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Sample records for phages infecting marine

  1. Phage treatment of human infections

    PubMed Central

    Abedon, Stephen T; Kuhl, Sarah J; Blasdel, Bob G

    2011-01-01

    Phages as bactericidal agents have been employed for 90 years as a means of treating bacterial infections in humans as well as other species, a process known as phage therapy. In this review we explore both the early historical and more modern use of phages to treat human infections. We discuss in particular the little-reviewed French early work, along with the Polish, US, Georgian and Russian historical experiences. We also cover other, more modern examples of phage therapy of humans as differentiated in terms of disease. In addition, we provide discussions of phage safety, other aspects of phage therapy pharmacology, and the idea of phage use as probiotics. PMID:22334863

  2. Preparation of RNA from bacteria infected with bacteriophages: a case study from the marine unicellular Synechococcus sp. WH7803 infected by phage S-PM2.

    PubMed

    Shan, Jinyu; Clokie, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriophages manipulate bacterial gene expression in order to express their own genes or influence bacterial metabolism. Gene expression can be studied using real-time PCR or microarrays. Either technique requires the prior isolation of high quality RNA uncontaminated by the presence of genomic DNA. We outline the considerations necessary when working with bacteriophage infected bacterial cells. We also give an example of a protocol for extraction and quantification of high quality RNA from infected bacterial cells, using the marine cyanobacterium WH7803 and the phage S-PM2 as a case study. This protocol can be modified to extract RNA from the host/bacteriophage of interest.

  3. Phage therapy of pulmonary infections

    PubMed Central

    Abedon, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    It is generally agreed that a bacteriophage-associated phenomenon was first unambiguously observed one-hundred years ago with the findings of Twort in 1915. This was independently followed by complementary observations by d'Hérelle in 1917. D'Hérelle's appreciation of the bacteriophage phenomenon appears to have directly led to the development of phages as antibacterial agents within a variety of contexts, including medical and agricultural. Phage use to combat nuisance bacteria appears to be especially useful where targets are sufficiently problematic, suitably bactericidal phages exist, and alternative approaches are lacking in effectiveness, availability, safety, or cost effectiveness, etc. Phage development as antibacterial agents has been strongest particularly when antibiotics have been less available or useful, e.g., such as in the treatment of chronic infections by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One relatively under-explored or at least not highly reported use of phages as therapeutic agents has been to combat bacterial infections of the lungs and associated tissues. These infections are diverse in terms of their etiologies, manifestations, and also in terms of potential strategies of phage delivery. Here I review the literature considering the phage therapy of pulmonary and pulmonary-related infections, with emphasis on reports of clinical treatment along with experimental treatment of pulmonary infections using animal models. PMID:26442188

  4. Phage-bacteria infection networks: From nestedness to modularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Cesar O.; Valverde, Sergi; Weitz, Joshua S.

    2013-03-01

    Bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) are the most abundant biological life-forms on Earth. However, very little is known regarding the structure of phage-bacteria infections. In a recent study we re-evaluated 38 prior studies and demonstrated that phage-bacteria infection networks tend to be statistically nested in small scale communities (Flores et al 2011). Nestedness is consistent with a hierarchy of infection and resistance within phages and bacteria, respectively. However, we predicted that at large scales, phage-bacteria infection networks should be typified by a modular structure. We evaluate and confirm this hypothesis using the most extensive study of phage-bacteria infections (Moebus and Nattkemper 1981). In this study, cross-infections were evaluated between 215 marine phages and 286 marine bacteria. We develop a novel multi-scale network analysis and find that the Moebus and Nattkemper (1981) study, is highly modular (at the whole network scale), yet also exhibits nestedness and modularity at the within-module scale. We examine the role of geography in driving these modular patterns and find evidence that phage-bacteria interactions can exhibit strong similarity despite large distances between sites. CFG acknowledges the support of CONACyT Foundation. JSW holds a Career Award at the Scientific Interface from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund and acknowledges the support of the James S. McDonnell Foundation

  5. Phages targeting infected tissues: novel approach to phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Górski, Andrzej; Dąbrowska, Krystyna; Hodyra-Stefaniak, Katarzyna; Borysowski, Jan; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata

    2015-01-01

    While the true efficacy of phage therapy still requires formal confirmation in clinical trials, it continues to offer realistic potential treatment in patients in whom antibiotics have failed. Novel developments and approaches are therefore needed to ascertain that future clinical trials would evaluate the therapy in its optimal form thus allowing for reliable conclusions regarding the true value of phage therapy. In this article, we present our vision to develop and establish a bank of phages specific to most threatening pathogens and armed with homing peptides enabling their localization in infected tissues in densities assuring efficient and stable eradication of infection.

