature. Rather the stress free point is better related to the point of gelation with the consequence that large hydrostatic stresses can result due to cure shrinkage in addition to differential thermal expansion. 1. S. L. Simon, G. B. McKenna, and O. Sindt, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., In Press.

  16. Effect of curing agent and temperature on the rheological behavior of epoxy resin systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chenhui; Zhang, Guangcheng; Zhao, Lei

    2012-07-17

    The effect of curing agent (6610) content and temperature on the rheological behavior of the epoxy resin CYD-128 was studied by DSC analysis and viscosity experiments. The results show that the resin system meets the requirements of processing technology. A complete reaction occurs when the curing agent content (40 parts per hundred resin, phr) is a little higher than the theoretical value (33.33 phr), while the degree of reaction of the resin system is reduced when the curing agent content is lower (25.00 phr) than theoretical value. However, excessive curing agent (50.00 phr) results in a lower reaction rate. Curing agent content has little influence on gel time when curing agent content exceeded 33.33 phr and the temperature was less than 70 °C. The isothermal viscosity-time curves shift towards the -x axis when the temperature rises from 50 °C to 80 °C. Meanwhile, higher temperature results in higher reaction rates.

  17. Censorship: Challenges, Concerns and Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiferth, Berniece B.

    While censorship pressures emanate from all points on the political spectrum at different times, the current censorship movement comes mostly from political conservatives. Censorship efforts by the Reagan administration include barring entry of foreign speakers whose views do not coincide with those of the administration, inhibiting the free flow…

  18. Finding a Cure for Senioritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    The senior year of high school has long been considered a lost year, a time when many students have earned most of their high school credits and have been accepted into college. With few requirements and little pressure, students often slack off in a common affliction known as "senioritis." The year of slacking off, however, may have…

  19. Residual monomer leaching from chemically cured and visible light-cured orthodontic adhesives.

    PubMed

    Eliades, T; Eliades, G; Brantley, W A; Johnston, W M

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the amount of residual monomer leached from chemically cured and visible light-cured orthodontic adhesives based on Bis-GMA/TEGDMA monomers, when bonded to ceramic and stainless steel brackets. The residual TEGDMA and Bis-GMA monomer concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of the extracts after specimen immersion in ethanol/water solution for 15 days at 37 +/- 1 degree C. According to the results the highest monomer concentrations eluted were obtained from the chemically cured adhesive. Direct (through the bracket) irradiation of stainless steel brackets bonded to the visible light-cured adhesive showed high monomer elution as well. A polycarbonate base ceramic bracket manifested significantly greater amount of monomer release compared with ceramic brackets when combined with the visible light-cured adhesive. Indirect (from the incisal and cervical edges of the bracket) irradiation of the visible light-cured adhesive bonded to the stainless steel brackets resulted in lower residual monomer elution compared to that of directly (through the bracket) irradiated metallic brackets. No statistical difference was found between direct or indirect irradiation of the ceramic brackets tested, with respect to monomer elution from the light-cured adhesive.

  20. Curing kinetics of visible light curing dental resin composites investigated by dielectric analysis (DEA).

    PubMed

    Steinhaus, Johannes; Hausnerova, Berenika; Haenel, Thomas; Großgarten, Mandy; Möginger, Bernhard

    2014-03-01

    During the curing process of light curing dental composites the mobility of molecules and molecule segments is reduced leading to a significant increase of the viscosity as well as the ion viscosity. Thus, the kinetics of the curing behavior of 6 different composites was derived from dielectric analysis (DEA) using especially redesigned flat sensors with interdigit comb electrodes allowing for irradiation at the top side and measuring the ion viscosity at the bottom side. As the ion viscosities of dental composites change 1-3 orders of magnitude during the curing process, DEA provides a sensitive approach to evaluate their curing behavior, especially in the phase of undisturbed chain growth. In order to determine quantitative kinetic parameters a kinetic model is presented and examined for the evaluation of the ion viscosity curves. From the obtained results it is seen that DEA might be employed in the investigation of the primary curing process, the quality assurance of ingredients as well as the control of processing stability of the light curing dental composites.

  1. Heat transfer properties and thermal cure of glass-ionomer dental cements.

    PubMed

    Gavic, Lidia; Gorseta, Kristina; Glavina, Domagoj; Czarnecka, Beata; Nicholson, John W

    2015-10-01

    Under clinical conditions, conventional glass-ionomer dental cements can be cured by application of heat from dental cure lamps, which causes acceleration in the setting. In order for this to be successful, such heat must be able to spread sufficiently through the cement to enhance cure, but not transmit heat so effectively that the underlying dental pulp of the tooth is damaged. The current study was aimed at measuring heat transfer properties of modern restorative glass-ionomers to determine the extent to which they meet these twin requirements. Three commercial glass ionomer cements (Ionofil Molar, Ketac Molar and Equia™ Fill) were used in association with three different light emitting diode cure lamps designed for clinical use. In addition, for each cement, one set of specimens was allowed to cure without application of a lamp. Temperature changes were measured at three different depths (2, 3 and 4 mm) after cure times of 20, 40 and 60 s. The difference among the tested groups was evaluated by ANOVA (P < 0.05) and post hoc Newman-Keuls test. All brands of glass-ionomer showed a small inherent setting exotherm in the absence of heat irradiation, but much greater temperature increases when exposed to the cure lamp. However, temperature rises did not exceed 12.9 °C. Application of the cure lamp led to the establishment of a temperature gradient throughout each specimen. Differences were typically significant (P < 0.05) and did not reflect the nominal power of the lamps, because those lamps have variable cooling systems, and are designed to optimize light output, not heating effect. Because the thermal conductivity of glass-ionomers is low, temperature rises at 4 mm depths were much lower than at 2 mm. At no time did the temperature rise sufficiently to cause concern about potential damage to the pulp.

  2. Light-Cured Self-Etch Adhesives Undergo Hydroxyapatite-Triggered Self-Cure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Bai, X; Liu, Y W; Wang, Y

    2016-03-01

    Light cure is a popular mode of curing for dental adhesives. However, it suffers from inadequate light delivery when the restoration site is less accessible, in which case a self-cure mechanism is desirable to salvage any compromised polymerization. We previously reported a novel self-cure system mediated by ethyl 4-(dimethylamino)-benzoate (4E) and hydroxyapatite (HAp). The present work aims to investigate if such self-cure phenomenon takes place in adhesives that underwent prior inadequate light cure and to elucidate if HAp released from the dental etching process is sufficient to trigger it. Model self-etch adhesives were formulated with various components, including bis[2-methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-phosphate (2MP) as acidic monomer and trimethylbenzoyl-diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) as photoinitiator. In vitro evolution of degree of conversion (DC) of HAp-incorporated adhesives was monitored by infrared spectroscopy during light irradiation and dark storage. Selected adhesives were allowed to etch and extract HAp from enamel, light-cured in situ, and stored in the dark, after which Raman line mapping was used to obtain spatially resolved DC across the enamel-resin interface. Results showed that TPO+4E adhesives reached DC similar to TPO-only counterparts upon completion of light irradiation but underwent another round of initiation that boosted DC to ~100% regardless of HAp level or prior light exposure. When applied to enamel, TPO-only adhesives had ~80% DC in resin, which gradually descended to ~50% in enamel, whereas TPO+4E adhesives consistently scored ~80% DC across the enamel-resin interface. These observations suggest that polymerization of adhesives that underwent insufficient light cure is salvaged by the novel self-cure mechanism, and such salvaging effect can be triggered by HAp released from dental substrate during the etching process.

  3. Facile preparation of mussel-inspired polyurethane hydrogel and its rapid curing behavior.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peiyu; Wang, Jing; Yao, Xiong; Peng, Ying; Tu, Xiaoxiong; Du, Pengfei; Zheng, Zhen; Wang, Xinling

    2014-08-13

    A facile method was found to incorporate a mussel-inspired adhesive moiety into synthetic polymers, and mussel mimetic polyurethanes were developed as adhesive hydrogels. In these polymers, a urethane backbone was substituted for the polyamide chain of mussel adhesive proteins, and dopamine was appended to mimic the adhesive moiety of adhesive proteins. A series of mussel mimetic polyurethanes were created through a step-growth polymerization based on hexamethylene diisocyanate as a hard segment, PEG having different molecular weights as a soft segment, and lysine-dopamine as a chain extender. Upon a treatment with Fe(3+), the aqueous mussel mimetic polyurethane solutions can be triggered by pH adjustment to form adhesive hydrogels instantaneously; these materials can be used as injectable adhesive hydrogels. Upon a treatment with NaIO4, the mussel mimetic polyurethane solutions can be cured in a controllable period of time. The successful combination of the unique mussel-inspired adhesive moiety with a tunable polyurethane structure can result in a new kind of mussel-inspired adhesive polymers.

  4. Advanced Fast Curing Adhesives for Adverse Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    set of battle damage repair adhesives include Belzona 2311 elastomer , Belzona 1221 super metal, and Belzona metal plug, which are very fast curing...resin, and dinonylphenol (10). Marine use A-788 Splash Zone epoxy- polyamide mastic from Z Spar, Los Angeles, CA was used for testing (11). The

  5. Campus Violence: Kinds, Causes, and Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Leighton C., Ed.; Pollard, Jeffrey W., Ed.

    This volume offers 14 papers on the types, sources, and possible cures of violence on college campuses from prominent workers in higher education. Following a preface the titles are: (1) "Conceptualizing Campus Violence: Definitions, Underlying Factors, and Effects" by Mary L. Roark; (2) "Administrative Perspectives on Disruptive…

  6. Quantitative prediction of stresses during thermoset cure

    SciTech Connect

    Adolf, D.; Chambers, B.; Burchett, S.

    1996-07-01

    Two thin-walled Al tubes were filled with epoxy which were cured isothermally; one tube was instrumented with strain gauges, and the other with thermocouples. Finite element codes were used. Predicted and measured centerline hoop strains are shown; predictions and measurements agree. This is being applied to encapsulated components.

  7. Performance and model of a novel multi-sparger multi-stage airlift loop membrane bioreactor to treat high-strength 7-ACA pharmaceutical wastewater: effect of hydraulic retention time, temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao-bo; He, Zhang-wei; Tang, Cong-cong; Hu, Dong-xue; Cui, Yu-bo; Wang, Ai-jie; Zhang, Ying; Yan, Li-long; Ren, Nan-qi

    2014-09-01

    In this study, three novel multi-sparger multi-stage airlift loop membrane bioreactors (Ms(2)ALMBRs) were set up in parallel for treating synthetic high-strength 7-ACA pharmaceutical wastewater under different HRTs, temperatures and pHs, respectively. During the 200-day operating time, average COD removal efficiencies were 94.96%, 96.05% and 93.9%. While average 7-ACA removal efficiencies were 66.44%, 59.04% and 59.60%, respectively. The optimal conditions were 10h, 15-35°C and 7-9 for HRT, temperature and pH, respectively. Moreover, the sludge characteristics and microorganism drug-resistances were explored. Results showed that different temperatures and pHs influenced contaminant removals by affecting MLSS concentration and β-lactamase activity significantly. In addition, mathematical statistical models, built on the polynomial and linear regression techniques, were developed for exploring the inner relationships between HRT, temperature and pH changes and MLSS concentrations, β-lactamase activities and contaminant removals of the Ms(2)ALMBR system.

  8. Effects of fast halogen and plasma arc curing lights on the surface hardness of orthodontic adhesives for lingual retainers.

