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Sample records for ph range 2-11

  1. A Nanocrystal-based Ratiometric pH Sensor for Natural pH Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Rebecca C.; Lanning, Ryan M.; Snee, Preston T.; Greytak, Andrew B.; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A ratiometric fluorescent pH sensor based on CdSe/CdZnS nanocrystal quantum dots (NCs) has been designed for biological pH ranges. The construct is formed from the conjugation of a pH dye (SNARF) to NCs coated with a poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimer. The sensor exhibits a well–resolved ratio response at pH values between 6 and 8 under linear or two–photon excitation, and in the presence of a 4% bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution. PMID:26413260

  2. A Nanocrystal-based Ratiometric pH Sensor for Natural pH Ranges.

    PubMed

    Somers, Rebecca C; Lanning, Ryan M; Snee, Preston T; Greytak, Andrew B; Jain, Rakesh K; Bawendi, Moungi G; Nocera, Daniel G

    A ratiometric fluorescent pH sensor based on CdSe/CdZnS nanocrystal quantum dots (NCs) has been designed for biological pH ranges. The construct is formed from the conjugation of a pH dye (SNARF) to NCs coated with a poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimer. The sensor exhibits a well-resolved ratio response at pH values between 6 and 8 under linear or two-photon excitation, and in the presence of a 4% bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution.

  3. pH optrode for the complete working range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnoi, Gargi; Goel, Tara C.; Pillai, P. K. C.

    1999-01-01

    We report a fast response and inexpensive optical sensor capable of measuring pH in the range of 0.5 to 13.5 units with good resolution. Three indicator dyes viz. Bromocresol Green, Bromothymol Blue and Nile Blue were used to fabricate the sensor head. ion-exchange resin, Amberlite IRA 400, was powdered and immobilized by these dye solutions. In order to prepare sensing membranes, Polyvinyl chloride was dissolved in Tetrahydrofuran and the solution was poured on to a glass plate. Before the membrane was completely dry, the immobilized resin powder was uniformly sprinkled so that the granules are properly glued to it. A bundle of fibers was attached to the membrane mechanically to carry the light from the source to the membrane and collect the reflected optical signal. He-He laser was used as a light source. The experimental results show a linear dependence of pH value on reflected optical signal for the pH range of 0.5 to 13.5 with the resolution of 0.02 unit. The optrode was also characterized by studying the effect of ionic strength and temperature of the solution on the probe response.

  4. Triple-oxygen-isotope determination of molecular oxygen incorporation in sulfate produced during abiotic pyrite oxidation (pH = 2-11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Issaku; Bao, Huiming

    2011-04-01

    Aqueous oxidation of sulfide minerals to sulfate is an integral part of the global sulfur and oxygen cycles. The current model for pyrite oxidation emphasizes the role of Fe 2+-Fe 3+ electron shuttling and repeated nucleophilic attack by water molecules on sulfur. Previous δ 18O-labeled experiments show that a variable fraction (0-60%) of the oxygen in product sulfate is derived from dissolved O 2, the other potential oxidant. This indicates that nucleophilic attack cannot continue all the way to sulfate and that a sulfoxyanion of intermediate oxidation state is released into solution. The observed variability in O 2% may be due to the presence of competing oxidation pathways, variable experimental conditions (e.g. abiotic, biotic, or changing pH value), or uncertainties related to the multiple experiments needed to effectively use the δ 18O label to differentiate sulfate-oxygen sources. To examine the role of O 2 and Fe 3+ in determining the final incorporation of O 2 oxygen in sulfate produced during pyrite oxidation, we designed a set of aerated, abiotic, pH-buffered (pH = 2, 7, 9, 10, and 11), and triple-oxygen-isotope labeled solutions with and without Fe 3+ addition. While abiotic and pH-buffered conditions help to eliminate variables, triple oxygen isotope labeling and Fe 3+ addition help to determine the oxygen sources in sulfate and examine the role of Fe 2+-Fe 3+ electron shuttling during sulfide oxidation, respectively. Our results show that sulfate concentration increased linearly with time and the maximum concentration was achieved at pH 11. At pH 2, 7, and 9, sulfate production was slow but increased by 4× with the addition of Fe 3+. Significant amounts of sulfite and thiosulfate were detected in pH ⩾ 9 reactors, while concentrations were low or undetectable at pH 2 and 7. The triple oxygen isotope data show that at pH ⩾ 9, product sulfate contained 21-24% air O 2 signal, similar to pH 2 with Fe 3+ addition. Sulfate from the pH 2 reactor

  5. Narrow pH Range of Surface Water Bodies Receiving Pesticide Input in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Weyers, Arnd; Ebeling, Markus; Elsaesser, David; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Fate and toxicity of the active ingredients (AI's) of plant protection products in surface waters is often influenced by pH. Although a general range of pH values is reported in literature, an evaluation targeting aquatic ecosystems with documented AI inputs is lacking at the larger scale. Results show 95% of European surface waters (n = 3075) with a documented history of AI exposure fall within a rather narrow pH range, between 7.0 and 8.5. Spatial and temporal variability in the data may at least be partly explained by the calcareous characteristics of parental rock material, the affiliation of the sampling site to a freshwater ecoregion, and the photosynthetic activity of macrophytes (i.e., higher pH values with photosynthesis). Nonetheless, the documented pH range fits well with the standard pH of most ecotoxicological test guidelines, confirming the fate and ecotoxicity of AIs are usually adequately addressed.

  6. Extended-range spectroscopic pH measurement using optimized mixtures of dyes.

    PubMed

    Raghuraman, B; Gustavson, G; Van Hal, R E G; Dressaire, E; Zhdaneev, O

    2006-12-01

    The spectroscopic technique for pH measurement is a well-established laboratory technique that can give high-accuracy pH values. Recent studies have shown the advantage of this technique over standard potentiometric methods for pH measurements in fresh water and seawater and also at high temperatures and pressures. However, a limitation of the spectroscopic technique is that a single pH dye is sensitive only over a narrow pH range. We have developed optimized dye mixtures that are both sensitive and accurate over a broad pH range. The measurement is robust and simple, requires a minimum of two wavelengths, and is independent of the volume of the dye mixture added. Optimization of the dye mixture formulation to maximize accuracy in a broad range of pH involves varying both the dye type and its mole fraction and also accounting for spectral noise. This technique has been successfully applied for in situ pH measurements of oilfield formation waters.

  7. Characterizing and quantilying controls on arsenic solubility over a pH range of 1-11 in a uranium mill-scale experiment.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Brett I; Hendry, M Jim

    2005-07-01

    A mill-scale hydrometallurgical experiment (2700 m3 of effluent treated/day) was conducted for three months at the Rabbit Lake uranium mine site located in northern Saskatchewan, Canada, to determine the controls on the solubility of dissolved arsenic over a pH range of 1-11 and to develop a thermodynamic database for the dominant mineralogical controls on arsenic in the mill and the resulting mill tailings. The arsenic concentrations in the mill ranged from 526 mg/L at pH 1.0 (initial) to 1.34 mg/L at pH 10.8 (final discharge). Geochemical modeling of the chemistry data shows that arsenic solubility is controlled by the formation of scorodite (FeAsO4-2H2O) from pH 2.4 to pH 3.1, with 99.8% of dissolved arsenic precipitated as scorodite. Model results show that scorodite is unstable (releasing arsenic back in to solution) above pH 3.1 and arsenic adsorption to the surface of 2-line ferrihydrite is the dominant controlling factor in the solubility of arsenic from pH 3.2 to pH 11.0, with 99.8% of dissolved arsenic removed from solution via this mechanism. Finally, model results show -0.2% of the total dissolved arsenic adsorbs to the surface of amorphous aluminum hydroxide from pH 5.0 to pH 8.0. Minor alterations to the thermodynamic properties of arsenite and arsenate adsorption to 2-line ferrihydrite allowed the fit between measured mill-scale and modeled concentrations for the pH range of 3.2-11.0 to be optimized.

  8. Stibiconite (Sb3O6OH), senarmontite (Sb2O3) and valentinite (Sb2O3): Dissolution rates at pH 2-11 and isoelectric points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biver, M.; Shotyk, W.

    2013-05-01

    Batch reactor experiments were carried out in order to derive rate laws for the proton promoted dissolution of the main natural antimony oxide phases, namely stibiconite (idealized composition SbSb2O6OH), senarmontite (cubic Sb2O3) and (metastable) valentinite (orthorhombic Sb2O3) over the range 2 ⩽ pH ⩽ 11, under standard conditions and ionic strength I = 0.01 mol l-1. The rates of antimony release by stibiconite were r = (2.2 ± 0.2) × 10-9 a(H+)0.11±0.01 mol m-2 s-1 for 2.00 ⩽ pH ⩽ 4.74 and r = (4.3 ± 0.2) × 10-10 a(H+)-0.030±0.003 mol m-2 s-1 for 4.74 ⩽ pH ⩽ 10.54. The rates of dissolution of senarmontite were r = (5.3 ± 2.2) × 10-7 a(H+)0.54±0.05 mol m-2 s-1 for 2.00 ⩽ pH ⩽ 6.93 and r = (1.4 ± 0.3) × 10-14 a(H+)-0.53±0.07 mol m-2 s-1 for 6.93 ⩽ pH ⩽ 10.83. The rates of dissolution of valentinite were r = (6.3 ± 0.2) × 10-8 a(H+)0.052±0.003 mol m-2 s-1 for 1.97 ⩽ pH ⩽ 6.85. Above pH = 6.85, valentinite was found to dissolve at a constant rate of r = (2.79 ± 0.05) × 10-8 mol m-2 s-1. Activation energies were determined at selected pH values in the acidic and basic domain, over the temperature range 25-50 °C. The values for stibiconite are -10.6 ± 1.9 kJ mol-1 (pH = 2.00) and 53 ± 14 kJ mol-1 (pH = 8.7). For senarmontite, we found 46.6 ± 4.7 kJ mol-1 (pH = 3.0) and 68.1 ± 6.1 kJ mol-1 (pH = 9.9) and for valentinite 41.9 ± 1.1 kJ mol-1 (pH = 3.0) and 39.0 ± 4.6 kJ mol-1 (pH = 9.9). These activation energies are interpreted in the text. The solubility of stibiconite at 25 °C in the pH domain from 2 to 10 was determined; solubilities decrease from 452.0 μg l-1 (as Sb) at pH = 2.00 to 153.2 μg l-1 at pH = 7.55 and increase again in the basic region, up to 176.6 μg l-1 at pH = 9.92. A graphical synopsis of all the kinetic results, including those of stibnite (Sb2S3) from earlier work, is presented. This allows an easy comparison between the dissolution rates of stibnite and the minerals examined in the present work

  9. Wide pH range tolerance in extremophiles: towards understanding an important phenomenon for future biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Dhakar, Kusum; Pandey, Anita

    2016-03-01

    Microorganisms that inhabit the extreme pH environments are classified as acidophiles and alkaliphiles. A number of studies emerged from extreme high (hot springs, hydrothermal vents) as well as low temperature (arctic and antarctic regions, sea water, ice shelf, marine sediments, cold deserts, glaciers, temperate forests, and plantations) environments have highlighted the occurrence of microorganisms (thermophiles/psychrophiles) with the ability to tolerate wide pH range, from acidic to alkaline (1.5-14.0 in some cases), under laboratory conditions. However, the sampling source (soil/sediment) of these microorganisms showed the pH to be neutral or slightly acidic/alkaline. The aim of the present review is to discuss the phenomenon of wide pH range tolerance possessed by these microorganisms as a hidden character in perspective of their habitats, possible mechanisms, phylogeny, ecological and biotechnological relevance, and future perspectives. It is believed that the genome is a probable reservoir of the hidden variations. The extremophiles have the ability to adapt against the environmental change that is probably through the expression/regulation of the specific genes that were already present in the genome. The phenomenon is likely to have broad implications in biotechnology, including both environmental (such as bioremediation, biodegradation, and biocontrol), and industrial applications (as a source of novel extremozymes and many other useful bioactive compounds with wide pH range tolerance).

  10. Catechol derivatives as fluorescent chemosensors for wide-range pH detection.

    PubMed

    Evangelio, Emilia; Hernando, Jordi; Imaz, Inhar; Bardají, Gisela G; Alibés, Ramon; Busqué, Félix; Ruiz-Molina, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a new family of catechol derivatives designed to behave as fluorescent chemosensors for wide-range pH detection has been described. These compounds were prepared by covalently coupling a catechol unit with other aromatic rings, thus obtaining pi-delocalized systems with both pH-responsive groups and fluorescent behavior. In the case of a pyridine-catechol derivative, this leads to up to three different protonation states with distinct optical properties in organic media, as corroborated by density functional theory calculations. By applying dual-wavelength detection techniques, this compound shows complementary "off-on-off" and "on-off-on" emission profiles upon pH variation, a behavior that can be exploited to perform acidity detection over a broad pH range.

  11. The feasibility of measuring ocean pH by long-range acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worcester, Peter F.

    1989-04-01

    Low frequency (<1000 Hz) sound absorption in the ocean depends exponentially on ocean pH. While the absolute amplitudes measured in long-range (order of 1000 km) acoustic transmission experiments depend in a complex manner on ocean structure and are difficult to interpret without ambiguity, measurements of differential absorption as a function of frequency contain significant information. For surface-reflected rays (RSR) there is the additional factor of frequency-dependent reflectivity. In principle, a comparison of transmitted and received acoustic spectra can be inverted to obtain ocean pH and surface roughness. Calculations performed with preliminary data from a 750-km path in the North Pacific give qualitative agreement with theory (higher frequencies are attenuated more than lower frequencies) but are inadequate for quantitative comparisons (the experiment was not optimized for differential attenuation measurements). Our conclusion is that it is possible, but not easy, to obtain quantitative information on ocean pH and surface roughness from measurements of differential attenuation with frequency along resolved ray paths. To obtain an accuracy of 0.05 in pH with a 750-km transmission at 550+/-100 Hz would require about 100 independent samples for the North Pacific (pH~7.7) and 60 independent samples for the Atlantic (pH~8.0) in order to achieve adequate averaging of amplitude fluctuations induced by internal waves and ambient acoustic noise.

  12. Design, calibration and application of broad-range optical nanosensors for determining intracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Rikke V; Henriksen, Jonas R; Andresen, Thomas L

    2014-12-01

    Particle-based nanosensors offer a tool for determining the pH in the endosomal-lysosomal system of living cells. Measurements providing absolute values of pH have so far been restricted by the limited sensitivity range of nanosensors, calibration challenges and the complexity of image analysis. This protocol describes the design and application of a polyacrylamide-based nanosensor (∼60 nm) that covalently incorporates two pH-sensitive fluorophores, fluorescein (FS) and Oregon Green (OG), to broaden the sensitivity range of the sensor (pH 3.1-7.0), and uses the pH-insensitive fluorophore rhodamine as a reference fluorophore. The nanosensors are spontaneously taken up via endocytosis and directed to the lysosomes where dynamic changes in pH can be measured with live-cell confocal microscopy. The most important focus areas of the protocol are the choice of pH-sensitive fluorophores, the design of calibration buffers, the determination of the effective range and especially the description of how to critically evaluate results. The entire procedure typically takes 2-3 weeks.

  13. Exploration of a Basin and Range-Type Geothermal System Using Soil pH Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, L.; Hill, G.; Norman, D. I.

    2005-12-01

    The Socorro Peak, NM Known Geothermal Reservoir Area (KGRA) is a Basin and Range-type extentional-fault geothermal system boasting thermal gradients upwards of 420 mW/m3 in an uplift Precambrian fault block. Structural and geophysical evidence suggests that a low-to-mid temperature (60-100C) geothermal aquifer may reside within the fault-bounded alluvial basin, capped and insulated by over 1000meters of Tertiary mudstone aquitard strata and Quaternary flanglomerates. Select Ion Leach Analysis Geochemistry (SILG) and pH analysis of soils were employed to investigate the location and extent of the Socorro KGRA. The SILG geothermal exploration method is commonly used for mineral and oil exploration; the soil pH is method is a new method being developed. Soil samples for SILG were collected at 100m intervals over the alluvial basin and range bounding fault. Oxide Suite elements (As, V, I, Hg) and alkali elements (Rb, Sr) were observed in a series of nested halos of anomalously high concentrations surrounding a central core of anomalously low concentrations. The center of this 3 km-wide anomaly is located just in to the east of the range bounding fault. This pattern is interpreted as an oxidizing environment surrounding a reduction chimney created by the geothermal waters. Field pH analyses were also performed on a 25 meter interval grid over the same exploration area. A 25 g soil sample screened to 18 mesh is mixed with 10 cc water, stirred and pH measured. Two dimensional plots indicate a central region of 7.0 to 7.5 pH values surrounded by a 1.5 km radius semi-halo of 5.0 to 6.5 pH values . This pattern corresponds with those observed by SILG. If a geothermal reservoir is responsible for the oxidizing/reduction environment causing the volatilization of select ions through the substrate, then we would also expect to see a decrease in pH caused by the release of free hydrogen ions. Spikes of acidic pH values (5.0-6.0) were also observed along sub alluvium faults

  14. Comparison of rumen fluid pH by continuous telemetry system and bench pH meter in sheep with different ranges of ruminal pH.

    PubMed

    Reis, Leonardo F; Minervino, Antonio H H; Araújo, Carolina A S C; Sousa, Rejane S; Oliveira, Francisco L C; Rodrigues, Frederico A M L; Meira-Júnior, Enoch B S; Barrêto-Júnior, Raimundo A; Mori, Clara S; Ortolani, Enrico L

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to compare the measurements of sheep ruminal pH using a continuous telemetry system or a bench pH meter using sheep with different degrees of ruminal pH. Ruminal lactic acidosis was induced in nine adult crossbred Santa Ines sheep by the administration of 15 g of sucrose per kg/BW. Samples of rumen fluid were collected at the baseline, before the induction of acidosis (T 0) and at six, 12, 18, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the induction for pH measurement using a bench pH meter. During this 72-hour period, all animals had electrodes for the continuous measurement of pH. The results were compared using the Bland-Altman analysis of agreement, Pearson coefficients of correlation and determination, and paired analysis of variance with Student's t-test. The measurement methods presented a strong correlation (r = 0.94, P < 0.05) but the rumen pH that was measured continuously using a telemetry system resulted in lower values than the bench pH meter (overall mean of 5.38 and 5.48, resp., P = 0.0001). The telemetry system was able to detect smaller changes in rumen fluid pH and was more accurate in diagnosing both subacute ruminal lactic acidosis and acute ruminal lactic acidosis in sheep.

  15. Comparison of Rumen Fluid pH by Continuous Telemetry System and Bench pH Meter in Sheep with Different Ranges of Ruminal pH

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Leonardo F.; Minervino, Antonio H. H.; Araújo, Carolina A. S. C.; Sousa, Rejane S.; Oliveira, Francisco L. C.; Rodrigues, Frederico A. M. L.; Meira-Júnior, Enoch B. S.; Barrêto-Júnior, Raimundo A.; Mori, Clara S.; Ortolani, Enrico L.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to compare the measurements of sheep ruminal pH using a continuous telemetry system or a bench pH meter using sheep with different degrees of ruminal pH. Ruminal lactic acidosis was induced in nine adult crossbred Santa Ines sheep by the administration of 15 g of sucrose per kg/BW. Samples of rumen fluid were collected at the baseline, before the induction of acidosis (T0) and at six, 12, 18, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the induction for pH measurement using a bench pH meter. During this 72-hour period, all animals had electrodes for the continuous measurement of pH. The results were compared using the Bland-Altman analysis of agreement, Pearson coefficients of correlation and determination, and paired analysis of variance with Student's t-test. The measurement methods presented a strong correlation (r = 0.94, P < 0.05) but the rumen pH that was measured continuously using a telemetry system resulted in lower values than the bench pH meter (overall mean of 5.38 and 5.48, resp., P = 0.0001). The telemetry system was able to detect smaller changes in rumen fluid pH and was more accurate in diagnosing both subacute ruminal lactic acidosis and acute ruminal lactic acidosis in sheep. PMID:24967422

  16. A long-range fiber optic pH sensor prepared by dye doped sol-gel immobilization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, B. D.; Sharma, Sonu

    1998-09-01

    A long-range fiber optic pH sensor based on evanescent wave absorption is presented. The probe is prepared by immobilizing a mixture of three pH-sensitive dyes (cresol red, bromophenol blue and chlorophenol red) on the surface of the fiber core using sol-gel technology. The sensor has a linear and reproducible pH response in the pH range from 4.5 to 13.0. Due to its long dynamic pH range the sensor is expected to find wide applications.

  17. Development of an extended-range fiber optic pH sensor using evanescent wave absorption of sol-gel-entrapped pH indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Thomas M.; MacCraith, Brian D.; McDonagh, Colette M.

    1995-09-01

    The sol-gel process has been used to entrap pH indicators in porous glass coatings for sensor applications. This sensor is based on evanescent wave absorption using an unclad optical fiber dipcoated with the pH sensitive coating. The entrapped pH indicators show a broadening of the pH range with respect to the behavior in solution giving accurate measurement over three pH units when one indicator is used (bromophenol blue) and over six pH units (pH 3-9) when two indicators are used (bromophenol blue and bromocresol purple). The response of the pH sensor was monitored by measuring absorption at 590 nm referenced against a nonabsorbing region of the spectrum. This enabled the use of LED sources together with low cost photodiodes. The sensor displayed short response time and good repeatability. The thickness and stability of the pH sensitive coatings can be influenced by modifying the composition of the starting sol mixture. The evanescent absorption, and hence the sensitivity of the sensor, can be increased by selectively launching higher order modes in the fiber. These issues together with a full sensor characterization will be reported.

  18. A broad pH range and processive chitinase from a metagenome library

    PubMed Central

    Thimoteo, S.S.; Glogauer, A.; Faoro, H.; de Souza, E.M.; Huergo, L.F.; Moerschbacher, B.M.; Pedrosa, F.O.

    2017-01-01

    Chitinases are hydrolases that degrade chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine linked β(1-4) present in the exoskeleton of crustaceans, insects, nematodes and fungal cell walls. A metagenome fosmid library from a wastewater-contaminated soil was functionally screened for chitinase activity leading to the isolation and identification of a chitinase gene named metachi18A. The metachi18A gene was subcloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and the MetaChi18A chitinase was purified by affinity chromatography as a 6xHis-tagged fusion protein. The MetaChi18A enzyme is a 92-kDa protein with a conserved active site domain of glycosyl hydrolases family 18. It hydrolyses colloidal chitin with an optimum pH of 5 and temperature of 50°C. Moreover, the enzyme retained at least 80% of its activity in the pH range from 4 to 9 and 98% at 600 mM NaCl. Thin layer chromatography analyses identified chitobiose as the main product of MetaChi18A on chitin polymers as substrate. Kinetic analysis showed inhibition of MetaChi18A activity at high concentrations of colloidal chitin and 4-methylumbelliferyl N,N′-diacetylchitobiose and sigmoid kinetics at low concentrations of colloidal chitin, indicating a possible conformational change to lead the chitin chain from the chitin-binding to the catalytic domain. The observed stability and activity of MetaChi18A over a wide range of conditions suggest that this chitinase, now characterized, may be suitable for application in the industrial processing of chitin. PMID:28076454

  19. A broad pH range and processive chitinase from a metagenome library.

    PubMed

    Thimoteo, S S; Glogauer, A; Faoro, H; de Souza, E M; Huergo, L F; Moerschbacher, B M; Pedrosa, F O

    2017-01-05

    Chitinases are hydrolases that degrade chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine linked β(1-4) present in the exoskeleton of crustaceans, insects, nematodes and fungal cell walls. A metagenome fosmid library from a wastewater-contaminated soil was functionally screened for chitinase activity leading to the isolation and identification of a chitinase gene named metachi18A. The metachi18A gene was subcloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and the MetaChi18A chitinase was purified by affinity chromatography as a 6xHis-tagged fusion protein. The MetaChi18A enzyme is a 92-kDa protein with a conserved active site domain of glycosyl hydrolases family 18. It hydrolyses colloidal chitin with an optimum pH of 5 and temperature of 50°C. Moreover, the enzyme retained at least 80% of its activity in the pH range from 4 to 9 and 98% at 600 mM NaCl. Thin layer chromatography analyses identified chitobiose as the main product of MetaChi18A on chitin polymers as substrate. Kinetic analysis showed inhibition of MetaChi18A activity at high concentrations of colloidal chitin and 4-methylumbelliferyl N,N'-diacetylchitobiose and sigmoid kinetics at low concentrations of colloidal chitin, indicating a possible conformational change to lead the chitin chain from the chitin-binding to the catalytic domain. The observed stability and activity of MetaChi18A over a wide range of conditions suggest that this chitinase, now characterized, may be suitable for application in the industrial processing of chitin.

  20. Highly Sensitive and Wide-Dynamic-Range Multichannel Optical-Fiber pH Sensor Based on PWM Technique.

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Rajibur Rahaman; Kang, Shin-Won

    2016-11-09

    In this study, we propose a highly sensitive multichannel pH sensor that is based on an optical-fiber pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. According to the optical-fiber PWM method, the received sensing signal's pulse width changes when the optical-fiber pH sensing-element of the array comes into contact with pH buffer solutions. The proposed optical-fiber PWM pH-sensing system offers a linear sensing response over a wide range of pH values from 2 to 12, with a high pH-sensing ability. The sensitivity of the proposed pH sensor is 0.46 µs/pH, and the correlation coefficient R² is approximately 0.997. Additional advantages of the proposed optical-fiber PWM pH sensor include a short/fast response-time of about 8 s, good reproducibility properties with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of about 0.019, easy fabrication, low cost, small size, reusability of the optical-fiber sensing-element, and the capability of remote sensing. Finally, the performance of the proposed PWM pH sensor was compared with that of potentiometric, optical-fiber modal interferometer, and optical-fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer pH sensors with respect to dynamic range width, linearity as well as response and recovery times. We observed that the proposed sensing systems have better sensing abilities than the above-mentioned pH sensors.

  1. Influence of pH-dependent aquatic toxicity of ionizable pharmaceuticals on risk assessments over environmental pH ranges.

    PubMed

    Boström, Marja Lena; Berglund, Olof

    2015-04-01

    Due to variation in pH, ionizable pharmaceuticals entering aquatic environments experience different degrees of ionization, which may affect toxicity. Using data from toxicity testing at only neutral pH may potentially under- or overestimate actual toxicity at pH ranges found in natural aquatic environments. Here we show relative pH-dependent acute toxicity to Daphnia magna for the pharmaceutical weak bases fluoxetine and sertraline, as well as the weak acids naproxen, diclofenac, ibuprofen and ketoprofen. A probabilistic modelling approach using the pH-dependent toxicity data for D. magna and an environmental pH distribution based on over 4000 European running waters from 21 countries predicted that environmental toxicity for the weak bases may be underestimated if pH 7 was assumed. The model predicted median underestimation by a factor of 3, with 90% of the model results ranging from 1 to 6. Consequently, due to the slightly basic nature of the European running waters, weak acid toxicity may be overestimated by a factor of 2. Predicted median toxicity was 0.5 of that assuming pH 7 with 90% of the results ranging from 0.03 to 5. Because aquatic pH exhibits large variation both within and between countries, we advise the use of site-specific risk assessments for ionizable pharmaceuticals in making informed water management decisions.

  2. Fiber optic pH sensing with long wavelength excitable Schiff bases in the pH range of 7.0-12.0.

    PubMed

    Derinkuyu, Sibel; Ertekin, Kadriye; Oter, Ozlem; Denizalti, Serpil; Cetinkaya, Engin

    2007-04-04

    Most of the fluorescent pH probes work near neutral or acidic regions of the pH scale. In this work, two different fluorescent Schiff bases, chloro phenyl imino propenyl aniline (CPIPA) and nitro phenyl imino propenyl aniline (NPIPA), have been investigated for pH sensing in the alkaline region. Absorption and emission based spectral data, quantum yield, fluorescence lifetime, photostability and acidity constant (pK(a)) of the Schiff bases were determined in conventional solvents and in PVC. The long wavelength excitable immobilized Schiff bases CPIPA (lambda(ex)=556 nm) and NPIPA (lambda(ex)=570 nm) exhibited absorption and emission based optical response to proton in the pH range of 8.0-12.0 and 7.0-12.0, respectively. Response of the CPIPA was fully reversible within the dynamic working range. The response times were between 3-13 min. A relative signal change of 95% and 96% have been achieved for sensor dyes of CPIPA and NPIPA, respectively. The CPIPA displayed better fluorescence quantum yield (varphi(F)=3.7 x 10(-1)) and higher matrix compatibility compared to NPIPA (varphi(F)=1.6 x 10(-1)) in immobilized PVC. The CPIPA and NPIPA exhibited a slight cross sensitivity to the ions of Hg(+) and Fe(3+), respectively.

  3. Highly Sensitive and Wide-Dynamic-Range Multichannel Optical-Fiber pH Sensor Based on PWM Technique

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md. Rajibur Rahaman; Kang, Shin-Won

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we propose a highly sensitive multichannel pH sensor that is based on an optical-fiber pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. According to the optical-fiber PWM method, the received sensing signal’s pulse width changes when the optical-fiber pH sensing-element of the array comes into contact with pH buffer solutions. The proposed optical-fiber PWM pH-sensing system offers a linear sensing response over a wide range of pH values from 2 to 12, with a high pH-sensing ability. The sensitivity of the proposed pH sensor is 0.46 µs/pH, and the correlation coefficient R2 is approximately 0.997. Additional advantages of the proposed optical-fiber PWM pH sensor include a short/fast response-time of about 8 s, good reproducibility properties with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of about 0.019, easy fabrication, low cost, small size, reusability of the optical-fiber sensing-element, and the capability of remote sensing. Finally, the performance of the proposed PWM pH sensor was compared with that of potentiometric, optical-fiber modal interferometer, and optical-fiber Fabry–Perot interferometer pH sensors with respect to dynamic range width, linearity as well as response and recovery times. We observed that the proposed sensing systems have better sensing abilities than the above-mentioned pH sensors. PMID:27834865

  4. The characteristic AgcoreAushell nanoparticles as SERS substrates in detecting dopamine molecules at various pH ranges

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Yanru; Lee, Sang-Wha

    2015-01-01

    AgcoreAushell nanoparticles (NPs) are a promising surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate, which can offer a high enhancement factor through the combined effect of the high SERS activity of the Ag core and the biocompatibility of the Au shell. In this study, AgcoreAushell NPs were examined as SERS substrates for the sensitive detection of dopamine (DA) molecules in an aqueous solution. The SERS activity of the AgcoreAushell NPs was strongly dependent on the pH of the solution. When the pH of the solution was acidic (pH <5) or basic (pH >9), the AgcoreAushell NPs exhibited negligible SERS activity toward the DA molecules, due to the weakened interactions (or repulsive forces) between the DA molecules and the core–shell NPs. On the other hand, the AgcoreAushell NPs exhibited a high SERS activity in the intermediate pH ranges (pH 7–9), due to the molecular bridging effect of DA molecules, which allows probe molecules to be located at the interstitial junctions (so-called hot spots) between the core–shell NPs. The results of this study highlight the importance of probe-induced clustering of core–shell NPs in the SERS measurements at physiological pH. PMID:26345418

  5. Expanding the active pH range of Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase by breaking the cooperativeness.

    PubMed

    Thu Ho, Ngoc Anh; Hou, Chen Yuan; Kim, Woo Hyun; Kang, Taek Jin

    2013-02-01

    Bacterial glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) transforms glutamate into γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) with the consumption of a proton. The enzyme is active under acidic environments only and sharply loses its activity as pH approaches neutrality with concomitant structural deformation. In an attempt to understand better the role of this cooperative loss of activity upon pH shifts, we prepared and studied a series of GAD site-specific mutants. In this report, we show that the cooperativeness was kept intact by at least two residues, Glu89 and His465, of which Glu89 is newly identified to be involved in the cooperativity system of GAD. Double mutation on these residues not only broke the cooperativity in the activity change but also yielded a mutant GAD that retained the activity at neutral pH. The resulting mutant GAD that was active at neutral pH inhibited the cell growth in a glycerol medium by converting intracellular Glu into GABA in an uncontrolled manner, which explains in part why the cooperativeness of GAD has to be kept by several layers of safety keepers. This unexpected result might be utilized to convert a low-valued by-product of biodiesel production, glycerol, into value-added product, GABA. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biomimetic Nanofluidic Diode Composed of Dual Amphoteric Channels Maintains Rectification Direction over a Wide pH Range.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xin; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Chao; Yuan, Hao; Gao, Longcheng; Wen, Liping; Fan, Xia; Yang, Lijun; Zhang, Xinru; Jiang, Lei

    2016-10-10

    pH-gated ion channels in cell membranes play important roles in the cell's physiological activities. Many artificial nanochannels have been fabricated to mimic the natural phenomenon of pH-gated ion transport. However, these nanochannels show pH sensitivity only within certain pH ranges. Wide-range pH sensitivity has not yet been achieved. Herein, for the first time, we provide a versatile strategy to increase the pH-sensitive range by using dual amphoteric nanochannels. In particular, amphoteric polymeric nanochannels with carboxyl groups derived from a block copolymer (BCP) precursor and nanochannels with hydroxyl groups made from anodic alumina oxide (AAO) were used. Due to a synergistic effect, the hybrid nanochannels exhibit nanofluidic diode properties with single rectification direction over a wide pH range. The novel strategy presented here is a scalable, low-cost, and robust alternative for the construction of large-area membranes for nanofluidic applications, such as the separation of biomolecules. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Separation and determination of chiral composition in penicillamine tablets by capillary electrophoresis in a broad pH range.

    PubMed

    Song, Lijuan; Guo, Zhenpeng; Chen, Yi

    2012-07-01

    A chiral capillary electrophoretic method with nearly full pH window was explored for the separation and determination of dl-penicillamine. A facile one-pot labeling technique was coupled in the method for introduction of chromophore and charge groups onto the analytes to facilitate the electromigration and sensitive detection. By using simply a cost-effective neutral β-cyclodextrin as chiral selector, baseline separation of the dl-penicillamine was achieved from pH 2.0 to over pH 10. Quantification of standard d- and l-penicillamines was demonstrated by taking pH 4.5, 7.4, and 9.7 as the representatives of acidic, neutral, and basic conditions. The working curves were constructed between peak area and concentration, having linear ranges of 8.56-8.56 × 10(2) μg/mL for pH 4.5 and 8.56-1.71 × 10(3) μg/mL for pH 7.4 and 9.7, with correlation coefficients all better than 0.999. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) was 2.58 μg/mL in acidic and neutral conditions or 1.41 μg/mL in basic condition. The method was further validated by assaying the commercial penicillamine tablets, applicable to quantification of the effective enantiomer and the trace impurity of l-penicillamine at a content of down to 0.2, 0.6, and 2.0% for pH 9.7, 4.5, and 7.4, respectively. The recovery determined by spiking technique was in a range from 93.1 to 105 %. The method is easily extendable to the analysis of other chiral amines or amino acids.

  8. Synthesis of (2-11C)5,5-dimethyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione for studies with positron tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ginos, J.Z.; Tilbury, R.S.; Haber, M.T.; Rottenberg, D.A.

    1982-03-01

    We have developed a method for the synthesis of (2-11C)5,5-dimethyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione ((2-11C)DMO) for use with positron emission tomography to measure regional tissue pH in vivo in man. (2-11C)Dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was prepared from (C-11)phosgene and excess of sodium methoxide in methanol containing dimethyl carbonate as added carrier. The (2-11C)DMC solution was then reacted with 2-hydroxyisobutyramide at 150 degrees C for 10 min to yield, after HPLC separation, (2-11C)DMO with a radiochemical yield of 20-56%. Chemical yields were 78-92%, and specific activity ranged as high as 830 mCi/millimol.

  9. Earth orientation from lunar laser range-differencing. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leick, A.

    1978-01-01

    For the optimal use of high precision lunar laser ranging (LLR), an investigation regarding a clear definition of the underlying coordinate systems, identification of estimable quantities, favorable station geometry and optimal observation schedule is given.

  10. Pulsed multiwavelength laser ranging system. Ph.D. Thesis - Maryland Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A pulsed multiwavelength laser ranging system for measuring atmospheric delay was built and tested, and its theoretical performance limits were calculated. The system uses a dye modelocked ND:YAG laser, which transmits 70 psec wide pulses simultaneously at 1064, 532, and 355 nm. The differential delay of the 1064 and 355 nm pulses is measured by a specially calibrated waveform digitizer to estimate the dry atmospheric delay. The delay time of the 532 nm pulse is used to measure the target distance. Static crossed field photomultipliers are used as detectors for all wavelengths. Theoretical analysis shows that path curvature and atmospheric turbulence are fundamental limits to the ranging accuracy of both single and multicolor systems operating over horizontal paths. For two color systems, an additional error is caused by the uncertainty in the path averaged water vapor. The standard deviation of the multicolor instrument's timing measurements is directly proportional to the laser pulse width plus photomultiplier jitter divided by the square root of the received photoelectron number. The prototype system's maximum range is km, which is limited by atmospheric and system transmission losses at 355 nm. System signal detection and false alarm calculations are also presented.

  11. A single design strategy for dual sensitive pH probe with a suitable range to map pH in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kang-Kang; Hou, Ji-Ting; Li, Kun; Yao, Qian; Yang, Jin; Wu, Ming-Yu; Xie, Yong-Mei; Yu, Xiao-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lack of a proper imaging approach, a veracious pH map of normal and abnormal cell is still rare. In this work, we presented a rhodamine-salicylaldehyde combination (Rh-SA2) as a novel pH probe, which has dual sensitive units for both acidic and basic environment. This dual sensitive probe acts like a chameleon in living cells and offers the doubling guarantees for endocellular pH mapping. Moreover, a quantitative measurement of cellular pH changes was allowed and the endocellular pH values under drug-associated stimuli were also investigated. PMID:26486180

  12. CTAB-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of YVO 4:Eu 3+ powders in a wide pH range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos; Xu, Yunhua

    2012-01-01

    Rhombus-, rod-, soya bean- and aggregated soya bean-like YVO 4:Eu 3+ micro- and nanostructures were synthesized by a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-assisted hydrothermal method at 180 °C for 24 h in a wide pH range. The as-synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The XRD results confirmed the formation of phase-pure YVO 4:Eu 3+ powders with tetragonal structure under hydrothermal process in a wide pH range. Electron microscopic observations evidenced the morphological transformation of YVO 4:Eu 3+ powders from rhombus-like microstructure to rod-, soya bean, and aggregated soya bean-like nanostructures with an increase in the pH of the synthesis solution. The results from the PL measurements revealed that the intensities of PL emission peaks were significantly affected by the morphologies and crystallinity of samples due to the absence of an inversion symmetry at the Eu 3+ lattice site, and the highest luminescence intensity was observed for rod-like YVO 4:Eu 3+ powders.

  13. Semimetallic MoP2: an active and stable hydrogen evolution electrocatalyst over the whole pH range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Zonghua; Saana Amiinu, Ibrahim; Wang, Min; Yang, Yushi; Mu, Shichun

    2016-04-01

    Developing efficient non-precious metal hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts is a great challenge for sustainable hydrogen production from water. In this communication, for the first time, semimetallic MoP2 nanoparticle films on a metal Mo plate (MoP2 NPs/Mo) are fabricated through a facile two-step strategy. When used as a binder-free hydrogen evolution cathode, the as-prepared MoP2 NPs/Mo electrode exhibits superior HER catalytic activity at all pH values. At a current density of 10 mA cm-2, the catalyst displays overpotentials of 143, 211 and 194 mV in 0.5 M H2SO4, 1.0 M phosphate buffer solution and 1.0 M KOH, respectively. Furthermore, it exhibits excellent stability over a wide pH range. Thus, this in situ route opens up a new avenue for the fabrication of highly efficient, cost-effective and binder-free non-precious catalysts for water splitting and other electrochemical devices.Developing efficient non-precious metal hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts is a great challenge for sustainable hydrogen production from water. In this communication, for the first time, semimetallic MoP2 nanoparticle films on a metal Mo plate (MoP2 NPs/Mo) are fabricated through a facile two-step strategy. When used as a binder-free hydrogen evolution cathode, the as-prepared MoP2 NPs/Mo electrode exhibits superior HER catalytic activity at all pH values. At a current density of 10 mA cm-2, the catalyst displays overpotentials of 143, 211 and 194 mV in 0.5 M H2SO4, 1.0 M phosphate buffer solution and 1.0 M KOH, respectively. Furthermore, it exhibits excellent stability over a wide pH range. Thus, this in situ route opens up a new avenue for the fabrication of highly efficient, cost-effective and binder-free non-precious catalysts for water splitting and other electrochemical devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00820h

  14. 36 CFR 2.11 - Picnicking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Picnicking. 2.11 Section 2.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.11 Picnicking. Picnicking is allowed, except in designated...

  15. The potential of selected macroalgal species for treatment of AMD at different pH ranges in temperate regions.

    PubMed

    Oberholster, Paul J; Cheng, Po-Hsun; Botha, Anna-Maria; Genthe, Bettina

    2014-09-01

    The metal bioaccumulation potential of selected macroalgae species at different pH ranges was study for usage as part of a possible secondary passive acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment technology in algae ponds. Two separate studies were conducted to determine the suitability of macroalgae for passive treatment when metabolic processes in macrophytes and microorganisms in constructed wetlands decrease during winter months. In the field study, the bioconcentration of metals (mg/kg dry weight) measured in the benthic macroalgae mats was in the following order: site 1. Oedogonium crassum Al > Fe > Mn > Zn; site 2. Klebsormidium klebsii, Al > Fe > Mn > Zn; site 3. Microspora tumidula, Fe > Al > Mn > Zn and site 4. M. tumidula, Fe > Mn > Al > Zn. In the laboratory study, cultured macroalgae K. klebsii, O. crassum and M. tumidula isolated from the field sampling sites were exposed to three different pH values (3, 5 and 7), while bioaccumulation of the metals, Al, Fe, Mn and Zn and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity were measured in the different selected algae species at a constant water temperature of 14 °C. Bioaccumulation of Al was the highest for O. crassum followed by K. klebsii and M. tumidula (p < 0.0001). From the study it was evident that the highest metal bioaccumulation occurred in the macroalgae O. crassum at all three tested pH values under constant low water temperature.

  16. Semimetallic MoP2: an active and stable hydrogen evolution electrocatalyst over the whole pH range.

    PubMed

    Pu, Zonghua; Saana Amiinu, Ibrahim; Wang, Min; Yang, Yushi; Mu, Shichun

    2016-04-28

    Developing efficient non-precious metal hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts is a great challenge for sustainable hydrogen production from water. In this communication, for the first time, semimetallic MoP2 nanoparticle films on a metal Mo plate (MoP2 NPs/Mo) are fabricated through a facile two-step strategy. When used as a binder-free hydrogen evolution cathode, the as-prepared MoP2 NPs/Mo electrode exhibits superior HER catalytic activity at all pH values. At a current density of 10 mA cm(-2), the catalyst displays overpotentials of 143, 211 and 194 mV in 0.5 M H2SO4, 1.0 M phosphate buffer solution and 1.0 M KOH, respectively. Furthermore, it exhibits excellent stability over a wide pH range. Thus, this in situ route opens up a new avenue for the fabrication of highly efficient, cost-effective and binder-free non-precious catalysts for water splitting and other electrochemical devices.

  17. A fluorescent sensing of nerve agent simulant with dual emissions at wide pH range in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsam; Jang, Yoon Jeong; Mulay, Sandip V; Nguyen, Thuy-Tien T; Churchill, David G

    2017-03-23

    A new 1,8-naphthalimide-based fluorescent probe for the detection of diethyl cyanophosphonate, a very common nerve agent simulant, was designed, synthesized and characterized fully. The probe showed around 50-fold enhancement of fluorescence intensity over other nerve agent simulants. Importantly, the probe is able to work under aqueous conditions at wide pH range. Two reactive groups, the oxime and phenol, allowed a dual emission with different kinetic reaction. The reaction of diethyl cyanophosphonate with the oxime group occurred in advance; the resulting time-response of fluorescence enhancement was observed within ~30 s. After the oxime underwent reaction, then phenol also underwent substitution reaction with diethyl cyanophosphate resulting blue emission. To show real application of this new probe, silica plate assays for the detection of diethyl cyanophosphonate in gas and liquid phase through dual emissions channel were carried out.

  18. The Electro-Oxidation of Ethylene Glycol on Platinum over a Wide pH Range: Oscillations and Temperature Effects

    PubMed Central

    Sitta, Elton; Nagao, Raphael; Varela, Hamilton

    2013-01-01

    We report a comprehensive study of the electro-oxidation of ethylene glycol (EG) on platinum with emphasis on the effects exerted by the electrolyte pH, the EG concentration, and temperature, under both regular and oscillatory conditions. We extracted and discussed parameters such as voltammetric activity, reaction orders (with respect to [EG]), oscillation’s amplitude, frequency and waveform, and the evolution of the mean electrode potential at six pH values from 0 to 14. In addition, we obtained the apparent activation energies under several different conditions. Overall, we observed that increasing the electrolyte pH results in a discontinuous transition in most properties studied under both voltammetric and oscillatory regimes. As a relevant result in this direction, we found that the increase in the reaction order with pH is mediated by a minimum (~ 0) at pH = 12. Furthermore, the solution pH strongly affects all features investigated, c.f. the considerable increase in the oscillatory frequency and the decrease in the, oscillatory, activation energy as the pH increase. We suggest that adsorbed CO is probably the main surface-blocking species at low pH, and its absence at high pH is likely to be the main reason behind the differences observed. The size of the parameter region investigated and the amount of comparable parameters and properties presented in this study, as well as the discussion that followed illustrate the strategy of combining investigations under conventional and oscillatory regimes of electrocatalytic systems. PMID:24058650

  19. Peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles stabilized by hyperbranched polyglycidol derivatives over a wide pH range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, Marcin; Pietrzak, Mariusz; Parzuchowski, Paweł; Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, Marta; Malinowska, Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to carry out comparative studies on the peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) stabilized with low molecular weight hyperbranched polyglycidol (HBPG-OH) and its derivative modified with maleic acid residues (HBPG-COOH). The influence of the stabilizer to gold precursor ratio on the size and morphology of nanoparticles obtained was checked, and prepared nanoparticles were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results indicated the divergent effect of increasing the concentration of stabilizers (HBPG-OH or HBPG-COOH) on the size of the nanostructures obtained. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized as having intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and the mechanism of catalysis in acidic and alkaline mediums was consistent with the standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics, revealing a strong affinity of AuNPs with 2, 2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 3, 3‧, 5, 5‧-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), and significantly lower affinity towards phenol. By comparing the kinetic parameters, a negligible effect of polymeric ligand charge on activity against various types of substrates (anionic or cationic) was indicated. The superiority of steric stabilization via the application of tested low-weight hyperbranched polymers over typical stabilizers in preventing salt-induced aggregation and maintaining high catalytic activity in time was proved. The applied hyperbranched stabilizers provide a good tool for manufacturing gold-based nanozymes, which are highly stable and active over a wide pH range.

  20. Oxidation of iodide and iodine on birnessite (delta-MnO2) in the pH range 4-8.

    PubMed

    Allard, Sébastien; von Gunten, Urs; Sahli, Elisabeth; Nicolau, Rudy; Gallard, Hervé

    2009-08-01

    The oxidation of iodide by synthetic birnessite (delta-MnO(2)) was studied in perchlorate media in the pH range 4-8. Iodine (I(2)) was detected as an oxidation product that was subsequently further oxidized to iodate (IO(3)(-)). The third order rate constants, second order on iodide and first order on manganese oxide, determined by extraction of iodine in benzene decreased with increasing pH (6.3-7.5) from 1790 to 3.1M(-2) s(-1). Both iodine and iodate were found to adsorb significantly on birnessite with an adsorption capacity of 12.7 microM/g for iodate at pH 5.7. The rate of iodine oxidation by birnessite decreased with increasing ionic strength, which resulted in a lower rate of iodate formation. The production of iodine in iodide-containing waters in contact with manganese oxides may result in the formation of undesired iodinated organic compounds (taste and odor, toxicity) in natural and technical systems. The probability of the formation of such compounds is highest in the pH range 5-7.5. For pH <5 iodine is quickly oxidized to iodate, a non-toxic and stable sink for iodine. At pH >7.5, iodide is not oxidized to a significant extent.

  1. Graft copolymers that exhibit temperature-induced phase transitions over a wide range of pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guohua; Hoffman, Allan S.

    1995-01-01

    THERE are many potential applications of 'intelligent' aqueous polymer systems1-8 in medicine, biotechnology, industry and in environmental problems9-13. Many of these polymer systems undergo reversible phase transitions-for example, abrupt changes in volume-in response to external stimuli such as temperature, pH or the nature of the solvent. Most of the polymers studied previously are responsive to only one kind of stimulus. But for some applications, independent responsiveness to several factors, such as temperature and pH, may be required. Here we describe a polymer that undergoes marked solubility changes in water in response to temperature and/or pH changes. The polymer is prepared by grafting temperature-sensitive side chains onto a pH-sensitive backbone. We also find that block copolymers, in which the temperature- and pH-sensitive units alternate along the chain, show similar behaviour.

  2. Study of retention and peak shape in hydrophilic interaction chromatography over a wide pH range.

    PubMed

    McCalley, David V

    2015-09-11

    Retention factor and column efficiency measurements were made for 14 test compounds comprising acids, bases and neutrals on two pairs of amide and bare silica HILIC columns, each pair obtained from a different manufacturer. The columns were tested with up to 6 different mobile phases with acetonitrile-water containing formic (FA), trifluoroacetic (TFA), heptafluorobutyric acids (HFBA) and ammonium salt buffers at w(w)pH 3, 6 and 9. Measurements of mobile phase pH in water (w(w)pH) and in the aqueous-organic mixture (w(s)pH) were performed, and calculations of ionic strength made, in order to aid interpretation of the chromatographic results. Stronger acids like TFA produced very different selectivity compared with ammonium formate buffers at similar aqueous pH. On a given column using TFA as additive, the retention of strongly acidic solutes was considerably increased relative to that of bases. Some bases even showed exclusion on both amide, and on a hybrid silica column. Conversely, in ammonium formate buffers of similar aqueous pH, bases had increased retention compared with acids, particularly on the bare silica columns. This result can be attributed to the higher pH of the salt buffers when measured in the aqueous-organic phase and interaction with negatively charged silanols. It is possible that the silica surface becomes positively charged at the low pH of TFA, leading to anion exchange properties that become competitive with the cation exchange properties normally attributed to silanol dissociation, although other explanations of these results are possible. Very marked selectivity differences were obtained by use of TFA in the mobile phase. Useful selectivity differences may also be obtained with salt buffers at different pH if the use of TFA is not desired due to its relatively unfavourable properties in mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of Chameleonic Change of Red Cabbage Depending on Broad pH Range for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Hee; Kim, Tae Young; Ko, Hyun Seok; Han, Eun Mi; Lee, Suk-Ho; Kim, Jung-Hun; Lee, Jae Wook

    2015-08-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled using natural dyes extracted from red cabbage as a sensitizer. In this work, we investigated the adsorption characteristics and the electrochemical behavior for harvesting sunlight and electron transfer in red cabbage DSSCs under different solvents and pH. For the red cabbage dye-sensitized electrode adsorbed at pH 3.5, the solar cell yields a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 1.60 mA/cm2, a photovoltage (Vcc) of 0.46 V, and a fill factor of 0.55, corresponding to an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 0.41%.

  4. Fluorescence ratiometric optical broad range pH sensor based on CdSe/ZnS quantum dots and O170 embedded in ethyl cellulose matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Cheng-Shane; Su, Chih-Jen

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a ratiometric optical broad range pH sensor that comprises an optical fiber coated at one end with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and Oxazine 170 perchlorate (O170) embedded in ethyl cellulose (EC) matrix. The feasibility of coating an optical fiber with the sensing film to fabricate a ratiometric fiber optic broad range pH sensor is investigated. Using an LED with a central wavelength 405 nm as an excitation light source, the CdSe/ZnS QDs shows that the emission wavelength at 575 nm highly sensitive to pH and O170 shows the emission wavelength at 655 nm insensitive to pH. The ratio of fluorescence intensities at 575 nm and 655 nm has a linear relationship with pH in the 0.9-12.2 range. The ratiometric sensing approach presented in this study has the advantage of suppressing spurious fluctuations in the intensity of the excitation source and optical transmission properties of the optical fiber sensor.

  5. Two-step counterdiffusion protocol for the crystallization of haemoglobin II from Lucina pectinata in the pH range 4–9

    PubMed Central

    Nieves-Marrero, Carlos A.; Ruiz-Martínez, Carlos R.; Estremera-Andújar, Rafael A.; González-Ramírez, Luis A.; López-Garriga, Juan; Gavira, José A.

    2010-01-01

    Lucina pectinata haemoglobin II (HbII) transports oxygen in the presence of H2S to the symbiotic system in this bivalve mollusc. The composition of the haem pocket at the distal site includes TyrB10 and GlnE7, which are very common in other haem proteins. Obtaining crystals of oxyHbII at various pH values is required in order to elucidate the changes in the conformations of TyrB10 and GlnE7 and structural scenarios induced by changes in pH. Here, the growth of crystals of oxyHbII using the capillary counterdiffusion (CCD) technique at various pH values using a two-step protocol is reported. In the first step, a mini-screen was used to validate sodium formate as the best precipitating reagent for the growth of oxyHbII crystals. The second step, a pH screen typically used for optimization, was used to produce crystals in the pH range 4–­9. Very well faceted prismatic ruby-red crystals were obtained at all pH values. X-ray data sets were acquired using synchrotron radiation of wavelength 0.886 Å (for the crystals obtained at pH 5) and 0.908 Å (for those obtained at pH 4, 8 and 9) to maximum resolutions of 3.30, 1.95, 1.85 and 2.00 Å for the crystals obtained at pH 4, 5, 8 and 9, respectively. All of the crystals were isomorphous and belonged to space group P42212. PMID:20208156

  6. A broad pH range indicator-based spectrophotometric assay for true lipases using tributyrin and tricaprylin[S

    PubMed Central

    Camacho-Ruiz, María de los Angeles; Mateos-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Carrière, Frédéric; Rodriguez, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    A continuous assay is proposed for the screening of acidic, neutral, or alkaline lipases using microtiter plates, emulsified short- and medium-chain TGs, and a pH indicator. The lipase activity measurement is based on the decrease of the pH indicator optical density due to protonation which is caused by the release of FFAs during the hydrolysis of TGs and thus acidification. Purified lipases with distinct pH optima and an esterase were used to validate the method. The rate of lipolysis was found to be linear with time and proportional to the amount of enzyme added in each case. Specific activities measured with this microplate assay method were lower than those obtained by the pH-stat technique. Nevertheless, the pH-dependent profiles of enzymatic activity were similar with both assays. In addition, the substrate preference of each enzyme tested was not modified and this allowed discriminating lipase and esterase activities using tributyrin (low water solubility) and tricaprylin (not water soluble) as substrates. This continuous lipase assay is compatible with a high sample throughput and can be applied for the screening of lipases and lipase inhibitors from biological samples. PMID:25748441

  7. Buffers for the physiological pH range: acidic dissociation constants of zwitterionic compounds in various hydroorganic media.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of pH of a physiological buffer is an integral part of clinical diagnosis. For the standardization of pH and control of acidity in the physiological region of pH 7 to 9, as found in blood and plasma. Good et al., Ferguson et al., and Bellini et al. have listed hydrogen buffers which are N-substituted amino acids compatible with common biological media. Recently, the acid base behavior of BICINE, in aqueous solution and in different solvent mixtures has been studied by us. Other investigators reported similar results for (CAPS and CAPSO), (BES), (ACES and CHES), TRICINE, TES, ADA, (HEPPS and MOPSO), (MOPS), and (MOBS and HEPBS). These studies have provided precise knowledge about the suitability of a biological buffer. No work seems to have been done on the determination of second stage dissociation constants of 2-(4-Morphlinomethyl)propenoic acid, 2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino methyl]propenoic acid, 2-[bis(2-hydroxypropyl)aminomethyl]propenoic acid, and 2-[N-ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)aminomethyl]propenoic acid in aquo-organic solvent mixtures.

  8. A broad pH range indicator-based spectrophotometric assay for true lipases using tributyrin and tricaprylin.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Ruiz, María de Los Angeles; Mateos-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Carrière, Frédéric; Rodriguez, Jorge A

    2015-05-01

    A continuous assay is proposed for the screening of acidic, neutral, or alkaline lipases using microtiter plates, emulsified short- and medium-chain TGs, and a pH indicator. The lipase activity measurement is based on the decrease of the pH indicator optical density due to protonation which is caused by the release of FFAs during the hydrolysis of TGs and thus acidification. Purified lipases with distinct pH optima and an esterase were used to validate the method. The rate of lipolysis was found to be linear with time and proportional to the amount of enzyme added in each case. Specific activities measured with this microplate assay method were lower than those obtained by the pH-stat technique. Nevertheless, the pH-dependent profiles of enzymatic activity were similar with both assays. In addition, the substrate preference of each enzyme tested was not modified and this allowed discriminating lipase and esterase activities using tributyrin (low water solubility) and tricaprylin (not water soluble) as substrates. This continuous lipase assay is compatible with a high sample throughput and can be applied for the screening of lipases and lipase inhibitors from biological samples. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. 42 CFR 2.11 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to prevent or treat child abuse or neglect, including training on nutrition and child care and... DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.11 Definitions. For purposes of these regulations: Alcohol abuse means the use of an alcoholic beverage which impairs the physical, mental, emotional,...

  10. 42 CFR 2.11 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to prevent or treat child abuse or neglect, including training on nutrition and child care and... DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.11 Definitions. For purposes of these regulations: Alcohol abuse means the use of an alcoholic beverage which impairs the physical, mental, emotional,...

  11. 42 CFR 2.11 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to prevent or treat child abuse or neglect, including training on nutrition and child care and... DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.11 Definitions. For purposes of these regulations: Alcohol abuse means the use of an alcoholic beverage which impairs the physical, mental, emotional,...

  12. 42 CFR 2.11 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to prevent or treat child abuse or neglect, including training on nutrition and child care and... DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.11 Definitions. For purposes of these regulations: Alcohol abuse means the use of an alcoholic beverage which impairs the physical, mental, emotional,...

  13. 42 CFR 2.11 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to prevent or treat child abuse or neglect, including training on nutrition and child care and... DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.11 Definitions. For purposes of these regulations: Alcohol abuse means the use of an alcoholic beverage which impairs the physical, mental, emotional,...

  14. Bio-inspired anti-oil-fouling chitosan-coated mesh for oil/water separation suitable for broad pH range and hyper-saline environments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiyan; Lu, Fei; Tao, Lei; Liu, Na; Gao, Changrui; Feng, Lin; Wei, Yen

    2013-11-27

    Here, we report a bio-inspired chitosan (CS)-based mesh with high separation efficiency, oil-fouling repellency, and stability in a complex liquid environment. The surface of the CS coating maintains underwater superoleophobicity and low oil adhesion (<1 μN) in pure water and hyper-saline solutions, and it can keep stable special wettability in broad pH range environments after the CS mesh is fully cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and then reduced by sodium borohydride to form a stable carbon-nitrogen single bond. The separation process is solely gravity-driven, and the mesh can separate a range of different oil/water mixtures with >99% separation efficiency in hyper-saline and broad pH range conditions. We envision that such a separation method will be useful in oil spill cleanup and industrial oily wastewater treatment in extreme environments.

