Reátegui, Ricardo F.; Wicklow, Donald T.; Gloer, James B.
Two new benzofuran-derived metabolites of polyketide origin called phaeofurans A and B (1–2), along with three sorbicillin analogs (3–5) have been obtained from a fungicolous isolate of the genus Phaeoacremonium (NRRL 32148). The structures were determined by analysis of MS and 2D NMR data. The antifungal effects of the extract were ascribed to the sorbicillin analogs. PMID:16441079
Guarro, Josep; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Gené, Josepa; Grazziotin, Neiva Aparecida; Mazzuco, Rosemari; Dalmagro, Cristiane; Capilla, Javier; Zaror, Luis; Mayayo, Emilio
We describe two cases in Brazil of human subcutaneous infections due to Phaeoacremonium spp. The first case was caused by Phaeoacremonium aleophilum. The patient presented with a unique fistulized nodule on the left ankle. The fungus was detected by direct microscopic examination and was isolated repeatedly from material collected from the lesion. This is the first reported case of human infection caused by this fungus. The second case was caused by Phaeoacremonium rubrigenum. The patient presented with multiple nodules around the left ankle and foot. The fungus was detected by direct examination of pus and histological sections of the nodules. It was repeatedly isolated from the clinical specimens. This is the second reported case of human infection caused by this species. PMID:12624080
Dual Invasive Infection with Phaeoacremonium parasiticum and Paraconiothyrium cyclothyrioides in a Renal Transplant Recipient: Case Report and Comprehensive Review of the Literature of Phaeoacremonium Phaeohyphomycosis
Colombier, Marie-Alice; Alanio, Alexandre; Denis, Blandine; Melica, Giovanna; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Levy, Bénédicte; Peraldi, Marie-Noëlle; Glotz, Denis; Bretagne, Stéphane
Despite increasing reports of human infection, data about the optimal care of Phaeoacremonium infections are missing. We report a case of an infection due to Phaeoacremonium parasiticum and Paraconiothyrium cyclothyrioides, initially localized to skin and soft tissue, in a kidney transplant patient. Despite surgical drainage and excision of the lesion and combination antifungal therapy with voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin B, a disseminated infection involving the lungs and brain developed and led to death. We performed a systematic literature review to assess the general features and outcome of human infections due to Phaeoacremonium species. Thirty-six articles were selected, and 42 patients, including ours, were reviewed. Thirty-one patients (74%) were immunocompromised because of organ or bone marrow transplantation (n = 17), diabetes or glucose intolerance (n = 10), rheumatoid arthritis or Still's disease (n = 4), chronic hematological diseases (n = 3), or chronic granulomatous disease (n = 3). Ten patients (24%) reported initial cutaneous trauma. Skin and soft tissue infections represented 57% of infections (n = 24), and disseminated infections, all occurring in immunocompromised patients, represented 14% of infections (n = 6). The main antifungal drugs used were azoles (n = 41) and amphotericin B (n = 16). Surgical excision or drainage was performed in 64% of cases (n = 27). The cure rate was 67% (n = 28). There were 10% cases of treatment failure or partial response (n = 4), 19% relapses (n = 8), and 7% losses to follow-up (n = 3). The death rate was 19% (n = 8). Management of Phaeoacremonium infections is complex because of slow laboratory identification and limited clinical data, and treatment relies on a combination of surgery and systemic antifungal therapy. PMID:25903573
Badali, Hamid; Khodavaisy, Sadegh; Fakhim, Hamed; de Hoog, G. Sybren
In vitro susceptibilities of a worldwide collection of molecularly identified Phaeoacremonium strains (n = 43) belonging to seven species and originating from human and environmental sources were determined for eight antifungal drugs. Voriconazole had the lowest geometric mean MIC (0.35 μg/ml), followed by posaconazole (0.37 μg/ml), amphotericin B (0.4 μg/ml), and isavuconazole (1.16 μg/ml). Caspofungin, anidulafungin, fluconazole, and itraconazole had no activity. PMID:26369976
Hemashettar, B. M.; Siddaramappa, B.; Munjunathaswamy, B. S.; Pangi, A. S.; Pattan, Jayashree; Andrade, A. T.; Padhye, A. A.; Mostert, Lizel; Summerbell, R. C.
We describe the first case of white grain pedal eumycetoma caused by Phaeoacremonium krajdenii in a 41-year-old man from Goa, India. Based on histological examination of biopsy tissue showing serpentine granules, a culture of the granules yielding phaeoid fungal colonies, and morphological characteristics and sequence comparison of the partial β-tubulin gene with the ex-type isolate of P. krajdenii, the causal agent was identified as P. krajdenii. PMID:17005754
Monaganti, Saivaralaxmi; Santos, Carlos A. Q.; Markwardt, Andrea; Pence, Morgan A.; Brennan, Daniel C.
We report a rare case of pulmonary phaeohyphomycosis in a 49-year-old woman 6 years after kidney transplantation. She presented with dyspnea, cough, and fatigue. Her chest CT scan revealed nodular opacities in the right upper lung. A fine needle aspirate biopsy culture yielded Phaeoacremonium and surgical pathology of the biopsy showed chronic inflammation. We successfully treated her with posaconazole and managed drug interactions between posaconazole and tacrolimus. This is the second reported case of biopsy-proven pulmonary infection by Phaeoacremonium in a kidney transplant recipient and successfully treated with posaconazole. PMID:24959182
Shah, S K; Parto, P; Lombard, G A; James, M A; Beckles, D L; Lick, S; Valentine, V G
Lung nodules after lung transplantation most often represent infection or post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in the allograft. Conversely, native lung nodules in single lung transplant recipients are more likely to be bronchogenic carcinoma. We present a patient who developed native lung cavitary nodules. Although malignancy was anticipated, evaluation revealed probable Phaeoacremonium parasiticum infection. Phaeoacremonium parasiticum is a dematiaceous fungus first described as a cause of soft tissue infection in a renal transplant patient. Lung nodules have not been previously described and this is the first case, to our knowledge, of P. parasiticum identified after lung transplantation.
Cole et al (1981) reported a citreoviridin-producing isolate of Penicillium charlesii (NRRL 13013) from molded pecans. Wicklow later identified it as a variant of Penicillium citreoviride, noting that it produced sclerotia, although the species as a whole is not known to do so. We sequenced the IT...
Lactobacillus salivarius 1077 (NRRL B-50053) was isolated from poultry intestinal materials after demonstrating in-vitro anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity. The isolate was then used for in-vitro fermentation. The protein content of the cell-free supernatant from the spent medium was precipitated ...
Multi-locus sequence analysis has been demonstrated to be a useful tool for identification of Streptomyces species and was previously applied to phylogenetically differentiate the type strains of species pathogenic on potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). The ARS Culture Collection (NRRL) contains 43 str...
Singh, Birinderjit; Meshram, Vineet; Kumar, Maneek
Mycoherbicides are exclusive biotechnology products which offer a non-chemical solution to control noxious weeds on the land as well as aquatic in systems, viz a viz saving environment from hazardous impact of synthetic chemicals. The present paper highlights the mycobiota associated with Eichhornia crassipes infesting Harike wetland area of Punjab and evaluation of their pathogenic potential for futuristic application as a mycoherbicide. Of the 20 isolates tested by leaf detached assay and whole plant bioassays, only one isolate (#8 BJSSL) caused 100% damage to E. crassipes. Further, the culture filtrate of this isolate also exhibited a similar damage to the leaves in an in vitro detached leaf assay. The potential isolate was identified as Phaeoacremonium italicum using classical and modern molecular methods. This is the first report of P. italicum as a pathogen of E. crassipes and of its potential use as a biological control agent for the management of water hyacinth. PMID:27433118
Singh, Birinderjit; Saxena, Sanjai; Meshram, Vineet; Kumar, Maneek
Mycoherbicides are exclusive biotechnology products which offer a non-chemical solution to control noxious weeds on the land as well as aquatic in systems, viz a viz saving environment from hazardous impact of synthetic chemicals. The present paper highlights the mycobiota associated with Eichhornia crassipes infesting Harike wetland area of Punjab and evaluation of their pathogenic potential for futuristic application as a mycoherbicide. Of the 20 isolates tested by leaf detached assay and whole plant bioassays, only one isolate (#8 BJSSL) caused 100% damage to E. crassipes. Further, the culture filtrate of this isolate also exhibited a similar damage to the leaves in an in vitro detached leaf assay. The potential isolate was identified as Phaeoacremonium italicum using classical and modern molecular methods. This is the first report of P. italicum as a pathogen of E. crassipes and of its potential use as a biological control agent for the management of water hyacinth.
Phosphonate biosynthetic gene clusters from two actinomycete strains, Glycomyces sp. NRRL B-16210 and Stackebrandtia nassauensis NRRL B-16338, were identified by screening for the PEP mutase gene, which is required for the biosynthesis of most phosphonates. Subsequent examination of the two strains...
Using agar plates containing ethyl ferulate as the sole carbon source, 33 Lactobacillus strains were screened for feruloyl esterase (FE) activity. Among a dozen species showing a clearing zone on the opaque plate containing ethyl ferulate, Lactobacillus fermentum NRRL B-1932 demonstrated the stronge...
The ARS Culture Collection (NRRL) currently contains 7569 strains within the family Streptomycetaceae but 4368 of them have not been characterized to the species level. A gene sequence database using the Bacterial Isolate Genomic Sequence Database package (BIGSdb) (Jolley & Maiden, 2010) is availabl...
Shea, Terrance; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Kistler, H. Corby
Horizontal chromosome transfer introduces host-specific pathogenicity among members of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex and is responsible for some of the most destructive and intractable plant diseases. This paper reports the genome sequence of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis (NRRL 26406), a causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease on melon. PMID:25081257
Liamocins are polyol-lipids produced by the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans, and have selective antibacterial activity against Streptococcus species. Liamocins produced by A. pullulans strain NRRL 50380 on sucrose medium have a D-mannitol head-group ester linked to 3,5-dihydroxydecanoate acyl chains,...
S. chartreusis strains NRRL 12338 and NRRL 3882, S. clavuligerus NRRL 3585, and S. lysosuperificus ATCC 31396, are known producers of tunicamycins, and also of charteusins, clavulinate, cephalosporins, holomycins, and calcimycin. Here we announce the sequencing of the S. lysosuperificus and the two...
Cobos, Rebeca; Martín, Laura; López-Enríquez, Lorena
Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium aleophilum are the two main fungal causal agents of Petri disease and esca. Both diseases cause significant economic losses to viticulturalists. Since no curative control measures are known, proactive defensive measures must be taken. An important aspect of current research is the development of sensitive and time-saving protocols for the detection and identification of these pathogens. Real-time PCR based on the amplification of specific sequences is now being used for the identification and quantification of many infective agents. The present work reports real-time PCR protocols for identification of P. chlamydospora and P. aleophilum. Specificity was demonstrated against purified DNA from 60 P. chlamydospora isolates or 61 P. aleophilum isolates, and no amplification was obtained with 54 nontarget DNAs. The limits of detection (i.e., DNA detectable in 95% of reactions) were around 100 fg for P. chlamydospora and 50 fg for P. aleophilum. Detection was specific and sensitive for P. chlamydospora and P. aleophilum. Spores of P. chlamydospora and P. aleophilum were detected without the need for DNA purification. The established protocols detected these fungi in wood samples after DNA purification. P. chlamydospora was detectable without DNA purification and isolation in 67% of reactions. The detection of these pathogens in wood samples has great potential for use in pathogen-free certification schemes. PMID:22447605
Suh, Sung-Oui; McHugh, Joseph V; Blackwell, Meredith
A major clade of new yeast taxa from the digestive tract of basidiocarp-feeding beetles is recognized based on rRNA gene sequence analyses. Almost 30 % of 650 gut isolates formed a statistically well-supported clade that included Candida tanzawaensis. The yeasts in the clade were isolated from 11 families of beetles, of which Tenebrionidae and Erotylidae were most commonly sampled. Repeated isolation of certain yeasts from the same beetle species at different times and places indicated strong host associations. Sexual reproduction was never observed in the yeasts. Based on comparisons of small- and large-subunit rRNA gene sequences and morphological and physiological traits, the yeasts were placed in Candida ambrosiae and in 16 other undescribed taxa. In this report, the novel species in the genus Candida are described and their relationships with other taxa in the Saccharomycetes are discussed. The novel species and their type strains are as follows: Candida guaymorum (NRRL Y-27568(T)=CBS 9823(T)), Candida bokatorum (NRRL Y-27571(T)=CBS 9824(T)), Candida kunorum (NRRL Y-27580(T)=CBS 9825(T)), Candida terraborum (NRRL Y-27573(T)=CBS 9826(T)), Candida emberorum (NRRL Y-27606(T)=CBS 9827(T)), Candida wounanorum (NRRL Y-27574(T)=CBS 9828(T)), Candida yuchorum (NRRL Y-27569(T)=CBS 9829(T)), Candida chickasaworum (NRRL Y-27566(T)=CBS 9830(T)), Candida choctaworum (NRRL Y-27584(T)=CBS 9831(T)), Candida bolitotheri (NRRL Y-27587(T)=CBS 9832(T)), Candida atakaporum (NRRL Y-27570(T)=CBS 9833(T)), Candida panamericana (NRRL Y-27567(T)=CBS 9834(T)), Candida bribrorum (NRRL Y-27572(T)=CBS 9835(T)), Candida maxii (NRRL Y-27588(T)=CBS 9836(T)), Candida anneliseae (NRRL Y-27563(T)=CBS 9837(T)) and Candida taliae (NRRL Y-27589(T)=CBS 9838(T)).
Fischer, Jochen; Compant, Stéphane; Pierron, Romain J. G.; Gorfer, Markus; Jacques, Alban; Thines, Eckhard
The filamentous fungi Phaeoacremonium aleophilum (P.al, Teleomorph: Togninia minima) and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (P.ch) are believed to be causal agents of wood symptoms associated with the Esca associated young vine decline. The occurrence of these diseases is dramatically increasing in vineyards all over the world whereas efficient therapeutic strategies are lacking. Both fungi occupy the same ecological niche within the grapevine trunk. We found them predominantly within the xylem vessels and surrounding cell walls which raises the question whether the transcriptional response towards plant cell secreted metabolites is comparable. In order to address this question we co-inoculated grapevine callus culture cells with the respective fungi and analyzed their transcriptomes by RNA sequencing. This experimental setup appears suitable since we aimed to investigate the effects caused by the plant thereby excluding all effects caused by other microorganisms omnipresent in planta and nutrient depletion. Bioinformatics analysis of the sequencing data revealed that 837 homologous genes were found to have comparable expression pattern whereas none of which was found to be differentially expressed in both strains upon exposure to the plant cells. Despite the fact that both fungi induced the transcription of oxido- reductases, likely to cope with reactive oxygen species produced by plant cells, the transcriptomics response of both fungi compared to each other is rather different in other domains. Within the transcriptome of P.ch beside increased transcript levels for oxido- reductases, plant cell wall degrading enzymes and detoxifying enzymes were found. On the other hand in P.al the transcription of some oxido- reductases was increased whereas others appeared to be repressed. In this fungus the confrontation to plant cells results in higher transcript levels of heat shock and chaperon-like proteins as well as genes encoding proteins involved in primary metabolism. PMID
Fawzi, Eman Mohamed
Thirty fungal species grown on Cichorium intybus L. root extract as a sole carbon source, were screened for the production of exo-inulinase activities. The thermophile Thielavia terrestris NRRL 8126 and mesophile Aspergillus foetidus NRRL 337 gave the highest production levels of inulinases I & II at 50 and 24 ºC respectively. Yeast extract and peptone were the best nitrogen sources for highest production of inulinases I & II at five and seven days of incubation respectively. The two inulinases I & II were purified to homogeneity by gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography with 66.0 and 42.0 fold of purification respectively. The optimum temperatures of purified inulinases I & II were 75 and 50 ºC respectively. Inulinase I was more thermostable than the other one. The optimum pH for activity was found to be 4.5 and 5.5 for inulinases I & II respectively. A comparatively lower Michaelis-Menten constant (2.15 mg/ml) and higher maximum initial velocity (115 µmol/min/mg of protein) for inulinase I on inulin demonstrated the exoinulinase's greater affinity for inulin substrate. These findings are significant for its potential industrial application. The molecular mass of the inulinases I & II were estimated to be 72 & 78 kDa respectively by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
Passerini, Delphine; Vuillemin, Marlène; Laguerre, Sandrine; Amari, Myriam; Loux, Valentin; Gabriel, Valérie; Robert, Hervé; Morel, Sandrine; Monsan, Pierre; Gabriel, Bruno; Fontagné-Faucher, Catherine
Leuconostoc citreum belongs to the group of lactic acid bacteria and plays an important role in fermented foods of plant origin. Here, we report the complete genome of the Leuconostoc citreum strain NRRL B-742, isolated in 1954 for its capacity to produce dextran. PMID:25428963
Phosphonates, compounds with direct C-P bonds, consist of a group of chemically diverse natural products, which play important roles in the global environment. We identified phosphonate biosynthetic gene clusters from two actinomycete strains, Glycomyces sp. NRRL B-16210 and Stackebrandtia nassauen...
Phosphonates, compounds with direct C-P bonds, consist of a group of chemically diverse natural products, which play important roles in the global environment. We identified phosphonate biosynthetic gene clusters from two actinomycete strains, Glycomyces sp. NRRL B-16210 and Stackebrandtia nassauen...
Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Rolshausen, Philippe
Grapevine infections by Phaeoacremonium aleophilum in association with other pathogenic fungi cause complex and economically important vascular diseases. Here we present the first draft of the P. aleophilum genome sequence, which comprises 624 scaffolds with a total length of 47.5 Mb (L50, 45; N50, 336 kb) and 8,926 predicted protein-coding genes. PMID:23814032
Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain NRRL B-1355 produces the soluble exopolysaccharides alternan and dextran in planktonic cultures. A set of mutants of this strain are available that are deficient in the production of alternan, dextran, or both. Another mutant of NRRL B-1355, strain R1510, produces ...
Wang, Jin-Feng; Liu, Xiu-Ji; Liu, Rui-Sang; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Jie
The mated fermentation process for the production of lycopene by Blakeslea trispora NRRL 2895 (+) and NRRL 2896 (-) was systematically optimized in shake flasks. The ratio of the (+) to (-) strains, the lycopene cyclase inhibitors piperidine and creatinine, the trisporic acid structural analog abscisic acid, the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) precursor leucine, and the mevalonate kinase enhancer penicillin were all identified as key factors affecting lycopene biosynthesis. With an optimal ratio of 5:1 for the (+) to (-) strains and the addition of 6 g/L creatinine on day 3, the highest lycopene production was 98.1 ± 15.5 mg/L. Based on the above result, the addition of 0.1 g/L penicillin on day 4, 150 μmol/L abscisic acid on day 3 or 0.5 g/L leucine on day 4 enhanced lycopene production to 119.7 ± 17.2, 120.6 ± 12.3 and 135.2 ± 7.0 mg/L, respectively. Finally, an integrated strategy by combining the above key factors was developed, and the highest lycopene production of 156.2 ± 15.4 mg/L was obtained, which was enhanced by 134.9% comparing with its production of 66.5 ± 3.6 mg/L before the optimization process of this work. The results obtained in this study may be useful for large-scale industrial lycopene production.
Pierron, Romain J. G.; Pouzoulet, Jérôme; Couderc, Christel; Judic, Elodie; Compant, Stéphane; Jacques, Alban
Defense mechanisms in woody tissue are poorly understood, especially in vine colonized by trunk pathogens. However, several investigations suggest that molecular mechanisms in the central tissue of Vitis vinifera L. may be involved in trunk-defense reactions. In this work, the perception of Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora alone or together were investigated in cuttings of Cabernet Sauvignon trunks. Plant responses were analyzed at the tissue level via optical microscopy and at the cellular level via plant-gene expression. The microscopy results revealed that, 6 weeks after pathogen inoculation, newly formed vascular tissue is less developed in plants inoculated with P. chlamydospora than in plants inoculated with P. aleophilum. Co-inoculation with both pathogens resulted in an intermediate phenotype. Further analysis showed the relative expression of the following grapevine genes: PAL, PR10.3, TL, TLb, Vv17.3, STS, STS8, CWinv, PIN, CAM, LOX at 10, 24, 48, and 120 h post-inoculation (hpi). The gene set was induced by wounding before inoculation with the different pathogens, except for the genes CAM and LOX. This response generated significant noise, but the expression of the grapevine genes (PAL, PR10.3, TL, TLb, Vv17.3, STS, STS8, CWinv, and PIN) still differed due to perception of mycelium by the plant. Furthermore, at 48 hpi, the induction of PAL and STS8 differs depending on the pathogen, and a specific pattern emerges from the different inductions associated with the different treatments. Based on these results, we conclude that V. vinifera L. trunk perceives the presence of pathogens differently depending on the inoculated pathogen or even on the combination of co-inoculated pathogens, suggesting a defense orchestration in the perennial organs of woody plants. PMID:27014294
Pierron, Romain J G; Pouzoulet, Jérôme; Couderc, Christel; Judic, Elodie; Compant, Stéphane; Jacques, Alban
Defense mechanisms in woody tissue are poorly understood, especially in vine colonized by trunk pathogens. However, several investigations suggest that molecular mechanisms in the central tissue of Vitis vinifera L. may be involved in trunk-defense reactions. In this work, the perception of Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora alone or together were investigated in cuttings of Cabernet Sauvignon trunks. Plant responses were analyzed at the tissue level via optical microscopy and at the cellular level via plant-gene expression. The microscopy results revealed that, 6 weeks after pathogen inoculation, newly formed vascular tissue is less developed in plants inoculated with P. chlamydospora than in plants inoculated with P. aleophilum. Co-inoculation with both pathogens resulted in an intermediate phenotype. Further analysis showed the relative expression of the following grapevine genes: PAL, PR10.3, TL, TLb, Vv17.3, STS, STS8, CWinv, PIN, CAM, LOX at 10, 24, 48, and 120 h post-inoculation (hpi). The gene set was induced by wounding before inoculation with the different pathogens, except for the genes CAM and LOX. This response generated significant noise, but the expression of the grapevine genes (PAL, PR10.3, TL, TLb, Vv17.3, STS, STS8, CWinv, and PIN) still differed due to perception of mycelium by the plant. Furthermore, at 48 hpi, the induction of PAL and STS8 differs depending on the pathogen, and a specific pattern emerges from the different inductions associated with the different treatments. Based on these results, we conclude that V. vinifera L. trunk perceives the presence of pathogens differently depending on the inoculated pathogen or even on the combination of co-inoculated pathogens, suggesting a defense orchestration in the perennial organs of woody plants.
... NRRL 21882 on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover....
... NRRL 21882 on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover....
... NRRL 21882 on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover....
Bischoff, Kenneth M.; Anderson, Amber M.; Rich, Joseph O.
ABSTRACT A total of 33 Lactobacillus strains were screened for feruloyl esterase (FE) activity using agar plates containing ethyl ferulate as the sole carbon source, and Lactobacillus fermentum NRRL B-1932 demonstrated the strongest FE activity among a dozen species showing a clearing zone on the opaque plate containing ethyl ferulate. FE activities were monitored using high-performance liquid chromatography with an acetonitrile-trifluoroacetic acid gradient. To produce sufficient purified FE from L. fermentum strain NRRL B-1932 (LfFE), the cDNA encoding LfFE (Lffae) was amplified and cloned by using available closely related genome sequences and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. A 29.6-kDa LfFE protein was detected from the protein extract of E. coli BL21(pLysS) carrying pET28bLffae upon IPTG (isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside) induction. The recombinant LfFE containing a polyhistidine tag was purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity resin. The purified LfFE showed strong activities against several artificial substrates, including p-nitrophenyl acetate and 4-methylumbelliferyl p-trimethylammoniocinnamate chloride. The optimum pH and temperature of the recombinant LfFE were around 6.5 and 37°C, respectively, as determined using either crude or purified recombinant LfFE. This study will be essential for the production of the LfFE in E. coli on a larger scale that could not be readily achieved by L. fermentum fermentation. IMPORTANCE The production of feruloyl esterase (FE) from Lactobacillus fermentum NRRL B-1932 reported in this study will have immense potential commercial applications not only in biofuel production but also in pharmaceutical, polymer, oleo chemical, cosmetic additive, and detergent industries, as well as human health-related applications, including food flavoring, functional foods, probiotic agents, preventive medicine, and animal feed. Given the essential role FE plays in the production of hydroxycinnamic acids and ferulic acid
Structured lipids (SL) were synthesized by the acidolysis of borage oil with caprylic acid using lipases. Six commercial lipases from different sources and a novel lipase from Pichia lynferdii NRRL Y-7723 were screened for their acidolysis activities and Lipozyme RM IM and NRRL Y-7723 lipase were s...
Labeda, David P
Multi-locus sequence analysis has been demonstrated to be a useful tool for identification of Streptomyces species and was previously applied to phylogenetically differentiate the type strains of species pathogenic on potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). The ARS Culture Collection (NRRL) contains 43 strains identified as Streptomyces scabiei deposited at various times since the 1950s and these were subjected to multi-locus sequence analysis utilising partial sequences of the house-keeping genes atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB and trpB. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the identity of 17 of these strains as Streptomyces scabiei, 9 of the strains as the potato-pathogenic species Streptomyces europaeiscabiei and 6 strains as potentially new phytopathogenic species. Of the 16 other strains, 12 were identified as members of previously described non-pathogenic Streptomyces species while the remaining 4 strains may represent heretofore unrecognised non-pathogenic species. This study demonstrated the value of this technique for the relatively rapid, simple and sensitive molecular identification of Streptomyces strains held in culture collections.
Kurtzman, Cletus P
DNA sequence analysis has shown Candida abiesophila (NRRL Y-11514(T), CBS 5366(T)) and Candida asiatica (NRRL Y-63747(T), CBS 10863(T)) to be members of a small clade that is phylogenetically separate from other yeasts. In view of their isolation from neighboring genera, such as Pichia and Saturnispora, the two anamorphic species are proposed for transfer to Martiniozyma gen. nov. (MycoBank MB 812061) with Martiniozyma abiesophila designated as type species (MycoBank MB 812062). In keeping with the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, which specifies that related anamorphic and teleomorphic species can be assigned to the same genus, the following Candida species are transferred to Saturnispora to conform with their phylogenetic placement: Candida diversa (NRRL Y-5713(T)), Candida halmiae (CBS 11009(T)), Candida sanitii (CBS 10864(T)), Candida sekii (CBS 10931(T)), Candida siamensis (CBS 11022(T)), Candida silvae (NRRL Y-6725(T)) and Candida suwanaritii (CBS 11021(T)).
This study reports the production and characterization of a novel antibacterial polypeptide, designated laparaxin, which is secreted by Lactobacillus paracasei NRRL B-50314. Crude laparaxin has antibacterial activity against a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria, including: lactic acid bacteria ...
Huang, Sheng; Ma, Long; Tong, Ming Him; Yu, Yi; O'Hagan, David; Deng, Hai
Genome sequencing identified a fluorinase gene in the marine bacterium Streptomyces xinghaiensis NRRL B-24674. Fermentation of the organism with inorganic fluoride (2 mM) demonstrated that the organism could biosynthesise fluoroacetate and that fluoroacetate production is sea-salt dependent. This is the first fluorometabolite producing microorganism identified from the marine environment.
The ARS Culture Collection, also known as the NRRL Culture Collection, is one of the largest public collections of microbial germplasm in the world and an internationally recognized center of expertise for the systematics, taxonomy, and biology of various groups of microorganisms. Begun in 1940 with...
Ge, Fanglan; Li, Wei; Chen, Guiying; Liu, Yuchang; Zhang, Guangxiang; Yong, Bin; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Nan; Huang, Zhumei; Li, Weitian; Wang, Jing; Wu, Cheng; Xie, Qian; Liu, Gang
We report a draft sequence of the genome of Gordonia neofelifaecis NRRL B-59395, a cholesterol-degrading actinomycete isolated from fresh feces of a clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). As predicted, the reported genome contains several gene clusters for cholesterol degradation. This is the second available genome sequence of the family Gordoniaceae.
This study reports the production and characterization of a novel antibacterial polypeptide, designated as laparaxin, which is secreted by Lactobacillus paracasei NRRL B-50314. The crude laparaxin has antibacterial activity against a range of Gram-positive bacteria including the following: lactic a...
Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain NRRL B-1355 produces the soluble exopolysaccharides alternan and dextran in planktonic cultures. Mutants of this strain are available that are deficient in the production of alternan, dextran, or both. Our recent work demonstrated that biofilms from all strains con...
The Lactobacillus buchneri NRRL B-30929 strain, isolated from a fuel ethanol production facility, exhibits high tolerance to environmental ethanol concentrations. This study aimed to identify proteins produced by B-30929 in response to environmental ethanol. Cellular proteins expressed by B-30929 gr...
The Lactobacillus buchneri NRRL B-30929 strain, isolated from a fuel ethanol production facility, exhibits high tolerance to environmental ethanol concentrations. In this study, the ethanol tolerance trait was elucidated at the molecular level by using proteomics comparison and analyses. Cellular p...
Harrell, Erin A.
Aeromicrobium erythreum NRRL B-3381 has a 3,629,239-bp circular genome that has 72% G+C content. There are at least 3,121 coding sequences (CDSs), two rRNA gene operons, and 47 tRNAs. The genome and erythromycin (ery) biosynthetic gene sequences provide resources for metabolic and combinatorial engineering of polyketides. PMID:27103725
Wibberg, Daniel; Alkhateeb, Rabeaa S; Winkler, Anika; Albersmeier, Andreas; Schatschneider, Sarah; Albaum, Stefan; Niehaus, Karsten; Hublik, Gerd; Pühler, Alfred; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg
Xanthomonas campestris NRRL B-1459 was used in pioneering studies related to the biotechnological production of xanthan, the commercially most important polysaccharide of bacterial origin. The analysis of its genome revealed a 5.1Mb chromosome plus the first complete plasmid of an X. campestris strain applied in biotechnology.
Chaudhry, Vasvi; Chauhan, Puneet S; Mishra, Aradhana; Goel, Ridhi; Asif, Mehar H; Mantri, Shrikant S; Bag, Sumit K; Singh, Sunil K; Sawant, Samir V; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar
Paenibacillus lentimorbus NRRL B-30488, a plant growth-promoting bacterium was isolated from Sahiwal cow's milk. The strain shows antagonism against phytopathogens, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and Alternaria solani. Its genome contains gene clusters involved in nonribosomal synthesis of secondary metabolites involved in antimicrobial activities. The genome sequence of P. lentimorbus NRRL B-30488 provides the genetic basis for application of this bacterial strain in plant growth promotion, plant protection and degradation of organic pollutants.
Pierron, Romain; Gorfer, Markus; Berger, Harald; Jacques, Alban; Sessitsch, Angela; Strauss, Joseph; Compant, Stéphane
Introduction Esca disease has become a major threat for viticulture. Phaeoacremonium aleophilum is considered a pioneer of the esca complex pathosystem, but its colonisation behaviour inside plants remains poorly investigated. Material and Methods In this study, P. aleophilum::gfp7 colonisation was assessed six and twelve weeks post-inoculation in two different types of tissues: in the node and the internode of one year-old rooted cuttings of Cabernet Sauvignon. These processes of colonisation were compared with the colonisation by the wild-type strain using a non-specific lectin probe Alexa Fluor 488-WGA. Results Data showed that six weeks post-inoculation of the internode, the fungus had colonised the inoculation point, the bark and xylem fibres. Bark, pith and xylem fibres were strongly colonised by the fungus twelve weeks post-inoculation and it can progress up to 8 mm from the point of inoculation using pith, bark and fibres. P. aleophilum was additionally detected in the lumen of xylem vessels in which tyloses blocked its progression. Different plant responses in specific tissues were additionally visualised. Inoculation of nodes led to restricted colonisation of P. aleophilum and this colonisation was associated with a plant response six weeks post-inoculation. The fungus was however detected in xylem vessels, bark and inside the pith twelve weeks post-inoculation. Conclusions These results demonstrate that P. aleophilum colonisation can vary according to the type of tissues and the type of spread using pith, bark and fibres. Woody tissues can respond to the injury and to the presence of this fungus, and xylem fibres play a key role in the early colonisation of the internode by P. aleophilum before the fungus can colonise xylem vessels. PMID:26061034
Background Given its availability and low price, glycerol derived from biodiesel industry has become an ideal feedstock for the production of fuels and chemicals. A solution to reduce the negative environmental problems and the cost of biodiesel is to use crude glycerol as carbon source for microbial growth media in order to produce valuable organic chemicals. In the present paper, crude glycerol was used as carbon substrate for production of L (+)-lactic acid using pelletized fungus R. oryzae NRRL 395 on batch fermentation. More, the experiments were conducted on media supplemented with inorganic nutrients and lucerne green juice. Results Crude and pure glycerols were first used to produce the highest biomass yield of R. oryzae NRRL 395. An enhanced lactic acid production then followed up using fed-batch fermentation with crude glycerol, inorganic nutrients and lucerne green juice. The optimal crude glycerol concentration for cultivating R. oryzae NRRL 395 was 75 g l-1, which resulted in a fungal biomass yield of 0.72 g g-1 in trial without lucerne green juice addition and 0.83 g g-1 in trial with lucerne green juice. The glycerol consumption rate was 1.04 g l-1 h-1 after 48 h in trial with crude glycerol 75 g l-1 while in trial with crude glycerol 10 g l-1 the lowest rate of 0.12 g l-1 h-1 was registered. The highest L (+)-lactic acid yield (3.72 g g-1) was obtained at the crude glycerol concentration of 75 g l-1 and LGJ 25 g l-1, and the concentration of lactic acid was approximately 48 g l-1. Conclusions This work introduced sustainable opportunities for L (+)-lactic acid production via R. oryzae NRRL 395 fermentation on biodiesel crude glycerol media. The results showed good fungal growth on crude glycerol at 75 g l-1 concentration with lucerne green juice supplementation of 25 g l-1. Lucerne green juice provided a good source of nutrients for crude glycerol fermentation, without needs for supplementation with inorganic nutrients
Rodríguez-García, Antonio; Fernández-Alegre, Estela; Morales, Alejandro; Sola-Landa, Alberto; Lorraine, Jess; Macdonald, Sandy; Dovbnya, Dmitry; Smith, Margaret C M; Donova, Marina; Barreiro, Carlos
Microbial bioconversion of sterols into high value steroid precursors, such as 4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD), is an industrial challenge. Genes and enzymes involved in sterol degradation have been proposed, although the complete pathway is not yet known. The genome sequencing of the AD producer strain 'Mycobacterium neoaurum' NRRL B-3805 (formerly Mycobacterium sp. NRRL B-3805) will serve to elucidate the critical steps for industrial processes and will provide the basis for further genetic engineering. The genome comprises a circular chromosome (5 421 338bp), is devoid of plasmids and contains 4844 protein-coding genes.
Gangwar, Mamta; Singh, Vineeta; Pandey, Asheesh Kumar; Tripathi, C K M; Mishra, B N
Chitinase is one of the important enzymes as it is directly linked to Chitin that has wide applications in industrial, medical and commercial fields for its biocompatibility and biodegradability. Here, we report extracellular chitinase production by Streptomyces violascens NRRL B2700 under submerged fermentation condition. Chitinase production started after 10 h of incubation and reached to maximum level at 72 h of cultivation. Studies on the influence of additional carbon and nitrogen sources on chitinase production revealed that maltose, xylose, fructose, lactose, soybean meal and ammonium nitrate served as good carbon and nitrogen sources to enhance chitinase yield by 1.6 to 6 fold. Medium supplemented with 1% colloidal chitin produced high chitinase concentration (0.1714 U/mg). The enzyme chitinase was purified from the culture broth by 75% ammonium sulphate precipitation, DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange and sephadex G-100 gel filtration. The molecular mass of the purified chitinase was 65 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE. The apparent Michaelis constant (K(m)) and the maximum rate (V(max)) of the enzyme for colloidal chitin were 1.556 mg/mL and 2.680 μM/min/mg, respectively suggested high affinity towards-chitin. Possibly, it is the first report on production of chitinase from S. violascens NRRL B2700. The findings were encouraging, especially for cost effective production, and further warrants media and purification optimization studies for enhanced yield.
Nierman, William C; Yu, Jiujiang; Fedorova-Abrams, Natalie D; Losada, Liliana; Cleveland, Thomas E; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Bennett, Joan W; Dean, Ralph; Payne, Gary A
Aflatoxin contamination of food and livestock feed results in significant annual crop losses internationally. Aspergillus flavus is the major fungus responsible for this loss. Additionally, A. flavus is the second leading cause of aspergillosis in immunocompromised human patients. Here, we report the genome sequence of strain NRRL 3357.
Background: We recently reported the identification of Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911 that induces heart autoimmunity by generating cardiac-reactive T cells through molecular mimicry. This marine bacterium was originally isolated from the Gulf of Mexico, but no associations with human diseases were rep...
Jiménez, Diego Javier; Hector, Ronald E.; Riley, Robert; Lipzen, Anna; Kuo, Rita C.; Amirebrahimi, Mojgan; Barry, Kerrie W.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk
ABSTRACT Here, we report the first draft genome sequence (42.38 Mb containing 13,657 genes) of Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL 30616, an ascomycete with biotechnological relevance in the bioenergy field given its high potential for bioabatement of toxic furanic compounds in plant biomass hydrolysates and its capacity to degrade lignocellulosic material. PMID:28126934
We have cloned a glucansucrase from the type strain of Leuconostoc mesenteroides (NRRL B-1118; ATCC 8293) and successfully expressed the enzyme in Escherichia coli. The recombinant processed enzyme has a putative sequence identical to the predicted secreted native enzyme (1,473 amino acids; 161,468...
Lactobacillus buchneri strain NRRL B-30929 was a contaminant obtained from a commercial ethanol fermentation. This facultative anaerobe is unique in its rapid growth on xylose and simultaneous fermentation of xylose and glucose. The strain utilizes a broad range of carbohydrate substrates and poss...
This study reports the production and characterization of a novel antibacterial polypeptide, designated laparaxin, which is secreted by Lactobacillus paracasei NRRL B-50314. Crude laparaxin has antibacterial activity against a range of Gram-positive bacteria including the following: lactic acid bact...
Jiménez, Diego Javier; Hector, Ronald E; Riley, Robert; Lipzen, Anna; Kuo, Rita C; Amirebrahimi, Mojgan; Barry, Kerrie W; Grigoriev, Igor V; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Nichols, Nancy N
Here, we report the first draft genome sequence (42.38 Mb containing 13,657 genes) of Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL 30616, an ascomycete with biotechnological relevance in the bioenergy field given its high potential for bioabatement of toxic furanic compounds in plant biomass hydrolysates and its capacity to degrade lignocellulosic material.
Lactobacillus salivarius 1077 (NRRL B-50053) was isolated from poultry intestinal materials after demonstrating in-vitro anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity. The isolate was then used for in-vitro fermentation. The protein content of the cell-free supernatant from the spent medium was precipitated ...
This study reports the first lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production from mild alkali retreated rice straw using a native ß-glucosidase producing yeast strain, Clavispora NRRL Y-50464 by SSF. Ethanol production and efficiency of ethanol conversion from 10, 15, and 20% of solids loading of rice stra...
Yeast strains for anaerobic conversion of lignocellulosic sugars to ethanol were produced from Scheffersomyces (formerly Pichia) stipitis NRRL Y-7124 using UV-C mutagenesis. Random UV-C mutagenesis potentially produces large numbers of mutations broadly and uniformly over the whole genome to genera...
Clavispora NRRL Y-50464, a dual functional cellobiose fermenting and ethanologenic yeast strain, is a candidate biocatalyst for lower cost lignocellulose-to-ethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. A ß-glucosidase BGL1 protein from this strain was recently reported an...
Leathers, T.D.; Gupta, S.C.
Crude enzyme preparations from Aureobasidium sp. strain NRRL Y-2311-1 were characterized and tested for the capacity to saccharify corn fiber. Cultures grown on xylan, corn fiber, and alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP)-pretreated corn fiber produced specific levels of endoxylanase, amylase, protease, cellulose, and other activities. Using equal units of endoxylanase activity, crude enzymes from AHP-pretreated corn fiber cultures were most effective in saccharification. Multiple enzyme activities were implicated in this process. Pretreatment of corn fiber with AHP nearly doubled the susceptibility of hemicellulose to enzymatic digestion. Up to 138 mg xylose, 125 mg arabinose, and 490 mg glucose were obtained per g pretreated corn fiber under conditions tested. 31 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.
Saha, Badal C
The effects of four salt nutrients (ammonium citrate, sodium phosphate, magnesium sulfate, and manganese sulfate) on the production of mannitol by Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL B-3693 in a simplified medium containing 300 g fructose, 5 g soy peptone, and 50 g corn steep liquor per liter in pH-controlled fermentation at 5.0 at 37 degrees C were evaluated using a fractional factorial design. Only manganese sulfate was found to be essential for mannitol production. Added manganese sulfate concentration of 0.033 g/l was found to support maximum production. The bacterium produced 200.6 +/- 0.2 g mannitol, 61.9 +/- 0.1 g lactic acid, and 40.4 +/- 0.3 g acetic acid from 300 g fructose per liter in 67 h.
Yang, Wen; Hartwieg, Erika A; Fang, Aiqi; Demain, Arnold L
Aspergillus fumigatus NRRL 2346 is the producer of fumagillin, an antitumor antibiotic that inhibits angiogenesis. This strain is very difficult to grow reproducibly in shake flasks owing to an extreme form of pellet growth and extensive wall growth. The effects of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and carboxypolymethylene (Carbopol) on growth and fumagillin production by A. fumigatus were investigated. By adding the polymers to the fermentation medium, the growth form of the mold was changed from a single large glob to small reproducible pellets, and wall growth was diminished to a minimum. Carbopol, at a lower concentration, was more effective than CMC in improving both morphology and production. Small pellets were produced which favored fumagillin biosynthesis. 1.5% (wt/vol) CMC and 0.3% (wt/vol) Carbopol were found to be the optimum concentrations; higher levels increased viscosity to an unacceptable level.
Pérez Guerra, Nelson; Bernárdez, Paula Fajardo; Agrasar, Ana Torrado; López Macías, Cristina; Castro, Lorenzo Pastrana
Cell growth and pediocin production by Pediococcus acidilactici NRRL B-5627 on whey were compared by using batch fermentation and re-alkalized fed-batch fermentation. The batch fermentations were performed on DWG [DW (diluted whey) supplemented with 1% (w/v) glucose], DWYE [DW supplemented with 2% (w/v) yeast extract] and DWGYE (DW supplemented with 1% glucose plus 2% yeast extract) media. The fed-batch culture on DWYE medium was fed with a mixture of concentrated whey (48 g of total sugars/l) supplemented with 2% yeast extract and 400 g/l concentrated glucose. The re-alkalized fed-batch culture was characterized by higher biomass (6.57 g/l) and pediocin [517.6 BU (bacteriocin activity units)/ml] concentrations compared with the batch processes on MRS (de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe) broth (1.76 g/l and 493.2 BU/ml), DW (0.17 g/l and 57.7 BU/ml), DWG (0.14 g/l and 53.6 BU/ml), DWYE (1.43 g/l and 187.6 BU/ml) and DWGYE (1.28 g/l and 167.3 BU/ml) media. A mixed acid fermentation was observed during the growth of P. acidilactici NRRL B-5627 in the fed-batch culture on DWYE medium, and other products (acetic acid and ethanol) in addition to lactic acid accumulated in the medium. Mathematical models were set up to describe fed-batch production of biomass and pediocin by P. acidilactici. The models developed offer a better fit and a more realistic description of the experimental biomass and pediocin production data when compared with the logistic and Luedeking and Piret model.
Çabuk, Burcu; Tellioğlu Harsa, Şebnem
In this research, whey protein/pullulan (WP/pullulan) microcapsules were developed in order to assess its protective effect on the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL-B 4495 under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions. Results demonstrated that WP/pullulan microencapsulated cells exhibited significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher resistance to simulated gastric acid and bile salt. Pullulan incorporation into protein wall matrix resulted in improved survival as compared to free cells after 3 h incubation in simulated gastric solution. Moreover WP/pullulan microcapsules were found to release over 70% of encapsulated L. acidophilus NRRL-B 4495 cells within 1 h. The effect of encapsulation during refrigerated storage was also studied. Free bacteria exhibited 3.96 log reduction while, WP/pullulan encapsulated bacteria showed 1.64 log reduction after 4 weeks of storage.
Using the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) technique, pulp mill solid waste cellulose was converted into glucose using cellulase enzyme and glucose into lactic acid using NRRL B445. SSF experiments were conducted at various pH levels, temperatures, and nutrient concentrations, and the lactic acid yield ranged from 86 to 97%. The depletion of xylose in SSF was further investigated by inoculating NRRL B445 into a xylose-only medium. On prolonged incubation, depletion of xylose with lactic acid production was observed. An experimental procedure with a nonglucose medium was developed to eliminate the lag phase. From xylose fermentation, Lactobacillus delbrueckii yielded 88-92% lactic acid and 2-12% acetic acid.
Brown, Stephen H; Bashkirova, Lena; Berka, Randy; Chandler, Tyler; Doty, Tammy; McCall, Keith; McCulloch, Michael; McFarland, Sarah; Thompson, Sheryl; Yaver, Debbie; Berry, Alan
Malic acid, a petroleum-derived C4-dicarboxylic acid that is used in the food and beverage industries, is also produced by a number of microorganisms that follow a variety of metabolic routes. Several members of the genus Aspergillus utilize a two-step cytosolic pathway from pyruvate to malate known as the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) pathway. This simple and efficient pathway has a maximum theoretical yield of 2 mol malate/mol glucose when the starting pyruvate originates from glycolysis. Production of malic acid by Aspergillus oryzae NRRL 3488 was first improved by overexpression of a native C4-dicarboxylate transporter, leading to a greater than twofold increase in the rate of malate production. Overexpression of the native cytosolic alleles of pyruvate carboxylase and malate dehydrogenase, comprising the rTCA pathway, in conjunction with the transporter resulted in an additional 27 % increase in malate production rate. A strain overexpressing all three genes achieved a malate titer of 154 g/L in 164 h, corresponding to a production rate of 0.94 g/L/h, with an associated yield on glucose of 1.38 mol/mol (69 % of the theoretical maximum). This rate of malate production is the highest reported for any microbial system.
Pootoolal, Jeff; Thomas, Michael G.; Marshall, C. Gary; Neu, John M.; Hubbard, Brian K.; Walsh, Christopher T.; Wright, Gerard D.