    PubMed

    Uşümez, Serdar; Büyükyilmaz, Tamer; Karaman, Ali Ihya

    2003-06-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) identify the optimum cure times of 2 different lingual retainer adhesives with a conventional halogen, a fast halogen, and a plasma arc light by measuring Vickers surface hardness, and (2) determine whether different lights produce similar surface hardness values for the same adhesive resin material. The investigated plasma arc curing unit was the PowerPac (American Dental Technologies, Corpus Christi, Tex), and the fast halogen unit was the Optilux 501 (Kerr, Orange, Calif). A conventional curing unit, the Ortholux XT (3M Dental Products, St. Paul, Minn) was used as the control. Two orthodontic lingual retainer adhesives were used: Transbond Lingual Retainer (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) and Light Cure Retainer (Reliance Orthodontic Products, Itasca, Ill). Concise (3M Dental Products) and diluted Concise were used as controls. Transbond Lingual Retainer was polymerized by the PowerPac light in 6 seconds, by the Optilux in 10 seconds, and by the conventional halogen light in 20 seconds. The minimum curing times for Light Cure Retainer adhesive were 15 seconds for PowerPac, 10 seconds for Optilux, and 40 seconds for conventional halogen. Surface hardness values for each resin did not differ significantly with different curing units. However, different adhesives demonstrated significantly different surface hardness values. Final Vickers surface hardness values (averaged across curing units) of Transbond Lingual Retainer, Concise, diluted Concise, and Light Cure Retainer were 62.8, 52.4, 46.0, and 40.4, respectively. Plasma arc or fast halogen units polymerize resin composite adhesive in much shorter times than do conventional curing units, without a significant loss in surface hardness. Therefore, these units are suggested for clinical use to save chairside time.

  9. Focusing on Cause or Cure?

    PubMed Central

    Milner, Lauren C.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Biomedical research is influenced by many factors, including the involvement of stakeholder groups invested in research outcomes. Stakeholder involvement in research efforts raise questions of justice as their specific interests and motivations play a role in directing research resources that ultimately produce knowledge shaping how different conditions (and affected individuals) are understood and treated by society. This issue is highly relevant to child psychiatry research where diagnostic criteria and treatment strategies are often controversial. Biological similarities and stakeholder differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide an opportunity to explore this issue by comparing research foci and stakeholder involvement in these conditions. Methods A subset of ADHD and ASD research articles published between 1970-2010 were randomly selected from the PubMed database and coded for research focus, funding source(s), and author-reported conflicts of interest (COIs). Chi-square analyses were performed to identify differences between and within ADHD and ASD research across time. Results The proportion of ADHD research dedicated to basic, description, and treatment research was roughly similar and remained stable over time, while ASD research showed a significant increase in basic research over the past decade. Government was the primary research funder for both conditions, but for-profit funders were a notable presence in ADHD research, while joint-funding efforts between non-profit and government funders were a notable presence in ASD research. Lastly, COIs were noted more frequently in ADHD than in ASD research. Conclusions Our study shows significant differences in research foci and funding sources between the conditions, and identifies the specific involvement of for-profit and non-profit groups in ADHD and ASD, respectively. Our findings highlight the relationship between stakeholders

  10. Effect of High-Irradiance Light-Curing on Micromechanical Properties of Resin Cements.

    PubMed

    Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian; Flury, Simon

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of light-curing at high irradiances on micromechanical properties of resin cements. Three dual-curing resin cements and a light-curing flowable resin composite were light-cured with an LED curing unit in Standard mode (SM), High Power mode (HPM), or Xtra Power mode (XPM). Maximum irradiances were determined using a MARC PS radiometer, and exposure duration was varied to obtain two or three levels of radiant exposure (SM: 13.2 and 27.2 J/cm(2); HPM: 15.0 and 30.4 J/cm(2); XPM: 9.5, 19.3, and 29.7 J/cm(2)) (n = 17). Vickers hardness (HV ) and indentation modulus (EIT) were measured at 15 min and 1 week. Data were analyzed with nonparametric ANOVA, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests, and Spearman correlation analyses (α = 0.05). Irradiation protocol, resin-based material, and storage time and all interactions influenced HV and EIT significantly (p ≤ 0.0001). Statistically significant correlations between radiant exposure and HV or EIT were found, indicating that high-irradiance light-curing has no detrimental effect on the polymerization of resin-based materials (p ≤ 0.0021). However, one resin cement was sensitive to the combination of irradiance and exposure duration, with high-irradiance light-curing resulting in a 20% drop in micromechanical properties. The results highlight the importance of manufacturers issuing specific recommendations for the light-curing procedure of each resin cement.

  11. When to start paediatric testing of the adult HIV cure research agenda?

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Seema K

    2017-01-01

    Ethical guidelines recommend that experimental interventions should be tested in adults first before they are tested and approved in children. Some challenge this paradigm, however, and recommend initiating paediatric testing after preliminary safety testing in adults in certain cases. For instance, commentators have argued for accelerated testing of HIV vaccines in children. Additionally, HIV cure research on the use of very early therapy (VET) in infants, prompted in part by the Mississippi baby case, is one example of a strategy that is currently being tested in infants before it has been well tested in adults. Because infants’ immune systems are still developing, the timing of HIV transmission is easier to identify in infants than in adults, and infants who receive VET might never develop the viral reservoirs that make HIV so difficult to eradicate, infants may be uniquely situated to achieve HIV cure or sustained viral remission. Several commentators have now argued for earlier initiation of HIV cure interventions other than (or in addition to) VET in children. HIV cure research is therefore a good case for re-examining the important question of when to initiate paediatric research. I will argue that, despite the potential for HIV cure research to benefit children and the scientific value of involving children in this research, the HIV cure agenda should not accelerate the involvement of children for the following reasons: HIV cure research is highly speculative, risky, aimed at combination approaches and does not compare favourably with the available alternatives. I conclude by drawing general implications for the initiation of paediatric testing, including that interventions that have to be used in combination with others and cures for chronic diseases may not be valuable enough to justify early paediatric testing. PMID:27259546

  12. Effect of High-Irradiance Light-Curing on Micromechanical Properties of Resin Cements

    PubMed Central

    Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of light-curing at high irradiances on micromechanical properties of resin cements. Three dual-curing resin cements and a light-curing flowable resin composite were light-cured with an LED curing unit in Standard mode (SM), High Power mode (HPM), or Xtra Power mode (XPM). Maximum irradiances were determined using a MARC PS radiometer, and exposure duration was varied to obtain two or three levels of radiant exposure (SM: 13.2 and 27.2 J/cm2; HPM: 15.0 and 30.4 J/cm2; XPM: 9.5, 19.3, and 29.7 J/cm2) (n = 17). Vickers hardness (HV) and indentation modulus (EIT) were measured at 15 min and 1 week. Data were analyzed with nonparametric ANOVA, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests, and Spearman correlation analyses (α = 0.05). Irradiation protocol, resin-based material, and storage time and all interactions influenced HV and EIT significantly (p ≤ 0.0001). Statistically significant correlations between radiant exposure and HV or EIT were found, indicating that high-irradiance light-curing has no detrimental effect on the polymerization of resin-based materials (p ≤ 0.0021). However, one resin cement was sensitive to the combination of irradiance and exposure duration, with high-irradiance light-curing resulting in a 20% drop in micromechanical properties. The results highlight the importance of manufacturers issuing specific recommendations for the light-curing procedure of each resin cement. PMID:28044129

  13. About the cure kinetics in natural rubber/styrene Butadiene rubber blends at 433 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansilla, M. A.; Marzocca, A. J.

    2012-08-01

    Vulcanized blends of elastomers are employed in several goods mainly to improve physical properties and reduce costs. One of the most used blends of this kind is that composed by natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). The cure kinetic of these blends depends mainly on the compound formulation and the cure temperature and time. The preparation method of the blends can influence the mechanical properties of the vulcanized compounds. In this work the cure kinetic at 433 K of NR/SBR blends vulcanized with the system sulfur/TBBS (N-t-butyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide) is analyzed in samples prepared by mechanical mixing and solution blending. The two methods produce elastomer domains of NR and SBR, which present different microstructure due to the cure level attained during vulcanization. The cure kinetics is studied by means of rheometer tests and the model proposed by Kamal and Sourour. The analysis of the cure rate is presented and is related to the structure obtained during the vulcanization process.

  14. Effect of plasma arc curing on polymerization shrinkage of orthodontic adhesive resins.

    PubMed

    Bang, H-C; Lim, B-S; Yoon, T-H; Lee, Y-K; Kim, C-W

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the polymerization shrinkage of three orthodontic adhesive resins when polymerized with a high-energy plasma arc light (1340 mW cm(-2)) and a conventional halogen light (500 mW cm(-2)), and to correlate the polymerization shrinkage with the degree of conversion. To equalize the total light energy delivered to the adhesive resin, irradiation time was varied between 3 or 6 s for a plasma arc-curing unit, and 8 or 16 s for a halogen light-curing unit. The polymerization shrinkage of adhesive resins during the light-curing process was measured using a computer-controlled mercury dilatometer and the degree of conversion was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A plasma arccuring unit produced significantly lower polymerization shrinkage than a halogen light-curing unit when the equivalent total light energy was irradiated to the orthodontic adhesive resins (P < 0.05). The magnitude of polymerization shrinkage was significantly different depending on the kind of adhesive resins (P < 0.05), but there was no significant correlation between the filler fraction and the polymerization shrinkage (r2 = 0.039). There was strong correlation (r2 = 0.787) between the polymerization shrinkage and the degree of conversion with a halogen light-curing unit, but poor correlation (r2 = 0.377) was observed with a plasma arc-curing unit.

  15. Ex vivo gene therapy cures a blistering skin disease.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, Carol; Uitto, Jouni

    2007-06-01

    A recent publication that describes gene therapy treatment of a patient with an inherited blistering skin disease, epidermolysis bullosa, demonstrates for the first time that gene therapy can cure a disease of solid tissue. The treatment relies on ex vivo transduction of autologous epidermal stem cells with a normal copy of the defective gene, followed by reconstitution of the patient's skin with epithelial sheets that are grown from these genetically corrected cells. This approach holds promise for treatment not only of inherited disorders of the skin but also of other solid tissues that are becoming amenable to tissue engineering.

  16. Method of controlling a resin curing process. [for fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, Charles Neal (Inventor); Scott, Robert O. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to an analytical technique for controlling the curing process of fiber-reinforced composite materials that are formed using thermosetting resins. The technique is the percent gel method and involves development of a time-to-gel equation as a function of temperature. From this equation a rate-of-gel equation is then determined, and a percent gel is calculated which is the product of rate-of-gel times time. Percent gel accounting is used to control the proper pressure application point in an autoclave cure process to achieve desired properties in a production composite part.

  17. Dynamic measurement of local displacements within curing resin-based dental composite using optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlins, Peter H.; Rahman, Mohammed Wahidur; Donnan, Robert S.

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the feasibility of using optical coherence elastography to measure internal displacements during the curing phase of a light-activated, resin-based composite material. Displacement vectors were spatially mapped over time within a commercial dental composite. Measurements revealed that the orientation of cure-induced displacement vectors varied spatially in a complex manner; however, each vector showed a systematic evolution with time. Precision of individual displacements was estimated to be ˜1 to 2 μm, enabling submicrometer time-varying displacements to be detected.

  18. Bond strength of a light-cured and two auto-cured glass ionomer liners.

    PubMed

    Holtan, J R; Nystrom, G P; Olin, P S; Rudney, J; Douglas, W H

    1990-10-01

    Ninety-nine extracted human molar teeth were used in this study comparing the shear bond strengths on dentine of one light-cured and two auto-cured polyalkenoate (glass ionomer) cements. Bond strength can be influenced by differences in tooth structure. A balanced-incomplete block design (Hull and Nie, 1981) was used to reduce variation attributable to such differences. Cements were applied to paired dentine surfaces in combinations such that 66 tooth sides were treated with each material. A light-cured dentinal adhesive and composite resin restorative material were then placed and shear bond strength testing was conducted exactly 24 h after the completion of each specimen. Mean forces (MPa) for the three materials were compared using an appropriate analysis of variance model (balanced-incomplete-blocks) The shear bond strengths (MPa) of the light-cured liner (Espe, Seefeld/Oberbay, FRG) was 4.71 +/- 1.16. Vitrabond showed the greatest variance of all three materials tested, however this material's average bond strength was greater than the maximum achieved for the other materials. Student-Newman-Keuls comparison of means showed that all cements differed significantly from each other (alpha = 0.05). It is concluded that the light-cured glass ionomer liner exhibited significantly better shear bond strength performance than the two auto-cured glass ionomers tested.