  15. Fever-range hyperthermia improves the anti-apoptotic effect induced by low pH on human neutrophils promoting a proangiogenic profile

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Fernando Erra; Dantas, Ezequiel; Cabrera, Maia; Benítez, Constanza A; Delpino, María V; Duette, Gabriel; Rubione, Julia; Sanjuan, Norberto; Trevani, Analía S; Geffner, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils have the shortest lifespan among leukocytes and usually die via apoptosis, limiting their deleterious potential. However, this tightly regulated cell death program can be modulated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMPs), and inflammatory cytokines. We have previously reported that low pH, a hallmark of inflammatory processes and solid tumors, moderately delays neutrophil apoptosis. Here we show that fever-range hyperthermia accelerates the rate of neutrophil apoptosis at neutral pH but markedly increases neutrophil survival induced by low pH. Interestingly, an opposite effect was observed in lymphocytes; hyperthermia plus low pH prevents lymphocyte activation and promotes the death of lymphocytes and lymphoid cell lines. Analysis of the mechanisms through which hyperthermia plus low pH increased neutrophil survival revealed that hyperthermia further decreases cytosolic pH induced by extracellular acidosis. The fact that two Na+/H+ exchanger inhibitors, 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA) and amiloride, reproduced the effects induced by hyperthermia suggested that it prolongs neutrophil survival by inhibiting the Na+/H+ antiporter. The neutrophil anti-apoptotic effect induced by PAMPs, DAMPs, and inflammatory cytokines usually leads to the preservation of the major neutrophil effector functions such as phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In contrast, our data revealed that the anti-apoptotic effect induced by low pH and hyperthermia induced a functional profile characterized by a low phagocytic activity, an impairment in ROS production and a high ability to suppress T-cell activation and to produce the angiogenic factors VEGF, IL-8, and the matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9). These results suggest that acting together fever and local acidosis might drive the differentiation of neutrophils into a profile able to promote both cancer progression and tissue repair during the

  16. Fever-range hyperthermia improves the anti-apoptotic effect induced by low pH on human neutrophils promoting a proangiogenic profile.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Fernando Erra; Dantas, Ezequiel; Cabrera, Maia; Benítez, Constanza A; Delpino, María V; Duette, Gabriel; Rubione, Julia; Sanjuan, Norberto; Trevani, Analía S; Geffner, Jorge

    2016-10-27

    Neutrophils have the shortest lifespan among leukocytes and usually die via apoptosis, limiting their deleterious potential. However, this tightly regulated cell death program can be modulated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMPs), and inflammatory cytokines. We have previously reported that low pH, a hallmark of inflammatory processes and solid tumors, moderately delays neutrophil apoptosis. Here we show that fever-range hyperthermia accelerates the rate of neutrophil apoptosis at neutral pH but markedly increases neutrophil survival induced by low pH. Interestingly, an opposite effect was observed in lymphocytes; hyperthermia plus low pH prevents lymphocyte activation and promotes the death of lymphocytes and lymphoid cell lines. Analysis of the mechanisms through which hyperthermia plus low pH increased neutrophil survival revealed that hyperthermia further decreases cytosolic pH induced by extracellular acidosis. The fact that two Na(+)/H(+) exchanger inhibitors, 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA) and amiloride, reproduced the effects induced by hyperthermia suggested that it prolongs neutrophil survival by inhibiting the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter. The neutrophil anti-apoptotic effect induced by PAMPs, DAMPs, and inflammatory cytokines usually leads to the preservation of the major neutrophil effector functions such as phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In contrast, our data revealed that the anti-apoptotic effect induced by low pH and hyperthermia induced a functional profile characterized by a low phagocytic activity, an impairment in ROS production and a high ability to suppress T-cell activation and to produce the angiogenic factors VEGF, IL-8, and the matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9). These results suggest that acting together fever and local acidosis might drive the differentiation of neutrophils into a profile able to promote both cancer progression and tissue repair

  17. Modeling of formation and prevention of a pure water zone in capillary isoelectric focusing with narrow pH range carrier ampholytes.

    PubMed

    Takácsi-Nagy, Anna; Kilár, Ferenc; Thormann, Wolfgang

    2017-03-01

    This paper comprises a continuation of computer simulation studies dealing with carrier ampholyte based CIEF in presence of narrow pH gradients. With this technique, amphoteric sample components with pI values outside the pH gradient are migrating isotachophoretically toward the cathode or anode whereas components with pI values within the gradient become focused. In order to understand the processes occurring in presence of the electric field, the behavior of both carrier ampholytes and amphoteric sample components is investigated by computer modeling. Characteristics of two pH unit gradients with end components having pI values at or around 7.00 and conditions that lead to the formation of a water zone at neutrality were investigated. Data obtained reveal that a zone of water is formed in focusing with carrier ampholytes when the applied pH range does not cover the neutral region, ends at pH 7.00 or begins at pH 7.00. The presence of additional amphoteric components that cover the neutrality region prevent water zone formation under current flow. This situation is met in experiments with narrow pH gradients that end or begin around neutrality. Simulation data reveal that no water zone evolves when atmospheric carbon dioxide dissolved in the catholyte causes the migration of carbonic acid (in the form of carbonate and/or hydrogen carbonate ions) from the catholyte through the focusing structure. An electrolyte change in the electrode solution does not have an impact on the focusing part but does change the isotachophoretic pattern migrating behind the leading ion.

  18. Template-free synthesis of ZnWO{sub 4} powders via hydrothermal process in a wide pH range

    SciTech Connect

    Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos; Zhu, Gangqiang; Xu, Yunhua

    2010-12-15

    ZnWO{sub 4} powders with different morphologies were fabricated through a template-free hydrothermal method at 180 {sup o}C for 8 h in a wide pH range. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible and luminescence spectrophotometers were applied to study the effects of pH values on crystallinity, morphology, optical and luminescence properties. The XRD results showed that the WO{sub 3} + ZnWO{sub 4}, ZnWO{sub 4}, and ZnO phases could form after hydrothermal processing at 180 {sup o}C for 8 h with the pH values of 1, 3-11, and 13, respectively. The SEM and TEM observation revealed that the morphological transformation of ZnWO{sub 4} powders occurred with an increase in pH values as follows: star anise-, peony-, and desert rose-like microstructures and soya bean- and rod-like nanostructures. The highest luminescence intensity was found to be in sample consisting of star anise-like crystallites among all the samples due to the presence of larger particles with high crystallinity resulted from the favorable pH under the current hydrothermal conditions.

  19. Wide pH range for fluoride removal from water by MHS-MgO/MgCO₃ adsorbent: kinetic, thermodynamic and mechanism studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaisheng; Wu, Shibiao; Wang, Xuelong; He, Junyong; Sun, Bai; Jia, Yong; Luo, Tao; Meng, Fanli; Jin, Zhen; Lin, Dongyue; Shen, Wei; Kong, Lingtao; Liu, Jinhuai

    2015-05-15

    A novel environment friendly adsorbent, micro-nano hierarchical structured flower-like MgO/MgCO3 (MHS-MgO/MgCO3), was developed for fluoride removal from water. The adsorbent was characterized and its defluoridation properties were investigated. Adsorption kinetics fitted well the pseudo-second-order model. Kinetic data revealed that the fluoride adsorption was rapid, more than 83-90% of fluoride could be removed within 30 min, and the adsorption equilibrium was achieved in the following 4 h. The fluoride adsorption isotherm was well described by Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacity was about 300 mg/g at pH=7. Moreover, this adsorbent possessed a very wide available pH range of 5-11, and the fluoride removal efficiencies even reached up to 86.2%, 83.2% and 76.5% at pH=11 for initial fluoride concentrations of 10, 20 and 30 mg/L, respectively. The effects of co-existing anions indicated that the anions had less effect on adsorption of fluoride except phosphate. In addition, the adsorption mechanism analysis revealed that the wide available pH range toward fluoride was mainly resulted from the exchange of the carbonate and hydroxyl groups on the surface of the MHS-MgO/MgCO3 with fluoride anions.

  20. Bovine β-lactoglobulin is dimeric under imitative physiological conditions: dissociation equilibrium and rate constants over the pH range of 2.5-7.5.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Davide; Melton, Laurence D; Norris, Gillian E; Loo, Trevor S; Williams, Martin A K; Dobson, Renwick C J; Jameson, Geoffrey B

    2012-07-18

    The oligomerization of β-lactoglobulin (βLg) has been studied extensively, but with somewhat contradictory results. Using analytical ultracentrifugation in both sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity modes, we studied the oligomerization of βLg variants A and B over a pH range of 2.5-7.5 in 100 mM NaCl at 25°C. For the first time, to our knowledge, we were able to estimate rate constants (k(off)) for βLg dimer dissociation. At pH 2.5 k(off) is low (0.008 and 0.009 s(-1)), but at higher pH (6.5 and 7.5) k(off) is considerably greater (>0.1 s(-1)). We analyzed the sedimentation velocity data using the van Holde-Weischet method, and the results were consistent with a monomer-dimer reversible self-association at pH 2.5, 3.5, 6.5, and 7.5. Dimer dissociation constants K(D)(2-1) fell close to or within the protein concentration range of ∼5 to ∼45 μM, and at ∼45 μM the dimer predominated. No species larger than the dimer could be detected. The K(D)(2-1) increased as |pH-pI| increased, indicating that the hydrophobic effect is the major factor stabilizing the dimer, and suggesting that, especially at low pH, electrostatic repulsion destabilizes the dimer. Therefore, through Poisson-Boltzmann calculations, we determined the electrostatic dimerization energy and the ionic charge distribution as a function of ionic strength at pH above (pH 7.5) and below (pH 2.5) the isoelectric point (pI∼5.3). We propose a mechanism for dimer stabilization whereby the added ionic species screen and neutralize charges in the vicinity of the dimer interface. The electrostatic forces of the ion cloud surrounding βLg play a key role in the thermodynamics and kinetics of dimer association/dissociation.

  1. Directed evolution and mutagenesis of glutamate decarboxylase from Lactobacillus brevis Lb85 to broaden the range of its activity toward a near-neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng; Xie, Yilong; Jiang, Junjun; Wang, Nannan; Li, Yongfu; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) transforms l-glutamate into γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) with the consumption of a proton. GAD derived from lactic acid bacteria exhibits optimum activity at pH 4.0-5.0 and significantly loses activity at near-neutral pH. To broaden the active range of the GAD GadB1 from Lactobacillus brevis Lb85 toward a near-neutral pH, irrational design using directed evolution and rational design using site-specific mutagenesis were performed. For directed evolution of GadB1, a sensitive high-throughput screening strategy based on a pH indicator was established. One improved mutant, GadB1(T17I/D294G/Q346H), was selected from 800 variants after one round of EP-PCR. It exhibited 3.9- and 25.0-fold increase in activity and catalytic efficiency, respectively at pH 6.0. Through site-specific mutagenesis, several improved mutants were obtained, with GadB1(E312S) being the best one. The combined mutant GadB1(T17I/D294G/E312S/Q346H) showed even higher catalytic efficiency, 13.1- and 43.2-fold that of wild-type GadB1 at pH 4.6 and 6.0, respectively. The amount of GABA produced in gadB1(T17I/D294G/Q346H)-, gadB1(E312S)- and gadB1(T17I/D294G/E312S/Q346H)-expressing Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 from endogenous l-glutamate increased by 9.6%, 20.3% and 63.9%, respectively. These results indicate that these mutations have beneficial effects on expanding the active pH range and on GABA biosynthesis, suggesting these GadB1 variants as potent candidates for GABA production.

  2. Electrostatic Assemblies of Well-Dispersed AgNPs on the Surface of Electrospun Nanofibers as Highly Active SERS Substrates for Wide-Range pH Sensing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tong; Ma, Jun; Zhen, Shu Jun; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-06-15

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has shown high promise in analysis and bioanalysis, wherein noble metal nanoparticles (NMNPs) such as silver nanoparticles were employed as substrates because of their strong localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties. However, SERS-based pH sensing was restricted because of the aggregation of NMNPs in acidic medium or biosamples with high ionic strength. Herein, by using the electrostatic interaction as a driving force, AgNPs are assembled on the surface of ethylene imine polymer (PEI)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) electrospun nanofibers, which are then applied as highly sensitive and reproducible SERS substrate with an enhancement factor (EF) of 10(7)-10(8). When p-aminothiophenol (p-ATP) is used as an indicator with its b2 mode, a good and wide linear response to pH ranging from 2.56 to 11.20 could be available, and the as-prepared nanocomposite fibers then could be fabricated as excellent pH sensors in complicated biological samples such as urine, considering that the pH of urine could reflect the acid-base status of a person. This work not only emerges a cost-effective, direct, and convenient approach to homogeneously decorate AgNPs on the surface of polymer nanofibers but also supplies a route for preparing other noble metal nanofibrous sensing membranes.

  3. Capillary isoelectric focusing of microorganisms in the pH range 2-5 in a dynamically modified FS capillary with UV detection.

    PubMed

    Horká, Marie; Růzicka, Filip; Holá, Veronika; Slais, Karel

    2006-07-01

    The isoelectric points of many microbial cells lie within the pH range spanning from 1.5 to 4.5. In this work, we suggest a CIEF method for the separation of cells according to their isoelectric points in the pH range of 2-5. It includes the segmental injection of the sample pulse composed of the segment of the selected simple ampholytes, the segment of the bioanalytes and the segment of carrier ampholytes into fused silica capillaries dynamically modified by poly(ethylene glycole). This polymer dissolved in the catholyte, in the anolyte and in the injected sample pulse was used for a prevention of the bioanalyte adsorption on the capillary surface and for the reduction of the electroosmotic flow. Between each focusing run, the capillaries were washed with the mixture of acetone/ethanol to achieve the reproducible and efficient CIEF. In order to trace of pH gradients, low-molecular-mass pI markers were used. The mixed cultures of microorganisms, Escherichia coli CCM 3954, Candida albicans CCM 8180, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, CCM 8223, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiela pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus CCM 3953, Streptococcus agalactiae CCM 6187, Enterococcus faecalis CCM 4224 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CCM 4418, were focused and separated by the CIEF method suggested here. This CIEF method enables the separation and detection of the microbes from the mixed cultures within several minutes. The minimum detectable number of microbial cells was less than 10(3).

  4. Hydrolytically stable, diaminocarboxylic acid-based membranes buffering in the pH range from 6 to 8.5 for isoelectric trapping separations.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, Helen C; Vigh, Gyula

    2005-06-01

    Diaminocarboxylic acid carrier ampholytes, such as L-histidine, 2,3-diaminopropionic acid, L-ornithine, and L-lysine, were reacted with glycerol-1,3-diglycidyl ether (GDGE) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in the presence of sodium hydroxide to produce hydrolytically and mechanically stable hydrogels, supported on a PVA substrate, for use as buffering membranes in isoelectric trapping (IET) separations. The pH values of the DACAPVA membranes were determined with the help of small-molecule pI markers and proteins and were found to be in the 6 < pH < 8.5 range. The membranes were successfully used to isoelectrically trap small ampholytes, desalt ampholyte solutions in IET mode, and effect the binary separation of chicken egg white proteins.

  5. Nutrient leaching, soil pH and changes in microbial community increase with time in lead-contaminated boreal forest soil at a shooting range area.

    PubMed

    Selonen, Salla; Setälä, Heikki

    2017-02-01

    Despite the known toxicity of lead (Pb), Pb pellets are widely used at shotgun shooting ranges over the world. However, the impacts of Pb on soil nutrients and soil microbes, playing a crucial role in nutrient cycling, are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unknown whether these impacts change with time after the cessation of shooting. To shed light on these issues, three study sites in the same coniferous forest in a shooting range area were studied: an uncontaminated control site and an active and an abandoned shooting range, both sharing a similar Pb pellet load in the soil, but the latter with a 20-year longer contamination history. Soil pH and nitrate concentration increased, whilst soil phosphate concentration and fungal phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) decreased due to Pb contamination. Our results imply that shooting-derived Pb can influence soil nutrients and microbes not only directly but also indirectly by increasing soil pH. However, these mechanisms cannot be differentiated here. Many of the Pb-induced changes were most pronounced at the abandoned range, and nutrient leaching was increased only at that site. These results suggest that Pb disturbs the structure and functions of the soil system and impairs a crucial ecosystem service, the ability to retain nutrients. Furthermore, the risks of shooting-derived Pb to the environment increase with time.

  6. Rate constant for the reaction of NO sub 2 with sulfur(IV) over the pH range 5. 3-13

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, C.L.; Altstein, N.; Hule, R.E. )

    1988-05-01

    Rate constants have been determined for the reactions of NO{sub 2} with SO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} and HSO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} in aqueous solutions. A pulse radiolysis apparatus with signal averaging, which has allowed us to monitor the decay of NO{sub 2} directly and to measure rate constants for the reaction of NO{sub 2} with SO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} and HSO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} over the pH range 5.3-13. The rate constant increases from about 1.2 {times} 10{sup 7} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} near pH 5 to 2.9 {times} 10{sup 7} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} at pH 13. The reaction appears to involve the formation of an intermediate complex that may undergo subsequent reaction with NO{sub 2} to yield the ultimate products or may react with other substrates present. The formation of a long-lived intermediate would have implications on the chemistry of flue gas scrubbers and on luminol-based NO{sub 2} detectors.

  7. A protease-resistant exo-polygalacturonase from Klebsiella sp. Y1 with good activity and stability over a wide pH range in the digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Peng; Meng, Kun; Wang, Yaru; Luo, Huiying; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Bai, Yingguo; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2012-11-01

    Polygalacturonases are important feed and food additives. In the present study an exo-polygalacturonase gene (pgu B) was cloned from Klebsiella sp. Y1 CGMCC 4433 and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). pgu B encodes a 658-amino acid polypeptide belonging to Glycoside Hydrolase Family 28. The optimal pH and temperature of exo-PGU B activity were 6.0 and 40-50°C, respectively. The enzyme exhibited >35% of maximum activity within the pH range of 2.0-12.0. Exo-PGU B or an exo-PGU B/ endo-polygalacturonase mixture reduced the viscosity of polygalacturonic acid (1.0%, w/v) by 15.6 and 39.4%, respectively. Under simulated alimentary tract conditions, exo-PGU B was very stable (>25% activity from pH 1.5 to 6.8) and active, releasing 53.7 and 109.6μg of galacturonic acid from 400 to 800μg of polygalacturonic acid, respectively. These properties make exo-PGU B a potentially valuable additive for applications in feed and food. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Insight into a single halobacterium using a dual-bacteriorhodopsin system with different functionally optimized pH ranges to cope with periplasmic pH changes associated with continuous light illumination.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hsu-Yuan; Yi, Hsiu-Ping; Lu, Yen-Hsu; Yang, Chii-Shen

    2013-05-01

    The light-driven outward proton transporter assists energy production via an ATP synthase system best exemplified by the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) from Halobacterium salinarum, HsBR. As the only archaea able to survive in the resource-limited ecosystem of the Dead Sea, Haloarcula marismortui has been reported to have a unique dual-BR system, consisting of HmBRI and HmBRII, instead of only a single BR in a cell (solo-BR). The contribution of this dual-BR system to survival was investigated. First, native H. marismortui and H. salinarum cells were tested in water that had been adjusted to mimic the conditions of Dead Sea water. These archaea were shown to accumulate protons and reduce pH in their periplasmic regions, which disabled further proton transportation functionality in H. salinarum but not in H. marismortui. Then, pH-dependent photocurrent measurements using purified BR proteins demonstrated that HsBR and HmBRI were functional at pH > 5.0 and that HmBRII was functional at pH > 4.0. Our results indicate that the dual-HmBR system is composed of two BRs with different optimal functional pH ranges and together they maintain light-driven proton transport activity under pH > 4.0, which might contribute the survival of H. marismortui under the acidic pH of the Dead Sea. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Solubility of lead and copper in biochar-amended small arms range soils: influence of soil organic carbon and pH.

    PubMed

    Uchimiya, Minori; Bannon, Desmond I

    2013-08-14

    Biochar is often considered a strong heavy metal stabilizing agent. However, biochar in some cases had no effects on, or increased the soluble concentrations of, heavy metals in soil. The objective of this study was to determine the factors causing some biochars to stabilize and others to dissolve heavy metals in soil. Seven small arms range soils with known total organic carbon (TOC), cation exchange capacity, pH, and total Pb and Cu contents were first screened for soluble Pb and Cu concentrations. Over 2 weeks successive equilibrations using weak acid (pH 4.5 sulfuric acid) and acetate buffer (0.1 M at pH 4.9), Alaska soil containing disproportionately high (31.6%) TOC had nearly 100% residual (insoluble) Pb and Cu. This soil was then compared with sandy soils from Maryland containing significantly lower (0.5-2.0%) TOC in the presence of 10 wt % (i) plant biochar activated to increase the surface-bound carboxyl and phosphate ligands (PS450A), (ii) manure biochar enriched with soluble P (BL700), and (iii) unactivated plant biochars produced at 350 °C (CH350) and 700 °C (CH500) and by flash carbonization (corn). In weak acid, the pH was set by soil and biochar, and the biochars increasingly stabilized Pb with repeated extractions. In pH 4.9 acetate buffer, PS450A and BL700 stabilized Pb, and only PS450A stabilized Cu. Surface ligands of PS450A likely complexed and stabilized Pb and Cu even under acidic pH in the presence of competing acetate ligand. Oppositely, unactivated plant biochars (CH350, CH500, and corn) mobilized Pb and Cu in sandy soils; the putative mechanism is the formation of soluble complexes with biochar-borne dissolved organic carbon. In summary, unactivated plant biochars can inadvertently increase dissolved Pb and Cu concentrations of sandy, low TOC soils when used to stabilize other contaminants.

  10. Plasma membrane of Beta vulgaris storage root shows high water channel activity regulated by cytoplasmic pH and a dual range of calcium concentrations.

    PubMed

    Alleva, Karina; Niemietz, Christa M; Sutka, Moira; Maurel, Christophe; Parisi, Mario; Tyerman, Stephen D; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2006-01-01

    Plasma membrane vesicles isolated by two-phase partitioning from the storage root of Beta vulgaris show atypically high water permeability that is equivalent only to those reported for active aquaporins in tonoplast or animal red cells (Pf=542 microm s(-1)). The values were determined from the shrinking kinetics measured by stopped-flow light scattering. This high Pf was only partially inhibited by mercury (HgCl2) but showed low activation energy (Ea) consistent with water permeation through water channels. To study short-term regulation of water transport that could be the result of channel gating, the effects of pH, divalent cations, and protection against dephosphorylation were tested. The high Pf observed at pH 8.3 was dramatically reduced by medium acidification. Moreover, intra-vesicular acidification (corresponding to the cytoplasmic face of the membrane) shut down the aquaporins. De-phosphorylation was discounted as a regulatory mechanism in this preparation. On the other hand, among divalent cations, only calcium showed a clear effect on aquaporin activity, with two distinct ranges of sensitivity to free Ca2+ concentration (pCa 8 and pCa 4). Since the normal cytoplasmic free Ca2+ sits between these ranges it allows for the possibility of changes in Ca2+ to finely up- or down-regulate water channel activity. The calcium effect is predominantly on the cytoplasmic face, and inhibition corresponds to an increase in the activation energy for water transport. In conclusion, these findings establish both cytoplasmic pH and Ca2+ as important regulatory factors involved in aquaporin gating.

  11. Charge-leveling and proper treatment of long-range electrostatics in all-atom molecular dynamics at constant pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Jason A.; Shen, Jana K.

    2012-11-01

    Recent development of constant pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) methods has offered promise for adding pH-stat in molecular dynamics simulations. However, until now the working pH molecular dynamics (pHMD) implementations are dependent in part or whole on implicit-solvent models. Here we show that proper treatment of long-range electrostatics and maintaining charge neutrality of the system are critical for extending the continuous pHMD framework to the all-atom representation. The former is achieved here by adding forces to titration coordinates due to long-range electrostatics based on the generalized reaction field method, while the latter is made possible by a charge-leveling technique that couples proton titration with simultaneous ionization or neutralization of a co-ion in solution. We test the new method using the pH-replica-exchange CpHMD simulations of a series of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with varying carbon chain length. The average absolute deviation from the experimental pKa values is merely 0.18 units. The results show that accounting for the forces due to extended electrostatics removes the large random noise in propagating titration coordinates, while maintaining charge neutrality of the system improves the accuracy in the calculated electrostatic interaction between ionizable sites. Thus, we believe that the way is paved for realizing pH-controlled all-atom molecular dynamics in the near future.

  12. Charge-leveling and proper treatment of long-range electrostatics in all-atom molecular dynamics at constant pH.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jason A; Shen, Jana K

    2012-11-14

    Recent development of constant pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) methods has offered promise for adding pH-stat in molecular dynamics simulations. However, until now the working pH molecular dynamics (pHMD) implementations are dependent in part or whole on implicit-solvent models. Here we show that proper treatment of long-range electrostatics and maintaining charge neutrality of the system are critical for extending the continuous pHMD framework to the all-atom representation. The former is achieved here by adding forces to titration coordinates due to long-range electrostatics based on the generalized reaction field method, while the latter is made possible by a charge-leveling technique that couples proton titration with simultaneous ionization or neutralization of a co-ion in solution. We test the new method using the pH-replica-exchange CpHMD simulations of a series of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with varying carbon chain length. The average absolute deviation from the experimental pK(a) values is merely 0.18 units. The results show that accounting for the forces due to extended electrostatics removes the large random noise in propagating titration coordinates, while maintaining charge neutrality of the system improves the accuracy in the calculated electrostatic interaction between ionizable sites. Thus, we believe that the way is paved for realizing pH-controlled all-atom molecular dynamics in the near future.

  13. Charge-leveling and proper treatment of long-range electrostatics in all-atom molecular dynamics at constant pH

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Jason A.; Shen, Jana K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent development of constant pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) methods has offered promise for adding pH-stat in molecular dynamics simulations. However, until now the working pH molecular dynamics (pHMD) implementations are dependent in part or whole on implicit-solvent models. Here we show that proper treatment of long-range electrostatics and maintaining charge neutrality of the system are critical for extending the continuous pHMD framework to the all-atom representation. The former is achieved here by adding forces to titration coordinates due to long-range electrostatics based on the generalized reaction field method, while the latter is made possible by a charge-leveling technique that couples proton titration with simultaneous ionization or neutralization of a co-ion in solution. We test the new method using the pH-replica-exchange CpHMD simulations of a series of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with varying carbon chain length. The average absolute deviation from the experimental pKa values is merely 0.18 units. The results show that accounting for the forces due to extended electrostatics removes the large random noise in propagating titration coordinates, while maintaining charge neutrality of the system improves the accuracy in the calculated electrostatic interaction between ionizable sites. Thus, we believe that the way is paved for realizing pH-controlled all-atom molecular dynamics in the near future. PMID:23163362

  14. Hierarchical MoS2@MoP core-shell heterojunction electrocatalysts for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction over a broad pH range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Aiping; Tian, Chungui; Yan, Haijing; Jiao, Yanqing; Yan, Qing; Yang, Guoyu; Fu, Honggang

    2016-05-01

    A low-cost catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) over a broad pH range is highly desired to meet the practical needs in different areas. In this study, hierarchical flower-like MoS2@MoP core-shell heterojunctions (HF-MoSP) are designed as a promising catalyst for HER over a broad pH range. The materials are obtained by the controllable phosphidation of the hierarchical MoS2 flower (HF-MoS2) composed of thin silk belt-like sheets. The phosphidation degree, P/S ratio and work function (WF) of HF-MoSP can be tuned easily over broad range by changing the phosphidation temperature. Under optimized condition, HF-MoSP exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity for HER with a low onset overpotential of 29 mV and η of 108 mV at 10 mA cm-2 in 0.5 M H2SO4 and retains its good activity for 30 h. In addition, the catalyst shows excellent activity in 1 M KOH with an onset overpotential of 42 mV and η of 119 mV at 10 mA cm-2. The catalysts also exhibit obvious activity in neutral, weak acid and weak alkaline conditions. The good performance is relative to the synergy of the MoP shell and MoS2 core and the high WF of HF-MoSP close to Pt, and the large SBET of HF-MoSP benefited from the hierarchical structure. This study represents the construction of the core-shell heterojunction and provides a new way to provide the low-cost and high-performance catalyst for HER.A low-cost catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) over a broad pH range is highly desired to meet the practical needs in different areas. In this study, hierarchical flower-like MoS2@MoP core-shell heterojunctions (HF-MoSP) are designed as a promising catalyst for HER over a broad pH range. The materials are obtained by the controllable phosphidation of the hierarchical MoS2 flower (HF-MoS2) composed of thin silk belt-like sheets. The phosphidation degree, P/S ratio and work function (WF) of HF-MoSP can be tuned easily over broad range by changing the phosphidation temperature. Under optimized

  15. Cyclase-associated protein (CAP) acts directly on F-actin to accelerate cofilin-mediated actin severing across the range of physiological pH.

    PubMed

    Normoyle, Kieran P M; Brieher, William M

    2012-10-12

    Fast actin depolymerization is necessary for cells to rapidly reorganize actin filament networks. Utilizing a Listeria fluorescent actin comet tail assay to monitor actin disassembly rates, we observed that although a mixture of actin disassembly factors (cofilin, coronin, and actin-interacting protein 1 is sufficient to disassemble actin comet tails in the presence of physiological G-actin concentrations this mixture was insufficient to disassemble actin comet tails in the presence of physiological F-actin concentrations. Using biochemical complementation, we purified cyclase-associated protein (CAP) from thymus extracts as a factor that protects against the inhibition of excess F-actin. CAP has been shown to participate in actin dynamics but has been thought to act by liberating cofilin from ADP·G-actin monomers to restore cofilin activity. However, we found that CAP augments cofilin-mediated disassembly by accelerating the rate of cofilin-mediated severing. We also demonstrated that CAP acts directly on F-actin and severs actin filaments at acidic, but not neutral, pH. At the neutral pH characteristic of cytosol in most mammalian cells, we demonstrated that neither CAP nor cofilin are capable of severing actin filaments. However, the combination of CAP and cofilin rapidly severed actin at all pH values across the physiological range. Therefore, our results reveal a new function for CAP in accelerating cofilin-mediated actin filament severing and provide a mechanism through which cells can maintain high actin turnover rates without having to alkalinize cytosol, which would affect many biochemical reactions beyond actin depolymerization.

  16. A low-temperature-active alkaline pectate lyase from Xanthomonas campestris ACCC 10048 with high activity over a wide pH range.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Peng; Meng, Kun; Wang, Yaru; Luo, Huiying; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Tu, Tao; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2012-11-01

    Alkaline pectate lyases are favorable for the textile industry. Here, we report the gene cloning and expression of a low-temperature-active alkaline pectate lyase (PL D) from Xanthomonas campestris ACCC 10048. Deduced PL D consists of a putative 27-residue signal peptide and a catalytic domain of 320 residues belonging to family PF09492. Recombinant PL D (r-PL D) produced in Escherichia coli was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity with a single step of Ni(2+)-NTA affinity chromatography and showed an apparent molecular weight of ~38 kDa. The pH and temperature optima of r-PL D were found to be 9.0 °C and 30 °C, respectively. Compared with its microbial counterparts, r-PL D had higher activity over a wide pH range (>45 % of the maximum activity at pH 3.0-12.0) and at lower temperatures (>35 % of activity even at 0 °C). The K(m) and V(max) values of r-PL D for polygalacturonic acid were 4.9 gl(-1) and 30.1 μmolmin(-1) mg(-1), respectively. Compared with the commercial compound pectinase from Novozymes, r-PL D showed similar efficacy in reducing the intrinsic viscosity of polygalacturonic acid (35.1 % vs. 36.5 %) and in bioscouring of jute (10.25 % vs. 10.82 %). Thus, r-PL D is a valuable additive candidate for the textile industry.

  17. Cyclase-associated Protein (CAP) Acts Directly on F-actin to Accelerate Cofilin-mediated Actin Severing across the Range of Physiological pH*

    PubMed Central

    Normoyle, Kieran P. M.; Brieher, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Fast actin depolymerization is necessary for cells to rapidly reorganize actin filament networks. Utilizing a Listeria fluorescent actin comet tail assay to monitor actin disassembly rates, we observed that although a mixture of actin disassembly factors (cofilin, coronin, and actin-interacting protein 1 is sufficient to disassemble actin comet tails in the presence of physiological G-actin concentrations this mixture was insufficient to disassemble actin comet tails in the presence of physiological F-actin concentrations. Using biochemical complementation, we purified cyclase-associated protein (CAP) from thymus extracts as a factor that protects against the inhibition of excess F-actin. CAP has been shown to participate in actin dynamics but has been thought to act by liberating cofilin from ADP·G-actin monomers to restore cofilin activity. However, we found that CAP augments cofilin-mediated disassembly by accelerating the rate of cofilin-mediated severing. We also demonstrated that CAP acts directly on F-actin and severs actin filaments at acidic, but not neutral, pH. At the neutral pH characteristic of cytosol in most mammalian cells, we demonstrated that neither CAP nor cofilin are capable of severing actin filaments. However, the combination of CAP and cofilin rapidly severed actin at all pH values across the physiological range. Therefore, our results reveal a new function for CAP in accelerating cofilin-mediated actin filament severing and provide a mechanism through which cells can maintain high actin turnover rates without having to alkalinize cytosol, which would affect many biochemical reactions beyond actin depolymerization. PMID:22904322

  18. Climate and pH Predict the Potential Range of the Invasive Apple Snail (Pomacea insularum) in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Byers, James E.; McDowell, William G.; Dodd, Shelley R.; Haynie, Rebecca S.; Pintor, Lauren M.; Wilde, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the potential range of invasive species is essential for risk assessment, monitoring, and management, and it can also inform us about a species’ overall potential invasiveness. However, modeling the distribution of invasive species that have not reached their equilibrium distribution can be problematic for many predictive approaches. We apply the modeling approach of maximum entropy (MaxEnt) that is effective with incomplete, presence-only datasets to predict the distribution of the invasive island apple snail, Pomacea insularum. This freshwater snail is native to South America and has been spreading in the USA over the last decade from its initial introductions in Texas and Florida. It has now been documented throughout eight southeastern states. The snail’s extensive consumption of aquatic vegetation and ability to accumulate and transmit algal toxins through the food web heighten concerns about its spread. Our model shows that under current climate conditions the snail should remain mostly confined to the coastal plain of the southeastern USA where it is limited by minimum temperature in the coldest month and precipitation in the warmest quarter. Furthermore, low pH waters (pH <5.5) are detrimental to the snail’s survival and persistence. Of particular note are low-pH blackwater swamps, especially Okefenokee Swamp in southern Georgia (with a pH below 4 in many areas), which are predicted to preclude the snail’s establishment even though many of these areas are well matched climatically. Our results elucidate the factors that affect the regional distribution of P. insularum, while simultaneously presenting a spatial basis for the prediction of its future spread. Furthermore, the model for this species exemplifies that combining climatic and habitat variables is a powerful way to model distributions of invasive species. PMID:23451090

  19. Climate and pH predict the potential range of the invasive apple snail (Pomacea insularum) in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Byers, James E; McDowell, William G; Dodd, Shelley R; Haynie, Rebecca S; Pintor, Lauren M; Wilde, Susan B

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the potential range of invasive species is essential for risk assessment, monitoring, and management, and it can also inform us about a species' overall potential invasiveness. However, modeling the distribution of invasive species that have not reached their equilibrium distribution can be problematic for many predictive approaches. We apply the modeling approach of maximum entropy (MaxEnt) that is effective with incomplete, presence-only datasets to predict the distribution of the invasive island apple snail, Pomacea insularum. This freshwater snail is native to South America and has been spreading in the USA over the last decade from its initial introductions in Texas and Florida. It has now been documented throughout eight southeastern states. The snail's extensive consumption of aquatic vegetation and ability to accumulate and transmit algal toxins through the food web heighten concerns about its spread. Our model shows that under current climate conditions the snail should remain mostly confined to the coastal plain of the southeastern USA where it is limited by minimum temperature in the coldest month and precipitation in the warmest quarter. Furthermore, low pH waters (pH <5.5) are detrimental to the snail's survival and persistence. Of particular note are low-pH blackwater swamps, especially Okefenokee Swamp in southern Georgia (with a pH below 4 in many areas), which are predicted to preclude the snail's establishment even though many of these areas are well matched climatically. Our results elucidate the factors that affect the regional distribution of P. insularum, while simultaneously presenting a spatial basis for the prediction of its future spread. Furthermore, the model for this species exemplifies that combining climatic and habitat variables is a powerful way to model distributions of invasive species.

  20. Fe/Al bimetallic particles for the fast and highly efficient removal of Cr(VI) over a wide pH range: Performance and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Fu, Fenglian; Cheng, Zihang; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Tang, Bing

    2015-11-15

    The iron/aluminum (Fe/Al) bimetallic particles with high efficiency for the removal of Cr(VI) were prepared. Fe/Al bimetallic particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), SEM mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SEM mapping showed that the core of bimetal was Al, and the planting Fe was deposited on the surface of Al. In acidic and neutral conditions, Fe/Al bimetal can completely remove Cr(VI) from wastewater in 20 min. Even at pH 11.0, the Cr(VI) removal efficiency achieved was 93.5%. Galvanic cell effect and high specific surface area are the main reasons for the enhanced removal of Cr(VI) by bimetallic particles. There were no iron ions released in solutions at pH values ranging from 3.0 to 11.0. The released Al(3+) ions concentrations in acidic and neutral conditions were all less than 0.2mg/L. The bimetal can be used 4 times without losing activity at initial pH 3.0. XPS indicated that the removed Cr(VI) was immobilized via the formation of Cr(III) hydroxide and Cr(III)-Fe(III) hydroxide/oxyhydroxide on the surface of Fe/Al bimetal. The Fe/Al bimetallic particles are promising for further testing for the rapid and effective removal of contaminants from water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-sticky translocation of bio-molecules through Tween 20-coated solid-state nanopores in a wide pH range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoqing; Hu, Rui; Li, Ji; Tong, Xin; Diao, J. J.; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Qing

    2016-10-01

    Nanopore-based sensing technology is considered high-throughput and low-cost for single molecule detection, but solid-state nanopores have suffered from pore clogging issues. A simple Tween 20 coating method is applied to ensure long-term (several hours) non-sticky translocation of various types of bio-molecules through SiN nanopores in a wide pH range (4.0-13.0). We also emphasize the importance of choosing appropriate concentration of Tween 20 coating buffer for desired effect. By coating nanopores with a Tween 20 layer, we are able to differentiate between single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA, to identify drift-dominated domain for single-stranded DNA, to estimate BSA volume and to observe the shape of individual nucleosome translocation event without non-specific adsorption. The wide pH endurance from 4.0 to 13.0 and the broad types of detection analytes including nucleic acids, proteins, and biological complexes highlight the great application potential of Tween 20-coated solid-state nanopores.

  2. Antenna Effect on the Organic Spacer-Modified Eu-Doped Layered Gadolinium Hydroxide for the Detection of Vanadate Ions over a Wide pH Range.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Heejin; Lee, Byung-Il; Byeon, Song-Ho

    2016-05-04

    The excitation of the adsorbed vanadate group led to the red emission arising from the efficient energy transfer to Eu-doped layered gadolinium hydroxide (LGdH:Eu). This light-harvesting antenna effect allowed LGdH:Eu to detect selectively a vanadate in aqueous solution at different pHs. Because vanadate exists in various forms by extensive oligomerization and protonation reactions in aqueous solution depending on pH, it is important to detect a vanadate regardless of its form over a wide pH range. In particular, spacer molecules with long alkyl chains greatly facilitated access of a vanadate antenna into the interlayer surface of LGdH:Eu. The concomitant increase in adsorption capacity of LGdH:Eu achieved a strong antenna effect of vanadate on the red emission from Eu(3+). When a suspension containing LGdH:Eu nanosheets (1.0 g/L) was used, the vanadate concentration down to 1 × 10(-5) M could even be visually monitored, and the detection limit based on the (5)D0 → (7)F2 emission intensity could reach 4.5 × 10(-8) M.

  3. Interconnected Co-Entrapped, N-Doped Carbon Nanotube Film as Active Hydrogen Evolution Cathode over the Whole pH Range.

    PubMed

    Xing, Zhicai; Liu, Qian; Xing, Wei; Asiri, Abdullah M; Sun, Xuping

    2015-06-08

    The use of electrocatalysts with low metal content (metal-deficient) or metal free for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) can prevent or decrease metal ion release, which reduces environmental impact; development of such catalysts with high activity and durability over the whole pH range is thus highly desired but still remains a huge challenge. Herein, we describe the direct growth of a film consisting of interconnected Co-entrapped, N-doped carbon nanotubes on carbon cloth using chemical vapor deposition from dicyanodiamine using a Co3 O4 nanowire array as catalyst. This integrated architecture is used as a flexible 3D electrode for the electrolytic hydrogen evolution with outstanding catalytic activity and durability in acidic media. Moreover, this electrode is also highly efficient under neutral and basic conditions. It offers us an attractive carbon-based metal-deficient HER catalyst outperforming most transition-metal and all metal-free/deficient catalysts.

  4. A Thermostable Glucoamylase from Bispora sp. MEY-1 with Stability over a Broad pH Range and Significant Starch Hydrolysis Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yingguo; Wang, Kun; Niu, Canfang; Huang, Huoqing; Shi, Pengjun; Wang, Caihong; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Background Glucoamylase is an exo-type enzyme that converts starch completely into glucose from the non-reducing ends. To meet the industrial requirements for starch processing, a glucoamylase with excellent thermostability, raw-starch degradation ability and high glucose yield is much needed. In the present study we selected the excellent Carbohydrate-Activity Enzyme (CAZyme) producer, Bispora sp. MEY-1, as the microbial source for glucoamylase gene exploitation. Methodology/Principal Findings A glucoamylase gene (gla15) was cloned from Bispora sp. MEY-1 and successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris with a high yield of 34.1 U/ml. Deduced GLA15 exhibits the highest identity of 64.2% to the glucoamylase from Talaromyces (Rasamsonia) emersonii. Purified recombinant GLA15 was thermophilic and showed the maximum activity at 70°C. The enzyme was stable over a broad pH range (2.2–11.0) and at high temperature up to 70°C. It hydrolyzed the breakages of both α-1,4- and α-1,6-glycosidic linkages in amylopectin, soluble starch, amylose, and maltooligosaccharides, and had capacity to degrade raw starch. TLC and H1-NMR analysis showed that GLA15 is a typical glucoamylase of GH family 15 that releases glucose units from the non-reducing ends of α-glucans. The combination of Bacillus licheniformis amylase and GLA15 hydrolyzed 96.14% of gelatinized maize starch after 6 h incubation, which was about 9% higher than that of the combination with a commercial glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger. Conclusion/Significance GLA15 has a broad pH stability range, high-temperature thermostability, high starch hydrolysis capacity and high expression yield. In comparison with the commercial glucoamylase from A. niger, GLA15 represents a better candidate for application in the food industry including production of glucose, glucose syrups, and high-fructose corn syrups. PMID:25415468

  5. A National Content Analysis of PhD Program Objectives, Structures, and Curricula: Do Programs Address the Full Range of Social Work's Needs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drisko, James; Hunnicutt, Christie; Berenson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The Group for the Advancement of Doctoral Education (GADE) promotes excellence in PhD education in Social Work. GADE's 2013 Quality Guidelines for PhD Programs heavily emphasize preparation for research. Little is known, however, about the details of the contemporary social work PhD program structure and curriculum. Several prior surveys have…

  6. A National Content Analysis of PhD Program Objectives, Structures, and Curricula: Do Programs Address the Full Range of Social Work's Needs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drisko, James; Hunnicutt, Christie; Berenson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The Group for the Advancement of Doctoral Education (GADE) promotes excellence in PhD education in Social Work. GADE's 2013 Quality Guidelines for PhD Programs heavily emphasize preparation for research. Little is known, however, about the details of the contemporary social work PhD program structure and curriculum. Several prior surveys have…

  7. 4-(8-Quinolyl)amino-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole as a new selective and sensitive fluorescent and colorimetric pH probe with dual-responsive ranges in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xutian; Zhang, Min; Liang, Haipeng; Huang, Zhaowei; Tang, Jiang; Chen, Zhi; Yang, Liting; Ma, Li-Jun; Wang, Yuhai; Xu, Baiping

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent and colorimetric pH probe possess many advantages including rapid response time, nondestructive testing, and excellent pH sensitivity. However, they usually cannot be utilized simultaneously in both acidic and basic pH ranges. In this study, a new selective and sensitive fluorescent and colorimetric pH probe, 4-(8- quinolyl)amino-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (1), was designated and synthesized. The optical probe exhibited dual-responsive pH ranges to both acidic and basic aqueous solutions. When the solution pH was gradually increased from 8.5 to 13.3, the absorption spectra of 1 showed an obvious hyperchromicity, accompanied with a red shift of the absorption band at 340 nm, a blue shift of the absorption band at 482 nm, and a distinct color change from orange to violet pink to yellow. Within the pH range from 2.2 to 0.2, the fluorescent spectra of 1 showed a "turn-on" response signal to solution pH. In order to understand the response mechanism of the probe to solution pH, the probe molecule was split into two parts, 8-aminoquinoline (2) and 4-amino-7- nitro-benzofurazan (3). UV-vis absorption and fluorescent experiments of 2 and 3 indicated that both are sensitive optical pH probes. Furthermore, the NMR experiment of 1 was explored in basic and acidic conditions. The results indicated that the colorimetric responses of 1 to pH under basic condition should be attributed to the deprotonation of the imino group on the quinolyl ring, and the fluorescent recognition of 1 to pH under acidic condition was probably due to the protonation of the nitrogen atoms from the benzofurazan and quinolyl rings.

  8. Novel RGO/α-FeOOH supported catalyst for Fenton oxidation of phenol at a wide pH range using solar-light-driven irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Fang, Jiasheng; Crittenden, John C; Shen, Chanchan

    2017-01-23

    A novel solar-light-driven (SLD) Fenton catalyst was developed by reducing the ferrous-ion onto graphene oxide (GO) and forming reduced graphene oxide/α-FeOOH composites (RF) via in-situ induced self-assembly process. The RF was supported on several mesoporous supports (i.e., Al-MCM-41, MCM-41 and γ-Al2O3). The activity, stability and energy use for phenol oxidation were systematically studied for a wide pH range. Furthermore, the catalytic mechanism at acid and alkaline aqueous conditions was also elucidated. The results showed that Fe(II) was reduced onto GO nanosheets and α-FeOOH crystals were formed during the self-assembly process. Compared with Fenton reaction without SLD irradiation, the visible light irradiation not only dramatically accelerated the rate of Fenton-based reactions, but also extended the operating pH for the Fenton reaction (from 4.0 to 8.0). The phenol oxidation on RF supported catalysts was fitting well with the pseudo-first-order kinetics, and needed low initiating energy, insensitive to the reacting temperature changes (273-318K). The Al-MCM-41 supported RF was a more highly energy-efficient catalyst with the prominent catalytic activity at wide operating pHs. During the reaction, OH radicals were generated by the SLD irradiation from H2O2 reduction and H2O oxidation in the Fe(Ⅱ)/Fe(Ⅲ) and Fe(Ⅲ)/Fe(Ⅳ) cycling processes.

  9. Purification, biochemical characterization and antifungal activity of a novel Aspergillus tubingensis glucose oxidase steady on broad range of pH and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kriaa, Mouna; Hammami, Inès; Sahnoun, Mouna; Azebou, Manel Cheffi; Triki, Mohamed Ali; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2015-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antifungal efficiency of Aspergillus tubingensis CTM 507 glucose oxidase (GOD) against plant pathogenic fungi. GOD displayed a wide inhibitory spectrum toward different fungi at a concentration of 20 AU. The GOD had a strong inhibitor effect on mycelia growth and spore germination of Pythium ultimum. Interestingly, the GOD exhibited a potent in vivo antifungal effect against P. ultimum responsible for potato plants disease. The antifungal GOD was purified 13-fold with 27 % yield and a specific activity of 3435 U/mg. The relative molecular mass of the GOD was 180 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The GOD activity was optimum at pH 4.5 and 60 °C. It was found to be stable over a large pH range (3-9). It also displayed a marked thermostability with a 50-min half-life at 65 °C. The 10 residues of the N-terminal sequence of the purified GOD (S-K-G-S-A-V-T-T-P-D) showed no homology to the other reported GOD, identifying a novel GOD. FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of C-O and C=O groups corresponding to a D-glucono-lactone. The findings indicated that GOD is the first A. tubingensis-produced fungicide ever reported to exhibit such promising biological properties. It could become a natural alternative to synthetic fungicides to control certain important plant microbial diseases.

  10. Analysis of protein species differentiation among mycobacterial low-Mr-secreted proteins by narrow pH range Immobiline gel 2-DE-MALDI-MS.

    PubMed

    Lange, Sabine; Rosenkrands, Ida; Stein, Robert; Andersen, Peter; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Jungblut, Peter R

    2014-01-31

    Secreted proteins of bacteria are preferentially capable of interacting with host cells and are therefore of special biological and medical interest. Narrow pH range 2-DE and MALDI-TOFTOF-MS combine high-resolution protein separation with highly sensitive identification of proteins. Secreted proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were separated at the protein species level, distinguishing different protein species of one protein. We focused on the pI range 4.0-4.7 and the Mr range 6-20kDa of the 2-DE pattern. Out of 128 analyzed spots, 121 were identified resulting in 33 different proteins with 277 different protein species, accumulating in a mean of 8.4 protein species per protein. Overrepresentation was found for the protein classes "virulence, detoxification, adaption", "information pathways", "cell wall and cell processes" and "intermediary metabolism and respiration". Thus far, 15 protein species of the ESX-1 family are characterized with 100% sequence coverage. More automated 2-DE procedures and more sensitive identification techniques are required for complete characterization of all of the protein species even in highly enriched samples, such as culture filtrates. Only then the functional level of proteomics will be achieved and potential biomarkers can be postulated at the molecular level. Proteomics is dominated by bottom-up approaches largely ignoring protein speciation. A prerequisite to reach the protein species level is to obtain 100% sequence coverage, which is a major challenge in proteomics. Here we show complete sequence information with a 2-DE-MS approach for 15 protein species. Acetylation of the N-terminus of ESAT-6 inhibits interaction with CFP-10, with direct consequences for pathogen-host interaction. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Trends in Microbial Proteomics. © 2013.

  11. The genome of alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 reveals adaptations that support the ability to grow in an external pH range from 7.5 to 11.4

    PubMed Central

    Janto, Benjamin; Ahmed, Azad; Ito, Masahiro; Liu, Jun; Hicks, David B.; Pagni, Sarah; Fackelmayer, Oliver J.; Smith, Terry-Ann; Earl, Joshua; Elbourne, Liam D.H.; Hassan, Karl; Paulsen, Ian T.; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Tourasse, Nicolas J.; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Boissy, Robert; Ivey, D. Mack; Li, Gang; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe; Hu, Fen Z.; Krulwich, Terry A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 is an extreme but facultative alkaliphile that grows non-fermentatively in a pH range from 7.5 to above 11.4 and can withstand large sudden increases in external pH. It is a model organism for studies of bioenergetics at high pH, at which energy demands are higher than at neutral pH because both cytoplasmic pH homeostasis and ATP synthesis require more energy. The alkaliphile also tolerates a cytoplasmic pH > 9.0 at external pH values at which the pH homeostasis capacity is exceeded, and manages other stresses that are exacerbated at alkaline pH, e.g. sodium, oxidative and cell wall stresses. The genome of B. pseudofirmus OF4 includes two plasmids that are lost from some mutants without viability loss. The plasmids may provide a reservoir of mobile elements that promote adaptive chromosomal rearrangements under particular environmental conditions. The genome also reveals a more acidic pI profile for proteins exposed on the outer surface than found in neutralophiles. A large array of transporters and regulatory genes are predicted to protect the alkaliphile from its overlapping stresses. In addition, unanticipated metabolic versatility was observed, which could ensure requisite energy for alkaliphily under diverse conditions. PMID:21951522

  12. Modifying the Cold Gelation Properties of Quinoa Protein Isolate: Influence of Heat-Denaturation pH in the Alkaline Range.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2015-09-01

    Heat-denaturation of quinoa protein isolate (QPI) at alkali pH and its influence on the physicochemical and cold gelation properties was investigated. Heating QPI at pH 8.5 led to increased surface hydrophobicity and decreases in free and bound sulfhydryl group contents. Heating at pH 10.5 caused a lesser degree of changes in sulfhydryl groups and surface hydrophobicity, and the resulting solutions showed drastically increased solubility. SDS PAGE revealed the presence of large aggregates only in the sample heated at pH 8.5, suggesting that any aggregates present in the sample heated at pH 10.5 were non-covalently bound and disintegrated in the presence of SDS. Reducing conditions partially dissolved the aggregates in the pH 8.5 heated sample indicating the occurrence of disulphide bonding, but caused no major alterations in the separation pattern of the pH 10.5 heated sample. Denaturation pH influenced the cold gelation properties greatly. Solutions heated at pH 8.5 formed a coarse coagulum with maximum G' of 5 Pa. Heat-denaturation at 10.5 enabled the proteins to form a finer and regularly structured gel with a maximum G' of 1140 Pa. Particle size analysis showed that the pH 10.5 heated sample contained a higher level of very small particles (0.1-2 μm), and these readily aggregated into large particles (30-200 μm) when pH was lowered to 5.5. Differences in the nature of aggregates formed during heating may explain the large variation in gelation properties.

  13. Genome of alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 reveals adaptations that support the ability to grow in an external pH range from 7.5 to 11.4.

    PubMed

    Janto, Benjamin; Ahmed, Azad; Ito, Masahiro; Liu, Jun; Hicks, David B; Pagni, Sarah; Fackelmayer, Oliver J; Smith, Terry-Ann; Earl, Joshua; Elbourne, Liam D H; Hassan, Karl; Paulsen, Ian T; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Tourasse, Nicolas J; Ehrlich, Garth D; Boissy, Robert; Ivey, D Mack; Li, Gang; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe; Hu, Fen Z; Krulwich, Terry A

    2011-12-01

    Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 is an extreme but facultative alkaliphile that grows non-fermentatively in a pH range from 7.5 to above 11.4 and can withstand large sudden increases in external pH. It is a model organism for studies of bioenergetics at high pH, at which energy demands are higher than at neutral pH because both cytoplasmic pH homeostasis and ATP synthesis require more energy. The alkaliphile also tolerates a cytoplasmic pH > 9.0 at external pH values at which the pH homeostasis capacity is exceeded, and manages other stresses that are exacerbated at alkaline pH, e.g. sodium, oxidative and cell wall stresses. The genome of B. pseudofirmus OF4 includes two plasmids that are lost from some mutants without viability loss. The plasmids may provide a reservoir of mobile elements that promote adaptive chromosomal rearrangements under particular environmental conditions. The genome also reveals a more acidic pI profile for proteins exposed on the outer surface than found in neutralophiles. A large array of transporters and regulatory genes are predicted to protect the alkaliphile from its overlapping stresses. In addition, unanticipated metabolic versatility was observed, which could ensure requisite energy for alkaliphily under diverse conditions.

  14. 9 CFR 2.11 - Denial of initial license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... have violated any Federal, State, or local laws or regulations pertaining to animal cruelty within 1... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Denial of initial license application. 2.11 Section 2.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE,...

  15. 9 CFR 2.11 - Denial of initial license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... have violated any Federal, State, or local laws or regulations pertaining to animal cruelty within 1... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Denial of initial license application. 2.11 Section 2.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE,...

  16. 9 CFR 2.11 - Denial of initial license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... have violated any Federal, State, or local laws or regulations pertaining to animal cruelty within 1... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Denial of initial license application. 2.11 Section 2.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE,...

  17. 9 CFR 2.11 - Denial of initial license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... have violated any Federal, State, or local laws or regulations pertaining to animal cruelty within 1... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Denial of initial license application. 2.11 Section 2.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE,...

  18. 9 CFR 2.11 - Denial of initial license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... have violated any Federal, State, or local laws or regulations pertaining to animal cruelty within 1... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Denial of initial license application. 2.11 Section 2.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE,...

  19. Adjustments of gastric pH, motility and temperature during long-term preservation of stomach contents in free-ranging incubating king penguins.

    PubMed

    Thouzeau, C; Peters, G; Le Bohec, C; Le Maho, Y

    2004-07-01

    Male king penguins are able to store undigested food in their stomach for up to 3 weeks during their incubation fast, which evidently implies some modification of their digestive process. Using small electronic recorders, we studied the change in gastric pH, motility and temperature during the first week of food storage. The pH could be maintained at values as high as 6 throughout the incubation fast, a pH that is unfavourable for avian gastric proteinase activity. Gastric motility was never completely inhibited but could be markedly reduced. Stomach temperature was maintained at around 38 degrees C. The fact that stomach temperature of incubating birds did not show a daily rhythmic fluctuation as seen in non-breeding birds could be due to temperature constraints on embryo development. Thus the present study demonstrates substantial adjustments of pH and gastric motility in incubating king penguins, which may contribute to the inhibition of digestive gastric processes.

  20. Comprehensive study on the structure of the BSA from extended-to aged form in wide (2-12) pH range.

    PubMed

    Varga, N; Hornok, V; Sebők, D; Dékány, I

    2016-07-01

    In this work we studied the structure of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the protein-ligand interactions since researchers prefer to use them as carriers in drug delivery systems. Systematic study (between pH 2-12, in double distilled water and physiological salt solution) was carried out to determine the changes in the secondary and the tertiary structures of the BSA, the apparent molecular weight (Mw), the size (dLS) and the electrokinetic potential (ζ). At pH 7, the BSA has higher stability in the absence (ζ=-69mV, dLS=2.2nm, A2=1.4×10(-3)mlmol/g(2)) than in the presence of salt solution (ζ=-2.4mV, dLS=5.3nm, A2=-3.2×10(-4)mlmol/g(2)). The Mw strongly depends on the pH and the ionic strength (at pH 3 in the absence of salt, the Mw is 54.6kDa while in the presence of salt is 114kDa) which determines the geometry of the protein. The protein-ligand interactions were characterized by fluorescence (FL) and isothermal microcalorimetry (ITC) methods; these independent techniques provided similar thermodynamic parameters such as the binding constant (K) and the Gibbs free energy (ΔG).

  1. Heterologous production of an acidic thermostable lipase with broad-range pH activity from thermophilic fungus Neosartorya fischeri P1.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiaoqiao; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Huitu; Luo, Huiying; Shi, Pengjun; Bai, Yingguo; Lu, Fuping; Yao, Bin; Huang, Huoqing

    2016-11-01

    Thermophilic Neosartorya fischeri P1 is an excellent lipase producer and harbors seven lipase genes. All genes were found to be functional after heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. One of them, LIP09, showed high-level expression in Pichia pastoris with the yield of 2.0 g/L in a 3.7-L fermentor. Deduced amino acid sequence of LIP09 consists of a putative signal peptide (residues 1-19) and a mature polypeptide (residues 20-562). Compared with other fungal counterparts, purified recombinant LIP09 has some superior properties. It exhibited maximum activity at 60°C and pH 5.0, had broad pH adaptability (>60% activity at pH 3.5-8.0) and stability (retaining >90% activity after incubation at pH 3.0-7.0 for 1 h at 40°C), and was highly thermostable (retaining >96% activity after incubation at 50°C for 30 min). The r-LIP09 had a preference for the medium-chain length p-nitrophenyl esters (C12) rather than short and long-chain length substrates. The high-level expression and excellent properties make LIP09 a potential enzyme candidate in food and feed industries. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Influenza HA Subtypes Demonstrate Divergent Phenotypes for Cleavage Activation and pH of Fusion: Implications for Host Range and Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Summer E.; Reed, Mark L.; Russell, Charles J.; Steinhauer, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The influenza A virus (IAV) HA protein must be activated by host cells proteases in order to prime the molecule for fusion. Consequently, the availability of activating proteases and the susceptibility of HA to protease activity represents key factors in facilitating virus infection. As such, understanding the intricacies of HA cleavage by various proteases is necessary to derive insights into the emergence of pandemic viruses. To examine these properties, we generated a panel of HAs that are representative of the 16 HA subtypes that circulate in aquatic birds, as well as HAs representative of the subtypes that have infected the human population over the last century. We examined the susceptibility of the panel of HA proteins to trypsin, as well as human airway trypsin-like protease (HAT) and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2). Additionally, we examined the pH at which these HAs mediated membrane fusion, as this property is related to the stability of the HA molecule and influences the capacity of influenza viruses to remain infectious in natural environments. Our results show that cleavage efficiency can vary significantly for individual HAs, depending on the protease, and that some HA subtypes display stringent selectivity for specific proteases as activators of fusion function. Additionally, we found that the pH of fusion varies by 0.7 pH units among the subtypes, and notably, we observed that the pH of fusion for most HAs from human isolates was lower than that observed from avian isolates of the same subtype. Overall, these data provide the first broad-spectrum analysis of cleavage-activation and membrane fusion characteristics for all of the IAV HA subtypes, and also show that there are substantial differences between the subtypes that may influence transmission among hosts and establishment in new species. PMID:23459660

  3. Soil classification predicts differences in prokaryotic communities across a range of geographically distant soils once pH is accounted for

    PubMed Central

    Kaminsky, Rachel; Trouche, Blandine; Morales, Sergio E.