The glycopeptide antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin are vital components of modern anti-infective chemotherapy exhibiting outstanding activity against Gram-positive pathogens including members of the genera Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus. These antibiotics also provide fascinating examples of the chemical and associated biosynthetic complexity exploitable in the synthesis of natural products by actinomycetes group of bacteria. We report the sequencing and annotation of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the glycopeptide antibiotic A47934 from Streptomyces toyocaensis NRRL15009, the first complete sequence for a teicoplanin class glycopeptide. The cluster includes 34 ORFs encompassing 68 kb and includes all of the genes predicted to be required to synthesize A47934 and regulate its biosynthesis. The gene cluster also contains ORFs encoding enzymes responsible for glycopeptide resistance. This role was confirmed by insertional inactivation of the d-Ala-d-lactate ligase, vanAst, which resulted in the predicted A47934-sensitive phenotype and impaired antibiotic biosynthesis. These results provide increased understanding of the biosynthesis of these complex natural products. PMID:12060705
Mahata, Maria; Shinya, Shoko; Masaki, Eiko; Yamamoto, Takashi; Ohnuma, Takayuki; Brzezinski, Ryszard; Mazumder, Tapan K; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Narihiro, Kazue; Fukamizo, Tamo
The intact cells of Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL2710, whose cell walls are abundant source of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and glucosamine (GlcN), were digested with three chitinolytic enzymes, a GH-46 chitosanase from Streptomyces sp. N174 (CsnN174), a chitinase from Pyrococcus furiosus, and a chitinase from Trichoderma viride, respectively. Solubilization of the intact cells by CsnN174 was found to be the most efficient from solid state CP/MAS (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Chitosanase products from Rhizopus cells were purified by cation exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-25 and gel-filtration on Cellulofine Gcl-25m. NMR and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses of the purified products revealed that GlcN-GlcNAc, (GlcN)2-GlcNAc, and (GlcN)2 were produced by the enzymatic digestion of the intact cells. The chitosanase digestion of Rhizopus cells was found to be an excellent system for the conversion of fungal biomass without any environmental impact.
Mariani, D D; Lorda, G; Balatti, A P
In this paper the influence of the amaranth seed meal and the aeration conditions on the alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus niger NRRL 3112 were studied. The assays of selection of culture medium were carried out in a rotary shaker at 250 rpm and 2.5 cm stroke. The aeration conditions were studied in a mechanically stirred fermentor New Brunswick type. A concentration of alpha-amylase of 2750 U.Dun/ml was achieved at 120 h with a dry weight of 8.0 g/l, using a base medium with 5.0 g/l Amaranthus cruentus seed meal. In the experiment performed in a New Brunswick fermentor, the highest value was 2806 U.Dun/ml. This result was obtained after 120 h, operating at 300 rpm and an airflow of 1 l/l. min. in a limited dissolved oxygen concentration. It was determined that the increase in the agitation rate was not favorable to the enzyme production, despite that an increase was verified in the dissolved oxygen. The morphology of the microorganism, in long and ramified hyphae, was the critical factor to obtain higher levels of alpha-amylase.
Bajaj, Vinit Kamalkishor; Annapure, Uday S
Sophorolipids (SLs), a prominent member of the biosurfactants family are produced in acidic and/or lactonic form by yeast Starmerella bombicola NRRL Y-17069 when grown on hydrophilic or hydrophobic or both carbon sources. In current study, ricinoleic acid rich castor oil (10%) was used as hydrophobic and glycerol (10%) was used as hydrophilic carbon source. The yields of 24.5 ± 0.25 g/l sophorolipids were analyzed by anthrone and HPLC method which further increased upto 40.24 ± 0.76 g/l sophorolipids using fed batch process at 5L fermenter level. The structures of sophorolipids synthesized on castor oil were elucidated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (LC-MS), (13)C and (1)H NMR. The results indicated that the ricinoleic acid (RA) gets hydroxylated at ω-1 position but incorporated into sophorolipids through already available hydroxyl group at 12(th) position. It resulted in the production of a novel sophorolipids with hydroxyl fatty acid as side chain and has applications as surfactant for novel drug delivery, anti microbial agent, cosmetic ingredient and emulsifier.
Lachance, Marc André; Bowles, Jane M; Starmer, William T
A new haplontic heterothallic species of Metschnikowia and two related asexual yeast species were discovered in morning glory flowers and associated insects. Metschnikowia santaceciliae came from Conotelus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and other insect species associated with flowers of Ipomoea indica (purple morph) in Costa Rica. Candida hawaiiana and Candida kipukae were found in I. indica (syn. I. acuminata) and its insects in Hawai'i, and the former was also isolated in a specimen of Conotelus collected on Merremia tuberosa (Convolvulaceae) in Costa Rica. The three species have nearly identical physiological profiles, typical of the genus Metschnikowia. The sequences of the D1/D2 domains of their large subunit ribosomal DNA confirm that the species belong to the Metschnikowia clade, even though they share a very low degree of inter-relatedness. M. santaceciliae is a sister species to Metschnikowia continentalis. C. kipukae is a basal member of the large-spored Metschnikowia subclade, and C. hawaiiana has a weak affinity to Metschnikowia agaves. Two of the three species appear to be endemic. The type cultures are: Metschnikowia santaceciliae, strains UWO(PS)01-517a1=CBS 9148=NRRL Y-27475 (h(+, holotype) and UWO(PS)01-520a1=CBS 9149=NRRL Y-27476 (h-, isotype); Candida hawaiiana, strain UWO(PS)91-698.3=CBS 9146=NRRL Y-27473; Candida kipukae, strain UWO(PS)00-669.2=CBS 9147=NRRL Y-27474.
Wang, Zheng-Xiang; Kayingo, Gerald; Blomberg, Anders; Prior, Bernard A
The dihydroxyacetone pathway, an alternative pathway for the dissimilation of glycerol via reduction by glycerol dehydrogenase and subsequent phosphorylation by dihydroxyacetone (DHA) kinase, is activated in the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii during osmotic stress. In experiments aimed at investigating the physiological function of the DHA pathway in Z. rouxii, a typical osmotolerant yeast, we cloned and characterized a DAK gene encoding dihydroxyacetone kinase from Z. rouxii NRRL 2547. Sequence analysis revealed a 1761 bp open reading frame, encoding a peptide composed of 587 deduced amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of 61 664 Da. As the amino acid sequence was most closely homologous (68% identity) to the S. cerevisiae Dak1p, we named the gene and protein ZrDAK1 and ZrDak1p, respectively. A putative ATP binding site was also found but no consensus element associated with osmoregulation was found in the upstream region of the ZrDAK1 gene. The ZrDAK1 gene complemented a S. cerevisiae W303-1A dak1delta dak2 delta strain by improving the growth of the mutant on 50 mmol/l dihydroxyacetone and by increasing the tolerance to dihydroxyacetone in a medium containing 5% sodium chloride, suggesting that it is a functional homologue of the S. cerevisiae DAK1. However, expression of the ZrDAK1 gene in the S. cerevisiae dak1delta dak2 delta strain had no significant effect on glycerol levels during osmotic stress. The ZrDAK1 sequence has been deposited in the public data bases under Accession No. AJ294719; regions upstream and downstream of ZrDAK1are deposited as Accession Nos AJ294739 and AJ294720, respectively.
Wolf, B F; Fogler, H S
Bacterial profile modification is an important enhanced oil recovery technique used to direct injected water into a reservoir's low permeability zone containing trapped crude oil. During water flooding, the use of bacteria to plug the high permeability water zone and divert flow into the oil-bearing low-permeability zone will have a significant economic impact. However, during the field implementation of bacterial profile modification, the rapid growth of bacteria near the injection well bore may hinder the subsequent injection of growth media so that profile modification of the reservoir occurs only in the immediate vicinity of the well bore. By slowing the growth rate and prolonging the lag phase, the onset of pore-space plugging may be delayed and the biologically active zone extended deep into the reservoir. High substrate loading, high pH values, and the addition of the growth inhibitors sodium dodecylsulfate and sodium benzoate have been used in combination to alter the growth characteristics of Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL-B523 grown in batch conditions. The highest sucrose concentration used in these studies, 500 g/L, produced lag times 12-fold greater than the slowest lag times achieved at low sucrose concentrations. When L. mesenteroides was grown in media containing 500 g/L sucrose, an alkaline pH value threshold was found above which bacteria did not grow. At this threshold pH value of 8.1, an average lag time of 200 h was observed. Increasing the concentration of sodium benzoate had no effect on lag time, but reduced the growth rate until the threshold concentration of 0.6%, above which bacteria did not grow. Last, it was found that a solution of 0.075 mM sodium dodecylsulfate in media containing 15 g/L sucrose completely inhibited bacterial growth.
Rachon, Grzegorz; Peñaloza, Walter; Gibbs, Paul A
The aims of this study were to obtain data on survival and heat resistance of cocktails of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and the surrogate Enterococcus faecium (NRRL B-2354) in four low moisture foods (confectionery formulation, chicken meat powder, pet food and savoury seasoning) during storage before processing. Inoculated samples were stored at 16°C and cell viability examined at day 0, 3, 7 and 21. At each time point, the heat resistance at 80°C was determined. The purpose was to determine a suitable storage time of inoculated foods that can be applied in heat resistance studies or process validations with similar cell viability and heat resistance characteristics. The main inactivation study was carried out within 7days after inoculation, the heat resistance of each bacterial cocktail was evaluated in each low moisture food heated in thermal cells exposed to temperatures between 70 and 140°C. The Weibull model and the first order kinetics (D-value) were used to express inactivation data and calculate the heating time to achieve 5 log reduction at each temperature. Results showed that the pathogens Salmonella and L. monocytogenes and the surrogate E. faecium NRRL B-2354, can survive well (maximum reduction <0.8 log) in low moisture foods maintained at 16°C, as simulation of warehouse raw material storage in winter and before processing. The D80 value of the pathogens and surrogate did not significantly change during the 21day storage (p>0.05). The inactivation kinetics of the pathogens and surrogate at temperatures between 70 and 140°C, were different between each organism and product. E. faecium NRRL B-2354 was a suitable Salmonella surrogate for three of the low moisture foods studied, but not for the sugar-containing confectionery formulation. Heating low moisture food in moisture-tight environments (thermal cells) to 111.2, 105.3 or 111.8°C can inactivate 5 log of Salmonella, L. monocytogenes or E. faecium NRRL B-2354 respectively.
Wang, Xu; Liu, Z. Lewis; Weber, Scott A.; Zhang, Xiaoping
Yeast strain Clavispora NRRL Y-50464 is able to produce cellulosic ethanol from lignocellulosic materials without addition of external β-glucosidase by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. A β-glucosidase BGL1 protein from this strain was recently reported supporting its cellobiose utilization capability. Here, we report two additional new β-glucosidase genes encoding enzymes designated as BGL2 and BGL3 from strain NRRL Y-50464. Quantitative gene expression was analyzed and the gene function of BGL2 and BGL3 was confirmed by heterologous expression using cellobiose as a sole carbon source. Each gene was cloned and partially purified protein obtained separately for direct enzyme assay using varied substrates. Both proteins showed the highest specific activity at pH 5 and relatively strong affinity with a Km of 0.08 and 0.18 mM for BGL2 and BGL3, respectively. The optimum temperature was found to be 50°C for BGL2 and 55°C for BGL3. Both proteins were able to hydrolyze 1,4 oligosaccharides evaluated in this study. They also showed a strong resistance to glucose product inhibition with a Ki of 61.97 and 38.33 mM for BGL2 and BGL3, respectively. While BGL3 was sensitive showing a significantly reduced activity to 4% ethanol, BGL2 demonstrated tolerance to ethanol. Its activity was enhanced in the presence of ethanol but reduced at concentrations greater than 16%. The presence of the fermentation inhibitors furfural and HMF did not affect the enzyme activity. Our results suggest that a β-glucosidase gene family exists in Clavispora NRRL Y-50464 with at least three members in this group that validate its cellobiose hydrolysis functions for lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production. Results of this study confirmed the cellobiose hydrolysis function of strain NRRL Y-50464, and further supported this dual functional yeast as a candidate for lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production and next-generation biocatalyst development in potential industrial
Candida kuoii sp. nov. (NRRL Y-27208T, CBS 7267T, type strain) is described from a strain isolated from concentrated grape juice in Cape Province, South Africa. Analysis of sequences from the D1/D2 domains of the nuclear large subunit rRNA gene separated the proposed new species from Starmerella bom...
Two new and phylogenetically closely related species in Aspergillus section Fumigati are described and illustrated. Homothallic A. waksmanii was isolated from New Jersey soil (USA) and is represented by the ex-type isolate NRRL 179T (=CCF 4266= IBT 31900). Aspergillus marvanovae was isolated from wa...
In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811T formed a cluster with 5 other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these ot...
Wild edible mushrooms are widely consumed in many countries. We successfully cultivated four edible, medicinal Philippine mushrooms in liquid culture. Recently, we identified the molecular species of acylglycerols in the lipid extract of mushroom G. lucidum NRRL66208. One hundred and three molecular...
The yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus is a potential microbial catalyst for producing ethanol from lignocellulosic substrates at elevated temperatures. To improve its growth and ethanol yield under anaerobic conditions, K. marxianus NRRL Y-1109 was irradiated with UV-C, and surviving cells were grown a...
More robust industrial yeast strains from Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL Y-1109 and have been produced using UV-C irradiation specifically for anaerobic conversion of lignocellulosic sugar streams to fuel ethanol at elevated temperature (45°C). This type of random mutagenesis offers the possibility o...
Ceylan, Erdogan; Bautista, Derrick A
Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8042 and Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 were investigated as potential surrogates for Salmonella serovars using thermal death time kinetics in products such as dry pet foods. The D-values of P. acidilactici ATCC 8042, E. faecium NRRL B-2354, and a cocktail of seven Salmonella serovars associated with low-moisture products were determined in a preservative-free dry pet food product at moisture levels of 9.1, 17.9, and 27.0% and heated between 76.7 and 87.8°C. The D-values were calculated by least squares linear regression. The D-values of P. acidilactici ATCC 8042 were higher than those for the Salmonella serovar cocktail but lower than those for E. faecium NRRL 2354. At 9.1% moisture, D-values of 6.54, 11.51, and 11.66 min at 76.7°C, 2.66, 3.22, and 4.08 min at 82.2°C, and 1.07, 1.29, and 1.69 min at 87.8°C were calculated for Salmonella serovars, P. acidilactici ATCC 8042, and E. faecium NRRL B-2354, respectively. The data suggest that the thermal inactivation characteristics of P. acidilactici ATCC 8042 can be utilized as a surrogate to predict the response of Salmonella in dry pet food products that are thermally processed at <90°C.
Griffin, Meghan A; Spakowicz, Daniel J; Gianoulis, Tara A; Strobel, Scott A
The Patagonian fungal endophyte NRRL 50072 is reported to produce a variety of medium-chain and highly branched volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have been highlighted for their potential as fuel alternatives and are collectively termed myco-diesel. To assess the novelty of this observation, we determined the extent to which ten closely related Ascocoryne strains from commercial culture collections possess similar VOC production capability. DNA sequencing established a high genetic similarity between NRRL 50072 and each Ascocoryne isolate, consistent with its reassignment as Ascocoryne sarcoides. The Ascocoryne strains did not produce highly branched medium-chain-length alkanes, and efforts to reproduce the branched alkane production of NRRL 50072 were unsuccessful. However, we confirmed the production of 30 other products and expanded the list of VOCs for NRRL 50072 and members of the genus Ascocoryne. VOCs detected from the cultures consisted of short- and medium-chain alkenes, ketones, esters and alcohols and several sesquiterpenes. Ascocoryne strains NRRL 50072 and CBS 309.71 produced a more diverse range of volatiles than the other isolates tested. CBS 309.71 also showed enhanced production compared with other strains when grown on cellulose agar. Collectively, the members of the genus Ascocoryne demonstrated production of over 100 individual compounds, with a third of the short- and medium-chain compounds also produced when cultures were grown on a cellulose substrate. This comparative production analysis could facilitate future studies to identify and manipulate the biosynthetic machinery responsible for production of individual VOCs, including several that have a potential application as biofuels.
Bender, João Paulo; Mazutti, Marcio Antônio; Di Luccio, Marco; Treichel, Helen
Production of inulinase by solid state fermentation always involves an extraction step, which dictates enzyme recovery yield and is related to cultivation conditions and control of process parameters. This work is focused on the study of extraction conditions aiming to maximize yield of an inulinase obtained by solid state fermentation of sugar cane bagasse and Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL Y-7571. Kinetics of extraction was followed varying the kind of solvent used. After determining the best solvent, an experimental design was carried out to study the effect of the solid/liquid ratio (1:10-1:20), extraction temperature (20-53 degrees C), and stirring rate (50-177 rpm). Results showed that maximum yield was obtained when sodium acetate buffer 0.1 M pH 4.8 was used, using a solid/liquid ratio of 1:10, at 53 degrees C and 150 rpm for 40 min.
Ali, Sikander; Shultz, Jeffry L; Ikram-ul-Haq
Background The 3,4-dihydroxy phenyl L-alanine (L-dopa) is a drug of choice for Parkinson's disease, controlling changes in energy metabolism enzymes of the myocardium following neurogenic injury. Aspergillus oryzae is commonly used for L-dopa production; however, potential improvements in ease of handling, growth rate and environmental impact have led to an interest in exploiting alternative yeasts. The two important elements required for L-dopa production are intracellular tyrosinases (thus pre-grown yeast cells are required for the transformation of L-tyrosine to L-dopa) and L-ascorbate, which acts as a reducing agent. Results Pre-grown cells of Yarrowia lipolytica NRRL-143 were used for the microbiological transformation of L-tyrosine to L-dopa. Different diatomite concentrations (0.5–3.0 mg/ml) were added to the acidic (pH 3.5) reaction mixture. Maximum L-dopa biosynthesis (2.96 mg/ml L-dopa from 2.68 mg/ml L-tyrosine) was obtained when 2.0 mg/ml diatomite was added 15 min after the start of the reaction. After optimizing reaction time (30 min), and yeast cell concentration (2.5 mg/ml), an overall 12.5 fold higher L-dopa production rate was observed when compared to the control. Significant enhancements in Yp/s, Qs and qs over the control were observed. Conclusion Diatomite (2.0 mg/ml) addition 15 min after reaction commencement improved microbiological transformation of L-tyrosine to L-dopa (3.48 mg/ml; p ≤ 0.05) by Y. lipolytica NRRL-143. A 35% higher substrate conversion rate was achieved when compared to the control. PMID:17705832
Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis and proposals to emend the description of Streptomyces albus and describe Streptomyces pathocidini sp. nov
In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811T forms a cluster with 5 other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these oth...
Multigene Phylogenetic Analysis of Pathogenic Candida Species in the Kazachstania (Arxiozyma) telluris Complex and Description of Their Ascosporic States as Kazachstania bovina sp. nov., K. heterogenica sp. nov., K. pintolopesii sp. nov., and K. slooffiae sp. nov.
Kurtzman, Cletus P.; Robnett, Christie J.; Ward, Jerrold M.; Brayton, Cory; Gorelick, Peter; Walsh, Thomas J.
A yeast causing widespread infection of laboratory mice was identified from 26S rRNA gene sequences as Candida pintolopesii. To determine the relationship of C. pintolopesii with other members of the Kazachstania (Arxiozyma) telluris species complex, nucleotide sequences from domains 1 and 2 of the 26S rRNA gene, the mitochondrial small-subunit rRNA gene, and the RNA polymerase II gene were phylogenetically analyzed. That analysis resolved the 48 strains examined into five closely related species: K. telluris, Candida bovina, C. pintolopesii, Candida slooffiae, and a previously unknown species. One or more strains of each of the last four species formed an ascosporic state much like that of K. telluris. To place these ascosporogenous strains taxonomically, it is proposed that they be assigned to the teleomorphic genus Kazachstania as K. bovina (type strain NRRL Y-7283, CBS 9732, from the nasal passage of a pigeon), K. heterogenica (type strain NRRL Y-27499, CBS 2675, from rodent feces), K. pintolopesii (type strain NRRL Y-27500, CBS 2985, from the peritoneal fluid of a dead guinea pig), and K. slooffiae (type strain NRRL YB-4349, CBS 9733, from the cecum of a horse). On the basis of multigene sequence analyses, K. heterogenica appears to be a hybrid of K. pintolopesii and a presently unknown species. With the exception of K. bovina, the phylogenetically defined species show a moderate degree of host specificity. PMID:15634957
Passerini, Delphine; Vuillemin, Marlène; Ufarté, Lisa; Morel, Sandrine; Loux, Valentin; Fontagné-Faucher, Catherine; Monsan, Pierre; Remaud-Siméon, Magali; Moulis, Claire
Leuconostoc citreum NRRL B-1299 has long been known to produce α-glucans containing both α-(1→6) and α-(1→2) linkages, which are synthesized by α-transglucosylases of the GH70 family. We sequenced the genome of Leuconostoc citreum NRRL B-1299 to identify the full inventory of GH70 enzymes in this strain. Three new genes (brsA, dsrM and dsrDP) putatively encoding GH70 enzymes were identified. The corresponding recombinant enzymes were characterized. Branching sucrase A (BRS-A) grafts linear α-(1→6) dextran with α-(1→2)-linked glucosyl units, and is probably involved in the α-(1→2) branching of L. citreum NRRL B-1299 dextran. This is the first report of a naturally occurring α-(1→2) branching sucrase. DSR-M and DSR-DP are dextransucrases that are specific for α-(1→6) linkage synthesis and mainly produce oligomers or short dextrans with molar masses between 580 and 27 000 g·mol(-1) . In addition, DSR-DP contains sequences that diverge from the consensus sequences that are typically present in enzymes that synthesize linear dextran. Comparison of the genome with five other L. citreum genomes further revealed that dsrDP is unique to L. citreum NRRL B-1299. The presence of this gene in a prophage represents the first evidence of phage-mediated horizontal transfer of genes encoding such enzymes in lactic acid bacteria. Finally, brsA and dsrM are located in a chromosomal region in which genes encoding strain-specific GH70 enzymes are consistently located. This region may be a good target on which to focus in order to rapidly evaluate the diversity of GH70 enzymes in L. citreum strains.
Sulo, Pavol; Laurencík, Michal; Poláková, Silvia; Minárik, Gabriel; Sláviková, Elena
Ten strains of an asexual arthroconidial yeast species were isolated from Bryndza, a traditional Slovak artisanal sheep cheese, which was manufactured from raw milk during a 4-month summer production period at two Slovakian sites (the northern RuZomberok and the central-southern Tisovec areas). Sequence comparison of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rRNA gene revealed that this yeast represents a novel species of the genus Geotrichum, which contains anamorphs of the ascogenous genus Galactomyces, for which the name Geotrichum bryndzae sp. nov. is proposed (type culture CCY 16-2-1T=NRRL Y-48450T=CBS 11176T). The novel species is most closely related to Geotrichum silvicola NRRL Y-27641T, although yeasts with identical or very similar sequences have been found throughout the world.
Lachance, Marc-André; Fedor, Alexandra N
We describe the species Metschnikowia bowlesiae sp. nov. based on the recovery of six isolates from Hawaii and Belize. The species belongs to the Metschnikowia arizonensis subclade of the large-spored Metschnikowia clade. The isolates are haploid and heterothallic. Both Hawaiian strains had the mating type h(+) and the Belizean strains were h(-). Paraphyletic species structures observed in some ribosomal DNA sequence analyses suggest that M. bowlesiae sp. nov. might represent an intermediate stage in a succession of peripatric speciation events from Metschnikowia dekortorum to Metschnikowia similis and might even hybridize with these species. The type of M. bowlesiae sp. nov. is strain UWOPS 04-243x5 (CBS 12940(T), NRRL Y-63671) and the allotype is strain UWOPS 12-619.1 (CBS 12939(A), NRRL Y-63670).
Khaliq, Shazia; Akhtar, Kalsoom; Afzal Ghauri, Muhammad; Iqbal, Ruqia; Mukhtar Khalid, Ahmad; Muddassar, Muhammad
Tylosin is a macrolide antibiotic used as veterinary drug and growth promoter. Attempts were made for hyper production of tylosin by a strain of Streptomyces fradiae NRRL-2702 through irradiation mutagenesis. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of wild-type strain caused development of six morphologically altered colony types on agar plates. After screening using Bacillus subtilis bioassay only morphological mutants indicated the production of tylosin. An increase of 2.7+/-0.22-fold in tylosin production (1500mg/l) in case of mutant UV-2 in complex medium was achieved as compared to wild-type strain (550mg/l). Gamma irradiation of mutant UV-2 using (60)Co gave one morphologically altered colony type gamma-1, which gave 2500mg/l tylosin yield in complex medium. Chemically defined media promoted tylosin production upto 3800mg/l. Maximum value of q(p) (3.34mg/gh) was observed by mutant gamma-1 as compared to wild strain (0.81mg/gh). Moreover, UV irradiation associated changes were unstable with loss of tylosin activity whereas mutant gamma-1 displayed high stability on subsequent culturing.
Merrouche, Rabiâa; Bouras, Noureddine; Coppel, Yannick; Mathieu, Florence; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Lebrihi, Ahmed
Dithiolopyrrolone antibiotics, produced by several microorganisms, are known for their strong antimicrobial activities. This class of antibiotics generated new interest after the discovery of their anticancer and antitumor properties. In this study, four new antibiotics were purified from the fermentation broth of Saccharothrix algeriensis NRRL B-24137 and characterized as dithiolopyrrolone derivatives. These new dithiolopyrrolone antibiotics were induced by adding sorbic acid, as precursor, at a concentration of 5 mM to the semi-synthetic medium. The analysis of the induced antibiotics was carried out by HPLC. The maximal production of the antibiotics PR2, PR8, PR9 and PR10 was 0.08±0.04, 0.21±0.04, 0.13±0.03 and 0.09±0.00 mg L(-1) , respectively, obtained after 8 days of fermentation. The chemical structures of these antibiotics were determined by (1) H- and (13) C-nuclear magnetic resonance, mass and UV-visible data. The four new dithiolopyrrolone antibiotics - PR2, PR8, PR9 and PR10 - were characterized, respectively, as crotonyl-pyrrothine, sorbyl-pyrrothine, 2-hexonyl-pyrrothine and 2-methyl-3-pentenyl-pyrrothine. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the new induced antibiotics were determined.
Wu, Qiulin; Liang, Jingdan; Lin, Shuangjun; Zhou, Xiufen; Bai, Linquan; Deng, Zixin; Wang, Zhijun
The pyrrole polyether antibiotic calcimycin (A23187) is a rare ionophore that is specific for divalent cations. It is widely used as a biochemical and pharmacological tool because of its multiple, unique biological effects. Here we report on the cloning, sequencing, and mutational analysis of the 64-kb biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces chartreusis NRRL 3882. Gene replacements confirmed the identity of the gene cluster, and in silico analysis of the DNA sequence revealed 27 potential genes, including 3 genes for the biosynthesis of the α-ketopyrrole moiety, 5 genes that encode modular type I polyketide synthases for the biosynthesis of the spiroketal ring, 4 genes for the biosynthesis of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, an N-methyltransferase tailoring gene, a resistance gene, a type II thioesterase gene, 3 regulatory genes, 4 genes with other functions, and 5 genes of unknown function. We propose a pathway for the biosynthesis of calcimycin and assign the genes to the biosynthesis steps. Our findings set the stage for producing much desired calcimycin derivatives using genetic modification instead of chemical synthesis. PMID:21173184
Moon, Young Hwan; Madsen, Lee; Chung, Chang-Ho; Kim, Doman; Day, Donal F
We have previously demonstrated the production of glucooligosaccharides via a fermentation of sucrose with Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-742 using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to control the pH. Because NaOH is expensive, we sought to minimize the cost of our process by substituting hydrated lime and saccharate of lime (lime sucrate) in its place. The yield of glucooligosaccharides using either 5 % lime (41.4 ± 0.5 g/100 g) or 5 % lime sucrate (40.0 ± 1.4 g/100 g) were both similar to the NaOH control (42.4 ± 1.5 g/100 g). Based on this, it appears that the cost associated with pH control in our process can be reduced by a factor of approximately 2.4 using lime instead of NaOH. Because our chromatographic stage is based on a Ca(2+)-form resin to separate glucooligosaccharides, the use of lime not only negates the need for costly de-salting via ion-exchange (elimination of two ion-exchange sections) prior to separation, but also greatly reduces the resin regeneration cost.
Liu, Xiu-Ji; Liu, Rui-Sang; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Jie
The dissolved oxygen tension of 20% of air saturation, pH-shift from 4.0 to 5.5 on day 3, and a moderate shear stress (calculated as an impeller tip speed, V(tip) = 0.926 - 2.161 m/s) were identified to be the key factors in scaling-up the mated fermentation of Blakeslea trispora NRRL 2895 (+) and 2896 (-) for lycopene production from a shake flask to a stirred-tank fermenter. The maximal lycopene production of 183.3 mg/L was obtained in 7.5-L stirred-tank fermenter, and then the mated fermentation process was successfully step-wise scaled-up from 7.5- to 200-L stirred-tank fermenter. The comparability of the fermentation process was well controlled and the lycopene production was maintained during the process scale-up. Furthermore, with the integrated addition of 150 μmol/L abscisic acid on day 3, 0.5 g/L leucine and 0.1 g/L penicillin on day 4, the highest lycopene production of 270.3 mg/L was achieved in the mated fermentation of B. trispora in stirred-tank fermenter.
Trivedi, Pankaj; Sa, Tongmin
A study for screening and selection of mutants of Pseudomonas corrugata (NRRL B-30409) based on their phosphate solubilization ability, production of organic acids, and subsequent effect on plant growth at lower temperatures under in vitro and in situ conditions was conducted. Of a total 115 mutants tested, two (PCM-56 and PCM-82) were selected based on their greater phosphate solubilization ability at 21 degrees C in Pikovskaya's broth. The two mutants were found more efficient than wild-type strain for phosphate solubilization activity across a range of temperature from psychotropic (4 degrees C) to mesophilic (28 degrees C) in aerated GPS medium containing insoluble rock phosphate. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that phosphate solubilization potential of wild-type and mutant strains were mediated by production of organic acids in the culture medium. The two efficient mutants and the wild strain oxidized glucose to gluconic acid and sequentially to 2-ketogluconic acid. Under in vitro conditions at 10 degrees C, the mutants exhibited increased plant growth as compared to wild type, indicating their functionality at lower temperatures. In greenhouse trials using sterilized soil amended with either soluble or rock phosphate, inoculation with mutants showed greater positive effect on all of the growth parameters and soil enzymatic activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the development of phosphate solubilizing mutants of psychotropic wild strain of P. corrugata, native to the Indian Himalayan region.
Basílico, M Z; Basílico, J C
Inhibitory effects of essential oils of oregano (Origanum vulgare), mint (Menta arvensis), basil (Ocimum basilicum), sage (Salvia officinalis) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum), on the mycelial growth and ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus ochraceus NRRL 3174 were studied. Cultures were incubated on yeast extract-sucrose (YES) broth, at concentrations of 0, 500, 750 and 1000 p.p.m. of essential oils during 7, 14 and 21 d at 25 degrees C. At 1000 p.p.m., oregano and mint completely inhibited the fungal growth and ochratoxin A production up to 21 d, while basil was only effective up to 7 d. At 750 p.p.m., oregano was completely effective up to 14 d, whereas mint allowed fungal growth but no ocratoxin A production up to 14 d. At 500 p.p.m., no evident inhibition could be in observed with any of the essential oils under analysis. Sage and coriander showed no important effect at any of the concentrations studied. These inhibitory effects are interesting in connection with the prevention of mycotoxin contamination in many foods and they could be used instead of synthetic antifungal products.
The new anamorphic yeast Kuraishia piskuri, f.a., sp. nov. is described for three strains that were isolated from insect frass from trees growing in Florida, USA (type strain, NRRL YB-2544, CBS 13714). Species placement was based on phylogenetic analysis of nuclear gene sequences for the D1/D2 domai...
Vega-Alvarado, Leticia; Gómez-Angulo, Jorge; Escalante-García, Zazil; Grande, Ricardo; Gschaedler-Mathis, Anne; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Arrizon, Javier
Candida apicola, a highly osmotolerant ascomycetes yeast, produces sophorolipids (biosurfactants), membrane fatty acids, and enzymes of biotechnological interest. The genome obtained has a high-quality draft for this species and can be used as a reference to perform further analyses, such as differential gene expression in yeast from Candida genera.
Vega-Alvarado, Leticia; Gómez-Angulo, Jorge; Escalante-García, Zazil; Grande, Ricardo; Gschaedler-Mathis, Anne; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena
Candida apicola, a highly osmotolerant ascomycetes yeast, produces sophorolipids (biosurfactants), membrane fatty acids, and enzymes of biotechnological interest. The genome obtained has a high-quality draft for this species and can be used as a reference to perform further analyses, such as differential gene expression in yeast from Candida genera. PMID:26067948
Brysch-Herzberg, Michael; Lachance, Marc-André
Two yeast strains were isolated from a bumblebee and bumblebee honey. The strains were almost identical in their D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit rDNA and their physiological abilities. In both respects the strains resembled Wickerhamiella domercqiae. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that the strains represent a novel species with the name Candida bombiphila sp. nov. The type strain is CBS 9712T (= NRRL Y-27640T = MH268T).
Background The molecular mechanisms altered by the traditional mutation and screening approach during the improvement of antibiotic-producing microorganisms are still poorly understood although this information is essential to design rational strategies for industrial strain improvement. In this study, we applied comparative genomics to identify all genetic changes occurring during the development of an erythromycin overproducer obtained using the traditional mutate-and- screen method. Results Compared with the parental Saccharopolyspora erythraea NRRL 2338, the genome of the overproducing strain presents 117 deletion, 78 insertion and 12 transposition sites, with 71 insertion/deletion sites mapping within coding sequences (CDSs) and generating frame-shift mutations. Single nucleotide variations are present in 144 CDSs. Overall, the genomic variations affect 227 proteins of the overproducing strain and a considerable number of mutations alter genes of key enzymes in the central carbon and nitrogen metabolism and in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, resulting in the redirection of common precursors toward erythromycin biosynthesis. Interestingly, several mutations inactivate genes coding for proteins that play fundamental roles in basic transcription and translation machineries including the transcription anti-termination factor NusB and the transcription elongation factor Efp. These mutations, along with those affecting genes coding for pleiotropic or pathway-specific regulators, affect global expression profile as demonstrated by a comparative analysis of the parental and overproducer expression profiles. Genomic data, finally, suggest that the mutate-and-screen process might have been accelerated by mutations in DNA repair genes. Conclusions This study helps to clarify the mechanisms underlying antibiotic overproduction providing valuable information about new possible molecular targets for rationale strain improvement. PMID:22401291
Rosa, Carlos A; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Lachance, Marc-André; Ruivo, Carla C C; Medeiros, Adriana O; Pimentel, Mariana R C; Fontenelle, Julio C R; Martins, Rogério P
Two ascomycetous yeast species, Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., were isolated from tropical flowers and their associated insects. C. flosculorum was isolated from flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana and Heliconia episcopalis (Heliconiaceae) collected from two Atlantic rain forest sites in Brazil. C. floris was isolated from flowers of Ipomoea sp. (Convolvulaceae) growing on the banks of the river Paraguai in the pantanal ecosystem in Brazil and from an adult of the stingless bee Trigona sp. and a flower of Merremia quinquefolia (Convolvulaceae) in Costa Rica. C. flosculorum belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and C. floris belongs to the Starmerella clade. The type strain of C. flosculorum is UFMG-JL13(T) (=CBS 10566(T)=NRRL Y-48258(T)) and the type strain of C. floris is UWO(PS) 00-226.2(T) (=CBS 10593(T)=NRRL Y-48255(T)).
Thanh, Vu Nguyen; Hai, Dao Anh; Hien, Dinh Duc; Takashima, Masako; Lachance, Marc-André
Thirteen strains of yeasts typical of the genus Moniliella were isolated from fermenting meat and meat processing tools in Vietnam. PCR fingerprints generated by primer (GAC)(5) subdivided the strains into two distinctive genetic groups. In a phylogenetic tree based on D1/D2 large subunit rRNA gene sequences, the strains formed a well-supported clade with Moniliella spathulata and Moniliella suaveolens but represented two new lineages. The names Moniliella carnis sp. nov. and Moniliella dehoogii sp. nov. are proposed. The two novel species can be distinguished from each other and from known species of Moniliella based on phenotypic characteristics. It is assumed that the yeasts were associated with fatty substances that contaminated the meat processing tools. The type strain of Moniliella carnis is KFP 246(T) ( = CBS 126447(T) = NRRL Y-48681(T)) and the type strain of Moniliella dehoogii is KFP 211(T) ( = CBS 126564(T) = NRRL Y-48682(T)).
Jackson, Mark A.; Bothast, Rodney J.
We assessed the influence of various carbon concentrations and carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratios on Colletotrichum truncatum NRRL 13737 conidium formation in submerged cultures grown in a basal salts medium containing various amounts of glucose and Casamino Acids. Under the nutritional conditions tested, the highest conidium concentrations were produced in media with carbon concentrations of 4.0 to 15.3 g/liter. High carbon concentrations (20.4 to 40.8 g/liter) inhibited sporulation and enhanced the formation of microsclerotiumlike hyphal masses. At all the carbon concentrations tested, a culture grown in a medium with a C:N ratio of 15:1 produced more conidia than cultures grown in media with C:N ratios of 40:1 or 5:1. While glucose exhaustion was often coincident with conidium formation, cultures containing residual glucose sporulated and those with high carbon concentrations (>25 g/liter) exhausted glucose without sporulation. Nitrogen source studies showed that the levels of C. truncatum NRRL 13737 conidiation were similar for all protein hydrolysates tested. Reduced conidiation occurred when amino acid and inorganic nitrogen sources were used. Of the nine carbon sources evaluated, acetate as the sole carbon source resulted in the lowest level of sporulation. Images PMID:16348348
Ruivo, Carla C C; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A; Bacci, Maurício; Pagnocca, Fernando C
Strains belonging to two novel yeast species, Candida bromeliacearum and Candida ubatubensis, were isolated from the bromeliad tank of Canistropsis seidelii (Bromeliaceae) in a sandy coastal plain (restinga) ecosystem site in an Atlantic rainforest of south-eastern Brazil. These species were genetically distinct from all other currently accepted ascomycetous yeasts, based on sequence divergence in the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rDNA and in the small-subunit rDNA. The species occupy basal positions in the Metschnikowiaceae clade. The type strains are Candida bromeliacearum UNESP 00-103(T) (=CBS 10002(T)=NRRL Y-27811(T)) and Candida ubatubensis UNESP 01-247R(T) (=CBS 10003(T)=NRRL Y-27812(T)).
de Oliveira Santos, Ana Raquel; Perri, Ami M; Andrietta, Maria da Graça Stupiello; Rosa, Carlos A; Lachance, Marc-André
Fifty-two yeast isolates from flowers and associated nitidulid beetles of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) region were found to represent a new species in the large-spored Metschnikowia clade. The species is heterothallic, haploid, and allogamous, and produces asci with two aciculate ascospores that can reach 80 μm in length, as is typical in the clade. Analysis of sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster indicates that the new species is closely related to Metschnikowia lochheadii, which ranges across Central America to northern Brazil, occurs as an adventive species in Hawaii, but is rarely found in central Brazil. The species is not readily distinguishable from relatives based on morphology or growth responses, but is well delineated from M. lochheadii on reproductive isolation. Based on an intron splice site PCR screen, we selected 26 isolates for further study. The sequence of the region that includes the complete internal transcribed spacer/5.8S rRNA gene segment as well as the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rRNA gene contained three polymorphic segments and 14 haplotypes were identified. Of these, a single divergent isolate from the southernmost of four sampled localities exhibited diminished mating success when crossed with others. We describe two varieties, Metschnikowia matae var. matae sp. nov. var. nov. (type UFMG-CM-Y395(T), CBS 13986(T), NRRL Y-63736(T); allotype UFMG-CM-Y391(A), CBS 13987(A), NRRL Y-63735(A)) and Metschnikowia matae var. maris sp. nov. var. nov. (type UFMG-CM-Y397(T), CBS 13985(T), NRRL Y-63737(T)). We also report on the discovery of the h (+) mating type of Candida ipomoeae and transfer of the species to Metschnikowia ipomoeae comb. nov. (allotype UWOPS 12-660.1(A), CBS 13988(A), NRRL Y-63738(A)).
Peterson, Stephen W.; Jurjević, Željko; Frisvad, Jens C.
A set of isolates very similar to or potentially conspecific with an unidentified Penicillium isolate NRRL 735, was assembled using a BLAST search of ITS similarity among described (GenBank) and undescribed Penicillium isolates in our laboratories. DNA was amplified from six loci of the assembled isolates and sequenced. Two species in section Cinnamopurpurea are self-compatible sexual species, but the asexual species had polymorphic loci suggestive of sexual reproduction and variation in conidium size suggestive of ploidy level differences typical of heterothallism. Accordingly we use genealogical concordance analysis, a technique valid only in heterothallic organisms, for putatively asexual species. Seven new species were revealed in the analysis and are described here. Extrolite analysis showed that two of the new species, P. colei and P. monsserratidens produce the mycotoxin citreoviridin that has demonstrated pharmacological activity against human lung tumors. These isolates could provide leads in pharmaceutical research. PMID:25853891
Rosa, Carlos A; Morais, Paula B; Lachance, Marc-André; Santos, Renata O; Melo, Weilan G P; Viana, Rodney H O; Bragança, Marcos A L; Pimenta, Raphael S
Two novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces queroliae sp. nov. and Candida jalapaonensis sp. nov., were isolated, respectively, from larvae of Anastrepha mucronata (Diptera: Tephritidae) collected from ripe fruit of Peritassa campestris ('Bacupari', Hippocrateaceae) and from flowers of Centropogon cornutus (Campanulaceae) in the Cerrado ecosystem of the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Analysis of the D1/D2 large-subunit rRNA gene sequences placed W. queroliae in the Wickerhamomyces clade near Wickerhamomyces ciferri and Candida silvicultrix. Candida jalapaonensis belongs to the Wickerhamiella clade and is related to Candida drosophilae. The type strain of Wickerhamomyces queroliae is UFMG-05-T200.1(T) (=CBS 10936(T)=NRRL Y-48478(T)) and the type strain of Candida jalapaonensis is UFMG-03-T210(T) (=CBS 10935(T)=NRRL Y-48477(T)).
Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar; Govindarajan, Raghavan; Lavania, Meeta; Pushpangadan, Palpu
The significance of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mediated increase in antioxidant potential in vegetables is yet unknown. The plant growth-promoting bacterium Bacillus lentimorbus NRRL B-30488 (B-30488) mediated induction of dietary antioxidant in vegetables ( Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lactuca sativa, Spinacia oleracea, and Daucus carota) and fruit ( Citrus sinensis) after minimal processing (fresh, boiled, and frozen) was tested by estimating the total phenol content, level of antioxidant enzymes, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide scavenging activities along with integral radical scavenging capacity by photochemiluminescence assay and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Minimal processing of vegetables showed that T. foenum-graecum had the highest phenol content in B-30488-treated plants followed by L. sativa, D. carota, and S. oleracea. Thermally treated vegetables T. foenum-graecum (26-114.5 GAE microg mg (-1)) had an exceptionally high total phenolic content, followed by D. carota (25.27-101.32 GAE microg mg (-1)), L. sativa (23.22-101.10 GAE microg mg (-1)), and S. oleracea (21.87-87.57 GAE microg mg (-1)). Among the vegetables and fruit used in this study for enzymatic estimation, induction of antioxidant enzymes, namely, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and superoxidase dismutase (SOD), was observed in edible parts of T. foenum-graecum, L. sativa, S. oleracea, and D. carota, after inoculation with B-30488. The scavenging capacity of the vegetables treated with B-30488 against DPPH and superoxide anion radical activity was found to be significantly high as compared to nontreated control. Mild food processing had no adverse effect on radical scavenging capacity. Photochemiluminescence also ascertains the above findings. The ability of the plant extracts to protect against lipid peroxidation and its ability to prevent oxidation of reduced glutathione (GSH) was measured in rat liver
Salgado, José Manuel; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rodríguez-Solana, Raquel; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Domínguez, José Manuel; Cortés, Sandra
The volatile compounds produced by Debaryomyces hansenii NRRL Y-7426 during the fermentation of detoxified concentrated distilled grape marc hemicellulosic hydrolysates was analysed by GC-MS. Thirty-five compounds corresponding to ten groups of volatile compounds: terpenes, higher alcohols, C₆ alcohols, aldehydes, volatile acids, acetates, ethyl esters, volatile phenols, sulphur compounds and hydrocarbons were identified. The supplementation with commercial nutrients increased the concentration of 2-phenylethanol, a commercial flavour and fragrance compound, with a rose-like odour, employed in cosmetics and food industries; and other positive compounds to the aroma such as terpenes and ethyl esters. Non-supplemented media produced the highest content in higher alcohols, volatile acids, sulphur compounds and in the majority of hydrocarbons detected, meanwhile supplementation with vinasses hardly produced volatile compounds. Only four volatile compounds contributed directly to the aroma according to the OAVs values higher than 1. Finally, a PCA analysis allowed accounting for 100 % of the variance.
Péter, Gábor; Tornai-Lehoczki, Judit; Dlauchy, Dénes
Four strains of a novel heterothallic yeast species were isolated from pollen-storing cells of a honeycomb of honeybee (Apis mellifera) in Hungary. Analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit (26S) rRNA gene sequences placed the strains in the Trichomonascus clade. The four strains share identical D1/D2 sequences and differ by 24 substitutions and nine indels from the genetically most closely related species, Blastobotrys attinorum. The name Trichomonascus apis sp. nov. is proposed for the novel species. The carbon-source assimilation spectrum of T. apis sp. nov. is rather broad. Unlike B. attinorum, it assimilates sucrose, trehalose, d-glucuronate and succinate and does not grow at 37 degrees C, thus enabling the two taxa to be distinguished. The type and isotype strains of Trichomonascus apis are NCAIM Y.01848(T) (=CBS 10922(T) =NRRL Y-48475(T)) and NCAIM Y.01849(IT) (=CBS 10923(IT) =NRRL Y-48476(IT)), respectively.
Landell, Melissa Fontes; Crestani, Juliana; Pagnocca, Fernando Carlos; Sette, Lara Durães; Passarini, Michel Rodrigo Zambrano; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Brandão, Luciana R.; Pimenta, Raphael S.; Ribeiro, José Roberto; Garcia, Karina Marques; Lee, Ching-Fu; Suh, Sung-Oui; Péter, Gábor; Dlauchy, Dénes; Fell, Jack W.; Scorzetti, Gloria; Theelen, Bart; Vainstein, Marilene H.
Background Independent surveys across the globe led to the proposal of a new basidiomycetous yeast genus within the Bulleromyces clade of the Tremellales, Bandoniozyma gen. nov., with seven new species. Methodology/Principal Findings The species were characterized by multiple methods, including the analysis of D1/D2 and ITS nucleotide sequences, and morphological and physiological/biochemical traits. Most species can ferment glucose, which is an unusual trait among basidiomycetous yeasts. Conclusions/Significance In this study we propose the new yeast genus Bandoniozyma, with seven species Bandoniozyma noutii sp. nov. (type species of genus; CBS 8364T = DBVPG 4489T), Bandoniozyma aquatica sp. nov. (UFMG-DH4.20T = CBS 12527T = ATCC MYA-4876T), Bandoniozyma complexa sp. nov. (CBS 11570T = ATCC MYA-4603T = MA28aT), Bandoniozyma fermentans sp. nov. (CBS 12399T = NU7M71T = BCRC 23267T), Bandoniozyma glucofermentans sp. nov. (CBS 10381T = NRRL Y-48076T = ATCC MYA-4760T = BG 02-7-15-015A-1-1T), Bandoniozyma tunnelae sp. nov. (CBS 8024T = DBVPG 7000T), and Bandoniozyma visegradensis sp. nov. (CBS 12505T = NRRL Y-48783T = NCAIM Y.01952T). PMID:23056233
The objective of this study is to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier methods for microbial screening and production of polyol oils from soybean oil (Hou and Lin, 2013). The polyol oil produced by Acinetobacter haemolyticus A01-35 (NR...