  19. Improved reliability of pH measurements.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Petra; Werner, Barbara

    2002-11-01

    Measurements of pH are performed on a large scale at laboratory level, and in industry. To meet the quality-control requirements and other technical specifications there is a need for traceability in measurement results. The prerequisite for the international acceptance of analytical data is reliability. To measure means to compare. Comparability entails use of recognised references to which the standard buffer solutions used for calibration of pH meter-electrode assemblies can be traced. The new recommendation on the measurement of pH recently published as a provisional document by the International Union on Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) enables traceability for measured pH values to a conventional reference frame which is recognised world-wide. The primary method for pH will be described. If analytical data are to be accepted internationally it is necessary to demonstrate the equivalence of the national traceability structures, including national measurement standards. For the first time key comparisons for pH have been performed by the Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance (CCQM, set up by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, BIPM) to assess the equivalence of the national measurement procedures used to determine the pH of primary standard buffer solutions. The results of the first key comparison on pH CCQM-K9, and other international initiatives to improve the consistency of the results of measurement for pH, are reported.

  20. A Study of Upgraded Phenolic Curing for RSRM Nozzle Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smartt, Ziba

    2000-01-01

    A thermochemical cure model for predicting temperature and degree of cure profiles in curing phenolic parts was developed, validated and refined over several years. The model supports optimization of cure cycles and allows input of properties based upon the types of material and the process by which these materials are used to make nozzle components. The model has been refined to use sophisticated computer graphics to demonstrate the changes in temperature and degree of cure during the curing process. The effort discussed in the paper will be the conversion from an outdated solid modeling input program and SINDA analysis code to an integrated solid modeling and analysis package (I-DEAS solid model and TMG). Also discussed will be the incorporation of updated material properties obtained during full scale curing tests into the cure models and the results for all the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle rings.

  1. Acoustic Imaging of Microstructure and Evaluation of the Adhesive's Physical, Mechanical and Chemical Properties Changes at Different Cure States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severina, I. A.; Fabre, A. J.; Maeva, E. Yu.

    Epoxy thermoset adhesives transform during cure from liquid state into the highly cross-linked solid. Cure state of the material depends on condition of the reaction (temperature, pressure, time etc.) and resin/hardener ratio. It is known that the cure degree of the adhesive correlates with adhesion strength, which is critical for structural adhesives used in automotive, aerospace and marine industries. In this work, characterization of cure process of the adhesive with acoustic methods is presented. Evolution of the acoustic and elastic properties (attenuation, sound velocity, density, elastic moduli) during cure reaction was monitored in relation to the substantial physical and chemical changes of the material. These macro parameters of the adhesive were compared with the material's microstructure obtained by high-resolution acoustic microscopy technique in frequencies range of 50-400 MHz. Development of the microstructure of the adhesive as it cures at different conditions has been investigated. Appearance and development of the granular structure on the adhesive interface during cure reaction has been demonstrated. Acoustic images were analyzed by mathematical method to quantitatively characterize distribution of the adhesive's components. Statistical analysis of such images provides an accurate quantitative measure of the degree of cure of such samples. Research results presented in this paper can be useful as a basis for non-destructive evaluation of the adhesive materials

  2. Effects of marketing group on the quality of fresh and cured hams sourced from a commercial processing facility.

    PubMed

    Arkfeld, E K; Wilson, K B; Overholt, M F; Harsh, B N; Lowell, J E; Hogan, E K; Klehm, B J; Bohrer, B M; Kroscher, K A; Peterson, B C; Stites, C R; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2016-12-01

    The objective was: 1) to characterize the effect of marketing group on fresh and cured ham quality, and 2) to determine which fresh ham traits correlated to cured ham quality traits. Pigs raised in 8 barns representing 2 seasons (hot and cold) and 2 production focuses (lean and quality) were used. Three groups were marketed from each barn. A total of 7,684 carcasses were used for data collection at the abattoir. Every tenth carcass was noted as a select carcass for in-depth ham quality analyses. Leg primal weight and instrumental color were measured on 100% of the population. On the select 10% of the population, hams were fabricated into sub-primal pieces, and 3-piece hams were manufactured to evaluate cured ham quality and processing yield. Data were analyzed as a split-plot design in the MIXED procedure of SAS with production focus as the whole-plot factor, and marketing group as the split-plot factor. Pearson correlation coefficients between fresh and cured ham traits were computed. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.15) in instrumental color or ultimate pH ( ≥ 0.14) among fresh ham muscles from any marketing group. The only exception was the semimembranosus of marketing group 2 was lighter than marketing group 1 ( = 0.03) and the dark portion of the semitendinosus muscle from group 1 was lighter than from group 3 ( = 0.01). There were no differences ( ≥ 0.33) in ultimate pH of fresh ham muscles between production focuses, but several muscles from quality focus pigs were lighter in color than ham muscles from lean focus pigs. The lack of differences in fresh ham quality lead to few differences in cured ham quality. Cured hams from the quality focus pigs had greater lipid content ( < 0.01) than hams from lean focus pigs. Cured lightness values of hams from marketing group 1 and 2 were 1.52 units lighter than hams from marketing group 3 ( 0.01). Overall, marketing group did not impact ham quality. Fresh ham quality was not strongly related to cured ham quality

  3. 7 CFR 29.6002 - Air-cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6002 Air-cured. Tobacco cured under natural atmospheric conditions. Artificial heat sometimes is used to control excess humidity during the curing period to prevent pole-sweat... resulting from the application of artificial heat....

  4. 7 CFR 30.12 - Fire-cure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire-cure. 30.12 Section 30.12 Agriculture Regulations... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.12 Fire-cure. To cure tobacco under artificial atmospheric conditions by the use of open fires, the smoke...

  5. 7 CFR 30.12 - Fire-cure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire-cure. 30.12 Section 30.12 Agriculture Regulations... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.12 Fire-cure. To cure tobacco under artificial atmospheric conditions by the use of open fires, the smoke...

  6. 7 CFR 30.12 - Fire-cure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire-cure. 30.12 Section 30.12 Agriculture Regulations... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.12 Fire-cure. To cure tobacco under artificial atmospheric conditions by the use of open fires, the smoke...

  7. 7 CFR 30.12 - Fire-cure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-cure. 30.12 Section 30.12 Agriculture Regulations... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.12 Fire-cure. To cure tobacco under artificial atmospheric conditions by the use of open fires, the smoke...

  8. 7 CFR 30.12 - Fire-cure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire-cure. 30.12 Section 30.12 Agriculture Regulations... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.12 Fire-cure. To cure tobacco under artificial atmospheric conditions by the use of open fires, the smoke...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3502 - Air-cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3502 Air-cured. Tobacco cured under natural atmospheric conditions without the use of fire, except for the purpose of preventing pole-burn in damp weather....

  10. Color changes in resin cement polymerized with different curing lights under indirect restorations

    PubMed Central

    Bayindir, Funda; Ilday, Nurcan Ozakar; Bayindir, Yusuf Ziya; Karataş, Ozcan; Gurpinar, Aysel

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of different interface materials and curing units on color changes in a resin cement material. Materials and Methods: Three interface materials and different curing systems, quartz-tungsten-halogen and polywave and monowave light-emitting diode (LED) light curing units, were studied at two-time intervals. Polystyrene strip was used as a control group. All measurements were made on a white background for standard color measurement. According to the CIE L*a*b* color space, the baseline color values of each specimen were measured. Differences between the measurements were calculated as ΔE, ΔL, Δa, and Δb. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's tests (α = 0.05) with SPSS 20.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). ANOVA revealed significance for interface materials and curing units and time for ΔE (P < 0.05). Results: Interaction between polymerizing units, material and time was not significant (P > 0.05). Monowave LED exhibited significantly higher color changes than the other units ([P < 0.05] [ΔE 2.94 ± 0.44]). QTH promoted composite specimens significantly less color change ([P < 0.05] [ΔE 0.87 ± 0.41]). Conclusion: This study concluded that color of resin cement used in the adhesion of indirect restorations was affected by curing device light and indirect restoration material type. PMID:26957793

  11. Dynamic and static curing of ethylcellulose:PVA-PEG graft copolymer film coatings.

    PubMed

    Muschert, S; Siepmann, F; Leclercq, B; Siepmann, J

    2011-08-01

    When using aqueous polymer dispersions for the preparation of controlled-release film coatings, instability during long-term storage can be a crucial concern. Generally, a thermal after treatment is required to assure sufficient polymer particle coalescence. This curing step is often performed under static conditions in an oven, which is a time-consuming and rather cumbersome process. Dynamic curing in the fluidized bed presents an attractive alternative. However, yet little is known on the required conditions, in particular: temperature, time, and relative humidity, to provide stable film structures. The aim of this study was to better understand the importance of these key factors and to evaluate the potential of dynamic curing compared with that of static curing. Recently proposed ethylcellulose:poly(vinyl alcohol)-poly(ethylene glycol) graft copolymer (PVA-PEG graft copolymer) dispersions were coated on theophylline and metoprolol succinate-loaded starter cores, exhibiting different osmotic activity. Importantly, processing times as short as 2h were found to be sufficient to provide long-term stable films, even upon open storage under stress conditions. For instance, 2-h dynamic curing at 57°C and 15% relative humidity are assuring stable film structures in the case of theophylline matrix cores coated with 15%ethylcellulose:PVA-PEG graft copolymer 85:15. Importantly, the approach is also applicable to other types of drugs and starter cores, and the underlying drug release mechanisms remain unaltered.

  12. UV curing with water based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, E.; Haeussling, L.; Jaeger, U.

    1995-12-01

    Conventional coatings technology requires a large effort to reduce emissions of organic solvents and other volatile organic components. Alleviations, yet not a solution to this problem are high solids coatings formulations or even powder coatings technology. An entirely different concept is used in radiation curing of coatings, where all the elements of the originally low molar mass components of the coating formulation are polymerized into one large network. Thus there should be no emissions of low molar mass compounds from UV- or Electron beam cured films. Water as a diluent in UV-curable formulations can either be used directly as a solvent or in emulsions (with the help of emulsifying agents) without a loss in performance of coatings properties, such as hardness, elasticity and reactivity. To the contrary, the prearrangement of functionalities in the final coating due to the prior phase separation in the emulsion seems to slightly increase hardness and adhesion as well as elasticity.

  13. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for HIV cure

    PubMed Central

    Kuritzkes, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    The apparent cure of an HIV-infected person following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from an allogeneic donor homozygous for the ccr5Δ32 mutation has stimulated the search for strategies to eradicate HIV or to induce long-term remission without requiring ongoing antiretroviral therapy. A variety of approaches, including allogeneic HSCT from CCR5-deficient donors and autologous transplantation of genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells, are currently under investigation. This Review covers the experience with HSCT in HIV infection to date and provides a survey of ongoing work in the field. The challenges of developing HSCT for HIV cure in the context of safe, effective, and convenient once-daily antiretroviral therapy are also discussed. PMID:26731468

  14. Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of "standard" polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

  15. Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of "standard" polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal or oxide may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

  16. Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, J.D.

    1993-11-09

    The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of standard polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

  17. Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, J.D.

    1995-03-07

    The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of ``standard`` polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal or oxide may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

  18. Light-Curing Adhesive Repair Tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Ronald; Haight, Andrea Hoyt

    2009-01-01

    Adhesive tapes, the adhesive resins of which can be cured (and thereby rigidized) by exposure to ultraviolet and/or visible light, are being developed as repair patch materials. The tapes, including their resin components, consist entirely of solid, low-outgassing, nonhazardous or minimally hazardous materials. They can be used in air or in vacuum and can be cured rapidly, even at temperatures as low as -20 C. Although these tapes were originally intended for use in repairing structures in outer space, they can also be used on Earth for quickly repairing a wide variety of structures. They can be expected to be especially useful in situations in which it is necessary to rigidize tapes after wrapping them around or pressing them onto the parts to be repaired.

  19. Aloe vera as cure for lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Patil, Bharati A; Bhaskar, Hebbar Pragati; Pol, Jyoti S; Sodhi, Amandeep; Madhu, Asha V

    2013-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a difficult condition to treat because of its chronic nature. Various treatment modalities have resulted in partial regression of symptoms but not a complete cure. Aloe vera, a product with minimal adverse effects, can be tried to treat this disorder. A 38-year-old male patient diagnosed with lichen planus of the skin and the oral mucosa was suffering from severe pain and a burning sensation intraorally and pruritus of the skin lesions. Considering the extensive involvement, an herbal alternative was considered. The patient was prescribed aloe vera juice and gel application for two months. At the nine-month follow-up, the patient was symptom-free and totally cured of the intraoral and skin lesions.