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural land is typically managed based on visible plant life at the expense of the belowground majority. However, microorganisms mediate processes sustaining plant life and the soil environment. To understand the role of microbes we first must understand what controls soil microbial community assembly. We assessed the distribution and composition of prokaryotic communities from soils representing four geographic regions on the South Island of New Zealand. These soils are under three different uses (dairy, sheep and beef, and high country farming) and are representative of major soil classification groups (brown, pallic, gley and recent). We hypothesized that pH would account for major community patterns based on 16S profiles, but that land use and location would be secondary modifiers. Community diversity and structure was linked to pH, coinciding with land use. Soil classification correlated with microbial community structure and evenness, but not richness in high country and sheep and beef communities. The impact of land use and pH remained significant at the regional scale, but soil classification provided support for community variability not explained by either of those factors. These results suggest that several edaphic properties must be examined at multiple spatial scales to robustly examine soil prokaryotic communities. PMID:28349950

  4. Constituted oxides/nitrides on nitriding 304, 430 and 17-4 PH stainless steel in salt baths over the temperature range 723 to 923 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Teng-Shih; Huang, Yung-Sen; Chen, Chi-Fan

    2011-10-01

    The progressively developed oxides and nitrides that form on nitriding 304, 430 and 17-4 PH stainless steel are analysed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) in this study. The experimental results show that the Cr contents and matrix structures (ferrite, austenite and martensite) play an important role in forming FeCr 2O 4, Cr 2O 3 and Fe 2O 3 oxides as well as nitrides. After a short immersion time, oxides of Cr 2O 3 and FeCr 2O 4 form in nitride films on 304 stainless steel samples. Fe 2O 3 oxide will subsequently form following an increasing immersion time. For the 430 stainless steel, Cr 2O 3 predominately forms after a short dipping time which hinders the growth of the nitride layer. As a result, this sample had the thinnest nitride film of the three for a given immersion time. After the formation of oxides, both CrN and Cr 2N were detected near the surface of the nitride films of three samples while Cr 2N phases formed in the deeper zone. The greatest amount of Fe 2O 3 oxide among the three samples was obtained on the nitriding 17-4 PH stainless steel which also had a high intensity count of N 1s.

  5. 16 CFR 2.11 - Orders requiring access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE NONADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Inquiries; Investigations; Compulsory Processes § 2.11 Orders requiring access. (a) In investigations other than those conducted under section 20 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, the...

  6. 16 CFR 2.11 - Orders requiring access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE NONADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Inquiries; Investigations; Compulsory Processes § 2.11 Orders requiring access. (a) In investigations other than those conducted under section 20 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, the...

  7. Amino acid modified Ni catalyst exhibits reversible H2 oxidation/production over a broad pH range at elevated temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Arnab; DuBois, Daniel L.; Roberts, John A. S.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogenases interconvert H2 and protons at high rates and with high energy efficiencies, providing inspiration for the development of molecular catalysts. Studies designed to determine how the protein scaffold can influence a catalytically active site have led to the synthesis of amino acid derivatives of [Ni(P2RN2R′)2]2+ complexes, [Ni(P2CyN2Amino acid)2]2+ (CyAA). It is shown that these CyAA derivatives can catalyze fully reversible H2 production/oxidation at rates approaching those of hydrogenase enzymes. The reversibility is achieved in acidic aqueous solutions (pH = 0–6), 1 atm 25% H2/Ar, and elevated temperatures (tested from 298 to 348 K) for the glycine (CyGly), arginine (CyArg), and arginine methyl ester (CyArgOMe) derivatives. As expected for a reversible process, the catalytic activity is dependent upon H2 and proton concentrations. CyArg is significantly faster in both directions (∼300 s−1 H2 production and 20 s−1 H2 oxidation; pH = 1, 348 K, 1 atm 25% H2/Ar) than the other two derivatives. The slower turnover frequencies for CyArgOMe (35 s−1 production and 7 s−1 oxidation under the same conditions) compared with CyArg suggests an important role for the COOH group during catalysis. That CyArg is faster than CyGly (3 s−1 production and 4 s−1 oxidation) suggests that the additional structural features imparted by the guanidinium groups facilitate fast and reversible H2 addition/release. These observations demonstrate that outer coordination sphere amino acids work in synergy with the active site and can play an important role for synthetic molecular electrocatalysts, as has been observed for the protein scaffold of redox active enzymes. PMID:25368196

  8. Enhanced growth of influenza vaccine seed viruses in vero cells mediated by broadening the optimal pH range for virus membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shin; Horimoto, Taisuke; Ito, Mutsumi; Takano, Ryo; Katsura, Hiroaki; Shimojima, Masayuki; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2012-02-01

    Vaccination is one of the most effective preventive measures to combat influenza. Prospectively, cell culture-based influenza vaccines play an important role for robust vaccine production in both normal settings and urgent situations, such as during the 2009 pandemic. African green monkey Vero cells are recommended by the World Health Organization as a safe substrate for influenza vaccine production for human use. However, the growth of influenza vaccine seed viruses is occasionally suboptimal in Vero cells, which places limitations on their usefulness for enhanced vaccine production. Here, we present a strategy for the development of vaccine seed viruses with enhanced growth in Vero cells by changing an amino acid residue in the stem region of the HA2 subunit of the hemagglutinin (HA) molecule. This mutation optimized the pH for HA-mediated membrane fusion in Vero cells and enhanced virus growth 100 to 1,000 times in the cell line, providing a promising strategy for cell culture-based influenza vaccines.

  9. Variation of photoautotrophic fatty acid production from a highly CO2 tolerant alga, Chlorococcum littorale, with inorganic carbon over narrow ranges of pH.

    PubMed

    Ota, Masaki; Takenaka, Motohiro; Sato, Yoshiyuki; Smith, Richard L; Inomata, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Photoautotrophic fatty acid production of a highly CO2 -tolerant green alga Chlorococcum littorale in the presence of inorganic carbon at 295 K and light intensity of 170 µmol-photon m(-2) s(-1) was investigated. CO2 concentration in the bubbling gas was adjusted by mixing pure gas components of CO2 and N2 to avoid photorespiration and β-oxidation of fatty acids under O2 surrounding conditions. Maximum content of total fatty acid showed pH-dependence after nitrate depletion of the culture media and increased with the corresponding inorganic carbon ratio. Namely, [HCO3 (-) ]/([CO2 ]+n[ CO32-]) ratio in the culture media was found to be a controlling factor for photoautotrophic fatty acid production after the nitrate limitation. At a CO2 concentration of 5% (vol/vol) and a pH of 6.7, the fatty acid content was 47.8 wt % (dry basis) at its maximum that is comparable with land plant seed oils.

  10. Survey of 2,11-cyclized cembranoids from Caribbean sources.

    PubMed

    Cóbar, Oscar M

    2009-01-01

    This review covers the literature published since the report of the first compound to December 2006, for marine natural 2,11-cyclized cembranoids isolated from Caribbean sources, with 30 citations, most of them from 2000 to 2006, referring to compounds isolated from the Caribbean gorgonian octocorals Briareum asbestinum, Briareum polyanthes, and Erithropodiun caribaeorum. The emphasis is on all of these natural compounds isolated to date, with an overview of their biogenetic pathway and relevant biological activity.

  11. Re-evaluation of cord blood arterial and venous reference ranges for pH, pO(2), pCO(2), according to spontaneous or cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Kotaska, K; Urinovska, R; Klapkova, E; Prusa, R; Rob, L; Binder, T

    2010-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood gas analysis (pO(2) and pCO(2)) is now recommended in all high-risk baby deliveries and in some centers it is performed routinely following all deliveries. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate cord blood arterial and venous reference ranges for pH, pO(2), pCO(2) in newborns, delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) and by cesarean section (CS) performed in Faculty Hospital Motol. Two groups of subjects were selected for the study. Group I consisted of 303 newborns with SVD. Group II consisted of 189 newborns delivered by cesarean section. Cord blood samples were analyzed for standard blood gas and pH, using the analytical device Rapid Lab 845 and Rapid Lab 865. We obtained reference values expressed as range (lower and upper reference value expressed as 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles) for cord blood in newborns with SVD: arterial cord blood: pH=7.01-7.39; pCO(2)=4.12-11.45 kPa; pO(2)=1.49-5.06 kPa; venous cord blood: pH=7.06-7.44; pCO(2)=3.33-9.85 kPa; pO(2)=1.80-6.29 kPa. We also obtained reference values for cord blood in newborns delivered by CS: arterial cord blood: pH=7.05-7.39; pCO(2)=5.01-10.60 kPa; pO(2)=1.17-5.94 kPa; venous cord blood: pH=7.10-7.42; pCO(2)=3.88-9.36 kPa; pO(2)=1.98-7.23 kPa. Re-evaluated reference ranges play essential role in monitoring conditions of newborns with spontaneous and caesarean delivery.

  12. Amino acid modified Ni catalyst exhibits reversible H2 oxidation/production over a broad pH range at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Arnab; DuBois, Daniel L.; Roberts, John A.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2014-11-18

    Hydrogenases interconvert H2 and protons at high rates and with high energy efficiencies, providing inspiration for the development of molecular catalysts. Studies designed to determine how the protein scaffold can influence a catalytically active site has led to the synthesis of amino acid derivatives, [Ni(PCy2NAmino acid2)2]2+ (CyAA), of [Ni(PR2NR'2)2]2+ complexes. It is shown that these CyAA derivatives can catalyze fully reversible H2 production/oxidation, a feature reminiscent of enzymes. The reversibility is achieved in acidic aqueous solutions, 0.25% H2/Ar, and elevated temperatures (tested up to 348 K) for the glycine (CyGly), arginine (CyArg), and arginine methyl ester (CyArgOMe) derivatives. As expected for a reversible process, the activity is dependent upon H2 and proton concentration. CyArg is significantly faster in both directions than the other two derivatives (~300 s-1 H2 production and 20 s-1 H2 oxidation; pH=1, 348 K). The significantly slower rates for CyArgOMe (35 s-1 production and 7 s-1 oxidation) compared to CyArg suggests an important role for the COOH group during catalysis. That CyArg is faster than CyGly (3 s-1 production and 4 s-1 oxidation under the same conditions) suggests that the additional structural features imparted by the guanidinium groups facilitate fast and reversible H2 addition/release. These observations demonstrate that appended, outer coordination sphere amino acids work in synergy with the active site and can play an equally important role for synthetic molecular electrocatalysts as the protein scaffold does for redox active enzymes. This work was funded by the Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the US DOE, BES (AD, WJS), and the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US DOE, BES (DLD, JASR). PNNL is operated by Battelle for the US DOE.

  13. Monitoring of crustal movements in the San Andreas fault zone by a satellite-borne ranging system. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, M.

    1976-01-01

    The Close Grid Geodynamic Measurement System is conceived as an orbiting ranging device with a ground base grid of reflectors or transponders (spacing 1.0 to 30 km), which are projected to be of low cost (maintenance free and unattended), and which will permit the saturation of a local area to obtain data useful to monitor crustal movements in the San Andreas fault zone. The system includes a station network of 75 stations covering an area between 36 deg N and 38 deg N latitudes, and 237 deg E and 239 deg E longitudes, with roughly half of the stations on either side of the faults. In addition, the simulation of crustal movements through the introduction of changes in the relative positions between grid stations, weather effect for intervisibility between satellite and station and loss of observations thereof, and comparative evaluation of various observational scheme-patterns have been critically studied.

  14. Miniaturization of cytotoxicity tests for concentration range-finding studies prior to conducting the pH 6.7 Syrian hamster embryo cell-transformation assay.

    PubMed

    Plöttner, Sabine; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Brüning, Thomas

    2013-08-15

    The Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell-transformation assay (SHE assay) is a promising alternative method to animal testing for the identification of potential carcinogens in vitro. Prior to conducting the SHE assay the appropriate concentration range for each test chemical must be established, with a maximum concentration causing approximately 50% cytotoxicity. Concentration range-finding is done in separate experiments, which are similar to the final SHE assay but with less replicates and more concentrations. Here we present an alternative for the cytotoxicity testing by miniaturization of the test procedure by use of 24-well plates and surpluses from feeder-cell preparations as target cells. In addition, we integrated the photometry-based neutral red (NR) assay. For validation of the assay, incubations with dimethyl sulf-oxide, p-phenylenediamine-2HCl, aniline, o-toluidine-HCl, 2,4-diaminotoluene, and 2-naphthylamine were carried out in the miniaturized approach and compared with the standard procedure in terms of calculating the relative plating efficiencies (RPEs). To directly compare both methods, concentrations that produced 50% cytotoxicity (IC50) were calculated. Excellent associations were observed between the number of colonies and NR uptake. For all test substances a concentration-dependent, concomitant decrease of NR uptake in the miniaturized approach and RPEs in the standard test was observed after a 7-day incubation. The results from both test setups showed a comparable order of magnitude and the IC50 values differed by a factor <2 (1.4-1.9), depending on the substance in question. Overall, the miniaturized approach should be considered an improved alternative for cytotoxicity testing in the SHE assay, as it saves valuable SHE cells and speeds-up the time, to obtain test results more rapidly.

  15. Lipophilicity measurement of drugs by reversed phase HPLC over Wide pH range using an alkaline-resistant silica-based stationary phase, XBridge Shield RP(18).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangli; Hefesha, Hossam; Tanaka, Hideji; Scriba, Gerhard; Fahr, Alfred

    2008-10-01

    We propose a reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) with an alkaline-resistant silica-based stationary phase, XBridge Shield RP(18), for the determination of the lipophilicity of drugs with diverse chemical nature ranging from acidic to basic. A set of 40 model compounds with well-defined solvatochromic parameters was selected to allow a broad distribution of structural properties. The chromatographic results showed that the lipophilicity index log k(w) obtained with XBridge Shield RP(18) was well correlated with experimental log P(oct) values (r(2)=0.96). Linear solvation free-energy relationship (LSER) analyses revealed that the retention mechanism of the stationary phase and 1-octanol/water partitioning were controlled by almost the same balance of intermolecular forces (hydrophobicity as expressed by the van der Waals volume V(w), H-bond acceptor basicity beta, and dipolarity/polarizability pi*). The results showed that XBridge Shield RP(18) phase overcomes the shortcomings of the silica-based stationary phases, the application of which to lipophilicity measurements had been limited to neutral and acidic compounds.

  16. Phos-tag SDS-PAGE systems for phosphorylation profiling of proteins with a wide range of molecular masses under neutral pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Eiji; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Koike, Tohru

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported a neutral-pH gel system buffered with Bis-Tris hydrochloride (Bis-Tris-HCl) in Zn(2+)-Phos-tag SDS-PAGE for advanced profiling of phosphoproteins with molecular masses of 10-200 kDa. In the current work, we describe characteristics of two neutral-pH gel systems, Bis-Tris-HCl and Tris-acetic acid (Tris-AcOH), based on comparative studies of the separation of a wide range of proteins with molecular masses from 10 to 350 kDa. For 10-200 kDa cellular proteins, the Bis-Tris-HCl system showed a higher resolving power in a 2-D fluorescence DIGE analysis of certain phosphoproteins, e.g. histone H3 (15 kDa) and elongation factor 2 (95 kDa). Furthermore, there was a large difference in the 1-D migration patterns of phosphorylated species of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2, 44/42 kDa), which arise from changes in the phosphorylation status of the Thr-202 and Tyr-204, in the two buffer systems at the same concentration of Zn(2+)-Phos-tag. In contrast, shifts in the mobility of various phosphorylated species of a high-molecular-mass protein, ataxia telangiectasia-mutated kinase (ATM, 350 kDa), could only be detected in the Tris-AcOH system with a 3% w/v polyacrylamide gel strengthened with 0.5% w/v agarose. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Last-Century Increases in Intrinsic Water-Use Efficiency of Grassland Communities Have Occurred over a Wide Range of Vegetation Composition, Nutrient Inputs, and Soil pH.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Iris H; Macdonald, Andy J; Schnyder, Hans

    2016-02-01

    Last-century climate change has led to variable increases of the intrinsic water-use efficiency (Wi; the ratio of net CO2 assimilation to stomatal conductance for water vapor) of trees and C3 grassland ecosystems, but the causes of the variability are not well understood. Here, we address putative drivers underlying variable Wi responses in a wide range of grassland communities. Wi was estimated from carbon isotope discrimination in archived herbage samples from 16 contrasting fertilizer treatments in the Park Grass Experiment, Rothamsted, England, for the 1915 to 1929 and 1995 to 2009 periods. Changes in Wi were analyzed in relation to nitrogen input, soil pH, species richness, and functional group composition. Treatments included liming as well as phosphorus and potassium additions with or without ammonium or nitrate fertilizer applications at three levels. Wi increased between 11% and 25% (P < 0.001) in the different treatments between the two periods. None of the fertilizers had a direct effect on the change of Wi (ΔWi). However, soil pH (P < 0.05), species richness (P < 0.01), and percentage grass content (P < 0.01) were significantly related to ΔWi. Grass-dominated, species-poor plots on acidic soils showed the largest ΔWi (+14.7 μmol mol(-1)). The ΔWi response of these acidic plots was probably related to drought effects resulting from aluminum toxicity on root growth. Our results from the Park Grass Experiment show that Wi in grassland communities consistently increased over a wide range of nutrient inputs, soil pH, and plant community compositions during the last century.

  18. Last-Century Increases in Intrinsic Water-Use Efficiency of Grassland Communities Have Occurred over a Wide Range of Vegetation Composition, Nutrient Inputs, and Soil pH1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, Iris H.; Macdonald, Andy J.; Schnyder, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Last-century climate change has led to variable increases of the intrinsic water-use efficiency (Wi; the ratio of net CO2 assimilation to stomatal conductance for water vapor) of trees and C3 grassland ecosystems, but the causes of the variability are not well understood. Here, we address putative drivers underlying variable Wi responses in a wide range of grassland communities. Wi was estimated from carbon isotope discrimination in archived herbage samples from 16 contrasting fertilizer treatments in the Park Grass Experiment, Rothamsted, England, for the 1915 to 1929 and 1995 to 2009 periods. Changes in Wi were analyzed in relation to nitrogen input, soil pH, species richness, and functional group composition. Treatments included liming as well as phosphorus and potassium additions with or without ammonium or nitrate fertilizer applications at three levels. Wi increased between 11% and 25% (P < 0.001) in the different treatments between the two periods. None of the fertilizers had a direct effect on the change of Wi (ΔWi). However, soil pH (P < 0.05), species richness (P < 0.01), and percentage grass content (P < 0.01) were significantly related to ΔWi. Grass-dominated, species-poor plots on acidic soils showed the largest ΔWi (+14.7 μmol mol−1). The ΔWi response of these acidic plots was probably related to drought effects resulting from aluminum toxicity on root growth. Our results from the Park Grass Experiment show that Wi in grassland communities consistently increased over a wide range of nutrient inputs, soil pH, and plant community compositions during the last century. PMID:26620525

  19. [Effects of temperature and pH on digestive enzymes activities in Whitmania pigra].

    PubMed

    Shi, Hong-zhuan; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Zhu, Zai-biao; Hu, Ting-ting; Zhang, Shuai-wen

    2012-09-01

    Current study was conducted to investigate and compare the impact of temperature and pH on the activities of amylase, protease and lipase in alimentary tract of Whitmania pigra. The responses of amylase, protease, and lipase activities were determined over a wide range of temperatures (7-52 degrees C) and pH gradient (2.2-11.2). The highest lipase activity was found under 37 degrees C, pH 8.2, and the highest amylase activity was detected under 37 degrees C, pH 5.2, while protease activity peaked at 42 degrees C, pH 3.2 or pH 9.2. The optimal temperature in alimentary tract of Wh. pigra for lipase and amylase was 37 degrees C, and the responding temperature for protease was 42 degrees C. The optimal pH value in alimentary tract of Wh. pigra for lipase and amylase was pH 8.2 and pH 5.2, respectively. While pH 3.2 or 9.2 seems to be both favorable for high protease activity.

  20. A protein–dye hybrid system as a narrow range tunable intracellular pH sensor† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Figures depicting various photophysical properties, cytotoxicity studies and confocal fluorescence images. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc02659a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Anees, Palapuravan; Sudheesh, Karivachery V.; Jayamurthy, Purushothaman; Chandrika, Arunkumar R.; Omkumar, Ramakrishnapillai V.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate monitoring of pH variations inside cells is important for the early diagnosis of diseases such as cancer. Even though a variety of different pH sensors are available, construction of a custom-made sensor array for measuring minute variations in a narrow biological pH window, using easily available constituents, is a challenge. Here we report two-component hybrid sensors derived from a protein and organic dye nanoparticles whose sensitivity range can be tuned by choosing different ratios of the components, to monitor the minute pH variations in a given system. The dye interacts noncovalently with the protein at lower pH and covalently at higher pH, triggering two distinguishable fluorescent signals at 700 and 480 nm, respectively. The pH sensitivity region of the probe can be tuned for every unit of the pH window resulting in custom-made pH sensors. These narrow range tunable pH sensors have been used to monitor pH variations in HeLa cells using the fluorescence imaging technique. PMID:28042467

  1. Microbial Metabolic Landscapes Derived from Complementary Mineralogical, Aqueous Geochemical, and Gas Data Associated with High pH, Actively Serpentinizing Springs in the Coast Range Ophiolite (CA,USA) and Zambales and Palawan Ophiolites (Philippines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardace, D.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Arcilla, C. A.; Hoehler, T. M.; McCollom, T. M.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    We applied x-ray diffraction and thin section petrography to profile the mineralogy of serpentinites and relict peridotites pertinent to the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbiological Observatory (CROMO, an array of 8 water monitoring wells installed in serpentinizing ultramafic rocks, sited at the UC-Davis McLaughlin Natural Reserve, Lower Lake, CA) and Zambales and Palawan ophiolites in the Philippines. In general, serpentinization in near surface samples was extensive, obscuring many protolith characteristics, but relict olivine grains are apparent. Upwelling serpentinizing formation fluids react to varying degrees with shallow hydrological regimes impacted by meteoric inputs. In the vicinity of CROMO, modest pH (7 to 8.5) waters form spring deposits. In the Philippines ophiolites, high pH (10.8 to 11. 3) waters form extensive travertines near Manleluag Springs and newly faulted sections of the Poon Bato River. Travertine fabric and chemistry indicate episodic spring flow and suggest that ambient water chemistry shifts over time. A multiprobe meter simultaneously measured pH, temperature, conductivity, oxidation-reduction potential, and dissolved oxygen at selected springs. Filtered water samples from monitoring wells and springs were analyzed for major elements and some ions. Dissolved gases and gas bubbles were captured and transported for analysis of H2, CO, and CH4. Aqueous and gas geochemistry data were transformed into activity data using EQ3: A Computer Program for Geochemical Aqueous Speciation-Solubility Calculations (Wolery, 1992) and the Gibbs Energy values for selected metabolic reactions, given the environmental conditions, were calculated. Metabolisms considered were: methanogenesis, methane oxidation, ferric iron reduction, ferrous iron oxidation, oxidation of S in pyrite, nitrification, denitrification, and N-fixation. At all sites tapping waters sourced in actively serpentinizing systems, regardless of geography, ferrous iron oxidation was the most

  2. Hybrid of g-C3N4 Assisted Metal-Organic Frameworks and Their Derived High-Efficiency Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalyst in the Whole pH Range.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenling; Hu, Liuyong; Li, Jing; Wang, Erkang

    2016-12-28

    A highly active electrocatalyst in the whole pH range for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is produced by employing the g-C3N4 assisted metal-organic frameworks (MOF) of C3N4@NH2-MIL-101 as the precursor. By pyrolyzing the hybrid at 700 °C, the C3N4@NH2-MIL-101 could be easily transformed into an abundant iron and nitrogen codoped porous carbon skeleton. The selective use of g-C3N4 as a support template plays a critical role in facilitating the formation of the architecture with high surface area and rich N content. The obtained catalyst of C3N4@NH2-MIL-101-700 manifested remarkable oxygen reduction activity over the pH 0-14. Noteworthy, the catalyst displayed outstanding ORR activity with more positive half-wave potential than that of the commercial Pt/C catalyst in both alkaline and neutral conditions. Additionally, the optimal C3N4@NH2-MIL-101-700 also exhibited prominent ORR activity which is almost equal to that of commercial Pt/C in acidic electrolyte with high selectivity and very low H2O2 yield. Most importantly, the better methanol tolerance and much higher stability than the commercial Pt/C of C3N4@NH2-MIL-101-700 no matter under alkaline, neutral, or acid conditions further demonstrate the catalyst to be a promising candidate for practical electrocatalytic applications.

  3. Highly precise detection, discrimination, and removal of anionic surfactants over the full pH range via cationic conjugated polymer: an efficient strategy to facilitate illicit-drug analysis.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sameer; Malik, Akhtar H; Iyer, Parameswar K

    2015-02-11

    A water-soluble cationic conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE), poly(1,4-bis(6-(1-methylimidazolium)-hexyloxy)-benzene bromide) (PMI) displays extraordinary stability over the full pH range of 1-14 as well as in seawater, brine, urine, and other solutions and carries out efficient detection, discrimination, and removal of moderately dissimilar anionic surfactants (viz., sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) at very low levels (31.7 and 17.3 parts per billion (ppb), respectively). PMI formed stable hydrogels in the presence of SDS that remained unaffected by strong acids/bases, heating, ultrasonication, or exposure to light, whereas SDBS formed precipitate with PMI as a result of its different interpolymer cofacial arrangement via Columbic attraction. The complex-forming ability of PMI with SDS and SDBS facilitated their elimination from water or drug-doped urine samples without the use of any organic solvent, chromatographic technique, or solid support. This protocol, the first of its kind for the removal of anionic surfactants at very low concentrations from any type of solution and competitive environments, demonstrates an original application using a CPE. The surfactant-free sample solutions could be precisely analyzed for the presence of illicit drugs by any standard methods. Using PMI, a newly developed CPE, a rapid and practical method for the efficient detection, discrimination, and removal of SDS and SDBS at ppb levels from water and urine, under harsh conditions, and in natural chemical environments is demonstrated.

  4. Non-Robertsonian translocation t (2;11) is associated with infertility in an oligospermic man.

    PubMed

    Ananthapur, V; Avvari, S; Veena, K; Sujatha, M; Jyothy, A

    2014-05-01

    Infertility is a major health problem which affects approximately 22% of married couples in reproductive age. Chromosomal defects are the most common genetic abnormalities in infertile men, with an incidence of cytogenetic abnormalities ranging from 2.1% to 15.5%. We describe here the clinical and cytogenetic studies carried out in a couple with repeated abortions. Cytogenetic analysis of the couple showed a de novo chromosomal translocation t (2;11)(p14;q21) in the male partner and a normal 46, XX karyotype in the female counterpart. Such an autosomal translocation may lead to the disruption of genes responsible for spermatogenesis or impaired synaptic complex pairing during meiosis resulting in reproductive failure. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Alkaline pH sensor molecules.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Takashi; Maruyama, Ichiro N

    2015-11-01

    Animals can survive only within a narrow pH range. This requires continual monitoring of environmental and body-fluid pH. Although a variety of acidic pH sensor molecules have been reported, alkaline pH sensor function is not well understood. This Review describes neuronal alkaline pH sensors, grouped according to whether they monitor extracellular or intracellular alkaline pH. Extracellular sensors include the receptor-type guanylyl cyclase, the insulin receptor-related receptor, ligand-gated Cl- channels, connexin hemichannels, two-pore-domain K+ channels, and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Intracellular sensors include TRP channels and gap junction channels. Identification of molecular mechanisms underlying alkaline pH sensing is crucial for understanding how animals respond to environmental alkaline pH and how body-fluid pH is maintained within a narrow range.

  6. Dissociation energies of PH and PH+.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, R. R.; Nazeer Ahammed, Y.; Srinivasa Rao, A.; Rao, T. V. R.

    1995-12-01

    Dissociation energies for the ground electronic states of diatomic PH and PH+ are determined by fitting empirical potential functions to the respective RKRV curves using correlation coefficients. The estimated ground state dissociation energies of PH and PH+ are 3.10 and 3.20 eV respectively by the curve fitting procedure using the Lippincott potential function. The computed values are in good agreement with experimental values.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus ginsengihumi Strain M2.11 with Phytase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Suleimanova, Aliya D.; Boulygina, Eugenia A.; Kazakov, Sergey V.; Baranova, Daria S.; Akhmetova, Alina I.; Mardanova, Ayslu M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper announces the genome sequence of Bacillus ginsengihumi strain M2.11, which has been characterized as a strain which produces the enzyme with the ability to degrade phytase. The genome of the strain M2.11 is 3.7 Mb and harbors 3,082 coding sequences. PMID:26272561

  8. Half-sandwich o-N,N-dimethylaminobenzyl complexes over the full size range of group 3 and lanthanide metals. synthesis, structural characterization, and catalysis of phosphine P--H bond addition to carbodiimides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Xiong; Nishiura, Masayoshi; Mashiko, Tomohiro; Hou, Zhaomin

    2008-01-01

    The acid-base reactions between the rare-earth metal (Ln) tris(ortho-N,N-dimethylaminobenzyl) complexes [Ln(CH2C(H4NMe2-o)3] with one equivalent of the silylene-linked cyclopentadiene-amine ligand (C5Me4H)SiMe2NH(C6H2Me3-2,4,6) afforded the corresponding half-sandwich aminobenzyl complexes [{Me2Si(C5Me4)(NC6H2Me3-2,4,6)}Ln(CH2C6H4NMe2-o)(thf)] (2-Ln) (Ln=Y, La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Lu) in 60-87 % isolated yields. The one-pot reaction between ScCl(3) and [Me2Si(C5Me4)(NC6H2Me3-2,4,6)]Li2 followed by reaction with LiCH2C6H4NMe2-o in THF gave the scandium analogue [{Me2Si(C5Me4)(NC6H2Me3-2,4,6)}Sc(CH2C6H4NMe2-o)] (2-Sc) in 67 % isolated yield. 2-Sc could not be prepared by the acid-base reaction between [Sc(CH2C6H4NMe2-o)3] and (C5Me4H)SiMe2NH(C6H2Me3-2,4,6). These half-sandwich rare-earth metal aminobenzyl complexes can serve as efficient catalyst precursors for the catalytic addition of various phosphine P--H bonds to carbodiimides to form a series of phosphaguanidine derivatives with excellent tolerability to aromatic carbon-halogen bonds. A significant increase in the catalytic activity was observed, as a result of an increase in the metal size with a general trend of La>Pr, Nd>Sm>Gd>Lu>Sc. The reaction of 2-La with 1 equiv of Ph2PH yielded the corresponding phosphide complex [{Me2Si(C5Me4)(NC6H2Me3-2,4,6)}La(PPh2)(thf)2] (4), which, on recrystallization from benzene, gave the dimeric analogue [{Me2Si(C5Me4)(NC6H2Me3-2,4,6)}La(PPh2)]2 (5). Addition of 4 or 5 to iPrN=C=NiPr in THF yielded the phosphaguanidinate complex [{Me2Si(C5Me4)(NC6H2Me3-2,4,6)}La{iPrNC(PPh2)NiPr}(thf)] (6), which, on recrystallization from ether, afforded the ether-coordinated structurally characterizable analogue [{Me2Si(C5Me4)(NC6H2Me3-2,4,6)}La{iPrNC(PPh2)NiPr}(OEt2)] (7). The reaction of 6 or 7 with Ph2PH in THF yielded 4 and the phosphaguanidine iPrN=C(PPh2)NHiPr (3a). These results suggest that the catalytic formation of a phosphaguanidine compound proceeds through the nucleophilic addition

  9. A Narrow pH Range Supports Butanol, Hexanol, and Octanol Production from Syngas in a Continuous Co-culture of Clostridium ljungdahlii and Clostridium kluyveri with In-Line Product Extraction.

    PubMed

    Richter, Hanno; Molitor, Bastian; Diender, Martijn; Sousa, Diana Z; Angenent, Largus T

    2016-01-01

    Carboxydotrophic bacteria (CTB) have received attention due to their ability to synthesize commodity chemicals from producer gas and synthesis gas (syngas). CTB have an important advantage of a high product selectivity compared to chemical catalysts. However, the product spectrum of wild-type CTB is narrow. Our objective was to investigate whether a strategy of combining two wild-type bacterial strains into a single, continuously fed bioprocessing step would be promising to broaden the product spectrum. Here, we have operated a syngas-fermentation process with Clostridium ljungdahlii and Clostridium kluyveri with in-line product extraction through gas stripping and product condensing within the syngas recirculation line. The main products from C. ljungdahlii fermentation at a pH of 6.0 were ethanol and acetate at net volumetric production rates of 65.5 and 431 mmol C·L(-1)·d(-1), respectively. An estimated 2/3 of total ethanol produced was utilized by C. kluyveri to chain elongate with the reverse β-oxidation pathway, resulting in n-butyrate and n-caproate at net rates of 129 and 70 mmol C·L(-1)·d(-1), respectively. C. ljungdahlii likely reduced the produced carboxylates to their corresponding alcohols with the reductive power from syngas. This resulted in the longer-chain alcohols n-butanol, n-hexanol, and n-octanol at net volumetric production rates of 39.2, 31.7, and 0.045 mmol C·L(-1)·d(-1), respectively. The continuous production of the longer-chain alcohols occurred only within a narrow pH spectrum of 5.7-6.4 due to the pH discrepancy between the two strains. Regardless whether other wild-type strains could overcome this pH discrepancy, the specificity (mol carbon in product per mol carbon in all other liquid products) for each longer-chain alcohol may never be high in a single bioprocessing step. This, because two bioprocesses compete for intermediates (i.e., carboxylates): (1) chain elongation; and (2) biological reduction. This innate competition

  10. A Narrow pH Range Supports Butanol, Hexanol, and Octanol Production from Syngas in a Continuous Co-culture of Clostridium ljungdahlii and Clostridium kluyveri with In-Line Product Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Hanno; Molitor, Bastian; Diender, Martijn; Sousa, Diana Z.; Angenent, Largus T.

    2016-01-01

    Carboxydotrophic bacteria (CTB) have received attention due to their ability to synthesize commodity chemicals from producer gas and synthesis gas (syngas). CTB have an important advantage of a high product selectivity compared to chemical catalysts. However, the product spectrum of wild-type CTB is narrow. Our objective was to investigate whether a strategy of combining two wild-type bacterial strains into a single, continuously fed bioprocessing step would be promising to broaden the product spectrum. Here, we have operated a syngas-fermentation process with Clostridium ljungdahlii and Clostridium kluyveri with in-line product extraction through gas stripping and product condensing within the syngas recirculation line. The main products from C. ljungdahlii fermentation at a pH of 6.0 were ethanol and acetate at net volumetric production rates of 65.5 and 431 mmol C·L−1·d−1, respectively. An estimated 2/3 of total ethanol produced was utilized by C. kluyveri to chain elongate with the reverse β-oxidation pathway, resulting in n-butyrate and n-caproate at net rates of 129 and 70 mmol C·L−1·d−1, respectively. C. ljungdahlii likely reduced the produced carboxylates to their corresponding alcohols with the reductive power from syngas. This resulted in the longer-chain alcohols n-butanol, n-hexanol, and n-octanol at net volumetric production rates of 39.2, 31.7, and 0.045 mmol C·L−1·d−1, respectively. The continuous production of the longer-chain alcohols occurred only within a narrow pH spectrum of 5.7–6.4 due to the pH discrepancy between the two strains. Regardless whether other wild-type strains could overcome this pH discrepancy, the specificity (mol carbon in product per mol carbon in all other liquid products) for each longer-chain alcohol may never be high in a single bioprocessing step. This, because two bioprocesses compete for intermediates (i.e., carboxylates): (1) chain elongation; and (2) biological reduction. This innate competition

  11. A satellite measurement of cosmic-ray abundances and spectra in the charge range 2 less than or equal to 7 less than or equal to 10. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The composition of the nuclear component of the cosmic radiation was studied to yield information concerning the source, propagation, and confinement of cosmic rays within the galaxy. The first comprehensive satellite measurement is presented of cosmic-ray composition and spectra in the charge range 2 equal to or less than Z equal to or less than 10 using the geomagnetic field as a rigidity analyzer through the entire range of vertical cutoffs. The results indicate that the spectra of all the elements in the observed range are similar, and thus that various ratios of elemental abundances are nearly independent of rigidity over the range 2 equal to or less than P equal to or less than 15 GV. Calculations of the propagation of cosmic rays through the interstellar and interplanetary media predict that there should be a variation with rigidity of ratios of various elements, because of the charge-dependent effects of ionization of the interstellar gas by the cosmic rays. The absence of this variation can be explained by assuming a rigidity-dependent confinement of the cosmic rays in the galaxy.

  12. 43 CFR 2.11 - What contact information should your request include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What contact information should your... OF INFORMATION ACT; RECORDS AND TESTIMONY How To Make a Request § 2.11 What contact information... number (or the name and telephone number of an appropriate contact), email address, and fax number...

  13. 43 CFR 2.11 - What contact information should your request include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What contact information should your... OF INFORMATION ACT; RECORDS AND TESTIMONY How To Make a Request § 2.11 What contact information... number (or the name and telephone number of an appropriate contact), email address, and fax number...

  14. Clinical utility of pH paper versus pH meter in the measurement of critical gastric pH in stress ulcer prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Bradley, J S; Phillips, J O; Cavanaugh, J E; Metzler, M H

    1998-11-01

    To evaluate the clinical utility of measuring gastric pH with a pH meter vs. pH paper in critical care patients. Prospective comparison of gastric pH measurements, using both pH meter and pH paper. Surgical intensive care unit (ICU) at a rural Midwestern university medical center. Fifty-one patients who received therapy for prophylaxis of stress ulcers in the surgical ICU. Therapy for stress ulcer prophylaxis was monitored. The pH of 985 gastric samples, taken from 51 patients, was measured with both pH meter and pH paper. The pH meter and pH paper measures demonstrated a concordance correlation coefficient of .896. The mean difference between the two measures (pH paper - pH meter) was estimated to be between -0.4 and 1.4, suggesting a positive bias for the paper. The prevalence of events representing clinically relevant differences between the pH meter and pH paper in the measurement of the same gastric sample was calculated. The frequency with which each of the events occurred consecutively (or, in one case, two nearly consecutive events on the same day) was also calculated. Bias in a clinically relevant range was estimated. A set of "probability profiles" was constructed. A hand-held pH meter and pH paper are not interchangeable measures of gastric pH. The pH paper exhibits an appreciable positive bias compared with a hand-held pH meter in the clinically relevant range of 2 to 6. More research is needed to determine if that bias affects treatment outcomes. We recommend the use of a pH meter for patients who demonstrate pH readings of < or = 4, consecutive with readings of < or = 5.

  15. Radiosynthesis of [2-(11)C-carbonyl]dantrolene using [(11)C]phosgene for PET.

    PubMed

    Takada, Yuuki; Ogawa, Masanao; Suzuki, Hisashi; Fukumura, Toshimitsu

    2010-09-01

    Automated radiosynthesis of [2-(11)C-carbonyl]dantrolene, the substrate of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), was performed for the first time through a multi-step/one-pot labeling sequence that started with ethyl 2-{2-[5-(4-nitrophenyl)furfurylidene]hydrazino}acetate and used [(11)C]phosgene as a labeling agent. After optimization of the automated synthesis conditions and parameters, [2-(11)C-carbonyl]dantrolene was obtained at a radiochemical yield of 34.0+/-8.4% (decay-corrected). The radiochemical purity was greater than 98% and the specific activity was 46.8+/-15.2GBq/micromol at the end of the synthesis.

  16. Synthesis and Evaluation of a 2,11-Cembranoid-Inspired Library.

    PubMed

    Welford, Amanda J; Caldwell, John J; Liu, Manjuan; Richards, Meirion; Brown, Nathan; Lomas, Cara; Tizzard, Graham J; Pitak, Mateusz B; Coles, Simon J; Eccles, Suzanne A; Raynaud, Florence I; Collins, Ian

    2016-04-11

    The 2,11-cembranoid family of natural products has been used as inspiration for the synthesis of a structurally simplified, functionally diverse library of octahydroisobenzofuran-based compounds designed to augment a typical medicinal chemistry library screen. Ring-closing metathesis, lactonisation and SmI2 -mediated methods were exemplified and applied to the installation of a third ring to mimic the nine-membered ring of the 2,11-cembranoids. The library was assessed for aqueous solubility and permeability, with a chemical-space analysis performed for comparison to the family of cembranoid natural products and a sample set of a screening library. Preliminary investigations in cancer cells showed that the simpler scaffolds could recapitulate the reported anti-migratory activity of the natural products.

  17. Synthesis and Evaluation of a 2,11‐Cembranoid‐Inspired Library

    PubMed Central

    Welford, Amanda J; Liu, Manjuan; Richards, Meirion; Brown, Nathan; Lomas, Cara; Tizzard, Graham J.; Pitak, Mateusz B.; Coles, Simon J.; Eccles, Suzanne A.; Raynaud, Florence I.; Collins, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The 2,11‐cembranoid family of natural products has been used as inspiration for the synthesis of a structurally simplified, functionally diverse library of octahydroisobenzofuran‐based compounds designed to augment a typical medicinal chemistry library screen. Ring‐closing metathesis, lactonisation and SmI2‐mediated methods were exemplified and applied to the installation of a third ring to mimic the nine‐membered ring of the 2,11‐cembranoids. The library was assessed for aqueous solubility and permeability, with a chemical‐space analysis performed for comparison to the family of cembranoid natural products and a sample set of a screening library. Preliminary investigations in cancer cells showed that the simpler scaffolds could recapitulate the reported anti‐migratory activity of the natural products. PMID:26929153

  18. The post-common-envelope, binary central star of the planetary nebula Hen 2-11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Miszalski, B.; Wesson, R.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Tyndall, A. A.

    2014-02-01

    We present a detailed photometric study of the central star system of the planetary nebula Hen 2-11, selected for study because of its low-ionisation filaments and bipolar morphology - traits which have been strongly linked with central star binarity. Photometric monitoring with NTT-EFOSC2 reveals a highly irradiated, double-eclipsing, post-common-envelope system with a period of 0.609 d. Modelling of the lightcurve indicates that the nebular progenitor is extremely hot, while the secondary in the system is probably a K-type main sequence star. The chemical composition of the nebula is analysed, showing Hen 2-11 to be a medium-excitation non-Type i nebula. A simple photoionisation model is constructed determining abundance ratios of C/O and N/O which would be consistent with the common-envelope cutting short the AGB evolution of the nebular progenitor. The detection of a post-common-envelope binary system at the heart of Hen 2-11 further strengthens the link between binary progeny and the formation of axisymmetric planetary nebulae with patterns of low-ionisation filaments, clearly demonstrating their use as morphological indicators of central star binarity. Extracted 1D spectra, reduced 2D spectra, and table of photometry are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/562/A89

  19. Complexation Key to a pH Locked Redox Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Masood Ahmad; Dangat, Yuvraj; Shams, Tahir; Khan, Khaliquz Zaman

    2016-01-01

    An unfavorable pH can block a feasible electron transfer for a pH dependent redox reaction. In this experiment, a series of potentiometric titrations demonstrate the sequential loss in feasibility of iron(II) dichromate redox reaction over a pH range of 0-4. The pH at which this reaction failed to occur was termed as a pH locked reaction. The…

  20. Complexation Key to a pH Locked Redox Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Masood Ahmad; Dangat, Yuvraj; Shams, Tahir; Khan, Khaliquz Zaman

    2016-01-01

    An unfavorable pH can block a feasible electron transfer for a pH dependent redox reaction. In this experiment, a series of potentiometric titrations demonstrate the sequential loss in feasibility of iron(II) dichromate redox reaction over a pH range of 0-4. The pH at which this reaction failed to occur was termed as a pH locked reaction. The…

  1. Evaluation of fluorimetric pH sensors for bioprocess monitoring at low pH.

    PubMed

    Janzen, Nils H; Schmidt, Michael; Krause, Christian; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    Optical chemical sensors are the standard for pH monitoring in small-scale bioreactors such as microtiter plates, shaking flasks or other single-use bioreactors. The dynamic pH range of the so far commercially available fluorescent pH sensors applied in small-scale bioreactors is restricted to pH monitoring around neutral pH, although many fermentation processes are performed at pH < 6 on industrial scale. Thus, two new prototype acidic fluorescence pH sensors immobilized in single-use stirred-tank bioreactors, one with excitation at 470 nm and emission at 550 nm (sensor 470/550) and the other with excitation at 505 nm and emission at 600 nm (sensor 505/600), were characterized with respect to dynamic ranges and operational stability in representative fermentation media. Best resolution and dynamic range was observed with pH sensor 505/600 in mineral medium (dynamic range of 3.9 < pH < 7.2). Applying the same pH sensors to complex medium results in a drastic reduction of resolution and dynamic ranges. Yeast extract in complex medium was found to cause background fluorescence at the sensors' operating wavelength combinations. Optical isolation of the sensor by adding a black colored polymer layer above the sensor spot and fixing an aperture made of adhesive photoresistant foil between the fluorescence reader and the transparent bottom of the polystyrene reactors enabled full re-establishment of the sensor's characteristics. Reliability and operational stability of sensor 505/600 was shown by online pH monitoring (4.5 < pH < 5.8) of parallel anaerobic batch fermentations of Clostridium acetobutylicum for the production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) with offline pH measurements with a standard glass electrode as reference.

  2. Plant Habitat (PH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  3. Calculation of electron-impact rotationally elastic total cross sections for NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, and PH{sub 3} over the energy range from 0.01 eV to 2 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Limbachiya, Chetan; Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Mason, Nigel

    2011-04-15

    This paper report results of calculation of the total cross section Q{sub T} for electron impact on NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, and PH{sub 3} over a wide range of incident energies from 0.01 eV to 2 keV. Total cross sections Q{sub T} (elastic plus electronic excitation) for incident energies below the ionization threshold of the target were calculated using the UK molecular R-matrix code through the Quantemol-N software package and cross sections at higher energies were derived using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to give self-consistent values where they overlap. The present results are, in general, found to be in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results.

  4. Determination of amines using 2-(11H-benzo[a]carbazol-11-yl) ethyl chloroformate (BCEC-Cl) as labeling reagent by HPLC with fluorescence detection and identification with APCI/MS.

    PubMed

    You, Jinmao; Zhao, Wenchen; Liu, Lingjun; Zhao, Xianen; Suo, Yourui; Wang, Honglun; Li, Yulin; Ding, Chenxu

    2007-05-15

    A pre-column derivatization method for the sensitive determination of amines using a labeling reagent 2-(11H-benzo[a]-carbazol-11-yl) ethyl chloroformate (BCEC-Cl) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection has been developed. Identification of derivatives was carried out by LC/APCI/MS in positive-ion mode. The chromophore of 1,2-benzo-3,4-dihydrocarbazole-9-ethyl chloroformate (BCEOC-Cl) reagent was replaced by 2-(11H-benzo[a]-carbazol-11-yl) ethyl functional group, which resulted in a sensitive fluorescence derivatizing reagent BCEC-Cl. BCEC-Cl could easily and quickly label amines. Derivatives were stable enough to be efficiently analyzed by HPLC and showed an intense protonated molecular ion corresponding m/z [M+H](+) under APCI/MS in positive-ion mode. The collision-induced dissociation of the protonated molecular ion formed characteristic fragment ions at m/z 261.8 and m/z 243.8 corresponding to the cleavages of CH(2)O-CO and CH(2)-OCO bonds. Studies on derivatization demonstrated excellent derivative yields over the pH 9.0-10.0. Maximal yields close to 100% were observed with three- to four-fold molar reagent excess. In addition, the detection responses for BCEC-derivatives were compared to those obtained using 1,2-benzo-3,4-dihydrocarbazole-9-ethyl chloroformate (BCEOC-Cl) and 9-fluorenyl methylchloroformate (FMOC-Cl) as labeling reagents. The ratios I(BCEC)/I(BCEOC)=1.94-2.17 and I(BCEC)/I(FMOC)=1.04-2.19 for fluorescent (FL) responses (here, I was relative fluorescence intensity). Separation of the derivatized amines had been optimized on reversed-phase Eclipse XDB-C(8) column. Detection limits calculated from 0.50pmol injection, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, were 1.77-14.4fmol. The relative standard deviations for within-day determination (n=11) were 1.84-2.89% for the tested amines. The mean intra- and inter-assay precision for all amines levels were <3.64% and 2.52%, respectively. The mean recoveries ranged from

  5. pH Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunelli, Bruno; Scagnolari, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The exposition of the pervasive concept of pH, of its foundations and implementation as a meaningful quantitative measurement, in nonspecialist university texts is often not easy to follow because too many of its theoretical and operative underpinnings are neglected. To help the inquiring student we provide a concise introduction to the depth just…

  6. pH optrode

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M. Allen; Langry, Kevin C.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for forming a long-lasting, stable, pH-sensitive dye-acrylamide copolymer useful as a pH-sensitive material for use in an optrode or other device sensitive to pH. An optrode may be made by mechanically attaching the copolymer to a sensing device such as an optical fiber.

  7. pH Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunelli, Bruno; Scagnolari, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The exposition of the pervasive concept of pH, of its foundations and implementation as a meaningful quantitative measurement, in nonspecialist university texts is often not easy to follow because too many of its theoretical and operative underpinnings are neglected. To help the inquiring student we provide a concise introduction to the depth just…

  8. Ph.D. shortage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The late 1990s will see a shortage of Ph.D. graduates, according to the Association of American Universities, Washington, D.C. AAU's new comprehensive study, “The Ph.D. Shortage: The Federal Role,” reports that competition for new Ph.D.s is already intense and can only intensify because demand is greater than supply in both academic and nonacademic markets.Doctoral education plays an increasingly important role in U.S. research and development programs. Students have a pivotal part in doing research and enriching it with new ideas. The AAU report says that graduate students are “major determinants of the creativity and productivity of U.S. academic research, the source of more than 50% of the nation's basic research.’ The market for doctoral education extends beyond the university. In 1985, about 43% of all Ph.D.s employed in this country were working outside higher education; the demand for doctorate recipients in nonacademic sectors continues to grow.

  9. ART: Surveying the Local Universe at 2-11 keV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, S. L.; Ramsey, B. D.; Adams, M. L.; Brandt, W. N.; Bubarev, M. V.; Hassinger, G.; Pravlinski, M.; Predehl, P.; Romaine, S. E.; Swartz, D. A.; hide

    2008-01-01

    The Astronomical Rontgen Telescope (ART) is a medium-energy x-ray telescope system proposed for the Russian-led mission Spectrum Rontgen-Gamma (SRG). Optimized for performance over the 2-11-keV band, ART complements the softer response of the SRG prime instrument-the German eROSITA x-ray telescope system. The anticipated number of ART detections is 50,000-with 1,000 heavily-obscured (N(sub H)> 3x10(exp 23)/sq cm) AGN-in the SRG 4-year all-sky survey, plus a comparable number in deeper wide-field (500 deg(sup 2) total) surveys. ART's surveys will provide a minimally-biased, nearly-complete census of the local Universe in the medium-energy x-ray band (including Fe-K lines), at CCD spectral resolution. During long (approx.100-ks) pointed observations, ART can obtain statistically significant spectral data up to about 15 keY for bright sources and medium-energy x-ray continuum and Fe-K-line spectra of AGN detected with the contemporaneous NuSTAR hard-x-ray mission.

  10. ART: Surveying the Local Universe at 2-11 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, B. D.; Adams, M. L.; Areviev, V.; Brandt, W. N.; Buntov, M.; Elsner, R. F.; Grigorovich, S.; Gubarev, M. V.; Hasinger, G.; Lapshov, I.; Litvin, D.; Meidinger, N.; Pavlinsky, M.; Predehl, P.; Revnivtsev, M.; Romaine, S. E.; Sazonov, S.; Semena, N.; Swartz, D. A.; Tkachenko, A.; Urry, C. M.; Vikhlinin, A.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    2008-03-01

    The Astronomical Röntgen Telescope (ART) is a medium-energy x-ray telescope system proposed for the Russian-led mission Spectrum Röntgen-Gamma (SRG). Optimized for performance over the 2-11-keV band, ART complements the softer response of the SRG prime instrument - the German eROSITA x-ray telescope system. The anticipated number of ART detections is 50,000 - with about 1,000 heavily-obscured (NH > 3×1023 cm-2) active galactic nuclei (AGN) - in the SRG 4-year all-sky survey, plus a comparable number in deeper wide-field (500 deg2 total) surveys. ART's surveys will provide a minimally-biased, nearly-complete census of the local Universe in the medium-energy x-ray band (including Fe-K lines), at CCD spectral resolution. During long (�-ks) pointed observations, ART can obtain statistically significant spectral data up to about 15 keV for bright sources and medium-energy x-ray continuum and Fe-K-line spectra of AGN detected with the contemporaneous NuSTAR hard-x-ray mission.

  11. 17-4 PH and 15-5 PH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Howard T.

    1995-01-01

    17-4 PH and 15-5 PH are extremely useful and versatile precipitation-hardening stainless steels. Armco 17-4 PH is well suited for the magnetic particle inspection requirements of Aerospace Material Specification. Armco 15-5 PH and 17-4 PH are produced in billet, plate, bar, and wire. Also, 15-5 PH is able to meet the stringent mechanical properties required in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Both products are easy to heat treat and machine, making them very useful in many applications.

  12. Fiber-Optic pH Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, A. Balaji; Radhakrishnan, T. K.

    The new enhancement in the determination of pH using optical fiber system is described here. This work uses the membrane made of cellulose acetate membrane for reagent immobilization and congo red (pKa 3.7) and neutral red (pKa 7.2) as pH indicators. An effective covalent chemical binding procedure is used to immobilize the indicatorsE The response time, reversibility, linear range, reproducibility, and long-term stability of fiber optic sensor with congo red as well as neutral red have been determined. The linear range measured for the sensor based on the congo red and neutral red is 4.2-6.3 and 4.1-9.0, respectively. The response time of sensor membrane is measured by varying the substance pH values between 11.0 and 2.0.

  13. Passive Ranging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    1981). 5. R. Courant and D. Hilbert, Methods of Mathematical Physics , Vol. I, English ed., * Interscience, New York, 1953. 32 32 APPENDIX A CALCULATION...K Courant and D. Hilbert, Methods of Mathematical Physics , Vol. I, English ed., * Interscience, New York, 1953. A-8 APPENDIX B * RANGING ACCURACY IN

  14. Eukaryotic diversity at pH extremes

    PubMed Central

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    Extremely acidic (pH < 3) and extremely alkaline (pH > 9) environments support a diversity of single-cell and to a lesser extent, multicellular eukaryotic life. This study compared alpha and beta diversity in eukaryotic communities from seven diverse aquatic environments with pH values ranging from 2 to 11 using massively-parallel pyrotag sequencing targeting the V9 hypervariable region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. A total of 946 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recovered at a 6% cut-off level (94% similarity) across the sampled environments. Hierarchical clustering of the samples segregated the communities into acidic and alkaline groups. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis followed by indicator OTU analysis (IOA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were used to determine which characteristic groups of eukaryotic taxa typify acidic or alkaline extremes and the extent to which pH explains eukaryotic community structure in these environments. Spain's Rio Tinto yielded the fewest observed OTUs while Nebraska Sandhills alkaline lakes yielded the most. Distinct OTUs, including metazoan OTUs, numerically dominated pH extreme sites. Indicator OTUs included the diatom Pinnularia and unidentified opisthokonts (Fungi and Filasterea) in the extremely acidic environments, and the ciliate Frontonia across the extremely alkaline sites. Inferred from NMDS, pH explained only a modest fraction of the variation across the datasets, indicating that other factors influence the underlying community structure in these environments. The findings from this study suggest that the ability for eukaryotes to adapt to pH extremes over a broad range of values may be rare, but further study of taxa that can broadly adapt across diverse acidic and alkaline environments, respectively present good models for understanding adaptation and should be targeted for future investigations. PMID:23335919

  15. Eukaryotic diversity at pH extremes.

    PubMed

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A

    2012-01-01

    Extremely acidic (pH < 3) and extremely alkaline (pH > 9) environments support a diversity of single-cell and to a lesser extent, multicellular eukaryotic life. This study compared alpha and beta diversity in eukaryotic communities from seven diverse aquatic environments with pH values ranging from 2 to 11 using massively-parallel pyrotag sequencing targeting the V9 hypervariable region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. A total of 946 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recovered at a 6% cut-off level (94% similarity) across the sampled environments. Hierarchical clustering of the samples segregated the communities into acidic and alkaline groups. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis followed by indicator OTU analysis (IOA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were used to determine which characteristic groups of eukaryotic taxa typify acidic or alkaline extremes and the extent to which pH explains eukaryotic community structure in these environments. Spain's Rio Tinto yielded the fewest observed OTUs while Nebraska Sandhills alkaline lakes yielded the most. Distinct OTUs, including metazoan OTUs, numerically dominated pH extreme sites. Indicator OTUs included the diatom Pinnularia and unidentified opisthokonts (Fungi and Filasterea) in the extremely acidic environments, and the ciliate Frontonia across the extremely alkaline sites. Inferred from NMDS, pH explained only a modest fraction of the variation across the datasets, indicating that other factors influence the underlying community structure in these environments. The findings from this study suggest that the ability for eukaryotes to adapt to pH extremes over a broad range of values may be rare, but further study of taxa that can broadly adapt across diverse acidic and alkaline environments, respectively present good models for understanding adaptation and should be targeted for future investigations.

  16. Hyperbranched polyamine assisted synthesis of dual-luminescent gold composite with pH responsive character

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhiqin; Du, Yi; He, Yan

    2017-03-01

    We present a facile one-pot, two-step strategy to prepare water-soluble dual-luminescent gold nanodots (AuNDs) and few-atom gold nanocluster composites simultaneously by using high molecular weight and hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (hPEI) as the protection ligand and stabilization agent. It was found that in the presence of hPEI, Au(III) ion can be reduced to a metastable Au(I) charge state in aqueous solution. Subsequently, adding 11-mercaptoundonioic acid induces parallel pathways of restricted Au(I) assembly, leading to the formation of both red-emitting hPEI stabilized AuNDs and blue-emitting hPEI-protected Au8 nanoclusters. The intensity ratio between the blue and red species shows a sensitive and reversible response to the solution pH in the range 2-11 and the dual-luminescent gold composites can act as an effective and reversible pH indicator.

  17. Voltammetric determination of the reversible potentials for [{Ru4O4(OH)2(H2O)4}(γ-SiW10O36)2]10- over the pH range of 2-12: electrolyte dependence and implications for water oxidation catalysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuping; Guo, Si-Xuan; Bond, Alan M; Zhang, Jie; Geletii, Yurii V; Hill, Craig L

    2013-10-21

    Voltammetric studies of the Ru-containing polyoxometalate water oxidation molecular catalyst [{Ru4O4(OH)2(H2O)4}(γ-SiW10O36)2](10-) ([1(γ-SiW10O36)2](10-) where 1 represents the {Ru4O4(OH)2(H2O)4} core and 1(0) stands for its initial form with all ruthenium centers in the oxidation state IV) have been carried out in aqueous media over a wide range of pH (2-12 using Britton-Robinson buffer) and ionic strength. Well-defined voltammograms in buffered media are only obtained when Frumkin double layer effects are suppressed by the presence of a sufficient concentration of additional supporting electrolyte (LiNO3, NaNO3, KNO3, Ca(NO3)2, Mg(NO3)2, MgSO4, or Na2SO4). A combination of data derived from dc cyclic, rotating disk electrode, and Fourier transformed large amplitude ac voltammetry allow the assignment of two processes related to reduction of the framework and the complete series of Ru(III/IV) and Ru(IV/V) redox processes and also provide their reversible potentials. Analysis of these data reveals that K(+) has a significantly stronger interaction with 1(1) (the number inside bracket stands for the number of electrons removed from 1(0)) than found for the other cations investigated, and hence its presence significantly alters the pH dependence of the 1(0)/1(1) reversible potential. Comparison of experimental data with theory developed in terms of equilibrium constants for process 1(0)/1(1) reveals that both H(+) and K(+) interact competitively with both 1(0) and 1(1). Importantly, reversible potential data reveal that (i) proton transfer does not necessarily need to be coupled to all electron transfer steps to achieve catalytic oxidation of water, (ii) the four-electron oxidized form, 1(4), is capable of oxidizing water under all conditions studied, and (iii) under some conditions, the three-electron oxidized form, 1(3), also exhibits considerable catalytic activity.

  18. Urine pH test

    MedlinePlus

    A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine. ... pH - urine ... meat products, or cheese can decrease your urine pH. ... to check for changes in your urine acid levels. It may be done to ... more effective when urine is acidic or non-acidic (alkaline).

  19. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of the kinetics of a first-order phase transition in tridecanoic acid CH3(CH2)11COOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marikhin, V. A.; Myasnikova, L. P.; Radovanova, E. I.; Volchek, B. Z.; Medvedeva, D. A.