  6. Characterization of two polyvalent phages infecting Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Hamdi, Sana; Rousseau, Geneviève M.; Labrie, Simon J.; Tremblay, Denise M.; Kourda, Rim Saïed; Ben Slama, Karim; Moineau, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Bacteriophages display remarkable genetic diversity and host specificity. In this study, we explore phages infecting bacterial strains of the Enterobacteriaceae family because of their ability to infect related but distinct hosts. We isolated and characterized two novel virulent phages, SH6 and SH7, using a strain of Shigella flexneri as host bacterium. Morphological and genomic analyses revealed that phage SH6 belongs to the T1virus genus of the Siphoviridae family. Conversely, phage SH7 was classified in the T4virus genus of the Myoviridae family. Phage SH6 had a short latent period of 16 min and a burst size of 103 ± 16 PFU/infected cell while the phage SH7 latent period was 23 min with a much lower burst size of 26 ± 5 PFU/infected cell. Moreover, phage SH6 was sensitive to acidic conditions (pH < 5) while phage SH7 was stable from pH 3 to 11 for 1 hour. Of the 35 bacterial strains tested, SH6 infected its S. flexneri host strain and 8 strains of E. coli. Phage SH7 lysed additionally strains of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Paratyphi, and Shigella dysenteriae. The broader host ranges of these two phages as well as their microbiological properties suggest that they may be useful for controlling bacterial populations. PMID:28091598

  7. Experimental Phage Therapy for Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection

    PubMed Central

    Leang-Chung, Choh; Vellasamy, Kumutha Malar; Mariappan, Vanitha; Li-Yen, Chang; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular Gram-negative bacterial pathogen intrinsically resistant to a variety of antibiotics. Phages have been developed for use as an alternative treatment therapy, particularly for bacterial infections that do not respond to conventional antibiotics. In this study, we investigated the use of phages to treat cells infected with B. pseudomallei. Phage C34 isolated from seawater was purified and characterised on the basis of its host range and morphology using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Phage C34 was able to lyse 39.5% of B. pseudomallei clinical strains. Due to the presence of contractile tail, phage C34 is classified as a member of the family Myoviridae, a tailed double-stranded DNA virus. When 2 × 105 A549 cells were exposed to 2 × 107 PFU of phage C34, 24 hours prior to infection with 2 × 106 CFU of B. pseudomallei, it was found that the survivability of the cells increased to 41.6 ± 6.8% as compared to 22.8 ± 6.0% in untreated control. Additionally, application of phage successfully rescued 33.3% of mice infected with B. pseudomallei and significantly reduced the bacterial load in the spleen of the phage-treated mice. These findings indicate that phage can be a potential antimicrobial agent for B. pseudomallei infections. PMID:27387381

  8. Phage resistance of a marine bacterium, Roseobacter denitrificans OCh114, as revealed by comparative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chunxiao; Zhang, Yongyu; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2010-08-01

    Roseobacter is a dominant lineage in the marine environment. This group of bacteria is diverse in terms of both their phylogenetic composition and their physiological potential. Roseobacter denitrificans OCh114 is one of the most studied bacteria of the Roseobacter lineage. Recently, a lytic phage (RDJLPhi1) that infects this bacterium was isolated and a mutant strain (M1) of OCh114 that is resistant to RDJLPhi1 was also obtained. Here, we investigate the mechanisms supporting phage resistance of M1. Our results excluded the possibilities of several phage resistance mechanisms, including abortive infection, lysogeny, and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) related mechanism. Adsorption kinetics assays revealed that adsorption inhibition might be a potential cause for the phage resistance of M1. Comparative proteomic analysis of M1 and OCh114 revealed significant changes in the membrane protein compliment of these bacteria. Five membrane proteins with important biological functions were significantly down-regulated in the phage-resistant M1. Meanwhile, several outer membrane porins with different modifications and an OmpA family domain protein were markedly up-regulated. We hypothesize that the down-regulated membrane proteins in M1 may serve as the potential phage receptors, whose absence prevented the adsorption of phage RDJLPhi1 to host cells and subsequent infection.