  20. Time-dependent activity of Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 and homeostasis of intracellular pH in astrocytes exposed to CoCl2 treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Li, Ling; Zhang, Zhenxiang; Kan, Quancheng; Gao, Feng; Chen, Suyan

    2016-05-01

    Hypoxia causes injury to the central nervous system during stroke and has significant effects on pH homeostasis. Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) is important in the mechanisms of hypoxia and intracellular pH (pHi) homeostasis. As a well-established hypoxia-mimetic agent, CoCl2 stabilizes and increases the expression of hypoxia inducible factor‑1α (HIF-1α), which regulates several genes involved in pH balance, including NHE1. However, it is not fully understood whether NHE1 is activated in astrocytes under CoCl2 treatment. In the current study, pHi and NHE activity were analyzed using the pHi‑sensitive dye BCECF‑AM. Using cariporide (an NHE1‑specific inhibitor) and EIPA (an NHE nonspecific inhibitor), the current study demonstrated that it was NHE1, not the other NHE isoforms, that was important in regulating pHi homeostasis in astrocytes during CoCl2 treatment. Additionally, the present study observed that, during the early period of CoCl2 treatment (the first 2 h), NHE1 activity and pHi dropped immediately, and NHE1 mRNA expression was reduced compared with control levels, whereas expression levels of the NHE1 protein had not yet changed. In the later period of CoCl2 treatment, NHE1 activity and pHi significantly increased compared with the control levels, as did the mRNA and protein expression levels of NHE1. Furthermore, the cell viability and injury of astrocytes was not changed during the initial 8 h of CoCl2 treatment; their deterioration was associated with the higher levels of pHi and NHE1 activity. The current study concluded that NHE1 activity and pHi homeostasis are regulated by CoCl2 treatment in a time-dependent manner in astrocytes, and may be responsible for the changes in cell viability and injury observed under hypoxia-mimetic conditions induced by CoCl2 treatment.

  1. pH Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunelli, Bruno; Scagnolari, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The exposition of the pervasive concept of pH, of its foundations and implementation as a meaningful quantitative measurement, in nonspecialist university texts is often not easy to follow because too many of its theoretical and operative underpinnings are neglected. To help the inquiring student we provide a concise introduction to the depth just…

  2. pH optrode

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M. Allen; Langry, Kevin C.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for forming a long-lasting, stable, pH-sensitive dye-acrylamide copolymer useful as a pH-sensitive material for use in an optrode or other device sensitive to pH. An optrode may be made by mechanically attaching the copolymer to a sensing device such as an optical fiber.

  3. Ph.D. shortage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The late 1990s will see a shortage of Ph.D. graduates, according to the Association of American Universities, Washington, D.C. AAU's new comprehensive study, “The Ph.D. Shortage: The Federal Role,” reports that competition for new Ph.D.s is already intense and can only intensify because demand is greater than supply in both academic and nonacademic markets.Doctoral education plays an increasingly important role in U.S. research and development programs. Students have a pivotal part in doing research and enriching it with new ideas. The AAU report says that graduate students are “major determinants of the creativity and productivity of U.S. academic research, the source of more than 50% of the nation's basic research.’ The market for doctoral education extends beyond the university. In 1985, about 43% of all Ph.D.s employed in this country were working outside higher education; the demand for doctorate recipients in nonacademic sectors continues to grow.

  4. Sage Gene Expression Profiles Characterizing Cure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    early stage tumours (the cacoethesis of Celsus). Twentieth century progress in antisepsis , anaesthesia, and surgery changed this point of view. The first... antisepsis or anaesthesia. Nitrous oxide was described in 1842 and ether was first demonstrated in 1846. Schleiden (1838), a German, was among the first to...and antisepsis which allowed surgeons to attempt a radical cure of breast cancer. He describes a series of 616 cases, 70% of whom had skin infiltration

  5. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Brophy, Brenor L.; Gonsalves, Peter R.; Maghsoodi, Sina; Colson, Thomas E.; Yang, Yu S.; Abrams, Ze'ev R.

    2016-04-19

    Disclosed is a coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly, systems and methods for curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using high temperature air-knives, infrared emitters and direct heat applicators are disclosed.

  6. Improved Cure-in-Place Silicone Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, C. E.; Sweet, J.; Gonzalez, R.

    1982-01-01

    Two improved cure-in-place silicone-elastomer-based adhesives have low thermal expansion and low thermal conductivity. Adhesives are flexible at low temperature and withstand high temperatures without disintegrating. New ablative compounds were initially developed for in-flight repair of insulating tile on Space Shuttle orbiter. Could find use in other applications requiring high-performance adhesives, such as sealants for solar collectors.

  7. Characterization and Cure Monitoring of Structural Adhesives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    OX tiLE (OP? MTL TR 89-15 AD CHARACTERIZATION AND CURE MONITORING OF STRUCTURAL ADHESIVES CD WALTER X. ZUKAS, HOWARD H. WONG, DAVID A. DUNN, and...REPORT NUMB3ER 7. AUTHOR(s) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBERs) Walter X. Zukas, Howard H. Wong, David A. Dunn, and Stanley E. Wentworth I. PERFORING...Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 1 ATTN: B. Fanconi, Polymer Standards Division 1 D. Hunston, Polymer Standards Division 1 Dr. Stanley M. Barkin , Staff

  8. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Brophy, Brenor L; Maghsoodi, Sina; Neyman, Patrick J; Gonsalves, Peter R; Hirsch, Jeffrey G; Yang, Yu S

    2015-02-24

    Disclosed are coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly systems and methods for skin curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using a high temperature air-knife are disclosed.

  9. Applications of dielectric analysis for cure monitoring and control in the polyester SMC/BMC molding industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, David D.; Day, David R.; Craven, Kelly J.

    1995-03-01

    Dielectric analysis is routinely used for monitoring the cure of thermosetting resins. Implantable, disposable sensors allow measurements of the curing process to be made in various locations throughout a part. Permanent, reusable sensors flush mounted in the mold allow the measurements to be made automatically during each molding cycle. This paper discusses process development, QA/QC, and production control in the polyester SMC/BMC industry. The curing rate through the cross-section of SMC parts of thicknesses up to 3/4 of an inch is examined. The effect of aging temperature on the reactivity of BMC demonstrates the use of dielectric analysis as a QA/QC test. Finally, it is shown that overall cycle times can be reduced by real time identification of the part-to-part variability in cure times during production molding. This allows closed-loop feedback to the press controller as to the proper time to demold each part.

  10. Spontaneous recovery of bone mass after cure of endogenous hypercortisolism.

    PubMed

    Randazzo, Maria Elena; Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Vanzulli, Angelo; Loli, Paola

    2012-06-01

    Patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) develop osteopenia-osteoporosis. The present study evaluates the recovery of bone mass within 2 years after remission of hypercortisolism and in long term follow up, an issue rarely addressed. Twenty patients (6M, 14F, 3 post-menopausal, 15-64 years old), 15 with Cushing's disease, 2 with ectopic ACTH syndrome, 3 with ACTH-independent CS were studied. BMD, T and Z scores at lumbar spine and proximal femur were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before and 7-33 months after treatment of hypercortisolism. Five patients were treated with bisphosphonates. Four patients had hypogonadism and 4 GH-deficiency. At baseline all patients showed osteopenia/osteoporosis and the spine appeared more damaged than the femur; femur BMD was positively related with body mass index (BMI). No correlations were observed between spine and femur bone parameters and duration of disease or severity of hypercortisolism. Bone parameters did not differ in patients with or without GH or other pituitary deficiencies. After cure of hypercortisolism a significant improvement in spine BMD, Z and T scores and in femur Z and T scores was observed with normalization in 3 patients; there was no significant difference in percent improvement between femur and spine. The increase in bone parameters at spine and femur was independent from values at baseline. The percent increase in spine T and Z scores was positively related with time elapsed since cure. Bisphosphonates did not influence the recovery of bone mineralization. In long term follow up, after a median period of 7 years a further improvement in bone density was observed in 100% of patients at spine and in 9/11 at femur, although 8/11 patients still had femoral and/or vertebral T score in the range of osteopenia/osteoporosis. Spontaneous improvement of osteoporosis after cure of hypercortisolism occurs both at spine and femur, is independent from basal conditions and not affected by bisphosphonates

  11. Cure-WISE: HETDEX Data Reduction with Astro-WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snigula, J. M.; Drory, N.; Fabricius, M.; Landriau, M.; Montesano, F.; Hill, G. J.; Gebhardt, K.; Cornell, M. E.

    2014-05-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX, Hill et al. 2012b) is a blind spectroscopic survey to map the evolution of dark energy using Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies at redshifts 1.9< ɀ <3.5 as tracers. The survey will use an array of 75 integral field spectrographs called the Visible Integral field Replicable Unit (IFU) Spectrograph (VIRUS, Hill et al. 2012c). The 10m HET (Ramsey et al. 1998) currently receives a wide-field upgrade (Hill et al. 2012a) to accomodate the spectrographs and to provide the needed field of view. Over the projected five year run of the survey we expect to obtain approximately 170 GB of data each night. For the data reduction we developed the Cure pipeline, to automatically find and calibrate the observed spectra, subtract the sky background, and detect and classify different types of sources. Cure employs rigorous statistical methods and complete pixel-level error propagation throughout the reduction process to ensure Poisson-limited performance and meaningful significance values. To automate the reduction of the whole dataset we implemented the Cure pipeline in the Astro-WISE framework. This integration provides for HETDEX a database backend with complete dependency tracking of the various reduction steps, automated checks, and a searchable interface to the detected sources and user management. It can be used to create various web interfaces for data access and quality control. Astro-WISE allows us to reduce the data from all the IFUs in parallel on a compute cluster. This cluster allows us to reduce the observed data in quasi real time and still have excess capacity for rerunning parts of the reduction. Finally, the Astro-WISE interface will be used to provide access to reduced data products to the general community.

  12. IMPACT OF CURING TEMPERATURE ON THE SATURATED LIQUID PERMEABILITY OF SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, F.; Harbour, J.

    2011-02-14

    E and hydraulic conductivity. Therefore, it is possible to use E values to estimate the values of hydraulic conductivity. Measurement of Young's modulus is much easier than the measurement of permeability of Saltstone mixes and facilitates the measurement of the time dependence hydraulic conductivity. The results presented in this report show that changes in permeability as a function of curing temperature appear to be related to microstructural changes in the cured Saltstone mixes. Backscattered electron microscopy images revealed significant differences between the samples cured at different temperatures.

  13. Temperature transmission of high-output light-curing units through dentin.

    PubMed

    Loney, R W; Price, R B

    2001-01-01

    Light-curing units used for polymerizing restorative resins produce heat during operation. Newer curing units with concentrating light guides or different light sources may require shorter curing times, however, the effect of such modifications on temperature transfer to the pulp is unknown. This study examined the effect of high output light-curing units on temperature transfer through resin composite and dentin. Temperature rise was measured for 40 seconds for one curing light (Optilux 401 Curing Light) with either a standard 8 mm light guide tip or a light-concentrating tip (Turbo Light Guide), and for three seconds with a plasma arc lamp (Apollo 95E Curing Light). Temperatures were directly recorded at the tip of the light guide and through a sandwich composed of a 1 mm thick pre-cured cylinder of resin composite and dentin (dentin thickness either 0.58 mm or 1.45 mm). The mean temperature rise ranged from 1.8degrees C, measured through the sandwich of 1 mm of composite and 1.45 mm of dentin with the plasma are unit, to 26.4degrees C measured directly on the Turbo light guide. For each light guide, the temperature increase was greatest when measured directly on the curing tip and least when measured through the composite and 1.45 mm dentin specimens. When measured through the composite/dentin sandwich, the plasma arc unit produced the lowest temperature increase (0.58 mm thick dentin specimen = 5.1 degrees C; 1.45 mm thick dentin specimen = 1.8 degrees C). For a given thickness of resin, the differences in temperature change for all comparisons among the three curing unit/light guides were significant at the 95% level of confidence. Also, for a given light, the differences in temperature for all comparisons among the dentin thicknesses were significant at the 95% level of confidence. However, there were three comparisons of light unit and dentin thickness interaction that were not significant at the 95% leyel of confidence. For all other comparisons of

  14. Microhardness and Young's modulus of a bonding resin cured with different curing units.

    PubMed

    Yamauti, Monica; Nikaido, Toru; Ikeda, Masaomi; Otsuki, Masayuki; Tagami, Junji

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluated the microhardness and Young's modulus of a photocurable bonding resin, Clearfil SE Bond (SE), cured with four curing units at different distances. The curing units used were: Candelux (Quartz-tungsten halogen), Lux-O-Max (Blue light emitting diode), Arc-light (Plasma-arc), and Rayblaze (Metal halide). Discs of bonding resin were prepared using vinyl molds and were photocured at the top surface with light tip at three different distances (contact, 2 and 4 mm). After 24 hours of storage in water at 37 degrees C, the specimens were sectioned into halves, embedded in epoxy resin, and polished. The microhardness and Young's modulus of this bonding resin were measured using a nanoindentation tester. Six specimens were prepared for each group. The data was statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA test and Tukey multiple comparison test (p < 0.01). The microhardness of SE was affected by light source and distance, as was Young's modulus. Candelux and Rayblaze presented the highest hardness and Young's modulus results. Both properties presented high values when the curing unit tip was maintained in contact with the irradiated surface. Increasing the distance between the curing unit tip and the irradiated surface decreased the hardness and Young's modulus of SE.