    2017-02-01

    The structural changes in crystalline lamella cores of tridecanoic acid CH3(CH2)11COOH during heating in the range from the temperature T 1 = 13.5°C to T 2 > T m = 41.6°C have been investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The behavior of the bands of rocking (in the region of 720 cm-1) and bending (in the region of 1470 cm-1) vibrations of CH2 groups in tridecanoic acid methylene segments has been analyzed. It has been shown that, in the first-order phase transition region ( T s-s 36°C) within a narrow temperature range (Δ T 1 ≤ 1 K), there is a gradual transformation of the initial triclinic subcell into the hexagonal subcell. The mechanism of this transition has been considered in terms of the theory of diffuse first-order phase transitions.

  20. Quantum dot photoluminescence lifetime-based pH nanosensor.

    PubMed

    Ruedas-Rama, Maria J; Orte, Angel; Hall, Elizabeth A H; Alvarez-Pez, Jose M; Talavera, Eva M

    2011-03-14

    The first CdSe/ZnS quantum dot photoluminescence lifetime-based pH nanosensor has been developed. The average lifetime of mercaptopropionic acid-capped QD nanosensors showed a linear response in the pH range of 5.2-6.9. These nanosensors have been satisfactorily applied for pH estimation in simulated intracellular media, with high sensitivity and high selectivity toward most of the intracellular components.

  1. Range and range rate system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Olin L. (Inventor); Russell, Jim K. (Inventor); Epperly, Walter L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A video controlled solid state range finding system which requires no radar, high power laser, or sophisticated laser target is disclosed. The effective range of the system is from 1 to about 200 ft. The system includes an opto-electric camera such as a lens CCD array device. A helium neon laser produces a source beam of coherent light which is applied to a beam splitter. The beam splitter applies a reference beam to the camera and produces an outgoing beam applied to a first angularly variable reflector which directs the outgoing beam to the distant object. An incoming beam is reflected from the object to a second angularly variable reflector which reflects the incoming beam to the opto-electric camera via the beam splitter. The first reflector and the second reflector are configured so that the distance travelled by the outgoing beam from the beam splitter and the first reflector is the same as the distance travelled by the incoming beam from the second reflector to the beam splitter. The reference beam produces a reference signal in the geometric center of the camera. The incoming beam produces an object signal at the camera.

  2. Energy separations for the electronic states of PH -2,PH 2 and PH +2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, K.

    1993-03-01

    All-electron complete-active space multi-configuration self-consistent field (CASSCF) followed by second-order configuration interaction (SOCI) calculations in conjunction with large P(13s10p3d2flg/7s6p3d2flg) and H (10s5p1d/8s5p1d) basis sets are made on the electronic states of PH -2, PH 2 and PH +2. We compute the adiabatic electron affinities of PH 2 and PH. The 3B 1-X 1A 1, 1B 1-X 1A 1 energy separations of PH +2 and the 2A 1-X 2B 1 energy separation of PH 2 are computed.

  3. Molecular aspects of bacterial pH sensing and homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Krulwich, Terry A.; Sachs, George; Padan, Etana

    2011-01-01

    Diverse mechanisms for pH-sensing and cytoplasmic pH homeostasis enable most bacteria to tolerate or grow at external pH values that are outside the cytoplasmic pH range they must maintain for growth. The most extreme cases are exemplified by the extremophiles that inhabit environments whose pH is below 3 or above 11. Here we describe how recent insights into the structure and function of key molecules and their regulators reveal novel strategies of bacterial pH-homeostasis. These insights may help us better target certain pathogens and better harness the capacities of environmental bacteria. PMID:21464825

  4. Temporal and spatial variability of rainfall pH

    Treesearch

    Richard G. Semonin

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of average rainwater pH over an area of 1,800 km² containing 81 collectors was determined from 25 storm events. The areal average of the data was pH 4.9, with a range of values from 4.3 to 6.8. A single storm event was studied to determine the change of pH as a function of time. The initial rain was pH 7.1, decreasing to 4.1. An excellent...

  5. Subtask 2.11 - An Investigation into the EERC Staged Electrostatic Precipitator Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Jay Almlie; Stanley Miller

    2008-03-31

    A new concept of electrostatic precipitator (ESP), named a Staged ESP (an Energy & Environmental Research Center proprietary), was conceived in June 2004. The concept is based on a simple design that can be retrofitted on existing coal-fired power plants to provide high particulate matter (PM) collection efficiency without compromising reliability. A prototype of Staged ESP was designed, fabricated, and tested in two different combustion coal flue gases with different fly ash resistivities. Several design parameters of the Staged ESP were evaluated under various operating conditions to optimize PM collection performance. A set of particulate sampling data, including aerodynamic particle sizer, scanning mobility particle sizer, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 5 data, was collected to determine PM emissions of the Staged ESP configurations. These data were compared against data collected with a conventional ESP configuration. Compared to PM capture performance in conventional ESPs, an additional 30% to 70% reductions on total PM emissions were achieved for Staged ESPs in flue gas with medium- to high-resistivity fly ashes. Experimental data proved that the Staged ESP concept is capable of achieving higher PM collection efficiency, especially for particles in the submicrometer size range typically thought difficult to capture in an ESP.

  6. Cytoplasmic pH and human erythrocyte shape.

    PubMed Central

    Gedde, M M; Davis, D K; Huestis, W H

    1997-01-01

    Altered external pH transforms human erythrocytes from discocytes to stomatocytes (low pH) or echinocytes (high pH). The mechanism of this transformation is unknown. The preceding companion study (Gedde and Huestis) demonstrated that these shape changes are not mediated by changes in membrane potential, as has been reported. The aim of this study was to identify the physiological properties that mediate this shape change. Red cells were placed in a wide range of physiological states by manipulation of buffer pH, chloride concentration, and osmolality. Morphology and four potential predictor properties (cell pH, membrane potential, cell water, and cell chloride concentration) were assayed. Analysis of the data set by stratification and nonlinear multivariate modeling showed that change in neither cell water nor cell chloride altered the morphology of normal pH cells. In contrast, change in cell pH caused shape change in normal-range membrane potential and cell water cells. The results show that change in cytoplasmic pH is both necessary and sufficient for the shape changes of human erythrocytes equilibrated in altered pH environments. PMID:9138569

  7. An efficient and practical synthesis of [2-11C]indole via superfast nucleophilic [11C]cyanation and RANEY® Nickel catalyzed reductive cyclization

    DOE PAGES

    So Jeong Lee; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, David; ...

    2015-09-21

    We developed a rapid method for the synthesis of carbon-11 radiolabeled indole using a sub-nanomolar quantity of no-carrier-added [11C]cyanide as radio-precursor. Based upon a reported synthesis of 2-(2-nitrophenyl)acetonitrile (2), a highly reactive substrate 2-nitrobenzyl bromide (1) was evaluated for nucleophilic [11C]cyanation. Additionally, related reaction conditions were explored with the goal of obtaining of highly reactive 2-(2-nitrophenyl)-[1-11C]acetonitrile ([11C]-2) while inhibiting its rapid conversion to 2,3-bis(2-nitrophenyl)-[1-11C]propanenitrile ([11C]-3). Next, a Raney Nickel catalyzed reductive cyclization method was utilized for synthesizing the desired [2-11C]indole with hydrazinium monoformate as the active reducing agent. Extensive and iterative screening of basicity, temperature and stoichiometry was required tomore » overcome the large stoichiometry bias that favored 2-nitrobenzylbromide (1) over [11C]cyanide, which both caused further alkylation of the desired nitrile and poisoned the Raney Nickel catalyst. The result is an efficient two-step, streamlined method to reliably synthesize [2-11C]indole with an entire radiochemical yield of 21 ± 2.2% (n = 5, ranging from 18 – 24%). The radiochemical purity of the final product was > 98% and specific activity was 176 ± 24.8 GBq/μmol (n = 5, ranging from 141 – 204 GBq/μmol). The total radiosynthesis time including product purification by semi-preparative HPLC was 50 – 55 min from end of cyclotron bombardment.« less

  8. Uses of pH electrodes in nuclear chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, C; Andersson, S; Olsson, M

    2002-11-01

    The determination and definition of pH is a controversial subject in many areas in chemistry. For these reasons the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has developed recommendations for pH measurement. These recommendations are currently (winter 2001) under revision - there will be increased emphasis on traceability of uncertainties in pH measurement. Here we describe how glass electrodes designed for measurement of pH are used in nuclear chemistry. The use of pH electrodes is then related to the IUPAC recommendations. In applied chemistry, e.g. nuclear chemistry, a pH is not sought as often as a hydrogen ion concentration or a simple equilibrium point during a titration. Ionic strengths are, moreover, often above the range in which the IUPAC recommendations apply. In these instances uncertainties must be assessed individually.

  9. Proteorhodopsin Photocycle Kinetics Between pH 5 and pH 9.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Thomas; Weber, Ingrid; Glaubitz, Clemens; Wachtveitl, Josef

    2017-05-01

    The retinal protein proteorhodopsin is a homolog of the well-characterized light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin. Basic mechanisms of proton transport seem to be conserved, but there are noticeable differences in the pH ranges of proton transport. Proton transport and protonation state of a carboxylic acid side chain, the primary proton acceptor, are correlated. In case of proteorhodopsin, the pKa of the primary proton acceptor Asp-97 (pKa  ≈ 7.5) is unexpectedly close to environmental pH (pH ≈ 8). A significant fraction of proteorhodopsin is possibly inactive at natural pH, in contrast to bacteriorhodopsin. We investigated photoinduced kinetics of proteorhodopsin between pH 5 and pH 9 by time resolved UV/vis absorption spectroscopy. Kinetics is inhomogeneous within that pH region and can be considered as a superposition of two fractions. These fractions are correlated with the Asp-97 titration curve. Beside Asp-97, protonation equilibria of other groups influence kinetics, but the observations do not point toward major differences of primary proton acceptor function in proteorhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin. The pKa of proteorhodopsin and some of its variants is suspected to be an example of molecular adaptation to the physiology of the original organisms. © 2017 The American Society of Photobiology.

  10. The pH Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Describes a game that can be used to teach students about the acidity of liquids and substances around their school and enable them to understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students collect samples and measure the pH of water, soil, plants, and other natural material. (DDR)

  11. The pH Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Describes a game that can be used to teach students about the acidity of liquids and substances around their school and enable them to understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students collect samples and measure the pH of water, soil, plants, and other natural material. (DDR)

  12. Optoelectronic pH Meter: Further Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Anderson, Mejody M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2009-01-01

    A collection of documents provides further detailed information about an optoelectronic instrument that measures the pH of an aqueous cell-culture medium to within 0.1 unit in the range from 6.5 to 7.5. The instrument at an earlier stage of development was reported in Optoelectronic Instrument Monitors pH in a Culture Medium (MSC-23107), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 9 (September 2004), page 4a. To recapitulate: The instrument includes a quartz cuvette through which the medium flows as it is circulated through a bioreactor. The medium contains some phenol red, which is an organic pH-indicator dye. The cuvette sits between a light source and a photodetector. [The light source in the earlier version comprised red (625 nm) and green (558 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs); the light source in the present version comprises a single green- (560 nm)-or-red (623 nm) LED.] The red and green are repeatedly flashed in alternation. The responses of the photodiode to the green and red are processed electronically to obtain the ratio between the amounts of green and red light transmitted through the medium. The optical absorbance of the phenol red in the green light varies as a known function of pH. Hence, the pH of the medium can be calculated from the aforesaid ratio.

  13. A comparison of pH determination methods in food animal practice.

    PubMed Central

    Nappert, G; Naylor, J M

    2001-01-01

    The accuracy of a portable pH meter in measuring blood pH in neonatal calves, urine pH, and ruminal fluid pH in cows has been assessed. Thirty-five diarrheic and 15 healthy beef calves were used for blood gas analysis; 57 healthy dairy cows provided voided urine samples; and ruminal fluid samples were obtained from 10 dairy cows with ruminal fistulas on 4 separate days. Measurements of blood pH were obtained from an automated blood gas analyzer and the portable pH meter. Measurements of urine and ruminal fluid pH were determined with the benchtop pH meter, urinalysis strips, narrow range pH paper, and the portable pH meter. The portable pH meter was more accurate in measuring urine pH and ruminal fluid pH in cows than blood pH in neonatal calves. The urinalysis strips and the narrow range pH paper were found adequate to evaluate urine and ruminal pH. Images Figure 1. PMID:11360858

  14. Constant pH simulations of pH responsive polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Arjun; Smith, J. D.; Walters, Keisha B.; Rick, Steven W.

    2016-12-01

    Polyacidic polymers can change structure over a narrow range of pH in a competition between the hydrophobic effect, which favors a compact state, and electrostatic repulsion, which favors an extended state. Constant pH molecular dynamics computer simulations of poly(methacrylic acid) reveal that there are two types of structural changes, one local and one global, which make up the overall response. The local structural response depends on the tacticity of the polymer and leads to different cooperative effects for polymers with different stereochemistries, demonstrating both positive and negative cooperativities.

  15. Evanescent-wave spectroscopic fiber optic pH sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, C.; Takeda, K.; Isai, M.; Ogita, M.

    1996-02-01

    We demonstrate a new type of fiber optic pH sensor, which is the application of evanescent-wave spectroscopic technique. A methyl red (MR)-doped-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film that coated as part of cladding does function as a pH sensor probe. In this system MR doped in PMMA is used as indicator dye for pH measurement. The absorption spectrum shift in wavelength of indicator dye enables us to get the pH value. The sensor probe is immersed in water solution containing a small proportion of acetic acid over the wide pH range of 5.0 to 7.0. The chemical interaction between MR in sensor probe and hydrogen ion in the water solution causes a change in the dipole moment of MR, that is, the absorption spectrum macroscopically. The evanescent-wave spectroscopic technique provides the measurement of the absorption spectrum shift over a broad range of visible wavelength. The result of experiment was that MR absorption spectrum shifted by 40 nm every increase of 1.0 in pH. The small change in the pH value can be sensed as a large wavelength shift of pH indicator absorption spectrum.

  16. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    PubMed

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-07

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Field measurement of alkalinity and pH

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Ivan

    1964-01-01

    The behavior of electrometric pH equipment under field conditions departs from the behavior predicted from Nernst's law. The response is a linear function of pH, and hence measured pH values may be corrected to true pH if the instrument is calibrated with two reference solutions for each measurement. Alkalinity titrations may also be made in terms of true pH. Standard methods, such as colorimetric titrations, were rejected as unreliable or too cumbersome for rapid field use. The true pH of the end point of the alkalinity titration as a function of temperature, ionic strength, and total alkalinity has been calculated. Total alkalinity in potable waters is the most important factor influencing the end point pH, which varies from 5.38 (0 ? C, 5 ppm (parts per million) HC0a-) to 4.32 (300 ppm HC0a-,35 ? C), for the ranges of variables considered. With proper precautions, the pH may be determined to =i:0.02 pH and the alkalinity to =i:0.6 ppm HCO3- for many naturally occurring bodies of fresh water.

  18. Nanosensor aided photoacoustic measurement of pH in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Aniruddha; Yoon, Hyung Ki; Kopelman, Raoul; Wang, Xueding

    2013-03-01

    pH plays a critical role in many aspects of cell and tissues physiology. Lower pH is also a typical characteristic of arthritic joints and tumor tissues. These pH anomalies are also exploited in different drug delivery mechanisms. Here we present, a new method of pH sensing in vivo using spectroscopic photoacoustic measurements facilitated by pH sensitive nanosensors. The nanosensors consist of Seminaphtharhodafluor (SNARF), a pH sensitive dye, encapsulated in a specially designed polyacrylamide hydrogel matrix with a hydrophobic core. The photoacoustic intensity ratio between the excitation wavelengths of 585nm and 565nm increases in the pH range from 6.0 to 8.0 and is used to determine the pH of the local environment. These nanosensors are biodegradable, biocompatible, have a long plasma lifetime and can be targeted to any type of cells or tissues by surface modification using proper targeting moieties. The encapsulation of the dye prevents the interaction of the dye with proteins in plasma and also reduces the dye degradation. The SNARF dye in its free form loses 90% of its absorbance in presence of albumin, a protein found in abundance in plasma, and this has severely limited its adaptation to in vivo environments. In comparison, the SNARF nanosensors lose only 16% of their absorbance in the same environment. We employ these nanosensors to demonstrate the feasibility of pH sensing in vivo through photoacoustic measurements on a rat joint model.

  19. Esophageal pH monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    ... test can also be done during upper GI endoscopy by clipping a pH monitor to the lining of the esophagus. ... esophagitis : Barium swallow Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (also called upper GI endoscopy)

  20. Exercise and Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... with their PH specialist prior to starting any exercise program. Current members: first time on our new PHPN/PHCR or Support Group ... Pulmonary Hypertension Association 801 Roeder Road, Ste. 1000 Silver Spring, ...

  1. Programmable pH buffers

    DOEpatents

    Gough, Dara Van; Huber, Dale L.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Roberts, Mark E.

    2017-01-24

    A programmable pH buffer comprises a copolymer that changes pK.sub.a at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. The copolymer comprises a thermally programmable polymer that undergoes a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic phase change at the LCST and an electrolytic polymer that exhibits acid-base properties that are responsive to the phase change. The programmable pH buffer can be used to sequester CO.sub.2 into water.

  2. PhEDEx Data Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, Ricky; Wildish, Tony; Huang, Chih-Hao

    2010-04-01

    The PhEDEx Data Service provides access to information from the central PhEDEx database, as well as certificate-authenticated managerial operations such as requesting the transfer or deletion of data. The Data Service is integrated with the "SiteDB" service for fine-grained access control, providing a safe and secure environment for operations. A plug-in architecture allows server-side modules to be developed rapidly and easily by anyone familiar with the schema, and can automatically return the data in a variety of formats for use by different client technologies. Using HTTP access via the Data Service instead of direct database connections makes it possible to build monitoring web-pages with complex drill-down operations, suitable for debugging or presentation from many aspects. This will form the basis of the new PhEDEx website in the near future, as well as providing access to PhEDEx information and certificate-authenticated services for other CMS dataflow and workflow management tools such as CRAB, WMCore, DBS and the dashboard. A PhEDEx command-line client tool provides one-stop access to all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service interactively, for use in simple scripts that do not access the service directly. The client tool provides certificate-authenticated access to managerial functions, so all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service are available to it. The tool can be expanded by plug-ins which can combine or extend the client-side manipulation of data from the Data Service, providing a powerful environment for manipulating data within PhEDEx.

  3. Ratiometric Imaging of Extracellular pH in Dental Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Dige, Irene

    2016-03-09

    The pH in bacterial biofilms on teeth is of central importance for dental caries, a disease with a high worldwide prevalence. Nutrients and metabolites are not distributed evenly in dental biofilms. A complex interplay of sorption to and reaction with organic matter in the biofilm reduces the diffusion paths of solutes and creates steep gradients of reactive molecules, including organic acids, across the biofilm. Quantitative fluorescent microscopic methods, such as fluorescence life time imaging or pH ratiometry, can be employed to visualize pH in different microenvironments of dental biofilms. pH ratiometry exploits a pH-dependent shift in the fluorescent emission of pH-sensitive dyes. Calculation of the emission ratio at two different wavelengths allows determining local pH in microscopic images, irrespective of the concentration of the dye. Contrary to microelectrodes the technique allows monitoring both vertical and horizontal pH gradients in real-time without mechanically disturbing the biofilm. However, care must be taken to differentiate accurately between extra- and intracellular compartments of the biofilm. Here, the ratiometric dye, seminaphthorhodafluor-4F 5-(and-6) carboxylic acid (C-SNARF-4) is employed to monitor extracellular pH in in vivo grown dental biofilms of unknown species composition. Upon exposure to glucose the dye is up-concentrated inside all bacterial cells in the biofilms; it is thus used both as a universal bacterial stain and as a marker of extracellular pH. After confocal microscopic image acquisition, the bacterial biomass is removed from all pictures using digital image analysis software, which permits to exclusively calculate extracellular pH. pH ratiometry with the ratiometric dye is well-suited to study extracellular pH in thin biofilms of up to 75 µm thickness, but is limited to the pH range between 4.5 and 7.0.

  4. Variation in pH optima of hydrolytic enzyme activities in tropical rain forest soils.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin L

    2010-10-01

    Extracellular enzymes synthesized by soil microbes play a central role in the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in the environment. The pH optima of eight hydrolytic enzymes involved in the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur, were assessed in a series of tropical forest soils of contrasting pH values from the Republic of Panama. Assays were conducted using 4-methylumbelliferone-linked fluorogenic substrates in modified universal buffer. Optimum pH values differed markedly among enzymes and soils. Enzymes were grouped into three classes based on their pH optima: (i) enzymes with acidic pH optima that were consistent among soils (cellobiohydrolase, β-xylanase, and arylsulfatase), (ii) enzymes with acidic pH optima that varied systematically with soil pH, with the most acidic pH optima in the most acidic soils (α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase), and (iii) enzymes with an optimum pH in either the acid range or the alkaline range depending on soil pH (phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase). The optimum pH values of phosphomonoesterase were consistent among soils, being 4 to 5 for acid phosphomonoesterase and 10 to 11 for alkaline phosphomonoesterase. In contrast, the optimum pH for phosphodiesterase activity varied systematically with soil pH, with the most acidic pH optima (3.0) in the most acidic soils and the most alkaline pH optima (pH 10) in near-neutral soils. Arylsulfatase activity had a very acidic optimum pH in all soils (pH ≤3.0) irrespective of soil pH. The differences in pH optima may be linked to the origins of the enzymes and/or the degree of stabilization on solid surfaces. The results have important implications for the interpretation of hydrolytic enzyme assays using fluorogenic substrates.

  5. Variation in pH Optima of Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities in Tropical Rain Forest Soils ▿

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Benjamin L.

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular enzymes synthesized by soil microbes play a central role in the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in the environment. The pH optima of eight hydrolytic enzymes involved in the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur, were assessed in a series of tropical forest soils of contrasting pH values from the Republic of Panama. Assays were conducted using 4-methylumbelliferone-linked fluorogenic substrates in modified universal buffer. Optimum pH values differed markedly among enzymes and soils. Enzymes were grouped into three classes based on their pH optima: (i) enzymes with acidic pH optima that were consistent among soils (cellobiohydrolase, β-xylanase, and arylsulfatase), (ii) enzymes with acidic pH optima that varied systematically with soil pH, with the most acidic pH optima in the most acidic soils (α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase), and (iii) enzymes with an optimum pH in either the acid range or the alkaline range depending on soil pH (phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase). The optimum pH values of phosphomonoesterase were consistent among soils, being 4 to 5 for acid phosphomonoesterase and 10 to 11 for alkaline phosphomonoesterase. In contrast, the optimum pH for phosphodiesterase activity varied systematically with soil pH, with the most acidic pH optima (3.0) in the most acidic soils and the most alkaline pH optima (pH 10) in near-neutral soils. Arylsulfatase activity had a very acidic optimum pH in all soils (pH ≤3.0) irrespective of soil pH. The differences in pH optima may be linked to the origins of the enzymes and/or the degree of stabilization on solid surfaces. The results have important implications for the interpretation of hydrolytic enzyme assays using fluorogenic substrates. PMID:20709838

  6. IMPACT OF WATER PH ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-10-15

    The experiments conducted this past quarter have suggested that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels throughout the entire range of pH values tested (7.2 to 8.6). Highest mortality was achieved at pH values characteristic of preferred zebra mussel waterbodies, i.e., hard waters with a range of 7.8 to 8.6. In all water types tested, however, ranging from very soft to very hard, considerable mussel kill was achieved (83 to 99% mean mortality), suggesting that regardless of the pH or hardness of the treated water, significant mussel kill can be achieved upon treatment with P. fluorescens strain CL0145A. These results further support the concept that this bacterium has significant potential for use as a zebra mussel control agent in power plant pipes receiving waters with a wide range of physical and chemical characteristics.

  7. An in vitro and in silico study on the flavonoid-mediated modulation of the transport of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) through Caco-2 monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Schutte, Maaike E. . E-mail: maaike.schutte@wur.nl; Freidig, Andreas P.; Sandt, Johannes J.M. van de; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2006-12-01

    The present study describes the effect of different flavonoids on the absorption of the pro-carcinogen PhIP through Caco-2 monolayers and the development of an in silico model describing this process taking into account passive diffusion and active transport of PhIP. Various flavonoids stimulated the apical to basolateral PhIP transport. Using the in silico model for flavone, kaempferol and chrysoeriol, the apparent Ki value for inhibition of the active transport to the apical side was estimated to be below 53 {mu}M and for morin, robinetin and taxifolin between 164 and 268 {mu}M. For myricetin, luteolin, naringenin and quercetin, the apparent Ki values were determined more accurately and amounted to 37.3, 12.2, 11.7 and 5.6 {mu}M respectively. Additional experiments revealed that the apical to basolateral PhIP transport was also increased in the presence of a typical BCRP or MRP inhibitor with apparent Ki values in the same range as those of the flavonoids. This observation together with the fact that flavonoids are known to be inhibitors of MRPs and BCRP, corroborates that inhibition of these apical membrane transporters is involved in the flavonoid-mediated increased apical to basolateral PhIP transport. Based on the apparent Ki values obtained, it is concluded that the flavonols, at the levels present in the regular Western diet, are capable of stimulating the transport of PhIP through Caco-2 monolayers from the apical to the basolateral compartment. This points to flavonoid-mediated stimulation of the bioavailability of PhIP and, thus, a possible adverse effect of these supposed beneficial food ingredients.

  8. Effect of pH on structure, function, and stability of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase VA.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Danish; Shahbaaz, Mohd; Bisetty, Krishna; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2017-02-01

    Mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase VA (CAVA) catalyzes the hydration of carbon dioxide to produce proton and bicarbonate which is primarily expressed in the mitochondrial matrix of liver, and involved in numerous physiological processes including lipogenesis, insulin secretion from pancreatic cells, ureagenesis, gluconeogenesis, and neuronal transmission. To understand the effect of pH on the structure, function, and stability of CAVA, we employed spectroscopic techniques such as circular dichroism, fluorescence, and absorbance measurements in wide range of pH (from pH 2.0 to pH 11.5). CAVA showed an aggregation at acidic pH range from pH 2.0 to pH 5.0. However, it remains stable and maintains its secondary structure in the pH range, pH 7.0-pH 11.5. Furthermore, this enzyme has an appreciable activity at more than pH 7.0 (7.0 < pH ≤ 11.5) with maximum activity at pH 9.0. The maximal values of kcat and kcat/Km at pH 9.0 are 3.7 × 10(6) s(-1) and 5.5 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. However, this enzyme loses its activity in the acidic pH range. We further performed 20-ns molecular dynamics simulation of CAVA to see the dynamics at different pH values. An excellent agreement was observed between in silico and in vitro studies. This study provides an insight into the activity of CAVA in the pH range of subcellular environment.

  9. 40 CFR 432.3 - General limitation or standard for pH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General limitation or standard for pH... standard for pH. Any discharge subject to BPT, BCT, or NSPS limitations or standards in this part must remain within the pH range of 6 to 9....

  10. Fertigation with micronized sulfur rapidly reduces soil pH in highbush blueberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blueberry is adapted to low soil pH in the range of 4-5.5. At higher pH, soil is often modified with elemental sulfur (S) prior to planting. A 2-year study was conducted to determine the potential of applying micronized wettable S by fertigation through the drip system to reduce soil pH in highbush ...

  11. 40 CFR 432.3 - General limitation or standard for pH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General limitation or standard for pH... standard for pH. Any discharge subject to BPT, BCT, or NSPS limitations or standards in this part must remain within the pH range of 6 to 9....

  12. Hyperpolarised organic phosphates as NMR reporters of compartmental pH.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Pernille Rose; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-02-07

    Organic phosphate metabolites contain functional groups with pKa values near the physiologic pH range, yielding pH-dependent (13)C chemical shift changes of adjacent quaternary carbon sites. When formed in defined cellular compartments from exogenous hyperpolarised (13)C substrates, metabolites can thus yield localised pH values and correlations of organelle pH and catalytic activity.

  13. 40 CFR 432.3 - General limitation or standard for pH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General limitation or standard for pH... limitation or standard for pH. Any discharge subject to BPT, BCT, or NSPS limitations or standards in this part must remain within the pH range of 6 to 9. ...

  14. 40 CFR 439.4 - General limitation or standard for pH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General limitation or standard for pH. 439.4 Section 439.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... General limitation or standard for pH. The pH must remain within the range 6.0 to 9.0 in any discharge...

  15. 40 CFR 439.4 - General limitation or standard for pH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General limitation or standard for pH. 439.4 Section 439.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... General limitation or standard for pH. The pH must remain within the range 6.0 to 9.0 in any discharge...

  16. 40 CFR 432.3 - General limitation or standard for pH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General limitation or standard for pH... limitation or standard for pH. Any discharge subject to BPT, BCT, or NSPS limitations or standards in this part must remain within the pH range of 6 to 9. ...

  17. 40 CFR 432.3 - General limitation or standard for pH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General limitation or standard for pH... limitation or standard for pH. Any discharge subject to BPT, BCT, or NSPS limitations or standards in this part must remain within the pH range of 6 to 9. ...

  18. 40 CFR 439.4 - General limitation or standard for pH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General limitation or standard for pH. 439.4 Section 439.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... General limitation or standard for pH. The pH must remain within the range 6.0 to 9.0 in any discharge...

  19. pH Optrode Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabacco, Mary Beth; Zhou, Quan

    1995-01-01

    pH-sensitive chromophoric reagents immobilized in porous optical fibers. Optoelectronic instrumentation system measures acidity or alkalinity of aqueous nutrient solution. Includes one or more optrodes, which are optical-fiber chemical sensors, in sense, analogous to electrodes but not subject to some of spurious effects distorting readings taken by pH electrodes. Concept of optrodes also described in "Ethylene-Vapor Optrodes" (KSC-11579). pH optrode sensor head, with lead-in and lead-out optical fibers, convenient for monitoring solutions located away from supporting electronic equipment.

  20. Modeling pH variation in reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Nir, Oded; Bishop, Noga Fridman; Lahav, Ori; Freger, Viatcheslav

    2015-12-15

    The transport of hydronium and hydroxide ions through reverse osmosis membranes constitutes a unique case of ionic species characterized by uncommonly high permeabilities. Combined with electromigration, this leads to complex behavior of permeate pH, e.g., negative rejection, as often observed for monovalent ions in nanofiltration of salt mixtures. In this work we employed a rigorous phenomenological approach combined with chemical equilibrium to describe the trans-membrane transport of hydronium and hydroxide ions along with salt transport and calculate the resulting permeate pH. Starting from the Nernst-Planck equation, a full non-linear transport equation was derived, for which an approximate solution was proposed based on the analytical solution previously developed for trace ions in a dominant salt. Using the developed approximate equation, transport coefficients were deduced from experimental results obtained using a spiral wound reverse osmosis module operated under varying permeate flux (2-11 μm/s), NaCl feed concentrations (0.04-0.18 M) and feed pH values (5.5-9.0). The approximate equation agreed well with the experimental results, corroborating the finding that diffusion and electromigration, rather than a priori neglected convection, were the major contributors to the transport of hydronium and hydroxide. The approach presented here has the potential to improve the predictive capacity of reverse osmosis transport models for acid-base species, thereby improving process design/control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. INFLUENCE OF PH ON RECOVERY OF MYCOPLASMA FROM THE HUMAN OROPHARYNX.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    methylene blue . Positive cultures in the first group were as follows: 78% at pH 5.0, 94% at pH 6.0, 88% at pH 7.0, and 78% at pH 8.0. Highest incidence of M. pharyngis occurred at pH 7.0 and of M. salivarium at pH 5.0 and 6.0. The one M. hominis type 1 isolate grew evenly over the entire range of pH tested. In the second group, a pH of 7.0 and 8.0 was optimal for the recovery of M. pneumoniae. It was concluded that, excepting M. pneumoniae, the human oral mycoplasmas are more frequently isolated on PPLO agar of pH 6.0 and 7.0.

  2. 40 CFR 420.07 - Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for pH. 420.07 Section 420.07 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 420.07 Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH. (a) The pH level in process wastewaters subject to a subpart within this part shall be within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) The pH level shall...

  3. Influence of pH Regulation Mode in Glucose Fermentation on Product Selection and Process Stability.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Zaki, Zuhaida; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan R; Lu, Yang; Hoelzle, Robert; Pratt, Steven; Slater, Fran R; Batstone, Damien J

    2016-01-04

    Mixed culture anaerobic fermentation generates a wide range of products from simple sugars, and is potentially an effective process for producing renewable commodity chemicals. However it is difficult to predict product spectrum, and to control the process. One of the key control handles is pH, but the response is commonly dependent on culture history. In this work, we assess the impact of pH regulation mode on the product spectrum. Two regulation modes were applied: in the first, pH was adjusted from 4.5 to 8.5 in progressive steps of 0.5 and in the second, covered the same pH range, but the pH was reset to 5.5 before each change. Acetate, butyrate, and ethanol were produced throughout all pH ranges, but there was a shift from butyrate at pH < 6.5 to ethanol at pH > 6.5, as well as a strong and consistent shift from hydrogen to formate as pH increased. Microbial analysis indicated that progressive pH resulted in dominance by Klebsiella, while reset pH resulted in a bias towards Clostridium spp., particularly at low pH, with higher variance in community between different pH levels. Reset pH was more responsive to changes in pH, and analysis of Gibbs free energy indicated that the reset pH experiments operated closer to thermodynamic equilibrium, particularly with respect to the formate/hydrogen balance. This may indicate that periodically resetting pH conforms better to thermodynamic expectations.

  4. Influence of pH Regulation Mode in Glucose Fermentation on Product Selection and Process Stability

    PubMed Central

    Mohd-Zaki, Zuhaida; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan R.; Lu, Yang; Hoelzle, Robert; Pratt, Steven; Slater, Fran R.; Batstone, Damien J.

    2016-01-01

    Mixed culture anaerobic fermentation generates a wide range of products from simple sugars, and is potentially an effective process for producing renewable commodity chemicals. However it is difficult to predict product spectrum, and to control the process. One of the key control handles is pH, but the response is commonly dependent on culture history. In this work, we assess the impact of pH regulation mode on the product spectrum. Two regulation modes were applied: in the first, pH was adjusted from 4.5 to 8.5 in progressive steps of 0.5 and in the second, covered the same pH range, but the pH was reset to 5.5 before each change. Acetate, butyrate, and ethanol were produced throughout all pH ranges, but there was a shift from butyrate at pH < 6.5 to ethanol at pH > 6.5, as well as a strong and consistent shift from hydrogen to formate as pH increased. Microbial analysis indicated that progressive pH resulted in dominance by Klebsiella, while reset pH resulted in a bias towards Clostridium spp., particularly at low pH, with higher variance in community between different pH levels. Reset pH was more responsive to changes in pH, and analysis of Gibbs free energy indicated that the reset pH experiments operated closer to thermodynamic equilibrium, particularly with respect to the formate/hydrogen balance. This may indicate that periodically resetting pH conforms better to thermodynamic expectations. PMID:27681895

  5. Making pH Tangible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Elizabeth; Moss, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise in which students test the pH of different substances, study the effect of a buffer on acidic solutions by comparing the behavior of buffered and unbuffered solutions upon the addition of acid, and compare common over-the-counter antacid remedies. (MKR)

  6. Intragastric pH Monitoring,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    disposable sensor.. hnt Care 13. Peterson WL. GI bleeding. In: Sleisenger MH, Fordtran IS, Med 1988;14:232-5. ,. eds. Gastrointestinal disease: pathophysiology ... diagnosis and 27. Fimmel CL, Etienne A, Cilluffo T, et al. Long-term ambu- management, Vol I. 4th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, latory gastric pH

  7. Making pH Tangible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Elizabeth; Moss, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise in which students test the pH of different substances, study the effect of a buffer on acidic solutions by comparing the behavior of buffered and unbuffered solutions upon the addition of acid, and compare common over-the-counter antacid remedies. (MKR)

  8. Optical fibre PH sensor based on immobilized indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Defu; Cao, Qiang; Han, JingHong; Cai, Jine; Li, YaTing; Zhu, ZeMin; Fan, Jie; Gao, Ning

    1991-08-01

    An optical fiber pH sensor which has the immobilized pH sensitive indicator dye reagents on the tip of the optical fiber has been studied. The probe is made by covalently immobilizing the phenol red, bromine phenol blue, or bromothymol blue on the polyacrylamide microsphere fixed by polyterafluoroethylene (PTFE) film. A gap between the dye and optical fiber was used to make the diffusion of the hydrogen ions easier. The parameters of the optical fiber pH sensor have been given completely. The ranges of measurement are 3.0 - 5.0 pH, 7.0 - 8.5 pH, and 8.0 - 10.0 pH for bromine phenol blue, phenol red, and bromothymol blue, respectively. The sensitivity is 66.6 mV/pH. The probe has a precision of better than 0.55 pH. The linear correlation coefficient is 0.999. The response time is 1 - 2 min. The hysteresis is 0.52%. The repeatability is 0.013 mV, while the stability is 0.015 pH/h.

  9. Effect of pH on Human Mycoplasma Strains

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Maurice C.; Lunceford, Carl D.

    1965-01-01

    Shepard, Maurice C. (U.S. Naval Medical Field Research Laboratory, Camp Lejeune, N.C.), and Carl D. Lunceford. Effect of pH on human Mycoplasma strains. J. Bacteriol. 89:265–270. 1965.—The optimal reaction of culture media for the cultivation of T-strain Mycoplasma of human origin was investigated. By use of a recently modified tryptic digest medium, the optimal reaction in either agar or fluid medium was found to be pH 6.0. In contrast, human classic (large-colony) Mycoplasma could be cultivated in agar or fluid medium over a rather broad pH range, and the influence of the reaction of the medium appeared to be primarily species-dependent. M. salivarium, for example, grew best in agar from pH 5.5 through 6.5. M. pneumoniae (Easton's agent) yielded largest colony numbers in agar and highest titers in broth at pH 8.0. In the case of T-strain Mycoplasma, both maximal colony numbers in agar and highest titers in fluid media were achieved at a reaction of pH 6.0. In addition, largest colony size of T-strain Mycoplasma was also achieved in agar at pH 6.0, and averaged 50 to 100% larger than that obtained by cultivation at pH 8.0 with the same medium. Although T-strains will develop in agar media over a pH range of from 5.0 through 10.0, the extremely small colony size and poor staining properties resulting from growth in an alkaline medium make their recognition in agar cultures difficult. Aerobic cultivation of T-strains was first achieved in agar adjusted to pH 5.5 to 6.0. In fluid medium, multiplication of T-strains occurred only within the limits of pH 5.0 through 8.0, with highest titers being reached at pH 6.0. Greater attention to the reaction of complete Mycoplasma media is stressed. PMID:14255688

  10. The Methods Behind PH WINS

    PubMed Central

    Leider, Jonathon P.; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Pineau, Vicki; Liu, Lin; Harper, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) has yielded the first-ever nationally representative sample of state health agency central office employees. The survey represents a step forward in rigorous, systematic data collection to inform the public health workforce development agenda in the United States. PH WINS is a Web-based survey and was developed with guidance from a panel of public health workforce experts including practitioners and researchers. It draws heavily from existing and validated items and focuses on 4 main areas: workforce perceptions about training needs, workplace environment and job satisfaction, perceptions about national trends, and demographics. This article outlines the conceptualization, development, and implementation of PH WINS, as well as considerations and limitations. It also describes the creation of 2 new data sets that will be available in public use for public health officials and researchers—a nationally representative data set for permanently employed state health agency central office employees comprising over 10 000 responses, and a pilot data set with approximately 12 000 local and regional health department staff responses. PMID:26422490

  11. Comparing Metal Leaching and Toxicity from High pH, Low pH, and High Ammonia Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect

    Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Fagan, Lisa Anne; Drake, Meghan M; Ruther, Rose Emily; Fisher, L. Suzanne; Amonette, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Previous work with both class F and class C fly ash indicated minimal leaching from most fly ashes tested. However, the addition of NOx removal equipment might result in higher levels of ammonia in the fly ash. We have recently been testing fly ash with a wide range of pH (3.7-12.4) originating from systems with NOx removal equipment. Leaching experiments were done using dilute CaCl2 solutions in batch and columns and a batch nitric acid method. All methods indicated that the leaching of heavy metals was different in the highest ammonia sample tested and the high pH sample. However, toxicity testing with the Microtox system has indicated little potential toxicity in leachates except for the fly ash at the highest pH (12.4). When the leachate from the high pH fly ash was neutralized, toxicity was eliminated.

  12. Comparing metal leaching and toxicity from high pH, low pH, and high ammonia fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Palumbo, Anthony V.; Tarver, Jana R.; Fagan, Lisa A.; McNeilly, Meghan S.; Ruther, Rose; Fisher, L. S.; Amonette, James E.

    2007-07-01

    Previous work with both class F and class C fly ash indicated minimal leaching from most fly ashes tested. However, the addition of NOx removal equipment might result in higher levels of ammonia in the fly ash. We have recently been testing fly ash with a wide range of pH (3.7–12.4) originating from systems with NOx removal equipment. Leaching experiments were done using dilute CaCl2 solutions in batch and columns and a batch nitric acid method. All methods indicated that the leaching of heavy metals was different in the highest ammonia sample tested and the high pH sample. However, toxicity testing with the Microtox* system has indicated little potential toxicity in leachates except for the fly ash at the highest pH (12.4). When the leachate from the high pH fly ash was neutralized, toxicity was eliminated.

  13. Determination of pH in Regions of the Midguts of Acaridid Mites

    PubMed Central

    Erban, Tomas; Hubert, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The pH of the guts of mites strongly affects their digestive processes. This study was carried out to determine the pH in the guts of 12 species of stored product and house dust mites. Eighteen pH indicators were chosen and offered to the mites in the feeding biotest. Based on the color changes of the indicators, the gut contents of acaridid mites were determined to be within a pH range of 4 to neutral. The gut contents showed a gradient in pH from the anterior to the posterior part. The anterior midgut (ventriculus and caeca) of most species had a pH ranging from 4.5 to 5, or slightly more alkaline for most of the species, while the middle midgut (intercolon/colon) had a pH of 5 to 6. Finally, the pH of the posterior midgut (postcolon) was between 5.5 and 7. Except for Dermatophagoides spp., no remarkable differences in the pH of the gut were observed among the tested species. Dermatophagoides spp. had a more acidic anterior midgut (a pH of 4 to 5) and colon (a pH of 5) with postcolon (a pH of below 6). The results characterizing in vivo conditions in the mite gut offer useful information to study the activity of mite digestive enzymes including their inhibitors and gut microflora. PMID:20572792

  14. Quantified pH imaging with hyperpolarized (13) C-bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Scholz, David Johannes; Janich, Martin A; Köllisch, Ulrich; Schulte, Rolf F; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan H; Frank, Annette; Haase, Axel; Schwaiger, Markus; Menzel, Marion I

    2015-06-01

    Because pH plays a crucial role in several diseases, it is desirable to measure pH in vivo noninvasively and in a spatially localized manner. Spatial maps of pH were quantified in vitro, with a focus on method-based errors, and applied in vivo. In vitro and in vivo (13) C mapping were performed for various flip angles for bicarbonate (BiC) and CO2 with spectral-spatial excitation and spiral readout in healthy Lewis rats in five slices. Acute subcutaneous sterile inflammation was induced with Concanavalin A in the right leg of Buffalo rats. pH and proton images were measured 2 h after induction. After optimizing the signal to noise ratio of the hyperpolarized (13) C-bicarbonate, error estimation of the spectral-spatial excited spectrum reveals that the method covers the biologically relevant pH range of 6 to 8 with low pH error (< 0.2). Quantification of pH maps shows negligible impact of the residual bicarbonate signal. pH maps reflect the induction of acute metabolic alkalosis. Inflamed, infected regions exhibit lower pH. Hyperpolarized (13) C-bicarbonate pH mapping was shown to be sensitive in the biologically relevant pH range. The mapping of pH was applied to healthy in vivo organs and interpreted within inflammation and acute metabolic alkalosis models. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Intracellular pH homeostasis in Leishmania donovani amastigotes and promastigotes

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, T.A.; Baatz, J.E.; Kreishman, G.P.; Mukkada, A.J. )

    1988-10-01

    Intracellular pH and pH gradients of Leishmania donovani amastigotes and promastigotes were determined over a broad range of extracellular pH values. Intracellular pH was determined by {sup 31}P NMR and by equilibrium distribution studies with 5,5-dimethyloxazolidine-2,4-dione or methylamine. Promastigotes maintain intracellular pH values close to neutral between extracellular pH values of 5.0 and 7.4. Amastigote intracellular pH is maintained close to neutral at external pH values as low as 4.0. Both life stages maintain a positive pH gradient to an extracellular pH of 7.4, which is important for active transport of substrates. Treatment with ionophores, such as nigericin and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and the ATPase inhibitor dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, reduced pH gradients in both stages. Maintenance of intracellular pH in the physiologic range is especially relevant for the survival of the amastigote in its acidic in vivo environment.

  16. Determination of pH in regions of the midguts of acaridid mites.

    PubMed

    Erban, Tomas; Hubert, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The pH of the guts of mites strongly affects their digestive processes. This study was carried out to determine the pH in the guts of 12 species of stored product and house dust mites. Eighteen pH indicators were chosen and offered to the mites in the feeding biotest. Based on the color changes of the indicators, the gut contents of acaridid mites were determined to be within a pH range of 4 to neutral. The gut contents showed a gradient in pH from the anterior to the posterior part. The anterior midgut (ventriculus and caeca) of most species had a pH ranging from 4.5 to 5, or slightly more alkaline for most of the species, while the middle midgut (intercolon/colon) had a pH of 5 to 6. Finally, the pH of the posterior midgut (postcolon) was between 5.5 and 7. Except for Dermatophagoides spp., no remarkable differences in the pH of the gut were observed among the tested species. Dermatophagoides spp. had a more acidic anterior midgut (a pH of 4 to 5) and colon (a pH of 5) with postcolon (a pH of below 6). The results characterizing in vivo conditions in the mite gut offer useful information to study the activity of mite digestive enzymes including their inhibitors and gut microflora.

  17. Evaluation of pH of Bathing Soaps and Shampoos for Skin and Hair Care

    PubMed Central

    Tarun, Jose; Susan, Jose; Suria, Jacob; Susan, Veronica John; Criton, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Normal healthy skin has potential of hydrogen (pH) range of 5.4-5.9 and a normal bacterial flora. Use of soap with high pH causes an increase in skin pH, which in turn causes an increase in dehydrative effect, irritability and alteration in bacterial flora. The majority of soaps and shampoos available in the market do not disclose their pH. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the pH of different brands of bathing soaps and shampoos available in the market. Materials and Methods: The samples of soaps and shampoos were collected from shops in the locality. The samples of different brands are coded before the analysis of the pH. Solution of each sample was made and pH was measured using pH meter. Results: Majority of the soaps have a pH within the range of 9-10. Majority of the shampoos have a pH within the range of 6-7. Conclusions: The soaps and shampoos commonly used by the population at large have a pH outside the range of normal skin and hair pH values. Therefore, it is hoped that before recommending soap to patient especially those who have sensitive and acne prone skin, due consideration is given to the pH factor and also that manufacturers will give a thought to pH of soaps and shampoos manufactured by them, so that their products will be more skin and hair friendly. PMID:25284846

  18. Rupatadine is effective in the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria in children aged 2-11 years.

    PubMed

    Potter, Paul; Mitha, Essack; Barkai, László; Mezei, Györgyi; Santamaría, Eva; Izquierdo, Iñaki; Maurer, Marcus

    2016-02-01

    Recommendations in current guidelines for the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) in infants and children are mostly based on extrapolation of data obtained in adults. This study reports the efficacy and safety of rupatadine, a modern H1 and PAF antagonist recently authorized in Europe for children with allergic rhinitis and CSU. A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, multicentre, placebo-controlled compared study to desloratadine was carried out in children aged 2-11 years with CSU, with or without angio-oedema. Patients received either rupatadine (1 mg/ml), or desloratadine (0.5 mg/ml) or placebo once daily over 6 weeks. A modified 7-day cumulative Urticaria Activity Score (UAS7) was employed as the primary end-point. The absolute change of UAS7 at 42 days showed statistically significant differences between active treatments vs. placebo (-5.5 ± 7.5 placebo, -11.8 ± 8.7 rupatadine and -10.6 ± 9.6 desloratadine; p < 0.001) and without differences between antihistamines compounds. There was a 55.8% decrease for rupatadine followed by desloratadine (-48.4%) and placebo (-30.3%). Rupatadine but not desloratadine was statistically superior to placebo in reduction of pruritus (-57%). Active treatments also showed a statistically better improvement in children's quality of life compared to placebo. Adverse events were uncommon and non-serious in both active groups. Rupatadine is effective and well tolerated in the relief of urticaria symptoms, improving quality of life over 6 weeks in children with CSU. This is the first study using a modified UAS to assess severity and efficacy outcome in CSU in children. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The fluorescence properties of the phenylated fullerenes C 70Ph 4, C 70Ph 6, C 70Ph 8, and C 70Ph 10 in room temperature solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwell, Martin; Gustavsson, Thomas; Marguet, Sylvie; Vaissière, Benoı̂t de La; Wachter, Norbert K.; Birkett, Paul R.; Mialocq, Jean-Claude; Leach, Sydney

    2001-12-01

    The emission and excitation spectra of four phenylated [70] fullerenes, C 70Ph 4, C 70Ph 6, C 70Ph 8, and C 70Ph 10 in cyclohexane and toluene solutions have been measured. The fluorescence spectra and related excited state properties are found to depend strongly on the number of attached phenyl groups, but with no systematic trends. Quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes were measured for C 70Ph 6, C 70Ph 8, and C 70Ph 10, allowing the determination of S1 → S0 radiative transition rates kR. It is found that kR for C 70Ph 10 is about six times larger than for the other compounds. This is consistent with measured absorbtivities for these compounds. The particular character of C 70Ph 10 is also manifested by its higher intersystem crossing rate kISC.

  20. A novel pH optical sensor using methyl orange based on triacetylcellulose membranes as support.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mohammad; Heydari, Rouhollah; Alimoradi, Mohammad

    2014-07-15

    A novel pH optical sensor based on triacetylcellulose membrane as solid support was developed by using immobilization of methyl orange indicator. The prepared optical sensor was fixed into a flow cell for on-line pH monitoring. Variables affecting sensor performance, such as pH of dye bonding to triacetylcellulose membrane and dye concentration have been fully evaluated and optimized. The calibration curve showed good behavior and precision (RSD<0.4%) in the pH range of 4.0-12.0. No significant variation was observed on sensor response with increasing the ionic strength in the range of 0.0-0.5M of sodium chloride. Determination of pH by using the proposed optical sensor is on-line, quick, inexpensive, selective and sensitive in the pH range of 4.0-12.0.

  1. The Influence of pH on Prokaryotic Cell Size and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararajan, D.; Gutierrez, F.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    The pH of a habitat is essential to an organism's growth and success in its environment. Although most organisms maintain a neutral internal pH, their environmental pH can vary greatly. However, little research has been done concerning an organism's environmental pH across a wide range of taxa. We studied pH tolerance in prokaryotes and its relationship with biovolume, taxonomic classification, and ideal temperature. We had three hypotheses: pH and temperature are not correlated; pH tolerance is similar within taxonomic groups; and extremophiles have small cell sizes. To test these hypotheses, we used pH, size, and taxonomic data from The Prokaryotes. We found that the mean optimum external pH was neutral for prokaryotes as a whole and when divided by domain, phylum, and class. Using ANOVA to test for pH within and among group variances, we found that variation of pH in domains, phyla, classes, and families was greater than between them. pH and size did not show much of a correlation, except that the largest and smallest sized prokaryotes had nearly neutral pH. This seems significant because extremophiles need to divert more of their energy from growth to maintain a neutral internal pH. Acidophiles showed a larger range of optimum pH values than alkaliphiles. A similar result was seen with the minimum and maximum pH values of acidophiles and alkaliphiles. While acidophiles were spread out and had some alkaline maximum values, alkaliphiles had smaller ranges, and unlike some acidophiles that had pH minimums close to zero, alkaliphile pH maximums did not go beyond a pH of 12. No statistically significant differences were found between sizes of acidophiles and alkaliphiles. However, optimum temperatures of acidophiles and alkaliphiles did have a statistically significant difference. pH and temperature had a negative correlation. Therefore, pH seems to have a correlation with cell size, temperature, and taxonomy to some extent.

  2. Safety and immunogenicity of a tetravalent dengue vaccine in healthy children aged 2-11 years in Malaysia: a randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase III study.

    PubMed

    Hss, Amar-Singh; Koh, Mia-Tuang; Tan, Kah Kee; Chan, Lee Gaik; Zhou, Lynn; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Crevat, Denis; Hutagalung, Yanee

    2013-12-02

    Dengue disease is a major public health problem across the Asia-Pacific region for which there is no licensed vaccine or treatment. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of Phase III lots of a candidate vaccine (CYD-TDV) in children in Malaysia. In this observer-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase III study, children aged 2-11 years were randomized (4:1) to receive CYD-TDV or placebo at 0, 6 and 12 months. Primary endpoints included assessment of reactogenicity following each dose, adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs) reported throughout the study, and immunogenicity expressed as geometric mean titres (GMTs) and distribution of dengue virus (DENV) neutralizing antibody titres. 250 participants enrolled in the study (CYD-TDV: n=199; placebo: n=51). There was a trend for reactogenicity to be higher with CYD-TDV than with placebo post-dose 1 (75.4% versus 68.6%) and post-dose 2 (71.6% versus 62.0%) and slightly lower post-dose 3 (57.9% versus 64.0%). Unsolicited AEs declined in frequency with each subsequent dose and were similar overall between groups (CYD-TDV: 53.8%; placebo: 49.0%). Most AEs were of Grade 1 intensity and were transient. SAEs were reported by 5.5% and 11.8% of participants in the CYD-TDV and placebo groups, respectively. No deaths were reported. Baseline seropositivity against each of the four DENV serotypes was similar between groups, ranging from 24.0% (DENV-4) to 36.7% (DENV-3). In the CYD-TDV group, GMTs increased post-dose 2 for all serotypes compared with baseline, ranging from 4.8 (DENV-1) to 8.1-fold (DENV-3). GMTs further increased post-dose 3 for DENV-1 and DENV-2. Compared with baseline, individual titre increases ranged from 6.1-fold (DENV-1) to 7.96-fold (DENV-3). This study demonstrated a satisfactory safety profile and a balanced humoral immune response against all four DENV serotypes for CYD-TDV administered via a three-dose regimen to children in Malaysia. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  3. Characterisation and deployment of an immobilised pH sensor spot towards surface ocean pH measurements.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Jennifer S; Achterberg, Eric P; Rérolle, Victoire M C; Abi Kaed Bey, Samer; Floquet, Cedric F A; Mowlem, Matthew C

    2015-10-15

    The oceans are a major sink for anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide, and the uptake causes changes to the marine carbonate system and has wide ranging effects on flora and fauna. It is crucial to develop analytical systems that allow us to follow the increase in oceanic pCO2 and corresponding reduction in pH. Miniaturised sensor systems using immobilised fluorescence indicator spots are attractive for this purpose because of their simple design and low power requirements. The technology is increasingly used for oceanic dissolved oxygen measurements. We present a detailed method on the use of immobilised fluorescence indicator spots to determine pH in ocean waters across the pH range 7.6-8.2. We characterised temperature (-0.046 pH/°C from 5 to 25 °C) and salinity dependences (-0.01 pH/psu over 5-35), and performed a preliminary investigation into the influence of chlorophyll on the pH measurement. The apparent pKa of the sensor spots was 6.93 at 20 °C. A drift of 0.00014 R (ca. 0.0004 pH, at 25 °C, salinity 35) was observed over a 3 day period in a laboratory based drift experiment. We achieved a precision of 0.0074 pH units, and observed a drift of 0.06 pH units during a test deployment of 5 week duration in the Southern Ocean as an underway surface ocean sensor, which was corrected for using certified reference materials. The temperature and salinity dependences were accounted for with the algorithm, R=0.00034-0.17·pH+0.15·S(2)+0.0067·T-0.0084·S·1.075. This study provides a first step towards a pH optode system suitable for autonomous deployment. The use of a short duration low power illumination (LED current 0.2 mA, 5 μs illumination time) improved the lifetime and precision of the spot. Further improvements to the pH indicator spot operations include regular application of certified reference materials for drift correction and cross-calibration against a spectrophotometric pH system. Desirable future developments should involve novel

  4. The pH of antiseptic cleansers

    PubMed Central

    Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Varothai, Supenya; Nuchkull, Piyavadee

    2014-01-01

    Background Daily bathing with antiseptic cleansers are proposed by some physicians as an adjunctive management of atopic dermatitis (AD). As atopic skin is sensitive, selection of cleansing products becomes a topic of concern. Objective Our purpose is to evaluate the pH of various antiseptic body cleansers to give an overview for recommendation to patients with AD. Methods Commonly bar and liquid cleansers consisted of antiseptic agents were measured for pH using pH meter and pH-indicator strips. For comparison, mild cleansers and general body cleansers were also measured. Results All cleansing bars had pH 9.8-11.3 except syndet bar that had neutral pH. For liquid cleansers, three cleansing agents had pH close to pH of normal skin, one of antiseptic cleansers, one of mild cleansers and another one of general cleansers. The rest of antiseptic cleansers had pH 8.9-9.6 while mild cleansers had pH 6.9-7.5. Syndet liquid had pH 7 and general liquid cleansers had pH 9.6. Conclusion The pH of cleanser depends on composition of that cleanser. Adding antiseptic agents are not the only factor determining variation of pH. Moreover, benefit of antiseptic properties should be considered especially in cases of infected skin lesions in the selection of proper cleansers for patients with AD. PMID:24527408

  5. Near-infrared noninvasive spectroscopic determination of pH

    DOEpatents

    Alam, Mary K.; Robinson, Mark R.

    1998-08-11

    Methods and apparatus for, preferably, determining noninvasively and in vitro pH in a human. The non-invasive method includes the steps of: generating light at three or more different wavelengths in the range of 1000 nm to 2500 nm; irradiating blood containing tissue; measuring the intensities of the wavelengths emerging from the blood containing tissue to obtain a set of at least three spectral intensities v. wavelengths; and determining the unknown values of pH. The determination of pH is made by using measured intensities at wavelengths that exhibit change in absorbance due to histidine titration. Histidine absorbance changes are due to titration by hydrogen ions. The determination of the unknown pH values is performed by at least one multivariate algorithm using two or more variables and at least one calibration model. The determined pH values are within the physiological ranges observed in blood containing tissue. The apparatus includes a tissue positioning device, a source, at least one detector, electronics, a microprocessor, memory, and apparatus for indicating the determined values.

  6. Fluorescence pH probe based on microstructured polymer optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Yang, X H; Wang, L L

    2007-12-10

    A kind of optical pH sensor was demonstrated that is based on a pH-sensitive fluorescence dye-doped (eosin) cellulose acetate (CA) thin-film modified microstructured polymer optical fiber (MPOF). It was obtained by directly inhaling an eosin-CA-acetic acid mixed solution into array holes in a MPOF and then removing the solvent (acetic acid). The sensing film showed different fluorescence intensities to different pH solutions in a pH range of 2.5-4.5. Furthermore, the pH response range could be tailored through doping a surfactant, hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), in the sensing film.