García-Rico, Ramón O; Martín, Juan F; Fierro, Francisco
The pga1 gene of Penicillium chrysogenum NRRL 1951 has been cloned and shown to participate in the developmental program of this fungus. It encodes a protein showing a high degree of identity to group I alpha subunits of fungal heterotrimeric G proteins, presenting in its sequence all the distinctive characteristics of this group. Northern analysis revealed that pga1 is highly expressed in a constitutive manner in submerged cultures, while its expression changes during development on solid media cultures; it is higher during vegetative growth and decreases significantly at the time of conidiogenesis. Attenuation of pga1 gene expression by antisense RNA, and mutations of pga1 resulting in a constitutively activated (pga1G42R allele) or constitutively inactivated (pga1G203R allele) Pga1 alpha subunit were used to study the function of Pga1 in P. chrysogenum. The phenotype of transformants expressing the antisense construction and the mutant alleles showed substantial morphological differences in colony diameter and conidiation, indicating that Pga1 controls apical extension and negatively regulates conidiogenesis on solid medium, but has no effect on submerged cultures. Pga1 is also functional in Penicillium roqueforti, controlling the same processes.
Khaliq, Shazia; Ghauri, Muhammad A; Akhtar, Kalsoom
Tylosin is a veterinary antibiotic and is commercially produced using Streptomyces fradiae. Previously, we developed a mutant γ-1 of S. fradiae NRRL-2702 with a 6.87-fold increase in tylosin yield as compared with the wild-type strain through irradiation mutagenesis. The present studies were conducted to explore mutational changes in regulatory genes (TylQ, TylP, TylS, TylR, and TylT) of Tyl cluster that may lead to an enhanced expression of tylosin. Expression analysis by RT-PCR revealed that TylQ was switched off earlier in mutant γ-1 while no change in expression pattern of TylP was observed between the wild-type and mutant γ-1 strains. However, a point mutation with a substitution of T to A was recorded at position 214 in the 420-bp product of TylP from mutant γ-1 that resulted in a change of one amino acid (serine to threonine) at position 72. Moreover, no mutation in the nucleotide sequence of TylS, TylR, and TylT genes was detected.
El-Ghonemy, Dina Helmy; Ali, Thanaa Hamed; El-Bondkly, Ahmed Mohamed; Moharam, Maysa El-Sayed; Talkhan, Fatma Nabeeh
Spore suspensions of Aspergillus oryzae NRRL 3484 were subjected to mutagenesis using ultraviolet-irradiation followed by chemical treatments to improve the biosynthesis of cellulase. Ten mutant strains namely UEAC7, UEAR5, UNAC4, UNAC16, UNAR19, UNBC7, UNBR3, UNBR10, UNBR23 and UNBR25 were selected and their extracellular cellulase activities were assayed. Mutant UNAC4 gave the highest cellulase production [2,455 ± 28 U/g-dry substrate (ds) for filter paper-ase (FP-ase)] in a yield 4-fold exceeding that of the wild type strain (578 ± 5.0 U/g-ds for FP-ase). Rice straw (RS) was used as a sole carbon source for the enzyme production at a concentration of 10 % (w/v). Maximum cellulase production was achieved at initial medium pH 5.5, initial moisture content 77 % and an incubation temperature 28 °C on the fifth day of growth. NH4Cl proved to be the suitable added nitrogen source for maximum enzyme production followed by peptone. These results clearly indicate the cost-effectiveness of solid state fermentation technology in the economic production of extracellular cellulase. The hyper-production of cellulase by mutant strain UNAC4 has potential for industrial processes that convert lignocellulosic material (e.g. RS) into products of commercial value such as glucose and biofuels.
Hong, S T; Carney, J R; Gould, S J
The genes for the complete pathways for two polycyclic aromatic polyketides of the angucyclinone class have been cloned and heterologously expressed. Genomic DNAs of Streptomyces rimosus NRRL 3016 and Streptomyces strain WP 4669 were partially digested with MboI, and libraries (ca. 40-kb fragments) in Escherichia coli XL1-Blue MR were prepared with the cosmid vector pOJ446. Hybridization with the actI probe from the actinorhodin polyketide synthase genes identified two clusters of polyketide genes from each organism. After transfer of the four clusters to Streptomyces lividans TK24, expression of one cluster from each organism was established through the identification of pathway-specific products by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Peaks were identified from the S. rimosus cluster (pksRIM-1) for tetrangulol, tetrangomycin, and fridamycin E. Peaks were identified from the WP 4669 cluster (pksWP-2) for tetrangulol, 19-hydroxytetrangulol, 8-O-methyltetrangulol, 19-hydroxy-8-O-methyltetrangulol, and PD 116740. Structures were confirmed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. PMID:8990300
iso-Migrastatin, Migrastatin, and Dorrigocin Production in Streptomyces platensis NRRL 18993 Is Governed by a Single Biosynthetic Machinery Featuring an Acyltransferase-less Type I Polyketide Synthase*
Lim, Si-Kyu; Ju, Jianhua; Zazopoulos, Emmanuel; Jiang, Hui; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Chen, Yihua; Feng, Zhiyang; Rajski, Scott R.; Farnet, Chris M.; Shen, Ben
iso-Migrastatin and related glutarimide-containing polyketides are potent inhibitors of tumor cell migration and their implied potential as antimetastatic agents for human cancers has garnered significant attention. Genome scanning of Streptomyces platensis NRRL 18993 unveiled two candidate gene clusters (088D and mgs); each encodes acyltransferase-less type I polyketide synthases commensurate with iso-migrastatin biosynthesis. Both clusters were inactivated by λ-RED-mediated PCR-targeting mutagenesis in S. platensis; iso-migrastatin production was completely abolished in the ΔmgsF mutant SB11012 strain, whereas inactivation of 088D-orf7 yielded the SB11006 strain that exhibited no discernible change in iso-migrastatin biosynthesis. These data indicate that iso-migrastatin production is governed by the mgs cluster. Systematic gene inactivation allowed determination of the precise boundaries of the mgs cluster and the essentiality of the genes within the mgs cluster in iso-migrastatin production. The mgs cluster consists of 11 open reading frames that encode three acyltransferase-less type I polyketide synthases (MgsEFG), one discrete acyltransferase (MgsH), a type II thioesterase (MgsB), three post-PKS tailoring enzymes (MgsIJK), two glutarimide biosynthesis enzymes (MgsCD), and one regulatory protein (MgsA). A model for iso-migrastatin biosynthesis is proposed based on functional assignments derived from bioinformatics and is further supported by the results of in vivo gene inactivation experiments. PMID:19726666
Kothari, Damini; Goyal, Arun
Gentio-oligosaccharides (GnOS) were synthesized by the acceptor reaction of dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-1426 with gentiobiose and sucrose. GnOS were purified by gel permeation chromatography using a Bio-Gel P-2 column and identified by mass spectrometry. The purified GnOS (degree of polymerization ≥3) were investigated for their in vitro prebiotic and cytotoxic activity. GnOS exhibited a significantly lower degree of digestibility of 18.1% by simulated human gastric juice (pH 1.0) and 7.1% by human α-amylase (pH 7.0) after 6 h, whereas inulin, a standard prebiotic, showed 39.7% and 12.8% of digestibility, respectively. The prebiotic score showed that GnOS significantly supported the growth of probiotics such as Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus acidophilus and was comparable to that of inulin. The selective inhibitory effect of GnOS on human colon carcinoma (HT-29) cells revealed its potential as an anti-cancer agent that can serve as a functional food additive for the benefit of human health.
Wolf, Barry F; Fogler, H Scott
Bacterial profile modification (BPM), a form of tertiary oil recovery, diverts water from the water-flooded high-permeability zone into the oil-bearing low-permeability zone. During field use, exopolymer-producing bacteria plug the high-permeability zone only in the immediate vicinity of the injection point (the near-well bore region). For effective BPM the plug must penetrate far into the formation. Slowing the specific growth rate, lengthening the lag phase, and slowing the polymerization rate are techniques that can prolong the onset of biopolymer gelation and extend the depth of the biological plug. In batch experiments, the growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL-B523 was inhibited by the synergistic effects of high substrate loading and an alkaline pH. Exponential growth was delayed up to 190 h. It was observed that cell division was significantly retarded until the medium pH, reduced by the acid byproducts of fermentation, reached a critical value of 6.79 +/- 0.06. A mathematical model was developed to describe the relationship between specific growth rate, lag time, and medium pH.
Kurtzman, Cletus P; Robnett, Christie J
Saitoella coloradoensis sp. nov. (NRRL YB-2330, CBS 12360, type strain, MycoBank accession number 563858) is described. This new member of the phylum Ascomycota, subphylum Taphrinomycotina was isolated from insect frass occurring in an Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) that was growing in Colorado, USA. Multigene sequence analysis showed that S. coloradoensis is distinct from Saitoella complicata, the only other known species of Saitoella. The two species may be separated phenotypically from growth reactions on D: -xylose, ribitol and methyl-α-D: -glucoside. Asexual reproduction is by budding and both species produce thick-walled, spherical cells that appear morphologically similar to the ascogenous cells formed in plant host tissue by species of Protomyces and some species of Taphrina. The thick-walled cells did not form ascospores but did produce buds when placed on fresh growth media.
Fang, Jie; Zhang, Yiping; Huang, Lijuan; Jia, Xinying; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Xu; Tang, Gongli; Liu, Wen
Tetrocarcin A (TCA), produced by Micromonospora chalcea NRRL 11289, is a spirotetronate antibiotic with potent antitumor activity and versatile modes of action. In this study, the biosynthetic gene cluster of TCA was cloned and localized to a 108-kb contiguous DNA region. In silico sequence analysis revealed 36 putative genes that constitute this cluster (including 11 for unusual sugar biosynthesis, 13 for aglycone formation, and 4 for glycosylations) and allowed us to propose the biosynthetic pathway of TCA. The formation of d-tetronitrose, l-amicetose, and l-digitoxose may begin with d-glucose-1-phosphate, share early enzymatic steps, and branch into different pathways by competitive actions of specific enzymes. Tetronolide biosynthesis involves the incorporation of a 3-C unit with a polyketide intermediate to form the characteristic spirotetronate moiety and trans-decalin system. Further substitution of tetronolide with five deoxysugars (one being a deoxynitrosugar) was likely due to the activities of four glycosyltransferases. In vitro characterization of the first enzymatic step by utilization of 1,3-biphosphoglycerate as the substrate and in vivo cross-complementation of the bifunctional fused gene tcaD3 (with the functions of chlD3 and chlD4) to ΔchlD3 and ΔchlD4 in chlorothricin biosynthesis supported the highly conserved tetronate biosynthetic strategy in the spirotetronate family. Deletion of a large DNA fragment encoding polyketide synthases resulted in a non-TCA-producing strain, providing a clear background for the identification of novel analogs. These findings provide insights into spirotetronate biosynthesis and demonstrate that combinatorial-biosynthesis methods can be applied to the TCA biosynthetic machinery to generate structural diversity. PMID:18586939
Lindquist, Mitch R; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Jones, Marjorie A; Cox, Elby J; Pinkelman, Rebecca J; Bang, Sookie S; Moser, Bryan R; Jackson, Michael A; Iten, Loren B; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Liu, Siqing; Qureshi, Nasib; Tasaki, Kenneth; Rich, Joseph O; Cotta, Michael A; Saha, Badal C; Hughes, Stephen R
Increased interest in sustainable production of renewable diesel and other valuable bioproducts is redoubling efforts to improve economic feasibility of microbial-based oil production. Yarrowia lipolytica is capable of employing a wide variety of substrates to produce oil and valuable co-products. We irradiated Y. lipolytica NRRL YB-567 with UV-C to enhance ammonia (for fertilizer) and lipid (for biodiesel) production on low-cost protein and carbohydrate substrates. The resulting strains were screened for ammonia and oil production using color intensity of indicators on plate assays. Seven mutant strains were selected (based on ammonia assay) and further evaluated for growth rate, ammonia and oil production, soluble protein content, and morphology when grown on liver infusion medium (without sugars), and for growth on various substrates. Strains were identified among these mutants that had a faster doubling time, produced higher maximum ammonia levels (enzyme assay) and more oil (Sudan Black assay), and had higher maximum soluble protein levels (Bradford assay) than wild type. When grown on plates with substrates of interest, all mutant strains showed similar results aerobically to wild-type strain. The mutant strain with the highest oil production and the fastest doubling time was evaluated on coffee waste medium. On this medium, the strain produced 0.12 g/L ammonia and 0.20 g/L 2-phenylethanol, a valuable fragrance/flavoring, in addition to acylglycerols (oil) containing predominantly C16 and C18 residues. These mutant strains will be investigated further for potential application in commercial biodiesel production.
Thanh, Vu Nguyen; Hai, Dao Anh; Lachance, Marc-André
Two new yeast species, Cryptococcus bestiolae and Cryptococcus dejecticola, were discovered in the frass of the litchi fruit borer Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley. The yeasts utilize inositol, hydrolyze urea, produce starch-like substance, and contain CoQ10. Phylogenetic analyses of D1/D2 26S rDNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences indicate that the yeasts are closely related to Bullera dendrophila and an undescribed species of Cryptococcus (strain CBS 8507). The two new species differed from each other by 17 nucleotides in the D1/D2 region and by 68 nucleotides in the ITS region. Cryptococcus bestiolae is a sister species to Cryptococcus sp. CBS 8507, from which it differs by eight nucleotides in the D1/D2 region and 59 nucleotides in the ITS region. Cryptococcus dejecticola and B. dendrophila differed by 13 nucleotides in the D1/D2 and 57 nucleotides in the ITS region. Cryptococcus bestiolae and Cr. dejecticola formed with B. dendrophila a well defined clade consisting of insect associated species. The type strain of Cr. bestiolae is TH3.2.59 (=CBS 10118=NRRL Y-27894), and the type strain of Cr. dejecticola is Litch 17 (=CBS 10117=NRRL Y-27898).
Derz, Kerstin; Klinner, Ulrich; Schuphan, Ingolf; Stackebrandt, Erko; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M
The taxonomic position of a polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium, strain 17A3(T), isolated from contaminated soil was determined using a combination of phenotypic and genotypic properties. The isolate showed phenotypic properties that were diagnostic for species of the genus Mycobacterium. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis assigned 17A3(T) to the 16S rRNA gene subgroup that contains Mycobacterium aurum, Mycobacterium austroafricanum, Mycobacterium vaccae and Mycobacterium vanbaalenii, but it could clearly be distinguished from these species using a combination of physiological, chemotaxonomic markers and internal rRNA gene spacer analyses. The data showed that strain 17A3(T) (=DSM 44605(T)=NRRL B-24244(T)) merits recognition as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Mycobacterium. The name Mycobacterium pyrenivorans sp. nov. is proposed for the species because of its ability to use pyrene as a sole source of carbon and energy.
Landell, Melissa Fontes; Billodre, Raisa; Ramos, Jesus P; Leoncini, Orílio; Vainstein, Marilene H; Valente, Patrícia
Two novel yeast species, Candida aechmeae sp. nov. and Candida vrieseae sp. nov., were isolated from bromeliads in Itapuã Park, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. These species are genetically isolated from all other currently recognized ascomycetous yeasts based on their sequence divergence in the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rRNA gene. C. aechmeae sp. nov. is phylogenetically close to Candida ubatubensis, a species also isolated from bromeliads in Brazil, but the novel species can be differentiated on the basis of differences in the D1/D2 domain and positive results for the assimilation of l-arabinose, raffinose, inulin and citrate. Candida vrieseae sp. nov. is phylogenetically placed in a clade near Candida membranifaciens that is composed of several species associated with insects, but the novel species can be differentiated from them by the D1/D2 and ITS gene sequences, positive results for the assimilation of nitrite and a negative result for the assimilation of ethylamine. The type strain for Candida aechmeae sp. nov. is BI153(T) (=CBS 10831(T)=NRRL Y-48456(T)) and the type strain for C. vrieseae sp. nov. is BI146(T) (=CBS 10829(T)=NRRL Y-48461(T)).
Chen, Yijun; Rosazza, John P. N.
The carboxylic acid functional group of ibuprofen [α-methyl-4-(2-methylpropyl) benzene acetic acid] is reduced to the corresponding alcohol and subsequently esterified to the acetate derivative by cultures of Nocardia species strain NRRL 5646. The alcohol and ester microbial transformation products were isolated, and their structures were determined by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. By derivatization of synthetic and microbiologically produced ibuprofen alcohols with S(+)-O-acetylmandelic acid, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis indicated that the carboxylic acid reductase of Nocardia sp. is R enantioselective, giving alcohol products with an enantiomeric excess of 61.2%. The R enantioselectivity of the carboxylic acid reductase enzyme system was confirmed by using cell extracts together with ATP and NADPH in the reduction of isomeric ibuprofens. PMID:16349237
Price, Neil P J; Ray, Karen J; Vermillion, Karl E; Dunlap, Christopher A; Kurtzman, Cletus P
Sophorolipids are a group of O-acylsophorose-based biosurfactants produced by several yeasts of the Starmerella clade. The known sophorolipids are typically partially acetylated 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucopyranose (sophorose) O-β-glycosidically linked to 17-L-hydroxy-Δ9-octadecenoic acid, where the acyl carboxyl group often forms a 4″-lactone to the terminal glucosyl residue. In a recent MALDI-TOFMS-based screen for sophorolipid-producing yeasts we identified a new species, Candida sp. NRRL Y-27208, that produces significant amounts of novel sophorolipids. This paper describes the structural characterization of these new compounds, using carbohydrate and lipid analysis, mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy. Unlike those reported previously, the NRRL Y-27208 sophorolipids contain an ω-hydroxy-linked acyl group (typically 18-hydroxy-Δ9-octadecenoate), and occur predominantly in a non-lactone, anionic form. In addition, 17 dimeric and trimeric sophoroses were identified by MALDI-TOFMS from this strain. The surfactant-like properties of these sophorolipids have value as potential replacements for petroleum-based detergents and emulsifiers.
Nagy, Edina; Dlauchy, Dénes; Medeiros, Adriana O; Péter, Gábor; Rosa, Carlos A
Eleven yeast strains representing two hitherto undescribed species were isolated from different kinds of meat samples in Hungary and one from the sediment of a tropical freshwater river in Southeastern Brazil. The analysis of the sequences of their large subunit rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions placed the two new species in the Yarrowia clade. Some of the seven strains representing the first new species can mate and give rise to asci and form ascospores embedded in capsular material, which qualifies it as the third teleomorph species of the Yarrowia clade. The name Yarrowia porcina sp. nov. (type strain: NCAIM Y.02100(T) = CBS 12935(T) = NRRL Y-63669(T), allotype strain UFMG-RD131(A) = CBS 12932(A)) is proposed for this new yeast species, which, based on physiological characters, is indistinguishable from Yarrowia lipolytica and some other species of the genus. Considerable intraspecific variability was detected among the sequences of the large subunit rRNA gene D1/D2 domains of the seven strains. The variability among the D1/D2 sequences exceeded the divergence observed among the ITS sequences and in some cases more than 1 % substitution among the D1/D2 sequences was detected. The conspecificity of these strains was supported by the low (0-3 substitutions) sequence divergence among their ITS sequences, the result of a parsimony network analysis utilizing the concatenated ITS and D1/D2 sequences and also by the fingerprint patterns generated by microsatellite primed PCR. No ascospore formation was observed in the group of the other five strains representing the second new species. These strains shared identical D1/D2 and ITS sequences. Yarrowia bubula f.a., sp. nov. (type strain: NCAIM Y.01998(T) = CBS 12934(T) = NRRL Y-63668(T)) is proposed to accommodate these strains.
Cotta, Michael A; Whitehead, Terence R; Falsen, Enevold; Moore, Edward; Lawson, Paul A
A polyphasic taxonomic study using morphological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and molecular genetic methods was performed on six strains of unknown Gram-positive, nonspore-forming, facultative anaerobic coccus-shaped bacteria isolated from a swine-manure storage pit. On the basis of the 16S rRNA, RNA polymerase α-subunit (rpoA) and 60 kDa chaperonin (cpn60) gene sequence analyses, it was shown that all the isolates were enterococci but formed two separate lines of descent. Pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons demonstrated that the two novel organisms were most closely related to each other (97.9 %) and to Enterococcus aquimarinus (97.8 %). Both organisms contained major amounts of C(16:0), C(16:1) ω7c, C(16:1) ω7c, and C(18:1) ω7c/12t/9t as the major cellular fatty acids. Based on biochemical, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic evidence, the names Enterococcus lemanii sp. nov. (type strain PC32(T) = CCUG 61260(T) = NRRL B-59661(T)) PPC27A = CCUG 61369; PPC38 = CCUG 61261 [corrected] and Enterococcus eurekensis sp. nov. (type strain PC4B(T) = CCUG 61259(T) = NRRL B-59662(T)) PPC15 = CCUG 61368; PPC107 = CCUG 61372 [corrected] are proposed for these hitherto undescribed species.
Two new Penicillium species isolated from plant leaves are reported here, namely, P. fusisporum (type strain AS3.15338T = NRRL 62805T = CBS 137463T) and P. zhuangii (type strain AS3.15341T = NRRL 62806T = CBS 137464T). P. fusisporum is characterized by fast growth rate, apical-swelling monoverticillate penicilli, verrucose stipes, fusiform to oblong conidia about 3.5–4×2–2.5 µm and cinnamon-colored sclerotia. While P. zhuangii presents a moderate growth rate, it also bears apical-swelling monoverticillate penicilli but its stipes are smooth-walled, and produces ovoid to globose smooth-walled conidia about 3–3.5 µm. Both species belong to section Aspergilloides, and P. fusisporum is related to “P. thomii var. flavescens”, while P. zhuangii is morphologically similar to P. lividum. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of calmodulin and beta-tubulin genes both show that the two new taxa form distinct monophyletic clades. PMID:24988489
Siefert, J. L.; Larios-Sanz, M.; Nakamura, L. K.; Slepecky, R. A.; Paul, J. H.; Moore, E. R.; Fox, G. E.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr
The phylogeny of 11 pigmented, aerobic, spore-forming isolates from marine sources was studied. Forty-two biochemical characteristics were examined, and a 16S rDNA sequence was obtained for each isolate. In a phylogenetic tree based on 16S sequencing, four isolates (NRRL B-14850, NRRL B-14904, NRRL B-14907, and NRRL B-14908) clustered with B. subtilis and related organisms; NRRL B-14907 was closely related to B. amyloliquefaciens. NRRL B-14907 and NRRL B-14908 were phenotypically similar to B. amyloliquefaciens and B. pumilus, respectively. Three strains (NRRL B-14906, NRRL B-14910, and NRRL B-14911) clustered in a clade that included B. firmus, B. lentus, and B. megaterium. NRRL B-14910 was closely related phenotypically and phylogenetically to B. megaterium. NRRL B-14905 clustered with the mesophilic round spore-producing species, B. fusiformis and B. sphaericus; the isolate was more closely related to B. fusiformis. NRRL B-14905 displayed characteristics typical of the B. sphaericus-like organisms. NRRL B-14909 and NRRL B-14912 clustered with the Paenibacillus species and displayed characteristics typical of the genus. Only NRRL B-14851, an unusually thin rod that forms very small spores, may represent a new Bacillus species.
Trejo, W. H.; Bennett, R. E.
Trejo, W. H. (Squibb Institute for Medical Research, New Brunswick, N.J.) and R. E. Bennett. Streptomyces species comprising the blue-spore series. J. Bacteriol. 85:676–690. 1963.—The objective of this study was to define and delimit the streptomycetes of the blue-spored (Viridochromogenes) series. The series, as defined in this study, includes 11 blue and blue-green species. The green-spored species were excluded on the basis of morphology as well as color. It was proposed that NRRL B-1511 be designated as the neotype strain of Streptomyces viridochromogenes (Krainsky) Waksman and Henrici, and that IMRU 3761 be designated as the neotype for Streptomyces cyaneus (Krassilnikov) Waksman. Evidence was presented to show that physiological criteria cannot be used to differentiate these organisms below the series level. The major characteristics of the Viridochromogenes series are blue to blue-green spores borne in spirals, and chromogenicity (melanin-positive). Reverse color and spore morphology provide a basis for separation below the series level. Images PMID:14042949
Starmer, W T; Phaff, H J; Ganter, P F; Lachance, M A
A new species of yeast from decaying cladodes of Opuntia cactus, Candida orba, is described. This species is a member of a four-species clade of cactophilic yeasts. The new species has only been found in one region of Queensland, Australia, where it was presumably introduced during attempts to eradicate prickly pear cactus. DNA-DNA relatedness, phylogenetic analysis, physiological differences, killer-sensitivity profiles and mating reactions establish the distinctness of the taxon as a new species. C. orba is most closely related to Phaffomyces thermotolerans, a species found associated with columnar cacti in the North American Sonoran Desert. The type strain of C. orba, isolated from rotting cladodes of Opuntia stricta in the State of Queensland, Australia, is strain UCD-FST 84-833.1T (= CBS 8782T = NRRL Y-27336T = ATCC MYA-341). Only the h- mating type of the species has been recovered. The lack of the opposite mating type could be the result of a bottleneck during its introduction to Australia. The original geographic/host distribution of this species in the Americas is unknown.
Single-step purification and characterization of an extreme halophilic, ethanol tolerant and acidophilic xylanase from Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL Y-2311-1 with application potential in the food industry.
An extracellular xylanase from Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL Y-2311-1 produced on wheat bran was purified by a single-step chromatographic procedure. The enzyme had a molecular weight of 21.6kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for xylanase activity were 4.0 and 30-50°C, respectively. The enzyme was stable in the pH range of 3.0-8.0. The inactivation energy of the enzyme was calculated as 218kJmol(-1). The xylanase was ethanol tolerant and kept complete activity in the presence of 10% ethanol. Likewise, it retained almost complete activity at a concentration range of 0-20% NaCl. In general, the enzyme was resistant to several metal ions and reagents. Mg(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), K(1+), EDTA and β-mercaptoethanol resulted in enhanced xylanase activity. The Km and Vmax values on beechwood xylan were determined to be 19.43mgml(-1) and 848.4Uml(-1), respectively. The enzyme exhibits excellent characteristics and could, therefore, be a promising candidate for application in food and bio-industries.
Characterization of the Saframycin A Gene Cluster from Streptomyces lavendulae NRRL 11002 Revealing a Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase System for Assembling the Unusual Tetrapeptidyl Skeleton in an Iterative Manner▿†
Li, Lei; Deng, Wei; Song, Jie; Ding, Wei; Zhao, Qun-Fei; Peng, Chao; Song, Wei-Wen; Tang, Gong-Li; Liu, Wen
Saframycin A (SFM-A), produced by Streptomyces lavendulae NRRL 11002, belongs to the tetrahydroisoquinoline family of antibiotics, and its core is structurally similar to the core of ecteinascidin 743, which is a highly potent antitumor drug isolated from a marine tunicate. In this study, the biosynthetic gene cluster for SFM-A was cloned and localized to a 62-kb contiguous DNA region. Sequence analysis revealed 30 genes that constitute the SFM-A gene cluster, encoding an unusual nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) system and tailoring enzymes and regulatory and resistance proteins. The results of substrate prediction and in vitro characterization of the adenylation specificities of this NRPS system support the hypothesis that the last module acts in an iterative manner to form a tetrapeptidyl intermediate and that the colinearity rule does not apply. Although this mechanism is different from those proposed for the SFM-A analogs SFM-Mx1 and safracin B (SAC-B), based on the high similarity of these systems, it is likely they share a common mechanism of biosynthesis as we describe here. Construction of the biosynthetic pathway of SFM-Y3, an aminated SFM-A, was achieved in the SAC-B producer (Pseudomonas fluorescens). These findings not only shed new insight on tetrahydroisoquinoline biosynthesis but also demonstrate the feasibility of engineering microorganisms to generate structurally more complex and biologically more active analogs by combinatorial biosynthesis. PMID:17981978
DNA sequence analysis has shown Candida abiesophila (NRRL Y-11514T, CBS 5366T) and Candida asiatica (NRRL Y-63747T, CBS 10863T) to be members of a small clade that is phylogenetically separate from other yeasts. In view of their isolation from neighboring genera, such as Pichia and Saturnispora, the...
Čadež, Neža; Fülöp, László; Dlauchy, Dénes; Péter, Gábor
Five yeast strains representing a hitherto undescribed yeast species were isolated from bee bread and honey in Hungary. They are obligate osmophilic, i.e. they are unable to grow in/on high water activity culture media. Following isogamous conjugation, they form 1-4 spheroid or subspheroid ascospores in persistent asci. The analysis of the sequences of their large subunit rRNA gene D1/D2 domain placed the new species in the Zygosaccharomyces clade. In terms of pairwise sequence similarity, Zygosaccharomyces gambellarensis is the most closely related species. Comparisons of D1/D2, internal transcribed spacer and translation elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) gene sequences of the five strains with that of the type strain of Z. gambellarensis revealed that they represent a new yeast species. The name Zygosaccharomyces favi sp. nov. (type strain: NCAIM Y.01994(T) = CBS 13653(T) = NRRL Y-63719(T) = ZIM 2551(T)) is proposed for this new yeast species, which based on phenotype can be distinguished from related Zygosaccharomyces species by its obligate osmophilic nature. Some intragenomic sequence variability, mainly indels, was detected among the ITS copies of the strains of the new species.
Cotta, Michael A; Whitehead, Terence R; Falsen, Enevold; Moore, Edward; Lawson, Paul A
A polyphasic taxonomic study using morphological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and molecular genetic methods was performed on six strains of an unknown Gram-positive, nonspore-forming, facultative anaerobic coccus-shaped bacterium isolated from a swine-manure storage pit. On the basis of 16S rRNA, RNA polymerase-subunit (rpoA), and the 60-kilodalton chaperonin (cpn60) gene sequence analyses, it was shown that all the isolates were enterococci but formed two separate lines of descent. Pairwise 16S rRNA sequence comparisons demonstrated that the two novel organisms were most closely related to each other (97.9 %) and to Enterococcus aquimarinus (97.8 %). Both organisms contained major amounts of C16:0, C16:1 ω7c, and C18:1 ω7c/12t/9t as the major cellular fatty acids. Based on biochemical, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic evidence, the names Enterococcus lemanii sp. nov. (type strain PC32(T) = CCUG 61260(T) = NRRL B-59661(T)) and Enterococcus eurekensis sp. nov. (type strain PC4B(T) = CCUG 61259(T) = NRRL B-59662(T)) are proposed for the hitherto undescribed species.
Albert, Richard A; Archambault, Julieta; Rosselló-Mora, Ramón; Tindall, Brian J; Matheny, Mike
A mesophilic, acidophilic, spore-forming bacterium, strain 105-2(T), was isolated from an acidic Sphagnum peat bog in Wisconsin, USA. Strain 105-2(T) has 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Bacillus sporothermodurans DSM 10599(T) and Bacillus oleronius DSM 9356(T) of 97.4 and 97.8%, respectively. The primary lipoquinone is MK-7 and the major fatty acids are 15:0 iso, 15:0 anteiso and 17:0 anteiso. The predominant polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and a glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was found to be 43.2 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular analyses identified strain 105-2(T) as a novel Bacillus species, for which the name Bacillus acidicola is proposed. The type strain is 105-2(T) (=DSM 14745(T)=ATCC BAA-366(T)=NRRL B-23453(T)).
Description of Ambrosiozyma oregonensis sp. nov., and reassignment of Candida species of the Ambrosiozyma clade to Ambrosiozyma kashinagacola f.a., comb. nov., Ambrosiozyma llanquihuensis f.a., comb. nov., Ambrosiozyma maleeae f.a., comb. nov., Ambrosiozyma pseudovanderkliftii f.a., comb. nov., and Ambrosiozyma vanderkliftii f.a., comb. nov.
Kurtzman, Cletus P; Robnett, Christie J
Ambrosiozyma oregonensis sp. nov. is described from two strains, one isolated from a mountain stream in Oregon, USA (NRRL Y-6106(T) = CBS 5560(T)), and a second (NRRL YB-4169) from an unknown substrate from Marion, Illinois, USA. The species forms four hat-shaped ascospores in each deliquescent ascus and appears to be homothallic. Abundant true hyphae are produced with some having apparent dolipore-like septa. Analyses of nuclear gene sequences for the D1/D2 domains of large-subunit rRNA, small-subunit rRNA, translation elongation factor-1α, and subunits B1 and B2 of RNA polymerase II show the proposed novel species to be distinct from other species of the Ambrosiozyma clade. Because of their placement in the Ambrosiozyma clade, Candida kashinagacola, Candida llanquihuensis, Candida maleeae, Candida pseudovanderkliftii and Candida vanderkliftii are reassigned to the genus Ambrosiozyma as new combinations, and the description of the genus Ambrosiozyma is emended to reflect the resulting changes in phenotypic characters.
De Queiroz, Kevin
The issue of species delimitation has long been confused with that of species conceptualization, leading to a half century of controversy concerning both the definition of the species category and methods for inferring the boundaries and numbers of species. Alternative species concepts agree in treating existence as a separately evolving metapopulation lineage as the primary defining property of the species category, but they disagree in adopting different properties acquired by lineages during the course of divergence (e.g., intrinsic reproductive isolation, diagnosability, monophyly) as secondary defining properties (secondary species criteria). A unified species concept can be achieved by treating existence as a separately evolving metapopulation lineage as the only necessary property of species and the former secondary species criteria as different lines of evidence (operational criteria) relevant to assessing lineage separation. This unified concept of species has several consequences for species delimitation, including the following: First, the issues of species conceptualization and species delimitation are clearly separated; the former secondary species criteria are no longer considered relevant to species conceptualization but only to species delimitation. Second, all of the properties formerly treated as secondary species criteria are relevant to species delimitation to the extent that they provide evidence of lineage separation. Third, the presence of any one of the properties (if appropriately interpreted) is evidence for the existence of a species, though more properties and thus more lines of evidence are associated with a higher degree of corroboration. Fourth, and perhaps most significantly, a unified species concept shifts emphasis away from the traditional species criteria, encouraging biologists to develop new methods of species delimitation that are not tied to those properties.
Cadete, Raquel M; Cheab, Monaliza A M; Santos, Renata O; Safar, Silvana V B; Zilli, Jerri E; Vital, Marcos J S; Basso, Luiz C; Lee, Ching-Fu; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A
Independent surveys of yeasts associated with lignocellulosic-related materials led to the discovery of a novel yeast species belonging to the Cyberlindnera clade (Saccharomycotina, Ascomycota). Analysis of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rRNA gene showed that this species is related to C. japonica, C. maesa and C. easanensis. Six isolates were obtained from different sources, including rotting wood, tree bark and sugar cane filter cake in Brazil, frass from white oak in the USA and decayed leaf in Taiwan. A novel species is suggested to accommodate these isolates, for which the name C. xylosilytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of C. xylosilytica sp. nov. is NRRL YB-2097(T) ( = CBS 13984(T) = UFMG-CM-Y347(T)) and the allotype is UFMG-CM-Y409 ( = CBS 14083). The novel species is heterothallic and complementary mating types are represented by the type and allotype strains. The MycoBank number is MB 811428.
Invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is not native to an ecosystem, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, human health, or environmental damage.
A set of isolates very similar to or potentially conspecific with an unidentified Penicillium isolate NRRL 735, was assembled using a BLAST search of ITS similarity among described (GenBank) and undescribed Penicillium isolates in our laboratories. DNA was amplified from six loci of the assembled is...
A set of isolates genetically similar to or potentially conspecific with an unidentified Penicillium isolate NRRL 735, was assembled using a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) search of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) similarity among described (GenBank) and undescribed Penicillium isolates...
Schiff, H. I.; Burnett, C.; Carli, B.; Dezafra, R.; Evans, W. F. J.; Guthrie, P. D.; Hampson, R. F.; Heaps, W.; Jones, R.; Kley, D.
Measurements of the members of the HO(x) family (OH, HO2, and H2O2) and their major source gases, H2O, and CH4 are discussed. Emphasis is placed on measurements which were made since the 1982 World Meteorologic Organization (WMO) report. Measurement techniques, available data, an assessment of data reliability, and a comparison of the data with theoretical distributions of stratospheric HO(x) species predicted from one and two dimensional photochemical models are discussed.
Ren, Yong-Cheng; Liu, Si-Tong; Li, Ying; Hui, Feng-Li
Seven yeast strains were isolated from the gut of insect larvae and decayed wood, which were collected from three localities near Nanyang, Henan Province, China. These strains were identified as two novel species through comparison of sequences in the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and other taxonomic characteristics. Pichia dushanensis sp. nov. was closely related to species in the Pichia clade and produced one to four spheroid ascospores in a deliquescent ascus. The D1/D2 sequence of P. dushanensis sp. nov. differed from its closest relative, Issatchenkia (Pichia) sp. NRRL Y-12824, by 3.6% sequence divergence (16 substitutions and 4 gaps). The species also differed from its four closest known species, Candida rugopelliculosa, Pichia occidentalis, Pichia exigua and Candida phayaonensis, by 4.1-4.4% sequence divergence (22-24 substitutions and 0-2 gaps) in the D1/D2 sequences. Hyphopichia paragotoi sp. nov. belonged to the Hyphopichia clade, and its nearest phylogenetic neighbours were Candida gotoi, Candida pseudorhagii, Candida rhagii and Hyphopichia heimii with 3.2-4.2% sequence divergence (16-21 substitutions and 1 gap) in the D1/D2 sequences. In comparison with previously established species, H. paragotoi sp. nov. formed one hat-shaped ascospore in a persistent ascus. The type strain of P. dushanensis sp. nov. is NYNU 14658(T) ( = CICC 33049(T) = CBS 13912(T)), and the type strain of H. paragotoi sp. nov. is NYNU 14666(T) ( = CICC 33048(T) = CBS 13913(T)).
Cerritos, René; Vinuesa, Pablo; Eguiarte, Luis E; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Alcaraz-Peraza, Luis D; Arvizu-Gómez, Jackeline L; Olmedo, Gabriela; Ramirez, Enrique; Siefert, Janet L; Souza, Valeria
A moderately halophilic, Gram-positive and rod-shaped bacterium, strain m4-4T, was isolated from a Chihuahuan desert lagoon in Cuatro Ciénegas, Coahuila, Mexico. Strain m4-4T was found to grow optimally at 30-37 degrees C, pH 7.0-8.0 and 5 % NaCl and to tolerate from 0.5 % to 10 % NaCl. It was shown to be aerobic. The genomic DNA G+C content was about 37 mol%. Strain m4-4T exhibited minimal or no growth on most sugars tested. Its major cellular fatty acids were C14 : 0, C16 : 0 and C18 : 1. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and recA gene sequences, we observed that the closest relatives of the isolate are moderately halophilic Bacillus species, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity ranging from 96.6 to 97.4 % (Bacillus marisflavi, Bacillus aquimaris and Bacillus vietnamensis). Additionally, using genomic data it was determined that the type strain contains a total of nine rRNA operons with three slightly different sequences. On the basis of phenotypic and molecular properties, strain m4-4T represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus coahuilensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain m4-4T (=NRRL B-41737T =CECT 7197T).
Saitoella coloradoensis sp. nov. (NRRL YB-2330, CBS 12360, type strain) is described. This new member of the phylum Ascomycotina, subphylum Taphrinomycotina was isolated from insect frass occurring in an Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) that was growing in Colorado, USA. Multigene sequence analy...
Liamocin oil from Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL 50380 was tested for antibacterial activity. Liamocins inhibited growth of Streptococcus agalactiae, S. uberis, S. mitis, S. infantarius, and S. mutans, with minimum inhibitory concentrations from 20 'g/ml to 78 'g/ml. Enterococcus faecalis was less sus...
Thibodeau, Francis R.
Many species face extinction because preservation organizations do not have the resources to mount all of the interventions that are needed. Decision analysis provides techniques that can help managers of these organizations to make judgments about which species they will attempt to rescue. A formal analysis of the choices available to the US Fish and Wildlife Services' endangered species program with regard to Isotria medeoloides illustrates how the difficulties of making preservation decisions can be lessened. I. medeoloides is perhaps the rarest orchid in the United States. Little is known of the species' biology and less about effective management. Yet unless a preservation effort is mounted, the species will continue to be threatened by habitat destruction and botanical collecting. The analysis employs formal probabalistic techniques to weigh the utility of possible intervention strategies, that is, their likelihood of achieving different amounts of increase in the longevity of the species, and to balance these gains against their costs. If similar decision analyses are performed on other endangered species, the technique can be used to choose among them, as well as among strategies for individual species.
Endangered Species Protection Bulletins set forth geographically specific pesticide use limitations for the protection of threatened and endangered (listed) species and their designated critical habitat. Find out how to get and use Bulletins.
USA Today, 1981
Elaborates on the problem of expanding human activity to the world's plant and animal species. Concludes that preserving an individual species is largely a waste of time and effort and that the best way to protect the most species of plants and animals is to save their environments over large tracts of land. (DB)
Antibiotic therapy to resolve bacterial disease has been compromised by the increased prevalence and magnitude of bacterial antibiotic resistance. In our efforts to identify new effective antimicrobials, bacteria isolated from poultry intestinal contents were screened for bacteriocin synthesis again...
Moutou, F; Pastoret, P P
The definition of an invasive species will depend on the viewpoint of the observer, who in some cases may be responsible for introducing the species. History has taught us that humans are the species that has invaded the largest surface area of the planet. So, before going on to propose a few definitions, this article describes three different examples or types of example in which domestic animal species, wild animal species and microorganisms (for biological pest control) have been transported intentionally. By doing so, this paper uses a variety of situations to support the definitions. A contemporary argument would counter a strictly biogeographical definition with a more ecological definition. The two are probably complementary. In any case, these definitions should remain practical. The consequences of species movements vary. However, their health impacts should not be underestimated.
Hildebrand, M; Corey, D K; Ludwig, J R; Kukel, A; Feng, T Y; Volcani, B E
We have discovered plasmids in 5 of 18 diatom species surveyed. In several species, more than one type of plasmid is present. Several of the plasmids show similarity by hybridization previously characterized plasmids in Cylindrotheca fusiformis (J. D. Jacobs et al., unpublished data). Additionally, there is similarity between the plasmids found in C. fusiformis and chloroplast DNA in three diatom species. These results add to the evidence that the plasmids have features of mobile genetic elements. Images PMID:1885558
Kurtzman, Cletus P; Robnett, Christie J
Three new non-ascosporic, ascomycetous yeast genera are proposed based on their isolation from currently described species and genera. Phylogenetic placement of the genera was determined from analysis of nuclear gene sequences for D1/D2 large subunit rRNA, small subunit rRNA, translation elongation factor-1α and RNA polymerase II, subunits B1 and B2. The new taxa are: Deakozyma gen. nov., type species Deakozyma indianensis sp. nov. (type strain NRRL YB-1937, CBS 12903); Danielozyma gen. nov., type species Danielozyma ontarioensis comb. nov. (type strain NRRL YB-1246, CBS 8502); D. litseae comb. nov. (type strain NRRL YB-3246, CBS 8799); Middelhovenomyces gen. nov., type species Middelhovenomyces tepae comb. nov. (type strain NRRL Y-17670, CBS 5115) and M. petrohuensis comb. nov. (type strain NRRL Y-17663, CBS 8173).
Tattersall, Ian; Mowbray, Kenneth
The biotic world is self-evidently "packaged" into units, of which the most basic is the species. It is necessary to develop an accurate understanding of what species are and how they are to be identified before we can proceed to more complex analyses of the evolutionary histories and relationships of extinct and extant taxa at all levels of the systematic hierarchy. In this article, we review the major species concepts current today among paleoanthropologists, and examine the limitations of their applicability to practical studies of extant and extinct faunas. The primary such limitation for paleoanthropologists is the fact that all major species definitions stress reproductive continuity (whether by exclusionary or inclusionary mechanisms), a quality that is inferential at best among forms known only as fossils (and, in many cases, in the extant fauna as well). The only reliable signal as to species status in the fossil record is morphology, yet speciation carries with it no specifiable quantity of morphological innovation. Some groups with autapomorphies are not species, and some species do not bear autapomorphies. How, then, are we to recognize species in the hominid and other fossil records? Noting that osteodental differences among congeneric primate species tend to be subtle, and that when consistent identifiable "morphs" can be found at least as many species are present, we recommend equating morphs based on several characters with species-realizing that only one or two distinctive characters may not make a morph. In this way, our views of the phylogenetic histories of higher taxa may be oversimplified, but their essential patterns will not be distorted.
Galimov, R.A.; Yusupova, T.N.; Abushaeva, V.V.
The extent of splitting of asphaltene species under the action of solvents correlates with their nature, and primarily with their electron- and proton-donor properties. According to the data of thermal analysis asphaltene species being retained after the action of solvents differ in the weight ratio of peripheral substituents to condensed part and in the fraction of labile bonds. 12 refs., 4 tabs.
White, Tim D
Evolutionary biologists created a large twentieth-century literature about delimiting biological species. Paleontologists contributed the unique complications of deep time. Toward century's end, one participant wrote: "In all probability more paper has been consumed on the questions of the nature and definition of the species than any other subject in evolutionary and systematic biology."
Groom, Q J; Reynolds, T
Barbaloin levels in the exudates from the leaves of 68 species of ALOE in the Kew collection have been determined by light absorption at 375 nm following separation by HPLC. The exudates from most species contained between 10-20% although a few concentrations of around 30% were found. The level in the leaf was usually around 1% of thedry weight in plants grown in glasshouses at Kew although some species were found to contain up to 5%. The highest concentrations of barbaloin were found in exudates from young mature leaves just below the apex and the level decreased in older leaves towards the base of the plant. Species in the natural groupings of the genus, Section ANGUIALOE and Group 4, all had appreciable concentrations of barbaloin in the leaf exudates. Species containing barbaloinwere distributed throughout the large heterogeneous Sections EUALOE and PACHYDENDRON with no apparent taxonomic significance.
Pantaléon, Véronique; Bouttier, Sylvie; Soavelomandroso, Anna Philibertine; Janoir, Claire; Candela, Thomas
The biofilm is a microbial community embedded in a synthesized matrix and is the main bacterial way of life. A biofilm adheres on surfaces or is found on interfaces. It protects bacteria from the environment, toxic molecules and may have a role in virulence. Clostridium species are spread throughout both environments and hosts, but their biofilms have not been extensively described in comparison with other bacterial species. In this review we describe all biofilms formed by Clostridium species during both industrial processes and in mammals where biofilms may be formed either during infections or associated to microbiota in the gut. We have specifically focussed on Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens biofilms, which have been studied in vitro. Regulatory processes including sporulation and germination highlight how these Clostridium species live in biofilms. Furthermore, biofilms may have a role in the survival and spreading of Clostridium species.