  15. GLASS TRANSITION AND DEGREE OF CONVERSION OF A LIGHT-CURED ORTHODONTIC COMPOSITE

    PubMed Central

    Sostena, Michela M. D. S.; Nogueira, Renata A.; Grandini, Carlos R.; Moraes, João Carlos Silos

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the glass transition temperature (Tg) and degree of conversion (DC) of a light-cured (Fill Magic) versus a chemically cured (Concise) orthodontic composite. Material and Methods: Anelastic relaxation spectroscopy was used for the first time to determine the Tg of a dental composite, while the DC was evaluated by infrared spectroscopy. The light-cured composite specimens were irradiated with a commercial LED light-curing unit using different exposure times (40, 90 and 120 s). Results: Fill Magic presented lower Tg than Concise (35-84°C versus 135°C), but reached a higher DC. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that Fill Magic has lower Tg than Concise due to its higher organic phase content, and that when this light-cured composite is used to bond orthodontic brackets, a minimum energy density of 7.8 J/cm2 is necessary to reach adequate conversion level and obtain satisfactory adhesion. PMID:20027428

  16. Describing Adequacy of cure with maximum hardness ratios and non-linear regression.

    PubMed

    Bouschlicher, Murray; Berning, Kristen; Qian, Fang

    2008-01-01

    Knoop Hardness (KH) ratios (HR) > or = 80% are commonly used as criteria for the adequate cure of a composite. These per-specimen HRs can be misleading, as both numerator and denominator may increase concurrently, prior to reaching an asymptotic, top-surface maximum hardness value (H(MAX)). Extended cure times were used to establish H(MAX) and descriptive statistics, and non-linear regression analysis were used to describe the relationship between exposure duration and HR and predict the time required for HR-H(MAX) = 80%. Composite samples 2.00 x 5.00 mm diameter (n = 5/grp) were cured for 10 seconds, 20 seconds, 40 seconds, 60 seconds, 90 seconds, 120 seconds, 180 seconds and 240 seconds in a 2-composite x 2-light curing unit design. A microhybrid (Point 4, P4) or microfill resin (Heliomolar, HM) composite was cured with a QTH or LED light curing unit and then stored in the dark for 24 hours prior to KH testing. Non-linear regression was calculated with: H = (H(MAX)-c)(1-e(-kt)) +c, H(MAX) = maximum hardness (a theoretical asymptotic value), c = constant (t = 0), k = rate constant and t = exposure duration describes the relationship between radiant exposure (irradiance x time) and HRs. Exposure durations for HR-H(MAX) = 80% were calculated. Two-sample t-tests for pairwise comparisons evaluated relative performance of the light curing units for similar surface x composite x exposure (10-90s). A good measure of goodness-of-fit of the non-linear regression, r2, ranged from 0.68-0.95. (mean = 0.82). Microhybrid (P4) exposure to achieve HR-H(MAX = 80% was 21 seconds for QTH and 34 seconds for the LED light curing unit. Corresponding values for microfill (HM) were 71 and 74 seconds, respectively. P4 HR-H(MAX) of LED vs QTH was statistically similar for 10 to 40 seconds, while HM HR-H(MAX) of LED was significantly lower than QTH for 10 to 40 seconds. It was concluded that redefined hardness ratios based on maximum hardness used in conjunction with non-linear regression

  17. Two-year color changes of light-cured composites: influence of different light-curing units.

    PubMed

    Usumez, Aslihan; Ozturk, Nilgun; Ozturk, Bora

    2005-01-01

    This study determined color changes in a composite cured with various types of curing units after two years. A hybrid (Clearfil AP-X) composite was cured with a conventional halogen, a high intensity halogen, a plasma arc and a light emitting diode unit. The specimens were stored in light-proof boxes after the curing procedure to avoid further exposure to light and stored in 37 degrees C in 100% humidity. Colorimetric values of the specimens immediately after curing and after two years were measured using a colorimeter. The CIE 1976 L*a*b color system was used to determine color differences. Differences from baseline were calculated as deltaE*ab. Data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance (p<0.05). The deltaE*ab values varied significantly, depending on the curing unit used. The specimens cured with a plasma arc curing unit induced significantly higher color changes than any other specimen and the color differences were also visually appreciable by the non-skilled operator (deltaE*ab >2.5). The specimens cured with a high intensity halogen curing unit produced the lowest color change; however, there were no statistically significant differences among the color changes of specimens cured with conventional halogen, high intensity halogen and the light emitting diode unit, and the color changes were not clinically relevant (deltaE*ab <2.5). The results of this study suggest that composite materials undergo measurable changes due to curing unit exposure. The specimens cured with a plasma arc light showed the highest color changes as compared to specimens cured with other curing units.

  18. Cure shrinkage effects in epoxy and polycyanate matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Spellman, G.P.

    1995-12-22

    A relatively new advanced composite matrix, polycyanate ester, was evaluated for cure shrinkage. The chemical cure shrinkage of composites is difficult to model but a number of clever experimental techniques are available to the investigator. In this work the method of curing a prepreg layup on top of a previously cured laminate of identical ply composition is utilized. The polymeric matrices used in advanced composites have been primarily epoxies and therefore a common system of this type, Fiberite 3501-6, was used as a base case material. Three polycyanate matrix systems were selected for the study. These are: Fiberite 954-2A, YLA RS-3, and Bryte Technology BTCy-1. The first three of these systems were unidirectional prepreg with carbon fiber reinforcement. The Bryte Technology material was reinforced with E-glass fabric. The technique used to evaluate cure shrinkage results in distortion of the flatness of an otherwise symmetric laminate. The first laminate is cured in a conventional fashion. An identical layup is cured on this first laminate. During the second cure all constituents are exposed to the same thermal cycles. However, only the new portion of the laminate will experience volumetric changes associate with matrix cure. The additional strain of cure shrinkage results in an unsymmetric distribution of residual stresses and an associated warpage of the laminate. The baseline material, Fiberite 3501-6, exhibited cure shrinkage that was in accordance with expectations. Cure strains were {minus}4.5E-04. The YLA RS-3 material had cure strains somewhat lower at {minus}3.2E-04. The Fiberite 954-2A cure strain was {minus}1.5E-04 that is 70% lower than the baseline material. The glass fabric material with the Bryte BTCy-1 matrix did not result in meaningful results because the processing methods were not fully compatible with the material.

  19. Curing and Post-curing Viscoelastic Monitoring of an Epoxy Resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodhbani, N.; Marechal, P.; Duflo, H.

    An experimental setup has been developed for the monitoring of ultrasonic parameters during polymerization in the context of the monitoring of composite plate production. An analytical approach is proposed based on the modeling of the wave velocity fitted by a Weibull distribution and was investigated to validate this approach by the Debye series modeling (DSM). The monitoring of the cured epoxy is also performed after curing in order to study the thermal transformation compared with DSC measurements. As a result, an approximated frequency-temperature (f, T) model is proposed for attenuation and velocity frequency and temperature dispersions.

  20. The panacea toolbox of a PhD biomedical student.

    PubMed

    Skaik, Younis

    2014-01-01

    Doing a PhD (doctor of philosophy) for the sake of contribution to knowledge should give the student an immense enthusiasm through the PhD period. It is the time in one's life that one spends to "hit the nail on the head" in a specific area and topic of interest. A PhD consists mostly of hard work and tenacity; however, luck and genius might also play a little role. You can pass all PhD phases without having both luck and genius. The PhD student should have pre-PhD and PhD toolboxes, which are "sine quibus non" for getting successfully a PhD degree. In this manuscript, the toolboxes of the PhD student are discussed.

  1. The Scientific Quest for Lasting Youth: Prospects for Curing Aging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract People have always sought eternal life and everlasting youth. Recent technological breakthroughs and our growing understanding of aging have given strength to the idea that a cure for human aging can eventually be developed. As such, it is crucial to debate the long-term goals and potential impact of the field. Here, I discuss the scientific prospect of eradicating human aging. I argue that curing aging is scientifically possible and not even the most challenging enterprise in the biosciences. Developing the means to abolish aging is also an ethical endeavor because the goal of biomedical research is to allow people to be as healthy as possible for as long as possible. There is no evidence, however, that we are near to developing the technologies permitting radical life extension. One major difficulty in aging research is the time and costs it takes to do experiments and test interventions. I argue that unraveling the functioning of the genome and developing predictive computer models of human biology and disease are essential to increase the accuracy of medical interventions, including in the context of life extension, and exponential growth in informatics and genomics capacity might lead to rapid progress. Nonetheless, developing the tools for significantly modifying human biology is crucial to intervening in a complex process like aging. Yet in spite of advances in areas like regenerative medicine and gene therapy, the development of clinical applications has been slow and this remains a key hurdle for achieving radical life extension in the foreseeable future. PMID:25132068

  2. 17-4 PH and 15-5 PH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Howard T.

    1995-01-01

    17-4 PH and 15-5 PH are extremely useful and versatile precipitation-hardening stainless steels. Armco 17-4 PH is well suited for the magnetic particle inspection requirements of Aerospace Material Specification. Armco 15-5 PH and 17-4 PH are produced in billet, plate, bar, and wire. Also, 15-5 PH is able to meet the stringent mechanical properties required in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Both products are easy to heat treat and machine, making them very useful in many applications.

  3. Degree of conversion of two dual-cured resin cements light-irradiated through zirconia ceramic disks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kim, Young-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic study was to measure the degree of conversion (DC) of dual-cured resin cements light-irradiated through zirconia ceramic disks with different thicknesses using various light-curing methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS Zirconia ceramic disks (KT12) with three different thicknesses (1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mm) were prepared. The light transmittance of the disks was measured using ultraviolet visible near-infrared spectroscopy. Four different light-curing protocols were used by combining two curing light modes (Elipar TriLight (standard mode) and bluephase G2 (high power mode)) with light-exposure times of 40 and 120 seconds. The DCs of the two dual-cured resin cements (Duo-Link and Panavia F2.0) light-irradiated through the disks was analyzed at three time intervals (3, 7, and 10 minutes) by FTIR spectroscopy. The data was analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA (α=.05).Two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test were used to analyze the 10 minute DC results. RESULTS The 1.0 mm thick disk exhibited low light transmittance (<25%), and the transmittance decreased considerably with increasing disk thickness. All groups exhibited significantly higher 10 minute DC values than the 3 or 7 minute values (P<.05), but some exceptions were observed in Duo-Link. Two-way ANOVA revealed that the influence of the zirconia disk thickness on the 10 minute DC was dependent on the light-curing methods (P<.001). This finding was still valid even at 4.0 mm thickness, where substantial light attenuation took place. CONCLUSION The curing of the dual-cured resin cements was affected significantly by the light-curing technique, even though the additional chemical polymerization mechanism worked effectively. PMID:24353887

  4. The development of low temperature curing adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, H. E.; Sutherland, J. D.; Hom, J. M.; Sheppard, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    An approach for the development of a practical low temperature (293 K-311 K/68 F-100 F) curing adhesive system based on a family of amide/ester resins was studied and demonstrated. The work was conducted on resin optimization and adhesive compounding studies. An improved preparative method was demonstrated which involved the reaction of an amine-alcohol precursor, in a DMF solution with acid chloride. Experimental studies indicated that an adhesive formulation containing aluminum powder provided the best performance when used in conjunction with a commercial primer.