  7. A ph sensor based on a flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Ding

    pH sensor is an essential component used in many chemical, food, and bio-material industries. Conventional glass electrodes have been used to construct pH sensors, however, have some disadvantages. Glass electrodes are easily affected by alkaline or HF solution, they require a high input impedance pH meter, they often exhibit a sluggish response. In some specific applications, it is also difficult to use glass electrodes for in vivo biomedical or food monitoring applications due to the difficulty of size miniaturization, planarization and polymerization based on current manufacturing technologies. In this work, we have demonstrated a novel flexible pH sensor based on low-cost sol-gel fabrication process of iridium oxide (IrOx) sensing film (IROF). A pair of flexible miniature IrOx/AgCl electrode generated the action potential from the solution by electrochemical mechanism to obtain the pH level of the reagent. The fabrication process including sol-gel, thermal oxidation, and the electro-plating process of the silver chloride (AgCl) reference electrode were reported in the work. The IrOx film was verified and characterized using electron dispersive analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The flexible pH sensor's performance and characterization have been investigated with different testing parameters such as sensitivity, response time, stability, reversibility, repeatability, selectivity and temperature dependence. The flexible IrOx pH sensors exhibited promising sensing performance with a near-Nernstian response of sensitivity which is between --51.1mV/pH and --51.7mV/pH in different pH levels ranging from 1.5 to 12 at 25°C. Two applications including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) diagnosis and food freshness wireless monitoring using our micro-flexible IrOx pH sensors were demonstrated. For the GERD diagnosing system, we embedded the micro flexible pH sensor on a 1.2cmx3.8cm of the capsule size of wireless sensor

  8. Soil bacterial and fungal communities across a pH gradient in an arable soil.

    PubMed

    Rousk, Johannes; Bååth, Erland; Brookes, Philip C; Lauber, Christian L; Lozupone, Catherine; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

    2010-10-01

    Soils collected across a long-term liming experiment (pH 4.0-8.3), in which variation in factors other than pH have been minimized, were used to investigate the direct influence of pH on the abundance and composition of the two major soil microbial taxa, fungi and bacteria. We hypothesized that bacterial communities would be more strongly influenced by pH than fungal communities. To determine the relative abundance of bacteria and fungi, we used quantitative PCR (qPCR), and to analyze the composition and diversity of the bacterial and fungal communities, we used a bar-coded pyrosequencing technique. Both the relative abundance and diversity of bacteria were positively related to pH, the latter nearly doubling between pH 4 and 8. In contrast, the relative abundance of fungi was unaffected by pH and fungal diversity was only weakly related with pH. The composition of the bacterial communities was closely defined by soil pH; there was as much variability in bacterial community composition across the 180-m distance of this liming experiment as across soils collected from a wide range of biomes in North and South America, emphasizing the dominance of pH in structuring bacterial communities. The apparent direct influence of pH on bacterial community composition is probably due to the narrow pH ranges for optimal growth of bacteria. Fungal community composition was less strongly affected by pH, which is consistent with pure culture studies, demonstrating that fungi generally exhibit wider pH ranges for optimal growth.

  9. Validation of a portable, waterproof blood pH analyser for elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Brendan; Bouyoucos, Ian A; Shipley, Oliver; Rummer, Jodie L; Mandelman, John W; Brooks, Edward J; Grubbs, R Dean

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying changes in blood chemistry in elasmobranchs can provide insights into the physiological insults caused by anthropogenic stress, and can ultimately inform conservation and management strategies. Current methods for analysing elasmobranch blood chemistry in the field are often costly and logistically challenging. We compared blood pH values measured using a portable, waterproof pH meter (Hanna Instruments HI 99161) with blood pH values measured by an i-STAT system (CG4+ cartridges), which was previously validated for teleost and elasmobranch fishes, to gauge the accuracy of the pH meter in determining whole blood pH for the Cuban dogfish (Squalus cubensis) and lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris). There was a significant linear relationship between values derived via the pH meter and the i-STAT for both species across a wide range of pH values and temperatures (Cuban dogfish: 6.8-7.1 pH 24-30°C; lemon sharks: 7.0-7.45 pH 25-31°C). The relative error in the pH meter's measurements was ~±2.7%. Using this device with appropriate correction factors and consideration of calibration temperatures can result in both a rapid and accurate assessment of whole blood pH, at least for the two elasmobranch species examined here. Additional species should be examined in the future across a wide range of temperatures to determine whether correction factors are universal.

  10. The 'pH optimum anomaly' of intracellular enzymes of Ferroplasma acidiphilum.

    PubMed

    Golyshina, Olga V; Golyshin, Peter N; Timmis, Kenneth N; Ferrer, Manuel

    2006-03-01

    A wide range of microorganisms, the so-called acidophiles, inhabit acidic environments and grow optimally at pH values between 0 and 3. The intracellular pH of these organisms is, however, close to neutrality or slightly acidic. It is to be expected that enzymatic activities dedicated to extracellular functions would be adapted to the prevailing low pH of the environment (0-3), whereas intracellular enzymes would be optimally active at the near-neutral pH of the cytoplasm (4.6-7.0). The genes of several intracellular or cell-bound enzymes, a carboxylesterase and three alpha-glucosidases, from Ferroplasma acidiphilum, a cell wall-lacking acidophilic archaeon with a growth optimum at pH 1.7, were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and their products purified and characterized. The Ferroplasmaalpha-glucosidases exhibited no sequence similarity to known glycosyl hydrolases. All enzymes functioned and were stable in vitro in the pH range 1.7-4.0, and had pH optima much lower than the mean intracellular pH of 5.6. This 'pH optimum anomaly' suggests the existence of yet-undetected cellular compartmentalization providing cytoplasmic pH patchiness and low pH environments for the enzymes we have analysed.

  11. Influence of pH on heat resistance of Bacillus licheniformis in buffer and homogenised foods.

    PubMed

    Palop, A; Raso, J; Pagán, R; Condón, S; Sala, F J

    1996-02-01

    The influence of pH of heating menstruum (McIlvaine buffer) on the heat resistance of Bacillus licheniformis was investigated and compared with the heat resistance in homogenised tomato and asparagus at pH 7 and 4 in a wide range of temperatures. Heat resistance was in all mestrua smaller at acid pH. At 99 degrees C and pH 4, heat resistance was 1/20 lower than at pH 7. However, the magnitude of this effect decreased as heat treatment temperatures were increased almost disappearing at 120 degrees C. z values increased from 6.85 at pH 7, to 10.75 at pH 4. At 99 degrees C the effect of pH on heat resistance was constant along the range of pH's tested. The increase of one pH unit increased D99 by 180%. At pH 7 and 4, heat resistance was the same in buffer as in tomato and asparagus homogenates at all temperatures tested. The diminishing influence of the acidification of some foods on the heat resistance of B. licheniformis sterilisation temperatures should be taken into account when a raise in temperature is considered to shorten the duration of heat processes.

  12. Acid loading test (pH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003615.htm Acid loading test (pH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the ...

  13. Coping with PH over the Long Term

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newly Diagnosed Parents of Pediatric Patients PH Plus Social Media Specialty Pharmacy suPer Heroes Support Group Leaders Transplant ... Newly Diagnosed Parents of Pediatric Patients PH Plus Social Media Specialty Pharmacy suPer Heroes Support Group Leaders Transplant ...

  14. The pH of commercially available rinse-off products in Sri Lanka and their effect on skin pH.

    PubMed

    Gunathilake, H M D R; Sirimanna, G M P; Schürer, N Y

    2007-12-01

    Initially linked to antimicrobial function, the acidic skin pH plays a key role in permeability barrier homeostasis and integrity of the stratum corneum. Barrier recovery is delayed when acutely perturbed skin sites are exposed to a neutral pH. To evaluate the pH of commercially available rinse-off products in Sri Lanka, and the effect of detergent rinses on skin pH and its recovery rate. The pH of 18 rinse-off products was determined using pH indicator paper and a pH meter. The effect of an alkaline (pH 9) and an acid (pH 5.5) rinse-off product on the hand skin pH was compared in 48 healthy volunteers after single and multiple applications. The skin pH of the dorsum of hands was measured in nurses before (n = 131) and during (n = 40) a duty shift that involved frequent hand washing using alkaline soap. Soaps available in Sri Lanka have a pH of 9.1-10.5. The pH of syndets and cleansers range from 5.5-7.0. Five minutes after hand washing, the mean skin pH increased by 1.7 +/- SD 0.5 pH units with alkaline soap, and by 0.8 +/- SD 0.4 pH units with acidic cleanser (p < 0.0001). Recovery of pH was slower when alkaline soap was used. The increase in skin pH was significantly greater when hands were repetitively washed with alkaline soap (p < 0.0001). The mean skin pH values of nurses before (4.9 +/- SD 0.4) and during (5.7 +/- SD 0.7) the work shift were significantly different (p < 0.0001). Alkalinisation with rinse-off products increases the skin pH with potential functional and clinical implications.

  15. Cytoplasmic pH measurement and homeostasis in bacteria and archaea.

    PubMed

    Slonczewski, Joan L; Fujisawa, Makoto; Dopson, Mark; Krulwich, Terry A

    2009-01-01

    Of all the molecular determinants for growth, the hydronium and hydroxide ions are found naturally in the widest concentration range, from acid mine drainage below pH 0 to soda lakes above pH 13. Most bacteria and archaea have mechanisms that maintain their internal, cytoplasmic pH within a narrower range than the pH outside the cell, termed "pH homeostasis." Some mechanisms of pH homeostasis are specific to particular species or groups of microorganisms while some common principles apply across the pH spectrum. The measurement of internal pH of microbes presents challenges, which are addressed by a range of techniques under varying growth conditions. This review compares and contrasts cytoplasmic pH homeostasis in acidophilic, neutralophilic, and alkaliphilic bacteria and archaea under conditions of growth, non-growth survival, and biofilms. We present diverse mechanisms of pH homeostasis including cell buffering, adaptations of membrane structure, active ion transport, and metabolic consumption of acids and bases.

  16. Media composition: pH and buffers.

    PubMed

    Swain, Jason E

    2012-01-01

    The proper pH of media is a crucial parameter for optimizing efficacy of gamete and embryo culture. Selecting the right media pH and stabilizing this pH are important variables in minimizing intracellular stress and optimizing development. Regulation of intracellular (pHi) and extracellular pH (pHe) is discussed, as well as methods to prevent harmful pHe oscillations. Furthermore, proper approaches to ensure accurate measurement of media pHe are described.

  17. [Photohemolysis sensitized by psoralen: dependence on pH].

    PubMed

    Potapenko, A Ia; Belichenko, I V; Mamedov, I S; Zhuravel', N N; Kiagova, A A; Beijersbergen van Henegouwen, G M J; De Vries, Ch

    2007-01-01

    The effect of pH on the hemolysis of erythrocytes photosensitized (366 nm, 23 Wt/m2) by psoralen has been studied. The dependence of the photohemolysis rate (V) on irradiation dose (D) was described by the equation V = Vo + kD, where Vo is the rate of hemolysis without irradiation (dark), and k is the constant. The index of the power at dose x was approximately equal to 2, and its value did not change as the pH of the erythrocyte suspension was changed. It was found that changes in pH led to a sharp change in the value of coefficient k and correspondingly V. The lowest rate of photohemolysis was observed in the pH range from 8.0 to 8.4. As pH was changed from 3.4 to 9.0 or from 8.0 to 7.4, the V value increased approximately twofold. At pH below 7.4, an abrupt increase (approximately fourfold) in V was observed, with the pK value being equal to 7.3. The psoralen molecule lacks titratable acidic and basic groups; therefore, the effects of pH can hardly be assigned to changes in the photophysical properties of the sensitizer. The increase in V in the alkaline region is prohably related to the acceleration of photooxidation of reduced glutathione, whereas the jump of V at pH of about 7.3 may be due to the titration of the product of psoralen photooxidation. The latter assumption is confirmed by the data of hign performance liquid chromatography. In these experiments, psoralen was oxidized in ethanol and mixed with the phosphate buffer at different pH values followed by a qualitative and quantitative analysis by high performance liquid chromatography of photoproducts. Several photoproducts of psoralen have been identified whose content depended on pH. The curve of titration of one photoproduct was similar in shape to the pH dependence of psoralen-photosensitized hemolysis.

  18. Yes, we need PhD immunologists!

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gail A

    2015-05-01

    Constrained research funding prompts some to advocate training fewer PhDs. However, PhD immunologists are critically needed for future health challenges. Rather than discouraging promising young scientists from pursuing doctorates, we should ensure that such training is relevant to many different career possibilities to which PhD immunologists can make valuable contributions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Continuous intra-arterial blood pH monitoring by a fiber-optic fluorosensor.

    PubMed

    Jin, Weizhong; Wu, Lingxiang; Song, Yuanlin; Jiang, Jinjun; Zhu, Xiaodan; Yang, Dawei; Bai, Chunxue

    2011-05-01

    Continuous intra-arterial blood pH monitoring is highly desirable in clinical practice. However, devices with appreciable accuracy are still not commercially available to date. In this study, we present a fiber-optic fluorosensor that can be used to continuously and accurately measure blood pH changes. The pH sensor is developed based on a proton-sensitive fluorescence dye, N-allyl-4-(4'-methyl-piperazinyl)-1,8-naphthalimide, which is bonded covalently to an optical fiber through heat polymerization. Fluorescence intensity was recorded after the sensor was exposed to different pH buffer solutions or intra-arterial blood in rabbits. Fluorescence intensity with emission peak at 510 nm decreased immediately as the blood pH increased. Linear and reproducible responses were observed when pH ranges from 6.8 to 8.0 with resolution of 0.03 pH units. The correlation coefficient between the pH sensor and the conventional blood gas analyzer was 0.93 in vivo ( n=75, p<0.001) with a bias and precision of -0.02 ± 0.08 pH units. The pH sensor was stable during measurement for at least 72 h. The pH sensor is not sensitive to fluctuations of various ions' concentrations and plasma osmosis at pathophysiological limits, suggesting that it is useful for the continuous measurement of blood pH at various clinical settings.

  20. [Concentration influence of some polymers on dermatological hydrogels pH].

    PubMed

    Musiał, Witold; Kubis, Aleksander

    2005-01-01

    For last two decades there is a lot interest in skin pH research, and pH influence on the skin barrier function. A wide range of hydrophilic polymers are applied worldwide for topical and transdermal preparation, influencing acid mantle of the skin. One of the determinants for feasibility of the polymer for dermatological application, and for proper drug release kinetics is the pH. The aim of the work was pH determination of some polyacrylic acid hydrogels and methylcellulose hydrogels in different concentrations. Carbopol 934 pH was 2.473 to 3.682 in concentrations between 0.1% and 2.0%. In the same concentrations carbopol 971 was in the range of 2.923 and 3.862, and carbopol 980 reached the values 2.638-3.763. pH of methylcellulose gels in the range 0.1%-2.0% was 5.136-7.265. Methylcellulose gels were at the higher physiological skin pH rate, and the polyacrylic gels ranged in rather acidic pH. Determined hydrogen ion concentration was a function of polymer concentration, also in the case of nonionic polymer concentration--similar to a logarythmic function. Stable polymer dispersion pH values were reached after determined time, following statistical consideration.

  1. Measurement and control of pH in hydrothermal solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wesolowski, D.J.; Palmer, D.A.; Mesmer, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen-electrode concentration cells with liquid junction are routinely used to measure the pH of aqueous solutions from 0 to 300 C. Results include the dissociation constants of common acids and bases and the hydrolysis and complexation of metal ions in aqueous electrolytes over a wide range of salinities. Recently, we have utilized these cells to examine the sorption of H{sup +} on mineral surfaces, the solubility of minerals with continuous in situ pH measurement, and the thermal decompositon rates of organic acids.

  2. All-optical nanoscale pH meter.

    PubMed

    Bishnoi, Sandra W; Rozell, Christopher J; Levin, Carly S; Gheith, Muhammed K; Johnson, Bruce R; Johnson, Don H; Halas, Naomi J

    2006-08-01

    We show that an Au nanoshell with a pH-sensitive molecular adsorbate functions as a standalone, all-optical nanoscale pH meter that monitors its local environment through the pH-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of the adsorbate molecules. Moreover, we also show how the performance of such a functional nanodevice can be assessed quantitatively. The complex spectral output is reduced to a simple device characteristic by application of a locally linear manifold approximation algorithm. The average accuracy of the nano-"meter" was found to be +/-0.10 pH units across its operating range.

  3. Haematic pH sensor for extracorporeal circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Luca; Fabbri, Paola; Rovati, Luigi; Pilati, Francesco

    2012-03-01

    The design and realization of an optical sensor for measuring haematic pH during extracorporeal circulation is presented. It consists of a chemical sensing element in contact with the blood, an interrogation optical head to externally probe the sensing element and the front-end electronics to acquire and process the information of interest. The fluorescein O-methacrylate 97% is used as the indicator. The developed system has been tested in-vitro and on an in-vivo animal model. It showed a linear behavior in the haematic range of interest with a mean error lower than 0.01 units of pH.

  4. Stress corrosion cracking properties of 15-5PH steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosa, Ferdinand

    1993-01-01

    Unexpected occurrence of failures, due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of structural components, indicate a need for improved characterization of materials and more advanced analytical procedures for reliably predicting structures performance. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to determine the stress corrosion susceptibility of 15-5PH steel over a wide range of applied strain rates in a highly corrosive environment. The selected environment for this investigation was a highly acidified sodium chloride (NaCl) aqueous solution. The selected alloy for the study was a 15-5PH steel in the H900 condition. The slow strain rate technique was selected to test the metals specimens.

  5. Combined immunodeficiency in a 3-year-old boy with 16p11.2 and 20p12.2-11.2 chromosomal duplications.

    PubMed

    Batanian, Jacqueline R; Braddock, Stephen R; Christensen, Katherine; Knutsen, Alan P

    2014-02-01

    We report for the first time on a 3-year-old boy with paternally inherited 212.85 kb-16p11.2 and 7.8 Mb-20p12.2-11.23 interstitial microduplications associated with having congenital cardiac defect, dysmorphic facial features, and combined T-, B-, and NK cell immunodeficiency. In addition the 7.8 Mb-20p12.2-11.23 microduplication is unique showing novel breakpoints among all partial trisomy/duplication 20p reported to date, narrowing down the critical region for trisomy 20p syndrome. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. pH Shifting alters solubility characteristics and thermal stability of soy protein isolate and its globulin fractions in different pH, salt concentration, and temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiang; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie

    2010-07-14

    Soy protein isolate (SPI), beta-conglycinin (7S), and glycinin (11S) were subjected to pH-shifting treatments, that is, unfolding at pH 1.5 or 12.0 followed by refolding at pH 7.0, to induce molten globule structures. Treated samples were analyzed for protein solubility, thermal stability, and aggregation in 0, 0.1, and 0.6 M NaCl solutions at pH 2.0-8.0. The pH(12) shifting resulted in drastic increases (up to 2.5-fold) in SPI solubility in the pH 6.0-7.0 range, especially at 0 M NaCl. The pH(1.5) shifting had a generally lesser effect on solubility. 11S exhibited a solubility pattern similar to that of SPI, but the solubility of 7S was unaffected by pH shifting except at 0.6 M NaCl. The pH shifting, notably at pH 12.0, produced soluble, disulfide-linked polymers from 11S and reduced (P < 0.05) its enthalpy but not its temperature of denaturation. Soy proteins structurally altered by pH shifting had a reduced sensitivity to thermal aggregation.

  7. Thermodynamic, Kinetic, Structural, and Computational Studies of the Ph3Sn-H, Ph3Sn-SnPh3, and Ph3Sn-Cr(CO)3C5Me5 Bond Dissociation Enthalpies.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaochen; Majumdar, Subhojit; Fortman, George C; Koppaka, Anjaneyulu; Serafim, Leonardo; Captain, Burjor; Temprado, Manuel; Hoff, Carl D

    2016-10-05

    The kinetics of the reaction of Ph3SnH with excess •Cr(CO)3C5Me5 = •Cr, producing HCr and Ph3Sn-Cr, was studied in toluene solution under 2-3 atm CO pressure in the temperature range of 17-43.5 °C. It was found to obey the rate equation d[Ph3Sn-Cr]/dt = k[Ph3SnH][•Cr] and exhibit a normal kinetic isotope effect (kH/kD = 1.12 ± 0.04). Variable-temperature studies yielded ΔH(‡) = 15.7 ± 1.5 kcal/mol and ΔS(‡) = -11 ± 5 cal/(mol·K) for the reaction. These data are interpreted in terms of a two-step mechanism involving a thermodynamically uphill hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) producing Ph3Sn• and HCr, followed by rapid trapping of Ph3Sn• by excess •Cr to produce Ph3Sn-Cr. Assuming an overbarrier of 2 ± 1 kcal/mol in the HAT step leads to a derived value of 76.0 ± 3.0 kcal/mol for the Ph3Sn-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) in toluene solution. The reaction enthalpy of Ph3SnH with excess •Cr was measured by reaction calorimetry in toluene solution, and a value of the Sn-Cr BDE in Ph3Sn-Cr of 50.4 ± 3.5 kcal/mol was derived. Qualitative studies of the reactions of other R3SnH compounds with •Cr are described for R = (n)Bu, (t)Bu, and Cy. The dehydrogenation reaction of 2Ph3SnH → H2 + Ph3SnSnPh3 was found to be rapid and quantitative in the presence of catalytic amounts of the complex Pd(IPr)(P(p-tolyl)3). The thermochemistry of this process was also studied in toluene solution using varying amounts of the Pd(0) catalyst. The value of ΔH = -15.8 ± 2.2 kcal/mol yields a value of the Sn-Sn BDE in Ph3SnSnPh3 of 63.8 ± 3.7 kcal/mol. Computational studies of the Sn-H, Sn-Sn, and Sn-Cr BDEs are in good agreement with experimental data and provide additional insight into factors controlling reactivity in these systems. The structures of Ph3Sn-Cr and Cy3Sn-Cr were determined by X-ray crystallography and are reported. Mechanistic aspects of oxidative addition reactions in this system are discussed.

  8. Growth of water hyacinth in municipal landfill leachate with different pH.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, A S; Biswas, N; Bewtra, J K

    2004-07-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of municipal landfill leachate pH on the growth of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). These experiments were carried out in a green house environment on leachate samples collected from Essex-Windsor Regional Landfill, Windsor, Ontario, Canada. It was found that water hyacinth plants survived in a pH range of 4.0 to 8.0. Both alkaline pH (above 8.0) and highly acidic pH (below 4.0) had inhibitory effect on the growth of plants. The pH range, for optimum growth of the water hyacinth plants was found to be 5.8 to 6.0. At optimum growth, water hyacinth had an average mean relative growth rate of 0.043 d-1. It was found that nitrogen compounds underwent different transformations depending on the pH of leachate. Plant uptake, nitrification and volatilization were among these transformations.

  9. Microbiological Survey of Adirondack Lakes with Various pH Values

    PubMed Central

    Boylen, Charles W.; Shick, Marcy O.; Roberts, Deborah A.; Singer, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Nine high-altitude oligotrophic Adirondack lakes in upstate New York having water of pH 4.3 to 7.0 were surveyed for total bacterial numbers and possible adaptation of the microbial communities to environmental pH. The number of heterotrophic bacteria from water samples recoverable on standard plate count agar were low (101 to 103 per ml) for most of the lakes. Acridine orange direct counts were approximately two orders of magnitude higher than plate counts for each lake. Sediment aerobic heterotrophs recovered on standard plate count agar ranged from 1.4 × 104 to 1.3 × 106 per g of sediment. Direct epifluorescence counts of bacteria in sediment samples ranged from 3.0 × 106 to 1.4 × 107 per g. Low density values were consistent with the oligotrophic nature of all the lakes surveyed. There were no apparent differences in numbers of bacteria originally isolated at pH 5.0 and pH 7.0 between circumneutral lakes (pH > 6.0) and acidic lakes (pH < 5.0). Approximately 1,200 isolates were recultured over a range of pH from 3.0 to 7.0. Regardless of the original isolation pH (pH 5.0 or pH 7.0), less than 10% of the isolates grew at pH < 5.0. Those originally isolated at pH 5.0 also grew at pH 6.0 and 7.0. Those originally isolated at pH 7.0 preferred pH 7.0, with 98% able to grow at pH 6.0 and 44% able to grow at pH 5.0. A chi-square contingency test clearly showed (P < 0.005) that two distinct heterotrophic populations had been originally isolated at pH 5.0 and pH 7.0, although there is undoubtedly some overlap between the two populations. PMID:16346291

  10. pH Tolerance in Freshwater Bacterioplankton: Trait Variation of the Community as Measured by Leucine Incorporation

    PubMed Central

    Kritzberg, Emma

    2015-01-01

    pH is an important factor determining bacterial community composition in soil and water. We have directly determined the community tolerance (trait variation) to pH in communities from 22 lakes and streams ranging in pH from 4 to 9 using a growth-based method not relying on distinguishing between individual populations. The pH in the water samples was altered to up to 16 pH values, covering in situ pH ± 2.5 U, and the tolerance was assessed by measuring bacterial growth (Leu incorporation) instantaneously after pH adjustment. The resulting unimodal response curves, reflecting community tolerance to pH, were well modeled with a double logistic equation (mean R2 = 0.97). The optimal pH for growth (pHopt) among the bacterial communities was closely correlated with in situ pH, with a slope (0.89 ± 0.099) close to unity. The pH interval, in which growth was ≥90% of that at pHopt, was 1.1 to 3 pH units wide (mean 2.0 pH units). Tolerance response curves of communities originating from circum-neutral pH were symmetrical, whereas in high-pH (8.9) and especially in low-pH (<5.5) waters, asymmetric tolerance curves were found. In low-pH waters, decreasing pH was more detrimental for bacterial growth than increasing pH, with a tendency for the opposite for high-pH waters. A pH tolerance index, using the ratio of growth at only two pH values (pH 4 and 8), was closely related to pHopt (R2 = 0.83), allowing for easy determination of pH tolerance during rapid changes in pH. PMID:26276108

  11. Inorganic Carbon Accumulation and Photosynthesis in a Blue-green Alga as a Function of External pH 1

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, John R.; Colman, Brian

    1981-01-01

    The blue-green alga Coccochloris peniocystis photosynthesizes optimally over the pH range of 7.0 to 10.0, but the O2-evolution rate is inhibited below pH 7.0 and ceases below pH 5.25. Measurement of the inorganic carbon pool in this alga in the light, using the silicone-fluid filtration technique demonstrated that the rate of accumulation of dissolved inorganic carbon remained relatively constant over a wide pH range. At external dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations of 0.56 to 0.89 millimolar the internal concentration after 30 seconds illumination was greater than 3.5 millimolar over the entire pH range. Intracellular pH measured in the light using [14C]5,5-dimethyloxazolidine-2,4-dione and [14C]methylamine dropped from pH 7.6 at an external pH of 7.0 to pH 6.6 at an external pH of 5.25. Above an external pH of 7.0 the intracellular pH rose gradually to pH 7.9 at an external pH 10.0. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity of cell-free algal extracts exhibited optimal activity at pH 7.5 to 7.8 but was inactive below pH 6.5. It is suggested that the inability of Coccochloris to maintain its intracellular pH when in an acidic environment restricts its photosynthetic capacity by a direct pH effect on the principal CO2 fixing enzyme. PMID:16661792

  12. Rhizosphere pH responses to simulated acid rain as measured with glass microelectrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Conkling, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a useful experimental system for studying the rhizosphere of growing roots, and to investigate the effects of bulk soil pH and foliar acid rain application on the rhizosphere pH of alfalfa, corn and soybeans. First, a study was done to compare soil pH measurements made with a standard glass pH electrode with those made using an antimony (Sb) microelectrode. Because of uncertainty with the Sb microelectrodes' response, glass pH-sensitive microelectrodes were made and tested for rhizosphere pH measurements. The influence of soil water pressure gradients in the range of {minus}10 to {minus}1500 kPa in the proximity of the pH and reference electrodes on pH measurements made with microelectrodes was studied. The effect of foliar acid rain application on the rhizosphere pH of alfalfa, corn, and soybean as a function of soil pH were studied. Alfalfa, corn, and soybean were grown into minirhizotrons containing reformed samples of both Seymour A and Bt soil horizons, and the rhizosphere pH measured. The measured in situ bulk soil pH ranged from 4.9 to 6.2 in the A horizon and from 4.0 to 5.7 in the Bt horizon. Plants received acid or non-acid foliar rain applications. Rhizosphere pH was measured using a glass pH-sensitive microelectrode. Acid rain applications caused foliar damage, but had little effect on the rhizosphere pH. The general trend was for the lateral root pH values to be slightly higher than the main root values.

  13. 40 CFR 439.4 - General limitation or standard for pH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General limitation or standard for pH. 439.4 Section 439.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... limitation or standard for pH. The pH must remain within the range 6.0 to 9.0 in any discharge subject to...

  14. Precision of a field method for determination of pH in dilute lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turk, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Replicate pH measurements in three dilute lakes made during extreme conditions indicate that pH can be measured in the field with a variance due to measurement error of 0.005 unit. Error of the field technique in measuring the pH of dilute solutions in the laboratory ranges from less than 0.01 unit in dilute strong-acid solutions to about 0.05 unit in air-saturated deionized water.

  15. 40 CFR 439.4 - General limitation or standard for pH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General limitation or standard for pH. 439.4 Section 439.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... limitation or standard for pH. The pH must remain within the range 6.0 to 9.0 in any discharge subject to BPT...

  16. Can variable pH and low oxygen moderate ocean acidification outcomes for mussel larvae?

    PubMed

    Frieder, Christina A; Gonzalez, Jennifer P; Bockmon, Emily E; Navarro, Michael O; Levin, Lisa A

    2014-03-01

    Natural variation and changing climate in coastal oceans subject meroplanktonic organisms to broad ranges of pH and oxygen ([O2 ]) levels. In controlled-laboratory experiments we explored the interactive effects of pH, [O2 ], and semidiurnal pH fluctuations on the survivorship, development, and size of early life stages of two mytilid mussels, Mytilus californianus and M. galloprovincialis. Survivorship of larvae was unaffected by low pH, low [O2 ], or semidiurnal fluctuations for both mytilid species. Low pH (<7.6) resulted in delayed transition from the trochophore to veliger stage, but this effect of low pH was absent when incorporating semidiurnal fluctuations in both species. Also at low pH, larval shells were smaller and had greater variance; this effect was absent when semidiurnal fluctuations of 0.3 units were incorporated at low pH for M. galloprovincialis but not for M. californianus. Low [O2 ] in combination with low pH had no effect on larval development and size, indicating that early life stages of mytilid mussels are largely tolerant to a broad range of [O2 ] reflective of their environment (80-260 μmol kg(-1) ). The role of pH variability should be recognized as an important feature in coastal oceans that has the capacity to modulate the effects of ocean acidification on biological responses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. 41 CFR 302-2.11 - May the 1-year time limitation for completing all aspects of a relocation be extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true May the 1-year time... and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-EMPLOYEES ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS General Rules Time Limits § 302-2.11 May the 1-year time limitation...

  18. 41 CFR 302-2.11 - May the 1-year time limitation for completing all aspects of a relocation be extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May the 1-year time... and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-EMPLOYEES ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS General Rules Time Limits § 302-2.11 May the 1-year time limitation...

  19. 41 CFR 302-2.11 - May the 2-year time limitation for completing all aspects of a relocation be extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May the 2-year time... and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-EMPLOYEES ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS General Rules Time Limits § 302-2.11 May the 2-year time limitation...

  20. 41 CFR 302-2.11 - May the 2-year time limitation for completing all aspects of a relocation be extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May the 2-year time... and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-EMPLOYEES ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS General Rules Time Limits § 302-2.11 May the 2-year time limitation...

  1. 41 CFR 302-2.11 - May the 1-year time limitation for completing all aspects of a relocation be extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May the 1-year time... and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-EMPLOYEES ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS General Rules Time Limits § 302-2.11 May the 1-year time limitation...

  2. 43 CFR 3162.2-11 - How soon after I know of the likelihood of drainage must I take protective action?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How soon after I know of the likelihood of... Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS... § 3162.2-11 How soon after I know of the likelihood of drainage must I take protective action? (a)...

  3. A novel optical probe for pH sensing in gastro-esophageal apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, F.; Ghini, G.; Giannetti, A.; Senesi, F.; Trono, C.

    2011-03-01

    Monitoring gastric pH for long periods, usually 24 h, may be essential in analyzing the physiological pattern of acidity, in obtaining information on changes in activity during peptic ulcer disease, and in assessing the effect of antisecretory drugs. Gastro-esophageal reflux, which causes a pH decrease in the esophagus content from pH 7 even down to pH 2, can determine esophagitis with possible strictures and Barrett's esophagus. One of the difficulties of the optical measurement of pH in the gastro-esophageal apparatus lies in the required extended working range from 1 to 8 pH units. The present paper deals with a novel optical pH sensor, using methyl red as optical pH indicator. Contrary to all acidbase indicators characterized by working ranges limited to 2-3 pH units, methyl red, after its covalent immobilization on controlled pore glass (CPG), is characterized by a wide working range which fits with the clinical requirements. The novel probe design here described is suitable for gastro-esophageal applications and allows the optimization of the performances of the CPG with the immobilised indicator. This leads to a very simple configuration characterized by a very fast response time.

  4. The influence of pH on the specific adhesion of P piliated Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Klinth, Jeanna E; Castelain, Mickaël; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Axner, Ove

    2012-01-01

    Adhesion to host tissues is an initiating step in a majority of bacterial infections. In the case of Gram-negative bacteria this adhesion is often mediated by a specific interaction between an adhesin, positioned at the distal end of bacterial pili, and its receptor on the surface of the host tissue. Furthermore, the rod of the pilus, and particularly its biomechanical properties, is believed to be crucial for the ability of bacteria to withstand external forces caused by, for example, (in the case of urinary tract infections) urinary rinsing flows by redistributing the force to several pili. In this work, the adhesion properties of P-piliated E. coli and their dependence of pH have been investigated in a broad pH range by both the surface plasmon resonance technique and force measuring optical tweezers. We demonstrate that P piliated bacteria have an adhesion ability throughout the entire physiologically relevant pH range (pH 4.5 - 8). We also show that pH has a higher impact on the binding rate than on the binding stability or the biomechanical properties of pili; the binding rate was found to have a maximum around pH 5 while the binding stability was found to have a broader distribution over pH and be significant over the entire physiologically relevant pH range. Force measurements on a single organelle level show that the biomechanical properties of P pili are not significantly affected by pH.

  5. Interfacial pH during mussel adhesive plaque formation

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Nadine R. Martinez; Das, Saurabh; Kaufman, Yair; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Mussel (Mytilus californianus) adhesion to marine surfaces involves an intricate and adaptive synergy of molecules and spatio-temporal processes. Although the molecules, such as mussel foot proteins (mfps), are well characterized, deposition details remain vague and speculative. Developing methods for the precise surveillance of conditions that apply during mfp deposition would aid both in understanding mussel adhesion and translating this adhesion into useful technologies. To probe the interfacial pH at which mussels buffer the local environment during mfp deposition, a lipid bilayer with tethered pH-sensitive fluorochromes was assembled on mica. The interfacial pH during foot contact with modified mica ranged from 2.2−3.3, which is well below the seawater pH of ~8. The acidic pH serves multiple functions: it limits mfp-Dopa oxidation, thereby enabling the catecholic functionalities to adsorb to surface oxides by H-bonding and metal ion coordination, and provides a solubility switch for mfps, most of which aggregate at pH ≥ 7-8. PMID:25875963

  6. Interfacial pH during mussel adhesive plaque formation.

    PubMed

    Martinez Rodriguez, Nadine R; Das, Saurabh; Kaufman, Yair; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Waite, J Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Mussel (Mytilus californianus) adhesion to marine surfaces involves an intricate and adaptive synergy of molecules and spatio-temporal processes. Although the molecules, such as mussel foot proteins (mfps), are well characterized, deposition details remain vague and speculative. Developing methods for the precise surveillance of conditions that apply during mfp deposition would aid both in understanding mussel adhesion and translating this adhesion into useful technologies. To probe the interfacial pH at which mussels buffer the local environment during mfp deposition, a lipid bilayer with tethered pH-sensitive fluorochromes was assembled on mica. The interfacial pH during foot contact with modified mica ranged from 2.2 to 3.3, which is well below the seawater pH of ~ 8. The acidic pH serves multiple functions: it limits mfp-Dopa oxidation, thereby enabling the catecholic functionalities to adsorb to surface oxides by H-bonding and metal ion coordination, and provides a solubility switch for mfps, most of which aggregate at pH ≥ 7-8.

  7. Kinetics of biological perchlorate reduction and pH effect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Lippincott, Lee; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2008-05-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the kinetics of perchlorate reduction by heterotrophic and mixed perchlorate-reducing bacteria. Substrate-utilizing and cellular maintenance models were employed to fit the experimental data for microbial perchlorate reduction. The half saturation constant, K(s), obtained in this study was below 0.1mg/L, which indicated that perchlorate-reducing bacteria are effective at utilizing low concentrations of perchlorate. The effect of pH on the kinetics of microbial perchlorate reduction was also studied. Perchlorate reduction occurred throughout the pH range from 5.0 to 9.0. Nevertheless, the rates of perchlorate removal by a unit mass of bacteria were significantly different at various pHs with a maximum rate at pH 7.0. The variation of q(max) with pH was described well with a Gaussian peak equation. This equation is expected to be applicable for practical purposes when pH effects need to be considered.

  8. Reorientations in the bacteriorhodopsin photoscycle are pH dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Harms, G S; Song, Q; Johnson, C K

    1996-01-01

    Chromophore reorientations during the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle in the purple membrane of Halobacterium salinarium have been detected by time-resolved linear dichroism measurements of the optical anisotropy over the pH range from 4 to 10 and at ionic strengths from 10 mM to 1 M. The results show that reorientations in the L and M states of bacteriorhodopsin are pH dependent, reaching their largest amplitude when the membrane is at pH 6-8. Reorientations on the millisecond time scale of unexcited spectator proteins in the native purple membrane also depend on pH, consistent with the suggestion that spectator reorientations are triggered by reorientation of the photoexcited protein. The results imply that a group with a PK(a) of 5 to 6 enables reorientations, and that the deprotonation of a site at pH values above 9 restricts reorientational motion. This suggests that reorientations in M may be correlated with proton release. PMID:9172759

  9. Effect of environmental pH on enzyme activity and growth of Bacteroides gingivalis W50.

    PubMed Central

    McDermid, A S; McKee, A S; Marsh, P D

    1988-01-01

    Since the pH of the gingival crevice increases from below neutrality in health to above pH 8 in disease, we decided to investigate the effect of environmental pH on the growth and enzyme activity of Bacteroides gingivalis W50. Cells were grown in a chemostat under hemin-excess conditions over a range of pH values; stable growth was observed only between pH 6.7 and 8.3, with the maximum yields obtained between pH 7.0 and 8.0. The enzyme profile of cells varied markedly with pH. Enzymes with a specificity for gingival connective tissue (collagenase, hyaluronidase) were produced optimally at or below neutral pH, whereas trypsinlike activity increased with the growth pH and was maximal at pH 8.0. Chymotrypsinlike activity was generally low, although its activity was highest at the extremes of growth pH, i.e., at pH 6.7 and 8.3. Inhibitor studies provided evidence that the breakdown of collagen involved the concerted action of both a collagenase and the trypsinlike enzyme. The ratio of trypsin to collagenolytic activity rose from 1:1 during growth at neutral pH and below to almost 7:1 during growth at pH 8.3. Thus B. gingivalis appears to be uniquely adapted as a periodontopathic organism in that under environmental conditions likely to prevail during the initial stages of pocket development it produces maximally those enzymes with a tissue-damaging potential. Then, as the pH of the pocket rises during the host inflammatory response, the activity of the trypsinlike enzyme increases markedly, which may enable cells to inactivate key components of the host defenses such as immunoglobulins and complement. PMID:3281900

  10. Range management visual impacts

    Treesearch

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel

    1979-01-01

    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  11. Effect of extracellular pH on growth and proton motive force of Bacteroides succinogenes, a cellulolytic ruminal bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J B

    1987-01-01

    The utilization of cellulose or cellobiose by Bacteroides succinogenes S85 was severely inhibited at pH values of less than 5.7. Since low pH inhibited the utilization of both cellobiose and cellulose, changes in cellulase activity could not explain the effect. At an extracellular pH of 6.9, the pH gradient (delta pH) across the cell membrane was only 0.07 U. As extracellular pH declined from 6.9 to 5.7, intracellular pH decreased to a smaller extent than extracellular pH and delta pH increased. Below pH 5.7, there was a linear and nearly proportional decrease in intracellular pH. B. succinogenes took up the lipophilic cation tetraphenylphosphonium ion (TPP+) in the presence of cellobiose, and uptake was sensitive to the ionophore valinomycin. As pH was decreased with phosphoric acid, the cells lost TPP+ and electrical potential, delta psi, decreased. From extracellular pH 6.9 to 5.7, the decrease in delta psi was compensated for by an increase in delta pH, and the proton motive force ranged from 152 to 158 mV. At a pH of less than 5.7, there was a large decrease in proton motive force, and this decrease corresponded to the inhibition of cellobiose utilization. PMID:2827568

  12. Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatni, M. Rameez; Yao, Junjie; Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    pH is a tightly regulated indicator of metabolic activity. In mammalian systems, imbalance of pH regulation may result from or result in serious illness. Even though the regulation system of pH is very robust, tissue pH can be altered in many diseases such as cancer, osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus. Traditional high-resolution optical imaging techniques, such as confocal microscopy, routinely image pH in cells and tissues using pH sensitive fluorescent dyes, which change their fluorescence properties with the surrounding pH. Since strong optical scattering in biological tissue blurs images at greater depths, high-resolution pH imaging is limited to penetration depths of 1mm. Here, we report photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of commercially available pH-sensitive fluorescent dye in tissue phantoms. Using both opticalresolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), and acoustic resolution photoacoustic microscopy (AR-PAM), we explored the possibility of recovering the pH values in tissue phantoms. In this paper, we demonstrate that PAM was capable of recovering pH values up to a depth of 2 mm, greater than possible with other forms of optical microscopy.

  13. Effect of initial solution pH on photo-induced reductive decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yan; Zhang, Chao-Jie; Chen, Pei; Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Wei-Xian

    2014-07-01

    The effects of initial solution pH on the decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) with hydrated electrons as reductant were investigated. The reductive decomposition of PFOA depends strongly on the solution pH. In the pH range of 5.0-10.0, the decomposition and defluorination rates of PFOA increased with the increase of the initial solution pH. The rate constant was 0.0295 min(-1) at pH 10.0, which was more than 49.0 times higher than that at pH 5.0. Higher pH also inhibits the generation of toxic intermediates during the PFOA decomposition. For example, the short-chain PFCAs reached a lower maximum concentration in shorter reaction time as pH increasing. The peak areas of accumulated fluorinated and iodinated hydrocarbons detected by GC/MS under acidic conditions were nearly 10-100 times more than those under alkaline conditions. In short, alkaline conditions were more favorable for photo-induced reduction of PFOA as high pH promoted the decomposition of PFOA and inhibited the accumulation of intermediate products. The concentration of hydrated electron, detected by laser flash photolysis, increased with the increase of the initial pH. This was the main reason why the decomposition of PFOA in the UV-KI system depended strongly on the initial pH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The pH of commonly available soaps, liquid cleansers, detergents and alcohol gels.

    PubMed

    Boonchai, Waranya; Iamtharachai, Pacharee

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogen ion concentration (pH) of a cleanser certainly has an impact on skin condition. Dermatologists always need to recommend a cleanser to patients with hand dermatitis or sensitive skin; particularly during the outbreak of swine (AH1N1 virus) influenza, frequent hand washing and alcohol gel cleansing were greatly recommended. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pH of various commonly available cleansers and alcohol gels on the market to assess patient comfort in using such products and to make good recommendations to our patients. Multiple brands of liquid cleansers, dishwashing liquids, soaps, laundry detergents, and alcohol gels commonly available on the market were assessed for pH by using a pH meter and pH-indicator strips. The pH assessment imitated real-life conditions by diluting each cleanser with tap water and then comparing the changed pH. The pH levels of liquid cleansers, dishwashing liquids, a beauty bar, and alcohol gels were acidic to neutral and compatible with normal skin pH. Most bar soaps, baby soaps, and powdered laundry detergents had a pH in the alkali range. The pH of concentrated cleansers was slightly different from that of their dissolved forms. Regarding the antiseptic property and pH of the cleansers, alcohol gels with moisturizers appeared to be the best hand cleansers to recommend to our patients.

  15. Range Reference Notebook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-15

    rifle grenade (inert), tin can lid, 15” tent peg 3 Table FRD-7. Fort Ritchie Sector 3 Representative Examples of Non-MEC Clutter Description 1/2...Appendix B—Indirect Fire Range Examples SITES ( ADI ) Adak Naval Air Facility, AK, Mitt Lake Mortar Range (FRI) Fort Ritchie...example range. B- ADI -1 Indirect-Fire Range,: Adak, AK, Mitt Lake Mortar Range Impact Area Site-Specific References – Adak NAF Foster Wheeler

  16. A Long-Range Precision Ranging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterling, Mahlon

    1961-01-01

    A technique is presented that may be used for precision real-time continuous range measuring at long ranges. The technique uses a carrier that is phase modulated by a pseudo-random binary sequence. The characteristics of the sequence that make it acquirable are discussed. The general form of a receiver capable of tracking the carrier is given and is shown to be a kind of phase-locked loop. A two-loop system capable of tracking a pseudo-random sequence and its clock is given. The combination of the receiver and the sequence tracking system form a ranging receiver. The power division necessary between the carrier and the sidebands is shown to be determined by the noise bandwidths of the two tracking systems. The bandwidths necessary for tracking space probes and Earth satellites are given and some experiments in radar-tracking Earth satellites are described. Based on these experiments, estimates are made of the useful range of such a system in tracking space probes.

  17. Catalytic gold nanoparticle driven pH specific chemical locomotion.

    PubMed

    Dey, Krishna Kanti; Panda, Biswa Ranjan; Paul, Anumita; Basu, Saurabh; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2010-08-15

    Gold nanoparticle (Au NP) catalyzed decomposition of alkaline hydrogen peroxide has been utilized in driving chemical locomotives in a liquid. Au NPs deposited on spherical micron sized polymer resin beads catalyzed the decomposition of H(2)O(2) in the pH range 9.1-10.8. The O(2) gas bubbles produced in the decomposition moved the beads upward with average velocities that depended on the pH of the solution. The measured average velocity of the bead increased with the increase in pH in the range 9.1-10.8. Above this pH, the self-decomposition of H(2)O(2) produced sufficient bubbles in the medium that made the motion haphazard and thus prevented a clear measurement of the velocity. The observed accelerated motion of the locomotive has been explained by considering the time-dependent growth of O(2) gas bubbles on the polymer, while taking into consideration desorption and other factors.

  18. Site-specific management of soil pH and nutrients in blueberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Site-specific management of soil pH and fertilizers is one of the most promising strategies in precision agriculture and is potentially applicable to many horticultural crops, including blueberry. Unlike most fruit crops, blueberry is adapted to low soil pH conditions in the range of 4-5.5 and has ...

  19. Application of Good's buffers to pH imaging using hyperpolarized (13)C MRI.

    PubMed

    Flavell, Robert R; von Morze, Cornelius; Blecha, Joseph E; Korenchan, David E; Van Criekinge, Mark; Sriram, Renuka; Gordon, Jeremy W; Chen, Hsin-Yu; Subramaniam, Sukumar; Bok, Robert A; Wang, Zhen J; Vigneron, Daniel B; Larson, Peder E; Kurhanewicz, John; Wilson, David M

    2015-09-25

    N-(2-Acetamido)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (ACES), one of Good's buffers, was applied to pH imaging using hyperpolarized (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Rapid NMR- and MRI-based pH measurements were obtained by exploiting the sensitive pH-dependence of its (13)C chemical shift within the physiologic range.

  20. Application of Good's buffers to pH imaging using hyperpolarized 13C MRI

    PubMed Central

    Flavell, Robert R; von Morze, Cornelius; Blecha, Joseph E.; Korenchan, David; Van Criekinge, Mark; Sriram, Renuka; Gordon, Jeremy; Chen, Hsin-Yu; Subramaniam, Sukumar; Bok, Robert; Wang, Zhen J.; Vigneron, Daniel; Larson, Peder; Kurhanewicz, John; Wilson, David M

    2016-01-01

    N-(2-Acetamido)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (ACES), one of Good's buffers, was applied to pH imaging using hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Rapid NMR- and MRI-based pH measurements were obtained by exploiting the sensitive pH-dependence of its 13C chemical shift within the physiologic range. PMID:26257040

  1. Chemigation with micronized sulfur rapidly reduces soil pH in northern highbush blueberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Northern highbush blueberry is adapted to low soil pH in the range of 4.5–5.5. When pH is higher, soil is usually acidified by incorporating elemental sulfur (S) prior to planting. A study was conducted to determine the potential of applying micronized S by chemigation through the drip system to red...

  2. Molecular Basis of pH and Ca2+ Regulation of Aquaporin Water Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Németh-Cahalan, Karin L.; Kalman, Katalin; Hall, James E.

    2004-01-01

    Aquaporins facilitate the diffusion of water across cell membranes. We previously showed that acid pH or low Ca2+ increase the water permeability of bovine AQP0 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. We now show that external histidines in loops A and C mediate the pH dependence. Furthermore, the position of histidines in different members of the aquaporin family can “tune” the pH sensitivity toward alkaline or acid pH ranges. In bovine AQP0, replacement of His40 in loop A by Cys, while keeping His122 in loop C, shifted the pH sensitivity from acid to alkaline. In the killifish AQP0 homologue, MIPfun, with His at position 39 in loop A, alkaline rather than acid pH increased water permeability. Moving His39 to His40 in MIPfun, to mimic bovine AQP0 loop A, shifted the pH sensitivity back to the acid range. pH regulation was also found in two other members of the aquaporin family. Alkaline pH increased the water permeability of AQP4 that contains His at position 129 in loop C. Acid and alkaline pH sensitivity was induced in AQP1 by adding histidines 48 (in loop A) and 130 (in loop C). We conclude that external histidines in loops A and C that span the outer vestibule contribute to pH sensitivity. In addition, we show that when AQP0 (bovine or killifish) and a crippled calmodulin mutant were coexpressed, Ca2+ sensitivity was lost but pH sensitivity was maintained. These results demonstrate that Ca2+ and pH modulation are separable and arise from processes on opposite sides of the membrane. PMID:15078916

  3. pH Meter probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Charles J.

    1983-01-01

    An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe.

  4. pH Meter probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hale, C.J.

    1983-11-15

    An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe. 1 fig.

  5. Improved reliability of pH measurements.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Petra; Werner, Barbara

    2002-11-01

    Measurements of pH are performed on a large scale at laboratory level, and in industry. To meet the quality-control requirements and other technical specifications there is a need for traceability in measurement results. The prerequisite for the international acceptance of analytical data is reliability. To measure means to compare. Comparability entails use of recognised references to which the standard buffer solutions used for calibration of pH meter-electrode assemblies can be traced. The new recommendation on the measurement of pH recently published as a provisional document by the International Union on Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) enables traceability for measured pH values to a conventional reference frame which is recognised world-wide. The primary method for pH will be described. If analytical data are to be accepted internationally it is necessary to demonstrate the equivalence of the national traceability structures, including national measurement standards. For the first time key comparisons for pH have been performed by the Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance (CCQM, set up by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, BIPM) to assess the equivalence of the national measurement procedures used to determine the pH of primary standard buffer solutions. The results of the first key comparison on pH CCQM-K9, and other international initiatives to improve the consistency of the results of measurement for pH, are reported.

  6. Limited range of motion

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003173.htm Limited range of motion To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Limited range of motion is a term meaning that a joint or ...

  7. Television Tracker Range Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan-Wen, Zhu

    1987-05-01

    The paper gives an approximate television tracker range equation based on the concept of the radiology and signal-to-noise of television system, and describes the physical process and mathematical method of reckoning range equation. The range equation is useful to the desing and development of a system. This paper also discusses the demand and selection standard of the television tracker system to the imaging device and gives some possible approaches to increase the range.

  8. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Nieset, R.T.

    1961-05-16

    A radio ranging device is described. It utilizes a super regenerative detector-oscillator in which echoes of transmitted pulses are received in proper phase to reduce noise energy at a selected range and also at multiples of the selected range.

  9. Long Range Technology Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambron, Sueann, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This summary of a meeting of the Apple Education Advisory Council, on long range technology plans at the state, county, district, and school levels, includes highlights from group discussions on future planning, staff development, and curriculum. Three long range technology plans at the state level are provided: Long Range Educational Technology…

  10. Long Range Technology Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambron, Sueann, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This summary of a meeting of the Apple Education Advisory Council, on long range technology plans at the state, county, district, and school levels, includes highlights from group discussions on future planning, staff development, and curriculum. Three long range technology plans at the state level are provided: Long Range Educational Technology…

  11. Tau ranging revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that a ranging receiver with a sufficient and reasonable number of correlators is competitive with the current sequential component ranging system by some 1.5 to 2.5 dB. The optimum transmitter code, the optimum receiver, and a near-maximum-lilelihood range-estimation algorithm are presented.

  12. [Acute lymphoblastic leukemia with T + PH1 monocytosis: a case report].

    PubMed

    Braham Jmili, Nejia; Sendi, Halima; Khelif, Abderrahim

    2011-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia Type T PH1 positive (with t (9.22)) are exceptional. These effects can occur immediately or in the evolution of chronic myeloid leukemia known. We report the case of a patient aged 31 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia T PH1 + cyologiques with cytological atypia. The overall appearance of blood and marrow: the signs of dysplasia the presence of a monocytic contingent, with blood monocytes evoked a myeloid acute leukemia AL. But the immunophenotype was unequivocally in favor of T- acute lymphoblastic leukemia with one aspect of lymphoid blasts in morphology and myeloperoxidase negative. The karyotype showed the presence of Philadelphia chromosome in all mitoses with additional abnormalities (chromosomes 2, 11.16…).

  13. Systematic generation of buffer systems for pH gradient ion exchange chromatography and their application.

    PubMed

    Kröner, Frieder; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2013-04-12

    pH gradient protein separations are widely used techniques in the field of protein analytics, of which isoelectric focusing is the most well known application. The chromatographic variant, based on the formation of pH gradients in ion exchange columns is only rarely applied due to the difficulties to form controllable, linear pH gradients over a broad pH range. This work describes a method for the systematic generation of buffer compositions with linear titration curves, resulting in well controllable pH gradients. To generate buffer compositions with linear titration curves an in silico method was successfully developed. With this tool, buffer compositions for pH gradient ion exchange chromatography with pH ranges spanning up to 7.5 pH units were established and successfully validated. Subsequently, the buffer systems were used to characterize the elution behavior of 22 different model proteins in cation and anion exchange pH gradient chromatography. The results of both chromatographic modes as well as isoelectric focusing were compared to describe differences in between the methods.

  14. pH sensitive quantum dot-anthraquinone nanoconjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruedas-Rama, Maria Jose; Hall, Elizabeth A. H.

    2014-05-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been shown to be highly sensitive to electron or charge transfer processes, which may alter their optical properties. This feature can be exploited for different sensing applications. Here, we demonstrate that QD-anthraquinone conjugates can function as electron transfer-based pH nanosensors. The attachment of the anthraquinones on the surface of QDs results in the reduction of electron hole recombination, and therefore a quenching of the photoluminescence intensity. For some anthraquinone derivatives tested, the quenching mechanism is simply caused by an electron transfer process from QDs to the anthraquinone, functioning as an electron acceptor. For others, electron transfer and energy transfer (FRET) processes were found. A detailed analysis of the quenching processes for CdSe/ZnS QD of two different sizes is presented. The photoluminescence quenching phenomenon of QDs is consistent with the pH sensitive anthraquinone redox chemistry. The resultant family of pH nanosensors shows pKa ranging ˜5-8, being ideal for applications of pH determination in physiological samples like blood or serum, for intracellular pH determination, and for more acidic cellular compartments such as endosomes and lysosomes. The nanosensors showed high selectivity towards many metal cations, including the most physiologically important cations which exist at high concentration in living cells. The reversibility of the proposed systems was also demonstrated. The nanosensors were applied in the determination of pH in samples mimicking the intracellular environment. Finally, the possibility of incorporating a reference QD to achieve quantitative ratiometric measurements was investigated.

  15. Role of pH in metal adsorption from aqueous solutions containing chelating agents on chitosan

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, F.C.; Tseng, R.L.; Juang, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    The role of pH in adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions containing chelating agents on chitosan was emphasized. Four chelating agents including ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, tartaric acid, and sodium gluconate were used. It was shown that the adsorption ability of Cu(II) on chitosan from its chelated solutions varied significantly with pH variations. The competition between coordination of Cu(II) with unprotonated chitosan and electrostatic interaction of the Cu(II) chelates with protonated chitosan took place because of the change in solution pH during adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity was obtained within each optimal pH range determined from titration curves of the chelated solutions. Coordination of Cu(II) with the unprotonated chitosan was found to dominate at pH below such an optimal pH value.

  16. pH dependence of the rate and quantum yield of the retinal photoisomerization in bacteriorhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Logunov, S.L.; Song, L.; El-Sayed, M.A. )

    1994-10-20

    The quantum yield of the retinal photoisomerization, the primary step in the bacteriorhodopsin (bR) photosynthesis, is determined from the picosecond bleach recovery of the absorption at 560 nm in the pH range 6.8-11.3. From this and the dependence of the observed retinal excited state decay on pH, the effects of pH on both the photoisomerization and internal conversion rates are also determined. The results show that while the quantum yield of photoisomerization is independent of pH, each of the rate constants decreased by more than a factor of 2 at elevated pH. This suggests that the perturbation resulting from the pH changes affects both rate constants similarly. This observation is discussed in terms of the theoretically proposed potential energy surfaces of the ground and excited states of retinal in bR. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Does soil pH influence swallow-wort distribution in its current range?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The perennial non-native vines, pale swallow-wort (Cynanchum rossicum [Kleopow] Borhidi) and black swallow-wort (Cynanchum louiseae [L.] Kartesz & Gandhi), are established invaders in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, and are spreading westward. The swallow-worts typically colo...

  18. Telemetry Ranging: Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the details of the signal processing used in a telemetry ranging system in which timing information is extracted from the downlink telemetry signal in order to compute spacecraft range. A previous article describes telemetry ranging concepts and architecture, which are a slight variation of a scheme published earlier. As in that earlier work, the telemetry ranging concept eliminates the need for a dedicated downlink ranging signal to communicate the necessary timing information. The present article describes the operation and performance of the major receiver functions on the spacecraft and the ground --- many of which are standard tracking loops already in use in JPL's flight and ground radios --- and how they can be used to provide the relevant information for making a range measurement. It also describes the implementation of these functions in software, and performance of an end-to-end software simulation of the telemetry ranging system.

  19. Relation of pH to toxicity of lampricide TFM in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, T.D.; Marking, L.L.; Howe, G.E.; Rach, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the control of larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus ) with 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) in tributaries of the Great Lakes, occasional kills of other fishes have caused concern about the effects of the chemical on non-target organisms. Stream treatment rates have been based on previous application rates, alkalinity measurements, results of on-site toxicity tests, or combinations of these. Laboratory studies in 1987 showed that pH is the primary factor that affects the toxicity of TFM (the lower the pH, the greater the toxicity): even small changes in pH alter the toxicity, whereas substantial changes in alkalinity have little effect. In 12-h exposures, the 96-h LC50 for TFM to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri ) ranged from about 0.9 mg/L at pH 6.5 to > 100 mg/L at pH 9.5, but (at pH 7.5) the LC50's differed little at total alkalinities of about 18 mg/L and 207 mg/L. Decreases in pH as small as 0.5 pH unit caused nontoxic solutions to become toxic to rainbow trout. Some kills of non-target fish during stream treatments were reportedly caused by decreases in pH, and (conversely) that some stream treatments for sea lampreys were ineffective because pH increased.

  20. Continuous intra-arterial blood pH monitoring in rabbits with acid-base disorders.

    PubMed

    Jin, Weizhong; Jiang, Jinjun; Wang, Xun; Zhu, Xiaodan; Wang, Guifang; Song, Yuanlin; Bai, Chunxue

    2011-07-31

    The acid-base balance of arterial blood is important for the clinical management of seriously ill patients, especially patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. We developed a novel fluorosensor for continuous blood pH monitoring and evaluated its performance both in vitro and in vivo in rabbits with acid-base disorders. The pH sensor is made of N-allyl-4-piperazinyl-1, 8-napthalimide and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, which were bonded at the distal end of the optical fiber. The fluorescence intensity increased as the pH decreased with good reproducibility, selectivity and linearity in the pH range of 6-8. The pH measurement precision was 0.03 ± 0.03 pH units with a bias of -0.02 ± 0.04 (n = 105) and -0.00 ± 0.05 pH units (n=189) in rabbits with metabolic and respiratory acid-base orders, respectively. The optical pH sensor can accurately measure pH fluctuations with a fast response and is a promising candidate for continuous in-line measurements of blood pH in critical care patients.