The use of parsimony network analysis for the formal delineation of phylogenetic species of yeasts: Candida apicola, Candida azyma, and Candida parazyma sp. nov., cosmopolitan yeasts associated with floricolous insects.
Lachance, Marc-André; Dobson, Jessica; Wijayanayaka, Dilini N; Smith, Allison M E
Parsimony network analysis of rDNA sequences was used to delimit phylogenetic species of yeasts in an objective, formal manner. Many strains assigned to Candida apicola (Starmerella clade), when compared to the type, fell outside the inclusion limits proposed by Kurtzman and Robnett (1998) based on a pair-wise comparison of the large subunit rRNA gene D1/D2 domains. However, when these sequences were analyzed jointly with ITS rDNA sequences by parsimony network analysis, 28 of the 30 strains formed a cohesive set. Two strains, MUCL 45721 and CBS 4353, were excluded from the species, but there was no evident justification to subdivide the rest. A similar analysis of 81 isolates originally assigned to Candida azyma (Wickerhamiella clade) yielded dramatically different results, giving rise to six independent networks corresponding to Candida azyma sensu stricto (18 strains), Candida azymoides (2 strains), a pair of isolates from Australian hibiscus flowers, a single isolate from the same substrate, a single isolate from Malaysian bertam palm nectar, and 57 isolates that are assigned to the new species Candida parazyma (type = UWOPS 91-652.1(T) = CBS 11563(T) = NRRL Y-48669(T)). The strains retained in C. azyma sensu stricto differed from one another by up to four substitutions in their D1/D2 sequences, but their polymorphism at the level of the ITS was considerable and suggested a history of divergence resulting from dispersal. Strains of C. parazyma fell into seven variant haplotypes based on sequences of the rDNA ITS and D1/D2 regions. The most abundant haplotype occurred across the global range of the species. Others were either endemic to Belize, Costa Rica, Rarotonga, or Tennessee, suggestive of vicariance, or occurred across remote localities, offering partial support to the notion of rapid dispersal.
Two new species of the methanol assimilating ascosporic yeast genus Komagataella are described. Komagataella populi sp. nov. (NRRL YB-455, CBS 12362, type strain) was isolated from an exudate on a cottonwood tree (Populus deltoides), Peoria, Illinois, USA, and Komagataella ulmi sp. nov. (NRRL YB-407...
We present the genome sequences of a new clinical isolate, CEA10, of an important human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, and two closely related, but rarely pathogenic species, Neosartorya fischeri NRRL181 and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1. Comparative genomic analysis of CEA10 with the recently sequen...
Besansky, Nora; Hahn, Matthew W.
Many groups of closely related species have reticulate phylogenies. Recent genomic analyses are showing this in many insects and vertebrates, as well as in microbes and plants. In microbes, lateral gene transfer is the dominant process that spoils strictly tree‐like phylogenies, but in multicellular eukaryotes hybridization and introgression among related species is probably more important. Because many species, including the ancestors of ancient major lineages, seem to evolve rapidly in adaptive radiations, some sexual compatibility may exist among them. Introgression and reticulation can thereby affect all parts of the tree of life, not just the recent species at the tips. Our understanding of adaptive evolution, speciation, phylogenetics, and comparative biology must adapt to these mostly recent findings. Introgression has important practical implications as well, not least for the management of genetically modified organisms in pest and disease control. PMID:26709836
Our goal is to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, without placing unnecessary burden on agriculture and pesticide users. Pesticide limitations are developed to ensure safe use of pesticides in order to meet this goal.
Species diversity, learning about wildlife in its natural habitats and conservation goals are integral to Watchable Wildlife programs. Examines the role of wildlife observation in spreading the message of biodiversity importance. Twenty-three references cited. (LZ)
The sequencing-driven revolution in microbial ecology demonstrated that discrete ``species'' are an inadequate description of the vast majority of life on our planet. Developing a novel theoretical language that, unlike classical ecology, would not require postulating the existence of species, is a challenge of tremendous medical and environmental significance, and an exciting direction for theoretical physics. Here, it is proposed that community dynamics can be described in a naturally hierarchical way in terms of population fluctuation eigenmodes. The approach is applied to a simple model of division of labor in a multi-species community. In one regime, effective species with a core and accessory genome are shown to naturally appear as emergent concepts. However, the same model allows a transition into a regime where the species formalism becomes inadequate, but the eigenmode description remains well-defined. Treating a community as a black box that expresses enzymes in response to resources reveals mathematically exact parallels between a community and a single coherent organism with its own fitness function. This coherence is a generic consequence of division of labor, requires no cooperative interactions, and can be expected to be widespread in microbial ecosystems. Harvard Center of Mathematical Sciences and Applications;John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.
Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.
Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].
Data in this map has been collected by the United States Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species program located in Gainesville, Florida (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/default.aspx). This dataset may have some inaccuracies and is only current to June 15, 2012. The species identified in this dataset are not inclusive of all aquatic nuisance species, but rather a subset identified to be at risk for transport by recreational activities such as boating and angling. Additionally, the locations where organisims have been identified are also not inclusive and should be treated as a guide. Organisms are limited to the following: American bullfrog, Asian clam, Asian shore crab, Asian tunicate, Australian spotted jellyfish, Chinese mitten crab, New Zealand mudsnail, Colonial sea squirt, Alewife, Bighead carp, Black carp, Flathead catfish, Grass carp, Green crab, Lionfish, Northern snakehead, Quagga mussel, Round Goby, Ruffe, Rusty crayfish, Sea lamprey, Silver carp, Spiny water flea, Veined rapa whelk, Zebra mussel
Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.
The subject of this paper is the definition of species based on the assumption that genome is the fundamental level for the origin and maintenance of biological diversity. For this view to be logically consistent it is necessary to assume the existence and operation of the new law which we call genome law. For this reason the genome law is included in the explanation of species phenomenon presented here even if its precise formulation and elaboration are left for the future. The intellectual underpinnings of this definition can be traced to Goldschmidt. We wish to explore some philosophical aspects of the definition of species in terms of the genome. The point of proposing the definition on these grounds is that any real advance in evolutionary theory has to be correct in both its philosophy and its science.
Stohlgren, T.J.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Esaias, W.E.; Morisette, J.T.
Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used. ?? 2011 Current Zoology.
Braus, Judy, Ed.
Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Endangered Species: Wild and Rare." Contents are organized into the…
Brown, Mark; And Others
This unit is intended to examine the causes of the endangerment of Florida's plant and animal species with a detailed look at varied ecological systems. Individual lessons are designed to be used either by individual students progressing at their own rate or by small groups. Units may be modified for use by large groups. (Author/RE)
Calix, R.E.; Diener, D.
MEC Analytical Systems, Inc., has conducted marine monitoring of a large ocean wastewater outfall since 1985. This EPA mandated monitoring program was designed to measure the spatial and temporal variability of the biological communities and assess the impact associated with the discharge. The ostracod Euphilomedes carcarodonta, has shown enhanced abundances centered at the outfall since the late 70`s. While flow rates continue to increase the concentration of solids and contaminants has been decreasing with improve treatment levels. However the abundance and spatial distribution of this species has remain relatively unchanged. It is hypothesized that this species feeds on the small organic particles. In contrast, the abundance of the polychaete Capitella capitata, an indicator of disturbed habitat and organic enrichment, has decreased significantly. This decrease correlates with decreasing concentrations of wastewater solids and decreasing sediment organic carbon concentrations. The brittle star, Amphiodia urtica, has been found to be one of the most sensitive species to wastewater discharges and its abundance was significantly decreased over a large area in the 70`s. Since 1985 this species has shown a steady recovery of abundance to areas near the discharge. This recovery correlates with lower sediment contaminant levels and decreased solid concentrations, and indicates that the environmental quality near the discharge is similar to reference areas.
Gabel, Lisa A.; Manglani, Monica; Escalona, Nicholas; Cysner, Jessica; Hamilton, Rachel; Pfaffmann, Jeffrey; Johnson, Evelyn
Direct relationships between induced mutation in the "DCDC2" candidate dyslexia susceptibility gene in mice and changes in behavioral measures of visual spatial learning have been reported. We were interested in determining whether performance on a visual-spatial learning and memory task could be translated across species (study 1) and…
Solem, Alan; And Others
Written in 1964, the document represents experimental material of the Anthropology Curriculum Study Project. The objectives of the project were to discuss the evolution of man as distinguished from the evolution of other species and as related to culture, and to emphasize human diversity. Three brief essays are presented. The first, "The…
Agricultural production of food, feed, fiber or fuel is a local human activity with global ecological impacts, including the potential to foster invasions. Agriculture plays an unusual role in biological invasions, in that it is both a source of non-indigenous invasive species (NIS) and especially s...
Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.
The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, three lesson plans and student data sheets, and a poster. The overview presents the history, causes, and present state of species endangerment and a review of legislation by Congress designed to protect threatened or…
Kindo, A J; Sophia, S K C; Kalyani, J; Anandan, S
Malassezia spp. are lipophilic unipolar yeasts recognized as commensals of skin that may be pathogenic under certain conditions. The genus Malassezia now comprises of seven species. This study was aimed at using a simple practical approach to speciate Malassezia yeasts from clinical material. Seventy skin scrapings from patients with pityriasis versicolor infection, positive in 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH), were cultured onto modified Dixon's agar (mDixon's agar) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and incubated at 32 degrees C. Speciation was done on the basis of Gram stain morphology, catalase test, and utilization of Tweens. Out of 70 scrapings 48 (68.75%) showed growth on mDixon's agar. The commonest isolate was M. sympodialis (28, 58%) followed by M. globosa (19, 40%) and one isolate was (2%) of M. restricta. M. sympodialis was the commonest species affecting our population and there was no isolation of M. obtusa, M. slooffiae, M. pachydermatis and M. furfur.
These data represent predicted current distributions of all introduced mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are available for both 8-digit HUCs and EMAP hexagons. The data are species counts for each spatial unit. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.
The ability to detect changes in temperature is a fundamental sensory mechanism for every species and provides organisms with a detailed view of the environment. This review focuses on what is known of the neuronal and molecular substrates for thermosensation across species, focusing on the three robust model systems extensively used to study sensory signaling, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and the laboratory mouse. Nematodes migrate to thermal climes that are amenable to their survival, a behavior that is regulated primarily through a single sensory neuron. Additionally, nematodes “learn” to seek out this temperate zone based upon their prior experience, a robust model of learning and memory. Drosophila larvae also prefer select thermal zones that are optimal for growth and have also developed vigorous mechanisms to avoid unfavorable conditions. In mammals, the transduction mechanisms for thermosensation have been identified primarily due to the fact that naturally occurring plant products evoke distinct psychophysical sensation of temperature change. More remarkably, the elucidation of the molecular sensors in mammals, along with those in Drosophila, has demonstrated conservation in the molecular mediators of temperature sensation across diverse species. PMID:17219191
Cato, E P; Hash, D E; Holdeman, L V; Moore, W E
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of soluble cellular proteins (without sodium dodecyl sulfate) of 70 Clostridium species indicated that the procedure was readily applicable to the differentiation of species in the genus. The protein patterns correlated well with the available DNA homology data and with most accepted differential tests. Results indicated that several earlier names for species were synonyms of those of accepted species and that two accepted species may be synonymous. Images PMID:6175658
Yamadazyma kitorensis f.a., sp. nov. and Zygoascus biomembranicola f.a., sp. nov., novel yeasts from the stone chamber interior of the Kitora tumulus, and five novel combinations in Yamadazyma and Zygoascus for species of Candida.
Nagatsuka, Yuka; Ninomiya, Shinya; Kiyuna, Tomohiko; Kigawa, Rika; Sano, Chie; Sugiyama, Junta
Analysis of D1/D2 large-subunit (LSU) rRNA gene sequences predicted that 17 yeast isolates, mainly from viscous gels (biofilms) taken from the stone chamber interior of the Kitora tumulus in Nara, Japan, were placed in the Yamadazyma and Zygoascus clades. Polyphasic characterization, including morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, multigene sequence divergence and DNA-DNA hybridization, strongly suggested the assignment of one novel species to each of the clades; these are Yamadazyma kitorensis f.a., sp. nov., with the type strain JCM 31005T (ex-type CBS 14158T=isolate K8617-6-8T), and Zygoascus biomembranicola f.a., sp. nov., with the type strain JCM 31007T (ex-type CBS 14157T=isolate K61208-2-11T). Furthermore, the transfer of five known species of the genus Candida as novel combinations to the genera Yamadazyma and Zygoascus is proposed; these are Yamadazyma olivae f.a., comb. nov. (type strain CBS 11171T=ATCC MYA-4568T), Yamadazyma tumulicola f.a., comb. nov. (type strain JCM 15403T=ex-type CBS 10917T=isolate T6517-9-5T), Yamadazyma takamatsuzukensis f.a., comb. nov. (type strain JCM 15410T=CBS 10916T = isolate T4922-1-1T), Zygoascus polysorbophila f.a., comb. nov. (type strain NRRL Y-27161T=CBS 7317T) and Zygoascus bituminiphila f.a., comb. nov. (type strain CBS 8813T=MUCL 41424T).
Roth, Tobias; Bühler, Christoph; Amrhein, Valentin
Global change causes community composition to change considerably through time, with ever-new combinations of interacting species. To study the consequences of newly established species interactions, one available source of data could be observational surveys from biodiversity monitoring. However, approaches using observational data would need to account for niche differences between species and for imperfect detection of individuals. To estimate population sizes of interacting species, we extended N-mixture models that were developed to estimate true population sizes in single species. Simulations revealed that our model is able to disentangle direct effects of dominant on subordinate species from indirect effects of dominant species on detection probability of subordinate species. For illustration, we applied our model to data from a Swiss amphibian monitoring program and showed that sizes of expanding water frog populations were negatively related to population sizes of endangered yellow-bellied toads and common midwife toads and partly of natterjack toads. Unlike other studies that analyzed presence and absence of species, our model suggests that the spread of water frogs in Central Europe is one of the reasons for the decline of endangered toad species. Thus, studying population impacts of dominant species on population sizes of endangered species using data from biodiversity monitoring programs should help to inform conservation policy and to decide whether competing species should be subject to population management.
Shirataki, Yoshiaki; Motohashi, Noboru
Sophora species of Leguminosae are abundantly present in the natural kingdom. Today, among Sophora plants, the flavonoids of the plant phenols occupy a remarkable position. For a very long time flavonoids have been used as natural pigments and dyes. Some of the colorful anthocyanins of the glucosides are used for color and flavor in foodstuffs. Therefore, these flavonoids are beneficial to daily human life. Herein we concentrate on flavonoids in Sophora plants, and the relationship between their chemical structures and nutraceutical effect. For this purpose, soy-based infant formulas, osteoporosis, antitumor activity, antimicrobial activity, anti-HIV activity, radical generation and O2 - scavenging activity, and enzyme inhibitory activity have been described.
Researchers in Robert Ferl's lab at the University of Florida in Gainesville, genetically altered this Arabdopsis Thaliana (a brassica species) plant to learn how extreme environments, such as the low atmospheric pressure on Mars, affect plant genes. They inserted green fluorescent protein (GFP) near the on/off switches for anoxia and drought genes. When those genes were turned on after exposure to reduced atmospheric pressure, GFP was turned on as well, causing cells expressing those genes to glow green under a blue light. The natural fluorescence of chlorophyll accounts for the red glow.
Økstad, Ole Andreas; Kolstø, Anne-Brit
Members of the genus Bacillus are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes, the low G+C gram-positive bacteria. The Bacillus genus was first described and classified by Ferdinand Cohn in Cohn (1872), and Bacillus subtilis was defined as the type species (Soule, 1932). Several Bacilli may be linked to opportunistic infections. However, pathogenicity among Bacillus spp. is mainly a feature of bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, including B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we review the genomics of B. cereus group bacteria in relation to their roles as etiological agents of two food poisoning syndromes (emetic and diarrhoeal).
Bollmeier, W.S.; Sprague, S.
Researchers have learned that many species of aquatic microalgae produce lipids, or oils, when stimulated by environmental stress. These oils can then be processed into diesel fuel or gasoline. Scientists in the Department of Energy (DOE)/Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) Aquatics Species Program have collected and screened more than 3,000 strains of microalgae from desert and saline environments. The most promising of these strains are maintained in a culture collection at SERI, and research is now focusing on applying genetic techniques to enhance lipid production of microalgae. Researchers are also studying ways to optimize microalgae lipid production by growing the microalgae in intensive cultures of large outdoor ponds. Because microalgae require large amounts of carbon dioxide as a nutrient, these microalgae facilities could be coupled with a power plant or other source of carbon dioxide. Thus, this technology offers not only the potential of producing renewable liquid fuels, but a possible way to improve the environment at the same time. 135 refs., 25 figs., 29 tabs.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
This full-size poster profiles 11 wildlife species that are endangered. Color illustrations of animals and plants are accompanied by narrative describing their habitats and reasons for endangerment. The reverse side of the poster contains information on the Endangered Species Act, why protecting endangered and threatened species is important, how…
Introduced plants are indicators of the ecological integrity of waters and evidence of increased human-caused disturbance in the watershed. Introduced species that cause economic or environmental harm, or harm to human health, are called invasive species.
Boucher-Lalonde, Véronique; Kerr, Jeremy T; Currie, David J
Broad-scale geographical variation in species richness is strongly correlated with climate, yet the mechanisms underlying this correlation are still unclear. We test two broad classes of hypotheses to explain this pattern. Bottom-up hypotheses propose that the environment determines individual species' ranges. Ranges then sum up to yield species richness patterns. Top-down hypotheses propose that the environment limits the number of species that occur in a region, but not which ones. We test these two classes of hypotheses using a natural experiment: seasonal changes in environmental variables and seasonal range shifts of 625 migratory birds in the Americas. We show that richness seasonally tracks the environment. By contrast, individual species' geographical distributions do not. Rather, species occupy different sets of environmental conditions in two seasons. Our results are inconsistent with extant bottom-up hypotheses. Instead, a top-down mechanism appears to constrain the number of species that can occur in a given region.
Amorim, Dalton S; Santos, Charles Morphy D; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Dubois, Alain; Nihei, Silvio S; Oliveira, Otto M P; Pont, Adrian; Song, Hojun; Verdade, Vanessa K; Fachin, Diego A; Klassa, Bruna; Lamas, Carlos José E; Oliveira, Sarah S; Carvalho, Claudio J B De; Mello-Patiu, Cátia A; Hajdu, Eduardo; Couri, Márcia S; Silva, Vera C; Capellari, Renato S; Falaschi, Rafaela L; Feitosa, Rodrigo M; Prendini, Lorenzo; Pombal, José P Jr; Fernández, Fernando; Rocha, Rosana M; Lattke, John E; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Duarte, Marcelo; Marques, Antonio Carlos; Reis, Roberto E; Kurina, Olavi; Takiya, Daniela M; Tavares, Marcos; Fernandes, Daniel Silva; Franco, Francisco Luís; Cuezzo, Fabiana; Paulson, Dennis; Guénard, Benoit; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Steiner, Florian M; Fisher, Brian L; Johnson, Robert A; Delsinne, Thibaut Dominique; Donoso, David A; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Carpenter, James M; Herman, Lee; Grimaldi, David
Recently a new species of bombyliid fly, Marleyimyia xylocopae, was described by Marshall & Evenhuis (2015) based on two photographs taken during fieldwork in the Republic of South Africa. This species has no preserved holotype. The paper generated some buzz, especially among dipterists, because in most cases photographs taken in the field provide insufficient information for properly diagnosing and documenting species of Diptera.
California State Dept. of Education, Los Angeles.
This document was developed in response to California Senate Bill No. 885, "The Endangered Species Education Project," that called for a statewide program in which schools adopt a local endangered species, research past and current efforts to preserve the species' habitat, develop and implement an action plan to educate the community…
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA086 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine.... 10022-01 is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C... Comment'' from the Features box on the Applications and Permits for Protected Species (APPS) home...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA128 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine... issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq... not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA140 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine... Fort Fisher. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The North Carolina Aquarium at...
Schlaepfer, Martin A.; Sherman, P.W.; Blossey, B.; Runge, M.C.
Invasive species can alter environments in such a way that normal behavioural decision-making rules of native species are no longer adaptive. The evolutionary trap concept provides a useful framework for predicting and managing the impact of harmful invasive species. We discuss how native species can respond to changes in their selective regime via evolution or learning. We also propose novel management strategies to promote the long-term co-existence of native and introduced species in cases where the eradication of the latter is either economically or biologically unrealistic.
Adams, Byron J.
If, as Einstein said, "it is the theory which decides what we can observe," then "the species problem" could be solved by simply improving our theoretical definition of what a species is. However, because delimiting species entails predicting the historical fate of evolutionary lineages, species appear to behave according to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, which states that the most philosophically satisfying definitions of species are the least operational, and as species concepts are modified to become more operational they tend to lose their philosophical integrity. Can species be delimited operationally without losing their philosophical rigor? To mitigate the contingent properties of species that tend to make them difficult for us to delimit, I advocate a set of operations that takes into account the prospective nature of delimiting species. Given the fundamental role of species in studies of evolution and biodiversity, I also suggest that species delimitation proceed within the context of explicit hypothesis testing, like other scientific endeavors. The real challenge is not so much the inherent fallibility of predicting the future but rather adequately sampling and interpreting the evidence available to us in the present. PMID:19265874
The fact that temperate grasslands often contain upwards of 30 vascular plant species per m2 yet these species seem to have relatively similar life histories and resource requirements has made explaining species coexistence in these communities a major focus of research. While the reduction of competition by disturbance has been a popular explanation for species coexistence, in tallgrass prairies any level of disturbance either has no effect, or decreases diversity, since it favors the dominant plants. Although there has long been speculation that grassland species could coexist by niche partitioning the concept received renewed interest when it was shown that soil hydrology could explain species coexistence. One aspect of community structure that has not been explained by niche partitioning is the rareness and commonness of species within communities. There are three classes of explanations for rareness: narrow habitat requirements, low competitive ability combined with frequency dependent fitness and, dispersal ability. However, evidence for these explanations tend to be anecdotal, focusing on particular species. Here I show that in tallgrass prairies common and rare species consistently occupy different parts of niche space, with rare species being restricted by the cover of common species and occupying the rare available niches. PMID:25110113
The fact that temperate grasslands often contain upwards of 30 vascular plant species per m2 yet these species seem to have relatively similar life histories and resource requirements has made explaining species coexistence in these communities a major focus of research. While the reduction of competition by disturbance has been a popular explanation for species coexistence, in tallgrass prairies any level of disturbance either has no effect, or decreases diversity, since it favors the dominant plants. Although there has long been speculation that grassland species could coexist by niche partitioning the concept received renewed interest when it was shown that soil hydrology could explain species coexistence. One aspect of community structure that has not been explained by niche partitioning is the rareness and commonness of species within communities. There are three classes of explanations for rareness: narrow habitat requirements, low competitive ability combined with frequency dependent fitness and, dispersal ability. However, evidence for these explanations tend to be anecdotal, focusing on particular species. Here I show that in tallgrass prairies common and rare species consistently occupy different parts of niche space, with rare species being restricted by the cover of common species and occupying the rare available niches.
Schwienbacher, Erich; Navarro-Cano, Jose Antonio; Neuner, Gilbert; Erschbamer, Brigitta
In alpine species the classification of the various mechanisms underlying seed dormancy has been rather questionable and controversial. Thus, we investigated 28 alpine species to evaluate the prevailing types of dormancy. Embryo type and water impermeability of seed coats gave an indication of the potential seed dormancy class. To ascertain the actual dormancy class and level, we performed germination experiments comparing the behavior of seeds without storage, after cold-dry storage, after cold-wet storage, and scarification. We also tested the light requirement for germination in some species. Germination behavior was characterized using the final germination percentage and the mean germination time. Considering the effects of the pretreatments, a refined classification of the prevailing dormancy types was constructed based on the results of our pretreatments. Only two out of the 28 species that we evaluated had predominantly non-dormant seeds. Physiological dormancy was prevalent in 20 species, with deep physiological dormancy being the most abundant, followed by non-deep and intermediate physiological dormancy. Seeds of four species with underdeveloped embryos were assigned to the morphophysiologial dormancy class. An impermeable seed coat was identified in two species, with no additional physiological germination block. We defined these species as having physical dormancy. Light promoted the germination of seeds without storage in all but one species with physiological dormancy. In species with physical dormancy, light responses were of minor importance. We discuss our new classification in the context of former germination studies and draw implications for the timing of germination in the field. PMID:24415831
Marine fish and shellfish constitute important natural resources. Provided they are wisely exploited, they are not liable to exhaustion but continue to renew themselves. Wise exploitation requires sound management, and for such management one should be well informed about the factors governing the fluctuations in the stocks and about the costs of exploitation. A century of scientific fisheries research provided a wealth of information on reproduction, migration and growth of commercially important species of fish and shellfish and about the losses the stocks suffer through natural causes such as predation, diseases and parasites, and through the fishery itself. Such information is available for areas which are intensively fished. In fertile waters, the approximate growth increase of fish stocks is some 15 % by weight year-1. If one were to harvest this 15 % only, to be considered as interest on this natural capital, and to leave the capital itself untouched, one could go on fishing for ever. There would be no overfishing or stock depletion. For sound management we need not only ecological data but also information on economic fishery aspects, e. g. on size and power of the fleet, type of fish-finding apparatus installed, costs of netting and wages, fuel required per fishing trip, and on the capital invested. Further we need statistical information on the landings and on the proceeds. Such information is available in countries which participate intensively in fishing. Therefore, one would assume that governments which are well informed by their fishery biologists about fluctuations in stocks of fish and shellfish and by their economists on various aspects of the exploitation would apply sound management to ensure that fishing may continue for many years to come without depletion. A number of examples related to the North East Atlantic area, where intensive fishing is carried out and from where a wealth of scientific information is available, makes clear that cases
Ward, Robert D; Zemlak, Tyler S; Innes, Bronwyn H; Last, Peter R; Hebert, Paul D.N
Two hundred and seven species of fish, mostly Australian marine fish, were sequenced (barcoded) for a 655 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (cox1). Most species were represented by multiple specimens, and 754 sequences were generated. The GC content of the 143 species of teleosts was higher than the 61 species of sharks and rays (47.1% versus 42.2%), largely due to a higher GC content of codon position 3 in the former (41.1% versus 29.9%). Rays had higher GC than sharks (44.7% versus 41.0%), again largely due to higher GC in the 3rd codon position in the former (36.3% versus 26.8%). Average within-species, genus, family, order and class Kimura two parameter (K2P) distances were 0.39%, 9.93%, 15.46%, 22.18% and 23.27%, respectively. All species could be differentiated by their cox1 sequence, although single individuals of each of two species had haplotypes characteristic of a congener. Although DNA barcoding aims to develop species identification systems, some phylogenetic signal was apparent in the data. In the neighbour-joining tree for all 754 sequences, four major clusters were apparent: chimaerids, rays, sharks and teleosts. Species within genera invariably clustered, and generally so did genera within families. Three taxonomic groups—dogfishes of the genus Squalus, flatheads of the family Platycephalidae, and tunas of the genus Thunnus—were examined more closely. The clades revealed after bootstrapping generally corresponded well with expectations. Individuals from operational taxonomic units designated as Squalus species B through F formed individual clades, supporting morphological evidence for each of these being separate species. We conclude that cox1 sequencing, or ‘barcoding’, can be used to identify fish species. PMID:16214743
Presents background information and teaching suggestions about endangered species for social studies teachers. Discusses political processes, economics, current events, and ethics. Lists resource information. (DC)
Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S
The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care.
Forty-six adult crambid moths of the superfamily Pyraloidea from Dominica are illustrated and identified. These images are a tool for the identification of large, common species in the Caribbean. The Caribbean is a common entry and pathway of invasive species to southeastern United States....
A new species, Stachybotrys longistipitata sp. nov is described and illustrated. This fungus was originally isolated from forest soil in Japan and deposited as Memnoniella subsimplex.
Four species have been described in the mitosporic genus Memnoniella ...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA087 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine... under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA850 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine... has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered...
Quilty, Joan; And Others
Describes how a student speech activity can serve as a culminating exercise in a unit on endangered species. Offers suggestions and guidelines for researching, formatting, and delivering the speech. A table is also included explaining the causes and prevention of species endangerment. (ML)
Piper is a big genus of the plant family Piperaceae, with more than 700 species widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Some species are used in folk medicine as analgesics, antiseptics, insecticides, and antimicrobials or for the treatment of toothache, haemorrhoid...
Findlay, C Scott; Elgie, Stewart; Giles, Brian; Burr, Linda
In a preliminary analysis of listing decisions under Canada's Species at Risk Act (SARA), Mooers et al. (2007)demonstrated an apparent bias against marine and northern species. As a follow-up, we expanded the set of potential explanatory variables, including information on jurisdictional and administrative elements of the listing process, and considered an additional 16 species recommended for listing by SARA's scientific advisory committee as of 15 August 2006. Logistic model selection based on Akaike differences suggested that species were less likely to be listed if they were harvested or had commercial or subsistence harvesting as an explicitly identified threat; had Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) as a responsible authority (RA); were located in Canada's north generally, and especially in Nunavut; or were found mostly or entirely within Canada. Subsequent model validation with an independent set of 50 species for which a listing decision was handed down in December 2007 showed an overall misclassification rate of <0.10, indicating reasonable predictive power. In light of these results, we recommend that RAs under SARA adopt a two-track listing approach to address problems of delays arising from extended consultations and the inconsistent use by the RAs of socioeconomic analysis; consider revising SARA so that socioeconomic analysis occurs during decisions about protecting species and their habitats rather than at the listing stage; and maintain an integrated database with information on species' biology, threats, and agency actions to enable future evaluation of SARA's impact.
Cai, Qing; Cui, Yang-Yang; Yang, Zhu L
Lethal amanitas (Amanita sect. Phalloideae) cause many casualties worldwide. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies revealed diverse lethal Amanita spp. in China. Here a 5-gene phylogeny (nuc rDNA region encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 with the 5.8S rDNA, the D1-D3 domains of nuc 28S rDNA, and partial RNA polymerase II second largest subunit, translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin genes) is used to investigate the phylogenetic lineages and species delimitation in this section. Thirteen species are recognized, including four new species, namely A. griseorosea, A. molliuscula, A. parviexitialis, and A. subfuliginea They are documented with morphological, multigene phylogenetic, and ecological evidence, line drawings, and photographs and compared with similar species. A key to the Chinese lethal Amanita species is provided.
Samuels, Gary J.; Dodd, Sarah L.; Lu, Bing-Sheng; Petrini, Orlando; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Druzhinina, Irina S.
The morphological concept of Trichoderma koningii is found to include several species that differ from each other in details of phenotype (including conidium morphology, growth rate) and biogeography. Phylogenetic analysis utilizing partial sequences of the translation-elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1), as well as fragments of actin and calmodulin genes, indicate that phenotypic characters typical of T. koningii evolved independently in three well-separated main lineages. Combined molecular and phenotype data lead to the development of a taxonomy with the recognition of twelve taxonomic species and one variety within the three lineages. These lineages include: (1) T. koningii and T. ovalisporum and the new species T. caribbaeum var. caribbaeum, T. caribbaeum var. aequatoriale, T. dorotheae, T. dingleyae, T. intricatum, T. koningiopsis, T. petersenii and T. taiwanense; (2) the new species T. rogersonii and T. austrokoningii, and (3) the new anamorph T. stilbohypoxyli. Trichoderma koningii s. str. is an uncommon species restricted to Europe and eastern North America; T. caribbaeum var. aequatoriale, T. koningiopsis, and T. ovalisporum were isolated as endophytes of trunks of Theobroma species in tropical America, and T. ovalisporum from the woody liana Banisteropsis caapi in Ecuador; T. koningiopsis is common in tropical America but was isolated also from natural substrata in East Africa, Europe and Canada, and from ascospores in eastern North America, and as an endophyte in Theobroma species; T. stilbohypoxyli, originally described as a parasite of Stilbohypoxylon species in Puerto Rico, is found to be more common in the tropics, besides an endophytic isolate from Fagus in U.K. The additional new species are known almost exclusively from their teleomorphs. Isolates of T. ovalisporum and T. koningiopsis may have biological control potential. A morphophenetic key and a set of tools for molecular species identification were developed. PMID:18490990
Boykin, Laura M.; Armstrong, Karen F.; Kubatko, Laura; De Barro, Paul
Species delimitation directly impacts on global biosecurity. It is a critical element in the decisions made by national governments in regard to the flow of trade and to the biosecurity measures imposed to protect countries from the threat of invasive species. Here we outline a novel approach to species delimitation, “tip to root”, for two highly invasive insect pests, Bemisia tabaci (sweetpotato whitefly) and Lymantria dispar (Asian gypsy moth). Both species are of concern to biosecurity, but illustrate the extremes of phylogenetic resolution that present the most complex delimitation issues for biosecurity; B. tabaci having extremely high intra-specific genetic variability and L. dispar composed of relatively indistinct subspecies. This study tests a series of analytical options to determine their applicability as tools to provide more rigorous species delimitation measures and consequently more defensible species assignments and identification of unknowns for biosecurity. Data from established DNA barcode datasets (COI), which are becoming increasingly considered for adoption in biosecurity, were used here as an example. The analytical approaches included the commonly used Kimura two-parameter (K2P) inter-species distance plus four more stringent measures of taxon distinctiveness, (1) Rosenberg’s reciprocal monophyly, (P(AB)),1 (2) Rodrigo’s (P(randomly distinct)),2 (3) genealogical sorting index, (gsi),3 and (4) General mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC).4,5 For both insect datasets, a comparative analysis of the methods revealed that the K2P distance method does not capture the same level of species distinctiveness revealed by the other three measures; in B. tabaci there are more distinct groups than previously identified using the K2P distances and for L. dipsar far less variation is apparent within the predefined subspecies. A consensus for the results from P(AB), P(randomly distinct) and gsi offers greater statistical confidence as to where genetic limits
Hill, Andrew F.; Joiner, Susan; Linehan, Jackie; Desbruslais, Melanie; Lantos, Peter L.; Collinge, John
Transmission of prions between mammalian species is thought to be limited by a "species barrier," which depends on differences in the primary structure of prion proteins in the infecting inoculum and the host. Here we demonstrate that a strain of hamster prions thought to be nonpathogenic for conventional mice leads to prion replication to high levels in such mice but without causing clinical disease. Prions pathogenic in both mice and hamsters are produced. These results demonstrate the existence of subclinical forms of prion infection with important public health implications, both with respect to iatrogenic transmission from apparently healthy humans and dietary exposure to cattle and other species exposed to bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions. Current definitions of the species barrier, which have been based on clinical end-points, need to be fundamentally reassessed.
Farr, David F; Aime, M Catherine; Rossman, Amy Y; Palm, Mary E
Species of Colletotrichum cause diseases on a wide range of hosts, frequently infecting plants in the Agavaceae (monocotyledons: Liliales). Three species of Colletotrichum restricted to the Agavaceae were detected through morphological studies of specimens and molecular sequence analyses of the LSU of the nu-rDNA and the ITS region of the nu-rDNA from cultures. Colletotrichum agaves on Agave is fully described and illustrated. Colletotrichum dracaenophilum is described as a new species for isolates having long conidia and occurring on Dracaena sanderiana from China. Colletotrichum phormii and Glomerella phormii are determined to be the correct scientific names for the asexual and sexual states, respectively, of a species commonly referred to as C. rhodocyclum and G. phacidiomorpha occurring mainly on Phormium. In addition, C. gloeosporioides and C. boninense were isolated from plants in the Agavaceae. All species of Colletotrichum described on Agavaceae were evaluated based on type specimens. A key to the five species of Colletotrichum on Agavaceae is included. This paper includes one new species, Colletotrichum dracaenophilum, and three new combinations, Colletotrichum phormii, Glomerella phormii, and Phaeosphaeriopsis phacidiomorpha.
Lichstein, Jeremy W; Dushoff, Jonathan; Levin, Simon A; Pacala, Stephen W
We use a two-species model of plant competition to explore the effect of intraspecific variation on community dynamics. The competitive ability ("performance") of each individual is assigned by an independent random draw from a species-specific probability distribution. If the density of individuals competing for open space is high (e.g., because fecundity is high), species with high maximum (or large variance in) performance are favored, while if density is low, species with high typical (e.g., mean) performance are favored. If there is an interspecific mean-variance performance trade-off, stable coexistence can occur across a limited range of intermediate densities, but the stabilizing effect of this trade-off appears to be weak. In the absence of this trade-off, one species is superior. In this case, intraspecific variation can blur interspecific differences (i.e., shift the dynamics toward what would be expected in the neutral case), but the strength of this effect diminishes as competitor density increases. If density is sufficiently high, the inferior species is driven to extinction just as rapidly as in the case where there is no overlap in performance between species. Intraspecific variation can facilitate coexistence, but this may be relatively unimportant in maintaining diversity in most real communities.
Crestani, Juliana; Fontes Landell, Melissa; Faganello, Josiane; Henning Vainstein, Marilene; Simpson Vishniac, Helen; Valente, Patrícia
Cryptococcus terrestris sp. nov. (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycotina, Tremellomycetes, Tremellales) is typified by CJDX4 Y23(T) (=CBS 10810(T) =NRRL Y-48451(T)), isolated from forest soil in Oklahoma, USA. This species is most readily identified by the sequence of the D1/D2 domain region of the 26S rDNA and ITS (internal transcribed spacer) region. Additional strains from Oklahoma (C107DX4 Y11 =CBS 10813 =NRRL Y-48452) and Brazil (Ep11c =CBS 10812 =NRRL Y-48454; 56e =CBS 10811 =NRRL Y-48453) either had identical sequences or differed minimally. C. terrestris differs physiologically from the most closely related species, Cryptococcus flavescens, by the weak or delayed assimilation of ribose and salicin, and differs from Cryptococcus aureus by the utilization of nitrate and nitrite and growth in vitamin-free medium.
Post, W.M.; Travis, C.C.; DeAngelis, D.L.
Recent theoretical work on mutualism, the interaction between species populations that is mutually beneficial, is reviewed. Several ecological facts that should be addressed in the construction of dynamic models for mutualism are examined. Basic terminology is clarified. (PSB)
Increasing carbon dioxide levels lead to rising ocean acidity, which can harm corals and many other species of ocean life. Acidification causes calcium carbonate, which corals usually need to build skeletons, to dissolve. “Every day, ocean acidification is taking up the weight of 6 million midsize cars' worth of carbon, said Nina Keul, a graduate student at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Germany during a 7 December press conference at the AGU Fall Meeting. Somewhat surprising, though, is that some species are more tolerant of acidic conditions than scientists had expected. For instance, Keul exposed a species of foraminifera, Ammonia tepida, to seawater with varying acidity and varying carbonate ion concentrations. Previous studies had found that foraminifera growth declined with decreasing carbonate levels, but Keul's foraminifera continued to grow in the acidic conditions. She said that the mechanism that allows this species to tolerate the low carbonate conditions is as yet unknown.
SUMMARY Leishmania is an infectious protozoan parasite related to African and American trypanosomes. All Leishmania species that are pathogenic to humans can cause dermal disease. When one is confronted with cutaneous leishmaniasis, identification of the causative species is relevant in both clinical and epidemiological studies, case management, and control. This review gives an overview of the currently existing and most used assays for species discrimination, with a critical appraisal of the limitations of each technique. The consensus taxonomy for the genus is outlined, including debatable species designations. Finally, a numerical literature analysis is presented that describes which methods are most used in various countries and regions in the world, and for which purposes. PMID:25672782
Hill, Bonnie Campbell
Describes how an integrated unit on endangered species brings research alive for second through sixth graders. Presents lessons involving pre-writing, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, revision, and publication of student papers. (KEH)
Outlines strategies used to involve the teaching community in a program of native wildlife recovery. Through involvement, teachers and students learn how to contribute to protecting threatened species and maintaining biodiversity. (DDR)
Delellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio
We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.
DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio
We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.
Rieseberg, Loren H.; Wood, Troy E.; Baack, Eric J.
Many botanists doubt the existence of plant species1–5, viewing them as arbitrary constructs of the human mind, as opposed to discrete, objective entities that represent reproductively independent lineages or ‘units of evolution’. However, the discreteness of plant species and their correspondence with reproductive communities have not been tested quantitatively, allowing zoologists to argue that botanists have been overly influenced by a few ‘botanical horror stories’, such as dandelions, blackberries and oaks6,7. Here we analyse phenetic and/or crossing relationships in over 400 genera of plants and animals. We show that although discrete phenotypic clusters exist in most genera (>80%), the correspondence of taxonomic species to these clusters is poor (<60%) and no different between plants and animals. Lack of congruence is caused by polyploidy, asexual reproduction and over-differentiation by taxonomists, but not by contemporary hybridization. Nonetheless, crossability data indicate that 70% of taxonomic species and 75% of phenotypic clusters in plants correspond to reproductively independent lineages (as measured by postmating isolation), and thus represent biologically real entities. Contrary to conventional wisdom8, plant species are more likely than animal species to represent reproductively independent lineages. PMID:16554818
Strindberg, Sophie; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M; Wiinberg, Bo; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Bertelsen, Mads F
Currently available assay methods and reagents are not optimized for evaluating avian hemostasis; therefore, assessing avian coagulopathies is challenging. Recently, thromboelastography (TEG), which measures the viscoelastic properties of blood, has been used clinically in mammalian species to diagnose and characterize hemostatic disorders. To evaluate TEG in healthy individuals of 6 avian species, we modified existing mammalian TEG protocols to allow analysis of citrated, avian whole-blood samples collected from scarlet ibis (Eudocimus ruber) (n = 13), American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ) (n = 13), helmeted Guinea fowl ( Numida meleagris ) (n = 12), Amazon parrots (Amazona species) (n = 9), Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) (n = 6), and domestic chickens (n = 16). Activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen were measured as a means of comparison. Regardless of the mode of activation, clot formation in the species studied was markedly delayed compared with mammals. Because of prolonged reaction time (14.7-52.7 minutes) with kaolin and diluted tissue factor, undiluted human tissue factor was used in all avian samples because it provided the shortest reaction time. Species differed significantly in reaction time (P = .007), clotting rate (P < .001), rate of clot formation (α angle; P < .001), and maximum amplitude (P < .001) values, indicating that species-specific reference intervals are necessary. Based on these results, TEG with specific reference intervals could prove useful in evaluating avian hemostatic disorders.
Different species are of different importance in maintaining ecosystem functions in natural communities. Quantitative approaches are needed to identify unusually important or influential, ‘keystone’ species particularly for conservation purposes. Since the importance of some species may largely be the consequence of their rich interaction structure, one possible quantitative approach to identify the most influential species is to study their position in the network of interspecific interactions. In this paper, I discuss the role of network analysis (and centrality indices in particular) in this process and present a new and simple approach to characterizing the interaction structures of each species in a complex network. Understanding the linkage between structure and dynamics is a condition to test the results of topological studies, I briefly overview our current knowledge on this issue. The study of key nodes in networks has become an increasingly general interest in several disciplines: I will discuss some parallels. Finally, I will argue that conservation biology needs to devote more attention to identify and conserve keystone species and relatively less attention to rarity. PMID:19451124
Weir, B.S.; Johnston, P.R.; Damm, U.
The limit of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex is defined genetically, based on a strongly supported clade within the Colletotrichum ITS gene tree. All taxa accepted within this clade are morphologically more or less typical of the broadly defined C. gloeosporioides, as it has been applied in the literature for the past 50 years. We accept 22 species plus one subspecies within the C. gloeosporioides complex. These include C. asianum, C. cordylinicola, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides, C. horii, C. kahawae subsp. kahawae, C. musae, C. nupharicola, C. psidii, C. siamense, C. theobromicola, C. tropicale, and C. xanthorrhoeae, along with the taxa described here as new, C. aenigma, C. aeschynomenes, C. alatae, C. alienum, C. aotearoa, C. clidemiae, C. kahawae subsp. ciggaro, C. salsolae, and C. ti, plus the nom. nov. C. queenslandicum (for C. gloeosporioides var. minus). All of the taxa are defined genetically on the basis of multi-gene phylogenies. Brief morphological descriptions are provided for species where no modern description is available. Many of the species are unable to be reliably distinguished using ITS, the official barcoding gene for fungi. Particularly problematic are a set of species genetically close to C. musae and another set of species genetically close to C. kahawae, referred to here as the Musae clade and the Kahawae clade, respectively. Each clade contains several species that are phylogenetically well supported in multi-gene analyses, but within the clades branch lengths are short because of the small number of phylogenetically informative characters, and in a few cases individual gene trees are incongruent. Some single genes or combinations of genes, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase, can be used to reliably distinguish most taxa and will need to be developed as secondary barcodes for species level identification, which is important because many of these fungi are of biosecurity
Economically important plants contain large amounts of inulin. Disposal of waste resulting from their processing presents environmental issues. Finding microorganisms capable of converting inulin waste to biofuel and valuable co-products in a biorefinery at the processing site would have significant...
Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Sun, Jiufeng; Vicente, Vania A.; Klaassen, Corne H.W.; Bonifaz, Alexandro; van den Ende, A.H.G. Gerrits; Menken, Steph B.J.
To assess population diversities among 81 strains of fungi in the genus Fonsecaea that had been identified down to species level, we applied amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) technology and sequenced the internal transcribed spacer regions and the partial cell division cycle, β-tubulin, and actin genes. Many species of the genus Fonsecaea cause human chromoblastomycosis. Strains originated from a global sampling of clinical and environmental sources in the Western Hemisphere, Asia, Africa, and Europe. According to AFLP fingerprinting, Fonsecaea isolates clustered in 5 groups corresponding with F. pedrosoi, F. monophora, and F. nubica: the latter 2 species each comprised 2 groups, and F. pedrosoi appeared to be of monophyletic origin. F. pedrosoi was found nearly exclusively in Central and South America. F. monophora and F. nubica were distributed worldwide, but both showed substantial geographic structuring. Clinical cases outside areas where Fonsecaea is endemic were probably distributed by human migration. PMID:21392438
Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Sun, Jiufeng; Vicente, Vania A; Klaassen, Corne H W; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gerrits van den Ende, A H G; Menken, Steph B J; de Hoog, G Sybren
To assess population diversities among 81 strains of fungi in the genus Fonsecaea that had been identified down to species level, we applied amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) technology and sequenced the internal transcribed spacer regions and the partial cell division cycle, beta-tubulin, and actin genes. Many species of the genus Fonsecaea cause human chromoblastomycosis. Strains originated from a global sampling of clinical and environmental sources in the Western Hemisphere, Asia, Africa, and Europe. According to AFLP fingerprinting, Fonsecaea isolates clustered in 5 groups corresponding with F. pedrosoi, F. monophora, and F. nubica: the latter 2 species each comprised 2 groups, and F. pedrosoi appeared to be of monophyletic origin. F. pedrosoi was found nearly exclusively in Central and South America. F. monophora and F. nubica were distributed worldwide, but both showed substantial geographic structuring. Clinical cases outside areas where Fonsecaea is endemic were probably distributed by human migration.