  5. The cure for employee malaise--motivation.

    PubMed

    Dawson, K M; Dawson, S N

    1991-01-01

    Although working conditions, hours, pay, and advancement opportunities are better now than in the 1950s--the "golden age" of American business--today's workers are significantly less satisfied. Why? The authors believe the cause of this malaise is lack of motivation. This article examines several techniques to cure employee malaise and discusses the long-term benefits of these techniques, which include empowerment, recognition, career development, the Pygmalion effect, incentives, and rewards. By making a commitment to these motivational techniques, managers will boost the morale and enthusiasm of their employees and their organization. This motivational process is not quick and easy; developing your employees is an ongoing process.

  6. Reaction cured glass and glass coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, H. E.; Leiser, D. B.; Katvala, V. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to reaction cured glass and glass coatings prepared by reacting a compound selected from the group consisting of silicon tetraboride, silicon hexaboride, other boron silicides, boron and mixtures with a reactive glass frit composed of a porous high silica borosilicate glass and boron oxide. The glassy composites of the present invention are useful as coatings on low density fibrous porous silica insulations used as heat shields and for articles such as reaction vessels that are subjected to high temperatures with rapid heating and cooling and that require resistance to temperature and repeated thermal shock at temperatures up to about 1482C (2700PF).

  7. Epoxy resin cure. [Phenyl glycidyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.E.; Woodburn, G.L.

    1986-07-01

    The reactions that occur between the model epoxy, phenyl glycidyl ether, and the cure agent dicyandiamide (DICY) have been investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. It is shown that the reaction at 130/sup 0/C requires 90 min for completion when catalyzed by boron trifluoride monoethyl amine (BF/sub 3/-MEA). At least three major products are formed. The identity of these products is based on previously published spectroscopic data. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Monitoring fiber stress during curing of single fiber glass- and graphite-epoxy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Madhukar, M.S.; Kosuri, R.P.; Bowles, K.J.

    1994-11-01

    The difference in thermal expansion characteristics of epoxy matrices and graphite fibers can produce significant residual stresses in the fibers during curing of composite materials. Tests on single fiber glass-epoxy and graphite-epoxy composite specimens were conducted in which the glass and graphite fibers were preloaded in tension, and the epoxy matrix was cast around the fibers. The fiber tension was monitored while the matrix was placed around the fiber and subjected to the temperature-time curing cycle. Two mechanisms responsible for producing stress in embedded fibers were identified as matrix thermal expansion and contraction and matrix cure shrinkage. A simple analysis based on the change in fiber tension during the curing cycle was conducted to estimate the produced stresses. Experimental results on single fiber glass- and graphite-epoxy composites show that the fiber was subjected to significant tensile stresses when the temperature was raised from the first to the second dwell period. When initial fiber pretension is about 60 percent of the fiber failure load, these curing-induced stresses can cause tensile fracture of the embedded fiber.

  9. Stakeholder Engagement in HIV Cure Research: Lessons Learned from Other HIV Interventions and the Way Forward

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Carissa; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Excler, Jean-Louis; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clinical and basic science advances have raised considerable hope for achieving an HIV cure by accelerating research. This research is dominated primarily by issues about the nature and design of current and future clinical trials. Stakeholder engagement for HIV cure remains in its early stages. Our analysis examines timing and mechanisms of historical stakeholder engagement in other HIV research areas for HIV-uninfected individuals [vaccine development and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)], and HIV-infected individuals (treatment as prevention, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and treatment of acute HIV infection) and articulate a plan for HIV cure stakeholder engagement. The experience from HIV vaccine development shows that early engagement of stakeholders helped manage expectations, mitigating the failure of several vaccine trials, while paving the way for subsequent trials. The relatively late engagement of HIV stakeholders in PrEP research may partly explain some of the implementation challenges. The treatment-related stakeholder engagement was strong and community-led from the onset and helped translation from research to implementation. We outline five steps to initiate and sustain stakeholder engagement in HIV cure research and conclude that stakeholder engagement represents a key investment in which stakeholders mutually agree to share knowledge, benefits, and risk of failure. Effective stakeholder engagement prevents misconceptions. As HIV cure research advances from early trials involving subjects with generally favorable prognosis to studies involving greater risk and uncertainty, success may depend on early and deliberate engagement of stakeholders. PMID:26061668

  10. Monitoring cure properties of out-of-autoclave BMI composites using IFPI sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Amardeep; Anandan, Sudharshan; Yuan, Lei; Watkins, Steve E.; Chandrashekhara, K.; Xiao, Hai; Phan, Nam

    2016-04-01

    A non-destructive technique for inspection of a Bismaleimide (BMI) composite is presented using an optical fiber sensor. High performance BMI composites are used for Aerospace application for their mechanical strength. They are also used as an alternative to toughened epoxy resins. A femtosecond-laser-inscribed Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) sensor is used to perform real time cure monitoring of a BMI composite. The composite is cured using the out-of-autoclave (OOA) process. The IFPI sensor was used for in-situ monitoring; different curing stages are analyzed throughout the curing process. Temperature-induced-strain was measured to analyze the cure properties. The IFPI structure comprises of two reflecting mirrors inscribed on the core of the fiber using a femtosecond-laser manufacturing process. The manufacturing process makes the sensor thermally stable and robust for embedded applications. The sensor can withstand very high temperatures of up to 850 °C. The temperature and strain sensitivities of embedded IFPI sensor were measured to be 1.4 pm/μepsilon and 0.6 pm/μepsilon respectively.

  11. Monitoring Fiber Stress During Curing of Single Fiber Glass- and Graphite-Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madhukar, Madhu S.; Kosuri, Ranga P.; Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    The difference in thermal expansion characteristics of epoxy matrices and graphite fibers can produce significant residual stresses in the fibers during curing of composite materials. Tests on single fiber glass-epoxy and graphite-epoxy composite specimens were conducted in which the glass and graphite fibers were preloaded in tension, and the epoxy matrix was cast around the fibers. The fiber tension was monitored while the matrix was placed around the fiber and subjected to the temperature-time curing cycle. Two mechanisms responsible for producing stress in embedded fibers were identified as matrix thermal expansion and contraction and matrix cure shrinkage. A simple analysis based on the change in fiber tension during the curing cycle was conducted to estimate the produced stresses. Experimental results on single fiber glass- and graphite-epoxy composites show that the fiber was subjected to significant tensile stresses when the temperature was raised from the first to the second dwell period. When initial fiber pretension is about 60 percent of the fiber failure load, these curing-induced stresses can cause tensile fracture of the embedded fiber.

  12. Inorganic polymers from alkali activation of metakaolin: Effect of setting and curing on structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Catauro, Michelina; Ponzoni, Chiara; Bollino, Flavia; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-04-01

    Geopolymers, obtained by chemical reaction between aluminosilicate oxides and silicates under highly alkaline conditions, are studied in this paper. The proposed mechanism of geopolymer setting and hardening or curing consists of a dissolution, a transportation or an orientation, as well as a polycondensation step. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of the curing time and temperature, the relative humidity and the reagents temperature on the geopolymerization process in order to obtain a resistant matrix usable for inertization of hazardous wastes. The evolution of the process from the precursors dissolution to final geopolymer matrix hardening has been followed by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, SEM/EDS and leaching tests. The results show the significant influence of both curing temperature in the curing stage and of the mould materials on the matrix stability. The easy-to-run preparation procedure for a chemically stable metakaolin geopolymer individuated can be summarized as reagents setting and curing at room temperature and material mould which permits moisture level around 40%.

  13. Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kuyng Mi; Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2014-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP), crossbreed (Landrace×Yorkshire)♀×Duroc♂ (LYD), Berkshire (Ber), and Duroc (Du) pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed) were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w) and 100 ppm NaNO2, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteristics were assessed on the biceps femoris muscle of the hams. The results revealed that the highest weight loss was found in the dry-cured ham of LYD breed and the lowest weight loss was found in Ber dry-cured ham. The KNP dry-cured ham contain higher intramuscular fat level than other breed hams (p<0.05). It was observed that the dry-cured ham made from KNP breed had the lowest water activity value and highest salt content, while the LYD dry-cure ham had higher total volatile basic nitrogen content than the Ber and Du hams (p<0.05). Zinc, iron and total monounsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in KNP ham while polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in Du ham when compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). Additionally, the KNP dry-cured ham possessed higher Commission International de l’Eclairage (CIE) a* value, while the Du dry-cured ham had higher L*, CIE b* and hue angle values (p<0.05). Furthermore, breed significantly affected the sensory attributes of dry-cured hams with higher scores for color, aroma and taste found in KNP dry-cured ham as compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). The overall outcome of the study is that the breed has a potential effect on the specific chemical composition, texture, color and sensorial properties of dry-cured hams. These data could be useful for meat processors to select the suitable breeds for economical manufacturing of high quality dry-cured hams. PMID:25083111

  14. Depth of cure, flexural properties and volumetric shrinkage of low and high viscosity bulk-fill giomers and resin composites.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2017-03-31

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the depth of cure, flexural properties and volumetric shrinkage of low and high viscosity bulk-fill giomers and resin composites. Depth of cure and flexural properties were determined according to ISO 4049, and volumetric shrinkage was measured using a dilatometer. The depths of cure of giomers were significantly lower than those of resin composites, regardless of photo polymerization times. No difference in flexural strength and modulus was found among either high or low viscosity bulk fill materials. Volumetric shrinkage of low and high viscosity bulk-fill resin composites was significantly less than low and high viscosity giomers. Depth of cure of both low and high viscosity bulk-fill materials is time dependent. Flexural strength and modulus of high viscosity or low viscosity bulk-fill giomer or resin composite materials are not different for their respective category. Resin composites exhibited less polymerization shrinkage than giomers.

  15. A minimum version of log-rank test for testing the existence of cancer cure using relative survival data.

    PubMed

    Yu, Binbing

    2012-01-01

    Cancer survival is one of the most important measures to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment and early diagnosis. The ultimate goal of cancer research and patient care is the cure of cancer. As cancer treatments progress, cure becomes a reality for many cancers if patients are diagnosed early and get effective treatment. If a cure does exist for a certain type of cancer, it is useful to estimate the time of cure. For cancers that impose excess risk of mortality, it is informative to understand the difference in survival between cancer patients and the general cancer-free population. In population-based cancer survival studies, relative survival is the standard measure of excess mortality due to cancer. Cure is achieved when the survival of cancer patients is equivalent to that of the general population. This definition of cure is usually called the statistical cure, which is an important measure of burden due to cancer. In this paper, a minimum version of the log-rank test is proposed to test the equivalence of cancer patients' survival using the relative survival data. Performance of the proposed test is evaluated by simulation. Relative survival data from population-based cancer registries in SEER Program are used to examine patients' survival after diagnosis for various major cancer sites.

  16. Dual cure low-VOC coating process. Final technical report, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Kinzer, K.E.

    1993-12-01

    US EPA is implementing increasingly stringent environmental regulations on the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which amount to about 7 {times} 10{sup 9} lb/year, largely from paints and other coating systems in industry. Objective of this project is to develop Dual Cure Photocatalyst coating technology for aerospace topcoats (urethane/acrylate), aerospace primers (epoxy/acrylate), and solventless tape backings. Some problems (moisture etc.) were encountered in the primer area. Cost, economic, and energy analyses were conducted. The dual cure technology has already been commercialized in 3M`s flexible diamond resin products. Tabs.

  17. A cure-rate model for the Shuttle filament-wound case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, D. E.; Islas, A.; Hsu, Ming-Ta

    1987-01-01

    An epoxy and carbon fiber composite has been used to produce a light-weight rocket case for the Space Shuttle. A kinetic model is developed which can predict the extent of epoxy conversion during the winding and curing of the case. The model accounts for both chemical and physical kinetics. In the model, chemical kinetics occur exclusively up to the time the transition temperature equals the reaction temperature. At this point the resin begins to solidify and the rate of this process limits the rate of epoxy conversion. A comparison of predicted and actual epoxy conversion is presented for isothermal and temperature programmed cure schedules.