  1. Modeling of salt and pH gradient elution in ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Michael; Hafner, Mathias; Frech, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The separation of proteins by internally and externally generated pH gradients in chromatofocusing on ion-exchange columns is a well-established analytical method with a large number of applications. In this work, a stoichiometric displacement model was used to describe the retention behavior of lysozyme on SP Sepharose FF and a monoclonal antibody on Fractogel SO3 (S) in linear salt and pH gradient elution. The pH dependence of the binding charge B in the linear gradient elution model is introduced using a protein net charge model, while the pH dependence of the equilibrium constant is based on a thermodynamic approach. The model parameter and pH dependences are calculated from linear salt gradient elutions at different pH values as well as from linear pH gradient elutions at different fixed salt concentrations. The application of the model for the well-characterized protein lysozyme resulted in almost identical model parameters based on either linear salt or pH gradient elution data. For the antibody, only the approach based on linear pH gradients is feasible because of the limited pH range useful for salt gradient elution. The application of the model for the separation of an acid variant of the antibody from the major monomeric form is discussed.

  2. A strategy for selecting the pH of protein solutions to enhance crystallization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen Yan; Wu, Zi Qing; Yin, Da Chuan; Zhou, Bo Ru; Guo, Yun Zhu; Lu, Hui Meng; Zhou, Ren Bin; Shang, Peng

    2013-07-01

    The pH of a solution is an important parameter in crystallization that needs to be controlled in order to ensure success. The actual pH of the crystallization droplet is determined by the combined contribution of the buffers in the screening and protein solutions, although the contribution of the latter to the pH is often ignored. In this study, the effects of the buffer and protein solution pH values on the results of screening are systematically investigated. It was found that these parameters significantly affected the results and thus the following strategy for the selection of appropriate pH values is proposed: (i) when screening with only one protein solution, the pH should be as low, as high or as divergent from the pI as possible for a basic, acidic or neutral protein, respectively, within its stable pH range; (ii) when screening with two protein solutions, the pH values should be well separated from one another; and (iii) when multiple pH values are utilized, an even distribution of pH values is the best approach to increase the success rate of crystallization.

  3. A strategy for selecting the pH of protein solutions to enhance crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen-Yan; Wu, Zi-Qing; Yin, Da-Chuan; Zhou, Bo-Ru; Guo, Yun-Zhu; Lu, Hui-Meng; Zhou, Ren-Bin; Shang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    The pH of a solution is an important parameter in crystallization that needs to be controlled in order to ensure success. The actual pH of the crystallization droplet is determined by the combined contribution of the buffers in the screening and protein solutions, although the contribution of the latter to the pH is often ignored. In this study, the effects of the buffer and protein solution pH values on the results of screening are systematically investigated. It was found that these parameters significantly affected the results and thus the following strategy for the selection of appropriate pH values is proposed: (i) when screening with only one protein solution, the pH should be as low, as high or as divergent from the pI as possible for a basic, acidic or neutral protein, respectively, within its stable pH range; (ii) when screening with two protein solutions, the pH values should be well separated from one another; and (iii) when multiple pH values are utilized, an even distribution of pH values is the best approach to increase the success rate of crystallization. PMID:23832217

  4. Telemetry-Based Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon; Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Shambayati, Shervin

    2011-01-01

    A telemetry-based ranging scheme was developed in which the downlink ranging signal is eliminated, and the range is computed directly from the downlink telemetry signal. This is the first Deep Space Network (DSN) ranging technology that does not require the spacecraft to transmit a separate ranging signal. By contrast, the evolutionary ranging techniques used over the years by NASA missions, including sequential ranging (transmission of a sequence of sinusoids) and PN-ranging (transmission of a pseudo-noise sequence) whether regenerative (spacecraft acquires, then regenerates and retransmits a noise-free ranging signal) or transparent (spacecraft feeds the noisy demodulated uplink ranging signal into the downlink phase modulator) relied on spacecraft power and bandwidth to transmit an explicit ranging signal. The state of the art in ranging is described in an emerging CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) standard, in which a pseudo-noise (PN) sequence is transmitted from the ground to the spacecraft, acquired onboard, and the PN sequence is coherently retransmitted back to the ground, where a delay measurement is made between the uplink and downlink signals. In this work, the telemetry signal is aligned with the uplink PN code epoch. The ground station computes the delay between the uplink signal transmission and the received downlink telemetry. Such a computation is feasible because symbol synchronizability is already an integral part of the telemetry design. Under existing technology, the telemetry signal cannot be used for ranging because its arrival-time information is not coherent with any Earth reference signal. By introducing this coherence, and performing joint telemetry detection and arrival-time estimation on the ground, a high-rate telemetry signal can provide all the precision necessary for spacecraft ranging.

  5. Laboratory measurement of the 2-centimeter, 2/11/-2/12/ transition of normal formaldehyde and its carbon-13 and oxygen-18 species.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, K. D.; Tomasevich, G. R.; Thaddeus, P.

    1972-01-01

    Beam-maser spectrometric measurements to an accuracy of about 100 Hz have been conducted of the 2(11)-2(12) transition for the isotopic species of greatest astronomical interest - i.e., H2CO, H2(13)CO, and H2C(18)O. The samples used were not isotopically enriched, monomeric formaldehyde vapors. For these species, all the coupling constants required to calculate the hyperfine structure of any rotational transition have been determined.

  6. Acid precipitation effects on soil pH and base saturation of exchange sites

    Treesearch

    W. W. McFee; J. M. Kelly; R. H. Beck

    1976-01-01

    The typical values and probable ranges of acid-precipitation are evaluated in terms of their theoretical effects on pH and cation exchange equilibrium of soils characteristic of the humid temperature region. The extent of probable change in soil pH and the time required to cause such a change are calculated for a range of common soils. Hydrogen ion input by acid...

  7. Middle School and pH?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herricks, Susan

    2007-01-01

    A local middle school requested that the Water Center of Advanced Materials for Purification of Water With Systems (WaterCAMPWS), a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center, provide an introduction to pH for their seventh-grade water-based service learning class. After sorting through a multitude of information about pH, a…

  8. pH. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on the effect of pH on plant growth. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about soil pH and its effect on plants. The following topics are among those discussed: acidity and alkalinity; the…

  9. PER PhDs & Bachelor's Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan C.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the editor remarked to me that physics departments that offered a PhD with a specialization in Physics Education Research (PER) seemed to graduate more bachelor's degree recipients than those physics PhD departments that did not have the specialization. I was not convinced. That led to quite a bit of discussion between us. He compiled a…

  10. The PH.D. and the Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beringause, Arthur

    The present status of the Ph.D. in English is briefly discussed. Don Cameron Allen's "The Ph.D. in English and American Literature" is praised as a much-needed study which can help the English profession revitalize graduate programs. Several of Allen's conclusions are briefly summarized. (BN)

  11. pH [Measure of Acidity].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Paula

    This autoinstructional program deals with the study of the pH of given substances by using litmus and hydrion papers. It is a learning activity directed toward low achievers involved in the study of biology at the secondary school level. The time suggested for the unit is 25-30 minutes (plus additional time for further pH testing). The equipment…

  12. Middle School and pH?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herricks, Susan

    2007-01-01

    A local middle school requested that the Water Center of Advanced Materials for Purification of Water With Systems (WaterCAMPWS), a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center, provide an introduction to pH for their seventh-grade water-based service learning class. After sorting through a multitude of information about pH, a…

  13. Inexpensive and Disposable pH Electrodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldcamp, Michael J.; Conklin, Alfred; Nelson, Kimberly; Marchetti, Jessica; Brashear, Ryan; Epure, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Inexpensive electrodes for the measurement of pH have been constructed using the ionophore tribenzylamine for sensing H[superscript +] concentrations. Both traditional liquid-membrane electrodes and coated-wire electrodes have been constructed and studied, and both exhibit linear, nearly Nernstian responses to changes in pH. Measurements of pH…

  14. Response to the "Responsive PhD"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyssen, David

    2007-01-01

    In June 2005, 50 graduate school deans gathered at Princeton to address the fact that the number of new PhDs conferred each year far exceeds the number of tenure-track academic jobs on offer. Under the auspices of the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation's Responsive PhD Project, these deans spoke passionately about how American…

  15. Inexpensive and Disposable pH Electrodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldcamp, Michael J.; Conklin, Alfred; Nelson, Kimberly; Marchetti, Jessica; Brashear, Ryan; Epure, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Inexpensive electrodes for the measurement of pH have been constructed using the ionophore tribenzylamine for sensing H[superscript +] concentrations. Both traditional liquid-membrane electrodes and coated-wire electrodes have been constructed and studied, and both exhibit linear, nearly Nernstian responses to changes in pH. Measurements of pH…

  16. Relative reticulo-rumen pH indicators for subacute ruminal acidosis detection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Villot, C; Meunier, B; Bodin, J; Martin, C; Silberberg, M

    2017-07-27

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is usually characterized by abnormal and intermittent drops in rumen pH. Nevertheless, high individual animal variability in rumen pH and the difference in measurement methods for pH data acquisition decrease the sensitivity and accuracy of pH indicators for detecting SARA in ruminants. The aim of this study was to refine rumen pH indicators in long-term SARA based on individual dairy cow reticulo-rumen pH kinetics. Animal performances and rumen parameters were studied weekly in order to validate SARA syndrome and rumen pH was continuously measured using reticulo-rumen sensors. In total, 11 primiparous dairy cows were consecutively fed two different diets for 12 successive weeks: a control diet as low-starch diet (LSD; 13% starch for 4 weeks in period 1), an acidotic diet as high-starch diet (HSD; 32% starch for 4 weeks in period 2), and again the LSD diet (3 weeks in period 3). There was a 1-week dietary transition between LSD and HSD. Commonly used absolute SARA pH indicators such as daily average, area under the curve (AUC) and time spent below pH<5.8 and pH<6 were processed from absolute (raw) daily kinetics. Then signal processing was applied to raw pH values in order to calculate relative pH indicators by filtering and normalizing data to remove inter-individual variability, sensor drift and sensor noise. Normalized AUC, times spent below NpH<-0.3 and NpH<-0.5, NpH range and NpH standard deviation were calculated. Those relative pH indicators were compared with commonly used pH indicators to assess their ability to detect SARA. This syndrome induced by HSD was confirmed by consistent expected changes in milk quality, dry matter intake and acetate : propionate ratio in the rumen, whereas the ruminal concentration of lipopolysaccharide was increased. Commonly used pH SARA indicators were not able to discriminate SARA syndrome due to high animal variability and sensor drift and noise, whereas relative pH indicators developed in

  17. The effect of pH on phosphorus availability and speciation in an aquaponics nutrient solution.

    PubMed

    Cerozi, Brunno da Silva; Fitzsimmons, Kevin

    2016-11-01

    The interaction between the main ions in aquaponics nutrient solutions affects chemical composition and availability of nutrients, and nutrient uptake by plant roots. This study determined the effect of pH on phosphorus (P) speciation and availability in an aquaponics nutrient solution and used Visual MINTEQ to simulate P species and P activity. In both experimental and simulated results, P availability decreased with increase in pH of aquaponics nutrient solutions. According to simulations, P binds to several cations leaving less free phosphate ions available in solution. High pH values resulted in the formation of insoluble calcium phosphate species. The study also demonstrated the importance of organic matter and alkalinity in keeping free phosphate ions in solution at high pH ranges. It is recommended though that pH in aquaponics systems is maintained at a 5.5-7.2 range for optimal availability and uptake by plants.

  18. Role of pH on the stress corrosion cracking of titanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khokhar, M. I.; Beck, F. H.; Fontana, M. G.

    1973-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) experiments were conducted on Ti-8-1-1 wire specimens in hydrochloric and sulfuric acids of variable pH in order to determine the effect of pH on the susceptibility to cracking. The alloy exhibited increasing susceptibility with decreasing pH. By varying the applied potential, it was observed that susceptibility zones exist both in the cathodic and the anodic ranges. In the cathodic range, susceptibility also increased with decreasing applied potential. Corrosion potential-time data in hydrochloric acid (pH 1.7) and sulfuric acid (pH 1.7) indicate that chloride ions lower the corrosion potential of the specimen which, in turn, increases the susceptibility.

  19. Role of pH on the stress corrosion cracking of titanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khokhar, M. I.; Beck, F. H.; Fontana, M. G.

    1973-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) experiments were conducted on Ti-8-1-1 wire specimens in hydrochloric and sulfuric acids of variable pH in order to determine the effect of pH on the susceptibility to cracking. The alloy exhibited increasing susceptibility with decreasing pH. By varying the applied potential, it was observed that susceptibility zones exist both in the cathodic and the anodic ranges. In the cathodic range, susceptibility also increased with decreasing applied potential. Corrosion potential-time data in hydrochloric acid (pH 1.7) and sulfuric acid (pH 1.7) indicate that chloride ions lower the corrosion potential of the specimen which, in turn, increases the susceptibility.

  20. Real-time pH monitoring of industrially relevant enzymatic reactions in a microfluidic side-entry reactor (μSER) shows potential for pH control.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Pia; Marques, Marco P C; Sulzer, Philipp; Wohlgemuth, Roland; Mayr, Torsten; Baganz, Frank; Szita, Nicolas

    2017-01-20

    Monitoring and control of pH is essential for the control of reaction conditions and reaction progress for any biocatalytic or biotechnological process. Microfluidic enzymatic reactors are increasingly proposed for process development, however typically lack instrumentation, such as pH monitoring. We present a microfluidic side-entry reactor (μSER) and demonstrate for the first time real-time pH monitoring of the progression of an enzymatic reaction in a microfluidic reactor as a first step towards achieving pH control. Two different types of optical pH sensors were integrated at several positions in the reactor channel which enabled pH monitoring between pH 3.5 and pH 8.5, thus a broader range than typically reported. The sensors withstood the thermal bonding temperatures typical of microfluidic device fabrication. Additionally, fluidic inputs along the reaction channel were implemented to adjust the pH of the reaction. Time-course profiles of pH were recorded for a transketolase and a penicillin G acylase catalyzed reaction. Without pH adjustment, the former showed a pH increase of 1 pH unit and the latter a pH decrease of about 2.5 pH units. With pH adjustment, the pH drop of the penicillin G acylase catalyzed reaction was significantly attenuated, the reaction condition kept at a pH suitable for the operation of the enzyme, and the product yield increased. This contribution represents a further step towards fully instrumented and controlled microfluidic reactors for biocatalytic process development.

  1. A Framework for Developing pH Guidance for Drinking Water Treatment and Distribution - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Worldwide, many agencies have historically limited the range of pH values of distributed water between 6.5 and 8.5. Although this range is not a regulatory limit, many jurisdictions have used it as one. In some cases, the range has been a barrier to optimizing distribution syste...

  2. A Framework for Developing pH Guidance for Drinking Water Treatment and Distribution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Worldwide, many agencies have historically limited the range of pH values of distributed water between 6.5 and 8.5. Although this range is not a regulatory limit, many jurisdictions have used it as one. In some cases, the range has been a barrier to optimizing distribution syste...

  3. A Framework for Developing pH Guidance for Drinking Water Treatment and Distribution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Worldwide, many agencies have historically limited the range of pH values of distributed water between 6.5 and 8.5. Although this range is not a regulatory limit, many jurisdictions have used it as one. In some cases, the range has been a barrier to optimizing distribution syste...

  4. A Framework for Developing pH Guidance for Drinking Water Treatment and Distribution - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Worldwide, many agencies have historically limited the range of pH values of distributed water between 6.5 and 8.5. Although this range is not a regulatory limit, many jurisdictions have used it as one. In some cases, the range has been a barrier to optimizing distribution syste...

  5. Endoscopic sensing of alveolar pH

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, D.; Tanner, M. G.; McAughtrie, S.; Yu, F.; Mills, B.; Choudhary, T. R.; Seth, S.; Craven, T. H.; Stone, J. M.; Mati, I. K.; Campbell, C. J.; Bradley, M.; Williams, C. K. I.; Dhaliwal, K.; Birks, T. A.; Thomson, R. R.

    2016-01-01

    Previously unobtainable measurements of alveolar pH were obtained using an endoscope-deployable optrode. The pH sensing was achieved using functionalized gold nanoshell sensors and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The optrode consisted of an asymmetric dual-core optical fiber designed for spatially separating the optical pump delivery and signal collection, in order to circumvent the unwanted Raman signal generated within the fiber. Using this approach, we demonstrate a ~100-fold increase in SERS signal-to-fiber background ratio, and demonstrate multiple site pH sensing with a measurement accuracy of ± 0.07 pH units in the respiratory acini of an ex vivo ovine lung model. We also demonstrate that alveolar pH changes in response to ventilation. PMID:28101415

  6. Endoscopic sensing of alveolar pH.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, D; Tanner, M G; McAughtrie, S; Yu, F; Mills, B; Choudhary, T R; Seth, S; Craven, T H; Stone, J M; Mati, I K; Campbell, C J; Bradley, M; Williams, C K I; Dhaliwal, K; Birks, T A; Thomson, R R

    2017-01-01

    Previously unobtainable measurements of alveolar pH were obtained using an endoscope-deployable optrode. The pH sensing was achieved using functionalized gold nanoshell sensors and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The optrode consisted of an asymmetric dual-core optical fiber designed for spatially separating the optical pump delivery and signal collection, in order to circumvent the unwanted Raman signal generated within the fiber. Using this approach, we demonstrate a ~100-fold increase in SERS signal-to-fiber background ratio, and demonstrate multiple site pH sensing with a measurement accuracy of ± 0.07 pH units in the respiratory acini of an ex vivo ovine lung model. We also demonstrate that alveolar pH changes in response to ventilation.

  7. Determination Of Ph Including Hemoglobin Correction

    DOEpatents

    Maynard, John D.; Hendee, Shonn P.; Rohrscheib, Mark R.; Nunez, David; Alam, M. Kathleen; Franke, James E.; Kemeny, Gabor J.

    2005-09-13

    Methods and apparatuses of determining the pH of a sample. A method can comprise determining an infrared spectrum of the sample, and determining the hemoglobin concentration of the sample. The hemoglobin concentration and the infrared spectrum can then be used to determine the pH of the sample. In some embodiments, the hemoglobin concentration can be used to select an model relating infrared spectra to pH that is applicable at the determined hemoglobin concentration. In other embodiments, a model relating hemoglobin concentration and infrared spectra to pH can be used. An apparatus according to the present invention can comprise an illumination system, adapted to supply radiation to a sample; a collection system, adapted to collect radiation expressed from the sample responsive to the incident radiation; and an analysis system, adapted to relate information about the incident radiation, the expressed radiation, and the hemoglobin concentration of the sample to pH.

  8. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

  9. Development of Hybrid pH sensor for long-term seawater pH monitoring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Y.; Egashira, T.; Miwa, T.; Kimoto, H.

    2016-02-01

    We have been developing the in situ pH sensor (Hybrid pH sensor: HpHS) for the long-term seawater pH monitoring. We are planning to provide the HpHS for researchers and environmental consultants for observation of the CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage) monitoring system, the coastal environment monitoring system (e.g. Blue Carbon) and ocean acidification. The HpHS has two types of pH sensors (i.e. potentiometric pH sensor and spectrophotometric pH sensor). The spectrophotometric pH sensor can measure pH correctly and stably, however it needs large power consumption and a lot of reagents in a long period of observation. The pH sensor used m-cresol purple (mCP) as an indicator of pH (Clayton and Byrne, 1993 and Liu et al., 2011). We can choose both coefficients before deployment. On the other hand, although the potentiometric pH sensor is low power consumption and high-speed response (within 10 seconds), drifts in the pH of the potentiometric measurements may possibly occur for a long-term observation. The HpHS can measure in situ pH correctly and stably combining advantage of both pH sensors. The HpHS consists of an aluminum pressure housing with optical cell (main unit) and an aluminum silicon-oil filled, pressure-compensated vessel containing pumps and valves (diaphragm pump and valve unit) and pressure-compensated reagents bags (pH indicator, pure water and Tris buffer or certified reference material: CRM) with an ability to resist water pressure to 3000m depth. The main unit holds system control boards, pump drivers, data storage (micro SD card), LED right source, photodiode, optical cell and pressure proof windows. The HpHS also has an aluminum pressure housing that holds a rechargeable lithium-ion battery or a lithium battery for the power supply (DC 24 V). The HpHS is correcting the value of the potentiometric pH sensor (measuring frequently) by the value of the spectrophotometric pH sensor (measuring less frequently). It is possible to calibrate in

  10. Compressive laser ranging.

    PubMed

    Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Renner, Christoffer

    2011-12-15

    Compressive sampling has been previously proposed as a technique for sampling radar returns and determining sparse range profiles with a reduced number of measurements compared to conventional techniques. By employing modulation on both transmission and reception, compressive sensing in ranging is extended to the direct measurement of range profiles without intermediate measurement of the return waveform. This compressive ranging approach enables the use of pseudorandom binary transmit waveforms and return modulation, along with low-bandwidth optical detectors to yield high-resolution ranging information. A proof-of-concept experiment is presented. With currently available compact, off-the-shelf electronics and photonics, such as high data rate binary pattern generators and high-bandwidth digital optical modulators, compressive laser ranging can readily achieve subcentimeter resolution in a compact, lightweight package.

  11. Laser Ranging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    Laser system points and focuses TV camera. Ranger is modified stock distance-measuring unit mounted on and electrically connected to television camera. Effective over target range of 3 to 500 ft. (approximately 1 to 150m). Developed for television monitoring of nearby objects from Space Shuttle. Super-imposes range and range-rate (speed of approach or recession) data on television image of target. Principle adaptable to applications such as proximity warning and robot control.

  12. Improved ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry E.

    1989-01-01

    Spacecraft range measurements have provided the most accurate tests, to date, of some relativistic gravitational parameters, even though the measurements were made with ranging systems having error budgets of about 10 meters. Technology is now available to allow an improvement of two orders of magnitude in the accuracy of spacecraft ranging. The largest gains in accuracy result from the replacement of unstable analog components with high speed digital circuits having precisely known delays and phase shifts.

  13. Modulation of autophagic activity by extracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Xu, Teng; Su, Hang; Ganapathy, Suthakar; Yuan, Zhi-Min

    2011-11-01

    Reprogramming energy metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, a common feature of human cancer, is associated with a relative acidic tumor microenvironment which can sometimes be further accentuated by hypoxia operating within most solid tumors. We found that alteration of extracellular pH induces marked and rapid changes of autophagic activity. Interestingly, acidic and basic conditions induced completely opposite effect on autophagy, with its activity suppressed at lower pH whereas stimulated at higher pH. Gene knockdown experiments indicated that pH induced-autophagy requires Beclin 1, Vps34 and Atg5, key components of the autophagy pathway. Of note, an acidic condition not only inhibits the basal but also blocks the starvation-induced autophagy activity. Significantly, examination of different areas of tumor mass revealed a lower autophagic activity within the inner region than the outer region. These findings have important implications on the connections between autophagy and cancer as well as a wide range of other physiological and pathological processes.

  14. Carbon Nanotube Chemiresistor for Wireless pH Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Pingping; Kraut, Nadine D.; Feigel, Ian M.; Bai, Hao; Morgan, Gregory J.; Chen, Yanan; Tang, Yifan; Bocan, Kara; Stachel, Joshua; Berger, Lee; Mickle, Marlin; Sejdić, Ervin; Star, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure real-time pH fluctuations in-vivo could be highly advantageous. Early detection and potential prevention of bacteria colonization of surgical implants can be accomplished by monitoring associated acidosis. However, conventional glass membrane or ion-selective field-effect transistor (ISFET) pH sensing technologies both require a reference electrode which may suffer from leakage of electrolytes and potential contamination. Herein, we describe a solid-state sensor based on oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes (ox-SWNTs) functionalized with the conductive polymer poly(1-aminoanthracene) (PAA). This device had a Nernstian response over a wide pH range (2-12) and retained sensitivity over 120 days. The sensor was also attached to a passively-powered radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag which transmits pH data through simulated skin. This battery-less, reference electrode free, wirelessly transmitting sensor platform shows potential for biomedical applications as an implantable sensor, adjacent to surgical implants detecting for infection.

  15. Application of SERS Nanoparticles for Intracellular pH Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence, T; Talley, C; Colvin, M; Huser, T

    2004-10-21

    We present an alternative approach to optical probes that will ultimately allow us to measure chemical concentrations in microenvironments within cells and tissues. This approach is based on monitoring the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response of functionalized metal nanoparticles (50-100 nm in diameter). SERS allows for the sensitive detection of changes in the state of chemical groups attached to individual nanoparticles and small clusters. Here, we present the development of a nanoscale pH meter. The pH response of these nanoprobes is tested in a cell-free medium, measuring the pH of the solution immediately surrounding the nanoparticles. Heterogeneities in the SERS signal, which can result from the formation of small nanoparticle clusters, are characterized using SERS correlation spectroscopy and single particle/cluster SERS spectroscopy. The response of the nanoscale pH meters is tested under a wide range of conditions to approach the complex environment encountered inside living cells and to optimize probe performance.

  16. Automatic range selector

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, Clyde E.

    1977-01-04

    A device is provided for automatically selecting from a plurality of ranges of a scale of values to which a meter may be made responsive, that range which encompasses the value of an unknown parameter. A meter relay indicates whether the unknown is of greater or lesser value than the range to which the meter is then responsive. The rotatable part of a stepping relay is rotated in one direction or the other in response to the indication from the meter relay. Various positions of the rotatable part are associated with particular scales. Switching means are sensitive to the position of the rotatable part to couple the associated range to the meter.

  17. Range criterion for separability

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Kil-Chan

    2010-12-15

    Horodecki formulated a remarkable criterion for separability, which is called the range criterion. This range criterion was mostly used to show that some states with positive partial transpose are entangled. In this Brief Report, we show that the range criterion is also useful to find a convex combination of product states for a separable state. For this purpose, we give an example of density matrix, which is separable in a 2 x 3 system and entangled in a 3 x 2 system at the same time. Then we illustrate the usefulness of the range criterion with this example.

  18. High-resolution ocean pH dynamics in four subtropical Atlantic benthic habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, C. A.; Clemente, S.; Sangil, C.; Hernández, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Oscillations of ocean pH are largely unknown in coastal environments and ocean acidification studies often do not account for natural variability yet most of what is known about marine species and populations is found out via studies conducted in near shore environments. Most experiments designed to make predictions about future climate change scenarios are carried out in coastal environments with no research that takes into account the natural pH variability. In order to fill this knowledge gap and to provide reliable measures of pH oscillation, seawater pH was measured over time using moored pH sensors in four contrasting phytocenoses typical of the north Atlantic subtropical region. Each phytocenosis was characterized by its predominant engineer species: (1) Cystoseira abies-marina, (2) a mix of gelidiales and geniculate corallines, (3) Lobophora variegata, and (4) encrusting corallines. The autonomous pH measuring systems consisted of a pH sensor; a data logger and a battery encased in a waterproof container and allowed the acquisition of high-resolution continuous pH data at each of the study sites. The pH variation observed ranged by between 0.09 and 0.24 pHNBS units. A clear daily variation in seawater pH was detected at all the studied sites (0.04-0.12 pHNBS units). Significant differences in daily pH oscillations were also observed between phytocenoses, which shows that macroalgal communities influence the seawater pH in benthic habitats. Natural oscillations in pH must be taken into account in future ocean acidification studies to put findings in perspective and for any ecological recommendations to be realistic.

  19. Effects of pH and Carbon Source on Synechococcus PCC 7002 Cultivation: Biomass and Carbohydrate Production with Different Strategies for pH Control.

    PubMed

    De Farias Silva, Carlos Eduardo; Sforza, Eleonora; Bertucco, Alberto

    2017-02-01

    Synechococcus PCC 7002 is an interesting species in view of industrial production of carbohydrates. The cultivation performances of this species are strongly affected by the pH of the medium, which also influences the carbohydrate accumulation. In this work, different methods of pH control were analyzed, in order to obtain a higher production of both Synechococcus biomass and carbohydrates. To better understand the influence of pH on growth and carbohydrate productivity, manual and automatic pH regulation in CO2 and bicarbonate system were applied. The pH value of 8.5 resulted the best to achieve both of these goals. From an industrial point of view, an alternative way to maintain the pH practically constant during the entire period of cultivation is the exploitation of the bicarbonate-CO2 buffer system, with the double aim to maintain the pH in the viability range and also to provide the amount of carbon required by growth. In this condition, a high concentration of biomass (6 g L(-1)) and carbohydrate content (around 60 %) were obtained, which are promising in view of a potential use for bioethanol production. The chemical equilibrium of C-N-P species was also evaluated by applying the ionic balance equations, and a relation between the sodium bicarbonate added in the medium and the equilibrium value of pH was discussed.

  20. On-line monitoring of CO2 production in Lactococcus lactis during physiological pH decrease using membrane inlet mass spectrometry with dynamic pH calibration.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ann Zahle; Lauritsen, Frants Roager; Olsen, Lars Folke

    2005-12-20

    Monitoring CO2 production in systems, where pH is changing with time is hampered by the chemical behavior and pH-dependent volatility of this compound. In this article, we present the first method where the concentration and production rate of dissolved CO2 can be monitored directly, continuously, and quantitatively under conditions where pH changes rapidly ( approximately 2 units in 15 min). The method corrects membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) measurements of CO2 for pH dependency using on-line pH analysis and an experimentally established calibration model. It is valid within the pH range of 3.5 to 7, despite pH-dependent calibration constants that vary in a non-linear fashion with more than a factor of 3 in this interval. The method made it possible to determine the carbon dioxide production during Lactococcus lactis fermentations, where pH drops up to 3 units during the fermentation. The accuracy was approximately 5%. We used the method to investigate the effect of initial extracellular pH on carbon dioxide production during anarobic glucose fermentation by non-growing Lactocoocus lactis and demonstrated that the carbon dioxide production rate increases considerably, when the initial pH was increased from 6 to 6.8. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Comparison of two pH meters used for skin surface pH measurement: the pH meter 'pH900' from Courage & Khazaka versus the pH meter '1140' from Mettler Toledo.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, C; Ivens, U I; Møller, M L; Senderovitz, T; Serup, J

    2001-05-01

    Measurement of skin surface pH is used in clinical research to evaluate hazardous shifts in pH following external exposures and to evaluate the state of diseased skin with acute or chronic changes. It is therefore important to measure skin surface pH as precisely as possible. The aim of this study was to compare two commercially available pH meters used for skin surface pH measurement, to reveal differences between them in measured skin pH on the forearm. The first pH meter (pH900) had a pointed electrode and a stabilisation period of 3 s. The second pH meter (pH meter 1140) had a circular electrode and no fixed stabilisation period. Twelve healthy subjects (6 male and 6 female Caucasians) entered the study. The pH measurements were performed once an hour from 8 a.m. to 3 p.m. on both forearms in five areas from the elbow to the "wristwatch" zone. In each area, three measurements were performed next to each other with both pH meters (15 measurements per arm per hour per pH meter). The pH900 has a higher measuring level and a higher variation than the pH meter 1140. A skin surface pH meter with a circular electrode and with no fixed stabilisation period is preferable. It is recommended that the pH meter be allowed to stabilise for at least 7 s before the result is read.

  2. Acidification of the North Pacific Ocean: Direct Observations of pH in 1991 and 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, R. H.; Liu, X.; Mecking, S.; Feely, R. A.

    2006-12-01

    Spectrophotometric procedures were first successfully used to obtain seawater pH profiles on a 1991 cruise within the CLIVAR/CO2 Repeat Hydrography Program. During a 2006 reoccupation of the P16N transect along 152 ^{0}W, closely similar methods were used to obtain a fifteen-year spectrophotometrically-based record of ocean pH change. Spectrophotometric procedures are particularly robust as a means of observing changes in seawater pH because sulfonephthalein equilibrium constants, being nearly constant at constant temperature and salinity, are unimportant in pH difference calculations. In such cases, the quality of pH difference measurements is most closely related to measurement precision. Since the precision of spectrophotometric pH measurements (using observations of sulfonephthalein absorbance ratios) is on the order of 0.0004 pH units, pH differences can be measured with a precision somewhat better than +/- 0.001. In the absence of other effects, the atmospheric pCO2 increase between 1991 and 2006 would decrease the pH of the surface ocean, in equilibrium with the atmosphere, by approximately 0.025 pH units. Thus, spectrophotometric pH observations are capable of directly resolving pH perturbations on a scale commensurate with potential atmospherically-induced changes. At depths between 3000 and 5000 meters the directly observed mean fifteen-year pH difference was on the order of 0.000 +/-0.0015. At depths below 1000 meters, pH changes generally ranged between + 0.006 and -0.006. In contrast, in the upper 700 meters, pH was much more variable, with an average fifteen-year pH decrease on the order of 0.025 and including pH differences as large as -0.055. These directly observed pH differences are consistent with expected changes in response to elevated atmospheric CO2, along with changes that can be attributed to differences in respiration and changes in ocean circulation.

  3. Natural skin surface pH is on average below 5, which is beneficial for its resident flora.

    PubMed

    Lambers, H; Piessens, S; Bloem, A; Pronk, H; Finkel, P

    2006-10-01

    Variable skin pH values are being reported in literature, all in the acidic range but with a broad range from pH 4.0 to 7.0. In a multicentre study (N = 330), we have assessed the skin surface pH of the volar forearm before and after refraining from showering and cosmetic product application for 24 h. The average pH dropped from 5.12 +/- 0.56 to 4.93 +/- 0.45. On the basis of this pH drop, it is estimated that the 'natural' skin surface pH is on average 4.7, i.e. below 5. This is in line with existing literature, where a relatively large number of reports (c. 50%) actually describes pH values below 5.0; this is in contrast to the general assumption, that skin surface pH is on average between 5.0 and 6.0. Not only prior use of cosmetic products, especially soaps, have profound influence on skin surface pH, but the use of plain tap water, in Europe with a pH value generally around 8.0, will increase skin pH up to 6 h after application before returning to its 'natural' value of on average below 5.0. It is demonstrated that skin with pH values below 5.0 is in a better condition than skin with pH values above 5.0, as shown by measuring the biophysical parameters of barrier function, moisturization and scaling. The effect of pH on adhesion of resident skin microflora was also assessed; an acid skin pH (4-4.5) keeps the resident bacterial flora attached to the skin, whereas an alkaline pH (8-9) promotes the dispersal from the skin.

  4. Agriculture, Forestry, Range Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crea, W. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Significant results obtained from ERTS-1 observations of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are summarized. Four major parts are covered: (1) crop classification and mensuration; (2) timber and range resources survey and classification; (3) soil survey and mapping; and (4) subdiscipline areas.

  5. Laser ranging data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Near real-time Lageos laser ranging data are analyzed in terms of range bias, time bias, and internal precision, and estimates for earth orientation parameters X(sub p), Y(sub p), and UT1 are obtained. The results of these analyses are reported in a variety of formats. Copies of monthly summaries from November, 1986 through November, 1987 are included.

  6. Long Range Facilities Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    Richard Muther range facilities Many alterna- analysis indi- cated that if NASSCO ever expected to surpass its output of the last several years, current...Marine Engineers (SNAME) SP-1 Panel Meeting. The Maritime Administration had Richard Muther (an authority on long range facility planning) address a

  7. Home range and travels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  8. Preparation of a novel pH optical sensor using orange (II) based on agarose membrane as support.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Rouhollah; Hosseini, Mohammad; Amraei, Ahmadreza; Mohammadzadeh, Ali

    2016-04-01

    A novel and cost effective optical pH sensor was prepared using covalent immobilization of orange (II) indicator on the agarose membrane as solid support. The fabricated optical sensor was fixed into a sample holder of a spectrophotometer instrument for pH monitoring. Variables affecting sensor performance including pH of dye bonding to agarose membrane and dye concentration were optimized. The sensor responds to the pH changes in the range of 3.0-10.0 with a response time of 2.0 min and appropriate reproducibility (RSD ≤ 0.9%). No significant variation was observed on sensor response after increasing the ionic strength in the range of 0.0-0.5M of sodium chloride. Determination of pH using the proposed optical sensor is quick, simple, inexpensive, selective and sensitive in the pH range of 3.0-10.0.

  9. Exhaled breath condensate pH assays.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael D; Hunt, John

    2012-08-01

    Airway pH is central to the physiologic function and cellular biology of the airway. The causes of airway acidification include (1) hypopharyngeal gastric acid reflux with or without aspiration through the vocal cords, (2) inhalation of acid fog or gas (such as chlorine), and (3) intrinsic airway acidification caused by altered airway pH homeostasis in infectious and inflammatory disease processes. The recognition that relevant airway pH deviations occur in lung diseases is opening doors to new simple and inexpensive therapies. This recognition has resulted partly from the ability to use exhaled breath condensate as a window on airway acid-base balance.

  10. Effects of pH and hardness on chronic toxicity of ammonia to Ceriodaphnia dubia

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.G.; Crunkilton, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    Ammonia is one of the most common toxicants encountered in municipal and industrial discharges. There is limited information on how changes in water chemistry affect toxicity of ammonia to invertebrates. This study assessed effects of pH and hardness on chronic toxicity of unionized ammonia to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Three-brood life cycle tests were run at four pH levels in combination with three hardness levels to determine effects on reproduction. Hardness levels ranged from 40 mg/L CaCO{sub 3} to 180 mg/L CaCO{sub 3}, while pH levels ranged from 6.5 to 9.0. Hardness and pH in combination yielded the lowest toxicity at pH 9.0 in hard water, with a LOEC of 1.31 mg/L unionized ammonia-nitrogen (UIA-N). The highest toxicity was at pH 6.5 in medium water, with a LOEC of 0.04 mg/L UIA-N. Toxicity of unionized ammonia (UIA) generally decreased as hardness increased. Average LOECs ranged from 0.33 mg/L UIA-N in soft water to 0.77 mg/L UIA-N in hard water. Unionized ammonia was least toxic in hard water at pH 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0. At pH 6.5 UIA was least toxic in soft water. Toxicity of UIA generally decreased as pH increased. Average LOECs ranged from 0.08 mg/L UIA-N at pH 6.5 to 0.77 mg/L UIA-N at pH 9.0. Unionized ammonia was most toxic at pH 6.5 at all hardness levels. In both soft and hard water UIA was least toxic at pH 9.0, while in medium water it was least toxic at pH 8.0.

  11. The effects of pH on the labellar sugar receptor of the fleshfly.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, A; Morita, H

    1969-04-01

    Reproducible results describing the effects of pH on the response of the labellar sugar receptor of the fleshfly, Boettcherisca peregrina, were obtained. The response to sucrose was independent over a wide range of pH (3.0 to 10.0 for sucrose stimulation), but was inhibited fairly sharply on both sides of this range. Similar results were obtained for monosaccharide stimulation. The receptor was excited on stimulation by water above pH 12.0. The effects of high pH, both inhibitory and excitatory, were affected by the presence of salts. In the presence of 0.5 molar NaCl, for example, the pH-inhibition curve was shifted toward lower pH's by about one pH unit. The effects of low pH, on the other hand, were not affected by salts. Following Dixon's theory, it was concluded that at least five ionizable groups (loosing positive charges above pH 10.5) were located at the receptor site.

  12. A novel acidic pH fluorescent probe based on a benzothiazole derivative.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiujuan; Li, Xian; Feng, Suxiang; Liang, Beibei; Zhou, Tiqiang; Xu, Min; Ma, Zhuoyi

    2017-04-15

    A novel acidic pH fluorescent probe 1 based on a benzothiazole derivative has been designed, synthesized and developed. The linear response range covers the acidic pH range from 3.44 to 6.46, which is valuable for pH researches in acidic environment. The evaluated pKa value of the probe 1 is 4.23. The fluorescence enhancement of the studied probe 1 with an increase in hydrogen ions concentration is based on the hindering of enhanced photo-induced electron transfer (PET) process. Moreover, the pH sensor possesses a highly selective response to H(+) in the presence of metal ions, anions and other bioactive small molecules which would be interfere with its fluorescent pH response. Furthermore, the probe 1 responds to acidic pH with short response time that was less than 1min. The probe 1 has been successfully applied to confocal fluorescence imaging in live HeLa cells and can selectively stain lysosomes. All of such good properties prove it can be used to monitoring pH fluctuations in acidic environment with high sensitivity, pH dependence and short response time.

  13. Effects of saliva on starch-thickened drinks with acidic and neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Ben; Cox, Ben; Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Smith, Christina H

    2012-09-01

    Powdered maize starch thickeners are used to modify drink consistency in the clinical management of dysphagia. Amylase is a digestive enzyme found in saliva which breaks down starch. This action is dependent on pH, which varies in practice depending on the particular drink. This study measured the effects of human saliva on the viscosity of drinks thickened with a widely used starch-based thickener. Experiments simulated a possible clinical scenario whereby saliva enters a cup and contaminates a drink. Citric acid (E330) was added to water to produce a controlled range of pH from 3.0 to 7.0, and several commercially available drinks with naturally low pH were investigated. When saliva was added to thickened water, viscosity was reduced to less than 1% of its original value after 10-15 min. However, lowering pH systematically slowed the reduction in viscosity attributable to saliva. At pH 3.5 and below, saliva was found to have no significant effect on viscosity. The pH of drinks in this study ranged from 2.6 for Coca Cola to 6.2 for black coffee. Again, low pH slowed the effect of saliva. For many popular drinks, having pH of 3.6 or less, viscosity was not significantly affected by the addition of saliva.

  14. A novel acidic pH fluorescent probe based on a benzothiazole derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qiujuan; Li, Xian; Feng, Suxiang; Liang, Beibei; Zhou, Tiqiang; Xu, Min; Ma, Zhuoyi

    2017-04-01

    A novel acidic pH fluorescent probe 1 based on a benzothiazole derivative has been designed, synthesized and developed. The linear response range covers the acidic pH range from 3.44 to 6.46, which is valuable for pH researches in acidic environment. The evaluated pKa value of the probe 1 is 4.23. The fluorescence enhancement of the studied probe 1 with an increase in hydrogen ions concentration is based on the hindering of enhanced photo-induced electron transfer (PET) process. Moreover, the pH sensor possesses a highly selective response to H+ in the presence of metal ions, anions and other bioactive small molecules which would be interfere with its fluorescent pH response. Furthermore, the probe 1 responds to acidic pH with short response time that was less than 1 min. The probe 1 has been successfully applied to confocal fluorescence imaging in live HeLa cells and can selectively stain lysosomes. All of such good properties prove it can be used to monitoring pH fluctuations in acidic environment with high sensitivity, pH dependence and short response time.

  15. The pH of various tooth-whitening products on the South African market.

    PubMed

    Majeed, A; Grobler, S R; Moola, M H

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the pH of 21 commercially available tooth-whitening products. Tooth-whitening products were divided into four categories: dentist supervised-home bleaching products (n = 5); in-office bleaching products (n = 5); over-the-counter bleaching products (n = 4) and whitening toothpastes and rinses (n = 7). The pH of three samples of each product was measured using an Orion Expandable Ion Analyzer EA940 with a Sure-Flow, Epoxy-body combination pH electrode. The group data were analysed using one way ANOVA (significant at p < 0.05). The five dentist supervised-home bleaching products had a mean pH of 6.21 +/- 0.76 and ranged from 4.88 to 6.81. The five in-office bleaching products had a mean pH of 6.26 +/- 1.19 and ranged from 5.30 to 7.85. The four over-the-counter whitening products had a mean pH of 5.07 +/- 1.74 and ranged from 3.76 to 8.03 and the seven whitening toothpastes had a mean pH of 7.66 +/- 1.19 and ranged from 6.61 to 9.68. The pH of the over-the-counter category was significantly lower (more acidic) than all other categories (p < 0.05). The whitening gel of Rapid-White had the lowest acidic pH of 3.76 and Colgate Advanced Whitening toothpaste showed the highest alkaline pH of 9.68. The pH of all tooth-whitening products showed a wide range from 3.76 (highly acidic) to 9.68 (highly alkaline). Over-the-counter whitening products showed the lowest pH levels and in general these can be expected to damage enamel more than the other products. Dentists should be vigilant with regards to products used outside their surgeries and should warn their patients accordingly. The acidic pH of many of the whitening products other than in-office bleaching products is of concern and the general public should be better informed by the dental professionals of the dangers of these products.

  16. Measurement of pH micro-heterogeneity in natural cheese matrices by fluorescence lifetime imaging.

    PubMed

    Burdikova, Zuzana; Svindrych, Zdenek; Pala, Jan; Hickey, Cian D; Wilkinson, Martin G; Panek, Jiri; Auty, Mark A E; Periasamy, Ammasi; Sheehan, Jeremiah J

    2015-01-01

    Cheese, a product of microbial fermentation may be defined as a protein matrix entrapping fat, moisture, minerals and solutes as well as dispersed bacterial colonies. The growth and physiology of bacterial cells in these colonies may be influenced by the microenvironment around the colony, or alternatively the cells within the colony may modify the microenvironment (e.g., pH, redox potential) due to their metabolic activity. While cheese pH may be measured at macro level there remains a significant knowledge gap relating to the degree of micro-heterogeneity of pH within the cheese matrix and its relationship with microbial, enzymatic and physiochemical parameters and ultimately with cheese quality, consistency and ripening patterns. The pH of cheese samples was monitored both at macroscopic scale and at microscopic scale, using a non-destructive microscopic technique employing C-SNARF-4 and Oregon Green 488 fluorescent probes. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the suitability of these dyes for microscale pH measurements in natural cheese matrices and to enhance the sensitivity and extend the useful pH range of these probes using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). In particular, fluorescence lifetime of Oregon Green 488 proved to be sensitive probe to map pH micro heterogeneity within cheese matrices. Good agreement was observed between macroscopic scale pH measurement by FLIM and by traditional pH methods, but in addition considerable localized microheterogeneity in pH was evident within the curd matrix with pH range between 4.0 and 5.5. This technique provides significant potential to further investigate the relationship between cheese matrix physico-chemistry and bacterial metabolism during cheese manufacture and ripening.

  17. Improved granular activated carbon for the stabilization of wastewater pH

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    Many times the start up of granular activated carbon adsorption systems for the control of organic contaminants in wastewater cm exhibit unacceptable increases in the adscurber effluent pH. Experience shows that the duration of the pH increase ranges from several hours to several days, during which time several hundred bed volumes of water can be discharged with a pH in excess of 9. Laboratory studies have identified the cause of the pH rise as an interaction between the naturally occurring anions and protons ar the water and the carbon surface. The interaction can be described as an ion exchange type of phenomenon, in which the carbon surface sorbs the anions and corresponding hydronium ions from the water. Capacities of the carbon for the anions range from 2 to 9 mg/g GAC, depending upon the water characteristics, the carbon type, the nature of the anion and its influent concentration. These studies have shown de the anion sorption and resulting pH increase is independent of the raw material used for die activated carbon production, e.g. bituminous or sub-bituminous coal, peat, wood or coconut. Also, the pH excursions occur with virgin, reactivated, and acid washed granular carbons. Current pH control technologies focus on adjustment of wastewater pH prior to discharge or recycle of the initial effluent water until the pH increase abates. However, improved water pH control options have been realized by altering the carbon surface rather than the water chemistry. The change to the carbon surface is accomplished through a controlled oxidation process. This process provides a more acidic carbon surface with a reduced affinity for the anions in the waste water. As a result, the pH excursions above 9 are eliminated and the initial effluent from the adsorption system can be discharged without further treatment.

  18. pH gradient and distribution of streptococci, lactobacilli, prevotellae, and fusobacteria in carious dentine

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ky-Anh T.; Browne, Gina V.; Simonian, Mary; Hunter, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Caries process comprises acidogenic and aciduric bacteria that are responsible for lowering the pH and subsequent destruction of hydroxyapatite matrix in enamel and dentine. The aim of this study was to identify the correlation between the pH gradient of a carious lesion and proportion and distribution of four bacterial genera; lactobacilli, streptococci, prevotellae, and fusobacteria with regard to total load of bacteria. Materials and methods A total of 25 teeth with extensive dentinal caries were sampled in sequential layers. Using quantitative real-time PCR of 16S rRNA gene, we quantified the total load of bacteria as well as the proportion of the abovementioned genera following pH measurement of each sample with a fine microelectrode. Results We demonstrated the presence of a pH gradient across the lesion with a strong association between the quantity of lactobacilli and the lowest pH range (pH 4.5–5.0; p = 0.003). Streptococci had a tendency to occupy the most superficial aspect of the carious lesion but showed no correlation to any pH value. Prevotellae showed clear preference for the pH range 5.5–6.0 (p = 0.042). The total representation of these four genera did not reach more than one quarter of the total bacterial load in most carious samples. Conclusion We revealed differential colonization behavior of bacteria with respect to pH gradient and a lower than expected abundance of lactobacilli and streptococci in established carious lesions. The data indicate the numerical importance of relatively unexplored taxa within the lesion of dentinal caries. Clinical relevance The gradient nature of pH in the lesion as well as colonization difference of examined bacterial taxa with reference to pH provides a new insight in regard to conservative caries management. PMID:23771212

  19. Validation of a portable, waterproof blood pH analyser for elasmobranchs

    PubMed Central

    Bouyoucos, Ian A.; Shipley, Oliver; Rummer, Jodie L.; Mandelman, John W.; Brooks, Edward J.; Grubbs, R. Dean

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Quantifying changes in blood chemistry in elasmobranchs can provide insights into the physiological insults caused by anthropogenic stress, and can ultimately inform conservation and management strategies. Current methods for analysing elasmobranch blood chemistry in the field are often costly and logistically challenging. We compared blood pH values measured using a portable, waterproof pH meter (Hanna Instruments HI 99161) with blood pH values measured by an i-STAT system (CG4+ cartridges), which was previously validated for teleost and elasmobranch fishes, to gauge the accuracy of the pH meter in determining whole blood pH for the Cuban dogfish (Squalus cubensis) and lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris). There was a significant linear relationship between values derived via the pH meter and the i-STAT for both species across a wide range of pH values and temperatures (Cuban dogfish: 6.8–7.1 pH 24–30°C; lemon sharks: 7.0–7.45 pH 25–31°C). The relative error in the pH meter's measurements was ~±2.7%. Using this device with appropriate correction factors and consideration of calibration temperatures can result in both a rapid and accurate assessment of whole blood pH, at least for the two elasmobranch species examined here. Additional species should be examined in the future across a wide range of temperatures to determine whether correction factors are universal. PMID:28616238

  20. Semiautomated pH gradient ion-exchange chromatography of monoclonal antibody charge variants.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Mohammad; Shellie, Robert A; Hilder, Emily F; Lacher, Nathan A; Haddad, Paul R

    2014-10-07

    A new approach using a chromatography system equipped with isocratic pumps and an electrolytic eluent generator (EG) is introduced, replacing external pH gradient delivery using conventional gradient systems, in which bottled buffers with preadjusted pH are mixed using a gradient pump. The EG is capable of generating high purity base or acid required for online preparation of the buffer at the point of use, utilizing deionized water as the only carrier stream. Typically, the buffer was generated from online titration of a reagent composed of low molecular weight amines. The reagent was delivered isocratically into a static mixing tee, where it was titrated to the required pH with electrolytically generated base or acid. The required pH gradient was thus conveniently generated by electrically controlling the concentration of titrant. Also, since the pH was adjusted at the point of use, this approach offered enhanced throughput in terms of eluent preparation time and labor, and with a more reproducible pH profile. The performance of the system was demonstrated by running pH gradients ranging from pH 8.2 to 10.9 on a polymer monolith cation-exchange column for high throughput profiling of charge heterogeneity of intact, basic therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. A high degree of flexibility in modulating the key parameters of the pH gradient, including the buffer concentration, the pH gradient slope and the operating pH range was demonstrated. This enabled fine-tuning of the separation conditions for each individual antibody in order to enhance the chromatographic resolution.

  1. pH gradient and distribution of streptococci, lactobacilli, prevotellae, and fusobacteria in carious dentine.

    PubMed

    Kianoush, Nima; Nguyen, Ky-Anh T; Browne, Gina V; Simonian, Mary; Hunter, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Caries process comprises acidogenic and aciduric bacteria that are responsible for lowering the pH and subsequent destruction of hydroxyapatite matrix in enamel and dentine. The aim of this study was to identify the correlation between the pH gradient of a carious lesion and proportion and distribution of four bacterial genera; lactobacilli, streptococci, prevotellae, and fusobacteria with regard to total load of bacteria. A total of 25 teeth with extensive dentinal caries were sampled in sequential layers. Using quantitative real-time PCR of 16S rRNA gene, we quantified the total load of bacteria as well as the proportion of the above-mentioned genera following pH measurement of each sample with a fine microelectrode. We demonstrated the presence of a pH gradient across the lesion with a strong association between the quantity of lactobacilli and the lowest pH range (pH 4.5-5.0; p = 0.003). Streptococci had a tendency to occupy the most superficial aspect of the carious lesion but showed no correlation to any pH value. Prevotellae showed clear preference for the pH range 5.5-6.0 (p = 0.042). The total representation of these four genera did not reach more than one quarter of the total bacterial load in most carious samples. We revealed differential colonization behavior of bacteria with respect to pH gradient and a lower than expected abundance of lactobacilli and streptococci in established carious lesions. The data indicate the numerical importance of relatively unexplored taxa within the lesion of dentinal caries. The gradient nature of pH in the lesion as well as colonization difference of examined bacterial taxa with reference to pH provides a new insight in regard to conservative caries management.

  2. Measurement of pH micro-heterogeneity in natural cheese matrices by fluorescence lifetime imaging

    PubMed Central

    Burdikova, Zuzana; Svindrych, Zdenek; Pala, Jan; Hickey, Cian D.; Wilkinson, Martin G.; Panek, Jiri; Auty, Mark A. E.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Sheehan, Jeremiah J.

    2015-01-01

    Cheese, a product of microbial fermentation may be defined as a protein matrix entrapping fat, moisture, minerals and solutes as well as dispersed bacterial colonies. The growth and physiology of bacterial cells in these colonies may be influenced by the microenvironment around the colony, or alternatively the cells within the colony may modify the microenvironment (e.g., pH, redox potential) due to their metabolic activity. While cheese pH may be measured at macro level there remains a significant knowledge gap relating to the degree of micro-heterogeneity of pH within the cheese matrix and its relationship with microbial, enzymatic and physiochemical parameters and ultimately with cheese quality, consistency and ripening patterns. The pH of cheese samples was monitored both at macroscopic scale and at microscopic scale, using a non-destructive microscopic technique employing C-SNARF-4 and Oregon Green 488 fluorescent probes. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the suitability of these dyes for microscale pH measurements in natural cheese matrices and to enhance the sensitivity and extend the useful pH range of these probes using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). In particular, fluorescence lifetime of Oregon Green 488 proved to be sensitive probe to map pH micro heterogeneity within cheese matrices. Good agreement was observed between macroscopic scale pH measurement by FLIM and by traditional pH methods, but in addition considerable localized microheterogeneity in pH was evident within the curd matrix with pH range between 4.0 and 5.5. This technique provides significant potential to further investigate the relationship between cheese matrix physico-chemistry and bacterial metabolism during cheese manufacture and ripening. PMID:25798136

  3. Range Safety Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrock, Kenneth W.; Humphries, Ricky H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The high kinetic and potential energy of a launch vehicle mandates there be a mechanism to minimize possible damage to provide adequate safety for the launch facilities, range, and, most importantly, the general public. The Range Safety System, sometimes called the Flight Termination System or Flight Safety System, provides the required level of safety. The Range Safety System section of the Avionics chapter will attempt to describe how adequate safety is provided, the system's design, operation, and it's interface with the rest of the launch vehicle.

  4. Effect of pH on Orthophosphate Uptake by Corn Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Sentenac, Hervé; Grignon, Claude

    1985-01-01

    Orthophosphate (Pi) influx in washed corn roots was studied with experimental conditions allowing a distinction of pH effects on Pi ionization in the medium and on the transport system itself. There appeared to be no relationship between the pH dependencies of membrane potential, H+ secretion, and 32Pi influx. The Pi uptake versus pH curves were compared to the calculated ones describing the concentrations of the different ionized Pi forms in the medium and in the cell walls; the latter were obtained using the theoretical model described by Sentenac and Grignon (1981) Plant Physiol 68: 415-419). The conclusion was that the transported form is H2PO4− and the concentration sensed by the transport system is the local one. The ionic compositions of experimental media were manipulated to ensure constant pH and various H2PO4− concentrations, or constant H2PO4− concentration and various pH values in the walls. The kinetic analysis of the results in the micromolar range showed that the transport system has an intrinsic sensitivity to pH, and is switched from a low activity state at pH > 6 to a high activity one at pH < 4 (pH in the walls). This change could be triggered by the protonation of a group with pK 5.5. PMID:16663996

  5. Empirical algorithms to estimate water column pH in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, N. L.; Juranek, L. W.; Johnson, K. S.; Feely, R. A.; Riser, S. C.; Talley, L. D.; Russell, J. L.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Wanninkhof, R.

    2016-04-01

    Empirical algorithms are developed using high-quality GO-SHIP hydrographic measurements of commonly measured parameters (temperature, salinity, pressure, nitrate, and oxygen) that estimate pH in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. The coefficients of determination, R2, are 0.98 for pH from nitrate (pHN) and 0.97 for pH from oxygen (pHOx) with RMS errors of 0.010 and 0.008, respectively. These algorithms are applied to Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling (SOCCOM) biogeochemical profiling floats, which include novel sensors (pH, nitrate, oxygen, fluorescence, and backscatter). These algorithms are used to estimate pH on floats with no pH sensors and to validate and adjust pH sensor data from floats with pH sensors. The adjusted float data provide, for the first time, seasonal cycles in surface pH on weekly resolution that range from 0.05 to 0.08 on weekly resolution for the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean.

  6. Meta-Cresol Purple Reference Material® (RM) for Seawater pH Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easley, R. A.; Waters, J. F.; Place, B. J.; Pratt, K. W.

    2016-02-01

    The pH of seawater is a fundamental quantity that governs the carbon dioxide - carbonate system in the world's oceans. High quality pH measurements for long-term monitoring, shipboard studies, and shorter-term biological studies (mesocosm and field experiments) can be ensured through a reference material (RM) that is compatible with existing procedures and which is traceable to primary pH measurement metrology. High-precision spectrophotometric measurements of seawater pH using an indicator dye such as meta-cresol purple (mCP) are well established. However, traceability of these measurements to the International System of Units (SI) additionally requires characterizing the spectrophotometric pH response of the dye in multiple artificial seawater buffers that themselves are benchmarked via primary pH (Harned cell) measurements at a range of pH, salinity, and temperature. NIST is currently developing such a mCP pH RM using this approach. This material will also incorporate new procedures developed at NIST for assessing the purity and homogeneity of the mCP reagent itself. The resulting mCP will provide long-term (years) stability and ease of shipment compared to artificial seawater pH buffers. These efforts will provide the oceanographic user community with a NIST issued mCP (RM), characterized as to its molar absorptivity values and acid dissociation constants (pKa), with uncertainties that comply with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM).

  7. A wearable fingernail chemical sensing platform: pH sensing at your fingertips.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jayoung; Cho, Thomas N; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Wang, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    This article demonstrates an example of a wearable chemical sensor based on a fingernail platform. Fingernails represent an attractive wearable platform, merging beauty products with chemical sensing, to enable monitoring of our surrounding environment. The new colorimetric pH fingernail sensor relies on coating artificial nails with a recognition layer consisted of pH indicators entrapped in a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) matrix. Such color changing fingernails offer fast and reversible response to pH changes, repeated use, and intense color change detected easily with naked eye. The PVC matrix prevents leaching out of the indicator molecules from the fingernail sensor toward such repeated use. The limited narrow working pH range of a single pH indicator has been addressed by multiplexing three different pH indicators: bromothymol blue (pH 6.0-7.6), bromocresol green (pH 3.8-5.4), and cresol red (pH 7.2-8.8), as demonstrated for analyses of real-life samples of acidic, neutral, and basic character. The new concept of an optical wearable chemical sensor on fingernail platforms can be expanded towards diverse analytes for various applications in connection to the judicious design of the recognition layer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A structural transition in class II major histocompatibility complex proteins at mildly acidic pH

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Peptide binding by class II major histocompatibility complex proteins is generally enhanced at low pH in the range of hydrogen ion concentrations found in the endosomal compartments of antigen- presenting cells. We and others have proposed that class II molecules undergo a reversible conformational change at low pH that is associated with enhanced peptide loading. However, no one has previously provided direct evidence for a structural change in class II proteins in the mildly acidic pH conditions in which enhanced peptide binding is observed. In this study, susceptibility to denaturation induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) detergent or heat was used to probe the conformation of class II at different hydrogen ion concentrations. Class II molecules became sensitive to denaturation at pH 5.5-6.5 depending on the allele and experimental conditions. The observed structural transition was fully reversible if acidic pH was neutralized before exposure to SDS or heat. Experiments with the environment- sensitive fluorescent probe ANS (8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonic acid) provided further evidence for a reversible structural transition at mildly acidic pH associated with an increase in exposed hydrophobicity in class II molecules. IAd conformation was found to change at a higher pH than IEd, IEk, or IAk, which correlates with the different pH optimal for peptide binding by these molecules. We conclude that pH regulates peptide binding by influencing the structure of class II molecules. PMID:8551215

  9. In Situ Determination of the Intracellular pH of Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum during Pressure Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Gutierrez, Adriana; Stippl, Volker; Delgado, Antonio; Gänzle, Michael G.; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrostatic pressure may affect the intracellular pH of microorganisms by (i) enhancing the dissociation of weak organic acids and (ii) increasing the permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane and inactivation of enzymes required for pH homeostasis. The internal pHs of Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum during and after pressure treatment at 200 and 300 MPa and at pH values ranging from 4.0 to 6.5 were determined. Pressure treatment at 200 MPa for up to 20 min did not reduce the viability of either strain at pH 6.5. Pressure treatment at pH 6.5 and 300 MPa reduced viable cell counts of Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum by 5 log after 20 and 120 min, respectively. Pressure inactivation was faster at pH 5 or 4. At ambient pressure, both strains maintained a transmembrane pH gradient of 1 pH unit at neutral pH and about 2 pH units at pH 4.0. During pressure treatment at 200 and 300 MPa, the internal pH of L. lactis was decreased to the value of the extracellular pH during compression. The same result was observed during treatment of Lactobacillus plantarum at 300 MPa. Lactobacillus plantarum was unable to restore the internal pH after a compression-decompression cycle at 300 MPa and pH 6.5. Lactococcus lactis lost the ability to restore its internal pH after 20 and 4 min of pressure treatment at 200 and 300 MPa, respectively. As a consequence, pressure-mediated stress reactions and cell death may be considered secondary effects promoted by pH and other environmental conditions. PMID:12200293

  10. Colorimetric Determination of pH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Sheryl; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which the pH of a solution can be quantitatively measured using a spectrophotometer. The theory, experimental details, sample preparation and selection, instrumentation, and results are discussed. (CW)

  11. Hot Ductility of the 17-4 PH Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera Lara, V.; Guerra Fuentes, L.; Covarrubias Alvarado, O.; Salinas Rodriguez, A.; Garcia Sanchez, E.