Theory has outpaced empirical research in pursuit of identifying mechanisms maintaining species diversity. Here we demonstrate how data from diversity-ecosystem functioning experiments can be used to test maintenance of diversity theory. We predict that grassland plant diversity can be maintained by...
Dziejman, Michelle; Yildiz, Fitnat H.
Members of the heterotrophic bacterial family Vibrionaceae are native inhabitants of aquatic environments worldwide, constituting a diverse and abundant component of marine microbial organisms. Over 60 species of the genus Vibrio have been identified (Thompson et al., 2004) and their phenotypic heterogeneity is well documented. The ecology of the genus remains less well understood, however, despite reports that vibrios are the dominant microorganisms inhabiting the superficial water layer and colonizing the chitinous exoskeleton of zooplankton (e.g., copepods, Thompson et al., 2004). Although some species were originally isolated from seawater as free living organisms, most were isolated in association with marine life such as bivalves, fish, eels, or shrimp.
Damm, U.; Cannon, P.F.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Johnston, P.R.; Weir, B.S.; Tan, Y.P.; Shivas, R.G.; Crous, P.W.
Although only recently described, Colletotrichum boninense is well established in literature as an anthracnose pathogen or endophyte of a diverse range of host plants worldwide. It is especially prominent on members of Amaryllidaceae, Orchidaceae, Proteaceae and Solanaceae. Reports from literature and preliminary studies using ITS sequence data indicated that C. boninense represents a species complex. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH, HIS3, CAL) of 86 strains previously identified as C. boninense and other related strains revealed 18 clades. These clades are recognised here as separate species, including C. boninense s. str., C. hippeastri, C. karstii and 12 previously undescribed species, C. annellatum, C. beeveri, C. brassicicola, C. brasiliense, C. colombiense, C. constrictum, C. cymbidiicola, C. dacrycarpi, C. novae-zelandiae, C. oncidii, C. parsonsiae and C. torulosum. Seven of the new species are only known from New Zealand, perhaps reflecting a sampling bias. The new combination C. phyllanthi was made, and C. dracaenae Petch was epitypified and the name replaced with C. petchii. Typical for species of the C. boninense species complex are the conidiogenous cells with rather prominent periclinal thickening that also sometimes extend to form a new conidiogenous locus or annellations as well as conidia that have a prominent basal scar. Many species in the C. boninense complex form teleomorphs in culture. Taxonomic novelties: New combination - Colletotrichum phyllanthi (H. Surendranath Pai) Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous. Name replacement - C. petchii Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous. New species - C. annellatum Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. beeveri Damm, P.F. Cannon, Crous, P.R. Johnst. & B. Weir, C. brassicicola Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. brasiliense Damm, P.F. Cannon, Crous & Massola, C. colombiense Damm, P.F. Cannon, Crous, C. constrictum Damm, P.F. Cannon, Crous, P.R. Johnst. & B. Weir, C. cymbidiicola Damm, P.F. Cannon
DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio
We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment. PMID:24430561
Damm, U.; Cannon, P.F.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Crous, P.W.
Colletotrichum acutatum is known as an important anthracnose pathogen of a wide range of host plants worldwide. Numerous studies have reported subgroups within the C. acutatum species complex. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH, HIS3) of 331 strains previously identified as C. acutatum and other related taxa, including strains from numerous hosts with wide geographic distributions, confirmed the molecular groups previously recognised and identified a series of novel taxa. Thirty-one species are accepted, of which 21 have not previously been recognised. Colletotrichum orchidophilum clusters basal to the C. acutatum species complex. There is a high phenotypic diversity within this complex, and some of the species appear to have preferences to specific hosts or geographical regions. Others appear to be plurivorous and are present in multiple regions. In this study, only C. salicis and C. rhombiforme formed sexual morphs in culture, although sexual morphs have been described from other taxa (especially as laboratory crosses), and there is evidence of hybridisation between different species. One species with similar morphology to C. acutatum but not belonging to this species complex was also described here as new, namely C. pseudoacutatum. Taxonomic novelties: New combinations - Colletotrichum limetticola (R.E. Clausen) Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. lupini (Bondar) Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. salicis (Fuckel) Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous. New species - C. acerbum Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. australe Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. brisbanense Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. cosmi Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. costaricense Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. cuscutae Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. guajavae Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. indonesiense Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. johnstonii Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. kinghornii Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. laticiphilum Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. melonis Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C
Sivakumaran, Swarna; Bridge, Paul; Roberts, Peter
The three accepted species of Filobasidiella, F. neoformans, F. depauperata, and F. lutea, are compared morphologically and by molecular analysis. Sequences of the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) and the small subunit (SSU) gene of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene cluster were obtained, and analysed by Neighbor-joining and Maximum parsimony methods. The three species of Filobsidiella are shown to form a single monophyletic clade, rooted by Tremella mesenterica. F. lutea was recovered as a distinct, but closely related taxon with the Filobasidiella clade. This is the first report of DNA sequences from herbarium specimens of F. lutea.
Numerous plant species worldwide including some Palicourea (Rubiaceae), Tanaecium (Bignoniaceae), and Amorimia (Malpighiaceae) species in Brazil cause sudden death and are known to contain monofluoroacetate (MFA). Two species of Palicourea, P. aenofusca and P. marcgravii, cause sudden death and are...
O'Brien, Stephen J; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter
The complex ongoing process of species development is highlighted by the description of a new felid species, Leopardus guttulus, from Brazil. Broad molecular genetic assessments affirm reproductive isolation and separation in nature, the hallmark of species recognition.
Borges, Paulo A. V.; Hortal, Joaquín; Gabriel, Rosalina; Homem, Nídia
We evaluate whether the description of the species area relationship (SAR) can be improved by using richness estimates instead of observed richness values. To do this, we use three independent datasets gathered with standardized survey methods from the native laurisilva forest of the Azorean archipelago, encompassing different distributional extent and biological groups: soil epigean arthropods at eight forest fragments in Terceira Island, canopy arthropods inhabiting Juniperus brevifolia at 16 forest fragments of six different islands, and bryophytes of seven forest fragments from Terceira and Pico islands. Species richness values were estimated for each forest fragment using seven non-parametric estimators (ACE, ICE, Chao1, Chao2, Jackknife1, Jackknife2 and Bootstrap; five in the case of bryophytes). These estimates were fitted to classical log-log species-area curves and the intercept, slope and goodness of fit of these curves were compared with those obtained from the observed species richness values to determine if significant differences appear in these parameters. We hypothesized that the intercepts would be higher in the estimated data sets compared with the observed data, as estimated richness values are typically higher than observed values. We found partial support for the hypothesis - intercepts of the SAR obtained from estimated richness values were significantly higher in the case of epigean arthropods and bryophyte datasets. In contrast, the slope and goodness of fit obtained with estimated values were not significantly different from those obtained from observed species richness in all groups, although a few small differences appeared. We conclude that, although little is gained using these estimators if data come from standardized surveys, their estimations could be used to analyze macroecological relationships with non-standardized observed data, provided that survey incompleteness and/or unevenness are also taken into account.
The Maloideae is a highly diverse sub-family of the Rosaceae containing several agronomically important species (Malus sp. and Pyrus sp.) and their wild relatives. Previous phylogenetic work within the group has revealed extensive intergeneric hybridization and polyploidization. In order to develop...
In wiping out the natural heritage over which we were given dominion and stewardship responsibilities, we are sowing the seeds of our own destruction. With the advent of the Reagan administration, the government's endangered species program has all but ceased to function. (RM)
Smith, Jean, M., Comp.
Presented are two articles, an annotated bibliography, and other information useful in teaching about endangered species, especially those found in Florida. The articles provide an ethical rationale, teaching suggestions, and a discussion of the value of wildlife. Descriptions of over 100 pertinent books, periodicals, movies, and filmstrips are in…
Esposito, Douglas H.; Dubey, Jitender P.
SUMMARY Recurrent outbreaks of muscular sarcocystosis among tourists visiting islands in Malaysia have focused international attention on sarcocystosis, a disease once considered rare in humans. Sarcocystis species require two hosts, definitive and intermediate, to complete their life cycle. Humans can serve as definitive hosts, with intestinal sarcocystosis for two species acquired from eating undercooked meat: Sarcocystis hominis, from beef, and Sarcocystis suihominis, from pork. Symptoms such as nausea, stomachache, and diarrhea vary widely depending on the number of cysts ingested but appear more severe with pork than with beef. Humans serve as intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis nesbitti, a species with a reptilian definitive host, and possibly other unidentified species, acquired by ingesting sporocysts from feces-contaminated food or water and the environment; infections have an early phase of development in vascular endothelium, with illness that is difficult to diagnose; clinical signs include fever, headache, and myalgia. Subsequent development of intramuscular cysts is characterized by myositis. Presumptive diagnosis based on travel history to tropical regions, elevated serum enzyme levels, and eosinophilia is confirmed by finding sarcocysts in muscle biopsy specimens. There is no vaccine or confirmed effective antiparasitic drug for muscular sarcocystosis, but anti-inflammatory drugs may reduce symptoms. Prevention strategies are also discussed. PMID:25715644
Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.
The general theme of this 1968 yearbook is that man is a threatened species, facing overpopulation and unbridled technology - both self induced. The presentation is broad, relating to many aspects of conservation and natural resources in the United States in a descriptive, non-technical style. The yearbook is divided into major topics: Land…
Ferrer, Consuelo; Pérez-Santonja, Juan J.; Rodríguez, Alejandra E.; Colom, M. Francisca; Gené, Josepa; Alio, Jorge L.; Verkley, Gerard J. M.; Guarro, Josep
We report a new fungus as an agent of fungal keratitis in a diabetic woman. The fungal etiology was established by classic microbiology and PCR following 3 months of antibacterial therapy. The morphological features of the isolate and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region indicate a new species of Pyrenochaeta (Coelomycetes). PMID:19297598
Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (2n = 2x = 14) and melon, C. melo L. (2n = 2x = 24) are two important vegetable species in the genus Cucumis (family Cucurbitaceae). Two inter-fertile botanical varieties with 14 chromosomes, the cultivated C. sativus var. sativus L. and the wild C. sativus var. hardwick...
Beginning in Southeast Asia, in 2003, a multi-national epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity an...
Arim, Matías; Abades, Sebastián R.; Neill, Paula E.; Lima, Mauricio; Marquet, Pablo A.
Species invasions are a principal component of global change, causing large losses in biodiversity as well as economic damage. Invasion theory attempts to understand and predict invasion success and patterns of spread. However, there is no consensus regarding which species or community attributes enhance invader success or explain spread dynamics. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that regulation of spread dynamics is possible; however, the conditions for its existence have not yet been empirically demonstrated. If invasion spread is a regulated process, the structure that accounts for this regulation will be a main determinant of invasion dynamics. Here we explore the existence of regulation underlying changes in the rate of new site colonization. We employ concepts and analytical tools from the study of abundance dynamics and show that spread dynamics are, in fact, regulated processes and that the regulation structure is notably consistent among invasions occurring in widely different contexts. We base our conclusions on the analysis of the spread dynamics of 30 species invasions, including birds, amphibians, fish, invertebrates, plants, and a virus, all of which exhibited similar regulation structures. In contrast to current beliefs that species invasions are idiosyncratic phenomena, here we provide evidence that general patterns do indeed exist. PMID:16387862
Fayer, Ronald; Esposito, Douglas H; Dubey, Jitender P
Recurrent outbreaks of muscular sarcocystosis among tourists visiting islands in Malaysia have focused international attention on sarcocystosis, a disease once considered rare in humans. Sarcocystis species require two hosts, definitive and intermediate, to complete their life cycle. Humans can serve as definitive hosts, with intestinal sarcocystosis for two species acquired from eating undercooked meat: Sarcocystis hominis, from beef, and Sarcocystis suihominis, from pork. Symptoms such as nausea, stomachache, and diarrhea vary widely depending on the number of cysts ingested but appear more severe with pork than with beef. Humans serve as intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis nesbitti, a species with a reptilian definitive host, and possibly other unidentified species, acquired by ingesting sporocysts from feces-contaminated food or water and the environment; infections have an early phase of development in vascular endothelium, with illness that is difficult to diagnose; clinical signs include fever, headache, and myalgia. Subsequent development of intramuscular cysts is characterized by myositis. Presumptive diagnosis based on travel history to tropical regions, elevated serum enzyme levels, and eosinophilia is confirmed by finding sarcocysts in muscle biopsy specimens. There is no vaccine or confirmed effective antiparasitic drug for muscular sarcocystosis, but anti-inflammatory drugs may reduce symptoms. Prevention strategies are also discussed.
Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Corradini, Beatrice; Licata, Manuela; Beduschi, Giovanni
Conventional methods for forensic species identification are mainly based on immunological procedures, which have limited applications for old and degraded specimens. The mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence has emerged in forensics among molecular methods. Recent investigations in the taxonomic field have suggested that a DNA-based identification system may aid the resolution of animal diversity and classification using sequence analysis and phylogenetic links. Selected gene sequences can be viewed as a genetic "barcode," which is enclosed in every cell, and barcoding is a standardized approach for characterizing species using short DNA sequences as a diagnostic biomarker for organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of barcode mitochondrial genes, such as the cytochrome c oxidase sub 1 (COI) and the 16S rRNA gene, as a forensic tool. We developed a new approach for species testing and identification with a singleplex PCR amplification that will be useful not only in criminal casework but also in biosecurity, food authentication, investigation against poaching or illegal trade of endangered species, and wildlife enforcement. Seven fragments ranging from 157 to 541 bp (base pairs) in humans were selected from COI and 16S rRNA genes by different redesigned sets of primers suitable for forensic purposes. The specificity of each primer pair was evaluated with a single PCR reaction on different substrates, and the diversity values were calculated by statistical tests to select a set of markers that could be useful in different caseworks. A case example of forensic species identification is also presented.
Martin, Tara G.; Chadès, Iadine; Arcese, Peter; Marra, Peter P.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Norris, D. Ryan
Background Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea–regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity) bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of migratory
Crous, Pedro W.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Risède, Jean-Michel; Simoneau, Philippe; Hyde, Kevin D.
The present study compares all known species of Cylindrocladium that have clavate vesicles. Several isolates were obtained from baited soils collected in various parts of the world, while others were associated with leaf litter or symptomatic plant hosts. Isolates were compared based on morphology, as well as DNA sequence data from their β-tubulin and histone gene H3 regions. Cylindrocladium australiense and Cy. ecuadoriae, are described as new species, a decision based on morphology and molecular data. A group of isolates associated with toppling disease of banana in the West Indies is identified as Cy. flexuosum. An epitype is designated for Cy. ilicicola, and a new name, Curvicladiella, proposed to replace the anamorphic genus Curvicladium, which is a homonym. PMID:18490981
Peng, S.; Yin, Z.; Ren, H.; Guo, Q.
Species-abundance relationship is one of the most fundamental aspects of community ecology. Since Motomura first developed the geometric series model to describe the feature of community structure, ecologists have developed many other models to fit the species-abundance data in communities. These models can be classified into empirical and theoretical ones, including (1) statistical models, i.e., negative binomial distribution (and its extension), log-series distribution (and its extension), geometric distribution, lognormal distribution, Poisson-lognormal distribution, (2) niche models, i.e., geometric series, broken stick, overlapping niche, particulate niche, random assortment, dominance pre-emption, dominance decay, random fraction, weighted random fraction, composite niche, Zipf or Zipf-Mandelbrot model, and (3) dynamic models describing community dynamics and restrictive function of environment on community. These models have different characteristics and fit species-abundance data in various communities or collections. Among them, log-series distribution, lognormal distribution, geometric series, and broken stick model have been most widely used.
Réblová, Martina; Jaklitsch, Walter M.; Réblová, Kamila; Štěpánek, Václav
The Calosphaeriales is revisited with new collection data, living cultures, morphological studies of ascoma centrum, secondary structures of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA and phylogeny based on novel DNA sequences of five nuclear ribosomal and protein-coding loci. Morphological features, molecular evidence and information from predicted RNA secondary structures of ITS converged upon robust phylogenies of the Calosphaeriales and Togniniales. The current concept of the Calosphaeriales includes the Calosphaeriaceae and Pleurostomataceae encompassing five monophyletic genera, Calosphaeria, Flabellascus gen. nov., Jattaea, Pleurostoma and Togniniella, strongly supported by Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods. The structural elements of ITS1 form characteristic patterns that are phylogenetically conserved, corroborate observations based on morphology and have a high predictive value at the generic level. Three major clades containing 44 species of Phaeoacremonium were recovered in the closely related Togniniales based on ITS, actin and β-tubulin sequences. They are newly characterized by sexual and RNA structural characters and ecology. This approach is a first step towards understanding of the molecular systematics of Phaeoacremonium and possibly its new classification. In the Calosphaeriales, Jattaea aphanospora sp. nov. and J. ribicola sp. nov. are introduced, Calosphaeria taediosa is combined in Jattaea and epitypified. The sexual morph of Phaeoacremonium cinereum was encountered for the first time on decaying wood and obtained in vitro. In order to achieve a single nomenclature, the genera of asexual morphs linked with the Calosphaeriales are transferred to synonymy of their sexual morphs following the principle of priority, i.e. Calosphaeriophora to Calosphaeria, Phaeocrella to Togniniella and Pleurostomophora to Pleurostoma. Three new combinations are proposed, i.e. Pleurostoma ochraceum comb. nov., P. repens comb. nov. and P. richardsiae comb
An equivariant representation of the symmetric group Sn (equivariant representation from here on) is defined as a particular type of tensor species. For any tensor species R the characteristic generating function of R is defined in a way that generalizes the Frobenius characters of representations of the symmetric groups. If R is an equivariant representation, then the characteristic is a homogeneous symmetric function. The combinatorial operations on equivariant representations correspond to formal operations on the respective characteristic functions. In particular, substitution of equivariant representations corresponds to plethysm of symmetric functions. Equivariant representations are constructed that have as characteristic the elementary, complete, and Schur functions. Bijective proofs are given for the formulas that connect them with the monomial symmetric functions. PMID:11607233
Domínguez-García, Virginia; Muñoz, Miguel A.
Understanding the architectural subtleties of ecological networks, believed to confer them enhanced stability and robustness, is a subject of outmost relevance. Mutualistic interactions have been profusely studied and their corresponding bipartite networks, such as plant-pollinator networks, have been reported to exhibit a characteristic ``nested'' structure. Assessing the importance of any given species in mutualistic networks is a key task when evaluating extinction risks and possible cascade effects. Inspired in a recently introduced algorithm -similar in spirit to Google's PageRank but with a built-in non-linearity- here we propose a method which -by exploiting their nested architecture- allows us to derive a sound ranking of species importance in mutualistic networks. This method clearly outperforms other existing ranking schemes and can become very useful for ecosystem management and biodiversity preservation, where decisions on what aspects of ecosystems to explicitly protect need to be made.
Domínguez-García, Virginia; Muñoz, Miguel A.
Understanding the architectural subtleties of ecological networks, believed to confer them enhanced stability and robustness, is a subject of outmost relevance. Mutualistic interactions have been profusely studied and their corresponding bipartite networks, such as plant-pollinator networks, have been reported to exhibit a characteristic “nested” structure. Assessing the importance of any given species in mutualistic networks is a key task when evaluating extinction risks and possible cascade effects. Inspired in a recently introduced algorithm –similar in spirit to Google's PageRank but with a built-in non-linearity– here we propose a method which –by exploiting their nested architecture– allows us to derive a sound ranking of species importance in mutualistic networks. This method clearly outperforms other existing ranking schemes and can become very useful for ecosystem management and biodiversity preservation, where decisions on what aspects of ecosystems to explicitly protect need to be made. PMID:25640575
Domínguez-García, Virginia; Muñoz, Miguel A
Understanding the architectural subtleties of ecological networks, believed to confer them enhanced stability and robustness, is a subject of outmost relevance. Mutualistic interactions have been profusely studied and their corresponding bipartite networks, such as plant-pollinator networks, have been reported to exhibit a characteristic "nested" structure. Assessing the importance of any given species in mutualistic networks is a key task when evaluating extinction risks and possible cascade effects. Inspired in a recently introduced algorithm--similar in spirit to Google's PageRank but with a built-in non-linearity--here we propose a method which--by exploiting their nested architecture--allows us to derive a sound ranking of species importance in mutualistic networks. This method clearly outperforms other existing ranking schemes and can become very useful for ecosystem management and biodiversity preservation, where decisions on what aspects of ecosystems to explicitly protect need to be made.
Simonen, M; Palva, I
Bacilli secrete numerous proteins into the environment. Many of the secretory proteins, their export signals, and their processing steps during secretion have been characterized in detail. In contrast, the molecular mechanisms of protein secretion have been relatively poorly characterized. However, several components of the protein secretion machinery have been identified and cloned recently, which is likely to lead to rapid expansion of the knowledge of the protein secretion mechanism in Bacillus species. Comparison of the presently known export components of Bacillus species with those of Escherichia coli suggests that the mechanism of protein translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane is conserved among gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria differences are found in steps preceding and following the translocation process. Many of the secretory proteins of bacilli are produced industrially, but several problems have been encountered in the production of Bacillus heterologous secretory proteins. In the final section we discuss these problems and point out some possibilities to overcome them. PMID:8464403
These data represent predicted current distributions of all native mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for both 8-digit HUCs and EMAP hexagons and represent total species counts for each spatial unit. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.
Webster, R G; Hinshaw, V S; Bean, W J; Sriram, G
The only direct evidence for transmission of influenza viruses between species comes from studies on swine influenza viruses. Antigenically and genetically identical Hsw1N1 influenza viruses were isolated from pigs and man on the same farm in Wisconsin, U.S.A. The isolation of H3N2 influenza viruses from a wide range of lower animals and birds suggests that influenza viruses of man can spread to the lower orders. Under some conditions the H3N2 viruses can persist for a number of years in some species. The isolation, from aquatic birds, of a large number of influenza A viruses that possess surface proteins antigenically similar to the viruses isolated from man, pigs and horses provides indirect evidence for inter-species transmission. There is now a considerable body of evidence which suggests that influenza viruses of lower animals and birds may play a role in the origin of some of the pandemic strains of influenza A viruses. There is no direct evidence that the influenza viruses in aquatic birds are transmitted to man, but they may serve as a genetic pool from which some genes may be introduced into humans by recombination. Preliminary evidence suggests that the molecular basis of host range and virulence may be related to the RNA segments coding for one of the polymerase proteins (P3) and for the nucleoprotein (NP).
Gaston, Kevin J; O'Neill, Mark A
Where possible, automation has been a common response of humankind to many activities that have to be repeated numerous times. The routine identification of specimens of previously described species has many of the characteristics of other activities that have been automated, and poses a major constraint on studies in many areas of both pure and applied biology. In this paper, we consider some of the reasons why automated species identification has not become widely employed, and whether it is a realistic option, addressing the notions that it is too difficult, too threatening, too different or too costly. Although recognizing that there are some very real technical obstacles yet to be overcome, we argue that progress in the development of automated species identification is extremely encouraging that such an approach has the potential to make a valuable contribution to reducing the burden of routine identifications. Vision and enterprise are perhaps more limiting at present than practical constraints on what might possibly be achieved. PMID:15253351
Brook, I; Frazier, E H
Eight hundred and sixteen isolates of Propionibacterium species (725 of which were Propionibacterium acnes) were isolated from 3,971 specimens submitted for the identification of anaerobic bacteria over the course of 10 years. A total of 94 Propionibacterium isolates (12%) identified in 92 patients were considered to cause infection. The rest of the isolates were determined to be contaminants or of uncertain pathogenic significance. Significant infections caused by Propionibacterium species were associated with the blood in 15 patients, central nervous system in 11, lymph glands in 10, abscesses in eight, joints in seven, wounds in seven, cysts in six, and sinuses in five. Predisposing or underlying conditions were noted in 66 patients (70%). The most common conditions were the presence of foreign bodies (29 patients), diabetes (12), previous surgery (10), trauma (seven), malignancy (seven), immunodeficiency (seven), and steroid therapy (four). Antimicrobial therapy was administered to 83 patients; for 47 patients this therapy was given in conjunction with surgical drainage or correction. Surgical drainage alone was performed in nine patients. Five patients (5%) died. These data illustrate that although Propionibacterium species are rarely associated with infections, these organisms can occasionally cause serious infections.
... the following species of freshwater mussels: Fat threeridge--Amblema neislerii Shinyrayed pocketbook... species, 14 fish species, 34 fresh-water mussel species, 2 snail species, 1 insect species, and 2...
... mussels, 12 species of freshwater snails, and 3 species of terrestrial snails throughout Arkansas..., tag, release) 56 freshwater mussel species, 5 snail species, 7 fish species, and 1 species of...
Lewitus, Eric; Morlon, Hélène
Identifying modes of species diversification is fundamental to our understanding of how biodiversity changes over evolutionary time. Diversification modes are captured in species phylogenies, but characterizing the landscape of diversification has been limited by the analytical tools available for directly comparing phylogenetic trees of groups of organisms. Here, we use a novel, non-parametric approach and 214 family-level phylogenies of vertebrates representing over 500 million years of evolution to identify major diversification modes, to characterize phylogenetic space, and to evaluate the bounds and central tendencies of species diversification. We identify five principal patterns of diversification to which all vertebrate families hold. These patterns, mapped onto multidimensional space, constitute a phylogenetic space with distinct properties. Firstly, phylogenetic space occupies only a portion of all possible tree space, showing family-level phylogenies to be constrained to a limited range of diversification patterns. Secondly, the geometry of phylogenetic space is delimited by quantifiable trade-offs in tree size and the heterogeneity and stem-to-tip distribution of branching events. These trade-offs are indicative of the instability of certain diversification patterns and effectively bound speciation rates (for successful clades) within upper and lower limits. Finally, both the constrained range and geometry of phylogenetic space are established by the differential effects of macroevolutionary processes on patterns of diversification. Given these properties, we show that the average path through phylogenetic space over evolutionary time traverses several diversification stages, each of which is defined by a different principal pattern of diversification and directed by a different macroevolutionary process. The identification of universal patterns and natural constraints to diversification provides a foundation for understanding the deep-time evolution of
Schnase, John; Most, Neal; Gill, Roger; Ma, Peter
The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provides computational support for the generic work processes found in many regional-scale ecosystem modeling applications. Decision support tools built using ISFS allow a user to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of management concern, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. This type of decision product helps resource managers plan invasive species protection, monitoring, and control strategies for the lands they manage. Until now, scientists and resource managers have lacked the data-assembly and computing capabilities to produce these maps quickly and cost efficiently. ISFS focuses on regional-scale habitat suitability modeling for invasive terrestrial plants. ISFS s component architecture emphasizes simplicity and adaptability. Its core services can be easily adapted to produce model-based decision support tools tailored to particular parks, monuments, forests, refuges, and related management units. ISFS can be used to build standalone run-time tools that require no connection to the Internet, as well as fully Internet-based decision support applications. ISFS provides the core data structures, operating system interfaces, network interfaces, and inter-component constraints comprising the canonical workflow for habitat suitability modeling. The predictors, analysis methods, and geographic extents involved in any particular model run are elements of the user space and arbitrarily configurable by the user. ISFS provides small, lightweight, readily hardened core components of general utility. These components can be adapted to unanticipated uses, are tailorable, and require at most a loosely coupled, nonproprietary connection to the Web. Users can invoke capabilities from a command line; programmers can integrate ISFS's core components into more complex systems and services. Taken together, these
Johnson, Ronald; Mills, John
The AOAC GovVal study compared the VIDAS Listeria species Xpress (LSX) to the Health Products and Food Branch MFHPB-30 reference method for detection of Listeria on stainless steel. The LSX method utilizes a novel and proprietary enrichment media, Listeria Xpress broth, enabling detection of Listeria species in environmental samples with the automated VIDAS in a minimum of 26 h. The LSX method also includes the use of the chromogenic media, chromID Ottaviani Agosti Agar (OAA) and chromID Lmono for confirmation of LSX presumptive results. In previous AOAC validation studies comparing VIDAS LSX to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) reference methods, the LSX method was approved as AOAC Official Method 2010.02 for the detection of Listeria species in dairy products, vegetables, seafood, raw meats and poultry, and processed meats and poultry, and as AOAC Performance Tested Method 100501 in a variety of foods and on environmental surfaces. The GovVal comparative study included 20 replicate test portions each at two contamination levels for stainless steel where fractionally positive results (5-15 positive results/20 replicate portions tested) were obtained by at least one method at one level. Five uncontaminated controls were included. In the stainless steel artificially contaminated surface study, there were 25 confirmed positives by the VIDAS LSX assay and 22 confirmed positives by the standard culture methods. Chi-square analysis indicated no statistical differences between the VIDAS LSX method and the MFHPB-30 standard methods at the 5% level of significance. Confirmation of presumptive LSX results with the chromogenic OAA and Lmono media was shown to be equivalent to the appropriate reference method agars. The data in this study demonstrate that the VIDAS LSX method is an acceptable alternative method to the MFHPB-30 standard
This G2G3S2S3 plant is known on Robins Air Force Base from a wet depressional meadow just to the south of Scout Lake . Habitat for this species...reptile is known from two areas in the headwaters of Lake Walter F. George reservoir on the southwestern end of Fort Benning, on the Alabama side...1.18 Successional shrub/scrub (clearcut) 6927.53 2.29 Unconsolidated shore ( lake /river/pond) 7.34 0.00 Quarry/strip mine/gravel pit 2482.42 0.82
Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman
A new Elateridae species, Athous (Orthathous) cagatayae n. sp., is presented from Ankara, Turkey. The morphology of the new species is described. Photographs of imago and aedeagus, aedeagi drawings of the new species, and identification key are given. The new species is discussed with species of acutangulus group, with a differential diagnosis. PMID:23448209
Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Gupta, Rajan; Bhardwaj, Rohit; Chaudhary, Karun; Kaur, Simerpreet
Recent epidemiological studies reveal that more than two-third of the world's population suffers from one of the chronic forms of periodontal disease. The primary etiological agent of this inflammatory disease is a polymicrobial complex, predominantly Gram negative anaerobic or facultative bacteria within the sub-gingival biofilm. These bacterial species initiate the production of various cytokines such as interleukin-8 and TNF-α, further causing an increase in number and activity of polymorphonucleocytes (PMN) along with these cytokines, PMNs also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide via the respiratory burst mechanism as the part of the defence response to infection. ROS just like the interleukins have deleterious effects on tissue cells when produced in excess. To counter the harmful effects of ROS, human body has its own defence mechanisms to eliminate them as soon as they are formed. The aim of this review is to focus on the role of different free radicals, ROS, and antioxidants in the pathophysiology of periodontal tissue destruction. PMID:24174716
Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, Christopher H; Zhang, Yalin
Three new species, Pediopsis tripartita, P. subtilis and Ruandopsis elongata spp. nov., from Madagascar are described. These species represent the first records of their respective genera in Madagascar. Images of adults and genitalia of the three species are provided.
.../coastal environments in the world, with over 50 invasive species that threaten the Bay's vibrant economy... within invasive species efforts, ballast water related issues, and the development of state...
The National Research Council’s (NRC) report on assessing pesticide risks to threatened and endangered species (T&E) included the recommendation of using interspecies correlation models (ICE) as an alternative to general safety factors for extrapolating across species. ...
Buzas, M A; Culver, S J
Foraminiferal communities in the Cenozoic shelf deposits of the North American Atlantic Coastal Plain exhibit little unity during almost 55 million years of successive transgressions and regressions. Transgression communities are composed of a dynamic mixture of immigrants and newly evolved species. During regressions, species within these communities either became extinct or emigrated. Some emigrants returned during subsequent transgressions, but many did not. The neritic species of the Atlantic and Gulf continental margins constitute a species pool. Immigrants and emigrants transferred into and out of the species pool, while extinctions and originations repeatedly altered its species composition. While the results indicate a lack of local community unity, at the same time they demonstrate the necessity of a species pool to sustain species diversity.
EPA’s pesticide risk assessment and regulatory processes ensure that protections are in place for all populations of non-target species. We have developed risk assessment procedures to determine potential for harm to individuals of a listed species.
The goal of EPA's Endangered Species Protection Program is to carry out EPA’s FIFRA responsibilities in compliance with the Endangered Species Act, without placing unnecessary burden on agriculture and other pesticide users. Read an overview of the ESPP.
.... The full ISAC will also consider a white paper entitled, Invasive Species and Climate Change, as drafted by the ISAC Task Team on Climate Change. DATES: Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory...
Vergilino, Roland; Dionne, Kaven; Nozais, Christian; Dufresne, France; Belzile, Claude
The Hyalella azteca (Saussure) complex includes numerous amphipod cryptic species in freshwater habitats in America as revealed by DNA barcoding surveys. Two ecomorphs (small and large) have evolved numerous times in this complex. Few phenotypic criteria have been found to differentiate between the numerous species of this complex. The present study aims to explore genome size differences between some species of the H. azteca complex co-occurring in a Canadian boreal lake using flow cytometry. Nuclear DNA content was estimated for 50 individuals belonging to six COI haplotypes corresponding to four provisional species of the H. azteca complex. Species from the large ecomorph had C-values significantly larger than species from the small ecomorph, whereas slight differences were found among species of the small ecomorph. These differences in genome sizes might be linked to ecological and physiological differences among species of the H. azteca complex.
Dózsa-Farkas, Klára; Felföldi, Tamás; Hong, Yong
We give descriptions of five new enchytraeid species (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta) from Korea: Henlea magnaampullacea sp. n., Fridericia sphaerica sp. n., F. cusanicaformis sp. n., F. granulocyta sp. n. and Mesenchytraeus calyx sp. n., with morphological and molecular (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, nuclear histone 3 genes and nuclear ribosomal ITS region sequences) data. In total, 19 enchytraeid species belonging to seven genera have been found in the studied woodland and agronomical soil samples. Apart from the five new species, three further species are new for the Korean enchytraeid fauna, Enchytraeus christenseni, E. dichaetus, and Achaeta cf. brevivasa. Molecular taxonomical analyses show that the Korean species resembling H. ventriculosa is not identical with the European species, furthermore sequence analysis of individuals morphologically identified as F. seoraksani indicate the possibility of species-complexity and the presence of cryptic species.
Reis, T A; Oliveira, T D; Baquião, A C; Gonçalves, S S; Zorzete, P; Corrêa, B
The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of fungi and mycotoxins (aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid) in Brazil nut samples collected in different states of the Brazilian Amazon region: Acre, Amazonas, Amapá, and Pará. A total of 200 husk samples and 200 almond samples were inoculated onto Aspergillus flavus-parasiticus agar for the detection of fungi. Mycotoxins were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The mycobiota comprised the following fungi, in decreasing order of frequency: almonds - Phialemonium spp. (54%), Penicillium spp. (16%), Fusarium spp. (13%), Phaeoacremonium spp. (11%), and Aspergillus spp. (4%), husks - Phialemonium spp. (62%), Phaeoacremonium spp. (11%), Penicillium spp. (10%), Fusarium spp. (9%), and Aspergillus spp. A polyphasic approach was used for identification of Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins were detected in 22 (11%) of the 200 almond samples, with 21 samples presenting aflatoxin B(1) levels above 8μg/kg, the limit established by the European Commission for Brazil nuts for further processing. Nineteen (9.5%) of the 200 husk samples contained aflatoxins, but at levels lower than those seen in almonds. Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) was detected in 44 (22%) almond samples, with levels ranging from 98.65 to 161.2μg/kg. Aspergillus nomius and A. flavus were the most frequent Aspergillus species. The presence of fungi does not necessarily imply mycotoxin contamination, but almonds of the Brazil nut seem to be a good substrate for fungal growth.
Chris Dionigi, Assistant Director, Domestic Policy National Invasive Species Council Coordination of Federal Invasive Species Efforts Report...REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CouncilCoordination of Federal Invasive Species Efforts 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...ADDRESS(ES) National Invasive Species Council (NISC) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS
Twenty coral species have been listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) announced on 27 August. This is NOAA's largest ESA rule making. The coral species include 15 found in the Indo-Pacific region and 5 that are located in the Caribbean. They join two other Caribbean coral species that NOAA listed as threatened in 2006.
This taxonomic proposal recommends the addition of eight new species to the genus Alphabaculovirus of the family Baculoviridae. Placement of these new species within genus Alphabaculovirus is based on the following criteria: host species of the insect order Lepidoptera; circular double-stranded DNA...
Bordetella species are Gram-negative coccobacilli. There are currently nine described species that constitute the genus Bordetella. Historically, this genus is subdivided into two groups of species: the “classical” and “non-classical” Bordetella. The classical Bordetella are the most studied group r...
... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting (via Teleconference) of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY... Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to...
... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior... Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The document contained incorrect dates. This document corrects those.... Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (OPEN): Thursday, March 7, 2013 through Friday, March...
...] [FR Doc No: 2011-28743] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory..., notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 29 nonfederal invasive species experts and stakeholders from across the nation, the purpose of the...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endangered species. 216.5 Section 216.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.5 Endangered species. It is A... endangered or threatened species and their critical habitats. The Initial Environmental Examination for...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endangered species. 216.5 Section 216.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.5 Endangered species. It is A... endangered or threatened species and their critical habitats. The Initial Environmental Examination for...
... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Endangered Species Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of March 3, 2009 The Endangered Species Act Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies The Endangered Species Act (ESA), 16 U.S.C. 1531 et...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endangered species. 216.5 Section 216.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.5 Endangered species. It is A... endangered or threatened species and their critical habitats. The Initial Environmental Examination for...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endangered species. 216.5 Section 216.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.5 Endangered species. It is A... endangered or threatened species and their critical habitats. The Initial Environmental Examination for...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endangered species. 216.5 Section 216.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.5 Endangered species. It is A... endangered or threatened species and their critical habitats. The Initial Environmental Examination for...
Sclerotinia homeocarpa, S. minor, S. sclerotiorum, and S. trifoliorum are common species within the genus Sclerotinia, where the morphological identification is challenging, especially when one crop hosts multiple species. The objective of this study was to design species specific primers compatibl...
Students discover the factors contributing to species losses worldwide by conducting a project about endangered species as a component of a larger classroom theme of biodiversity. Groups conduct research using online endangered- species databases and present results to the class using PowerPoint. Students will improve computer research abilities…
There are seven North American and three introduced European Glyceria species growing in western North America, yet distinguihsing among the species is challenging. As contaminants in annual ryegrass grass seed lots, the introduced species G. declinata and G. fluitans are undesirable domestically, ...
The genus Arachis has a large number of highly diverse species. Large collections of cultivated peanut exist at multiple locations and several hundreds of wild species are maintained in germplasm banks. Many of the species have been characterized for agronomic traits, but much of the germplasm colle...
Duda, Thomas F.; Palumbi, Stephen R.
The fossil record of marine gastropods has been used as evidence to support the operation of species selection; namely, that species with limited dispersal differentially increase in numbers because they are more likely to speciate than widely dispersing species. This conclusion is based on a tacit phylogenetic assumption that increases in species with limited dispersal are solely the result of speciation within monophyletic groups with low dispersal. To test this assumption, we reconstructed a phylogeny from nuclear sequence data for 70 species of the marine gastropod genus Conus and used it to map the evolution of developmental mode. All eight species without planktonic life history phases recently and independently evolved this characteristic from ancestors with planktonic larval phases, showing that transitions in developmental mode are common in this group. A simple model of species diversification shows that such shifts can control the relative numbers of species with and without dispersing larval stages, leading to apparent species selection. Such results challenge the conclusion that increases in the number of nonplanktonic species relative to species with planktonic larvae over geologic time is necessarily a result of higher rates of speciation of nonplanktonic lineages and show that demonstration of species selection requires a phylogenetic framework. PMID:10468598
Williams, M.; Lunsford, A.; Ellis, D.; Robinson, J.; Coronado, P.; Campbell, W.
In 1990, a joint effort of two U.S. federal agencies, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, began. We initially joined forces in a project that used satellite telemetry to discover the winter home of a tiny dwindling population of Siberian Cranes. Since then several projects have emerged, and a web site was created to follow some of these activities. This web site is called the Satellite Tracking of Threatened Species and its location is http://sdcd.gsfc.nasa.gov/ISTO/satellite_tracking. It describes the overall program, and links you to three subsections that describe the projects in more detail: Satellite Direct Readout, Birdtracks, and Birdworld.
Bryson, Robert W; Linkem, Charles W; Dorcas, Michael E; Lathrop, Amy; Jones, Jason M; Alvarado-Díaz, Javier; Grünwald, Christoph I; Murphy, Robert W
Members of the Crotalus triseriatus species group of montane rattlesnakes are widely distributed across the highlands of Mexico and southwestern USA. Although five species are currently recognized within the group, species limits remain to be tested. Genetic studies suggest that species may be paraphyletic and that at least one cryptic species may be present. We generate 3,346 base pairs of DNA sequence data from seven nuclear loci to test competing models of species delimitation in the C. triseriatus group using Bayes factor delimitation. We also examine museum specimens from the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt for evidence of cryptic species. We find strong support for a nine-species model and genetic and morphological evidence for recognizing two new species within the group, which we formally describe here. Our results suggest that the current taxonomy of the C. triseriatus species group does not reflect evolutionary history. We suggest several conservative taxonomic changes to the group, but future studies are needed to better clarify relationships among species and examine genetic patterns and structure within wide-ranging lineages.
Reducing the cost of cellulosic ethanol production, especially the use of expensive exogenous cellulose hydrolytic enzymes such as cellulase and ß-glucosidase, is a critical challenge and vital for a sustainable advanced biofuels industry. Here we report a novel ethanologenic yeast strain Clavispora...
Gomez-Angulo, Jorge; Vega-Alvarado, Leticia; Escalante-García, Zazil; Grande, Ricardo; Gschaedler-Mathis, Anne; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena; Arrizon, Javier; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro
Torulaspora delbrueckii presents metabolic features interesting for biotechnological applications (in the dairy and wine industries). Recently, the T. delbrueckii CBS 1146 genome, which has been maintained under laboratory conditions since 1970, was published. Thus, a genome of a new mezcal yeast was sequenced and characterized and showed genetic differences and a higher genome assembly quality, offering a better reference genome.
Barbe, Valérie; Bouzon, Madeleine; Mangenot, Sophie; Badet, Bernard; Poulain, Julie; Segurens, Béatrice; Vallenet, David; Marlière, Philippe; Weissenbach, Jean
Streptomyces cattleya, a producer of the antibiotics thienamycin and cephamycin C, is one of the rare bacteria known to synthesize fluorinated metabolites. The genome consists of two linear replicons. The genes involved in fluorine metabolism and in the biosynthesis of the antibiotic thienamycin were mapped on both replicons. PMID:21868806
For ethanol production from cellulosic materials, there are generally two major steps needed including enzymatic hydrolysis to break down biomass sugars and microbial fermentation to convert available simple sugars into ethanol. It often requires two different kinds of microorganisms since ethanolog...
The effectiveness of antibiotics in resolving bacterial infections has been compromised by the increased prevalence and magnitude of antibiotic resistance. In our efforts to identify new effective antimicrobials, bacteria isolated from poultry intestinal content were screened for bacteriocin synthe...
Uraih, N; Chipley, J R
The effects of sodium chloride, sodium acetate, benzoic acid, sodium benzoate, malonic acid, and sodium malonate on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus were investigated in synthetic media. Sodium chloride at concentrations equivalent to or greater than 12 g/100 ml inhibited growth and aflatoxin production, while at 8 g or less/100 ml, growth and aflatoxin production were stimulated. At 2 g or less/100 ml, sodium acetate also stimulated growth and aflatoxin production, but reduction occurred with 4 g or more/100 ml. Malonic acid at 10, 20, 40, and 50 mM reduced growth and aflatoxin production (over 50%) while sodium malonate at similar concentrations but different pH values had the opposite effect. Benzoic acid (pH 3.9) and sodium benzoate (pH 5.0) at 0.4 g/100 ml completely inhibited growth and aflatoxin production. Examination of the effect of initial pH indicated that the extent of inhibitory action of malonic acid and sodium acetate was a function of initial pH. The inhibitory action of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate appeared to be a function of undissociated benzoic acid molecules. Aflatoxin reduction was usually accompanied by an unidentified orange pigment, while aflatoxin stimulation was accompanied by unidentified blue and green fluorescent spots but with lower Rf values that aflatoxins B1, G1, B2, and G2 standards.
Gomez-Angulo, Jorge; Vega-Alvarado, Leticia; Escalante-García, Zazil; Grande, Ricardo; Gschaedler-Mathis, Anne; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena
Torulaspora delbrueckii presents metabolic features interesting for biotechnological applications (in the dairy and wine industries). Recently, the T. delbrueckii CBS 1146 genome, which has been maintained under laboratory conditions since 1970, was published. Thus, a genome of a new mezcal yeast was sequenced and characterized and showed genetic differences and a higher genome assembly quality, offering a better reference genome. PMID:26205871
Martinez, Kelsey A.; Gibson, David J.; Middleton, Beth A.
A number of hypotheses exist to explain species’ distributions in a landscape, but these hypotheses are not frequently utilized to explain the differences in native and exotic species distributions. The core-satellite species (CSS) hypothesis predicts species occupancy will be bimodally distributed, i.e., many species will be common and many species will be rare, but does not explicitly consider exotic species distributions. The parallel dynamics (PD) hypothesis predicts that regional occurrence patterns of exotic species will be similar to native species. Together, the CSS and PD hypotheses may increase our understanding of exotic species’ distribution relative to natives. We selected an old field undergoing secondary succession to study the CSS and PD hypotheses in conjunction with each other. The ratio of exotic to native species (richness and abundance) was observed through 17 years of secondary succession. We predicted species would be bimodally distributed and that exotic:native species ratios would remain steady or decrease through time under frequent disturbance. In contrast to the CSS and PD hypotheses, native species occupancies were not bimodally distributed at the site, but exotic species were. The exotic:native species ratios for both richness (E:Nrichness) and abundance (E:Ncover) generally decreased or remained constant throughout supporting the PD hypothesis. Our results suggest exotic species exhibit metapopulation structure in old field landscapes, but that metapopulation structures of native species are disrupted, perhaps because these species are dispersal limited in the fragmented landscape.
Wilkinson, John W.