  18. Lethal acute demyelinization with encephalo-myelitis as a complication of cured Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, N; Hieronimus, S; Vandenbos, F; Delmont, E; Cua, E; Cherick, F; Paquis, P; Michiels, J-F; Fenichel, P; Brucker-Davis, F

    2010-12-01

    Cushing's disease is usually associated with higher mortality rate, especially from cardiovascular causes. Development or exacerbation of autoimmune or inflammatory diseases is known to occur in patients with hypercortisolism after cure. We report for the first time a 34-year old woman with a psychiatric background, who developed four months after the surgical cure of Cushing's disease an acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) presenting initially as a psychiatric illness. We hypothesize that the recent correction of hypercortisolism triggered ADEM and that the atypical presentation, responsible for diagnosis delay, led to the death of this patient.

  19. Towards Multidisciplinary HIV-Cure Research: Integrating Social Science with Biomedical Research.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Cynthia I; Ross, Anna Laura; Auerbach, Judith D; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Dubé, Karine; Tucker, Joseph D; Noseda, Veronica; Possas, Cristina; Rausch, Dianne M

    2016-01-01

    The quest for a cure for HIV remains a timely and key challenge for the HIV research community. Despite significant scientific advances, current HIV therapy regimens do not completely eliminate the negative impact of HIV on the immune system; and the economic impact of treating all people infected with HIV globally, for the duration of their lifetimes, presents significant challenges. This article discusses, from a multidisciplinary approach, critical social, behavioral, ethical, and economic issues permeating the HIV-cure research agenda. As part of a search for an HIV cure, both the perspective of patients/participants and clinical researchers should be taken into account. In addition, continued efforts should be made to involve and educate the broader community.

  20. Curing BiVO4 Photoanodes with Ultraviolet Light Enhances Photoelectrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Tengfei; He, Jingfu; Peña, Bruno; Berlinguette, Curtis P

    2016-01-26

    Exposure of BiVO4 photoanodes to ultraviolet (UV) radiation for extended time periods (e.g., 20 h) produces a morphological change and concomitant improvement in photo-electrocatalytic (PEC) efficiency for driving water splitting directly by sunlight. The ∼230 mV cathodic shift in onset potential and doubling of the photocurrent at 1.23 V vs. RHE after UV curing are comparable to the effects engendered by the presence of a secondary catalyst layer. PEC measurements and absorption spectra indicate that the cathodic shift after UV curing corresponds to a suppression of charge recombination and a greater photovoltage generation caused by the shift of the flat-band potential, and not an improvement in electrocatalytic activity or light absorption. Spectroscopic surface analysis suggests that surface defect sites, which are eliminated by UV curing, for the differences in observed charge recombination.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and biomedical properties of UV-cured polyurethane acrylates containing a phosphorylcholine structure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yihui; Dong, Anxin; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Zhengsheng; Wang, Shasha; Chen, Hong

    2012-01-01

    In order to develop a simple, economical and rapid approach to incorporate 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) with other monomers without any solvent, we prepared a series of ultraviolet cured poly(urethane acrylate) (PUA) membranes containing different MPC content. Their chemical structure and surface properties were investigated by FT-IR, XPS, water swelling ratio and water contact angle measurement, while the biocompatibilities were evaluated through fibrinogen adsorptions, platelet adhesion and plasma recalcification time determination. The results demonstrate that the phosphorylcholine (PC) groups were successfully introduced into the PUA system by the UV-curing approach and the all PC-containing membranes showed better biocompatibility than those without PC moiety. The UV-curing method is potentially to be applied in the coating of medical devices which require biocompatibility and manufacturing efficiency.

  2. Pork loin quality is not indicative of fresh belly or fresh and cured ham quality.

    PubMed

    Arkfeld, E K; Wilson, K B; Overholt, M F; Harsh, B N; Lowell, J E; Hogan, E K; Klehm, B J; Bohrer, B M; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to characterize the relationship between fresh loin quality with fresh belly or fresh and cured ham quality. Pigs raised in 8 barns representing 2 seasons [cold ( = 4,290) and hot ( = 3,394)] and 2 production focuses [lean ( = 3,627) and quality ( = 4,057)] were used. Carcass characteristics and other meat quality data were collected on 7,684 carcasses. All of the carcasses were evaluated for HCW, LM depth, tenth rib fat depth, leg (ham primal) weight, instrumental color on the gluteus medius and gluteus profundus of the ham face, and subjective loin quality. Instrumental loin color and ultimate pH (≥ 22 h postmortem) were collected on the ventral side of loins along with dimensions and firmness scores of fresh bellies from 50% of the carcasses. Ten percent of the boneless loins and fresh hams were evaluated for slice shear force (SSF) or cured ham characteristics. Correlation coefficients between traits were computed using the CORR procedure of SAS and considered significantly different from 0 at ≤ 0.05. Temperature decline, beginning at 31 min postmortem and concluding at 22 h postmortem, for the longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus muscles were evaluated on 10% of the carcasses. Ultimate loin pH was correlated with dimensional belly characteristics ( ≥ |0.07|; < 0.0001) fresh ham instrumental color ( ≥ |0.03|; ≤ 0.05), and semimembranosus ultimate pH ( = 0.33; < 0.0001). Further, ultimate loin pH was correlated ( ≤ 0.01) with pump retention ( = 0.087) and cooked yield ( = 0.156) of cured hams. Instrumental L*on the ventral surface of the loin was related to L* on both muscles of the ham face ( ≤ 0.0001). Even though significant relationships between the loin, belly, and ham were detected, the variability in belly and ham quality explained by variability in loin quality was poor (≤ 22.09%). Compositional differences between the loin and belly may have contributed to those poor relationships. Additionally, differences in

  3. Curing chemistry of phenylethynyl-terminated imide oligomers: Model compounds, carbon-13 labeling and cure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Christopher Chad

    1998-11-01

    Phenylethynyl-terminated imide oligomers (PETI) are currently considered the state-of-the-art high performance resins for aerospace applications. The processing of these resins is more facile because of their low molecular weight, but PETI's cure to form a tough, solvent-resistant material. However, the final cure structure was a complete mystery. Hence, the present study was set forth with three essential goals. The determination of the final structure of the crosslinked polymer is of obvious importance. Second, the crosslinking mechanism and controlling factors is also of interest. Lastly, the final structure of the crosslinked polymers was correlated with mechanical and thermal properties, thereby helping to establish the structure-processing-properties relationships for PETI resins. These goals were accomplished by using a combination of synthesis of model compounds synthesis and proposed cure products, sp{13}C labeling of the ethynyl endgroup in PETI's, monitoring of the thermal cure using solid state sp{13}C NMR and ESR and molecular modeling techniques. Phenylethynyl endcapping agents, 4-(phenylethynyl)phthalic anhydride (PEPA) and 3-(phenylethynyl)aniline (3PEA), were synthesized via the palladium-catalyzed coupling of phenylacetylene with 4-bromophthalic anhydride or 3-iodonitrobenzene followed by reduction to 3PEA, respectively. Isolated yields of 41 and 86% for 3PEA and PEPA were obtained, respectively. Model compounds were synthesized from 3PEA and PEPA by reacting with them the appropriate aniline or phthalic anhydride derivative. Model compounds included N-pentafluorophenyl-4-(phenylethynyl)phthalimide (PEPA/F5An), N-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)4-(phenylethynyl)phthalimide (PEPA/F3CAn), N-lbrack 3-(phenylethynyl)phenylrbrack\\ phthalimide (3PEA/PA), N-phenyl-4-(phenylethynyl)phthalimide (PEPA/An), N-(4-phenoxyphenyl)4-(phenylethynyl)phthalimide (PEPA/POAn), and N-(1-naphthyl)-4-(phenylethynyl)phthalimide (PEPA/Anaph). Proposed cure products such as

  4. Informed consent to HIV cure research.

    PubMed

    Bromwich, Danielle; Millum, Joseph R

    2017-02-01

    Trials with highly unfavourable risk-benefit ratios for participants, like HIV cure trials, raise questions about the quality of the consent of research participants. Why, it may be asked, would a person with HIV who is doing well on antiretroviral therapy be willing to jeopardise his health by enrolling in such a trial? We distinguish three concerns: first, how information is communicated to potential participants; second, participants' motivations for enrolling in potentially high risk research with no prospect of direct benefit; and third, participants' understanding of the details of the trials in which they enrol. We argue that the communication concern is relevant to the validity of informed consent and the quality of decision making, that the motivation concern does not identify a genuine problem with either the validity of consent or the quality of decision making and that the understanding concern may not be relevant to the validity of consent but is relevant to the quality of decision making. In doing so, we derive guidance points for researchers recruiting and enrolling participants into their HIV cure trials, as well as the research ethics committees reviewing proposed studies.

  5. CURE: Clean use of reactor energy

    SciTech Connect

    1990-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a joint Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford)-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) study that considered the feasibility of treating radioactive waste before disposal to reduce the inventory of long-lived radionuclides, making the waste more suitable for geologic disposal. The treatment considered here is one in which waste would be chemically separated so that long-lived radionuclides can be treated using specific processes appropriate for the nuclide. The technical feasibility of enhancing repository performance by this type of treatment is considered in this report. A joint Westinghouse Hanford-PNL study group developed a concept called the Clean Use of Reactor Energy (CURE), and evaluated the potential of current technology to reduce the long-lived radionuclide content in waste from the nuclear power industry. The CURE process consists of three components: chemical separation of elements that have significant quantities of long-lived radioisotopes in the waste, exposure in a neutron flux to transmute the radioisotopes to stable nuclides, and packaging of radionuclides that cannot be transmuted easily for storage or geologic disposal. 76 refs., 32 figs., 24 tabs.

  6. Adhesive Properties of Cured Phenylethynyl Containing Imides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Chang, Alice C.

    1997-01-01

    Considerable attention has been directed towards acetylene terminated oligomers over the last 20 years' and recent work has focused on phenylethynyl terminated imide (PETI) oligomers. These reactive oligomers possess several features which make them attractive candidates for use as composite matrices and adhesives. The phenylethynyl group can be readily incorporated into many different functionalized oligomers. The reactive oligomers possess relatively low melt viscosities and thermally cure without the evolution of volatile by-products. Once cured, they typically display high glass transition temperatures (Tgs), excellent solvent resistance and high mechanical properties. new modified phenylethynyl-terminated imide (LaRC MPEI) oligomers were synthesized at various molecular weights utilizing a small amount of trifunctional amine. As long as the amount of triamine is relatively small, this approach produces a mixture of linear, star-shaped and branched polymer chains that has lower melt and solution viscosity than an equivalent molecular weight linear phenylethynyl terminated imide oligomers. The work reported herein involves the synthesis and characterization of a copolymer using this approach and the preparation of blends utilizing a phenylethynyl containing reactive plasticizer of lower molecular weight called LaRC LV-121. The chemistry and properties of this new MPEI as well as some blends of MPEI with LV-121, are presented and compared to the linear version, LARC-PETI-5.

  7. a Method of 3d Freeform Fabrication Using a Curing of Photopolymer Resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung Su; Kim, Dong Soo; Lee, Min Cheol; Lee, Won Hee

    Recently, Study of 3D freeform fabrication method was working in the various applications. For example, in the powder base, it's laminated using a binding method or laser sintering method. However, the demerits of these methods are to take long time for post process and not enough to keep high strength of manufacturing part. The binding method needs the post process and the time for post process needs longer time than a manufacturing time. The sintering method has huge size of system with module of the laser. In this paper, we introduce a method of 3D freeform fabrication using a curing of photopolymer resin. A photopolymer curing method has simply fabrication process and high strength of manufacturing part. So, we are configuration the system with compact type module for the office environment and experiment a UV curing test with photopolymer resin in the 3D freeform fabrication method. In the conclusion, we fabricate the 3D freeform part, which is suitable to the office environment using a photopolymer curing method.