    2016-03-01

    The mechanisms of loss of hot ductility and the mechanical behavior of 17-4 PH alloys were investigated using hot tensile testing at temperatures between 700 and 1100 °C and strain rates of 10-4, 10-2, and 10-1 s-1. Scanning electron microscopy was used in conjunction with the results of the tensile tests to find the temperature region of loss of ductility and correlate it with cracking observed during processing by hot upsetting prior to ring rolling. It is reported that 17-4 PH alloys lose ductility in a temperature range around 900 °C near to the duplex austenite + ferrite phase field. Furthermore, it is found that niobium carbides precipitated at austenite/ferrite interfaces and grain boundaries have a pronounced effect on the mechanical behavior of the alloy during high-temperature deformation.

  12. Miniature Chemical Optical Fiber Sensors For Ph Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisde, G.; Perez, J. J.

    1987-10-01

    A miniature optode (diameter about 1 mm) was built with 200/280 all-silica fibers usable over long distances. The immobilized indicator is fixed on a cross-linked styrene/divinyl-benzene copolymer (XADZI). The sensors are constructed so that measurements can be taken either by absorption at many different points in the single optical fiber, or by reflection from the end of the fiber. A wide range of pH values are encountered with radioactive wastes, and experiments are performed either with bromophenol blue (3.0 to 6.0) or a double-indicator (thymol blue) between 0.8 and 3.2, and 9 and 13 pH, as well as other indicators. Lifetimes, reversibility and kinetics are considered. A new low-cost device is proposed for chemical process control and medical applications.

  13. Adsorption of polyetheramines on montmorillonite at high pH.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yannan; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen S

    2010-11-16

    Adsorption of a series of polyetheramines on montmorillonite in aqueous suspension was investigated by a range of methods: elemental analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, measurement of pH, conductivity and electrophoretic mobility, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Adsorption proceeds through an ion exchange mechanism. The maximum surface coverage attained is equivalent to about 40% of the cationic exchange capacity of the clay. Adsorption of the poly(oxypropylene) block adjacent to the amine group onto the clay surface may contribute to this. Surprisingly the adsorption takes place at pH conditions well above the pK(a) of the amine surfactants, where they are not protonated in the bulk solution. The surface coverage as a function of molar mass broadly agrees with predictions assuming adsorbed polymers adopt a densely packed mushroom configuration at the clay surface.

  14. Preliminary error budget for an optical ranging system: Range, range rate, and differenced range observables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Finger, M. H.

    1990-01-01

    Future missions to the outer solar system or human exploration of Mars may use telemetry systems based on optical rather than radio transmitters. Pulsed laser transmission can be used to deliver telemetry rates of about 100 kbits/sec with an efficiency of several bits for each detected photon. Navigational observables that can be derived from timing pulsed laser signals are discussed. Error budgets are presented based on nominal ground stations and spacecraft-transceiver designs. Assuming a pulsed optical uplink signal, two-way range accuracy may approach the few centimeter level imposed by the troposphere uncertainty. Angular information can be achieved from differenced one-way range using two ground stations with the accuracy limited by the length of the available baseline and by clock synchronization and troposphere errors. A method of synchronizing the ground station clocks using optical ranging measurements is presented. This could allow differenced range accuracy to reach the few centimeter troposphere limit.

  15. SNOWY RANGE WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  16. Mu-2 ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, W. L.; Zygielbaum, A. I.

    1977-01-01

    The Mu-II Dual-Channel Sequential Ranging System designed as a model for future Deep Space Network ranging equipment is described. A list of design objectives is followed by a theoretical explanation of the digital demodulation techniques first employed in this machine. Hardware and software implementation are discussed, together with the details relating to the construction of the device. Two appendixes are included relating to the programming and operation of this equipment to yield the maximum scientific data.

  17. Effect of two mouthwashes on salivary ph.

    PubMed

    Belardinelli, Paola A; Morelatto, Rosana A; Benavidez, Tomás E; Baruzzi, Ana M; López de Blanc, Silvia A

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the effect of two mouthwashes on salivary pH and correlate it with age, buffer capacity and saliva flow rate in healthy volunteers, a crossover phase IV clinical study involving three age-based groups was designed. Two commercial mouthwashes (MW), Cool Mint ListerineR (MWa) and Periobacter R (MWb) were used. The unstimulated saliva of each individual was first characterized by measuring flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity. Salivary pH was evaluated before rinsing with a given MW, immediately after rinsing, 5 minutes later, and then every 10 min (at 15, 25, 35 min) until the baseline pH was recovered. Paired t-test, ANOVA with a randomized block design, and Pearson correlation tests were used. Averages were 0.63 mL/min, 7.06, and 0.87 for flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity, respectively. An immediate significant increase in salivary pH was observed after rinsing, reaching average values of 7.24 (MWb) and 7.30 (MWa), which declined to an almost stable value 15 minutes. The great increase in salivary pH, after MW use shows that saliva is a dynamic system, and that the organism is capable of responding to a stimulus with changes in its composition. It is thus evident that pH of the external agent alone is not a good indicator for its erosive potential because biological systems tend to neutralize it. The results of this study enhance the importance of in vivo measurements and reinforce the concept of the protective action of saliva.

  18. [Power in the PhD programme].

    PubMed

    Tijdink, J K

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the role of power in the world of biomedical research. On the basis of some examples, I intend to demonstrate the influence of power, or its misuse, on PhD students and supervisors, and how this may have a negative effect on the research of PhD students. I will then outline how the biomedical research field can prevent these practices, and how it can create a better and more inspiring atmosphere for young, enthusiastic and talented researchers.

  19. Strategy for pH control and pH feedback-controlled substrate feeding for high-level production of L-tryptophan by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li-Kun; Wang, Jian; Xu, Qing-Yang; Zhao, Chun-Guang; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Xi-Xian; Chen, Ning

    2013-05-01

    Optimum production of L-tryptophan by Escherichia coli depends on pH. Here, we established conditions for optimizing the production of L-tryptophan. The optimum pH range was 6.5-7.2, and pH was controlled using a three-stage strategy [pH 6.5 (0-12 h), pH 6.8 (12-24 h), and pH 7.2 (24-38 h)]. Specifically, ammonium hydroxide was used to adjust pH during the initial 24 h, and potassium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide (1:2, v/v) were used to adjust pH during 24-38 h. Under these conditions, NH4 (+) and K(+) concentrations were kept below the threshold for inhibiting L-tryptophan production. Optimization was also accomplished using ratios (v/v) of glucose to alkali solutions equal to 4:1 (5-24 h) and 6:1 (24-38 h). The concentration of glucose and the pH were controlled by adjusting the pH automatically. Applying a pH-feedback feeding method, the steady-state concentration of glucose was maintained at approximately 0.2 ± 0.02 g/l, and acetic acid accumulated to a concentration of 1.15 ± 0.03 g/l, and the plasmid stability was 98 ± 0.5 %. The final, optimized concentration of L-tryptophan was 43.65 ± 0.29 g/l from 52.43 ± 0.38 g/l dry cell weight.

  20. Photochemical Performance of the Acidophilic Red Alga Cyanidium sp. in a pH Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvíderová, Jana

    2012-06-01

    The acidophilic red alga Cyanidium sp. is one of the dominant mat-forming species in the highly acidic waters of Río Tinto, Spain. The culture of Cyanidium sp., isolated from a microbial mat sample collected at Río Tinto, was exposed to 9 different pH conditions in a gradient from 0.5 to 5 for 24 h and its physiological status evaluated by variable chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics measurements. Maximum quantum yield was determined after 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h and 24 h of exposure after 15 min dark adaptation. The effect of pH on photochemical activity of Cyanidium sp. was observable as early as 30 min after exposure and the pattern remained stable or with only minor modifications for 24 h. The optimum pH ranged from 1.5 to 2.5. A steep decrease of the photochemical activity was observed at pH below 1 even after 30 min of exposure. Although the alga had tolerated the exposure to pH = 1 for at least 6 h, longer (24 h) exposure resulted in reduction of the photochemical activity. At pH above 2.5, the decline was more moderate and its negative effect on photochemistry was less severe. According to the fluorescence measurements, the red alga Cyanidium sp. is well-adapted to prevailing pH at its original locality at Río Tinto, i.e. pH of 1 to 3. The short-term survival in pH < 1.5 may be adaptation to rare exposures to such low pH in the field. The tolerance of pH above 3 could be caused by adaptation to the microenvironment of the inner parts of microbial mats in which Cyanidium sp. usually dominates and where higher pH could occur due to photosynthetic oxygen production.

  1. Ultra-pH-Sensitive Nanoprobe Library with Broad pH Tunability and Fluorescence Emissions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    pH is an important physiological parameter that plays a critical role in cellular and tissue homeostasis. Conventional small molecular pH sensors (e.g., fluorescein, Lysosensor) are limited by broad pH response and restricted fluorescent emissions. Previously, we reported the development of ultra-pH-sensitive (UPS) nanoprobes with sharp pH response using fluorophores with small Stokes shifts (<40 nm). In this study, we expand the UPS design to a library of nanoprobes with operator-predetermined pH transitions and wide fluorescent emissions (400–820 nm). A copolymer strategy was employed to fine tune the hydrophobicity of the ionizable hydrophobic block, which led to a desired transition pH based on standard curves. Interestingly, matching the hydrophobicity of the monomers was critical to achieve a sharp pH transition. To overcome the fluorophore limitations, we introduced copolymers conjugated with fluorescence quenchers (FQs). In the micelle state, the FQs effectively suppressed the emission of fluorophores regardless of their Stokes shifts and further increased the fluorescence activation ratios. As a proof of concept, we generated a library of 10 nanoprobes each encoded with a unique fluorophore. The nanoprobes cover the entire physiologic range of pH (4–7.4) with 0.3 pH increments. Each nanoprobe maintained a sharp pH transition (on/off < 0.25 pH) and high fluorescence activation ratio (>50-fold between on and off states). The UPS library provides a useful toolkit to study pH regulation in many pathophysiological indications (e.g., cancer, lysosome catabolism) as well as establishing tumor-activatable systems for cancer imaging and drug delivery. PMID:25020134

  2. Effect of pH on microstructure and characteristics of cream cheese.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, R R; Tavares, D Q; Kindstedt, P S; Gigante, M L

    2009-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of pH on the microstructure of cream cheese and compared pH-induced changes in its microstructure with concomitant changes in cheese firmness and meltability. On 4 different days, experimental batches of cultured hot pack cream cheese were manufactured and analyzed for initial chemical composition. The cheeses were then sectioned into samples that were randomly assigned to 7 different treatment groups. Three groups were exposed to ammonia vapor for 1, 3, and 5 min to increase the pH; 3 groups were exposed to acetic acid vapor for 30, 60, and 90 min to decrease the pH; and 1 unexposed group served as the control. After equilibration at 4 degrees C, samples were analyzed for pH, firmness, meltability, and microstructure by scanning electron microscopy. The effects of experimental treatments on cheese pH, firmness, and meltability were analyzed by randomized complete block analysis of variance (ANOVA). Relationships between cheese pH and firmness and meltability were evaluated by regression. Experimental treatments significantly affected cheese pH, firmness, and meltability. Cheese firmness decreased and meltability increased with increasing pH from about pH 4.2 to 6.8. Cheese microstructure also changed dramatically over the same approximate pH range. Specifically, the volume of the protein network surrounding the fat droplets increased markedly with increasing pH, presumably due to casein swelling. These data support the hypothesis that protein-to-water interactions increased as the cheese pH increased, which gave rise to progressive swelling of the casein network, softer texture, and increased meltability.

  3. Zoosporic Tolerance to pH Stress and Its Implications for Phytophthora Species in Aquatic Ecosystems▿

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ping; Moorman, Gary W.; Lea-Cox, John D.; Ross, David S.; Richardson, Patricia A.; Hong, Chuanxue

    2009-01-01

    Phytophthora species, a group of destructive plant pathogens, are commonly referred to as water molds, but little is known about their aquatic ecology. Here we show the effect of pH on zoospore survival of seven Phytophthora species commonly isolated from irrigation reservoirs and natural waterways and dissect zoospore survival strategy. Zoospores were incubated in a basal salt liquid medium at pH 3 to 11 for up to 7 days and then plated on a selective medium to determine their survival. The optimal pHs differed among Phytophthora species, with the optimal pH for P. citricola at pH 9, the optimal pH for P. tropicalis at pH 5, and the optimal pH for the five other species, P. citrophthora, P. insolita, P. irrigata, P. megasperma, and P. nicotianae, at pH 7. The greatest number of colonies was recovered from zoospores of all species plated immediately after being exposed to different levels of pH. At pH 5 to 11, the recovery rate decreased sharply (P ≤ 0.0472) after 1-day exposure for five of the seven species. In contrast, no change occurred (P ≥ 0.1125) in the recovery of any species even after a 7-day exposure at pH 3. Overall, P. megasperma and P. citricola survived longer at higher rates in a wider range of pHs than other species did. These results are generally applicable to field conditions as indicated by additional examination of P. citrophthora and P. megasperma in irrigation water at different levels of pH. These results challenge the notion that all Phytophthora species inhabit aquatic environments as water molds and have significant implications in the management of plant diseases resulting from waterborne microbial contamination. PMID:19429548

  4. Estimating parasite host range.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Tad; Huang, Shan; Nunn, Charles; Park, Andrew W; Drake, John M

    2017-08-30

    Estimating the number of host species that a parasite can infect (i.e. host range) provides key insights into the evolution of host specialism and is a central concept in disease ecology. Host range is rarely estimated in real systems, however, because variation in species relative abundance and the detection of rare species makes it challenging to confidently estimate host range. We applied a non-parametric richness indicator to estimate host range in simulated and empirical data, allowing us to assess the influence of sampling heterogeneity and data completeness. After validating our method on simulated data, we estimated parasite host range for a sparsely sampled global parasite occurrence database (Global Mammal Parasite Database) and a repeatedly sampled set of parasites of small mammals from New Mexico (Sevilleta Long Term Ecological Research Program). Estimation accuracy varied strongly with parasite taxonomy, number of parasite occurrence records, and the shape of host species-abundance distribution (i.e. the dominance and rareness of species in the host community). Our findings suggest that between 20% and 40% of parasite host ranges are currently unknown, highlighting a major gap in our understanding of parasite specificity, host-parasite network structure, and parasite burdens. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Target Height and Target Range for Japanese Children: Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kagami, Masayo

    2007-01-01

    In 1990, we proposed the equations to calculate target height (TH) and target range (TR) for Japanese, taking account of the positive height secular trend observed over the last ∼100 years. However, height difference between generations appears to have become small or negligible in contemporary Japanese populations. Thus, we re-analyzed the Japanese height data, and revised the equations for TH and TR for contemporary Japanese children as follows (cm): Boys, TH = {PH + (MH + 13)} ÷ 2, TR = TH ± 9; and Girls, TH = {(PH – 13) + MH} ÷ 2; TR = TH ± 8, where PH indicates paternal height and MH maternal height. PMID:24790351

  6. Micro Electrochemical pH Sensor Applicable for Real-Time Ratiometric Monitoring of pH Values in Rat Brains.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Limin; Tian, Yang

    2016-02-16

    To develop in vivo monitoring meter for pH measurements is still the bottleneck for understanding the role of pH plays in the brain diseases. In this work, a selective and sensitive electrochemical pH meter was developed for real-time ratiometric monitoring of pH in different regions of rat brains upon ischemia. First, 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ) was employed and optimized as a selective pH recognition element to establish a 2H(+)/2e(-) approach over a wide range of pH from 5.8 to 8.0. The pH meter demonstrated remarkable selectivity toward pH detection against metal ions, amino acids, reactive oxygen species, and other biological species in the brain. Meanwhile, an inner reference, 6-(ferrocenyl)hexanethiol (FcHT), was selected as a built-in correction to avoid the environmental effect through coimmobilization with 1,2-NQ. In addition, three-dimensional gold nanoleaves were electrodeposited onto the electrode surface to amplify the signal by ∼4.0-fold and the measurement was achieved down to 0.07 pH. Finally, combined with the microelectrode technique, the microelectrochemical pH meter was directly implanted into brain regions including the striatum, hippocampus, and cortex and successfully applied in real-time monitoring of pH values in these regions of brain followed by global cerebral ischemia. The results demonstrated that pH values were estimated to 7.21 ± 0.05, 7.13 ± 0.09, and 7.27 ± 0.06 in the striatum, hippocampus, and cortex in the rat brains, respectively, in normal conditions. However, pH decreased to 6.75 ± 0.07 and 6.52 ± 0.03 in the striatum and hippocampus, upon global cerebral ischemia, while a negligible pH change was obtained in the cortex.

  7. Laser Ranging Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazolla, Sabino; Hemmati, Hamid; Tratt, David

    2003-01-01

    Laser Ranging Simulation Program (LRSP) is a computer program that predicts selected aspects of the performances of a laser altimeter or other laser ranging or remote-sensing systems and is especially applicable to a laser-based system used to map terrain from a distance of several kilometers. Designed to run in a more recent version (5 or higher) of the MATLAB programming language, LRSP exploits the numerical and graphical capabilities of MATLAB. LRSP generates a graphical user interface that includes a pop-up menu that prompts the user for the input of data that determine the performance of a laser ranging system. Examples of input data include duration and energy of the laser pulse, the laser wavelength, the width of the laser beam, and several parameters that characterize the transmitting and receiving optics, the receiving electronic circuitry, and the optical properties of the atmosphere and the terrain. When the input data have been entered, LRSP computes the signal-to-noise ratio as a function of range, signal and noise currents, and ranging and pointing errors.

  8. [Methods for the determination of pH value and redox potential in the rumen fluid of adult cattle].

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Mannhardt, K

    1994-10-01

    pH sticks and pH meters were tested to determine ruminal pH and mV meters in order to measure the redox potential in rumen contents. Rumen pH can be determined by reading pH sticks left in rumen liquor or immediately after removal. Differences between pH sticks and a reference method accounted for 0.01-0.48 pH units, depending on the pH stick used and the pH range of the ruminal contents (pH < 6, 6-7, > 7). Ruminal pH is accurately measured by the pH meters pHep and GPHR (y = -0.22 + 1.03x, or y = 0.15 + 0.97 x). By using a mV meter the redox potential in rumen liquor can be determined 10 min after start of measurement. Results determined with the mV meter GPHR showed a mean difference of 10-23 mV, those determined with ORP a mean difference of 131-202 mV in comparison with a reference method. There is no linear correlation between the data of the mV measurements and the data of the methylene blue reduction test in ruminal contents (y = -328.5 - 0.003 x; p = 0.652). Therefore these data may not be in used in the same manner for rumen liquor diagnosis.

  9. Immobilized fluorescent dyes for sensitive pH measurements on enamel surfaces with fiber optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumphorst, A.; Seeger, Stefan; Duschner, H.

    1996-01-01

    Information on the pH directly on surfaces of dental enamel is an important aspect in research on tooth decay. As an alternative to pH-electrodes our approach to the problem is the optical determination of pH by pH sensitive fluorescent dyes immobilized to tooth surfaces. In this study a model for measuring pH either on aminated cellulose substrates or on enamel (in vitro) with a fluorescein type dye is presented. The experimental realization is a fiber optic sensor with a nitrogen-pumped dye laser system and photodiode for the detection of the emitted fluorescence light. The surface pH values in the range between 4 and 7 were derived from the ratios of the excitation bands at 490 nm and 460 nm.

  10. ATS-3 ranging support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brisken, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to provide NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center with ATS-3 ranging data from ground stations of the VHF network and from an additional ground station installed at the NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center. Ranging measurements to the NASA transponder enabled calculation of the transponder's line-of-position. Installation of an S-band transponder at the same site and the conduct of ranging experiments to this transponder and others via ATS-6 provided a second line-of-position. The NASA S-band transponder was specifically designed for installation aboard spacecraft. Consequently, this program provided NASA an opportunity to compare two different techniques using geostationary satellites in the tracking low orbit satellites.

  11. MRF with adjustable pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2011-10-01

    Deterministic final polishing of high precision optics using sub-aperture processing with magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is an accepted practice throughout the world. A wide variety of materials can be successfully worked with aqueous (pH 10), magnetorheological (MR) fluids, using magnetic carbonyl iron (CI) and either ceria or nanodiamond nonmagnetic abrasives. Polycrystalline materials like zinc sulfide (ZnS) and zinc selenide (ZnSe) are difficult to polish at pH 10 with MRF, due to their grain size and the relatively low stiffness of the MR fluid lap. If microns of material are removed, the grain structure of the material begins to appear. In 2005, Kozhinova et al. (Appl. Opt. 44 4671-4677) demonstrated that lowering pH could improve MRF of ZnS. However, magnetic CI particle corrosion rendered their low pH approach unstable and unsuitable for commercial implementation. In 2009, Shafrir et al. described a sol-gel coating process for manufacturing a zirconia-coated CI particle that protects the magnetic core from aqueous corrosion (Appl. Opt .48 6797-6810). The coating process produces free nanozirconia polishing abrasives during the coating procedure, thereby creating an MR polishing powder that is "self-charged" with the polishing abrasive. By simply adding water, it was possible to polish optical glasses and ceramics with good stability at pH 8 for three weeks. The development of a corrosion resistant, MR polishing powder, opens up the possibility for polishing additional materials, wherein the pH may be adjusted to optimize effectiveness. In this paper we describe the CI coating process, the characterization of the coated powder, and procedures for making stable MR fluids with adjustable pH, giving polishing results for a variety of optical glasses and crystalline ceramics.

  12. VENUS Ranging Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    the two dimensional PECan modelling presented in the next section. The seamount at 30 km range from RC to CN has a significant effect on propagation...Gabriola Island there is an apparent ‘ seamount ’ in the bathymetry profiles of CN and EN at a range of 30 km from RC, see Figure 3. The sediment in the...region of the ‘ seamount ’ corresponds to the rock, gravel, and gravel and rock shown in Figure 5 intersecting each track off Gabriola Island. The

  13. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR). NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). Maps show the general location of the WATR area that is used for aeronautical testing and evaluation. The products, services and facilities of WATR are discussed,

  14. Himalayan Mountain Range, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Snow is present the year round in most of the high Himalaya Mountain Range (33.0N, 76.5E). In this view taken at the onset of winter, the continuous snow line can be seen for hundreds of miles along the south face of the range in the Indian states of Punjab and Kashmir. The snow line is at about 12,000 ft. altitude but the deep Cenab River gorge is easily delineated as a break along the south edge of the snow covered mountains. '

  15. Satellite Laser Ranging operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is currently providing precision orbit determination for measurements of: 1) Ocean surface topography from satellite borne radar altimetry, 2) Spatial and temporal variations of the gravity field, 3) Earth and ocean tides, 4) Plate tectonic and regional deformation, 5) Post-glacial uplift and subsidence, 6) Variations in the Earth's center-of-mass, and 7) Variations in Earth rotation. SLR also supports specialized programs in time transfer and classical geodetic positioning, and will soon provide precision ranging to support experiments in relativity.

  16. Broad host range plasmids.

    PubMed

    Jain, Aayushi; Srivastava, Preeti

    2013-11-01

    Plasmids are and will remain important cloning vehicles for biotechnology. They have also been associated with the spread of a number of diseases and therefore are a subject of environmental concern. With the advent of sequencing technologies, the database of plasmids is increasing. It will be of immense importance to identify the various bacterial hosts in which the plasmid can replicate. The present review article describes the features that confer broad host range to the plasmids, the molecular basis of plasmid host range evolution, and applications in recombinant DNA technology and environment.

  17. pH neutralization and zonation in alkaline-saline tank waste plumes.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jiamin; Larsen, Joern T; Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Zheng, Zuoping

    2004-03-01

    At the Hanford Site in Washington State, the pH values of contaminant plumes resulting from leaking of initially highly alkaline-saline radioactive waste solutions into the subsurface are now found to be substantially neutralized. However, the nature of plume pH neutralization has not previously been understood. As a master geochemical variable, pH needs to be understood in order to predict the fate and transport of contaminants carried by the waste plumes. Through this laboratory study, we found that the plume pH values spanned a broad range from 14 (within the near-source region) down to the value of 7 (lower than the pH value of the initial soil solution) while the plume was still connected to an actively leaking source. We defined two zones within a plume: the silicate dissolution zone (SDZ, pH 14-10) and the neutralized zone (NZ, pH 10-7). Quartz dissolution at elevated temperature and precipitation of secondary silicates (including sodium metasilicate, cancrinite, and zeolites) are the key reactions responsible for the pH neutralization within the SDZ. The rapid and thorough cation exchange of Na+ replacing Ca2+/Mg2+, combined with transport, resulted in a dynamic Ca2+/Mg2+-enriched plume front. Subsequent precipitation of calcite, sodium silicate, and possibly talc led to dramatically reduced pH within the plume front and the neutralized zone. During aging (after the plume source became inactive), continued quartz dissolution and the secondary silicate precipitation drove the pH value lower, toward pH 11 at equilibrium within the SDZ, whereas the pH values in the NZ remained relatively unchanged with time. A pH profile of 11 from the plume source to pH 7 at the plume front is expected for a historical plume. This laboratory-based study provided realistic plume pH profiles (consistent with that measured from borehole samples) and identified underlying mechanisms responsible for pH evolution.

  18. Rain pH estimation based on the particulate matter pollutants and wet deposition study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shweta; Elumalai, Suresh Pandian; Pal, Asim Kumar

    2016-09-01

    In forecasting of rain pH, the changes caused by particulate matter (PM) are generally neglected. In regions of high PM concentration like Dhanbad, the role of PM in deciding the rain pH becomes important. Present work takes into account theoretical prediction of rain pH by two methods. First method considers only acid causing gases (ACG) like CO2, SO2 and NOx in pH estimation, whereas, second method additionally accounts for effect of PM (ACG-PM). In order to predict the rain pH, site specific deposited dust that represents local PM was studied experimentally for its impact on pH of neutral water. After incorporation of PM correction factor, it was found that, rain pH values estimated were more representative of the observed ones. Fractional bias (FB) for the ACG-PM method reduced to values of the order of 10(-2) from those with order of 10(-1) for the ACG method. The study confirms neutralization of rain acidity by PM. On account of this, rain pH was found in the slightly acidic to near neutral range, despite of the high sulfate flux found in rain water. Although, the safer range of rain pH blurs the severity of acid rain from the picture, yet huge flux of acidic and other ions get transferred to water bodies, soil and ultimately to the ground water system. Simple use of rain pH for rain water quality fails to address the issues of its increased ionic composition due to the interfering pollutants and thus undermines severity of pollutants transferred from air to rain water and then to water bodies and soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multicolored pH-Tunable and Activatable Fluorescence Nanoplatform Responsive to Physiologic pH Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kejin; Liu, Haoming; Zhang, Shanrong; Huang, Xiaonan; Wang, Yiguang; Huang, Gang; Sumer, Baran D.; Gao, Jinming

    2012-01-01

    Tunable, ultra-pH responsive fluorescent nanoparticles with multichromatic emissions are highly valuable in a variety of biological studies, such as endocytic trafficking, endosome/lysosome maturation, and pH regulation in subcellular organelles. Small differences (e.g., <1 pH unit) and yet finely regulated physiological pH inside different endocytic compartments present a huge challenge to the design of such a system. Herein, we report a general strategy to produce pH-tunable, highly activatable multicolored fluorescent nanoparticles using commonly available pH-insensitive dyes with emission wavelengths from green to near IR range. pH-induced micellization is the primary driving force of fluorescence activation between the ON (unimer) and OFF (micelle) states. Among three possible photochemical mechanisms, homo Förster resonance energy transfer (homo-FRET) was found to be the most facile strategy to render ultra-pH response over the H-dimer and photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) mechanisms. Based on this insight, we selected several fluorophores with small Stoke shifts (<40 nm) and established a panel of multicolored nanoparticles with wide emission range (500-820 nm) and different pH transitions. Each nanoparticle maintained the sharp pH response (ON/OFF <0.25 pH unit) with corresponding pH transition point at pH 5.2, 6.4, 6.9 and 7.2. Incubation of a mixture of multicolored nanoparticles with human H2009 lung cancer cells demonstrated sequential activation of the nanoparticles inside endocytic compartments directly correlating with their pH transitions. This multicolored, pH-tunable nanoplatform offers many exciting opportunities for the study of many important cell physiological processes such as pH regulation and endocytic trafficking of subcellular organelles. PMID:22524413

  20. Assessment of pH variability at a coastal CO 2 vent for ocean acidification studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerrison, Philip; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Suggett, David J.; Hepburn, Leanne J.; Steinke, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Marine environments with naturally high CO 2 concentrations have become important research sites for studying the impacts of future ocean acidification on biological processes. We conducted high temporal resolution pH and temperature measurements in and around a shallow (2.5-3 m) CO 2 vent site off Ischia, Italy in May and June 2008. Loggers were deployed at five stations to monitor water at both the surface and benthos. Our reference station, 500 m from the CO 2 vent, had no noticeable vent influence. It had a naturally high and stable benthic pH (mean 8.16, inter-quartile range (IQ): 8.14-8.18) fluctuating with diel periodicity, presumably driven by community photosynthesis and respiration. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the pH of this station was well constrained by meteorological parameters. In contrast, a station positioned within the vent zone, had a low and very variable benthic mean pH of 7.11 (IQ: 6.91-7.62) with large pH fluctuations not well constrained by a PCA. Any stations positioned within 20 m of the main vent zone had lowered pH, but suffered from abnormally large pH fluctuations making them unsuitable representatives to predict future changes to a shallow coastal environment. Between these extremes, we identified a benthic area with a lower pH of 7.84 (IQ: 7.83-7.88) that retained many of the characteristics of the reference station such as a natural diel pH periodicity and low variability. Our results indicate that a range of pH environments maybe commonplace near CO 2 vents due to their characteristic acidification of benthic water over a wide area. Such environments could become invaluable natural laboratories for ocean acidification research, closely mimicking future CO 2 conditions in a natural setting.

  1. pH. Training Module 5.305.2.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with pH, measurement of pH with a pH meter and maintenance of pH meter electrodes. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers the definition of pH, types of electrodes and…

  2. Fabrication and characterization of TiO2 coated cone shaped nano-fiber pH sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, A. K.; Bhardwaj, V.; Gangwar, R. K.; De, M.; Singh, V. K.

    2017-03-01

    In the present paper a novel cone shaped nano-fiber (CSNF) pH sensor using multi-mode fiber (MMF) has been fabricated and demonstrated. Three different pH indicators, chlorophenol red, bromothymol blue and cresol red with precursor tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) have been used for fabrication of pH sensing layer. A significant enhancement in sensing properties of pH sensor with TiO2 thin film has been observed. The pH sensor with TiO2 thin film shows the quite high sensitivity (1.16 dBm/pH) as compared to sensor with simple pH coating (0.81 dBm/pH) at 1550 nm with a good linear response. Moreover, the sensor with TiO2 film exhibits fast response time of ∼ 25 s for pH values ranging from 4 to 11 with excellent stability and durability.

  3. Agriculture, forest, and range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the panel for developing a satellite remote-sensing global information system in the next decade are reported. User requirements were identified in five categories: (1) cultivated crops, (2) land resources, (3)water resources, (4)forest management, and (5) range management. The benefits from the applications of satellite data are discussed.

  4. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Bogle, R.W.

    1960-11-22

    A description is given of a super-regenerative oscillator ranging device provided with radiating and receiving means and being capable of indicating the occurrence of that distance between itself and a reflecting object which so phases the received echo of energy of a preceding emitted oscillation that the intervals between oscillations become uniform.

  5. Institutional Long Range Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell Community Coll. and Technical Inst., Lenoir, NC.

    Long-range institutional planning has been in effect at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute since 1973. The first step in the process was the identification of planning areas: administration, organization, educational programs, learning resources, student services, faculty, facilities, maintenance/operation, and finances. The major…

  6. Long Range Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson Coll., Hillsboro, MO.

    This document presents Jefferson College's "Long Range Plan," which is intended to provide the College's governing board, administration, and faculty and staff with a task-oriented blueprint for maximizing the delivery of higher education services to students and the community in a predictable, programmatic, and fiscally sound manner.…

  7. Himalayan Mountain Range

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1981-04-14

    STS001-12-350 (12-14 April 1981) --- India and China, the Ladokh and Zaskar Ranges of the Great Himalaya are clearly etched by snow and shadow. A detailed view shows the glaciation process over a wide area. Photo credit: NASA

  8. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crea, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    In the area of crop specie identification, it has been found that temporal data analysis, preliminary stratification, and unequal probability analysis were several of the factors that contributed to high identification accuracies. Single data set accuracies on fields of greater than 80,000 sq m (20 acres) are in the 70- to 90-percent range; however, with the use of temporal data, accuracies of 95 percent have been reported. Identification accuracy drops off significantly on areas of less than 80,000 sq m (20 acres) as does measurement accuracy. Forest stratification into coniferous and deciduous areas has been accomplished to a 90- to 95-percent accuracy level. Using multistage sampling techniques, the timber volume of a national forest district has been estimated to a confidence level and standard deviation acceptable to the Forest Service at a very favorable cost-benefit time ratio. Range specie/plant community vegetation mapping has been accomplished at various levels of success (69- to 90-percent accuracy). However, several investigators have obtained encouraging initial results in range biomass (forage production) estimation and range readiness predictions. Soil association map correction and soil association mapping in new area appear to have been proven feasible on large areas; however, testing in a complex soil area should be undertaken.

  9. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.

  10. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  11. Front Range Branch Officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Front Range Branch of AGU has installed officers for 1990: Ray Noble, National Center for Atmospheric Research, chair; Sherry Oaks, U.S. Geological Survey, chair-elect; Howard Garcia, NOAA, treasurer; Catharine Skokan, Colorado School of Mines, secretary. JoAnn Joselyn of NOAA is past chair. Members at large are Wallace Campbell, NOAA; William Neff, USGS; and Stephen Schneider, NCAR.

  12. Nonscanning confocal ranging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, P. C.; Arons, E.

    1995-03-01

    We demonstrate a nonscanning confocal ranging system based on spatially incoherent interferometry. Such a system has significant advantages over the conventional confocal imaging system and other interferometric systems. We develop the theory in terms of coherence cells and demonstrate the equivalence of our method to the conventional confocal methods. Experimental results are also provided.

  13. Fact Sheet: Range Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelson, C.; Fretter, E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Ames has a long tradition in leadership with the use of ballistic ranges and shock tubes for the purpose of studying the physics and phenomena associated with hypervelocity flight. Cutting-edge areas of research run the gamut from aerodynamics, to impact physics, to flow-field structure and chemistry. This legacy of testing began in the NACA era of the 1940's with the Supersonic Free Flight Tunnel, and evolved dramatically up through the late 1950s with the pioneering work in the Ames Hypersonic Ballistic Range. The tradition continued in the mid-60s with the commissioning of the three newest facilities: the Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) in 1964, the Hypervelocity Free Flight Facility (HFFF) in 1965 and the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) in 1966. Today the Range Complex continues to provide unique and critical testing in support of the Nation's programs for planetary geology and geophysics; exobiology; solar system origins; earth atmospheric entry, planetary entry, and aerobraking vehicles; and various configurations for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft.

  14. STDN ranging equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Final results of the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) Ranging Equipment program are summarized. Basic design concepts and final design approaches are described. Theoretical analyses which define requirements and support the design approaches are presented. Design verification criteria are delineated and verification test results are specified.

  15. Mobile satellite ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverberg, E. C.

    1978-01-01

    A brief review of the constraints which have limited satellite ranging hardware and an outline of the steps which are underway to improve the status of the equipment in this area are given. In addition, some suggestions are presented for the utilization of newer instruments and for possible future research and development work in this area.

  16. Space-Based Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Space-Based Range (SBR), previously known as Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS), is a multicenter NASA proof-of-concept project to determine if space-based communications using NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) can support the Range Safety functions of acquiring tracking data and generating flight termination signals, while also providing broadband Range User data such as voice, video, and vehicle/payload data. There was a successful test of the Range Safety system at Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on December 20, 2005, on a two-stage Terrier-Orion spin-stabilized sounding rocket. SBR transmitted GPS tracking data and maintained links with two TDRSS satellites simultaneously during the 10-min flight. The payload section deployed a parachute, landed in the Atlantic Ocean about 90 miles downrange from the launch site, and was successfully recovered. During the Terrier-Orion tests flights, more than 99 percent of all forward commands and more than 95 percent of all return frames were successfully received and processed. The time latency necessary for a command to travel from WFF over landlines to White Sands Complex and then to the vehicle via TDRSS, be processed onboard, and then be sent back to WFF was between 1.0 s and 1.1 s. The forward-link margins for TDRS-10 (TDRS East [TDE]) were 11 dB to 12 dB plus or minus 2 dB, and for TDRS-4 (TDRS Spare [TDS]) were 9 dB to 10 dB plus or minus 1.5 dB. The return-link margins for both TDE and TDS were 6 dB to 8 dB plus or minus 3 dB. There were 11 flights on an F-15B at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) between November 2006 and February 2007. The Range User system tested a 184-element TDRSS Ku-band (15 GHz) phased-array antenna with data rates of 5 Mbps and 10 Mbps. This data was a combination of black-and-white cockpit video, Range Safety tracking and transceiver data, and aircraft and antenna controller data streams. IP data formatting was used.

  17. High performance flexible pH sensor based on carboxyl-functionalized and DEP aligned SWNTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lu; Shao, Jinyou; Li, Xiangming; Zhao, Qiang; Nie, Bangbang; Xu, Chuan; Ding, Haitao

    2016-11-01

    The detection and control of the pH is very important in many biomedical and chemical reaction processes. A miniaturized flexible pH sensor that is light weight, robust, and conformable is very important in many applications, such as multifunctional lab-on-a-chip systems or wearable biomedical devices. In this work, we demonstrate a flexible chemiresistive pH sensor based on dielectrophoresis (DEP) aligned carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Decorated carboxyl groups can react with hydrogen (H+) and hydroxide (OH-) ions, enabling the sensor to be capable of sensing the pH. DEP is used to deposit well-organized and highly aligned SWNTs in desired locations, which improves the metal-nanotube interface and highly rapid detection of the pH, resulting in better overall device performance. When pH buffer solutions are dropped onto such SWNTs, the H+ and OH- ions caninteract with the carboxyl groups and affect the generation of holes and electrons in the SWNTs, leading to resistance variations in the SWNTs. The results shows that the relative resistance variations of the sensor increases linearly with increasing the pH values in the range from 5 to 9 and the response time ranges from 0.2 s to 22.6 s. The pH sensor also shows high performance in mechanical bendability, which benefited from the combination of flexible PET substrates and SWNTs. The SWNT-based flexible pH sensor demonstrates great potential in a wide range of areas due to its simple structure, excellent performance, low power consumption, and compatibility with integrated circuits.

  18. Assessment of long-term pH developments in leachate from waste incineration residues.

    PubMed

    Astrup, Thomas; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas H; Hansen, Jette B; Hjelmar, Ole

    2006-10-01

    Environmental assessment of residue disposal needs to account for long-term changes in leaching conditions. Leaching of heavy metals from incineration residues are highly affected by the leachate pH; the overall environmental consequences of disposing of these residues are therefore greatly influenced by changes in pH over time. The paper presents an approach for assessing pH changes in leachate from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) air-pollution-control (APC) residues. Residue samples were subjected to a stepwise batch extraction method in order to obtain residue samples at a range of pH values (similar to common pH-dependence tests), and then on these samples to determine leaching of alkalinity as well as remaining solid phase alkalinity. On a range of APC residues covering various pretreatment and disposal options, this procedure was used to determine leachable and residual alkalinity as a function of pH. Mass balance calculations for typical disposal scenarios were used to provide data on pH as a function of the liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio in the leaching system. Regardless of residue type and pretreatment, pH was found to stay above 7 for L/S ratios up to about 2000 L kg(-1) corresponding to about 100,000 years in typical landfill scenarios. It was found that pH changes were mainly governed by alkalinity decreases from leaching processes rather than neutralization reactions. The results suggest that leaching testing for assessment purposes should be carried out in the alkaline range, for example, at pH 9. The paper offers a thorough basis for further modelling of incineration residue leaching and for modelling the environmental consequences of landfilling and utilization of these residues.

  19. MD-PhDs in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Prystowsky, J H

    1992-05-01

    A national survey was conducted to explore ways in which MD-PhDs in dermatology balance their research and clinical interests and the factors that influenced their career decisions. A questionnaire was mailed to all MD-PhDs who were affiliated with dermatology training programs as determined by a preliminary study. The survey consisted of a questionnaire about research background, career pathway, attitudes about personal and professional issues, and influence of residency training program on career decision making. From 60 MD-PhD dermatologists surveyed, 43 (72%) completed questionnaires. Eighty percent of the respondents (34 of 43) held positions in academic medicine; 76% entered dermatology with the intent to pursue academic medicine. Almost all (93%) held academic positions immediately after residency; 50% held positions with the title of assistant professor or higher as their first postresidency employment. Only 26% of the respondents received funding for their MD-PhD through the federally funded Medical Scientist Training Program. Fifty percent of the respondents completed their training with loans. Despite the long period of training and expense required for the dual career, a high percentage (80%) stayed in academic dermatology suggesting that they are an important source for supplying physician-scientists to the field of dermatology. The ability to limit patient care responsibilities and maintain protected time for research may be a factor responsible for the high percentage of MD-PhDs that stay in academic dermatology.

  20. Imaging pH and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Arig Ibrahim; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Wojtkowiakk, Jonathan W.; Gillies, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis is a multistep process that culminates in the spread of cells from a primary tumor to a distant site or organs. For tumor cells to be able to metastasize, they have to locally invade through basement membrane into the lymphatic and the blood vasculatures. Eventually they extravasate from the blood and colonize in the secondary organ. This process involves multiple interactions between the tumor cells and their microenvironments. The microenvironment surrounding tumors has a significant impact on tumor development and progression. A key factor in the microenvironment is an acidic pH. The extracellular pH of solid tumors is more acidic in comparison to normal tissue as a consequence of high glycolysis and poor perfusion. It plays an important role in almost all steps of metastasis. The past decades have seen development of technologies to non-invasively measure intra- and/or extracellular pH. Most successful measurements are MR-based, and sensitivity and accuracy have dramatically improved. Quantitatively imaging the distribution of acidity helps us understand the role of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression. This review discusses different MR methods in measuring tumor pH along with emphasizing the importance of extracelluar tumor low pH on different steps of metastasis; more specifically focusing on Epithelial to Mesenchymal transition (EMT), and anti cancer immunity. PMID:21387439

  1. The effect of pH on chronic aquatic nickel toxicity is dependent on the pH itself: Extending the chronic nickel bioavailability models.

    PubMed

    Nys, Charlotte; Janssen, Colin R; Van Sprang, Patrick; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2016-05-01

    The environmental quality standard for Ni in the European Commission's Water Framework Directive is bioavailability based. Although some of the available chronic Ni bioavailability models are validated only for pH ≤ 8.2, a considerable fraction of European surface waters has a pH > 8.2. Therefore, the authors investigated the effect of a change in pH from 8.2 to 8.7 on chronic Ni toxicity in 3 invertebrate (Daphnia magna, Lymnaea stagnalis, and Brachionus calyciflorus) and 2 plant species (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Lemna minor). Nickel toxicity was almost always significantly higher at pH 8.7 than at pH 8.2. To test whether the existing chronic Ni bioavailability models developed for pH ≤ 8.2 can be used at higher pH levels, Ni toxicity at pH 8.7 was predicted based on Ni toxicity observed at pH 8.2. This resulted in a consistent underestimation of toxicity. The results suggest that the effect of pH on Ni(2+) toxicity is dependent on the pH itself: the slope of the pH effect is steeper above than below pH 8.2 for species for which a species-specific bioavailability model exists. Therefore, the existing chronic Ni bioavailability models were modified to allow predictions of chronic Ni toxicity to invertebrates and plants in the pH range of 8.2 to 8.7 by applying a pH slope (SpH ) dependent on the pH of the target water. These modified Ni bioavailability models resulted in more accurate predictions of Ni toxicity to all 5 species (within 2-fold error), without the bias observed using the bioavailability models developed for pH ≤ 8.2. The results of the present study can decrease the uncertainty in implementing the bioavailability-based environmental quality standard under the Water Framework Directive for high-pH regions in Europe. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. The thermal stability of the Fusarium solani pisi cutinase as a function of pH

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the thermal stability of the Fusarium solani pisi cutinase as a function of pH, in the range from pH 2–12. Its highest enzymatic activity coincides with the pH-range at which it displays its highest thermal stability. The unfolding of the enzyme as a function of pH was investigated by microcalorimetry. The ratio between the calorimetric enthalpy (ΔHcal) and the van't Hoff enthalpy (ΔHv) obtained, is far from unity, indicating that cutinase does not exhibit a simple two state unfolding behaviour. The role of pH on the electrostatic contribution to the thermal stability was assessed using TITRA. We propose a molecular interpretation for the pH-variation in enzymatic activity. PMID:12488611

  3. Effect of pH on corrosion inhibition of steel by polyaspartic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, D.C.; Kalota, D.J.; Stover, F.S.

    1995-10-01

    Polyaspartic acid, a polymeric form of aspartic acid has been examined as a corrosion inhibitor for steel as a function of pH, temperature, and hydrodynamic conditions. The temperature ranged from 25 C to 95 C and the concentration ranged from less than 1% to about 10% by weight. Experimental procedures included electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the rotating cylinder electrode, and coupon immersion. At low to neutral pH values, polyaspartic acid increases the corrosion rate of steel. At high pH above about 10, polyaspartic acid is a reasonably robust corrosion inhibitor. Between a pH of 7 and 10, corrosion in the presence of polyaspartic acid is a complex function of temperature, concentration, water quality, and hydrodynamic conditions. By combining corrosion potential measurements with speciation diagrams as obtained by titration, a reasonably cohesive explanation of the behavior has been developed.

  4. Effect of pH on corrosion inhibition of steel by polyaspartic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, D.C.; Kalota, D.J.; Stover, F.S.

    1995-11-01

    Polyaspartic acid, a polymeric form of aspartic acid (C{sub 4}H{sub 7}NO{sub 4}), was examined as a corrosion inhibitor for steel as a function of pH, temperature, and hydrodynamic conditions. The temperature ranged from 25 C to 95 C, and the concentration ranged from < 1 wt% to {approximately} 10 wt%. Experimental procedures included electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the rotating cylinder electrode (RCE), and coupon immersion. At low to neutral pH values, polyaspartic acid increased the corrosion rate of steel. At high pH (< {approximately} 10), polyaspartic acid was a reasonably robust corrosion inhibitor. Between pH 7 and 10, corrosion in the presence of polyaspartic acid was a complex function of temperature concentration, water quality, and hydrodynamic conditions. By combining corrosion potential measurements with speciation diagrams obtained by titration, a reasonably cohesive explanation of the behavior was developed.

  5. pH influence on antibacterial efficacy of common antiseptic substances.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Cornelia; Abel, Martin; Ruth, Peter; Elsner, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina

    2015-01-01

    Wound infection plays an important role in compromised wound healing. A high bioburden impairs healing and leads to formation of a chronic wound. Distinctly higher pH values were observed in chronic wounds compared to acute wounds. However, there is only limited knowledge of pH dependency on the antibacterial efficacy of common antimicrobial substances. This study investigated the pH influence on the antimicrobial efficacy of povidone (PVP)-iodine, silver nitrate, chlorhexidine, octenidine and polihexanide against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the agar diffusion test and microplate laser nephelometry. The bactericidal activity of chlorhexidine and octenidine was mainly pH-independent in a pH range of 5.0-9.0. In contrast, polihexanide showed a significant efficacy increase at a higher pH. It was also found that the influence of the pH on antiseptics differs among species of bacteria. For instance, S. aureus exhibited an increasing sensitivity against silver nitrate with rising pH whereas the effect on P. aeruginosa was found to be distinctly decreased. The antimicrobial effect of PVP-iodine was strongly diminished with rising pH. The shift towards higher pH values in chronic wounds compared to acute wounds makes it imperative to know whether the antimicrobial efficacy of applied antimicrobial substances is altered by different pH levels. The results suggest that application of polihexanide might be advantageous for the management of wound infections, as both S. aureus and P. aeruginosa exhibited an increased susceptibility with rising pH. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Constitutive expression of recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20 by Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Jung; Sabrina, Sabrina; El-Safory, Nermeen S; Lee, Guan-Chiun; Lee, Cheng-Kang

    2016-12-01

    PH20 is known as sperm adhesion molecule 1 (SPAM1) and also has hyaluronidase function to preferentially hydrolyze the glycosidic linkage of hyaluronic acid (HA). A DNA fragment containing core domain of human PH20 gene was cloned into a constitutive expression plasmid (pGAPZαC) of Pichia pastoris to produce a fusion protein with α factor signal in the N-terminus and 6 × His as well as c-Myc tags in the C-terminus. The resulting plasmid pGAPZαC-PH20 was integrated into the genome of P. pastoris strain GS115. Functional recombinant human PH20 (rHuPH20) was successfully expressed and secreted by the recombinant P. pastoris transformant. Highest hyaluronidase activity of 2 mU/mL could be obtained at 3 day in an YPD culture. After purified by phenylboronic acid resin adsorption, rHuPH20 with a specific activity of 230 mU/mg was obtained. Via periodic acid-Schiff staining and zymogram analysis, the partially purified rHuPH20 was determined to be highly glycosylated to various extents with molecular mass in the range of 100-300 kDa. The enzyme showed a maximal activity at pH 5.0 but no appreciable activity at pH ≤3 and pH ≥8. The hyaluronidase activity could be stably maintained at 4°C but lost 40% after incubating at 30°C for 4 h. Both N-acetyl cysteine and glutathione showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 8 mM against rHuPH20.

  7. The influence of urinary pH on antibiotic efficacy against bacterial uropathogens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Luo; Wang, Kunjie; Li, Hong; Denstedt, John D; Cadieux, Peter A

    2014-09-01

    To determine the effects of pH on the activity of clinically relevant antibiotics against bacterial uropathogens. Numerous factors affect antibiotic efficacy within the urinary tract including pH. Because human urine can substantially vary from acidic (pH 4.5) to alkaline (pH 8) conditions and can be easily clinically manipulated, it would be a great advantage to better understand the role of pH in antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infection. This in vitro study investigated the activity of 24 widely used antimicrobial agents against bacterial strains comprising 6 major uropathogenic species (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) over the range of pH 5-8. Standard disk-diffusion and broth-microdilution assays were used. One-way analysis of variance was applied to determine significance (P <.05). For 18 of the 24 agents, pH was shown to play a significant role in overall inhibitory activity. Although most agents behaved similarly across most or all of the uropathogens tested, several only showed pH-dependent effects against certain organisms. The fluoroquinolones, co-trimoxazole, aminoglycosides, and macrolides all functioned optimally at alkaline pH, whereas the tetracyclines, nitrofurantoin, and many of the β-lactams tested exhibited their highest activity under more acidic conditions. Sulfamethoxazole, oxacillin, amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, vancomycin, imipenem, and clindamycin were largely unaffected by pH. Clinicians should consider the urinary pH of their patients when treating urinary tract infection, especially in complicated scenarios. Future clinical investigations examining urinary pH and antibiotic efficacy may result in the application of decreased antibiotic dosages and regimen durations, potentially reducing antibiotic resistance development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of a practical pH cutoff level for reliable confirmation of nasogastric tube placement.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, Heather Ruth; Rogers, Elizabeth Jessie; Ukoumunne, Obioha Chukwunyere

    2011-07-01

    Enteral feeding is a common method of nutrition support when oral intake is inadequate. Confirmation of correct nasogastric (NG) tube placement is essential. Risks of morbidity/mortality associated with misplacement in the lung are well documented. Studies indicate that pH ≤ 4 confirms gastric aspirate, but in pediatrics, a pH of gastric aspirate is often >4. The goal of this study was to determine a reliable and practical pH value to confirm NG tube placement, without increasing the risk of not identifying a misplaced NG tube. Pediatric inpatients older than 4 weeks receiving enteral nutrition (nasogastric or gastrostomy) were recruited over 9 months. Aspirate samples were pH tested at NG tube placement and before feedings. If pH >4, NG tube position was confirmed by chest radiograph or further investigations. In addition, intensive care unit (ICU) patients who required endotracheal suctioning were recruited, and endotracheal aspirate samples were pH tested. A total of 4,330 gastric aspirate samples (96% nasogastric) were collected from 645 patients with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 1.0 years (0.3-5.2 years). The mean (standard deviation [SD]) pH of these gastric samples was 3.6 (1.4) (range, 0-9). pH was >4 in 1,339 (30.9%) gastric aspirate samples, and of these, 244 were radiographed, which identified 10 misplaced tubes (1 with pH 5.5). A total of 65 endotracheal aspirate samples were collected from 19 ICU patients with a median (IQR) age of 0.6 years (0.4-5.2 years). The mean (SD) pH of these samples was 8.4 (0.8) (range, 6-9.5). Given that the lowest pH value of endotracheal aspirate sample was 6, and a misplaced NG tube was identified with pH 5.5, it is proposed that a gastric aspirate pH ≤ 5 is a safer, reliable, and practical cutoff in this population.

  9. The influence of pH on biotite dissolution and alteration kinetics at low temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acker, James G.; Bricker, O.P.

    1992-01-01

    Biotite dissolution rates in acidic solutions were determined in fluidized-bed reactors and flowthrough columns. Biotite dissolution rates increased inversely as a linear function of pH in the pH range 3-7, where the rate order n = -0.34. Biotite dissolved incongruently over this pH range, with preferential release of magnesium and iron from the octahedral layer. Release of tetrahedral silicon was much greater at pH 3 than at higher pH. Iron release was significantly enhanced by low pH conditions. Solution compositions from a continuous exposure flow-through column of biotite indicated biotite dissolves incongruently at pH 4, consistent with alteration to a vermiculite-type product. Solution compositions from a second intermittent-flow column exhibited elevated cation release rates upon the initiation of each exposure to solution. The presence of strong oxidizing agents, the mineral surface area, and sample preparation methodology also influenced the dissolution or alteration kinetics of biotite. ?? 1992.

  10. Effect of some anionic polymers on pH of triethanolamine aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Musiał, Witold; Kubis, Aleksander

    2004-01-01

    One of the suggested approaches in the management and prophylaxis of acne involves binding of free fatty acids in the form of soap with alcoholamines. Due to a possible irritating effect of alcoholamines associated with a relatively high pH of their aqueous solutions, complexation of alcoholamines with acid polymers is advocated. Triethanolamine is one of the best recognized alcoholamines. It was conventionally neutralized with Carbopols, Eudragits, alginic acid and pectin. During neutralization of polymer dispersions with triethanolamine, variations in the course of the neutralization curve have been observed among individual macromolecular compounds. The pH of 0.1 mol/l triethanolamine solution reaches 10.51, while following a complete neutralization with anionic polymers, such as Carbopols, Eudragits, alginic acid and pectin, pH ranges from 3.88 for systems neutralized with alginic acid to 8.50 for the system neutralized with Eudragit S-100. Complexation of triethanolamine with anionic polymers decreases its pH, and it is possible to find such pH range in which pH of the preparation containing the polymer and triethanolamine will correspond to the physiological pH of the skin.

  11. Modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes potentially suitable for intracellular pH measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghini, Giacomo; Puleo, Gian Luigi; Trono, Cosimo; Giannetti, Ambra; Luconi, Lapo; Bianchini, Claudio; Giambastiani, Giuliano; Baldini, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Carboxylic acid functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs) have been studied as macromolecular carriers for pH indicators to be used inside cells. The activation of carboxylic groups with thionyl chloride (SOCl2) followed by the reaction with a family of fluorescein ethylen glycol derivatives led to dyes covalently anchored to the MWCNT surface. Such a functionalization was found to preserve wholly the fluorescence properties of the dye ultimately providing higher water solubility to the modified macromolecular systems. Moreover, the use of a polyether spacer between the dye and the MWCNT surface preserved from undesired florescence quenching effects. The pH dependence of the modified nanotubes was investigated interrogating a solution of MWCNTs, the pH of which was adjusted in the range 4-9 pH units by adding drops of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. Light from LED was suitably filtered at 480 nm with a high pass-band filter and coupled to an optical fiber which illuminates the solution containing the fluorescein-functionalised MWCNTs. An optical fiber, at 90° with respect to the LED illumination, is connected with a Hamamtsu spectrum analyzer for the recording of the fluorescence spectra. The modified MWCNTs exhibited linear pH dependence in the range between 6 and 8 pH units with a sensitivity less than 0.1 pH units.

  12. Macroalgae contribute to nested mosaics of pH variability in a subarctic fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause-Jensen, D.; Duarte, C. M.; Hendriks, I. E.; Meire, L.; Blicher, M. E.; Marbà, N.; Sejr, M. K.

    2015-08-01

    The Arctic Ocean is considered the most vulnerable ecosystem to ocean acidification, and large-scale assessments of pH and the saturation state for aragonite (Ωarag) have led to the notion that the Arctic Ocean is already close to a corrosive state. In high-latitude coastal waters the regulation of pH and Ωarag is, however, far more complex than offshore because increased biological activity and input of glacial meltwater affect pH. Effects of ocean acidification on calcifiers and non-calcifying phototrophs occupying coastal habitats cannot be derived from extrapolation of current and forecasted offshore conditions, but they require an understanding of the regimes of pH and Ωarag in their coastal habitats. To increase knowledge of the natural variability in pH in the Arctic coastal zone and specifically to test the influence of benthic vegetated habitats, we quantified pH variability in a Greenland fjord in a nested-scale approach. A sensor array logging pH, O2, PAR, temperature and salinity was applied on spatial scales ranging from kilometre scale across the horizontal extension of the fjord; to 100 m scale vertically in the fjord, 10-100 m scale between subtidal habitats with and without kelp forests and between vegetated tidal pools and adjacent vegetated shores; and to centimetre to metre scale within kelp forests and millimetre scale across diffusive boundary layers of macrophyte tissue. In addition, we assessed the temporal variability in pH on diurnal and seasonal scales. Based on pH measurements combined with point samples of total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon and relationships to salinity, we also estimated variability in Ωarag. Results show variability in pH and Ωarag of up to 0.2-0.3 units at several scales, i.e. along the horizontal and vertical extension of the fjord, between seasons and on a diel basis in benthic habitats and within 1 m3 of kelp forest. Vegetated intertidal pools exhibited extreme diel pH variability of > 1.5 units and

  13. Optoelectronic Instrument Monitors pH in a Culture Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Melody M.; Pellis, Neal; Jeevarajan, Anthony S.; Taylor, Thomas D.