Non-native species are considered one of the greatest threats to freshwater biodiversity worldwide (Drake et al. 1989; Allen and Flecker 1993; Dudgeon et al. 2005). Some of the first hypotheses proposed to explain global patterns of amphibian declines included the effects of non-native species (Barinaga 1990; Blaustein and Wake 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991). Evidence for the impact of non-native species on amphibians stems (1) from correlative research that relates the distribution or abundance of a species to that of a putative non-native species, and (2) from experimental tests of the effects of a non-native species on survival, growth, development or behaviour of a target species (Kats and Ferrer 2003). Over the past two decades, research on the effects of non-native species on amphibians has mostly focused on introduced aquatic predators, particularly fish. Recent research has shifted to more complex ecological relationships such as influences of sub-lethal stressors (e.g. contaminants) on the effects of non-native species (Linder et al. 2003; Sih et al. 2004), non-native species as vectors of disease (Daszak et al. 2004; Garner et al. 2006), hybridization between non-natives and native congeners (Riley et al. 2003; Storfer et al. 2004), and the alteration of food-webs by non-native species (Nystrom et al. 2001). Other research has examined the interaction of non-native species in terms of facilitation (i.e. one non-native enabling another to become established or spread) or the synergistic effects of multiple non-native species on native amphibians, the so-called invasional meltdown hypothesis (Simerloff and Von Holle 1999). Although there is evidence that some non-native species may interact (Ricciardi 2001), there has yet to be convincing evidence that such interactions have led to an accelerated increase in the number of non-native species and cumulative impacts are still uncertain (Simberloff 2006). Applied research on the control, eradication, and
Bastolla, Ugo; Laessig, Michael; Manrubia, Susanna C.; Valleriani, Angelo
We study communities formed by a large number of species, which are an example of dynamical networks in biology. Interactions between species, such as prey-predator relationships and mutual competition, define the links of these networks. They also govern the dynamics of their population sizes. This dynamics acts as a selection mechanism, which can lead to the extinction of species. Adaptive changes of the interactions or the generation of new species involve random mutations as well as selection. We show how this dynamics determines key topological characteristics of species networks. The results are in agreement with observations.
Srinivasan, Umesh; Raza, Rashid Hasnain; Quader, Suhel
1. Animals group for various benefits, and may form either simple single-species groups, or more complex multi-species associations. Multi-species groups are thought to provide anti-predator and foraging benefits to participant individuals. 2. Despite detailed studies on multi-species animal groups, the importance of species in group initiation and maintenance is still rated qualitatively as 'nuclear' (maintaining groups) or 'attendant' (species following nuclear species) based on species-specific traits. This overly simplifies and limits understanding of inherently complex associations, and is biologically unrealistic, because species roles in multi-species groups are: (i) likely to be context-specific and not simply a fixed species property, and (ii) much more variable than this dichotomy indicates. 3. We propose a new view of species importance (measured as number of inter-species associations), along a continuum from 'most nuclear' to 'least nuclear'. Using mixed-species bird flocks from a tropical rainforest in India as an example, we derive inter-species association measures from randomizations on bird species abundance data (which takes into account species 'availability') and data on 86 mixed-species flocks from two different flock types. Our results show that the number and average strength of inter-species associations covary positively, and we argue that species with many, strong associations are the most nuclear. 4. From our data, group size and foraging method are ecological and behavioural traits of species that best explain nuclearity in mixed-species bird flocks. Parallels have been observed in multi-species fish shoals, in which group size and foraging method, as well as diet, have been shown to correlate with nuclearity. Further, the context in which multi-species groups occur, in conjunction with species-specific traits, influences the role played by a species in a multi-species group, and this highlights the importance of extrinsic factors in
Sukumaran, Jeet; Knowles, L Lacey
The multispecies coalescent model underlies many approaches used for species delimitation. In previous work assessing the performance of species delimitation under this model, speciation was treated as an instantaneous event rather than as an extended process involving distinct phases of speciation initiation (structuring) and completion. Here, we use data under simulations that explicitly model speciation as an extended process rather than an instantaneous event and carry out species delimitation inference on these data under the multispecies coalescent. We show that the multispecies coalescent diagnoses genetic structure, not species, and that it does not statistically distinguish structure associated with population isolation vs. species boundaries. Because of the misidentification of population structure as putative species, our work raises questions about the practice of genome-based species discovery, with cascading consequences in other fields. Specifically, all fields that rely on species as units of analysis, from conservation biology to studies of macroevolutionary dynamics, will be impacted by inflated estimates of the number of species, especially as genomic resources provide unprecedented power for detecting increasingly finer-scaled genetic structure under the multispecies coalescent. As such, our work also represents a general call for systematic study to reconsider a reliance on genomic data alone. Until new methods are developed that can discriminate between structure due to population-level processes and that due to species boundaries, genomic-based results should only be considered a hypothesis that requires validation of delimited species with multiple data types, such as phenotypic and ecological information.
Soliveres, Santiago; Manning, Peter; Prati, Daniel; Gossner, Martin M; Alt, Fabian; Arndt, Hartmut; Baumgartner, Vanessa; Binkenstein, Julia; Birkhofer, Klaus; Blaser, Stefan; Blüthgen, Nico; Boch, Steffen; Böhm, Stefan; Börschig, Carmen; Buscot, Francois; Diekötter, Tim; Heinze, Johannes; Hölzel, Norbert; Jung, Kirsten; Klaus, Valentin H; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Kleinebecker, Till; Klemmer, Sandra; Krauss, Jochen; Lange, Markus; Morris, E Kathryn; Müller, Jörg; Oelmann, Yvonne; Overmann, Jörg; Pašalić, Esther; Renner, Swen C; Rillig, Matthias C; Schaefer, H Martin; Schloter, Michael; Schmitt, Barbara; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Sikorski, Johannes; Socher, Stephanie A; Solly, Emily F; Sonnemann, Ilja; Sorkau, Elisabeth; Steckel, Juliane; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stempfhuber, Barbara; Tschapka, Marco; Türke, Manfred; Venter, Paul; Weiner, Christiane N; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Werner, Michael; Westphal, Catrin; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Wolters, Volkmar; Wubet, Tesfaye; Wurst, Susanne; Fischer, Markus; Allan, Eric
Species diversity promotes the delivery of multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality). However, the relative functional importance of rare and common species in driving the biodiversity-multifunctionality relationship remains unknown. We studied the relationship between the diversity of rare and common species (according to their local abundances and across nine different trophic groups), and multifunctionality indices derived from 14 ecosystem functions on 150 grasslands across a land-use intensity (LUI) gradient. The diversity of above- and below-ground rare species had opposite effects, with rare above-ground species being associated with high levels of multifunctionality, probably because their effects on different functions did not trade off against each other. Conversely, common species were only related to average, not high, levels of multifunctionality, and their functional effects declined with LUI. Apart from the community-level effects of diversity, we found significant positive associations between the abundance of individual species and multifunctionality in 6% of the species tested. Species-specific functional effects were best predicted by their response to LUI: species that declined in abundance with land use intensification were those associated with higher levels of multifunctionality. Our results highlight the importance of rare species for ecosystem multifunctionality and help guiding future conservation priorities.
Amirul-Aiman, A. J.; Noraini, T.; Nurul-Aini, C. A. C.; Ruzi, A. R.
Comparative anatomical study on flower petals was studied in four selected Justicia species from Peninsular Malaysia, i.e. J. comata (L.) Lam., J. carnea Lindl. J. betonica Linn. and J. procumbens L with the objective to provide useful data for species identification and differentiation within the genus of Justicia. Methods used in this study are mechanical scrapping on the leaf surfaces and observation under light microscope. Finding in this study has shown that all species are sharing similar type of anticlinal walls pattern, which is sinuous pattern. Two or more type of trichomes is present in all species studied and this character can be used to differentiate Justicia species. Simple multicellular trichomes are found to be present in all species studied. Justicia betonica can be isolated from other species by the existence of cyclo-paracytic stomata on the petal surfaces.
Crkvenjakov, R.; Dramanac, R.
A genome is the sum total of the DNA sequences in the cells of an individual organism. The common usage that species possess genomes comes naturally to biochemists, who have shown that all protein and nucleic acid molecules are at the same time species and individual-specific, with minor individual variations being superimposed on a consensus sequence that is constant for a species. By extension, this property is attributed to the common features of DNA in the chromosomes of members of a given species and is called (species) genome. The definition of species based on chromosomes, genes, or genome common to its member organisms has been implied or mentioned in passing numerous times. Some population biologists think that members of species have similar ``homeostatic genotypes,`` which are to a degree resistant to mutation or environmental change in the production of a basic phenotype.
Kyrpides, Nikos; Mukherjee, Supratim; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavrommatics, Kostas; Pati, Amrita; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos
Species assignments in prokaryotes use a manual, poly-phasic approach utilizing both phenotypic traits and sequence information of phylogenetic marker genes. With thousands of genomes being sequenced every year, an automated, uniform and scalable approach exploiting the rich genomic information in whole genome sequences is desired, at least for the initial assignment of species to an organism. We have evaluated pairwise genome-wide Average Nucleotide Identity (gANI) values and alignment fractions (AFs) for nearly 13,000 genomes using our fast implementation of the computation, identifying robust and widely applicable hard cut-offs for species assignments based on AF and gANI. Using these cutoffs, we generated stable species-level clusters of organisms, which enabled the identification of several species mis-assignments and facilitated the assignment of species for organisms without species definitions.
Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.
A genome is the sum total of the DNA sequences in the cells of an individual organism. The common usage that species possess genomes comes naturally to biochemists, who have shown that all protein and nucleic acid molecules are at the same time species- and individual-specific, with minor individual variations being superimposed on a consensus sequence that is constant for a species. By extension, this property is attributed to the common features of DNA in the chromosomes of members of a given species and is called species genome. Our proposal for the definition of a biological species is as follows: A species comprises a group of actual and potential biological organisms built according to a unique genome program that is recorded, and at least in part expressed, in the structures of their genomic nucleic acid molecule(s), having intragroup sequence differences which can be fully interconverted in the process of organismal reproduction.
Shaw, Timothy I.; Ruan, Zheng; Glenn, Travis C.; Liu, Liang
The coalescent methods for species tree reconstruction are increasingly popular because they can accommodate coalescence and multilocus data sets. Herein, we present STRAW, a web server that offers workflows for reconstruction of phylogenies of species using three species tree methods—MP-EST, STAR and NJst. The input data are a collection of rooted gene trees (for STAR and MP-EST methods) or unrooted gene trees (for NJst). The output includes the estimated species tree, modified Robinson-Foulds distances between gene trees and the estimated species tree and visualization of trees to compare gene trees with the estimated species tree. The web sever is available at http://bioinformatics.publichealth.uga.edu/SpeciesTreeAnalysis/. PMID:23661681
Druzhinina, Irina; Kubicek, Christian P
Trichoderma/Hypocrea is a genus of soil-borne or wood-decaying fungi containing members important to mankind as producers of industrial enzymes and biocontrol agents against plant pathogens, but also as opportunistic pathogens of immunocompromised humans. Species identification, while essential in view of the controversial properties of taxa of this genus, has been problematic by traditional methods. Here we will present a critical survey of the various identification methods in use. In addition, we will present an update on the taxonomy and phylogeny of the 88 taxa (which occur as 14 holomorphs, 49 teleomorphs and 25 anamorphs in nature) of Trichoderma/Hypocrea that have been confirmed by a combination of morphological, physiological and genetic approaches. PMID:15633245
Rooney, Alejandro P; Dunlap, Christopher A; Flor-Weiler, Lina B
Strain NRRL B-41902T and three closely related strains were isolated from iceberg lettuce. The strain was found to consist of strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative rods that formed cocci in late stationary phase. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain NRRL B-41902T was most closely related to species within the genera Acinetobacter, and that a grouping of it and the three other closely related strains was most closely related to the type strain of Acinetobacter pittii, which was also confirmed through a phylogenomic analysis. Moreover, in silico DNA-DNA hybridization analysis revealed a substantial amount of genomic divergence (39.1 %) between strain NRRL B-41902T and the type strain of A. pittii, which is expected if the strains represent distinct species. Further phenotypic analysis revealed that strain NRRL B-41902T was able to utilize a combination of l-serine, citraconic acid and citramalic acid, which differentiated it from other, closely related Acinetobacter species. Therefore, strain NRRL B-41902T (=CCUG 68785T) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species, Acinetobacter lactucae sp. nov.
If species interactions affect species distributions, then species occurrence frequencies (νi), defined as the fraction of an archipelago's islands that species i inhabits, should vary with species pool size. A “natural experiment” approximating this test is provided by the Bismarck, Solomon, and New Hebrides archipelagoes, whose bird species pools decrease in that order, the species of each archipelago being mostly a subset of those of the next richer archipelago. The average ν for an archipelago's species decreases with archipelago pool size. In the archipelago with the largest pool, most species are on few islands and few species are on most islands, whereas the reverse is true in the archipelago with the smallest pool. For species shared between two or more archipelagoes, νi decreases with pool size or number of species in the same guild. These interarchipelagal differences in νi or average ν reflect differences in level of interspecific competition, which reduces νs in species-rich archipelagoes in two ways: usually, by reducing a species' incidence on small islands and restricting the species to larger islands; less often (for so-called supertramps), by restricting a species to small islands. PMID:16578762
Yuan, Cai-Xia; Ren, Guo-Dong
Abstract Two new species of the Stenochinus amplus species-group are described, S. apiciconcavus sp. n. (CHINA: Shaanxi) and S. xinyicus sp. n. (CHINA: Guangdong). Also, some new distribution data are provided for S. cylindricus (Gebien, 1914), and a key to the seven species of the S. amplus species-group from China is given. PMID:25061347
Drobniewski, F A
Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod. It is a cause of food poisoning, which is frequently associated with the consumption of rice-based dishes. The organism produces an emetic or diarrheal syndrome induced by an emetic toxin and enterotoxin, respectively. Other toxins are produced during growth, including phospholipases, proteases, and hemolysins, one of which, cereolysin, is a thiol-activated hemolysin. These toxins may contribute to the pathogenicity of B. cereus in nongastrointestinal disease. B. cereus isolated from clinical material other than feces or vomitus was commonly dismissed as a contaminant, but increasingly it is being recognized as a species with pathogenic potential. It is now recognized as an infrequent cause of serious nongastrointestinal infection, particularly in drug addicts, the immunosuppressed, neonates, and postsurgical patients, especially when prosthetic implants such as ventricular shunts are inserted. Ocular infections are the commonest types of severe infection, including endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis, and keratitis, usually with the characteristic formation of corneal ring abscesses. Even with prompt surgical and antimicrobial agent treatment, enucleation of the eye and blindness are common sequelae. Septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections are other manifestations of severe disease. B. cereus produces beta-lactamases, unlike Bacillus anthracis, and so is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics; it is usually susceptible to treatment with clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Simultaneous therapy via multiple routes may be required. PMID:8269390
Fiore, Cristina; Eisenhut, Michael; Krausse, Rea; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Pellati, Donatella; Armanini, Decio; Bielenberg, Jens
Historical sources for the use of Glycyrrhiza species include ancient manuscripts from China, India and Greece. They all mention its use for symptoms of viral respiratory tract infections and hepatitis. Randomized controlled trials confirmed that the Glycyrrhiza glabra derived compound glycyrrhizin and its derivatives reduced hepatocellular damage in chronic hepatitis B and C. In hepatitis C virus-induced cirrhosis the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma was reduced. Animal studies demonstrated a reduction of mortality and viral activity in herpes simplex virus encephalitis and influenza A virus pneumonia. In vitro studies revealed antiviral activity against HIV-1, SARS related coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, arboviruses, vaccinia virus and vesicular stomatitis virus. Mechanisms for antiviral activity of Glycyrrhiza spp. include reduced transport to the membrane and sialylation of hepatitis B virus surface antigen, reduction of membrane fluidity leading to inhibition of fusion of the viral membrane of HIV-1 with the cell, induction of interferon gamma in T-cells, inhibition of phosphorylating enzymes in vesicular stomatitis virus infection and reduction of viral latency. Future research needs to explore the potency of compounds derived from licorice in prevention and treatment of influenza A virus pneumonia and as an adjuvant treatment in patients infected with HIV resistant to antiretroviral drugs.
Zisova, Lilia G
Malassezia spp. are medically important dimorphic, lipophilic yeasts that form part of the normal cutaneous microflora of human. Seborrheic dermatitis is a multifactor disease that needs endogenous and exogenous predisposing factors for its development. Presence of these factors leads to reproduction of the saprophytic opportunistic pathogen Malassezia spp. and development of a disease. The inflammatory reaction against the yeast Malassezia is considered basic in the etiology of the seborrheic dermatitis. The pathogenesis and exact mechanisms via which these yeasts cause inflammation are still not fully elucidated. They are rather complex and subject of controversy in literature. Most probably Malassezia spp. cause seborrheic dermatitis by involving and combining both nonummune and immune mechanisms (nonspecific and specific). Which of these mechanisms will dominate in any single case depends on the number and virulence of the yeasts as well as on the microorganism reactivity. In the recent years a great interest have been aroused by the epidemiological investigations. Depending on the geographical place of the countries different Malassezia species in seborrheic dermatitis dominate in the different countries. In view of the etiology and pathogenesis of the seborrheic dermatitis comprehensive antifungal preparations have been recently introduced and are nowadays the basic therapeutic resource in the treatment of this disease.
Rhodes, Katherine A; Schweizer, Herbert P
The genus Burkholderia comprises metabolically diverse and adaptable Gram-negative bacteria, which thrive in often adversarial environments. A few members of the genus are prominent opportunistic pathogens. These include Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei of the B. pseudomallei complex, which cause glanders and melioidosis, respectively. Burkholderia cenocepacia, Burkholderia multivorans, and Burkholderia vietnamiensis belong to the Burkholderia cepacia complex and affect mostly cystic fibrosis patients. Infections caused by these bacteria are difficult to treat because of significant antibiotic resistance. The first line of defense against antimicrobials in Burkholderia species is the outer membrane penetration barrier. Most Burkholderia contain a modified lipopolysaccharide that causes intrinsic polymyxin resistance. Contributing to reduced drug penetration are restrictive porin proteins. Efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation cell division family are major players in Burkholderia multidrug resistance. Third and fourth generation β-lactam antibiotics are seminal for treatment of Burkholderia infections, but therapeutic efficacy is compromised by expression of several β-lactamases and ceftazidime target mutations. Altered DNA gyrase and dihydrofolate reductase targets cause fluoroquinolone and trimethoprim resistance, respectively. Although antibiotic resistance hampers therapy of Burkholderia infections, the characterization of resistance mechanisms lags behind other non-enteric Gram-negative pathogens, especially ESKAPE bacteria such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Drobniewski, F A
Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod. It is a cause of food poisoning, which is frequently associated with the consumption of rice-based dishes. The organism produces an emetic or diarrheal syndrome induced by an emetic toxin and enterotoxin, respectively. Other toxins are produced during growth, including phospholipases, proteases, and hemolysins, one of which, cereolysin, is a thiol-activated hemolysin. These toxins may contribute to the pathogenicity of B. cereus in nongastrointestinal disease. B. cereus isolated from clinical material other than feces or vomitus was commonly dismissed as a contaminant, but increasingly it is being recognized as a species with pathogenic potential. It is now recognized as an infrequent cause of serious nongastrointestinal infection, particularly in drug addicts, the immunosuppressed, neonates, and postsurgical patients, especially when prosthetic implants such as ventricular shunts are inserted. Ocular infections are the commonest types of severe infection, including endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis, and keratitis, usually with the characteristic formation of corneal ring abscesses. Even with prompt surgical and antimicrobial agent treatment, enucleation of the eye and blindness are common sequelae. Septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections are other manifestations of severe disease. B. cereus produces beta-lactamases, unlike Bacillus anthracis, and so is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics; it is usually susceptible to treatment with clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Simultaneous therapy via multiple routes may be required.
Török, Tamás; Varga, Erzsébet
The mullein (Verbascum phlomoides L., V thapsus L., V. thapsiforme Schrad., V. speciosum L.) is a medicinal herb known and used for a long time, especially in traditional Turkish medicine. The aims of our study were to identify the species and study the plant's major active substances both qualitatively and quantitatively, comparing it to data found in scientific literature. The plants were identified as probable hybrids of V. phlomoides and V. thapsiforme. Microscopic analysis of the flowers showed no major difference between the specimens. The diameter of both stomata and pollen we observed was around 15-20 μm. Important flavonoids like rutin and quercetin were identified. Dosage resulted in a 0.135% total flavonoid aglycone content. (expressed as hypericin) and a 1.3% total flavonoid glycoside content (expressed as rutoside). Thin layer chromatography from saponines revealed two spots. A hemolytic index of 13095 was also determined. Repeating the dosage experiment a year later resulted in significantly lower flavonoid aglycone and glycoside content (0.006% and 0.95% respectively) as well as a hemolytic index of approximately 4000.
Abo-Shnaf, Reham I A; Moraes, Gilberto J De
The objective of this paper is to provide a taxonomic appraisal of the melicharids from Egypt, based on specimens previously collected by different authors and on specimens newly collected by the first author of this paper, all belonging to the genus Proctolaelaps Berlese. A new species, Proctolaelaps gizaensis n. sp., is described, thus raising to six the number of Proctolaelaps species recorded from Egypt. Complementary descriptions of the following species are also provided: Proctolaelaps aegyptiacus Nasr, 1986; Proctolaelaps holoventris Moraes, Britto, Mineiro & Halliday, 2016; Proctolaelaps pygmaeus (Müller, 1859); Proctolaelaps drosophilae Karg, Baker & Jenkinson, 1995 and Proctolaelaps regalis De Leon, 1963. The latter two species were not found in Egypt, but they are related to the new species described here. They were re-described based on the type specimens from Europe and North America. A dichotomous key is given to help the separation of the Proctolaelaps species concluded to be found in Egypt.
Wyatt, G A K; West, S A; Gardner, A
Darwin suggested that the discovery of altruism between species would annihilate his theory of natural selection. However, it has not been formally shown whether between-species altruism can evolve by natural selection, or why this could never happen. Here, we develop a spatial population genetic model of two interacting species, showing that indiscriminate between species helping can be favoured by natural selection. We then ask if this helping behaviour constitutes altruism between species, using a linear-regression analysis to separate the total action of natural selection into its direct and indirect (kin selected) components. We show that our model can be interpreted in two ways, as either altruism within species, or altruism between species. This ambiguity arises depending on whether or not we treat genes in the other species as predictors of an individual's fitness, which is equivalent to treating these individuals as agents (actors or recipients). Our formal analysis, which focuses upon evolutionary dynamics rather than agents and their agendas, cannot resolve which is the better approach. Nonetheless, because a within-species altruism interpretation is always possible, our analysis supports Darwin's suggestion that natural selection does not favour traits that provide benefits exclusively to individuals of other species.
Prothero, Donald R
Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated.
Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Barnett, David T.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Flather, Curtis; Kartesz, John
Plant species assemblages, communities or regional floras might be termed ‘saturated’ when additional immigrant species are unsuccessful at establishing due to competitive exclusion or other inter-specific interactions, or when the immigration of species is off-set by extirpation of species. This is clearly not the case for state, regional or national floras in the USA where colonization (i.e. invasion by exotic species) exceeds extirpation by roughly a 24 to 1 margin. We report an alarming temporal trend in plant invasions in the Pacific Northwest over the past 100 years whereby counties highest in native species richness appear increasingly invaded over time. Despite the possibility of some increased awareness and reporting of native and exotic plant species in recent decades, historical records show a significant, consistent long-term increase in exotic species (number and frequency) at county, state and regional scales in the Pacific Northwest. Here, as in other regions of the country, colonization rates by exotic species are high and extirpation rates are negligible. The rates of species accumulation in space in multi-scale vegetation plots may provide some clues to the mechanisms of the invasion process from local to national scales.
Morgulis, E; Freidberg, A; Kameneva, E P
Herina dimorphica n. sp. (type locality Israel) and H. sicula n. sp. (type locality Sicily, Italy) are described and illustrated, and a new species group (the Herina dimorphica species group) is established for both species. H. dimorphica is characterized by a sexually-dimorphic wing pattern and venation. H. sicula is similar albeit not sexually-dimorphic. Almost all known Herina species are assigned to one of nine species groups, which are keyed.
Feng, Jun; Notton, David; Xu, Zai-fu
Abstract A new species of Calogalesus Kieffer, 1912, Calogalesus sinicus sp. n., is described and illustrated, collected from a Chinese prickly ash (Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.) orchard in Yunnan province of China. This is the third described species of the genus in the World. The new species can be distinguished from the other two described Calogalesus species by the head profile, proportions of the antennal segments, tridentate mandible, and mandible length. A key to World species of the genus is provided. PMID:27833433
Andolfi, Anna; Mugnai, Laura; Luque, Jordi; Surico, Giuseppe; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio
Up to 60 species of fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, genera Cadophora, Cryptovalsa, Cylindrocarpon, Diatrype, Diatrypella, Eutypa, Eutypella, Fomitiporella, Fomitiporia, Inocutis, Phaeoacremonium and Phaeomoniella have been isolated from decline-affected grapevines all around the World. The main grapevine trunk diseases of mature vines are Eutypa dieback, the esca complex and cankers caused by the Botryospheriaceae, while in young vines the main diseases are Petri and black foot diseases. To understand the mechanism of these decline-associated diseases and the symptoms associated with them, the toxins produced by the pathogens involved in these diseases were isolated and characterised chemically and biologically. So far the toxins of only a small number of these decline fungi have been studied. This paper presents an overview of the toxins produced by the most serious of these vine wood pathogens: Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and some taxa in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, and examines how these toxins produce decline symptoms. The chemical structure of these metabolites and in some cases their vivotoxin nature are also discussed.
Andolfi, Anna; Mugnai, Laura; Luque, Jordi; Surico, Giuseppe; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio
Up to 60 species of fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, genera Cadophora, Cryptovalsa, Cylindrocarpon, Diatrype, Diatrypella, Eutypa, Eutypella, Fomitiporella, Fomitiporia, Inocutis, Phaeoacremonium and Phaeomoniella have been isolated from decline-affected grapevines all around the World. The main grapevine trunk diseases of mature vines are Eutypa dieback, the esca complex and cankers caused by the Botryospheriaceae, while in young vines the main diseases are Petri and black foot diseases. To understand the mechanism of these decline-associated diseases and the symptoms associated with them, the toxins produced by the pathogens involved in these diseases were isolated and characterised chemically and biologically. So far the toxins of only a small number of these decline fungi have been studied. This paper presents an overview of the toxins produced by the most serious of these vine wood pathogens: Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and some taxa in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, and examines how these toxins produce decline symptoms. The chemical structure of these metabolites and in some cases their vivotoxin nature are also discussed. PMID:22295177
Koutny, H; Joachim, A; Tichy, A; Baumgartner, W
Bovine eimeriosis is considered to be of considerable importance for the productivity and health of cattle worldwide. Despite the importance of cattle farming in Austria, little is known in this country about the abundance and distribution of bovine Eimeria spp. The objective of this study was to obtain detailed information about the occurrence of different Eimeria spp. on Austrian dairy farms. Fecal samples from individual calves (n = 868) from 296 farms all over Austria (82 districts) were collected. Additionally, each farmer was questioned about the occurrence of calf diarrhea, and about the knowledge on coccidiosis and possible control measures. On 97.97% of the investigated farms, calves excreted Eimeria oocysts, and 83.67% of the individual samples were positive. After sporulation of positive samples pooled from each farm, 11 Eimeria species were found, with E. bovis (in 65.54% of the samples and 27.74% of the farms), E.zuernii (63.85%/13.86%), E. auburnensis (56.76%/13.41%) and E. ellipsoidalis (54.05%/14.38%) being the most prevalent, followed by E. alabamensis (45.61%/11.56%), E. subspherica (35.14%/5.5.05%), E. cylindrica (33.11%/7.00%), and E. canadensis (31.08%/7.74%). E. wyomingensis, E. pellita and E. bukidnonensis were only found sporadically (3.04-4.73% of the samples and 0.16-0.59% of the farms). Mixed infections were present on all farms (2-9 Eimeria species/farm). Prevalences by state provinces were high throughout with 77.1-87.9% of the samples and 93.8-100% of the farms. Lower Austria had the highest percentage of positive farms, and Vorarlberg the lowest. Individual OPG (oocysts per gram of feces) values were generally low; 75% of the samples had an OPG of 1,000 or less. The highest detected OPG was 72,400. The mean OPG was 2,525 with above average numbers in Tirol, Carinthia, and Lower Austria. The mean OPG values were significantly positively correlated with the cattle density in the different districts. The majority of the samples were from
Hutchings, Jeffrey A.
Studies on small and declining populations dominate research in conservation biology. This emphasis reflects two overarching frameworks: the small-population paradigm focuses on correlates of increased extinction probability; the declining-population paradigm directs attention to the causes and consequences of depletion. Neither, however, particularly informs research on the determinants, rate or uncertainty of population increase. By contrast, Allee effects (positive associations between population size and realized per capita population growth rate, rrealized, a metric of average individual fitness) offer a theoretical and empirical basis for identifying numerical and temporal thresholds at which recovery is unlikely or uncertain. Following a critique of studies on Allee effects, I quantify population-size minima and subsequent trajectories of marine fishes that have and have not recovered following threat mitigation. The data suggest that threat amelioration, albeit necessary, can be insufficient to effect recovery for populations depleted to less than 10% of maximum abundance (Nmax), especially when they remain depleted for lengthy periods of time. Comparing terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates, life-history analyses suggest that population-size thresholds for impaired recovery are likely to be comparatively low for marine fishes but high for marine mammals. Articulation of a ‘recovering population paradigm’ would seem warranted. It might stimulate concerted efforts to identify generic impaired recovery thresholds across species. It might also serve to reduce the confusion of terminology, and the conflation of causes and consequences with patterns currently evident in the literature on Allee effects, thus strengthening communication among researchers and enhancing the practical utility of recovery-oriented research to conservation practitioners and resource managers. PMID:26213739
The modern age of species concepts began in 1942, when Ernst Mayr gave concept names to several different approaches to species identification. A long list of species concepts then followed, as well as a complex literature on their merits, motivations and uses. Some of these complexities arose as a consequence of the semantic shift that Mayr introduced, in which procedures for identifying species were elevated to concepts. Much of the debate in recent decades over concepts, and over pluralism versus monism, can be seen as an unnecessary consequence of treating species identification criteria as if they were more fundamental concepts. Recently, biologists have begun to recognize both the shortcomings of a lexicon of multiple species concepts and a common evolutionary idea that underlies them.
Gentry, Alwyn H.
Upper Amazonian data for tree species richness in 1-hectare plots are reported. All plants ≥10 cm diameter were censused and identified in six plots in Amazonian Peru and one on the Venezuela-Brazil border. The two plots from the everwet forests near Iquitos, Peru, are the most species-rich in the world, with ≈300 species ≥10 cm diameter in single hectares; all of the Peruvian plots are among the most species-rich ever reported. Contrary to accepted opinion, upper Amazonian forest, and perhaps Central African ones, have as many or more tree species as comparable Asian forests. Very high tree species richness seems to be a general property of mature lowland evergreen forests on fertile to moderately infertile soils on all three continents. PMID:16578826
Purchase, I. F.
The carcinogenicity of 250 chemicals in 2 species, usually the rat and the mouse, was obtained from the published literature through 3 independent sources. Of the 250 compounds listed, 38% were non-carcinogenic in both rats and mice, and 44% were carcinogenic in both species. A total of 43 compounds had different results in the two species, 21 (8%) being carcinogenic in mice only, 17 (7%) in rats only and 5 (2%) having differing results from other species. A comparison of the major target organs affected by chemicals carcinogenic in both species revealed that 64% of the chemicals studied produced cancer at the same site. This comparison of carcinogenic activity in 2 species suggests that extrapolation from results in a single-animal study to man may be subject to substantial errors. PMID:7387835
Henriksson, Anna; Yu, Jun; Wardle, David A; Trygg, Johan; Englund, Göran
The species richness hypothesis, which predicts that species-rich communities should be better at resisting invasions than species-poor communities, has been empirically tested many times and is often poorly supported. In this study, we contrast the species richness hypothesis with four alternative hypotheses with the aim of finding better descriptors of invasion resistance. These alternative hypotheses state that resistance to invasions is determined by abiotic conditions, community saturation (i.e., the number of resident species relative to the maximum number of species that can be supported), presence/absence of key species, or weighted species richness. Weighted species richness is a weighted sum of the number of species, where each species' weight describes its contribution to resistance. We tested these hypotheses using data on the success of 571 introductions of four freshwater fish species into lakes throughout Sweden, i.e., Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), tench (Tinca tinca), zander (Sander lucioperca), and whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus). We found that weighted species richness best predicted invasion success. The weights describing the contribution of each resident species to community resistance varied considerably in both strength and sign. Positive resistance weights, which indicate that species repel invaders, were as common as negative resistance weights, which indicate facilitative interactions. This result can be contrasted with the implicit assumption of the original species richness hypothesis, that all resident species have negative effects on invader success. We argue that this assumption is unlikely to be true in natural communities, and thus that we expect that weighted species richness is a better predictor of invader success than the actual number of resident species.
Mayer, Frieder; Dietz, Christian; Kiefer, Andreas
The lack of obvious morphological differences between species impedes the identification of species in many groups of organisms. Meanwhile, DNA-based approaches are increasingly used to survey biological diversity. In this study we show that sequencing the mitochondrial protein-coding gene NADH dehydrogenase, subunit 1 (nd1) from 534 bats of the Western Palaearctic region corroborates the promise of DNA barcodes in two major respects. First, species described with classical taxonomic tools can be genetically identified with only a few exceptions. Second, substantial sequence divergence suggests an unexpected high number of undiscovered species. PMID:17295921
Champagne, Frances A.
Plasticity is a typical feature of development and can lead to divergent phenotypes. There is increasing evidence that epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, are present across species, are modifiable by the environment, and are involved in developmental plasticity. Thus, in the context of the concept of developmental homology, epigenetic mechanisms may serve to create a process homology between species by providing a common molecular pathway through which environmental experiences shape development, ultimately leading to phenotypic diversity. This article will highlight evidence derived from across-species investigations of epigenetics, development, and plasticity which may contribute to our understanding of the homology that exists between species and between ancestors and descendants. PMID:22711291
Howard, J.; Nicol, J. M.
A time-resolved Fourier transform IR study of ethyne adsorbed on ZnNaA zeolite yields results very different from those reported for related systems. Initially two species (A and B) are formed by the interaction of C2H2 with the cations. Whereas species A (π-bonded C2H2) was found to be removed immediately on evacuation, species B (probably Zn-acetylide) was not fully removed after 60 mins evacuation. In the presence of the gas phase, bands due to Species A decreased slowly in intensity as new bands due to adsorbed ethanal were observed.
Lenzen, Manfred; Lane, Amanda; Widmer-Cooper, Asaph; Williams, Moira
There is widespread agreement that biodiversity loss must be reduced, yet to alleviate threats to plant and animal species, the forces driving these losses need to be better understood. We searched for explanatory variables for threatened-species data at the country level through land-use information instead of previously used socioeconomic and demographic variables. To explain the number of threatened species in one country, we used information on land-use patterns in all neighboring countries and on the extent of the country's sea border. We carried out multiple regressions of the numbers of threatened species as a function of land-use patterns, and we tested various specifications of this function, including spatial autocorrelation. Most cross-border land-use patterns had a significant influence on the number of threatened species, and land-use patterns explained the number of threatened species better than less proximate socioeconomic variables. More specifically, our overall results showed a highly adverse influence of plantations and permanent cropland, a weaker negative influence of permanent pasture, and, for the most part, a beneficial influence of nonarable lands and natural forest. Surprisingly, built-up land also showed a conserving influence on threatened species. The adverse influences extended to distances between about 250 km (plants) and 2000 km (birds and mammals) away from where the species threat was recorded, depending on the species. Our results highlight that legislation affecting biodiversity should look beyond national boundaries.
Ying, Zhixia; Liao, Jinbao; Wang, Shichang; Lu, Hui; Liu, Yongjie; Ma, Liang; Li, Zhenqing
Opinions differ on how the spatial distribution of species over space affects species coexistence. Here, we constructed both mean-field and pair approximation (PA) models to explore the effects of interspecific and intraspecific interactions and dispersal modes on species coexistence. We found that spatial structure resulting from species dispersal traits and neighboring interactions in PA model did not promote coexistence if two species had the same traits, though it might intensify the contact frequency of intraspecific competition. If two species adopt different dispersal modes, the spatial structure in PA would make the coexistence or founder control less likely since it alters the species effective birth rate. This suggests that the spatial distribution caused by neighboring interactions and local dispersal does not affect species coexistence unless it adequately alters the effective birth rate for two species. Besides, we modeled how the initial densities and patterns affected population dynamics and revealed how the final spatial pattern was generated.
Wen, Jing; Zeng, Ling
We developed a species-specific PCR method to identify species among dehydrated products of 10 sea cucumber species. Ten reverse species-specific primers designed from the 16S rRNA gene, in combination with one forward universal primer, generated PCR fragments of ca. 270 bp length for each species. The specificity of the PCR assay was tested with DNA of samples of 21 sea cucumber species. Amplification was observed in specific species only. The species-specific PCR method we developed was successfully applied to authenticate species of commercial products of dehydrated sea cucumber, and was proven to be a useful, rapid, and low-cost technique to identify the origin of the sea cucumber product.
... species of freshwater crayfish, 2 species of freshwater snails, and 43 species of freshwater mussels for... (Percina antesella), Conasauga logperch (Percina jenkinsi), snail darter (Percina tanasi), blackside...
Li, Xue Min; Choi, Ji Ae; Choi, In Sun; Kook, Joong Ki; Chang, Young-Hyo; Park, Geon; Jang, Sook Jin; Kang, Seong Ho; Moon, Dae Soo
Molecular methods have the potential to improve the speed and accuracy of Acinetobacter species identification in clinical settings. The goal of this study is to develop species-specific PCR assays based on differences in the RNA polymerase beta-subunit gene (rpoB) to detect nine commonly isolated Acinetobacter species including Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter pittii, Acinetobacter nosocomialis, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Acinetobacter ursingii, Acinetobacter bereziniae, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, and Acinetobacter schindleri. The sensitivity and specificity of these nine assays were measured using genomic DNA templates from 55 reference strains and from 474 Acinetobacter clinical isolates. The sensitivity of A. baumannii-specific PCR assay was 98.9%, and the sensitivity of species-specific PCR assays for all other species was 100%. The specificities of A. lwoffii- and A. schindleri-specific PCR were 97.8 and 98.9%, respectively. The specificity of species-specific PCR for all other tested Acinetobacter species was 100%. The lower limit of detection for the nine species-specific PCR assays developed in this study was 20 or 200 pg of genomic DNA from type strains of each species. The Acinetobacter species-specific PCR assay would be useful to determine the correct species among suggested candidate Acinetobacter species when conventional methods including MALDI-TOF MS identify Acinetobacter only to the genus level. The species-specific assay can be used to screen large numbers of clinical and environmental samples obtained for epidemiologic study of Acinetobacter for the presence of target species.
Dorazio, R.M.; Royle, J. Andrew; Soderstrom, B.; Glimskarc, A.
A statistical model is developed for estimating species richness and accumulation by formulating these community-level attributes as functions of model-based estimators of species occurrence while accounting for imperfect detection of individual species. The model requires a sampling protocol wherein repeated observations are made at a collection of sample locations selected to be representative of the community. This temporal replication provides the data needed to resolve the ambiguity between species absence and nondetection when species are unobserved at sample locations. Estimates of species richness and accumulation are computed for two communities, an avian community and a butterfly community. Our model-based estimates suggest that detection failures in many bird species were attributed to low rates of occurrence, as opposed to simply low rates of detection. We estimate that the avian community contains a substantial number of uncommon species and that species richness greatly exceeds the number of species actually observed in the sample. In fact, predictions of species accumulation suggest that even doubling the number of sample locations would not have revealed all of the species in the community. In contrast, our analysis of the butterfly community suggests that many species are relatively common and that the estimated richness of species in the community is nearly equal to the number of species actually detected in the sample. Our predictions of species accumulation suggest that the number of sample locations actually used in the butterfly survey could have been cut in half and the asymptotic richness of species still would have been attained. Our approach of developing occurrence-based summaries of communities while allowing for imperfect detection of species is broadly applicable and should prove useful in the design and analysis of surveys of biodiversity.
Keeley, Jon E.
Based on both theoretical and empirical studies there is evidence that different species abundance distributions underlie different species-area relationships. Here I show that Australian and Californian shrubland communities (at the scale from 1 to 1000 m2) exhibit different species-area relationships and different species abundance patterns. The species-area relationship in Australian heathlands best fits an exponential model and species abundance (based on both density and cover) follows a narrow log normal distribution. In contrast, the species-area relationship in Californian shrublands is best fit with the power model and, although species abundance appears to fit a log normal distribution, the distribution is much broader than in Australian heathlands. I hypothesize that the primary driver of these differences is the abundance of small-stature annual species in California and the lack of annuals in Australian heathlands. Species-area is best fit by an exponential model in Australian heathlands because the bulk of the species are common and thus the species-area curves initially rise rapidly between 1 and 100 m2. Annuals in Californian shrublands generate very broad species abundance distributions with many uncommon or rare species. The power function is a better model in these communities because richness increases slowly from 1 to 100 m2 but more rapidly between 100 and 1000 m2due to the abundance of rare or uncommon species that are more likely to be encountered at coarser spatial scales. The implications of this study are that both the exponential and power function models are legitimate representations of species-area relationships in different plant communities. Also, structural differences in community organization, arising from different species abundance distributions, may lead to different species-area curves, and this may be tied to patterns of life form distribution.
Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman; Özgen, İnanç; Platia, Giuseppe
A new Elateridae species, Agriotes longipronotum n. sp. (Coleoptera: Elateridae: Elaterinae: Agriotini), is described from Siirt province, Turkey. Photographs of the imago and the aedeagus, and drawings of the aedeagus of the new species, A. sameki, A. bulgaricus, and A. rahmei are given. A rearranged diagnostic key of all Turkish species of nuceus-group is given. The new species is discussed in relation with closely related species. The species of the Agriotes nuceus-group from Turkey are listed, and their distributions are given. PMID:23885925
Herben, Tomáš; Nováková, Zuzana; Klimešová, Jitka
Background and Aims Both regional and local plant abundances are driven by species' dispersal capacities and their abilities to exploit new habitats and persist there. These processes are affected by clonal growth, which is difficult to evaluate and compare across large numbers of species. This study assessed the influence of clonal reproduction on local and regional abundances of a large set of species and compared the predictive power of morphologically defined traits of clonal growth with data on actual clonal growth from a botanical garden. The role of clonal growth was compared with the effects of seed reproduction, habitat requirements and growth, proxied both by LHS (leaf–height–seed) traits and by actual performance in the botanical garden. Methods Morphological parameters of clonal growth, actual clonal reproduction in the garden and LHS traits (leaf-specific area – height – seed mass) were used as predictors of species abundance, both regional (number of species records in the Czech Republic) and local (mean species cover in vegetation records) for 836 perennial herbaceous species. Species differences in habitat requirements were accounted for by classifying the dataset by habitat type and also by using Ellenberg indicator values as covariates. Key Results After habitat differences were accounted for, clonal growth parameters explained an important part of variation in species abundance, both at regional and at local levels. At both levels, both greater vegetative growth in cultivation and greater lateral expansion trait values were correlated with higher abundance. Seed reproduction had weaker effects, being positive at the regional level and negative at the local level. Conclusions Morphologically defined traits are predictive of species abundance, and it is concluded that simultaneous investigation of several such traits can help develop hypotheses on specific processes (e.g. avoidance of self-competition, support of offspring) potentially
Parveen, Iffat; Singh, Hemant K; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Pradhan, Udai C; Babbar, Shashi B
The indiscriminate collections of Paphiopedilum species from the wild for their exotic ornamental flowers have rendered these plants endangered. Although the trade of these endangered species from the wild is strictly forbidden, it continues unabated in one or other forms that elude the current identification methods. DNA barcoding that offers identification of a species even if only a small fragment of the organism at any stage of development is available could be of great utility in scrutinizing the illegal trade of both endangered plant and animal species. Therefore, this study was undertaken to develop DNA barcodes of Indian species of Paphiopedilum along with their three natural hybrids using loci from both the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. The five loci tested for their potential as effective barcodes were RNA polymerase-β subunit (rpoB), RNA polymerase-β' subunit (rpoC1), Rubisco large subunit (rbcL) and maturase K (matK) from the chloroplast genome and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) from the nuclear genome. The intra- and inter-specific divergence values and species discrimination rates were calculated by Kimura 2 parameter (K2P) method using mega 4.0. The matK with 0.9% average inter-specific divergence value yielded 100% species resolution, thus could distinguish all the eight species of Paphiopedilum unequivocally. The species identification capability of these sequences was further confirmed as each of the matK sequences was found to be unique for the species when a blast analysis of these sequences was carried out on NCBI. nrITS, although had 4.4% average inter-specific divergence value, afforded only 50% species resolution. DNA barcodes of the three hybrids also reflected their parentage.
McNew, Lance B.; Handel, Colleen M.
Accurate estimates of species richness are necessary to test predictions of ecological theory and evaluate biodiversity for conservation purposes. However, species richness is difficult to measure in the field because some species will almost always be overlooked due to their cryptic nature or the observer's failure to perceive their cues. Common measures of species richness that assume consistent observability across species are inviting because they may require only single counts of species at survey sites. Single-visit estimation methods ignore spatial and temporal variation in species detection probabilities related to survey or site conditions that may confound estimates of species richness. We used simulated and empirical data to evaluate the bias and precision of raw species counts, the limiting forms of jackknife and Chao estimators, and multi-species occupancy models when estimating species richness to evaluate whether the choice of estimator can affect inferences about the relationships between environmental conditions and community size under variable detection processes. Four simulated scenarios with realistic and variable detection processes were considered. Results of simulations indicated that (1) raw species counts were always biased low, (2) single-visit jackknife and Chao estimators were significantly biased regardless of detection process, (3) multispecies occupancy models were more precise and generally less biased than the jackknife and Chao estimators, and (4) spatial heterogeneity resulting from the effects of a site covariate on species detection probabilities had significant impacts on the inferred relationships between species richness and a spatially explicit environmental condition. For a real dataset of bird observations in northwestern Alaska, the four estimation methods produced different estimates of local species richness, which severely affected inferences about the effects of shrubs on local avian richness. Overall, our results
Cothran, Rickey D; Noyes, Patrick; Relyea, Rick A
The ability of phenotypically similar species to coexist at local scales is paradoxical given that species that closely resemble each other should compete strongly for resources and thus be subject to competitive exclusion. Although theory has identified the key requirements for species to stably coexist, empirical tests of coexistence have rarely been conducted. We explored a key requirement for species to stably coexist: a species can invade a community when it is initially rare. We also assessed whether primary productivity (manipulated using phosphorus availability) affected invasion success by increasing the amount of resources available. Using two mesocosm experiments and an assemblage of phenotypically similar amphipod species in the genus Hyalella, we found no evidence for invasion success among the three Hyalella species. Further, patterns of species exclusions differed among the species, which suggests that one species is an especially poor competitor. Finally, these patterns were consistent regardless of whether mesocosms were fertilized with low or high levels of phosphorus. Our results, suggest that species differences in resource competition and predator avoidance ability found in previous studies using these Hyalella species may not be sufficient to allow for coexistence. Moreover, our study demonstrates the importance of using a variety of empirical approaches to test species coexistence theory.