  8. Evaluation of an Interdigitated Gate Electrode Field-Effect Transistor (IGEFET) for In Situ Resin Cure Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    School of Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson AFB OH, October 1988. 8. Billmeyer, Fred W., Jr. Textbook of Polymer Science...448-453 (April 1989). 10. Sheppard, Norman Fred , Jr. Dielectric Analysis of the Cure of Thermosetting Epoxy/Amine Systems. PhD Dissertation...Viscosity and Chemical Changes During Polymerization," American Chemical Society Symposium Series on Photophysics of Polymers, edited by C. E. Hoyle and J. M

  9. Cure Characteristics of Tricyanate Ester High Temperature Composite Resins (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-09

    measurements of cure kinetics were undertaken using both isothermal and non-isothermal DSC , and compared to measures of conversion obtained through IR...measurements of cure kinetics were undertaken using both isothermal and non-isothermal DSC , and compared to measures of conversion obtained through IR...the effect of impurities on cure kinetics, comparative kinetics derived from non-isothermal and isothermal differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC

  10. Process Formulations And Curing Conditions That Affect Saltstone Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M. M.; Pickenheim, B. R.; Daniel, W. E.

    2012-09-28

    The first objective of this study was to analyze saltstone fresh properties to determine the feasibility of reducing the formulation water to premix (w/p) ratio while varying the amount of extra water and admixtures used during processing at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The second part of this study was to provide information for understanding the impact of curing conditions (cure temperature, relative humidity (RH)) and processing formulation on the performance properties of cured saltstone.

  11. Optical fibre grating refractometers for resin cure monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buggy, S. J.; Chehura, E.; James, S. W.; Tatam, R. P.

    2007-06-01

    The use of fibre grating refractometers as a means of monitoring the cure of a UV-cured epoxy resin is presented. The wavelength shift of the attenuation bands of a long period grating and the spectral response of a tilted fibre Bragg grating sensor were measured simultaneously during the cure of the resin and compared with measurements made using a fibre optic Fresnel-based refractometer. The results showed a good correlation (6 × 10-3 rius) and illustrate the potential of the techniques for non-invasive composite material cure monitoring.

  12. HIV reservoirs as obstacles and opportunities for an HIV cure.

    PubMed

    Chun, Tae-Wook; Moir, Susan; Fauci, Anthony S

    2015-06-01

    The persistence of HIV reservoirs remains a formidable obstacle to achieving sustained virologic remission in HIV-infected individuals after antiretroviral therapy (ART) is discontinued, even if plasma viremia has been successfully suppressed for prolonged periods of time. Numerous approaches aimed at eradicating the virus, as well as maintaining its prolonged suppression in the absence of ART, have had little success. A better understanding of the pathophysiologic nature of HIV reservoirs and the impact of various interventions on their persistence is essential for the development of successful therapeutic strategies against HIV or the long-term control of infection. Here, we discuss the persistent HIV reservoir as a barrier to cure as well as the current therapeutic strategies aimed at eliminating or controlling the virus in the absence of ART.

  13. An infiltration/cure model for manufacture of fabric composites by the resin infusion process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weideman, Mark H.; Loos, Alfred C.; Dexter, H. Benson; Hasko, Gregory H.

    1992-01-01

    A 1-D infiltration/cure model was developed to simulate fabrication of advanced textile composites by the resin film infusion process. The simulation model relates the applied temperature and pressure processing cycles, along with the experimentally measured compaction and permeability characteristics of the fabric preforms, to the temperature distribution, the resin degree of cure and viscosity, and the infiltration flow front position as a function of time. The model also predicts the final panel thickness, fiber volume fraction, and resin mass for full saturation as a function of compaction pressure. Composite panels were fabricated using the RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) film infusion technique from knitted, knitted/stitched, and 2-D woven carbon preforms and Hercules 3501-6 resin. Fabric composites were fabricated at different compaction pressures and temperature cycles to determine the effects of the processing on the properties. The composites were C-scanned and micrographed to determine the quality of each panel. Advanced cure cycles, developed from the RTM simulation model, were used to reduce the total cure cycle times by a factor of 3 and the total infiltration times by a factor of 2.

  14. Ultrasonic Characterization of the Curing Process of Polymethylmethacrylate-based Bone Cement Modified with Hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viano, Ann; Auwarter, Julie; Hoffmeister, Brent; Rho, Jae-Young

    2000-03-01

    The use of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based bone cement for implantation of metallic prostheses is becoming increasingly common. Failure of a cemented prosthesis often occurs when there is weak bonding at the bone/cement or cement/metal interface. The addition of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles, a synthetically produced version of the natural mineral in bone, may improve the adhesion by promoting bone growth into the cement itself. The curing time of PMMA bone cement determines the speed of implant insertion, which can affect the mechanical strength of the cement. Pure PMMA has a well-characterized curing time of 9-12 minutes, depending on environmental factors such as temperature and humidity. By measuring the propagation of ultrasonic pulses through a sample of bone cement, the curing process can be monitored. As the material hardens, the velocity of an ultrasonic pulse increases, and the attenuation decreases. These parameters were measured as a function of time for PMMA mixed with 0, 10 and 30investigation of the curing process as a function of hydroxyapatite concentration.

  15. Bending strength and depth of cure of light-cured composite resins irradiated using filters that simulate enamel.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, H; Kanie, T; Fujii, K; Shinohara, N

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluates the light-attenuating effects of enamel on the properties of light-cured restorative resins using simple experimental filters. Three filters were designed to replicate the light transmittance characteristics of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mm thick human enamel. The bending strength, depth of cure, and levels of residual monomer for 12 shades of three commercial light-cured composite resins were examined. These resins were cured either using direct irradiation from a light source or irradiation through one of the filters. For all materials, the bending strength and depth of cure of specimens irradiated through a filter were lower and the levels of residual monomer were higher than those found in specimens irradiated directly. The results indicate that the light-attenuating effect of enamel reduces the polymerization efficiency, resulting in poorer mechanical properties of light-cured composite resins.

  16. Physicochemical Characteristics of Beef Jerky Cured with Salted-fermented Anchovy and Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gap-Don; Go, Gwang-woong; Lim, Hyun-Jung; Jung, Eun-Young; Seo, Hyun-Woo; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Joo, Seon-Tea; Yang, Han-Sul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the availability of salted and fermented fish (SFF) including salted and fermented anchovy (SFA) and shrimp (SFS) as a marinade of beef jerky. In curing solutions, half (SFA 1 and SFS 1) or whole (SFA 2 and SFS 2) salt-water was replaced with SFF juices. Higher water activity (aw) was found in the beef jerky cured with SFFs than the control (C) (p< 0.05). The SFFs had the effect of causing a decrease in hardness and an increase in cohesiveness (p<0.05). Among the treatment samples, springiness was the highest in SFA2 and SFS2 (p<0.05) and the lowest values of Warner-Bratzler shear force were found in SFA1 and SFA2 (p<0.05). The SFFs also had the effect of increasing the flavor of the sensory properties; however, color measurements from both the instrumental surface color (L*, a*, b*, chroma, and hue angle) and color of sensory evaluation were decreased by addition of SFFs (p<0.05). Therefore, we conclude the SFFs can improve the texture and sensory properties of the beef jerky. In particular, the SFS is a good ingredient for the curing solution. However, studies are still needed on improving the aw, pH, and surface color of the beef jerky to apply the SFFs for making beef jerky. PMID:26760751

  17. Contribution of a selected fungal population to proteolysis on dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Martín, Alberto; Córdoba, Juan J; Núñez, Félix; Benito, María J; Asensio, Miguel A

    2004-07-01

    The proteolytic changes taking place in dry-cured hams lead to increases in free amino acids. Such free amino acids not only contribute to flavour, but also serve as precursors of volatile compounds. Several months of ripening time are required to allow the particular flavour to develop. The fungal population allowed to grow on the surface of some types of dry-cured could play a key role on proteolysis, as it has been shown for dry-cured sausages. The purpose of this work was to study the possible contribution of fungi to proteolysis in dry-cured ham. For this, a strain each of non-toxigenic Penicillium chrysogenum (Pg222) and Debaryomyces hansenii (Dh345), selected for their proteolytic activity on myofibrillar proteins, were inoculated as starter cultures. Changes in the high ionic strength-soluble proteins of an external muscle (adductor) revealed in only 6 months higher proteolysis in the inoculated hams when compared to non-inoculated control hams. Proteolytic strains among the wild fungal population on non-inoculated control hams prevented from obtaining similar differences at the end of processing. However, inoculation with Pg222 and Dh345 led to higher levels for most free amino acids at the external muscle in fully dry-cured hams. In addition, the concentration for some of the more polar free amino acids (i.e. Asp, Glu, Ser and Gln) in inoculated hams was higher at external than at internal (biceps femoris) muscles. These promising results deserve further studies to know the impact of a selected fungal population on the volatile compounds and sensory properties of dry-cured ham.

  18. Using a centrifuge for quality control of pre-wetted lightweight aggregate in internally cured concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Albert E.

    Early age shrinkage of cementitious systems can result in an increased potential for cracking which can lead to a reduction in service life. Early age shrinkage cracking can be particularly problematic for high strength concretes, which are often specified due to their high strength and low permeability. However, these high strength concretes frequently exhibit a reduction in the internal relative humidity (RH) due to the hydration reaction (chemical shrinkage) and self-desiccation which results in a bulk shrinkage, termed autogenous shrinkage, which is substantial at early ages. Due to the low permeability of these concretes, standard external curing is not always efficient in addressing this reduction in internal RH since the penetration of water can be limited. Internal curing has been developed to reduce autogenous shrinkage. Internally cured mixtures use internal reservoirs filled with fluid (generally water) that release this fluid at appropriate times to counteract the effects of self-desiccation thereby maintaining a high internal RH. Internally cured concrete is frequently produced in North America using pre-wetted lightweight aggregate. One important aspect associated with preparing quality internally cured concrete is being able to determine the absorbed moisture and surface moisture associated with the lightweight aggregate which enables aggregate moisture corrections to be made for the concrete mixture. This thesis represents work performed to develop a test method using a centrifuge to determine the moisture state of pre-wetted fine lightweight aggregate. The results of the test method are then used in a series of worksheets that were developed to assist field technicians when performing the tests and applying the results to a mixture design. Additionally, research was performed on superabsorbent polymers to assess their ability to be used as an internal curing reservoir.

  19. Ambient Cured Alkali Activated Flyash Masonry Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, K.; Radhakrishna; Sasalatti, Vinod M.

    2016-09-01

    Geopolymers belong to a category of non-conventional and non-Portland cement based cementitious binders which are produced using industrial by products like fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). This paper reports on the development of geopolymer mortars for production of masonry units. The geopolymer mortars were prepared by mixing various by products with manufactured sand and a liquid mixture of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. After curing at ambient conditions, the masonry units were tested for strength properties such as water absorption, initial rate of absorption, compression, shear- bond, and stress-strain behaviour etc. It was observed that the flexural strength of the blocks is more than 2 MPa and shear bond strength is more than 0.4MPa. It was found that the properties of geopolymer blocks were superior to the traditional masonry units. Hence they can be recommended for structural masonry.

  20. Stratospheric experiments on curing of composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudinov, Viacheslav; Kondyurin, Alexey; Svistkov, Alexander L.; Efremov, Denis; Demin, Anton; Terpugov, Viktor; Rusakov, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    Future space exploration requires a large light-weight structure for habitats, greenhouses, space bases, space factories and other constructions. A new approach enabling large-size constructions in space relies on the use of the technology of polymerization of fiber-filled composites with a curable polymer matrix applied in the free space environment on Erath orbit. In orbit, the material is exposed to high vacuum, dramatic temperature changes, plasma of free space due to cosmic rays, sun irradiation and atomic oxygen (in low Earth orbit), micrometeorite fluence, electric charging and microgravitation. The development of appropriate polymer matrix composites requires an understanding of the chemical processes of polymer matrix curing under the specific free space conditions to be encountered. The goal of the stratospheric flight experiment is an investigation of the effect of the stratospheric conditions on the uncured polymer matrix of the composite material. The unique combination of low residual pressure, high intensity UV radiation including short-wave UV component, cosmic rays and other aspects associated with solar irradiation strongly influences the chemical processes in polymeric materials. We have done the stratospheric flight experiments with uncured composites (prepreg). A balloon with payload equipped with heater, temperature/pressure/irradiation sensors, microprocessor, carrying the samples of uncured prepreg has been launched to stratosphere of 25-30 km altitude. After the flight, the samples have been tested with FTIR, gel-fraction, tensile test and DMA. The effect of cosmic radiation has been observed. The composite was successfully cured during the stratospheric flight. The study was supported by RFBR grants 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011.