    2004-01-01

    An optoelectronic instrument monitors the pH of an aqueous cell-culture medium in a perfused rotating-wall-vessel bioreactor. The instrument is designed to satisfy the following requirements: It should be able to measure the pH of the medium continuously with an accuracy of 0.1 in the range from 6.5 to 7.5. It should be noninvasive. Any material in contact with the culture medium should be sterilizable as well as nontoxic to the cells to be grown in the medium. The biofilm that inevitably grows on any surface in contact with the medium should not affect the accuracy of the pH measurement. It should be possible to obtain accurate measurements after only one calibration performed prior to a bioreactor cell run. The instrument should be small and lightweight. The instrument includes a quartz cuvette through which the culture medium flows as it is circulated through the bioreactor. The cuvette is sandwiched between light source on one side and a photodetector on the other side. The light source comprises a red and a green light-emitting diode (LED) that are repeatedly flashed in alternation with a cycle time of 5 s. The responses of the photodiode to the green and red LEDs are processed electronically to obtain a quantity proportional to the ratio between the amounts of green and red light transmitted through the medium.

  14. Analog/digital pH meter system I.C.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Paul; Park, Jea

    1992-01-01

    The project utilizes design automation software tools to design, simulate, and fabricate a pH meter integrated circuit (IC) system including a successive approximation type seven-bit analog to digital converter circuits using a 1.25 micron N-Well CMOS MOSIS process. The input voltage ranges from 0.5 to 1.0 V derived from a special type pH sensor, and the output is a three-digit decimal number display of pH with one decimal point.

  15. 2D ratiometric fluorescent pH sensor for tracking of cells proliferation and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Ding, Changqin; Zhou, Jie; Tian, Yang

    2015-08-15

    Extracellular pH plays a vital role no matter in physiological or pathological studies. In this work, a hydrogel, CD@Nile-FITC@Gel (Gel sensor), entrapping the ratiometric fluorescent probe CD@Nile-FITC was developed. The Gel sensor was successfully used for real-time extracellular pH monitoring. In the case of CD@Nile-FITC, pH-sensitive fluorescent dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was chosen as the response signal for H(+) and Nile blue chloride (Nile) as the reference signal. The developed fluorescent probe exhibited high selectivity for pH over other metal ions and amino acids. Meanwhile, the carbon-dots-based inorganic-organic probe demonstrated excellent photostability against long-term light illumination. In order to study the extracellular pH change in processes of cell proliferation and metabolism, CD@Nile-FITC probe was entrapped in sodium alginate gel and consequently formed CD@Nile-FITC@Gel. The MTT assay showed low cytotoxicity of the Gel and the pH titration indicated that it could monitor the pH fluctuations linearly and rapidly within the pH range of 6.0-9.0, which is valuable for physiological pH determination. As expected, the real-time bioimaging of the probe was successfully achieved.

  16. Influence of pH on the localized corrosion of iron

    SciTech Connect

    Webley, R.; Henry, R.

    1986-06-01

    The influence of pH on the pitting corrosion of iron in chloride and sulfate solutions was determined using two artificial pit apparatuses to obtain the pH near the surface of the pit bottom. A glass membrane electrode and an antimony electrode were used to measure pH in the two apparatuses. Using solutions of NaCl and Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at current densities of 0.5, 5.0, and 10 mA/cm/sup 2/ pH's in the range 5 to 6 were obtained with the first apparatus. The antimony probe did not measure pH accurately in solutions of 1 N NaCl and 1 N Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and had an error of approximately 2 pH units. A one-dimensional transport model was developed to predict pH variations around the pit mouth and inside the pit. The validity of this model was not verified due to the relative lack of precision with pH measurement techniques.

  17. Organic Acid Excretion in Penicillium ochrochloron Increases with Ambient pH

    PubMed Central

    Vrabl, Pamela; Fuchs, Viktoria; Pichler, Barbara; Schinagl, Christoph W.; Burgstaller, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Despite being of high biotechnological relevance, many aspects of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi like the influence of ambient pH are still insufficiently understood. While the excretion of an individual organic acid may peak at a certain pH value, the few available studies investigating a broader range of organic acids indicate that total organic acid excretion rises with increasing external pH. We hypothesized that this phenomenon might be a general response of filamentous fungi to increased ambient pH. If this is the case, the observation should be widely independent of the organism, growth conditions, or experimental design and might therefore be a crucial key point in understanding the function and mechanisms of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi. In this study we explored this hypothesis using ammonium-limited chemostat cultivations (pH 2–7), and ammonium or phosphate-limited bioreactor batch cultivations (pH 5 and 7). Two strains of Penicillium ochrochloron were investigated differing in the spectrum of excreted organic acids. Confirming our hypothesis, the main result demonstrated that organic acid excretion in P. ochrochloron was enhanced at high external pH levels compared to low pH levels independent of the tested strain, nutrient limitation, and cultivation method. We discuss these findings against the background of three hypotheses explaining organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi, i.e., overflow metabolism, charge balance, and aggressive acidification hypothesis. PMID:22493592

  18. Effect of pH and nitrite concentration on nitrite oxidation rate.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, E; Giménez, J B; Ruano, M V; Ferrer, J; Serralta, J

    2011-10-01

    The effect of pH and nitrite concentration on the activity of the nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in an activated sludge reactor has been determined by means of laboratory batch experiments based on respirometric techniques. The bacterial activity was measured at different pH and at different total nitrite concentrations (TNO₂). The experimental results showed that the nitrite oxidation rate (NOR) depends on the TNO₂ concentration independently of the free nitrous acid (FNA) concentration, so FNA cannot be considered as the real substrate for NOB. NOB were strongly affected by low pH values (no activity was detected at pH 6.5) but no inhibition was observed at high pH values (activity was nearly the same for the pH range 7.5-9.95). A kinetic expression for nitrite oxidation process including switch functions to model the effect of TNO₂ concentration and pH inhibition is proposed. Substrate half saturation constant and pH inhibition constants have been obtained.

  19. Influence of pH on yeast immobilization on polystyrene surfaces modified by energetic ion bombardment.

    PubMed

    Tran, Clara T H; Kondyurin, Alexey; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Bilek, Marcela M M; McKenzie, David R

    2013-04-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) treatment is a novel method for immobilizing yeast on polymer surfaces by covalent linkage. This study of the immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in both rehydrated and cultured forms showed that the density of cell attachment on PIII treated polystyrene (PS) was strongly dependent on the pH of the incubation medium and was higher for rehydrated yeast. A study of the surface charge was undertaken to explain this result. A high density of cell attachment occurs in acidic conditions (pH 3-5) and a significantly reduced cell density occurs in neutral and alkaline buffers (pH 6-10) for both types of yeast. Force measurements using atomic force microscopy show that a negative charge is present on polystyrene after PIII treatment. The charge is close to zero at pH 3 to pH 5 and increasingly negative from pH 6 to pH 10. Both rehydrated yeast and cultured yeast have negative electrophoretic mobility in the pH range studied. The repulsive forces are weak in acidic buffers and stronger in neutral and alkaline buffers, in good agreement with the cell densities observed. Rehydrated yeast cells are found to be more hydrophobic than cultured yeasts in the same buffer. The higher hydrophobicity explains the higher attachment of rehydrated yeast compared to cultured yeast.

  20. Phosphoglycolate phosphatase. Effect of cation and pH on activity.

    PubMed

    Christeller, J T; Tolbert, N E

    1978-03-25

    P-glycolate phosphatase requires divalent cations for activity. Activity-pH curves identified 2 active site residues with pK values at pH 5.7 and pH 9.1 in the presence of magnesium and at pH 5.7 and pH 7.5 in the presence of manganese or cobalt. Saturation velocity kinetics enabled the identification of two distinct divalent cation binding sites. The first, nonspecific site has a K0.5 of 2 to 7 x 10(-5) M, depending on the cation and the pH. The second site, which is specific for magnesium, binds this cation in a negatively cooperative fashion. The affinity at pH 8.1 varies approximately 100-fold from the first magnesium bound to the fourth. The negative cooperativity is greatest at high pH. Because the pH range of activity is very broad, both the phosphate monoanion and dianion of P-glycolate must be bound as the substrate. The concentration of these two species at the apparent Km is independent of magnesium concentration. The P-glycolate.magnesium complex is kinetically inactive.

  1. [Effects of pH on the properties of colloidal gold labeling monoclonal antibody].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yunlong; Li, Yulin; Wang, Jichuang; Cheng, Lei; Deng, Lili

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the influence of pH on the properties of colloidal gold labeling monoclonal antibody (mAb). The pH value of colloidal gold was adjusted by K(2)CO(3) solution. Then colloidal gold with a range of pH 5.0-9.0 labeled enterovirus 71 (EV71)-VP1 mAb respectively, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was added to block the unreacted sites on the gold colloids for further experiments. The changes in the properties of colloidal gold in the progress of colloidal gold labeling mAb were monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. Finally, Mey's test was adopted to identify the stability of immunogold, and the sensitivity of the strip was evaluated by detecting gradual dilution of serum. EV71-VP1 mAb could be conjugated with colloidal gold at pH7.0-8.5, and at this optimal pH, the test strip presented a good sensitivity. pH is an important factor to ensure the stability of immunogold and to determine the conjugation effect between colloidal gold and mAb. The study confirmed that UV/Vis spectroscopy can evaluate the influence of pH on the properties of colloidal gold labeling mAb and set up an optimal pH for colloidal gold labeling using UV/Vis spectroscopy.

  2. Change of pH during excess sludge fermentation under alkaline, acidic and neutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yue; Peng, Yongzhen; Liu, Ye; Jin, Baodan; Wang, Bo; Wang, Shuying

    2014-12-01

    The change in pH during excess sludge (ES) fermentation of varying sludge concentrations was investigated in a series of reactors at alkaline, acidic, and neutral pHs. The results showed that the changes were significantly affected by fermentative conditions. Under different conditions, pH exhibited changing profiles. When ES was fermented under alkaline conditions, pH decreased in a range of (10±1). At the beginning of alkaline fermentation, pH dropped significantly, at intervals of 4h, 4h, and 5h with sludge concentrations of 8665.6mg/L, 6498.8mg/L, and 4332.5mg/L, then it would become moderate. However, under acidic conditions, pH increased from 4 to 5. Finally, under neutral conditions pH exhibited a decrease then an increase throughout entire fermentation process. Further study showed short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), ammonia nitrogen and cations contributed to pH change under various fermentation conditions. This study presents a novel strategy based on pH change to predict whether SCFAs reach their stable stage.

  3. Attributing seasonal pH variability in surface ocean waters to governing factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagens, M.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    On-going ocean acidification and increasing availability of high-frequency pH data have stimulated interest to understand seasonal pH dynamics in surface waters. Here we show that it is possible to accurately reproduce observed pH values by combining seasonal changes in temperature (T), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and total alkalinity (TA) from three time series stations with novel pH sensitivity factors. Moreover, we quantify the separate contributions of T, DIC, and TA changes to winter-to-summertime differences in pH, which are in the ranges of -0.0334 to -0.1237, 0.0178 to 0.1169, and -0.0063 to 0.0234, respectively. The effects of DIC and temperature are therefore largely compensatory, and are slightly tempered by changes in TA. Whereas temperature principally drives pH seasonality in low-latitude to midlatitude systems, winter-to-summer DIC changes are most important at high latitudes. This work highlights the potential of pH sensitivity factors as a tool for quantifying the driving mechanisms behind pH changes.

  4. Effect of pH upon electroreduction of cadmium(II) ions in aqueous solutions containing polyethylenimine

    SciTech Connect

    Turbanov, K.Yu.; Ermakov, S.S.; Krasikov, B.S.

    1994-02-10

    The effect of the pH of the solution upon electroreduction of cadmium(II) complexes with polyethylenimine has been studied by methods of differential impulse and tast polarography and square-wave and cyclic voltammetry in the region of pH from 4 to 12. A scheme is proposed for the electrode process involving the Cd(II) complexes with polyethylenimine in the studied pH range.

  5. Application of a fluorescence intensity ratio technique for the intrinsic determination of pH using an optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thotath, Bhadra; Nguyen, T. Hien; Zhang, Weiwei; Wren, Stephen P.; Baxter, Gregory W.; Sun, Tong; Collins, Stephen F.; Grattan, Kenneth T. V.

    2015-09-01

    An intensity ratio technique has been used for characterizing fluorescence spectra from novel coumarin dyes for pH sensing, in the range of 0.5 - 6, providing results that are independent of possible fluctuations in the intensity of the excitation source, deterioration of the indicator and changes in optical coupling. The arrangement was determined to have a sensitivity of 25% per unit pH change (at a pH of 4).

  6. Thermally programmable pH buffers.

    PubMed

    Van Gough, Dara; Bunker, Bruce C; Roberts, Mark E; Huber, Dale L; Zarick, Holly F; Austin, Mariah J; Wheeler, Jill S; Moore, Diana; Spoerke, Erik D

    2012-11-01

    Many reactions in both chemistry and biology rely on the ability to precisely control and fix the solution concentrations of either protons or hydroxide ions. In this report, we describe the behavior of thermally programmable pH buffer systems based on the copolymerization of varying amounts of acrylic acid (AA) groups into N-isopropylacrylamide polymers. Because the copolymers undergo phase transitions upon heating and cooling, the local environment around the AA groups can be reversibly switched between hydrophobic and hydrophilic states affecting the ionization behavior of the acids. Results show that moderate temperature variations can be used to change the solution pH by two units. However, results also indicate that the nature of the transition and its impact on the pH values are highly dependent on the AA content and the degree of neutralization.

  7. Initiation of lipid autoxidation by ABAP at pH 4-10 in SDS micelles.

    PubMed

    Musialik, Malgorzata; Kita, Marcin; Litwinienko, Grzegorz

    2008-02-21

    The rates of radical generation, R(i), by two water soluble initiators: 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) and 2,2'-azobis[2-methyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)propionamide], and the lipid soluble 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile were measured in an SDS micellar system over a pH range of 4-10. Enhanced values of R(i) at low pH are attributed to Coulombic repulsion of protonated radicals.

  8. Range expansion of mutualists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Melanie J. I.; Korolev, Kirill S.; Murray, Andrew W.; Nelson, David R.

    2012-02-01

    The expansion of a species into new territory is often strongly influenced by the presence of other species. This effect is particularly striking for the case of mutualistic species that enhance each other's proliferation. Examples range from major events in evolutionary history, such as the spread and diversification of flowering plants due to their mutualism with pollen-dispersing insects, to modern examples like the surface colonisation of multi-species microbial biofilms. Here, we investigate the spread of cross-feeding strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on an agar surface as a model system for expanding mutualists. Depending on the degree of mutualism, the two strains form distinctive spatial patterns during their range expansion. This change in spatial patterns can be understood as a phase transition within a stepping stone model generalized to two mutualistic species.

  9. Long range chromatin organization

    PubMed Central

    Acuña, Luciana I Gómez; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2014-01-01

    Splicing is a predominantly co-transcriptional process that has been shown to be tightly coupled to transcription. Chromatin structure is a key factor that mediates this functional coupling. In light of recent evidence that shows the importance of higher order chromatin organization in the coordination and regulation of gene expression, we discuss here the possible roles of long-range chromatin organization in splicing and alternative splicing regulation. PMID:25764333

  10. Light beam range finder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    A "laser tape measure" for measuring distance which includes a transmitter such as a laser diode which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal. A receiver samples reflections from objects within the field of the sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal. The receiver generates a sample signal in response to the samples which indicates distance to the object causing the reflections. The timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the reflection such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence in sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The transmit timing signal causes the transmitter to transmit the sequence of electromagnetic pulses at a pulse repetition rate, and the received timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that reflections are sampled at the pulse repetition rate and with different delays in the range of delays, such that the sample signal represents received reflections in equivalent time. The receiver according to one aspect of the invention includes an avalanche photodiode and a sampling gate coupled to the photodiode which is responsive to the received timing signal. The transmitter includes a laser diode which supplies a sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses. A bright spot projected on to the target clearly indicates the point that is being measured, and the user can read the range to that point with precision of better than 0.1%.

  11. Light beam range finder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-16

    A ``laser tape measure`` for measuring distance is disclosed which includes a transmitter such as a laser diode which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal. A receiver samples reflections from objects within the field of the sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal. The receiver generates a sample signal in response to the samples which indicates distance to the object causing the reflections. The timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the reflection such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence in sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The transmit timing signal causes the transmitter to transmit the sequence of electromagnetic pulses at a pulse repetition rate, and the received timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that reflections are sampled at the pulse repetition rate and with different delays in the range of delays, such that the sample signal represents received reflections in equivalent time. The receiver according to one aspect of the invention includes an avalanche photodiode and a sampling gate coupled to the photodiode which is responsive to the received timing signal. The transmitter includes a laser diode which supplies a sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses. A bright spot projected on to the target clearly indicates the point that is being measured, and the user can read the range to that point with precision of better than 0.1%. 7 figs.

  12. Photometric Passive Range Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argueta-Diaz, Victor; García-Valenzuela, Augusto

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we present a passive optical ranging method that consists of taking several photometric measurements from the light radiated by an object and deriving the range from these measurements. This passive ranging device uses an iris of radius a, a lens of radius larger than a, and a photodetector of radius p

  13. Front Range Report, Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, William

    The second regional conference of the Front Range Branch, AGU, was attended by more than 80 professionals and some 20 outstanding high school students. The conference included 2 days of interdisciplinary talks, and lots of discussion, that primarily were keyed to geophysical studies of Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Other talks reported on nonregional, and sometimes global, studies being done by geophypsicists of the Front Range region.Topics included tectonics of the Front Range and the Colorado Plateau, pollution of the Arkansas and Mississippi rivers, and a supreme polluting event that caused the late-Cretaceous extinctions. Other notable talks were on toxic cleanup, microburst (wind shear) detection at U.S. airports, and other meteorological studies. Several talks treated the audience to the excitement of new work and surprise discoveries. The meeting was multimedia, including the playing of two videos through a projection TV and the playing of a fascinating tape between an airport control tower and incoming pilots during a severe microburst event.

  14. Change in pH of plaque and 10% carbamide peroxide solution during nightguard vital bleaching treatment.

    PubMed

    Leonard, R H; Austin, S M; Haywood, V B; Bentley, C D

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo changes in the pH of plaque and of a 10% carbamide peroxide solution occurring within the bleaching guard during a 2-hour nightguard vital bleaching procedure. Baseline pH values for plaque and the carbamide peroxide solution were established. A small hole was placed in the anterior interproximal region of the guard to allow placement of the pH electrode. The pH of the carbamide peroxide solution was measured at 5-minute intervals. After 2 hours, the guard was removed and pH of the plaque was remeasured. The procedure was repeated three times on each of four subjects. The mean baseline pH reading for plaque was 6.31 and mean final pH reading was 6.86. The difference was statistically significant. At initial placement of the carbamide peroxide-filled guard, the mean intraguard pH was 4.50 (range of 2.80 to 7.80). The mean peak intraguard pH of 8.06 (range of 7.30 to 8.43), which was significantly different from baseline, was obtained within 31 minutes. The pH of plaque, saliva, and a 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching solution within the guard increased significantly during bleaching and remained significantly elevated for the duration of the study (2 hours).

  15. Influence of pH on organic acid production by Clostridium sporogenes in test tube and fermentor cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Montville, T J; Parris, N; Conway, L K

    1985-01-01

    The influence of pH on the growth parameters of and the organic acids produced by Clostridium sporogenes 3121 cultured in test tubes and fermentors at 35 degrees C was examined. Specific growth rates in the fermentor maintained at a constant pH ranged from 0.20 h-1 at pH 5.00 to 0.86 h-1 at pH 6.50. Acetic acid was the primary organic acid in supernatants of 24-h cultures; total organic acid levels were 2.0 to 22.0 mumol/ml. Supernatants from pH 5.00 and 5.50 cultures had total organic acid levels less than one-third of those found at pH 6.00 to 7.00. The specific growth rates of the test tube cultures ranged from 0.51 h-1 at pH 5.00 to 0.95 h-1 at pH 6.50. The pH of the medium did not affect the average total organic acid content (51.5 mumol/ml) but did affect the distribution of the organic acids, which included formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic, and 3-phenylpropionic acids. Butyric acid levels were lower, but formic and propionic acid levels were higher, at pH 5.00 than at other pHs. PMID:4004207

  16. pH and Titratable Acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, George D.; Murphy, Patricia A.

    There are two interrelated concepts in food analysis that deal with acidity: pH and titratable acidity. Each of these quantities is analytically determined in separate ways and each has its own particular impact on food quality. Titratable acidity deals with measurement of the total acid concentration contained within a food (also called total acidity). This quantity is determined by exhaustive titration of intrinsic acids with a standard base. Titratable acidity is a better predictor of acid's impact on flavor than pH.

  17. pH dominates variation in tropical soil archaeal diversity and community structure.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Binu M; Kim, Mincheol; Lai-Hoe, Ang; Shukor, Nor A A; Rahim, Raha A; Go, Rusea; Adams, Jonathan M

    2013-11-01

    Little is known of the factors influencing soil archaeal community diversity and composition in the tropics. We sampled soils across a range of forest and nonforest environments in the equatorial tropics of Malaysia, covering a wide range of pH values. DNA was PCR-amplified for the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and 454-pyrosequenced. Soil pH was the best predictor of diversity and community composition of Archaea, being a stronger predictor than land use. Archaeal OTU richness was highest in the most acidic soils. Overall archaeal abundance in tropical soils (determined by qPCR) also decreased at higher pH. This contrasts with the opposite trend previously found in temperate soils. Thaumarcheota group 1.1b was more abundant in alkaline soils, whereas group 1.1c was only detected in acidic soils. These results parallel those found in previous studies in cooler climates, emphasizing niche conservatism among broad archaeal groups. Among the most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs), there was clear evidence of niche partitioning by pH. No individual OTU occurred across the entire range of pH values. Overall, the results of this study show that pH plays a major role in structuring tropical soil archaeal communities.

  18. Effect of pH on the heavy metal-clay mineral interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Altyn, O.; Oezbelge, H.O.; Dogu, T.; Oezbelge, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    Adsorption and ion exchange of Pb and Cd on the surface of kaolinite and montmorillonite were studied with a strong emphasis on the pH values of solutions containing heavy metal ions. The pH range studied was 2.5 - 9. For kaolinite at a clay/solution ratio of 1/10 (w/w), Pb removal changes from 20 to 30% for an initial Pb concentration of 1640 ppm, and Cd removal changes from 10 to 20% for an initial Cd concentration of 1809 ppm. Due to its high exchange capacity, montmorillonite can remove more heavy metal than kaolinite. Removal rates for montmorillonite can reach up to 90% for both Pb and Cd. In the pH range of 3-6, there is a plateau for the removal rates. At pH values higher than 6, removal seems to increase artificially due to the precipitation of heavy metals. Under similar conditions for both clays, the rate of removal of Pb is always higher than that of Cd. As the pH value decreases for montmorillonite, there is a strong tendency for decreased surface area and swelling, as indicated by BET surface area measurements, adsorbed layer thickness and pore size distribution data. In the range of pH values studied, X-ray diffraction analysis showed the appearance of a characteristic (001) peak for montmorillonite, indicating that the crystalline structure of the clay was intact during the experiments.

  19. pH preference and avoidance responses of adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta.

    PubMed

    Fost, B A; Ferreri, C P

    2015-03-01

    The pH preferred and avoided by wild, adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta was examined in a series a laboratory tests using gradual and steep-gradient flow-through aquaria. The results were compared with those published for the observed segregation patterns of juvenile S. fontinalis and S. trutta in Pennsylvania streams. The adult S. trutta tested showed a preference for pH 4·0 while adult S. fontinalis did not prefer any pH within the range tested. Salmo trutta are not found in Pennsylvania streams with a base-flow pH < 5·8 which suggests that S. trutta prefer pH well above 4·0. Adult S. trutta displayed a lack of avoidance at pH below 5·0, as also reported earlier for juveniles. The avoidance pH of wild, adult S. fontinalis (between pH 5·5 and 6·0) and S. trutta (between pH 6·5 and 7·0) did not differ appreciably from earlier study results for the avoidance pH of juvenile S. fontinalis and S. trutta. A comparison of c.i. around these avoidance estimates indicates that avoidance pH is similar among adult S. fontinalis and S. trutta in this study. The limited overlap of c.i. for avoidance pH values for the two species, however, suggests that some S. trutta will display avoidance at a higher pH when S. fontinalis will not. The results of this study indicate that segregation patterns of adult S. fontinalis and S. trutta in Pennsylvania streams could be related to pH and that competition with S. trutta could be mediating the occurrence of S. fontinalis at some pH levels.

  20. pH treatment as an effective tool to select the functional and structural properties of yak milk caseins.

    PubMed

    Liu, H N; Zhang, C; Zhang, H; Guo, H Y; Wang, P J; Zhu, Y B; Ren, F Z

    2013-09-01

    Qula is made from yak milk after defatting, acidifying, and drying. Yak milk caseins are purified from Qula by dissolving in alkali solution. The effects of different pH treatments on the functional and structural properties of yak milk caseins were investigated. Over a broad range of pH (from 6.0 to 12.0), functional properties of yak milk caseins, including solubility, emulsifying activities, and thermal characteristics, and the structural properties, including 1-anilino-8-naphthalene-sulfonate fluorescence, turbidity and particle diameter, were evaluated. The results showed that the yak milk casein yield increased as the pH increased from 6.0 to 12.0. The solubility dramatically increased as the pH increased from 6.0 to 8.0, and decreased as the pH increased from 9.0 to 12.0. The changes in emulsifying activity were not significant. Caseins were remarkably heat stable at pH 9.0. The turbidity of the casein solution decreased rapidly as the pH increased from 6.0 to 12.0, and the results suggested that reassembled casein micelles were more compact at low pH than high pH. At pH values higher than 8.0, the yield of yak milk caseins reached more than 80%. The highest solubility was at pH 8.0, the best emulsification was at pH 10.0 and the greatest thermal stability was at pH 9.0. According to the functional characteristics of yak milk caseins, alkali conditions (pH 8.0-10.0) should be selected for optimum production. These results suggested that pH-dependent treatment could be used to modify the properties of yak milk caseins by appropriate selection of the pH level.

  1. Differential genotoxicity of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 and diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe)2.

    PubMed

    Meinerz, Daiane Francine; Allebrandt, Josiane; Mariano, Douglas O C; Waczuk, Emily P; Soares, Felix Antunes; Hassan, Waseem; Rocha, João Batista T

    2014-01-01

    Organoselenium compounds have been pointed out as therapeutic agents. In contrast, the potential therapeutic aspects of tellurides have not yet been demonstrated. The present study evaluated the comparative toxicological effects of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 and diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe)2 in mice after in vivo administration. Genotoxicity (as determined by comet assay) and mutagenicicity were used as end-points of toxicity. Subcutaneous administration of high doses of (PhSe)2 or (PhTe)2 (500 µmol/kg) caused distinct genotoxicity in mice. (PhSe)2 significantly decreased the DNA damage index after 48 and 96 h of its injection (p < 0.05). In contrast, (PhTe) caused a significant increase in DNA damage (p < 0.05) after 48 and 96 h of intoxication. (PhSe)2 did not cause mutagenicity but (PhTe)2 increased the micronuclei frequency, indicating its mutagenic potential. The present study demonstrated that acute in vivo exposure to ditelluride caused genotoxicity in mice, which may be associated with pro-oxidant effects of diphenyl ditelluride. In addition, the use of this compound and possibly other related tellurides must be carefully controlled.

  2. Effect of pH control strategies and substrate concentration on the hydrogen yield from fermentative hydrogen production in large laboratory-scale.

    PubMed

    Mariakakis, I; Krampe, J; Steinmetz, H

    2012-01-01

    A series of batch experiments investigating two different pH control strategies, initial pH adjustment and continuous pH control, have been carried out in large laboratory-scale reactors with working volumes of 30 L. In both cases, pH was varied between 5 and 7.5. Sucrose concentrations were also varied starting from 0 up to 30 g/L. Higher hydrogen production yields can be achieved by batch experiments through continuous pH control than by simple initial pH adjustment. In the case of continuous pH control, maximization of hydrogen yield was acquired for slightly acidic pH of 6.5. Continuous pH control in the neutral pH range of 7.0 and in pH lower than 6.5, induced a reduction in the hydrogen production yield. Sucrose can be completely degraded only for a pH higher than 6. Lower pH values seem to inhibit the hydrogen-producing bacteria. Under the conditions of continuous pH adjustment at pH 6.5 and a sucrose concentration of 25 g/L the maximum hydrogen yield of 1.79 mol H(2)/mol hexose was obtained. These conditions could be applied for the batch start-up of large fermentors.

  3. pH tolerance in freshwater bacterioplankton: trait variation of the community as measured by leucine incorporation.

    PubMed

    Bååth, Erland; Kritzberg, Emma

    2015-11-01

    pH is an important factor determining bacterial community composition in soil and water. We have directly determined the community tolerance (trait variation) to pH in communities from 22 lakes and streams ranging in pH from 4 to 9 using a growth-based method not relying on distinguishing between individual populations. The pH in the water samples was altered to up to 16 pH values, covering in situ pH ± 2.5 U, and the tolerance was assessed by measuring bacterial growth (Leu incorporation) instantaneously after pH adjustment. The resulting unimodal response curves, reflecting community tolerance to pH, were well modeled with a double logistic equation (mean R(2) = 0.97). The optimal pH for growth (pHopt) among the bacterial communities was closely correlated with in situ pH, with a slope (0.89 ± 0.099) close to unity. The pH interval, in which growth was ≥90% of that at pHopt, was 1.1 to 3 pH units wide (mean 2.0 pH units). Tolerance response curves of communities originating from circum-neutral pH were symmetrical, whereas in high-pH (8.9) and especially in low-pH (<5.5) waters, asymmetric tolerance curves were found. In low-pH waters, decreasing pH was more detrimental for bacterial growth than increasing pH, with a tendency for the opposite for high-pH waters. A pH tolerance index, using the ratio of growth at only two pH values (pH 4 and 8), was closely related to pHopt (R(2) = 0.83), allowing for easy determination of pH tolerance during rapid changes in pH. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Microbial community response during the treatment of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in constructed wetland mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing; Min, Jie; Yu, Yonghong; Zhu, Zhiwei; Feng, Guozhong

    2017-11-01

    The presence of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in wastewater treatment plant effluent poses a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands have recently been used to control PhACs. However, the microbial communities that are involved in these processes have not been comprehensively investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the removal of PhACs and microbial response in constructed wetlands during the treatment of PhACs. The effects of PhACs on bacterial communities in constructed wetland mesocosms were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology. Results indicated that removal efficiencies of PhACs were enhanced over time, and constructed wetlands offer higher removal efficiencies for the PhACs studied compared to conventional wastewater treatment plants. Plants improved microbial richness and diversity while both indices were negatively correlated with PhAC concentrations ranging from 30 to 500 μg/L in constructed wetland mesocosms. The microbial communities of the constructed wetland mesocosms were dominated by Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Bacteroidetes under PhAC exposure, while Desulfobulbus and Treponema were the dominant genera. In particular, Proteobacteria were correlated with PhAC concentrations. Overall, this study provides valuable microbial community ecology data to understand how microbial populations respond to PhAC stress in constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of pH on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris and its interactions with cadmium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, J W; Grosso, A

    1991-05-01

    The effects of pH alone, and in combination with exposure to 0.89 microM cadmium, on the growth response of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris were evaluated. Acidic (3.0-6.2) and alkaline (8.3-9.0) pH values retarded the growth of this alga. Optimal growth occurred when the pH of the medium was adjusted to values of 7.5 and 8.0. When the cells were exposed to pH adjusted medium plus the presence of 0.89 microM Cd, a value known to reduce population growth by 50% at the control pH of 6.9, the affects were additive at the acidic (3.0-5.0) pH ranges. At alkaline pH values of 8.3-9.0 all toxicity responses could be explained by pH adjustment alone, indicating that additional cadmium toxicity was absent. At pH values of 7.5 and 8.0, cadmium toxicity was mitigated against, and resultant growth at pH 8.0 was at the same enhanced rate as this pH without cadmium.

  6. Hexavalent chromium reduction with scrap iron in continuous-flow system Part 1: effect of feed solution pH.

    PubMed

    Gheju, M; Iovi, A; Balcu, I

    2008-05-01

    The reduction of hexavalent chromium by scrap iron was investigated in continuous system, using long-term column experiments, for aqueous Cr(VI) solutions having low buffering capacities, over the pH range of 2.00-7.30. The results showed that the initial pH of Cr(VI) solution significantly affects the reduction capacity of scrap iron. The highest reduction capacity was determined to be 19.2 mg Cr(VI)/g scrap iron, at pH 2.50, and decreased with increasing the initial pH of Cr(VI) solution. A considerable decrease in scrap iron reduction capacity (25%) was also observed at pH 2.00, as compared to pH 2.50, due to the increased contribution of H(+) ions to the corrosion of scrap iron, which leads to a rapid decrease in time of the scrap iron volume. Over the pH range of 2.50-7.30, hexavalent chromium concentration increases slowly in time after its breakthrough in column effluent, until a steady-state concentration was observed; similarly, over the same pH range, the amount of solubilized Cr(III) in treated column effluent decreases in time, until a steady-state concentration was observed. The steady-state concentration in column effluent decreased for Cr(VI) and increased for Cr(III) with decreasing the initial pH of Cr(VI) solution. No steady-state Cr(VI) or Cr(III) concentrations in column effluent were observed at pH 2.00. Over the entire studied pH range, the amount of Fe(total) in treated solution increases as the initial pH of column influent is decreased; the results show also a continuously decrease in time of Fe(total) concentration, for a constant initial pH, due to a decrease in time of iron corrosion rate. Cr(III) concentration in column effluent also continuously decreased in time, for a constant initial pH, over the pH range of 2.50-7.30. This represents an advantage, because the amount of precipitant agent used to remove Fe(total) and Cr(III) from the column effluent will also decrease in time. The optimum pH for Cr(VI) reduction with scrap iron in

  7. Laser Range Camera Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Storjohann, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an imaging model that was derived for use with a laser range camera (LRC) developed by the Advanced Intelligent Machines Division of Odetics. However, this model could be applied to any comparable imaging system. Both the derivation of the model and the determination of the LRC's intrinsic parameters are explained. For the purpose of evaluating the LRC's extrinsic parameters, i.e., its external orientation, a transformation of the LRC's imaging model into a standard camera's (SC) pinhole model is derived. By virtue of this transformation, the evaluation of the LRC's external orientation can be found by applying any SC calibration technique.

  8. Archaeal abundance across a pH gradient in an arable soil and its relationship to bacterial and fungal growth rates.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, Per; Sterngren, Anna E; Rousk, Johannes

    2012-08-01

    Soil pH is one of the most influential factors for the composition of bacterial and fungal communities, but the influence of soil pH on the distribution and composition of soil archaeal communities has yet to be systematically addressed. The primary aim of this study was to determine how total archaeal abundance (quantitative PCR [qPCR]-based estimates of 16S rRNA gene copy numbers) is related to soil pH across a pH gradient (pH 4.0 to 8.3). Secondarily, we wanted to assess how archaeal abundance related to bacterial and fungal growth rates across the same pH gradient. We identified two distinct and opposite effects of pH on the archaeal abundance. In the lowest pH range (pH 4.0 to 4.7), the abundance of archaea did not seem to correspond to pH. Above this pH range, there was a sharp, almost 4-fold decrease in archaeal abundance, reaching a minimum at pH 5.1 to 5.2. The low abundance of archaeal 16S rRNA gene copy numbers at this pH range then sharply increased almost 150-fold with pH, resulting in an increase in the ratio between archaeal and bacterial copy numbers from a minimum of 0.002 to more than 0.07 at pH 8. The nonuniform archaeal response to pH could reflect variation in the archaeal community composition along the gradient, with some archaea adapted to acidic conditions and others to neutral to slightly alkaline conditions. This suggestion is reinforced by observations of contrasting outcomes of the (competitive) interactions between archaea, bacteria, and fungi toward the lower and higher ends of the examined pH gradient.

  9. Archaeal Abundance across a pH Gradient in an Arable Soil and Its Relationship to Bacterial and Fungal Growth Rates

    PubMed Central

    Sterngren, Anna E.; Rousk, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Soil pH is one of the most influential factors for the composition of bacterial and fungal communities, but the influence of soil pH on the distribution and composition of soil archaeal communities has yet to be systematically addressed. The primary aim of this study was to determine how total archaeal abundance (quantitative PCR [qPCR]-based estimates of 16S rRNA gene copy numbers) is related to soil pH across a pH gradient (pH 4.0 to 8.3). Secondarily, we wanted to assess how archaeal abundance related to bacterial and fungal growth rates across the same pH gradient. We identified two distinct and opposite effects of pH on the archaeal abundance. In the lowest pH range (pH 4.0 to 4.7), the abundance of archaea did not seem to correspond to pH. Above this pH range, there was a sharp, almost 4-fold decrease in archaeal abundance, reaching a minimum at pH 5.1 to 5.2. The low abundance of archaeal 16S rRNA gene copy numbers at this pH range then sharply increased almost 150-fold with pH, resulting in an increase in the ratio between archaeal and bacterial copy numbers from a minimum of 0.002 to more than 0.07 at pH 8. The nonuniform archaeal response to pH could reflect variation in the archaeal community composition along the gradient, with some archaea adapted to acidic conditions and others to neutral to slightly alkaline conditions. This suggestion is reinforced by observations of contrasting outcomes of the (competitive) interactions between archaea, bacteria, and fungi toward the lower and higher ends of the examined pH gradient. PMID:22706045

  10. The Shampoo pH can Affect the Hair: Myth or Reality?

    PubMed Central

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis; de Almeida, Andréia Munck; Cecato, Patricia Makino Rezende; Adriano, Andre Ricardo; Pichler, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Dermatologists most frequently prescribe shampoos for the treatment of hair shed and scalp disorders. Prescription of hair care products is often focused on improving scalp hair density, whereas the over-the-counter products focus on hair damage prevention. Little is taught in medical schools about the hair cosmetics, so that the prescriptions are based only on the treatment of the scalp and usually disregards the hair fiber health. Materials and Methods: In this work, we review the current literature about the mode of action of a low-pH shampoo regarding the hair shaft's health and analyze the pH of 123 shampoos of international brands. Results: All shampoo pH values ranged from 3.5 to 9.0. 38.21% of all 123 shampoos presented a pH ≤ 5.5 (IC: 29.9–47%) and 61.78% presented a pH > 5.5. 26 anti-dandruff shampoos were analyzed. About 19.23% presented pH ≤ 5.5.(IC: 7.4–37.6%). 80.77% of all anti-dandruffs shampoos presented a pH > 5.5. The dermatological shampoo group (n = 19) presented 42.10% with pH ≤ 5.5 (IC: 21.8–64.6%), and 57.90% with pH > 5.5. Among the commercial (popular) products (n = 96), 34.37% presented pH ≤ 5.5 (IC: 25.4–44.3%) and 65.62% presented pH > 5.5. 15 professional products (used in hair salons) were analyzed, of which 75% had a pH ≤ 5.5 (IC: 18–65, 4%), and 25% had a pH > 5.5. 100% of the children's shampoos presented a pH > 5.5. Conclusions: Alkaline pH may increase the negative electrical charge of the hair fiber surface and, therefore, increase friction between the fibers. This may lead to cuticle damage and fiber breakage. It is a reality and not a myth that lower pH of shampoos may cause less frizzing for generating less negative static electricity on the fiber surface. Interestingly, only 38% of the popular brand shampoos against 75% of the salons shampoos presented a pH ≤ 5.0. Pediatric shampoos had the pH of 7.0 because of the “no-tear” concept. There is no standardized value for the final pH. The authors

  11. The Shampoo pH can Affect the Hair: Myth or Reality?

    PubMed

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis; de Almeida, Andréia Munck; Cecato, Patricia Makino Rezende; Adriano, Andre Ricardo; Pichler, Janine

    2014-07-01

    Dermatologists most frequently prescribe shampoos for the treatment of hair shed and scalp disorders. Prescription of hair care products is often focused on improving scalp hair density, whereas the over-the-counter products focus on hair damage prevention. Little is taught in medical schools about the hair cosmetics, so that the prescriptions are based only on the treatment of the scalp and usually disregards the hair fiber health. In this work, we review the current literature about the mode of action of a low-pH shampoo regarding the hair shaft's health and analyze the pH of 123 shampoos of international brands. All shampoo pH values ranged from 3.5 to 9.0. 38.21% of all 123 shampoos presented a pH ≤ 5.5 (IC: 29.9-47%) and 61.78% presented a pH > 5.5. 26 anti-dandruff shampoos were analyzed. About 19.23% presented pH ≤ 5.5.(IC: 7.4-37.6%). 80.77% of all anti-dandruffs shampoos presented a pH > 5.5. The dermatological shampoo group (n = 19) presented 42.10% with pH ≤ 5.5 (IC: 21.8-64.6%), and 57.90% with pH > 5.5. Among the commercial (popular) products (n = 96), 34.37% presented pH ≤ 5.5 (IC: 25.4-44.3%) and 65.62% presented pH > 5.5. 15 professional products (used in hair salons) were analyzed, of which 75% had a pH ≤ 5.5 (IC: 18-65, 4%), and 25% had a pH > 5.5. 100% of the children's shampoos presented a pH > 5.5. Alkaline pH may increase the negative electrical charge of the hair fiber surface and, therefore, increase friction between the fibers. This may lead to cuticle damage and fiber breakage. It is a reality and not a myth that lower pH of shampoos may cause less frizzing for generating less negative static electricity on the fiber surface. Interestingly, only 38% of the popular brand shampoos against 75% of the salons shampoos presented a pH ≤ 5.0. Pediatric shampoos had the pH of 7.0 because of the "no-tear" concept. There is no standardized value for the final pH. The authors believe that it is important to reveal the pH value on the

  12. A simple and sensitive colorimetric pH meter based on DNA conformational switch and gold nanoparticle aggregation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cuie; Song, Guangtao; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2008-12-14

    A simple and rapid colorimetric pH meter has been developed based on the conformational switch of i-motif DNA and non-crosslinking AuNP aggregation, the average accuracy of the nano-meter was found to be +/-0.04 pH unit across the physiological operating range.

  13. Diversity & the Ph.D.: A Review of Efforts to Broaden Race & Ethnicity in U.S. Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    Created through Woodrow Wilson's Responsive Ph.D. initiative, "Diversity and the Ph.D." looks at a range of mechanisms through which foundations, government agencies, and nonprofits have sought to recruit and retain more minority students in U.S. doctoral programs. Drawing on interviews with the leaders of 13 such programs, the report also points…

  14. Ph.D.'s and the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, James

    Throughout the last decade, Ph.D. recipients were accustomed to a job market in which demand for their services far exceeded supply. During the same period, manpower experts predicted this situation would continue in the foreseeable future. However, when the 60's ended, the employment illusion had been rudely dispelled by frantic reports of a…

  15. The Economic Contribution of PhDs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Bernard H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at what the value of a doctorate is, both to employers in particular and to society and the economy at large. Given the emphasis many universities and funding agencies/governments are putting upon the development of PhD programmes, this is an issue deserving attention. The paper tries to show how two separate but interrelated…

  16. New Directions for the Ph.D.?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deener, David R.

    The award rate of doctorates has tripled since 1960 and the projections indicate that by 1980 the rate will be somewhere between 60 and 70,000. In recent years every facet of the PhD has come under attack. The degree will probably be reshaped from a standard of achievement and accomplishment to a standard of potential, from a demonstration of the…

  17. pH & Rate of Enzymatic Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative and inexpensive way to measure the rate of enzymatic reaction is provided. The effects of different pH levels on the reaction rate of an enzyme from yeast are investigated and the results graphed. Background information, a list of needed materials, directions for preparing solutions, procedure, and results and discussion are…

  18. The closed eye environement: pH.

    PubMed

    Hill, R M; Carney, L G

    1976-11-01

    Earlier observations showed that unbuffered bathing media held by a closed chamber against the eye would become progressively more acid over a few minutes. Such shifts, however, when examined for the naturally closed eye, even for prolonged periods, were found to be within 1 pH unit of the open-eye measured average.

  19. Teaching Physics Using PhET Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieman, C. E.; Adams, W. K.; Loeblein, P.; Perkins, K. K.

    2010-01-01

    PhET Interactive Simulations (sims) are now being widely used in teaching physics and chemistry. Sims can be used in many different educational settings, including lecture, individual or small group inquiry activities, homework, and lab. Here we will highlight a few ways to use them in teaching, based on our research and experiences using them in…

  20. First-Principles pH Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Zhang, S. B.

    2006-03-01

    Despite being one of the most important macroscopic measures and a long history even before the quantum mechanics, the concept of pH has rarely been mentioned in microscopic theories, nor being incorporated computationally into first-principles theory of aqueous solutions. Here, we formulate a theory for the pH dependence of solution formation energy by introducing the proton chemical potential as the microscopic counterpart of pH in atomistic solution models. Within the theory, the general acid-base chemistry can be cast in a simple pictorial representation. We adopt density-functional molecular dynamics to demonstrate the usefulness of the method by studying a number of solution systems including water, small solute molecules such as NH3 and HCOOH, and more complex amino acids with several functional groups. For pure water, we calculated the auto- ionization constant to be 13.2 with a 95 % accuracy. For other solutes, the calculated dissociation constants, i.e., the so- called pKa, are also in reasonable agreement with experiments. Our first-principles pH theory can be readily applied to broad solution chemistry problems such as redox reactions.

  1. The Economic Contribution of PhDs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Bernard H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at what the value of a doctorate is, both to employers in particular and to society and the economy at large. Given the emphasis many universities and funding agencies/governments are putting upon the development of PhD programmes, this is an issue deserving attention. The paper tries to show how two separate but interrelated…

  2. The Ph.D. Value Proposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Atlanta University launched its doctor of arts in humanities (DAH) programs almost 40 years ago, and, since the 1988 merger with Clark College, Clark Atlanta University has continued to award the degrees. This fall, for the first time, its students will be able to earn Ph.D.s in humanities instead. In DAH programs around the country, there's been…

  3. Monitoring fetal pH by telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, A.; Donahoe, T.; Jhabvala, M. D.; Ryan, W.

    1980-01-01

    Telemetry unit has been developed for possible use in measuring scalp-tissue pH and heart rate of unborn infant. Unit radius data to receiver as much as 50 ft. away. Application exists during hours just prior to childbirth to give warning of problems that might require cesarean delivery.

  4. Profile of Ph.Ds in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Zur-Muehlen, Max

    A profile of the socio-economic characteristics of the permanent residents of Canada holding an earned doctorate is presented. In 1973, there were 27,410 Canadian residents who had obtained an earned doctorate. (Holders of such professional doctoral degrees as Doctor of Medicine are excluded from this study.) Only 9 percent of the Ph.Ds were…

  5. What My Ph.D. Taught Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenstein, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The author started in the Ph.D. program in comparative literature at Princeton in 1992, a year after she graduated from college. She fell in love with mythology and the classical traditions and find herself teaching literature. In the remainder of her time at Princeton, she precepted for four or five more classes, got the chance to join the…

  6. What My Ph.D. Taught Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenstein, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The author started in the Ph.D. program in comparative literature at Princeton in 1992, a year after she graduated from college. She fell in love with mythology and the classical traditions and find herself teaching literature. In the remainder of her time at Princeton, she precepted for four or five more classes, got the chance to join the…

  7. Teaching Physics Using PhET Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieman, C. E.; Adams, W. K.; Loeblein, P.; Perkins, K. K.

    2010-01-01

    PhET Interactive Simulations (sims) are now being widely used in teaching physics and chemistry. Sims can be used in many different educational settings, including lecture, individual or small group inquiry activities, homework, and lab. Here we will highlight a few ways to use them in teaching, based on our research and experiences using them in…

  8. The Ph.D. Value Proposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Atlanta University launched its doctor of arts in humanities (DAH) programs almost 40 years ago, and, since the 1988 merger with Clark College, Clark Atlanta University has continued to award the degrees. This fall, for the first time, its students will be able to earn Ph.D.s in humanities instead. In DAH programs around the country, there's been…

  9. Development of sulfonamide AKT PH domain inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Ali Md; Zuohe, Song; Du-Cuny, Lei; Moses, Sylvestor A; Zhou, Li Li; Zhang, Shuxing; Powis, Garth; Meuillet, Emmanuelle J; Mash, Eugene A

    2011-03-15

    Disruption of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway can lead to apoptosis in cancer cells. Previously we identified a lead sulfonamide that selectively bound to the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of AKT and induced apoptosis when present at low micromolar concentrations. To examine the effects of structural modification, a set of sulfonamides related to the lead compound was designed, synthesized, and tested for binding to the expressed PH domain of AKT using a surface plasmon resonance-based competitive binding assay. Cellular activity was determined by means of an assay for pAKT production and a cell killing assay using BxPC-3 cells. The most active compounds in the set are lipophilic and possess an aliphatic chain of the proper length. Results were interpreted with the aid of computational modeling. This paper represents the first structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of a large family of AKT PH domain inhibitors. Information obtained will be used in the design of the next generation of inhibitors of AKT PH domain function.

  10. pH & Rate of Enzymatic Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative and inexpensive way to measure the rate of enzymatic reaction is provided. The effects of different pH levels on the reaction rate of an enzyme from yeast are investigated and the results graphed. Background information, a list of needed materials, directions for preparing solutions, procedure, and results and discussion are…

  11. Monitoring fetal pH by telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, A.; Donahoe, T.; Jhabvala, M. D.; Ryan, W.

    1980-01-01

    Telemetry unit has been developed for possible use in measuring scalp-tissue pH and heart rate of unborn infant. Unit radius data to receiver as much as 50 ft. away. Application exists during hours just prior to childbirth to give warning of problems that might require cesarean delivery.

  12. A series of naphthalimide derivatives as intra- and extra-cellular pH sensors

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yanqing; Su, Fengyu; Weber, Warner; Nandakumar, Vivek; Shumway, Bradley R.; Jin, Yuguang; Zhou, Xianfeng; Holl, Mark R.; Johnson, Roger H.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2010-01-01

    A series of new naphthalimide derivatives were synthesized and studied. Three of the materials (SM1, SM2, and SM3) possess methacrylate(s) moieties as pH sensor monomers, enabling these compounds to be polymerized with other monomers for thin film preparation for extracellular pH sensing. Herein, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-co-poly(acrylamide) (PHEMA-co-PAM) was chosen as the polymer matrix. Structure influences on pH responses and pKa values were studied. The film P3 composed of the sensing moiety SM3 has a pKa close to the usual biological environmental pH of ~7. It was used as an extracellular pH sensor to monitor pH change during the metabolism of prokaryotic Escherichia coli (E. coil). On the other hand, the three sensor monomers are new intracellular biomarkers to sense lysosomes of eukaryotic cells since (1) their pKa values are in a range of 5.9 to 6.8; (2) their emission intensities at acidic conditions (such as at pH 5) are much stronger than those at a neutral condition of pH 7; (3) lysosomes range in size from 0.1 to 1.2 μm in diameter with pH ranging from 4.5 to 5.0, which is much more acidic than the pH value of the cytoplasm (usually with a pH value of ~7.2); and (4) the acidity of lysosomes enables a protonation of the amino groups of the pH probes making the sensors emit brightly in acidic organelles by inhibiting the photo-induced electron transfer from the amino groups to the fluorophores. Lysosome sensing was demonstrated using live human brain glioblastoma U87MG cell line, human cervical cancer HeLa cell line, and human esophagus premalignant CP-A and CP-D cell lines by observations of small acidic spherical organelles (lysosomes) and significant colocalizations (82 ~ 95%) of the sensors with a commercially available lysosome-selective staining probe LysoTracker Red® under confocal fluorescence microscopy. PMID:20619451

  13. Using multiple spectral feature analysis for quantitative pH mapping in a mining environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopačková, Veronika

    2014-05-01

    The pH is one of the major chemical parameters affecting the results of remediation programs carried out at abandoned mines and dumps and one of the major parameters controlling heavy metal mobilization and speciation. This study is concerned with testing the feasibility of estimating surface pH on the basis of airborne hyperspectral (HS) data (HyMap). The work was carried on the Sokolov lignite mine, as it represents a site with extreme material heterogeneity and high pH gradients. First, a geochemical conceptual model of the site was defined. Pyrite, jarosite or lignite were the diagnostic minerals of very low pH (<3.0), jarosite in association with goethite indicated increased pH (3.0-6.5) and goethite alone characterized nearly neutral or higher pH (>6.5). It was found that these minerals have absorption feature parameters which are common for both forms, individual minerals as well as parts of the mixtures, while the shift to longer wavelengths of the absorption maximum centered between 0.90 and 1.00 μm is the main parameter that allows differentiation among the ferric minerals. The multi range spectral feature fitting (MRSFF) technique was employed to map the defined end-members indicating certain pH ranges in the HS image datasets. This technique was found to be sensitive enough to assess differences in the desired spectral parameters (e.g., absorption shape, depth and indirectly maximum absorption wavelength position). Furthermore, the regression model using the fit images, the results of MRSFF, as inputs was constructed (R2 = 0.61, Rv2 = 0.76) to estimate the surface pH. This study represents one of the few approaches employing image spectroscopy for quantitative pH modeling in a mining environment and the achieved results demonstrate the potential application of hyperspectral remote sensing as an efficient method for environmental monitoring.

  14. pH dependent unfolding characteristics of DLC8 dimer: Residue level details from NMR.

    PubMed

    Mohan, P M Krishna; Hosur, Ramakrishna V

    2008-11-01

    Environment dependence of folding and unfolding of a protein is central to its function. In the same vein, knowledge of pH dependence of stability and folding/unfolding is crucial for many biophysical equilibrium and kinetic studies designed to understand protein folding mechanisms. In the present study we investigated the guanidine induced unfolding transition of dynein light chain protein (DLC8), a cargo adaptor of the dynein complex in the pH range 7-10. It is observed that while the protein remains a dimer in the entire pH range, its stability is somewhat reduced at alkaline pH. Global unfolding features monitored using fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the unfolding transition of DLC8 at pH 7 is best described by a three-state model, whereas, that at pH 10 is best described by a two-state model. Chemical shift perturbations due to pH change provided insights into the corresponding residue level structural perturbations in the DLC8 dimer. Likewise, backbone (15)N relaxation measurements threw light on the corresponding motional changes in the dimeric protein. These observations have been rationalized on the basis of expected changes with increasing pH in the protonation states of the titratable residues on the structure of the protein. These, in turn provide an explanation for the change from three-state to two-state guanidine induced unfolding transition as the pH is increased from 7 to 10. All these results exemplify and highlight the role of environment vis-à-vis the sequence and structure of a given protein in dictating its folding/unfolding characteristics.

  15. Monocular visual ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witus, Gary; Hunt, Shawn

    2008-04-01

    The vision system of a mobile robot for checkpoint and perimeter security inspection performs multiple functions: providing surveillance video, providing high resolution still images, and providing video for semi-autonomous visual navigation. Mid-priced commercial digital cameras support the primary inspection functions. Semi-autonomous visual navigation is a tertiary function whose purpose is to reduce the burden of teleoperation and free the security personnel for their primary functions. Approaches to robot visual navigation require some form of depth perception for speed control to prevent the robot from colliding with objects. In this paper present the initial results of an exploration of the capabilities and limitations of using a single monocular commercial digital camera for depth perception. Our approach combines complementary methods in alternating stationary and moving behaviors. When the platform is stationary, it computes a range image from differential blur in the image stack collected at multiple focus settings. When the robot is moving, it extracts an estimate of range from the camera auto-focus function, and combines this with an estimate derived from angular expansion of a constellation of visual tracking points.

  16. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). It is managed by the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) to provide the right facility at the right time. NASA is a tenant on Edwards Air Force Base and has an agreement with the Air Force Flight Test Center to use the land and airspace controlled by the Department of Defense (DoD). The topics include: 1) The WATR supports a variety of vehicles; 2) Dryden shares airspace with the AFFTC; 3) Restricted airspace, corridors, and special use areas are available for experimental aircraft; 4) WATR Products and Services; 5) WATR Support Configuration; 6) Telemetry Tracking; 7) Time Space Positioning; 8) Video; 9) Voice Communication; 10) Mobile Operations Facilities; 11) Data Processing; 12) Mission Control Center; 13) Real-Time Data Analysis; and 14) Range Safety.

  17. Range Process Simulation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  18. MiniAERCam Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talley, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Johnson Space Center (JSC) is designing a small, remotely controlled vehicle that will carry two color and one black and white video cameras in space. The device will launch and retrieve from the Space Vehicle and be used for remote viewing. Off the shelf cellular technology is being used as the basis for communication system design. Existing plans include using multiple antennas to make simultaneous estimates of the azimuth of the MiniAERCam from several sites on the Space Station and use triangulation to find the location of the device. Adding range detection capability to each of the nodes on the Space Vehicle would allow an estimate of the location of the MiniAERCam to be made at each Communication And Telemetry Box (CATBox) independent of all the other communication nodes. This project will investigate the techniques used by the Global Positioning System (GPS) to achieve accurate positioning information and adapt those strategies that are appropriate to the design of the CATBox range determination system.

  19. Polypeptide micelles with dual pH activatable dyes for sensing cells and cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Ping; Yang, Yueting; Yi, Huqiang; Fang, Shengtao; Zhang, Pengfei; Sheng, Zonghai; Gao, Guanhui; Gao, Duyang; Cai, Lintao

    2014-04-01

    pH is an important control parameter for maintenance of cell viability and tissue functions. pH monitoring provides valuable information on cell metabolic processes and the living environment. In this study, we prepared dual pH-sensitive, fluorescent dye-loaded polypeptide nanoparticles (DPNs) for ratiometric sensing of pH changes in living cells. DPNs contain two types of dyes: N-(rhodamine B) lactam cystamine (RBLC), an acid activatable fluorescent dye with increased fluorescence in an acidic environment, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), a base activatable fluorescent dye with enhanced fluorescence in an alkaline environment. Hence, DPNs exhibited a dual response signal with strong red fluorescence and weak green fluorescence under acidic conditions; in contrast, they showed strong green fluorescence and almost no red fluorescence under alkaline and neutral conditions. The favorable inverse pH responses of the two fluorescent dyes resulted in ratiometric pH determination for DPNs with an optimized pH-sensitive range of pH 4.5-7.5. Quantitative analysis of the intracellular pH of intact MCF-7 cells has been successfully demonstrated with our nanosensor. Moreover, single acid activatable fluorescent dye doped polypeptide nanoparticles that only contained RBLC can distinguish tumor tissue from normal tissue by monitoring the acidic extracellular environment.pH is an important control parameter for maintenance of cell viability and tissue functions. pH monitoring provides valuable information on cell metabolic processes and the living environment. In this study, we prepared dual pH-sensitive, fluorescent dye-loaded polypeptide nanoparticles (DPNs) for ratiometric sensing of pH changes in living cells. DPNs contain two types of dyes: N-(rhodamine B) lactam cystamine (RBLC), an acid activatable fluorescent dye with increased fluorescence in an acidic environment, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), a base activatable fluorescent dye with enhanced fluorescence

  20. A Flexible Optical pH Sensor Based on Polysulfone Membranes Coated with pH-Responsive Polyaniline Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Thabit, Nedal; Umar, Yunusa; Ratemi, Elaref; Ahmad, Ayman; Ahmad Abuilaiwi, Faraj

    2016-01-01

    A new optical pH sensor based on polysulfone (PSU) and polyaniline (PANI) was developed. A transparent and flexible PSU membrane was employed as a support. The electrically conductive and pH-responsive PANI was deposited onto the membrane surface by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization (COP). The absorption spectra of the PANI-coated PSU membranes exhibited sensitivity to pH changes in the range of 4–12, which allowed for designing a dual wavelength pH optical sensor. The performance of the membranes was assessed by measuring their response starting from high pH and going down to low pH, and vice versa. It was found that it is necessary to precondition the sensor layers before each measurement due to the slight hysteresis observed during forward and backward pH titrations. PSU membranes with polyaniline coating thicknesses in the range of ≈100–200 nm exhibited fast response times of <4 s, which are attributed to the porous, rough and nanofibrillar morphology of the polyaniline coating. The fabricated pH sensor was characterized by a sigmoidal response (R2 = 0.997) which allows for pH determination over a wide dynamic range. All membranes were stable for a period of more than six months when stored in 1 M HCl solution. The reproducibility of the fabricated optical pH sensors was found to be <0.02 absorption units after one month storage in 1 M HCl solution. The performance of the optical pH sensor was tested and the obtained pH values were compared with the results obtained using a pH meter device. PMID:27355953