Costello, Mark J; Wilson, Simon; Houlding, Brett
We found that trends in the rate of description of 580,000 marine and terrestrial species, in the taxonomically authoritative World Register of Marine Species and Catalogue of Life databases, were similar until the 1950s. Since then, the relative number of marine to terrestrial species described per year has increased, reflecting the less explored nature of the oceans. From the mid-19th century, the cumulative number of species described has been linear, with the highest number of species described in the decade of 1900, and fewer species described and fewer authors active during the World Wars. There were more authors describing species since the 1960s, indicating greater taxonomic effort. There were fewer species described per author since the 1920s, suggesting it has become more difficult to discover new species. There was no evidence of any change in individual effort by taxonomists. Using a nonhomogeneous renewal process model we predicted that 24-31% to 21-29% more marine and terrestrial species remain to be discovered, respectively. We discuss why we consider that marine species comprise only 16% of all species on Earth although the oceans contain a greater phylogenetic diversity than occurs on land. We predict that there may be 1.8-2.0 million species on Earth, of which about 0.3 million are marine, significantly less than some previous estimates.
Silvano, Amy; Guyer, Craig; Steury, Todd; Grand, James B.
Most imperiled species are rare or elusive and difficult to detect, which makes gathering data to estimate their response to habitat restoration a challenge. We used a repeatable, systematic method for selecting focal species using relative sensitivities derived from occupancy analysis. Our objective was to select suites of focal species that would be useful as surrogates when predicting effects of restoration of habitat characteristics preferred by imperiled species. We developed 27 habitat profiles that represent general habitat relationships for 118 imperiled species. We identified 23 regularly encountered species that were sensitive to important aspects of those profiles. We validated our approach by examining the correlation between estimated probabilities of occupancy for species of concern and focal species selected using our method. Occupancy rates of focal species were more related to occupancy rates of imperiled species when they were sensitive to more of the parameters appearing in profiles of imperiled species. We suggest that this approach can be an effective means of predicting responses by imperiled species to proposed management actions. However, adequate monitoring will be required to determine the effectiveness of using focal species to guide management actions.
Current test protocols used by the US EPA for the registration of pesticides examines plant responses of 10 crop species but may not examine regionally important native plants or crops. In order to test the efficiency of current test protocols we selected six native plant species...
Mace, Georgina M
Taxonomy and species conservation are often assumed to be completely interdependent activities. However, a shortage of taxonomic information and skills, and confusion over where the limits to 'species' should be set, both cause problems for conservationists. There is no simple solution because species lists used for conservation planning (e.g. threatened species, species richness estimates, species covered by legislation) are often also used to determine which units should be the focus of conservation actions; this despite the fact that the two processes have such different goals and information needs. Species conservation needs two kinds of taxonomic solution: (i) a set of practical rules to standardize the species units included on lists; and (ii) an approach to the units chosen for conservation recovery planning which recognizes the dynamic nature of natural systems and the differences from the units in listing processes that result. These solutions are well within our grasp but require a new kind of collaboration among conservation biologists, taxonomists and legislators, as well as an increased resource of taxonomists with relevant and high-quality skills. PMID:15253356
Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Kumar, Sunil; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Holcombe, Tracy R.
Correlative species distribution models are becoming commonplace in the scientific literature and public outreach products, displaying locations, abundance, or suitable environmental conditions for harmful invasive species, threatened and endangered species, or species of special concern. Accurate species distribution models are useful for efficient and adaptive management and conservation, research, and ecological forecasting. Yet, these models are often presented without fully examining or explaining the caveats for their proper use and interpretation and are often implemented without understanding the limitations and assumptions of the model being used. We describe common pitfalls, assumptions, and caveats of correlative species distribution models to help novice users and end users better interpret these models. Four primary caveats corresponding to different phases of the modeling process, each with supporting documentation and examples, include: (1) all sampling data are incomplete and potentially biased; (2) predictor variables must capture distribution constraints; (3) no single model works best for all species, in all areas, at all spatial scales, and over time; and (4) the results of species distribution models should be treated like a hypothesis to be tested and validated with additional sampling and modeling in an iterative process.
Angulo, Elena; Deves, Anne-Laure; Saint Jalmes, Michel; Courchamp, Franck
The exploitation of rare and endangered species can end in the species's extinction because the increased value people associate with rarity increases the economic incentive to exploit the last individuals, creating a positive feedback loop. This recently proposed concept, called the anthropogenic Allee effect (AAE), relies on the assumption that people do value rarity, but this remains to be established. Moreover, it also remains to be determined whether attraction to rarity is a trait confined to a minority of hobbyists (e.g. wildlife collectors, exotic pet owners) or characteristic of the general public. We estimated how much the general public valued rare species compared with common ones, using five different metrics related to personal investment: time spent, physical effort, unpleasantness, economic investment and risk. We surveyed the visitors of a zoo. To see the rare species, the visitors to the zoo invested more time in searching and contemplation, they were ready to expend more physical effort, they tolerated more unpleasant conditions, they were willing to pay more and, finally, they risked more to obtain (steal) a rare species. Our results provide substantial evidence of how the general public places more value on rare species, compared with common species. This confirms the AAE as an actual process, which in addition concerns a large part of the population. This has important consequences for the conservation of species that are rare now, or that could become so in the future. PMID:19141425
Pouwels, P H; Leunissen, J A
We have analyzed codon usage patterns of 70 sequenced genes from different Lactobacillus species. Codon usage in lactobacilli is highly biased. Both inter-species and intra-species heterogeneity of codon usage bias was observed. Codon usage in L. acidophilus is similar to that in L. helveticus, but dissimilar to that in L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. pentosus and L. plantarum. Codon usage in the latter three organisms is not significantly different, but is different from that in L. bulgaricus. Inter-species differences in codon usage can, at least in part, be explained by differences in mutational drift. L. bulgaricus shows GC drift, whereas all other species show AT drift. L. acidophilus and L. helveticus rarely use NNG in family-box (a set of synonymous) codons, in contrast to all other species. This result may be explained by assuming that L. acidophilus and L. helveticus, but not other species examined, use a single tRNA species for translation of family-box codons. Differences in expression level of genes are positively correlated with codon usage bias. Highly expressed genes show highly biased codon usage, whereas weakly expressed genes show much less biased codon usage. Codon usage patterns at the 5'-end of Lactobacillus genes is not significantly different from that of entire genes. The GC content of codons 2-6 is significantly reduced compared with that of the remainder of the gene. The possible implications of a reduced GC content for the control of translation efficiency are discussed. PMID:8152923
There are six currently recognized “Candidatus Liberibacter” species. Three are associated with Huanglongbing of citrus, and one with Zebra Chip and Psyllid Yellows in Solanaceous crops and Yellows Decline in carrots. Another is an apparently asymptomatic infection of apple, pear and related specie...
Yu, Shang-Jie; Chang, Ya-Lin; Chen, Ying-Lien
Human fungal infections have significantly increased in recent years due to the emergence of immunocompromised patients with AIDS and cancer. Among them, Candida species are frequently isolated and associated with high mortality if not appropriately treated. Current antifungal drugs (azoles, echinocandins and polyenes) are not sufficient to combat Candida species particularly those that are drug resistant. Calcineurin, a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, is an attractive antifungal drug target, and its inhibitor (FK506 or cyclosporin A) can be combined with azoles or echinocandins for use against multidrug-resistant Candida species. The role of calcineurin in the hyphal growth of Candida albicans is controversial, but its roles in C. dubliniensis, C. tropicalis and C. lusitaniae can be demonstrated. In addition, calcineurin is required for virulence of Candida species in murine systemic, ocular or urinary infection models. However, the requirement for calcineurin substrate Crz1 in these infection models varies in Candida species, suggesting that Crz1 has diverse functions in different Candida species. Besides being critical for growth in serum of Candida species, calcineurin is critical for plasma membrane integrity and growth at body temperature (37°C) uniquely in C. glabrata, suggesting that Candida calcineurin controls pathogenesis via various novel mechanisms. In this review, we summarize studies of calcineurin signaling and hyphal growth, virulence and its relationship with drug tolerance in Candida species, focusing on the divergent and conserved functions.
Tomato (Solanum Section Lycopersicon) is composed of one cultivated (S. lycopersicum) and 12 wild species. Because the species are closely related to each other, introgression breeding has been extensive and released cultivars have been improved for many more traits using wild alleles than has any o...
Stohlgren, Thomas J; Ma, Peter; Kumar, Sunil; Rocca, Monique; Morisette, Jeffrey T; Jarnevich, Catherine S; Benson, Nate
Ensemble species distribution models combine the strengths of several species environmental matching models, while minimizing the weakness of any one model. Ensemble models may be particularly useful in risk analysis of recently arrived, harmful invasive species because species may not yet have spread to all suitable habitats, leaving species-environment relationships difficult to determine. We tested five individual models (logistic regression, boosted regression trees, random forest, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and maximum entropy model or Maxent) and ensemble modeling for selected nonnative plant species in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, Wyoming; Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, and areas of interior Alaska. The models are based on field data provided by the park staffs, combined with topographic, climatic, and vegetation predictors derived from satellite data. For the four invasive plant species tested, ensemble models were the only models that ranked in the top three models for both field validation and test data. Ensemble models may be more robust than individual species-environment matching models for risk analysis.
Backwell, P. R. Y.
Many species worldwide are impacted by habitat loss. This may result in increased competition both within species and between species. Many studies have demonstrated that when two previously non-overlapping species are forced to compete over a resource, one species is likely to become dominant over the other. This study explores the impact a larger species of fiddler crab (Tabuca elegans—previously known as Uca elegans) has when invading an area previously used solely by a smaller species (Austruca mjoebergi—previously known as Uca mjoebergi). Here we show that, while there are some detrimental effects of living next to a heterospecific, they are relatively minor. New heterospecific neighbours fight more regularly with resident crabs, but each fight is no longer or more escalated than those between the resident and a new conspecific male. The residents are not specifically targeted by intruding heterospecifics, thus, given the large advantage of having a heterospecific neighbour in terms of lowered competition for females, the overall impact of species mixing is probably not as negative as might have been predicted. PMID:28280560
Bland, Lucie M; Bielby, Jon; Kearney, Stephen; Orme, C David L; Watson, James E M; Collen, Ben
One in 6 species (13,465 species) on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List is classified as data deficient due to lack of information on their taxonomy, population status, or impact of threats. Despite the chance that many are at high risk of extinction, data-deficient species are typically excluded from global and local conservation priorities, as well as funding schemes. The number of data-deficient species will greatly increase as the IUCN Red List becomes more inclusive of poorly known and speciose groups. A strategic approach is urgently needed to enhance the conservation value of data-deficient assessments. To develop this, we reviewed 2879 data-deficient assessments in 6 animal groups and identified 8 main justifications for assigning data-deficient status (type series, few records, old records, uncertain provenance, uncertain population status or distribution, uncertain threats, taxonomic uncertainty, and new species). Assigning a consistent set of justification tags (i.e., consistent assignment to assessment justifications) to species classified as data deficient is a simple way to achieve more strategic assessments. Such tags would clarify the causes of data deficiency; facilitate the prediction of extinction risk; facilitate comparisons of data deficiency among taxonomic groups; and help prioritize species for reassessment. With renewed efforts, it could be straightforward to prevent thousands of data-deficient species slipping unnoticed toward extinction.
During 1983 research was carried out under three tasks: biological, engineering, and analysis. Biological research was aimed at screening for promising species of microalgae, macroalgae, and emergent plants that could be cultivated for energy products. Promising species were studied further to improve yields.
Ward, D. M.
Direct molecular analyses of natural microbial populations reveal patterns that should compel microbiologists to adopt a more natural species concept that has been known to biologists for decades. The species debate can be exploited to address a larger issue - microbiologists need, in general, to take a more natural view of the organisms they study.
... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive...
Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean
To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…
he U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, and National Marine Fisheries Service share a common responsibility for the protection of our nation's aquatic species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. The EPA, under the Federal Insectici...
Torchin, Mark E.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dobson, Andrew P.; McKenzie, Valerie J.; Kuris, Armand M.
Damage caused by introduced species results from the high population densities and large body sizes that they attain in their new location. Escape from the effects of natural enemies is a frequent explanation given for the success of introduced species. Because some parasites can reduce host density and decrease body size, an invader that leaves parasites behind and encounters few new parasites can experience a demographic release and become a pest. To test whether introduced species are less parasitized, we have compared the parasites of exotic species in their native and introduced ranges, using 26 host species of molluscs, crustaceans, fishes, birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles. Here we report that the number of parasite species found in native populations is twice that found in exotic populations. In addition, introduced populations are less heavily parasitized (in terms of percentage infected) than are native populations. Reduced parasitization of introduced species has several causes, including reduced probability of the introduction of parasites with exotic species (or early extinction after host establishment), absence of other required hosts in the new location, and the host-specific limitations of native parasites adapting to new hosts.
Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1985
Suggests that students can learn how society works by studying threatened and endangered plant and animal species which occur in the local environments. Pictures, descriptions, habitats, and niche information are given for 21 threatened or endangered species of the Pacific Northwest. (DH)
Niskern, Diana, Comp.
This guide is intended for those who wish to study the literature dealing with various aspects of endangered plant species. This document includes the following sections, some of which are bibliographies: (1) "Introductions to the Topic"; (2) "Subject Headings" (for endangered species of plants used by the Library of Congress); (3) "General…
Henderson, Lynette K.
The focus of "Endangered Species: Real Life in Two Dimensions" is to create awareness about a critical environmental issue. There is a special urgency to this project because large numbers of animal species are currently endangered or on the brink of extinction. In addition to being enlightened about this important topic through research, students…
Invasive plant species are degrading the structure and function of ecosystems throughout the world. Although most state and federal conservation agencies in the U.S. attempt to reduce the impact of invasive species, some agency activities can contribute to the spread of invasive...
The herbaceous perennial species in the genus Sphaeralcea have desirable drought tolerance and aesthetics with potential for low-water use landscapes. However, taxonomy of these species is ambiguous, which leads to decreased consumer's confidence in the native plant industry. The goal of this stud...
Spectral fingerprints of samples of three Panax species (P. quinquefolius L., P. ginseng, and P. notoginseng) were acquired using UV, NIR, and MS spectrometry. With principal components analysis (PCA), all three methods allowed visual discrimination between all three species. All three methods wer...
We compared four Brassicaceae species for potential use as test species in the EPAs Series 850 vegetative vigor test and other phytotoxicity tests to determine effects of chemicals on non-target plants. Arabidopsis thaliana var. Columbia is commonly used in plant molecular and p...
Clark, H L; Backwell, P R Y
Many species worldwide are impacted by habitat loss. This may result in increased competition both within species and between species. Many studies have demonstrated that when two previously non-overlapping species are forced to compete over a resource, one species is likely to become dominant over the other. This study explores the impact a larger species of fiddler crab (Tabuca elegans-previously known as Uca elegans) has when invading an area previously used solely by a smaller species (Austruca mjoebergi-previously known as Uca mjoebergi). Here we show that, while there are some detrimental effects of living next to a heterospecific, they are relatively minor. New heterospecific neighbours fight more regularly with resident crabs, but each fight is no longer or more escalated than those between the resident and a new conspecific male. The residents are not specifically targeted by intruding heterospecifics, thus, given the large advantage of having a heterospecific neighbour in terms of lowered competition for females, the overall impact of species mixing is probably not as negative as might have been predicted.
Condamine, Fabien L; Hines, Heather M
Investigating how species coped with past environmental changes informs how modern species might face human-induced global changes, notably via the study of historical extinction, a dominant feature that has shaped current biodiversity patterns. The genus Bombus, which comprises 250 mostly cold-adapted species, is an iconic insect group sensitive to current global changes. Through a combination of habitat loss, pathogens and climate change, bumblebees have experienced major population declines, and several species are threatened with extinction. Using a time-calibrated tree of Bombus, we analyse their diversification dynamics and test hypotheses about the role of extinction during major environmental changes in their evolutionary history. These analyses support a history of fluctuating species dynamics with two periods of historical species loss in bumblebees. Dating estimates gauge that one of these events started after the middle Miocene climatic optimum and one during the early Pliocene. Both periods are coincident with global climate change that may have extirpated Bombus species. Interestingly, bumblebees experienced high diversification rates during the Plio-Pleistocene glaciations. We also found evidence for a major species loss in the past one million years that may be continuing today.
Stohlgren, T.J.; Ma, P.; Kumar, S.; Rocca, M.; Morisette, J.T.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Benson, N.
Ensemble species distribution models combine the strengths of several species environmental matching models, while minimizing the weakness of any one model. Ensemble models may be particularly useful in risk analysis of recently arrived, harmful invasive species because species may not yet have spread to all suitable habitats, leaving species-environment relationships difficult to determine. We tested five individual models (logistic regression, boosted regression trees, random forest, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and maximum entropy model or Maxent) and ensemble modeling for selected nonnative plant species in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, Wyoming; Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, and areas of interior Alaska. The models are based on field data provided by the park staffs, combined with topographic, climatic, and vegetation predictors derived from satellite data. For the four invasive plant species tested, ensemble models were the only models that ranked in the top three models for both field validation and test data. Ensemble models may be more robust than individual species-environment matching models for risk analysis. ?? 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.
Fifteen species of Trichoderma were identified from among 118 strains originating from different regions and ecological niches in Poland. This low number indicates low species diversity of Trichoderma in this Central European region. Using the ITS1-ITS2 regions, 64 strains were positively identified...
Buell, Carol Robin; Childs, Kevin L
While current production of ethanol as a biofuel relies on starch and sugar inputs, it is anticipated that sustainable production of ethanol for biofuel use will utilize lignocellulosic feedstocks. Candidate plant species to be used for lignocellulosic ethanol production include a large number of species within the Grass, Pine and Birch plant families. For these biofuel feedstock species, there are variable amounts of genome sequence resources available, ranging from complete genome sequences (e.g. sorghum, poplar) to transcriptome data sets (e.g. switchgrass, pine). These data sets are not only dispersed in location but also disparate in content. It will be essential to leverage and improve these genomic data sets for the improvement of biofuel feedstock production. The objectives of this project were to provide computational tools and resources for data-mining genome sequence/annotation and large-scale functional genomic datasets available for biofuel feedstock species. We have created a Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource that provides a web-based portal or clearing house for genomic data for plant species relevant to biofuel feedstock production. Sequence data from a total of 54 plant species are included in the Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource including model plant species that permit leveraging of knowledge across taxa to biofuel feedstock species.We have generated additional computational analyses of these data, including uniform annotation, to facilitate genomic approaches to improved biofuel feedstock production. These data have been centralized in the publicly available Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource (http://bfgr.plantbiology.msu.edu/).
BISON's size is unprecedented, including records for most living species found in the U.S. and encompassing the efforts of more than a million professional and citizen scientists. And the vast majority of BISON's species occurrence records are specific locations, not just county or state records.
Cross-species transferability of 41 previously published simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was assessed for 11 species of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium. A collection of 65 Metarhizium isolates including all 54 used in a recent phylogenetic revision of the genus were characterized. Betwe...
Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dim...
Oliveira, Carlos Alexandre Miranda; de Melo, Filipe Augusto Gonçalves; Bertaco, Vinicius de Araújo; de Astarloa, Juan M. Díaz; Rosso, Juan J.; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio
DNA barcoding has been used extensively to solve taxonomic questions and identify new species. Neotropical fishes are found in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, with a large number of species yet to be described, many of which are very difficult to identify. Characidae is the most species-rich family of the Characiformes, and many of its genera are affected by taxonomic uncertainties, including the widely-distributed, species-rich genus Astyanax. In this study, we present an extensive analysis of Astyanax covering almost its entire area of occurrence, based on DNA barcoding. The use of different approaches (ABGD, GMYC and BIN) to the clustering of the sequences revealed ample consistency in the results obtained by the initial cutoff value of 2% divergence for putative species in the Neighbor-Joining analysis using the Kimura-2-parameter model. The results indicate the existence of five Astyanax lineages. Some groups, such as that composed by the trans-Andean forms, are mostly composed of well-defined species, and in others a number of nominal species are clustered together, hampering the delimitation of species, which in many cases proved impossible. The results confirm the extreme complexity of the systematics of the genus Astyanax and show that DNA barcoding can be an useful tool to address these complexes questions. PMID:27992537
Cranberries in Wisconsin are often attacked by three moth species, known commonly as Sparganothis fruitworm, cranberry fruitworm, and black-headed fireworm. These moth species require multiple insecticide applications each season in Wisconsin. With the loss of certain broad-spectrum insecticides and...
Blahnik, Roger J.; Holzenthal, Ralph W.
Abstract Ten new Neotropical species of Chimarra are described in the subgenera Chimarra, Chimarrita, and Otarrha. New species in the subgenus Chimarra include, in the Chimarra ortiziana group: Chimarra calori sp. n. (southeastern Brazil) and Chimarra onchyrhina sp. n. (Venezuela); in the Chimarra picea group: Chimarra inchoata sp. n. (Venezuela), Chimarra nicehuh sp. n. (Venezuela), and Chimarra sunima sp. n. (Colombia); and in the Chimarra poolei group: Chimarra cauca sp. n. (Colombia) and Chimarra desirae sp. n. (Bolivia). New species in the subgenus Chimarrita include, in the Chimarra simpliciforma group: Chimarra curvipenis sp. n. (SE Brazil) and Chimarra latiforceps sp. n. (SE Brazil). A single new species in the subgenus Otarrha is also described: Chimarra soroa sp. n. (Cuba). Males and females for all of the new species are illustrated, except for Chimarra desirae, for which female specimens were unavailable. Additionally, the female of Chimarra (Chimarrita) camella, which was previously unknown, is illustrated. PMID:22573949
Somasundaran, P.; Liu, D.
Beneficiation by froth flotation, which exploits the difference in surface properties of minerals, has been a promising method for coal cleaning.However, dissolved mineral species present in coal flotation systems can interact with particles and other species leading to drastic effects on flotation. Particularly, precipitation or adsorption of such species on the particles can alter their surface properties and thus influence the efficiency of coal cleaning. In this work, the bulk and surface precipitation of the dissolved mineral species present in Pittsburgh No. 8 coal was investigated under controlled experimental conditions. Changes in the surface properties of coal due to the precipitation were monitored by following zeta potential. Solution potential data were used to elucidate the mechanism of the precipitation. The effect of the precipitation of the dissolved species on the floatability of coal was found to be marked.
Robe, Lizandra J.; De Ré, Francine Cenzi; Ludwig, Adriana; Loreto, Elgion L.S.
The D. flavopilosa group encompasses an ecologically restricted set of species strictly adapted to hosting flowers of Cestrum (Solanaceae). This group presents potential to be used as a model to the study of different questions regarding ecologically restricted species macro and microevolutionary responses, geographical vs. ecological speciation and intra and interspecific competition. This review aims to revisit and reanalyze the patterns and processes that are subjacent to the interesting ecological and evolutionary properties of these species. Biotic and abiotic niche properties of some species were reanalyzed in face of ecological niche modeling approaches in order to get some insights into their ecological evolution. A test of the potential of DNA-Barcoding provided evidences that this technology may be a way of overcoming difficulties related to cryptic species differentiation. The new focus replenishes the scenario with new questions, presenting a case where neither geographical nor ecological speciation may be as yet suggested. PMID:23459119
Bebber, Daniel P; Marriott, Francis H.C; Gaston, Kevin J; Harris, Stephen A; Scotland, Robert W
A common approach to estimating the total number of extant species in a taxonomic group is to extrapolate from the temporal pattern of known species descriptions. A formal statistical approach to this problem is provided. The approach is applied to a number of global datasets for birds, ants, mosses, lycophytes, monilophytes (ferns and horsetails), gymnosperms and also to New World grasses and UK flowering plants. Overall, our results suggest that unless the inventory of a group is nearly complete, estimating the total number of species is associated with very large margins of error. The strong influence of unpredictable variations in the discovery process on species accumulation curves makes these data unreliable in estimating total species numbers. PMID:17456460
Devesa, V; Súñer, M A; Algora, S; Vélez, D; Montoro, R; Jalón, M; Urieta, I; Macho, M L
The organoarsenical species arsenobetaine (AB), arsenocholine (AC), tetramethylarsonium ion (TMA+), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were determined in 64 cooked seafood products (fish, bivalves, squid, crustaceans) included in a Total Diet Study carried out in the Basque Country (Spain). For cooking, various treatments were employed (grilling, roasting, baking, stewing, boiling, steaming, microwaving). The results obtained show that in cooked seafood AB is the major species, followed by DMA and TMA+. AC and MMA are minor species. The results in cooked seafood were compared with the arsenic species contents obtained for the same product raw. After cooking there was an increase in DMA for sardines and bivalves and an increase or appearance of TMA+ for meagrim, anchovy, Atlantic horse mackerel, and sardine. The data provided add to the very scant information available about organoarsenical species contents in cooked seafood.
Pawlitz, Rachel J.; David, Kayla D.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) Program monitors, analyzes, and records sightings of non-native (introduced) aquatic species throughout the United States. The program is based at the USGS Southeast Ecological Science Center in Gainesville, Florida. The initiative to maintain scientific information on nationwide occurrences of non-native aquatic species began with the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force, a group created by Congress in 1990 to address the need for this type of information by natural resource managers. Since then, the NAS program has maintained the database as a clearinghouse of information for confirmed sightings of non-native aquatic species throughout the Nation. The program also produces email alerts, maps, summary graphs, publications, and other information products to support natural resource managers.
Adams, Levi; Franco, Maria C
The transduction of cellular signals occurs through the modification of target molecules. Most of these modifications are transitory, thus the signal transduction pathways can be tightly regulated. Reactive nitrogen species are a group of compounds with different properties and reactivity. Some reactive nitrogen species are highly reactive and their interaction with macromolecules can lead to permanent modifications, which suggested they were lacking the specificity needed to participate in cell signaling events. However, the perception of reactive nitrogen species as oxidizers of macromolecules leading to general oxidative damage has recently evolved. The concept of redox signaling is now well established for a number of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. In this context, the post-translational modifications introduced by reactive nitrogen species can be very specific and are active participants in signal transduction pathways. This review addresses the role of these oxidative modifications in the regulation of cell signaling events. PMID:25888647
... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...
... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...
... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with ] endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows...
...) bat species, one(1) freshwater fish species, twelve (12) fresh-water mussel species, one (1) snake... authorization to conduct presence/absence surveys for the following freshwater fish species: Etowah...
... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Receipt of Applications for Permit AGENCY: Fish and... certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (ESA.... Background To help us carry out our conservation responsibilities for affected species, the...
Alien species (also referred to as exotic, invasive, introduced, or normative species) have been implicated as causal agents in population declines of many amphibian species. Herein, we evaluate the relative contributions of alien species and other factors in adversely affecting ...
Winfree, Rachael; Fox, Jeremy W; Williams, Neal M; Reilly, James R; Cariveau, Daniel P
Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning experiments have established that species richness and composition are both important determinants of ecosystem function in an experimental context. Determining whether this result holds for real-world ecosystem services has remained elusive, however, largely due to the lack of analytical methods appropriate for large-scale, associational data. Here, we use a novel analytical approach, the Price equation, to partition the contribution to ecosystem services made by species richness, composition and abundance in four large-scale data sets on crop pollination by native bees. We found that abundance fluctuations of dominant species drove ecosystem service delivery, whereas richness changes were relatively unimportant because they primarily involved rare species that contributed little to function. Thus, the mechanism behind our results was the skewed species-abundance distribution. Our finding that a few common species, not species richness, drive ecosystem service delivery could have broad generality given the ubiquity of skewed species-abundance distributions in nature.
... Constrictor, Four Python Species, and Four Anaconda Species as Injurious Reptiles AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... regulations to add Indian python (Python molurus, including Burmese python Python molurus bivittatus), reticulated python (Broghammerus reticulatus or Python reticulatus), Northern African python (Python...
The genus Diaporthe comprises pathogenic, endophytic and saprobic species with both temperate and tropical distributions. Cryptic diversification, phenotypic plasticity and extensive host associations have long complicated accurate identifications of species in this genus. The delimitation of the ge...
Gilpin, M E; Diamond, J M
We develop a dynamic model of island biogeography based on immigration and extinction probabilities of individual species rather than on the usual biogeographic parameters of the number of species immigrating or going extinct per unit time. In the real world, these probabilities vary enormously among species, and three field studies suggest lognormal distributions. Based on such distributions of individual probabilities, our model proceeds by calculating the conditional probability of species occurrence--the likelihood that a given species will occur on a given island--as a function of total species number on the island. The model succeeds in predicting two observed features of species communities; (i) staggered, sigmoidally-shaped incidence functions ("differing area requirements of different species") and (ii) concave immigration and extinction curves. PMID:6941254
van Goethem, Thomas M W J; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Wamelink, G W Wieger; Schipper, Aafke M
Quantifying relationships between species richness and single environmental factors is challenging as species richness typically depends on multiple environmental factors. Recently, various methods have been proposed to tackle this challenge. Using a dataset comprising field observations of grassland vegetation and measured pH values, we compared three methods for deriving species richness response curves. One of the methods estimates species richness close to the maximum species richness observed at the sites, whereas the other two provide estimates of the potential species richness along the environmental gradient. Our response curves suggest that potential species richness of grasslands is slightly more sensitive to acidification than realized plant species richness. However, differences in corresponding environmental quality standards (EQS) for acidification were small compared to intrinsic spatial differences in natural soil pH, indicating that natural background values are more important to consider in the derivation of EQS for pH than methodological differences between the three approaches.
Velázquez, Jorge; Garrahan, Juan P; Eichhorn, Markus P
Coexistence of apparently similar species remains an enduring paradox in ecology. Spatial structure has been predicted to enable coexistence even when population-level models predict competitive exclusion if it causes each species to limit its own population more than that of its competitor. Nevertheless, existing hypotheses conflict with regard to whether clustering favours or precludes coexistence. The spatial segregation hypothesis predicts that in clustered populations the frequency of intra-specific interactions will be increased, causing each species to be self-limiting. Alternatively, individuals of the same species might compete over greater distances, known as heteromyopia, breaking down clusters and opening space for a second species to invade. In this study we create an individual-based model in homogeneous two-dimensional space for two putative sessile species differing only in their demographic rates and the range and strength of their competitive interactions. We fully characterise the parameter space within which coexistence occurs beyond population-level predictions, thereby revealing a region of coexistence generated by a previously-unrecognised process which we term the triadic mechanism. Here coexistence occurs due to the ability of a second generation of offspring of the rarer species to escape competition from their ancestors. We diagnose the conditions under which each of three spatial coexistence mechanisms operates and their characteristic spatial signatures. Deriving insights from a novel metric - ecological pressure - we demonstrate that coexistence is not solely determined by features of the numerically-dominant species. This results in a common framework for predicting, given any pair of species and knowledge of the relevant parameters, whether they will coexist, the mechanism by which they will do so, and the resultant spatial pattern of the community. Spatial coexistence arises from complementary combinations of traits in each species
Hanberry, Brice B.; He, Hong S.; Palik, Brian J.
Background Species distribution models require selection of species, study extent and spatial unit, statistical methods, variables, and assessment metrics. If absence data are not available, another important consideration is pseudoabsence generation. Different strategies for pseudoabsence generation can produce varying spatial representation of species. Methodology We considered model outcomes from four different strategies for generating pseudoabsences. We generating pseudoabsences randomly by 1) selection from the entire study extent, 2) a two-step process of selection first from the entire study extent, followed by selection for pseudoabsences from areas with predicted probability <25%, 3) selection from plots surveyed without detection of species presence, 4) a two-step process of selection first for pseudoabsences from plots surveyed without detection of species presence, followed by selection for pseudoabsences from the areas with predicted probability <25%. We used Random Forests as our statistical method and sixteen predictor variables to model tree species with at least 150 records from Forest Inventory and Analysis surveys in the Laurentian Mixed Forest province of Minnesota. Conclusions Pseudoabsence generation strategy completely affected the area predicted as present for species distribution models and may be one of the most influential determinants of models. All the pseudoabsence strategies produced mean AUC values of at least 0.87. More importantly than accuracy metrics, the two-step strategies over-predicted species presence, due to too much environmental distance between the pseudoabsences and recorded presences, whereas models based on random pseudoabsences under-predicted species presence, due to too little environmental distance between the pseudoabsences and recorded presences. Models using pseudoabsences from surveyed plots produced a balance between areas with high and low predicted probabilities and the strongest relationship between
Velázquez, Jorge; Garrahan, Juan P.; Eichhorn, Markus P.
Coexistence of apparently similar species remains an enduring paradox in ecology. Spatial structure has been predicted to enable coexistence even when population-level models predict competitive exclusion if it causes each species to limit its own population more than that of its competitor. Nevertheless, existing hypotheses conflict with regard to whether clustering favours or precludes coexistence. The spatial segregation hypothesis predicts that in clustered populations the frequency of intra-specific interactions will be increased, causing each species to be self-limiting. Alternatively, individuals of the same species might compete over greater distances, known as heteromyopia, breaking down clusters and opening space for a second species to invade. In this study we create an individual-based model in homogeneous two-dimensional space for two putative sessile species differing only in their demographic rates and the range and strength of their competitive interactions. We fully characterise the parameter space within which coexistence occurs beyond population-level predictions, thereby revealing a region of coexistence generated by a previously-unrecognised process which we term the triadic mechanism. Here coexistence occurs due to the ability of a second generation of offspring of the rarer species to escape competition from their ancestors. We diagnose the conditions under which each of three spatial coexistence mechanisms operates and their characteristic spatial signatures. Deriving insights from a novel metric — ecological pressure — we demonstrate that coexistence is not solely determined by features of the numerically-dominant species. This results in a common framework for predicting, given any pair of species and knowledge of the relevant parameters, whether they will coexist, the mechanism by which they will do so, and the resultant spatial pattern of the community. Spatial coexistence arises from complementary combinations of traits in each
Chanu, L Bina; Mohilal, N; Victoria, L; Shah, M Manjur
Study of Aphelenchoides nematodes from different localities of Manipur were conducted for their documentation. During the study eight known and a new species were identified. Aphelenchoides aerialis sp. nov. differed from all other species of Aphelenchoides in having a tail without bifurcation and strong ventral mucro with single ventrosublateral caudal papillae in male. The known species along with the new species are described in the present study.
Rahel, Frank J; Bierwagen, Britta; Taniguchi, Yoshinori
The difficult task of managing species of conservation concern is likely to become even more challenging due to the interaction of climate change and invasive species. In addition to direct effects on habitat quality, climate change will foster the expansion of invasive species into new areas and magnify the effects of invasive species already present by altering competitive dominance, increasing predation rates, and enhancing the virulence of diseases. In some cases parapatric species may expand into new habitats and have detrimental effects that are similar to those of invading non-native species. The traditional strategy of isolating imperiled species in reserves may not be adequate if habitat conditions change beyond historic ranges or in ways that favor invasive species. The consequences of climate change will require a more active management paradigm that includes implementing habitat improvements that reduce the effects of climate change and creating migration barriers that prevent an influx of invasive species. Other management actions that should be considered include providing dispersal corridors that allow species to track environmental changes, translocating species to newly suitable habitats where migration is not possible, and developing action plans for the early detection and eradication of new invasive species.
A primary objective of threatened and endangered species conservation is to ensure that chemical contaminants and other stressors do not adversely affect listed species. Assessments of the ecological risks of chemical exposures to listed species often rely on the use of surrogate...
Discussions on species taxa directly refer to a range of complex biological phenomena. Given these phenomena, biologists have developed and continue to appeal to a series of species concepts and do not have a clear definition for it as each species concept tells us part of the story or helps the biologists to explain and understand a subset of…
Leitão, Rafael P; Zuanon, Jansen; Villéger, Sébastien; Williams, Stephen E; Baraloto, Christopher; Fortunel, Claire; Mendonça, Fernando P; Mouillot, David
There is broad consensus that the diversity of functional traits within species assemblages drives several ecological processes. It is also widely recognized that rare species are the first to become extinct following human-induced disturbances. Surprisingly, however, the functional importance of rare species is still poorly understood, particularly in tropical species-rich assemblages where the majority of species are rare, and the rate of species extinction can be high. Here, we investigated the consequences of local and regional extinctions on the functional structure of species assemblages. We used three extensive datasets (stream fish from the Brazilian Amazon, rainforest trees from French Guiana, and birds from the Australian Wet Tropics) and built an integrative measure of species rarity versus commonness, combining local abundance, geographical range, and habitat breadth. Using different scenarios of species loss, we found a disproportionate impact of rare species extinction for the three groups, with significant reductions in levels of functional richness, specialization, and originality of assemblages, which may severely undermine the integrity of ecological processes. The whole breadth of functional abilities within species assemblages, which is disproportionately supported by rare species, is certainly critical in maintaining ecosystems particularly under the ongoing rapid environmental transitions.
... Species; 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species Fishery Management Plan; Amendment 7 AGENCY: National... 7 to the 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Fishery Management Plan (FMP) to control... quota categories utilize quota. In this notice, NMFS announces the dates and logistics for 10...
Cruywagen, Elsie M; Slippers, Bernard; Roux, Jolanda; Wingfield, Michael J
Lasiodiplodia species (Botryosphaeriaceae, Ascomycota) infect a wide range of typically woody plants on which they are associated with many different disease symptoms. In this study, we determined the identity of Lasiodiplodia isolates obtained from baobab (Adansonia species) trees in Africa and reviewed the molecular markers used to describe Lasiodiplodia species. Publicly available and newly produced sequence data for some of the type strains of Lasiodiplodia species showed incongruence amongst phylogenies of five nuclear loci. We conclude that several of the previously described Lasiodiplodia species are hybrids of other species. Isolates from baobab trees in Africa included nine species of Lasiodiplodia and two hybrid species. Inoculation trials with the most common Lasiodiplodia species collected from these trees produced significant lesions on young baobab trees. There was also variation in aggressiveness amongst isolates from the same species. The apparently widespread tendency of Lasiodiplodia species to hybridise demands that phylogenies from multiple loci (more than two and preferably four or more) are compared for congruence prior to new species being described. This will avoid hybrids being incorrectly described as new taxa, as has clearly occurred in the past.
H. Atkinson, Thomas
Abstract Three new species in the genus Cactopinus Schwarz are described from Mexico and the U.S., bringing the total of known species to 21. New host and distribution records and a new key to species are included. PMID:21594169
The pheromone lure for the exotic species Spodoptera exempta was successful at attracting two native species, S. latifascia and S. albula. Trapping was conducted in north-central Florida and in southern Texas. Large numbers of both native species were collected throughout the season....
Brown, L.R.; Moyle, P.B.
We examined invasions of non-native fishes into the Eel River, California. At least 16 species of fish have been introduced into the drainage which originally supported 12-14 fish species. Our study was prompted by the unauthorized introduction in 1979 of Sacramento squawfish, Ptychocheilus grandis, a large predatory cyprinid. From 1986 to 1990, we conducted growth and diet studies of squaw fish, conducted intensive surveys of the distribution and habitat associations of both native and introduced species, and examined the nature of species-habitat and interspecies relationships. We found no evidence for increased growth or expanded feeding habits, compared to native populations, of Sacramento squawfish as they invaded the Eel River drainage. Ten of the introduced species were well established, with four species limited to a reservoir and six species established in streams. The success or failure of introductions of stream species appeared to be a function of the ability of a species to survive the fluctuating, highly seasonal, flow regime. The present mixture of native and exotic species has not formed stable fish assemblages but it seems likely that four habitat-associated assemblages will develop. The overall effect of the successful species introductions has been to assemble a group of species, with some exceptions, that are native to and occur together in many California streams. The assemblages now forming are similar to those found in other California streams. The assemblage characterized by squawfish and suckers is likely to be resistant to invasion, in the absence of human caused habitat modifications.
Zhang, Wangzhen; Song, Dongbao; Chen, Jiahua
Microplitis bicoloratus Chen 2004 is a synonym of Microplitis prodeniae Rao & Kurian 1950, and is also the junior homonym of Microplitis bicoloratus Xu & He 2003. A new species, Microplitis fujianica sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The new species is compared with its related species from the Oriental region.
Two new species of the nocturnal bee genus Megalopta are described: M. (Megalopta) tetewana, n. sp., from Mexico and M. (Noctoraptor) huaoranii, n. sp., from Ecuador. Identification keys to the Mesoamerican species of Megalopta s. str. and the species of the cleptoparasitic subgenus Noctoraptor ar...
Xie, Yan; Wang, Sung
A total of 2441 invertebrate species were evaluated using the IUCN Red List Criteria and Regional Guidelines. Approximately 30 experts were involved in this project, which covered a wide range of species, including jellyfish, corals, planarians, snails, mollusks, bivalves, decapods, benthic crustaceans, arachnids (spiders, scorpions), butterflies, moths, beetles, sea cucumbers, sea urchins, sea stars, acorn worms and lancelets. In general, invertebrate species in China were found to be severely threatened, with 0.9% being critically endangered, 13.44% endangered and 20.63% vulnerable. All species of hermatypic corals and planarians are threatened. More than 80% of evaluated species face serious threat due to habitat destruction by coral collection, logging, non-woody vegetation collection, timber plantations, non-timber plantations, extraction and/or livestock. Other threats are intrinsic factors, harvesting by humans, alien invasive species and pollution. The main intrinsic factors contributing to the high levels of threat are limited dispersal and restricted range. No conservation measures have been taken for 70% of the threatened invertebrates evaluated. Existing conservation measures include: strengthening of national and international legislation (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), increasing public awareness, studying population trends/monitoring, and establishment of protected areas. The major conservation measure employed is strengthening of policies. Relative to the situation worldwide (2006 IUCN Red List), there is little information available about invertebrate extinctions in China.
Hart, Simon P; Schreiber, Sebastian J; Levine, Jonathan M
Although the effects of variation between individuals within species are traditionally ignored in studies of species coexistence, the magnitude of intraspecific variation in nature is forcing ecologists to reconsider. Compelling intuitive arguments suggest that individual variation may provide a previously unrecognised route to diversity maintenance by blurring species-level competitive differences or substituting for species-level niche differences. These arguments, which are motivating a large body of empirical work, have rarely been evaluated with quantitative theory. Here we incorporate intraspecific variation into a common model of competition and identify three pathways by which this variation affects coexistence: (1) changes in competitive dynamics because of nonlinear averaging, (2) changes in species' mean interaction strengths because of variation in underlying traits (also via nonlinear averaging) and (3) effects on stochastic demography. As a consequence of the first two mechanisms, we find that intraspecific variation in competitive ability increases the dominance of superior competitors, and intraspecific niche variation reduces species-level niche differentiation, both of which make coexistence more difficult. In addition, individual variation can exacerbate the effects of demographic stochasticity, and this further destabilises coexistence. Our work provides a theoretical foundation for emerging empirical interests in the effects of intraspecific variation on species diversity.
Feeley, Kenneth J; Silman, Miles R
Estimates of the number, and preferably the identity, of species that will be threatened by land-use change and habitat loss are an invaluable tool for setting conservation priorities. Here, we use collections data and ecoregion maps to generate spatially explicit distributions for more than 40,000 vascular plant species from the Amazon basin (representing more than 80% of the estimated Amazonian plant diversity). Using the distribution maps, we then estimate the rates of habitat loss and associated extinction probabilities due to land-use changes as modeled under 2 disturbance scenarios. We predict that by 2050, human land-use practices will have reduced the habitat available to Amazonian plant species by approximately 12-24%, resulting in 5-9% of species becoming "committed to extinction," significantly fewer than other recent estimates. Contrary to previous studies, we find that the primary determinant of habitat loss and extinction risk is not the size of a species' range, but rather its location. The resulting extinction risk estimates are a valuable conservation tool because they indicate not only the total percentage of Amazonian plant species threatened with extinction but also the degree to which individual species and habitats will be affected by current and future land-use changes.
Lazarus, Eli D.; McGill, Brian J.
Plants and animals have responded to past climate changes by migrating with habitable environments, sometimes shifting the boundaries of their geographic ranges by tens of kilometers per year or more. Species migrating in response to present climate conditions, however, must contend with landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic disturbance. We consider this problem in the context of wind-dispersed tree species. Mechanisms of long-distance seed dispersal make these species capable of rapid migration rates. Models of species-front migration suggest that even tree species with the capacity for long-distance dispersal will be unable to keep pace with future spatial changes in temperature gradients, exclusive of habitat fragmentation effects. Here we present a numerical model that captures the salient dynamics of migration by long-distance dispersal for a generic tree species. We then use the model to explore the possible effects of assisted colonization within a fragmented landscape under a simulated tree-planting scheme. Our results suggest that an assisted-colonization program could accelerate species-front migration rates enough to match the speed of climate change, but such a program would involve an environmental-sustainability intervention at a massive scale. PMID:25162663
Choe, Sanggil; Kim, Suncheun; Lee, Chul; Yang, Wonkyung; Park, Yuran; Choi, Hwakyung; Chung, Heesun; Lee, Dongho; Hwang, Bang Yeon
Papaver somniferum L. and Papaver setigerum D.C. are controlled as opium poppy in Korea because they contain narcotic substances such as morphine and codeine. It is one of the critical issues whether the plants similar to opium poppy in shape are controlled plants or not. There are more than 110 species in the genus Papaver worldwide and about 10 species in Korea. As the morphological features of some species are very similar and the alkaloid contents and the ratios among the major alkaloids vary even within the same species, it is often difficult to identify the exact species by the morphological features and/or major alkaloids analysis. To develop a new method that uses metabolite profiling for species discrimination between P. somniferum, Papaver rhoeas and P. setigerum, the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data of the alkaline extract were processed with in-house Microsoft Visual Basic(®) modules and the chemical information was analyzed through multivariate statistical analyses such as Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA). The GC-MS results combined with multivariate analysis demonstrated that the metabolite profiling was an efficient technique for the classification and this method will provide a powerful tool for the identification of Korean Papaver species.
Pigot, Alexander L.
The association between species richness and ecosystem energy availability is one of the major geographic trends in biodiversity. It is often explained in terms of energetic constraints, such that coexistence among competing species is limited in low productivity environments. However, it has proven challenging to reject alternative views, including the null hypothesis that species richness has simply had more time to accumulate in productive regions, and thus the role of energetic constraints in limiting coexistence remains largely unknown. We use the phylogenetic relationships and geographic ranges of sister species (pairs of lineages who are each other’s closest extant relatives) to examine the association between energy availability and coexistence across an entire vertebrate class (Aves). We show that the incidence of coexistence among sister species increases with overall species richness and is elevated in more productive ecosystems, even when accounting for differences in the evolutionary time available for coexistence to occur. Our results indicate that energy availability promotes species coexistence in closely related lineages, providing a key step toward a more mechanistic understanding of the productivity–richness relationship underlying global gradients in biodiversity. PMID:26974194
Valladares, Fernando; Bastias, Cristina C.; Godoy, Oscar; Granda, Elena; Escudero, Adrián
The consequences of global change for the maintenance of species diversity will depend on the sum of each species responses to the environment and on the interactions among them. A wide ecological literature supports that these species-specific responses can arise from factors related to life strategies, evolutionary history and intraspecific variation, and also from environmental variation in space and time. In the light of recent advances from coexistence theory combined with mechanistic explanations of diversity maintenance, we discuss how global change drivers can influence species coexistence. We revise the importance of both competition and facilitation for understanding coexistence in different ecosystems, address the influence of phylogenetic relatedness, functional traits, phenotypic plasticity and intraspecific variability, and discuss lessons learnt from invasion ecology. While most previous studies have focused their efforts on disentangling the mechanisms that maintain the biological diversity in species-rich ecosystems such as tropical forests, grasslands and coral reefs, we argue that much can be learnt from pauci-specific communities where functional variability within each species, together with demographic and stochastic processes becomes key to understand species interactions and eventually community responses to global change. PMID:26528323
Chisholm, Ryan A; O'Dwyer, James P
Biogeography seeks to understand the mechanisms that drive biodiversity across long temporal and large spatial scales. Theoretical models of biogeography can be tested by comparing their predictions of quantities such as species ages against empirical estimates. It has previously been claimed that the neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography predicts species ages that are unrealistically long. Any improved theory of biodiversity must rectify this problem, but first it is necessary to quantify the problem precisely. Here we provide analytical expressions for species ages in neutral biodiversity communities. We analyse a spatially implicit metacommunity model and solve for both the zero-sum and non-zero-sum cases. We explain why our new expressions are, in the context of biodiversity, usually more appropriate than those previously imported from neutral molecular evolution. Because of the time symmetry of the spatially implicit neutral model, our expressions also lead directly to formulas for species persistence times and species lifetimes. We use our new expressions to estimate species ages of forest trees under a neutral model and find that they are about an order of magnitude shorter than those predicted previously but still unrealistically long. In light of our results, we discuss different models of biogeography that may solve the problem of species ages.
Padhy, P K; Varshney, C K
Foliar emission of isoprene was measured in nine commonly growing tree species of Delhi, India. Dynamic flow enclosure technique was used and gas samples were collected onto Tenax-GC/Carboseive cartridges, which were then attached to the sample injection system in the gas chromatograph (GC). Eluting compounds were analysed using a flame ionisation detector (FID). Out of the nine tree species, isoprene emission was found in six species (Eucalyptus sp., Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, and Syzygium jambolanum), whereas, in the remaining three tree species (Alstonia scholaris, Azadirachta indica, and Cassia fistula) no isoprene emission was detected or the levels of emission were negligible or below the detection limit (BDL). Among six tree species, the highest hourly emission (10.2 +/- 6.8 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight, average of five seasons) was observed in Ficus religiosa, while minimum emission was from Melia azedarach (2.2 +/- 4.9 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight, average of five seasons). Isoprene emission (average of six species), over five seasons, was found to vary between 3.9 and 8.5 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight during the rainy season. In addition, significant diurnal variation in isoprene emission was observed in each species. The preliminary estimate made in this study on the annual biogenic VOC emission from India may probably be the first of its kind from this part of the world.
FORT is also the administrative home of the National Institute of Invasive Species Science, a growing consortium of partnerships between government and private organizations established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its many cooperators. The Institute was formed to develop cooperative approaches for invasive species science that meet the urgent needs of land managers and the public. Its mission is to work with others to coordinate data and research from many sources to predict and reduce the effects of harmful nonnative plants, animals, and diseases in natural areas and throughout the United States, with a strategic approach to information management, research, modeling, technical assistance, and outreach. The Institute research team will develop local-, regional-, and national- scale maps of invasive species and identify priority invasive species, vulnerable habitats, and pathways of invasion. County-level and point data on occurrence will be linked to plot-level and site-level information on species abundance and spread. FORT scientists and Institute partners are working to integrate remote sensing data and GIS-based predictive models to track the spread of invasive species across the country. This information will be linked to control and restoration efforts to evaluate their cost-effectiveness. Understanding both successes and failures will advance the science of invasive species containment and control as well as restoration of habitats and native biodiversity.
Costello, Mark John; Claus, Simon; Dekeyzer, Stefanie; Vandepitte, Leen; Tuama, Éamonn Ó; Lear, Dan; Tyler-Walters, Harvey
This paper reviews the utility and availability of biological and ecological traits for marine species so as to prioritise the development of a world database on marine species traits. In addition, the 'status' of species for conservation, that is, whether they are introduced or invasive, of fishery or aquaculture interest, harmful, or used as an ecological indicator, were reviewed because these attributes are of particular interest to society. Whereas traits are an enduring characteristic of a species and/or population, a species status may vary geographically and over time. Criteria for selecting traits were that they could be applied to most taxa, were easily available, and their inclusion would result in new research and/or management applications. Numerical traits were favoured over categorical. Habitat was excluded as it can be derived from a selection of these traits. Ten traits were prioritized for inclusion in the most comprehensive open access database on marine species (World Register of Marine Species), namely taxonomic classification, environment, geography, depth, substratum, mobility, skeleton, diet, body size and reproduction. These traits and statuses are being added to the database and new use cases may further subdivide and expand upon them.
Claus, Simon; Dekeyzer, Stefanie; Vandepitte, Leen; Tuama, Éamonn Ó; Lear, Dan; Tyler-Walters, Harvey
This paper reviews the utility and availability of biological and ecological traits for marine species so as to prioritise the development of a world database on marine species traits. In addition, the ‘status’ of species for conservation, that is, whether they are introduced or invasive, of fishery or aquaculture interest, harmful, or used as an ecological indicator, were reviewed because these attributes are of particular interest to society. Whereas traits are an enduring characteristic of a species and/or population, a species status may vary geographically and over time. Criteria for selecting traits were that they could be applied to most taxa, were easily available, and their inclusion would result in new research and/or management applications. Numerical traits were favoured over categorical. Habitat was excluded as it can be derived from a selection of these traits. Ten traits were prioritized for inclusion in the most comprehensive open access database on marine species (World Register of Marine Species), namely taxonomic classification, environment, geography, depth, substratum, mobility, skeleton, diet, body size and reproduction. These traits and statuses are being added to the database and new use cases may further subdivide and expand upon them. PMID:26312188
Faulwetter, Sarah; Papageorgiou, Nafsika; Koulouri, Panayota; Fanini, Lucia; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Markantonatou, Vasiliki; Pavloudi, Christina; Chatzigeorgiou, Georgios; Keklikoglou, Kleoniki; Vasileiadou, Katerina; Basset, Alberto; Pinna, Maurizio; Rosati, Ilaria; Reizopoulou, Sofia; Nicolaidou, Artemis; Arvanitidis, Christos
The loss of species is known to have negative impacts on the integrity of ecosystems, but the details of this relationship are still far from being fully understood. This study investigates how the distribution patterns of polychaete species and their associated biological trait patterns in six Mediterranean coastal lagoons change under computationally simulated scenarios of random species loss. Species were progressively removed from the full polychaete assemblage and the similarity between the full assemblage and the reduced matrices of both species and trait patterns was calculated. The results indicate the magnitude of changes that might follow species loss in the real world, and allow consideration of the resistance of the system's functional capacity to loss of species, expressed through the species' biological traits as an approximation to functioning. Comparisons were made between the changes in the distribution of species and of traits, as well as between the six different lagoons. While the change of species and trait patterns was strongly correlated within most lagoons, different lagoons showed distinctly different patterns. In disturbed lagoons, the dominance of one or few species was the major driver for the observed patterns and the loss of these species caused extreme changes. Less disturbed lagoons were less susceptible to extreme changes and had a greater resistance towards species loss. Species richness appears to be less important for the ability of the lagoons to buffer changes, instead the initial composition of the assemblage and the identity of the lost species determine the response of the system and our ability to predict changes of the assemblage's functional potential.
Pante, E; Abdelkrim, J; Viricel, A; Gey, D; France, S C; Boisselier, M C; Samadi, S
RAD-tag sequencing is a promising method for conducting genome-wide evolutionary studies. However, to date, only a handful of studies empirically tested its applicability above the species level. In this communication, we use RAD tags to contribute to the delimitation of species within a diverse genus of deep-sea octocorals, Chrysogorgia, for which few classical genetic markers have proved informative. Previous studies have hypothesized that single mitochondrial haplotypes can be used to delimit Chrysogorgia species. On the basis of two lanes of Illumina sequencing, we inferred phylogenetic relationships among 12 putative species that were delimited using mitochondrial data, comparing two RAD analysis pipelines (Stacks and PyRAD). The number of homologous RAD loci decreased dramatically with increasing divergence, as >70% of loci are lost when comparing specimens separated by two mutations on the 700-nt long mitochondrial phylogeny. Species delimitation hypotheses based on the mitochondrial mtMutS gene are largely supported, as six out of nine putative species represented by more than one colony were recovered as discrete, well-supported clades. Significant genetic structure (correlating with geography) was detected within one putative species, suggesting that individuals characterized by the same mtMutS haplotype may belong to distinct species. Conversely, three mtMutS haplotypes formed one well-supported clade within which no population structure was detected, also suggesting that intraspecific variation exists at mtMutS in Chrysogorgia. Despite an impressive decrease in the number of homologous loci across clades, RAD data helped us to fine-tune our interpretations of classical mitochondrial markers used in octocoral species delimitation, and discover previously undetected diversity. PMID:25407078
Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Ribolla, Paulo Martins; San-Blas, Gioconda; Bagagli, Eduardo
Background Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (species S1, PS2, PS3), and Paracoccidioides lutzii. This work aimed to differentiate species within the genus Paracoccidioides, without applying multilocus sequencing, as well as to obtain knowledge of the possible speciation processes. Methodology/Principal Findings Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis on GP43, ARF and PRP8 intein genes successfully distinguished isolates into four different species. Morphological evaluation indicated that elongated conidia were observed exclusively in P. lutzii isolates, while all other species (S1, PS2 and PS3) were indistinguishable. To evaluate the biogeographic events that led to the current geographic distribution of Paracoccidioides species and their sister species, Nested Clade and Likelihood Analysis of Geographic Range Evolution (LAGRANGE) analyses were applied. The radiation of Paracoccidioides started in northwest South America, around 11–32 million years ago, as calculated on the basis of ARF substitution rate, in the BEAST program. Vicariance was responsible for the divergence among S1, PS2 and P. lutzii and a recent dispersal generated the PS3 species, restricted to Colombia. Taking into account the ancestral areas revealed by the LAGRANGE analysis and the major geographic distribution of L. loboi in the Amazon basin, a region strongly affected by the Andes uplift and marine incursions in the Cenozoic era, we also speculate about the effect of these geological events on the vicariance between Paracoccidioides and L. loboi. Conclusions/Significance The use of at least 3 SNPs, but not morphological criteria, as markers allows us to distinguish among the four cryptic species of the genus Paracoccidioides. The work also presents a biogeographic study speculating on how these species might have diverged in South America, thus contributing to elucidating evolutionary aspects of the genus Paracoccidioides. PMID:22666382
Moyle, Leonie C; Nakazato, Takuya
Among the reproductive barriers that can isolate species, hybrid sterility is frequently due to dysfunctional interactions between loci that accumulate between differentiating lineages. Theory describing the evolution of these incompatibilities has generated the prediction, still empirically untested, that loci underlying hybrid incompatibility should accumulate faster than linearly with time--the "snowball effect." We evaluated the accumulation of quantitative trait loci (QTL) between species in the plant group Solanum and found evidence for a faster-than-linear accumulation of hybrid seed sterility QTL, thus empirically evaluating and confirming this theoretical prediction. In comparison, loci underlying traits unrelated to hybrid sterility show no evidence for an accelerating rate of accumulation between species.
Jiménez-Segura, Luz Fernanda
A new automatic identification system using photographic images has been designed to recognize fish, plant, and butterfly species from Europe and South America. The automatic classification system integrates multiple image processing tools to extract the geometry, morphology, and texture of the images. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used as the pattern recognition method. We tested a data set that included 740 species and 11,198 individuals. Our results show that the system performed with high accuracy, reaching 91.65% of true positive fish identifications, 92.87% of plants and 93.25% of butterflies. Our results highlight how the neural networks are complementary to species identification. PMID:25392749
Al Atrouni, Ahmad; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Hamze, Monzer; Kempf, Marie
Acinetobacter spp. are ubiquitous gram negative and non-fermenting coccobacilli that have the ability to occupy several ecological niches including environment, animals and human. Among the different species, Acinetobacter baumannii has evolved as global pathogen causing wide range of infection. Since the implementation of molecular techniques, the habitat and the role of non-baumannii Acinetobacter in human infection have been elucidated. In addition, several new species have been described. In the present review, we summarize the recent data about the natural reservoir of non-baumannii Acinetobacter including the novel species that have been described for the first time from environmental sources and reported during the last years. PMID:26870013
Bercovitch, Fred B; Berry, Philip S M; Dagg, Anne; Deacon, Francois; Doherty, John B; Lee, Derek E; Mineur, Frédéric; Muller, Zoe; Ogden, Rob; Seymour, Russell; Shorrocks, Bryan; Tutchings, Andy
In a recent paper in Current Biology, Fennessy and colleagues  conclude that there are four species of giraffe and that their numbers are declining in Africa. Giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) are presently classified as one species, with nine subspecies, which are considered 'Vulnerable' on the IUCN Red List . The present consensus of one species divided into nine subspecies has previously been questioned (Supplemental information), and Fennessy and colleagues  provide another viewpoint on giraffe taxonomy. The fundamental reason for different taxonomic interpretations is that they are based upon different datasets that adopt different statistical techniques and follow different criteria for nomenclature.
Malyshev, Andrey V; Arfin Khan, Mohammed A S; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Steinbauer, Manuel J; Henry, Hugh A L; Jentsch, Anke; Dengler, Jürgen; Willner, Evelin; Kreyling, Juergen
Within-species and among-species differences in growth responses to a changing climate have been well documented, yet the relative magnitude of within-species vs. among-species variation has remained largely unexplored. This missing comparison impedes our ability to make general predictions of biodiversity change and to project future species distributions using models. We present a direct comparison of among- versus within-species variation in response to three of the main stresses anticipated with climate change: drought, warming, and frost. Two earlier experiments had experimentally induced (i) summer drought and (ii) spring frost for four common European grass species and their ecotypes from across Europe. To supplement existing data, a third experiment was carried out, to compare variation among species from different functional groups to within-species variation. Here, we simulated (iii) winter warming plus frost for four grasses, two nonleguminous, and two leguminous forbs, in addition to eleven European ecotypes of the widespread grass Arrhenatherum elatius. For each experiment, we measured: (i) C/N ratio and biomass, (ii) chlorophyll content and biomass, and (iii) plant greenness, root (15) N uptake, and live and dead tissue mass. Using coefficients of variation (CVs) for each experiment and response parameter, a total of 156 within- vs. among-species comparisons were conducted, comparing within-species variation in each of four species with among-species variation for each seed origin (five countries). Of the six significant differences, within-species CVs were higher than among-species CVs in four cases. Partitioning of variance within each treatment in two of the three experiments showed that within-species variability (ecotypes) could explain an additional 9% of response variation after accounting for the among-species variation. Our observation that within-species variation was generally as high as among-species variation emphasizes the importance of
Namin, Saeed Mohamadzade; Nozari, Jamasb
The xanthippe group of species of the genus Urophora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is revised and keyed. It contains seven species with a yellow area on the scutum medial to the notopleuron: Urophora bakhtiari new species (from flowerheads of Cousinia archibaldii), Urophora dirlbeki new species (from flowerheads of Onopordum acanthium), U. iani Korneyev & Merz 1998, U. impicta (Hering 1942) (= Urophora hermonis Freidberg 1974, new synonym), U. kasachstanica (Richter 1964), U. stalker Korneyev 1985, and U. xanthippe (Munro 1934). All the species are described, illustrated and keyed.
Krupitsky, Anatoly V; Pljushtch, Igor G; Pak, Oleg V
A new species from the Callophrys paulae Pfeiffer, 1932 species group--C. succuba sp. n.--is described from the mountains of Central Afghanistan, Bamyan Province. The new species differs from the geographically close C. p. jomuda Nekrutenko & Tshikolovets in morphology of the male and female genitalia along with the distinct wavy shape of the postdiscal white line on the hindwing underside. Discovery of the new species from C. paulae species group extends known distribution range of the group to the eastern part of the Iranian Plateau in Central Afghanistan.
Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Le Goff, Gilbert; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier
An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species). This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species), Aedes (35 species), Anopheles (26 species), Coquillettidia (3 species), Culex (at least 50 species), Eretmapodites (4 species), Ficalbia (2 species), Hodgesia (at least one species), Lutzia (one species), Mansonia (2 species), Mimomyia (22 species), Orthopodomyia (8 species), Toxorhynchites (6 species), and Uranotaenia (73 species). Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%). Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27%) with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar.
Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Le Goff, Gilbert; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier
An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species). This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species), Aedes (35 species), Anopheles (26 species), Coquillettidia (3 species), Culex (at least 50 species), Eretmapodites (4 species), Ficalbia (2 species), Hodgesia (at least one species), Lutzia (one species), Mansonia (2 species), Mimomyia (22 species), Orthopodomyia (8 species), Toxorhynchites (6 species), and Uranotaenia (73 species). Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%). Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27%) with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar. PMID:27101839
Kurtzman, Cletus P
DNA sequence analyses have demonstrated that species of the polyphyletic anamorphic ascomycete genus Candida may be members of described teleomorphic genera, members of the Candida tropicalis clade upon which the genus Candida is circumscribed, or members of isolated clades that represent undescribed genera. From phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences from nuclear large subunit rRNA, mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and cytochrome oxidase II, Candida auringiensis (NRRL Y-17674(T), CBS 6913(T)), Candida salmanticensis (NRRL Y-17090(T), CBS 5121(T)), and Candida tartarivorans (NRRL Y-27291(T), CBS 7955(T)) were shown to be members of an isolated clade and are proposed for reclassification in the genus Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. (MycoBank MB 815817). Neighbouring taxa include species of the Wickerhamiella clade and Candida blankii.
Scott, J.M.; Goble, D.D.; Wiens, J.A.; Wilcove, D.S.; Bean, M.; Male, T.
The recovery (delisting) of a threatened or endangered species is often accompanied by the expectation that conservation management of the species will no longer be necessary. However, the magnitude and pace of human impacts on the environment make it unlikely that substantial progress will be made in delisting many species unless the definition of "recovery" includes some form of active management. Preventing delisted species from again being at risk of extinction may require continuing, species-specific management actions. We characterize such species as "conservation-reliant", and suggest that viewing "recovery" as a continuum of states rather than as a simple "recovered/not recovered" dichotomy may enhance our ability to manage such species within the framework of the Endangered Species Act. With ongoing loss of habitat, disruption of natural disturbance regimes, and the increasing impacts of non-native invasive species, it is probable that the number of conservation-reliant species will increase. We propose the development of "recovery management agreements", with legally and biologically defensible contracts that would provide for continu-ing conservation management following delisting. The use of such formalized agreements will facilitate shared management responsibilities between federal wildlife agencies and other federal agencies, and with state, local, and tribal governments, as well as with private entities that have demonstrated the capability to meet the needs of conservation-reliant species. ?? The Ecological Society of America.
Al Hayek, Patrick; Touzard, Blaise; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Michalet, Richard
Few studies have examined consequences of ecotypic differentiation within alpine foundation species for community diversity and their feedbacks for the foundation species' fitness. Additionally, no study has quantified ecotypic differences in competitive effects in the field and in controlled conditions to disentangle genetic from plasticity effects in foundation/subordinate species interactions. We focused on a subalpine community of the French Pyrenees including two phenotypes of a cushion-forming species, Festuca gautieri: tight cushions in dry convex outcrops, and loose cushions (exhibiting high subordinate species richness) in wet concave slopes. We assessed, with field and shadehouse experiments, the genetic vs. plasticity basis of differences in: (1) cushion traits and (2) competitive effects on subordinates, and (3) quantified community feedbacks on foundation species' fitness. We found that trait differences across habitats had both genetic and plasticity bases, with stronger contribution of the latter. Field results showed higher competition within loose than tight phenotypes. In contrast, shadehouse results showed higher competitive ability for tight phenotypes. However, as changes in interactions across habitats were due to environmental effects without changes in cushion effects, we argue that heritable and plastic changes in competitive effects maintain high subordinate species diversity through decreasing competition. We showed high reproduction cost for loose cushions when hosting subordinates highlighting the occurrence of community feedbacks. These results suggest that phenotypic differentiation within foundation species may cascade on subordinate species diversity through heritable and plastic changes in the foundation species' competitive effects, and that community feedbacks may affect foundation species' fitness.
Kang, Dongwei; Yang, Hongwei; Li, Junqing; Chen, Youping
Conservation of surrogate species is expected to benefit co-occurring species with similar distributions that share the same habitat, yet the usefulness of this approach to protect nontarget species has been extensively challenged. In this study, we aimed to assess whether co-occurring species could be afforded protection under the conservation of two proposed surrogate species, the giant panda and the takin. We undertook a thorough study on the habitat requirements of these two endangered species, based on the analysis of their habitat preferences. The results revealed that the giant panda exhibits more specialized habitat preferences than does the takin and that habitat separation between these species mainly reflected differences in their dietary requirements and preferences. We suggest that these differences might facilitate their coexistence in sympatric areas. Meanwhile, results of a discriminant function analysis showed that protection of giant pandas would protect 82.1 % of the panda's habitat, but only 25.4 % of the takin's habitat and just 57.0 % of the joint habitats of these species. Importantly, our results also showed that a joint surrogate species approach to conservation would protect 86.9 % of the panda's habitat, 53.7 % of the takin's habitat, and 72.2 % of the joint habitats of these species. This is a higher degree of habitat protection than the single surrogate conservation of pandas. We conclude that the joint surrogate species approach should be adopted to improve biodiversity conservation.
Kurtzman, C P; Droby, S
A new ascosporic yeast, Metschnikowia fructicola (type strain NRRL Y-27328, CBS 8853), is described and was isolated from grapes grown in central Israel. Preliminary tests indicate the new species has biocontrol activity against Botrytis rot of stored grapes. Phylogenetic analysis of domain D1/D2 26S rDNA sequences showed M. fructicola to be a sister species of M. pulcherrima.
Ogataea parapolymorpha sp. n. (NRRL YB-1982, CBS 12304, type strain), the ascosporic state of Candida parapolymorpha, is described. The species appears homothallic, assimilates methanol as is typical of most Ogataea species and forms hat-shaped ascospores in asci that become deliquescent. Ogataea pa...
Vea, Isabelle M.; Gwiazdowski, Rodger A.; Normark, Benjamin B.
Abstract The genus Chionaspis (Hemiptera, Diaspididae) includes two North American species of armored scale insects feeding on Pinaceae: Chionaspis heterophyllae Cooley, and Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch). Despite the economic impact of conifer-feeding Chionaspis on horticulture, the species diversity in this group has only recently been systematically investigated using samples from across the group’s geographic and host range. This paper provides morphological recognition characters for four new species that were recently hypothesized to exist on the basis of molecular evidence. The new species, here described, are Chionaspis brachycephalon Vea sp. n., Chionaspis caudata Vea sp. n., Chionaspis sonorae Vea sp. n. and Chionaspis torreyanae Vea sp. n. One of the new species, Chionaspis caudata Vea, has a gland spine at the apex of the pygidium, between the median lobes, unlike any other species of Chionaspis. An identification key to the species of Chionaspis feeding on pine in North America is provided. PMID:23717184
Taberlet, Pierre; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Englisch, Thorsten; Tribsch, Andreas; Holderegger, Rolf; Alvarez, Nadir; Niklfeld, Harald; Coldea, Gheorghe; Mirek, Zbigniew; Moilanen, Atte; Ahlmer, Wolfgang; Marsan, Paolo Ajmone; Bona, Enzo; Bovio, Maurizio; Choler, Philippe; Cieślak, Elżbieta; Colli, Licia; Cristea, Vasile; Dalmas, Jean-Pierre; Frajman, Božo; Garraud, Luc; Gaudeul, Myriam; Gielly, Ludovic; Gutermann, Walter; Jogan, Nejc; Kagalo, Alexander A; Korbecka, Grażyna; Küpfer, Philippe; Lequette, Benoît; Letz, Dominik Roman; Manel, Stéphanie; Mansion, Guilhem; Marhold, Karol; Martini, Fabrizio; Negrini, Riccardo; Niño, Fernando; Paun, Ovidiu; Pellecchia, Marco; Perico, Giovanni; Piękoś-Mirkowa, Halina; Prosser, Filippo; Puşcaş, Mihai; Ronikier, Michał; Scheuerer, Martin; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Schönswetter, Peter; Schratt-Ehrendorfer, Luise; Schüpfer, Fanny; Selvaggi, Alberto; Steinmann, Katharina; Thiel-Egenter, Conny; van Loo, Marcela; Winkler, Manuela; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Wraber, Tone; Gugerli, Felix; Vellend, Mark
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) aims at the conservation of all three levels of biodiversity, that is, ecosystems, species and genes. Genetic diversity represents evolutionary potential and is important for ecosystem functioning. Unfortunately, genetic diversity in natural populations is hardly considered in conservation strategies because it is difficult to measure and has been hypothesised to co-vary with species richness. This means that species richness is taken as a surrogate of genetic diversity in conservation planning, though their relationship has not been properly evaluated. We tested whether the genetic and species levels of biodiversity co-vary, using a large-scale and multi-species approach. We chose the high-mountain flora of the Alps and the Carpathians as study systems and demonstrate that species richness and genetic diversity are not correlated. Species richness thus cannot act as a surrogate for genetic diversity. Our results have important consequences for implementing the CBD when designing conservation strategies.
Mantri, Nitin; Olarte, Alexandra; Li, Chun Guang; Xue, Charlie; Pang, Edwin C. K.
Background Asterids is one of the major plant clades comprising of many commercially important medicinal species. One of the major concerns in medicinal plant industry is adulteration/contamination resulting from misidentification of herbal plants. This study reports the construction and validation of a microarray capable of fingerprinting medicinally important species from the Asterids clade. Methodology/Principal Findings Pooled genomic DNA of 104 non-asterid angiosperm and non-angiosperm species was subtracted from pooled genomic DNA of 67 asterid species. Subsequently, 283 subtracted DNA fragments were used to construct an Asterid-specific array. The validation of Asterid-specific array revealed a high (99.5%) subtraction efficiency. Twenty-five Asterid species (mostly medicinal) representing 20 families and 9 orders within the clade were hybridized onto the array to reveal its level of species discrimination. All these species could be successfully differentiated using their hybridization patterns. A number of species-specific probes were identified for commercially important species like tea, coffee, dandelion, yarrow, motherwort, Japanese honeysuckle, valerian, wild celery, and yerba mate. Thirty-seven polymorphic probes were characterized by sequencing. A large number of probes were novel species-specific probes whilst some of them were from chloroplast region including genes like atpB, rpoB, and ndh that have extensively been used for fingerprinting and phylogenetic analysis of plants. Conclusions/Significance Subtracted Diversity Array technique is highly efficient in fingerprinting species with little or no genomic information. The Asterid-specific array could fingerprint all 25 species assessed including three species that were not used in constructing the array. This study validates the use of chloroplast genes for bar-coding (fingerprinting) plant species. In addition, this method allowed detection of several new loci that can be explored to solve
França, Susana; Cabral, Henrique N.
Current threats to biodiversity, combined with limited data availability, have made for species distribution models (SDMs) to be increasingly used due to their ability to predict species' potential distribution, by relating species occurrence with environmental estimates. Often used in ecology, conservation biology and environmental management, SDMs have been informing conservation strategies, and thus it is becoming crucial to understand how trustworthy their predictions are. Uncertainty in model predictions is expected, but knowing the origin of prediction errors may help reducing it. Indeed, uncertainty may be related not only with data quality and the modelling algorithm used, but also with species ecological characteristics. To investigate whether the performance of SDM's may vary with species' ecological characteristics, distribution models for 21 fish species occurring in estuaries from the Portuguese coast were examined. These models were built at two distinct spatial resolutions and seven environmental explanatory variables were used as predictors. SDMs' accuracy was assessed with the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) plots, sensitivity and specificity. Relationships between each measure of accuracy and species ecological characteristics were then examined. SDMs of the fish species presented small differences between the considered scales, and predictors as latitude, temperature and salinity were often selected at both scales. Measures of model accuracy presented differences between species and scales, but generally higher accuracy was obtained at smaller spatial scales. Among the ecological traits tested, species feeding mode and estuarine use functional groups were the most influential on the performance of distribution models. Habitat tolerance (number of habitat types frequented), species abundance, body size and spawning period also showed some effect. This analyses will contribute to distinguish, based on species
The yeast genus Tortispora gen. nov., description of Tortispora ganteri sp. nov., Tortispora mauiana f.a., sp. nov., Tortispora agaves f.a., sp. nov., Tortispora sangerardonensis f.a., sp. nov., Tortispora cuajiniquilana f.a., sp. nov., Tortispora starmeri f.a., sp. nov. and Tortispora phaffii f.a., sp. nov., reassignment of Candida caseinolytica to Tortispora caseinolytica f.a., comb. nov., emendation of Botryozyma, and assignment of Botryozyma, Tortispora gen. nov. and Trigonopsis to the family Trigonopsidaceae fam. nov.
Lachance, M-A; Kurtzman, C P
We describe the yeast genus Tortispora gen. nov., an early-diverging lineage in the Saccharomycetales that displays the formation of helical ascospores. The genus is based on 16 strains resembling Candida caseinolytica that were isolated from necrotic plant tissue in warm regions of the New World. Based on sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the nuclear large subunit rRNA gene, as well as other data, the strains are assigned to eight distinct species. The species are nutritionally specialized and share the unusual ability to hydrolyse casein and to grow on 1-butanol as sole carbon source. One species of the proposed new genus produces a simple ascus with a helical ascospore, whereas other species of the clade have failed to form ascospores. All species in the clade, including C. caseinolytica, are assigned to Tortispora gen. nov. The new binomials are Tortispora ganteri sp. nov., type species of the genus (SUB 86-469.5(T) = CBS 12581(T) = NRRL Y-17035(T)), Tortispora caseinolytica f.a., comb. nov. (UCD-FST 83-438.3(T) = CBS 7781(T) = NRRL Y-17796(T)), Tortispora mauiana f.a., sp. nov. (UWOPS 87-2430.3(T) = CBS 12803(T) = NRRL Y-48832(T)), Tortispora agaves f.a., sp. nov. (UWOPS 94-257.6(T) = CBS 12794(T) = NRRL Y-63662(T)), Tortispora sangerardonensis f.a., sp. nov. (UWOPS 00-157.1(T) = CBS 12795(T) = NRRL Y-63663(T)), Tortispora cuajiniquilana f.a., sp. nov. (UWOPS 99-344.4(T) = CBS 12796(T) = NRRL Y-63664(T)), Tortispora starmeri f.a., sp. nov. (G 91-702.5(T) = CBS 12793(T) = NRRL Y-63665(T)) and Tortispora phaffii f.a., sp. nov. (UWOPS 91-445.1(T) = CBS 12804(T) = NRRL Y-48833(T)). In addition, species formerly assigned to the genus Ascobotryozyma are reassigned to the genus Botryozyma. The genera Trigonopsis, Botryozyma and Tortispora are assigned to the family Trigonopsidaceae fam. nov.
Lopez-de-Victoria, G.; Lovell, C.R. )
Azospirillum sspeciesare free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria commonly found in soils and in association with plant roots, including important agricultural crops. Rhizosphere colonization my Azospirillum species has been shown to stimulate growth of a variety of plant species. Chemotaxis is one of the properties which may contribute to survival, rhizosphere colonization and the initiation of mutualistic interactions by Azospirillum species. This study evaluates the chemotactic responses of three Azospirillum stains to a variety of aromatic compounds:benzoate, catechol, 4-HB, and PCA. Results indicate that the same aromatic substance can elicit different chemotactic responses from different Azospirillum species, and that Azospirillum can detect aromatic substrates at concentrations similar to those they encounter naturally. 36 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.
Cotton, Gossypium (Malvaceae), has been spun, woven, and dyed since prehistoric times. Four cotton species are economically important, Gossypium arboreum (tree cotton), G. barbadense (American pima cotton), G. herbaceum (levant cotton), and G. hirsutum (American upland cotton). Previous research h...
Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Edwards, Thomas C.; Graham, Catherine H.; Pearman, Peter B.; Svenning, Jens-Christian
Species distribution modelling has its origin in the late 1970s when computing capacity was limited. Early work in the field concentrated mostly on the development of methods to model effectively the shape of a species' response to environmental gradients (Austin 1987, Austin et al. 1990). The methodology and its framework were summarized in reviews 10–15 yr ago (Franklin 1995, Guisan and Zimmermann 2000), and these syntheses are still widely used as reference landmarks in the current distribution modelling literature. However, enormous advancements have occurred over the last decade, with hundreds – if not thousands – of publications on species distribution model (SDM) methodologies and their application to a broad set of conservation, ecological and evolutionary questions. With this special issue, originating from the third of a set of specialized SDM workshops (2008 Riederalp) entitled 'The Utility of Species Distribution Models as Tools for Conservation Ecology', we reflect on current trends and the progress achieved over the last decade.
..., ecological, and human health impacts that invasive species cause. The Council is co-chaired by the Secretary... the Pacific Northwest. A ``systems thinking'' approach to this meeting in both ecological...
Mainka, Susan A; Howard, Geoffrey W
Two of the key drivers of biodiversity loss today are climate change and invasive species. Climate change is already having a measurable impact on species distributions, reproduction and behavior, and all evidence suggests that things will get worse even if we act tomorrow to mitigate any future increases in greenhouse gas emissions: temperature will increase, precipitation will change, sea level will rise and ocean chemistry will change. At the same time, biological invasions remain an important threat to biodiversity, causing species loss, changes in distribution and habitat degradation. Acting together, the impacts of each of these drivers of change are compounded and interactions between these two threats present even greater challenges to field conservationists as well as policymakers. Similarly, the social and economic impacts of climate change and invasive species, already substantial, will be magnified. Awareness of the links between the two should underpin all biodiversity management planning and policy.
Swain, R. K.; Behera, D.; Sahoo, P. K.; Swain, S. K.; Sasmal, A.
In the face of failure of conservation programs, a Gene Bank in the lunar PSR, preferably the Shoemaker crater incorporating natural cryopreservation will provide permanent preservation of germplasms to protect endangered species from extinction.
EPA has been subject to several citizen suits. As a result we have conducted scientific assessments and made effects determinations for various pesticide products as related to specific species of concern.
The tools and models on this web page were developed for use in the Steps 1 and 2 analyses of national level assessments of the risks of chlorpyrifos, diazinon and malathion to endangered and threatened species and designated critical habitat.
Reviews "The Grolier World Encyclopedia of Endangered Species" and describes a lesson plan for grades five and six that includes library media skills objectives, science objectives, resources, instructional roles, activity and procedure for completion, evaluation, and follow-up. (LRW)
Salau, Kehinde R; Fenichel, Eli P
The United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) was enacted to protect and restore declining fish, wildlife, and plant populations. The ESA mandates endangered species protection irrespective of costs. This translates to the restriction of activities that harm endangered populations. We discuss criticisms of the ESA in the context of public land management and examine under what circumstance banning non-conservation activity on multiple use federal lands can be socially optimal. We develop a bioeconomic model to frame the species management problem under the ESA and identify scenarios where ESA-imposed regulations emerge as optimal strategies. Results suggest that banning harmful activities is a preferred strategy when valued endangered species are in decline or exposed to poor habitat quality. However, it is not optimal to sustain such a strategy in perpetuity. An optimal plan involves a switch to land-use practices characteristic of habitat conservation plans.
Young, Colin R.; Lee, Alice; Stanker, Larry H.
A panel of species specific monoclonal antibodies were raised to Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lari. The isotypes, and cross-reactivity profiles of each monoclonal antibody against an extensive panel of micro- organisms, were determined.
Yang, Rongchang; Fenwick, Stan; Potter, Abbey; Elliot, Aileen; Power, Michelle; Beveridge, Ian; Ryan, Una
A total of 597 faecal samples were collected from western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus), Euros (M. robustus), red kangaroos (M. rufus) in Western Australia and Eastern Grey Kangaroos (M. giganteus) from Victoria and screened for the presence of Eimeria by PCR at the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) locus. The overall prevalence was 24.3% (145/597). At the 18S rRNA locus, sequences were obtained for 25 of the 145 positives. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the macropod-derived Eimeria species grouped in a separate marsupial clade that included Eimeria trichosuri from brushtail possums. At least 6 different clades were identified within the marsupial isolates and many of the genotypes identified are likely to be valid species, however morphological and biological data need to be collected to match sequences to previously characterized Eimeria species or identify if they are new species.
Golding, Paul S.; Maddocks, L.; King, Terence A.; Drucker, D. B.
Photosensitization and inactivation efficacy of three bacterial species: Prevotella nigrescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli have been investigated. Samples of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were treated with the triphenylmethane dye malachite green isothiocyanate and exposed to light from a variety of continuous and pulsed light sauces at a wavelength of approximately 630 nm. Inactivation of the Gram-positive species Staphylococcus aureus was found to increase with radiation dose, whilst Gram-negative Escherichia coli was resistant to such treatment. Samples of the pigmented species Prevotella nigrescens were found to be inactivated by exposure to light alone. The mechanism of photosensitization and inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus with malachite green isothiocyanate is addressed. The possible roles of the excited triplet state of the photosensitizer, the involvement of molecular oxygen, and the bacterial cell wall are discussed. Photosensitization may provide a way of eliminating naturally pigmented species responsible for a variety of infections, including oral diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis.
Eroukhmanoff, F; Hermansen, J S; Bailey, R I; Sæther, S A; Sætre, G-P
Ecological divergence among populations may be strongly influenced by their genetic background. For instance, genetic admixture through introgressive hybridization or hybrid speciation is likely to affect the genetic variation and evolvability of phenotypic traits. We studied geographic variation in two beak dimensions and three other phenotypic traits of the Italian sparrow (Passer italiae), a young hybrid species formed through interbreeding between house sparrows (P. domesticus) and Spanish sparrows (P. hispaniolensis). We found that beak morphology was strongly influenced by precipitation regimes and that it appeared to be the target of divergent selection within Italian sparrows. Interestingly, however, the degree of parental genetic contribution in the hybrid species had no effect on phenotypic beak variation. Moreover, beak height divergence may mediate genetic differentiation between populations, consistent with isolation-by-adaptation within this hybrid species. The study illustrates how hybrid species may be relatively unconstrained by their admixed genetic background, allowing them to adapt rapidly to environmental variation.
..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.33 Prohibited species. (a) General. The harvest and possession...
Omino, E A; Kokwaro, J O
The study of Apocynaceae species used in traditional medicine reveals that 25 species in 16 genera are of ethnobotanical interest. Nineteen species are medicinal, sixteen of which fall under the subfamily Plumerioideae which usually has indole alkaloids. The most common category of diseases treated is skin and ectoparasitic diseases followed by abdominal diseases, diseases of the head, female conditions and venereal diseases. The root is the most commonly used part of the plant and it is possible that the alkaloids play an important role in the medicinal value of the plants. Many species are used for non-medicinal purposes as fruit (Saba comorensis), edible roots (Carissa edulis), poisons (Acokanthera schimperi), fodder (Strophanthus mirabilis), wood (Funtumia africana), birdlime (Tabernaemontana pachysiphon), ornamentals (Adenium obesum), dye (Carissa edulis) and perfume (Wrightia demartiniana).
Burress, Edward D.; Duarte, Alejandro; Serra, Wilson S.; Loueiro, Marcelo; Gangloff, Michael M.; Siefferman, Lynn
Ecological speciation is well-known from adaptive radiations in cichlid fishes inhabiting lentic ecosystems throughout the African rift valley and Central America. Here, we investigate the ecological and morphological diversification of a recently discovered lotic predatory Neotropical cichlid species flock in subtropical South America. We document morphological and functional diversification using geometric morphometrics, stable C and N isotopes, stomach contents and character evolution. This species flock displays species-specific diets and skull and pharyngeal jaw morphology. Moreover, this lineage appears to have independently evolved away from piscivory multiple times and derived forms are highly specialized morphologically and functionally relative to ancestral states. Ecological speciation played a fundamental role in this radiation and our data reveal novel conditions of ecological speciation including a species flock that evolved: 1) in a piscivorous lineage, 2) under lotic conditions and 3) with pronounced morphological novelties, including hypertrophied lips that appear to have evolved rapidly. PMID:24278349
Spore Size Comparison Between Several Bacillus Species Ruben O. Zandomeni1, Joseph E. Fitzgibbon2, Monica Carrera1, Edward Stuebing2, James E...OCT 2005 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Spore Size Comparison Between Several Bacillus Species 5a. CONTRACT...Systematic comparison of the size of B.anthracis spores to size of other Bacillus spores (simulants/surrogates) - all spores produced under the same
There now appears to be a plausible pathway for reviving species that have been extinct for several decades, centuries, or even millennia. I conducted an ethical analysis of de-extinction of long extinct species. I assessed several possible ethical considerations in favor of pursuing de-extinction: that it is a matter of justice; that it would reestablish lost value; that it would create new value; and that society needs it as a conservation last resort. I also assessed several possible ethical arguments against pursuing de-extinction: that it is unnatural; that it could cause animal suffering; that it could be ecologically problematic or detrimental to human health; and that it is hubristic. There are reasons in favor of reviving long extinct species, and it can be ethically acceptable to do so. However, the reasons in favor of pursuing de-extinction do not have to do with its usefulness in species conservation; rather, they concern the status of revived species as scientific and technological achievements, and it would be ethically problematic to promote de-extinction as a significant conservation strategy, because it does not prevent species extinctions, does not address the causes of extinction, and could be detrimental to some species conservation efforts. Moreover, humanity does not have a responsibility or obligation to pursue de-extinction of long extinct species, and reviving them does not address any urgent problem. Therefore, legitimate ecological, political, animal welfare, legal, or human health concerns associated with a de-extinction (and reintroduction) must be thoroughly addressed for it to be ethically acceptable.
continent in the 14th century and killed a large portion of the European population or the current problem with leafy spurge , an invasive plant that causes an...and difficult to mitigate. While trying to re-establish native prairie grass and forbs, it was very difficult to eradicate the non-native species and...north it may spread. Total eradication of the species is no longer feasible at this point of its spread and establishment. Government agencies
Peterson, A Townsend
Virus taxonomy at present is best characterized as a categorization of convenience, without a firm basis in the principles of evolutionary biology. Specifically, virus species definitions appear to depend more on tradition and popular opinion among virologists than on firm, quantitative biological evidence. I suggest a series of changes to underlying species concepts that would shift the field from one that simply files viruses away in taxonomic boxes to one that can learn important biological lessons from its taxonomy.
Remis, Melissa J; Hardin, Rebecca
We combined ethnographic investigations with repeated ecological transect surveys in the Dzanga-Sangha Dense Forest Reserve (RDS), Central African Republic, to elucidate consequences of intensifying mixed use of forests. We devised a framework for transvaluation of wildlife species, which means the valuing of species on the basis of their ecological, economic, and symbolic roles in human lives. We measured responses to hunting, tourism, and conservation of two transvalued species in RDS: elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla). Our methods included collecting data on encounter rates and habitat use on line transects. We recorded cross-cultural variation in ideas about and interactions with these species during participant observation of hunting and tourism encounters and ethnographic interviews with hunters, conservation staff, researchers, and tourists. Ecologically, gorillas used human-modified landscapes successfully, and elephants were more vulnerable than gorillas to hunting. Economically, tourism and encounters with elephants and gorillas generated revenues and other benefits for local participants. Symbolically, transvaluation of species seemed to undergird competing institutions of forest management that could prove unsustainable. Nevertheless, transvaluation may also offer alternatives to existing social hierarchies, thereby integrating local and transnational support for conservation measures. The study of transvaluation requires attention to transnational flows of ideas and resources because they influence transspecies interactions. Cross-disciplinary in nature, transvalution of species addresses the political and economic challenges to conservation because it recognizes the varied human communities that shape the survival of wildlife in a given site. Transvaluation of species could foster more socially inclusive management and monitoring approaches attuned to competing economic demands, specific species behaviors, and human
Schardein, J L; Schwetz, B A; Kenel, M F
Many chemicals shown to be teratogenic in laboratory animals are not known to be teratogenic in humans. However, it remains to be determined if the unresponsiveness of humans is due to lessened sensitivity, to generally subteratogenic exposure levels, or to the lack of an appropriate means of identifying human teratogens. On the other hand, with the exception of the coumarin anticoagulant drugs, those agents well accepted as human teratogens have been shown to be teratogenic in one or more laboratory species. Yet, no single species has clearly distinguished itself as being more advantageous in the detection of human teratogens over any other. Among the species used for testing, the rat and mouse most successfully model the human reaction, but the rabbit is less likely than other species to give a false positive finding. Among species less commonly used for testing, primates offered a higher level of predicability than others. Regarding concordance of target malformations, the mouse and rat produced the greatest number of concordant defects, but they also were responsible for the most noncorcordant responses as well. Since no other species is clearly more predictive of the human response, it is concluded that safety decisions should be based on all reproductive and developmental toxicity data in light of the agent's known pharmacokinetic, metabolic and toxicologic parameters. PMID:3905381
Baumann-Pickering, Simone; McDonald, Mark A; Simonis, Anne E; Solsona Berga, Alba; Merkens, Karlina P B; Oleson, Erin M; Roch, Marie A; Wiggins, Sean M; Rankin, Shannon; Yack, Tina M; Hildebrand, John A
Beaked whale echolocation signals are mostly frequency-modulated (FM) upsweep pulses and appear to be species specific. Evolutionary processes of niche separation may have driven differentiation of beaked whale signals used for spatial orientation and foraging. FM pulses of eight species of beaked whales were identified, as well as five distinct pulse types of unknown species, but presumed to be from beaked whales. Current evidence suggests these five distinct but unidentified FM pulse types are also species-specific and are each produced by a separate species. There may be a relationship between adult body length and center frequency with smaller whales producing higher frequency signals. This could be due to anatomical and physiological restraints or it could be an evolutionary adaption for detection of smaller prey for smaller whales with higher resolution using higher frequencies. The disadvantage of higher frequencies is a shorter detection range. Whales echolocating with the highest frequencies, or broadband, likely lower source level signals also use a higher repetition rate, which might compensate for the shorter detection range. Habitat modeling with acoustic detections should give further insights into how niches and prey may have shaped species-specific FM pulse types.
Quintero, Ignacio; Keil, Petr; Jetz, Walter; Crawford, Forrest W.
Spatial variation in biodiversity is the result of complex interactions between evolutionary history and ecological factors. Methods in historical biogeography combine phylogenetic information with current species locations to infer the evolutionary history of a clade through space and time. A major limitation of most methods for historical biogeographic inference is the requirement of single locations for terminal lineages, reducing contemporary species geographical ranges to a point in two-dimensional space. In reality, geographic ranges usually show complex geographic patterns, irregular shapes, or discontinuities. In this article, we describe a method for phylogeographic analysis using polygonal species geographic ranges of arbitrary complexity. By integrating the geographic diversification process across species ranges, we provide a method to infer the geographic location of ancestors in a Bayesian framework. By modeling migration conditioned on a phylogenetic tree, this approach permits reconstructing the geographic location of ancestors through time. We apply this new method to the diversification of two neotropical bird genera, Trumpeters (Psophia) and Cinclodes ovenbirds. We demonstrate the usefulness of our method (called rase) in phylogeographic reconstruction of species ancestral locations and contrast our results with previous methods that compel researchers to reduce the distribution of species to one point in space. We discuss model extensions to enable a more general, spatially explicit framework for historical biogeographic analysis. PMID:26254671