  9. A Virulent Phage Infecting Lactococcus garvieae, with Homology to Lactococcus lactis Phages

    PubMed Central

    Eraclio, Giovanni; Tremblay, Denise M.; Lacelle-Côté, Alexia; Labrie, Simon J.; Fortina, Maria Grazia

    2015-01-01

    A new virulent phage belonging to the Siphoviridae family and able to infect Lactococcus garvieae strains was isolated from compost soil. Phage GE1 has a prolate capsid (56 by 38 nm) and a long noncontractile tail (123 nm). It had a burst size of 139 and a latent period of 31 min. Its host range was limited to only two L. garvieae strains out of 73 tested. Phage GE1 has a double-stranded DNA genome of 24,847 bp containing 48 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Putative functions could be assigned to only 14 ORFs, and significant matches in public databases were found for only 17 ORFs, indicating that GE1 is a novel phage and its genome contains several new viral genes and encodes several new viral proteins. Of these 17 ORFs, 16 were homologous to deduced proteins of virulent phages infecting the dairy bacterium Lactococcus lactis, including previously characterized prolate-headed phages. Comparative genome analysis confirmed the relatedness of L. garvieae phage GE1 to L. lactis phages c2 (22,172 bp) and Q54 (26,537 bp), although its genome organization was closer to that of phage c2. Phage GE1 did not infect any of the 58 L. lactis strains tested. This study suggests that phages infecting different lactococcal species may have a common ancestor. PMID:26407890

  10. Bacteriophages drive strain diversification in a marine Flavobacterium: implications for phage resistance and physiological properties.

    PubMed

    Middelboe, Mathias; Holmfeldt, Karin; Riemann, Lasse; Nybroe, Ole; Haaber, Jakob

    2009-08-01

    Genetic, structural and physiological differences between strains of the marine bacterium Cellulophaga baltica MM#3 (Flavobacteriaceae) developing in response to the activity of two virulent bacteriophages, Phi S(M) and Phi S(T), was investigated during 3 weeks incubation in chemostat cultures. A distinct strain succession towards increased phage resistance and a diversification of the metabolic properties was observed. During the incubation the bacterial population diversified from a single strain, which was sensitive to 24 tested Cellulophaga phages, into a multistrain and multiresistant population, where the dominant strains had lost susceptibility to up to 22 of the tested phages. By the end of the experiment the cultures reached a quasi steady state dominated by Phi S(T)-resistant and Phi S(M) + Phi S(T)-resistant strains coexisting with small populations of phage-sensitive strains sustaining both phages at densities of > 10(6) plaque forming units (pfu) ml(-1). Loss of susceptibility to phage infection was associated with a reduction in the strains' ability to metabolize various carbon sources as demonstrated by BIOLOG assays. This suggested a cost of resistance in terms of reduced physiological capacity. However, there was no direct correlation between the degree of resistance and the loss of metabolic properties, suggesting either the occurrence of compensatory mutations in successful strains or that the cost of resistance in some strains was associated with properties not resolved by the BIOLOG assay. The study represents the first direct demonstration of phage-driven generation of functional diversity within a marine bacterial host population with significant implications for both phage susceptibility and physiological properties. We propose, therefore, that phage-mediated selection for resistant strains contributes significantly to the extensive microdiversity observed within specific bacterial species in marine environments.

  11. Aerosol phage therapy efficacy in Burkholderia cepacia complex respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Semler, Diana D; Goudie, Amanda D; Finlay, Warren H; Dennis, Jonathan J

    2014-07-01

    Phage therapy has been suggested as a potential treatment for highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as the species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC). To address this hypothesis, experimental B. cenocepacia respiratory infections were established in mice using a nebulizer and a nose-only inhalation device. Following infection, the mice were treated with one of five B. cenocepacia-specific phages delivered as either an aerosol or intraperitoneal injection. The bacterial and phage titers within the lungs were assayed 2 days after treatment, and mice that received the aerosolized phage therapy demonstrated significant decreases in bacterial loads. Differences in phage activity were observed in vivo. Mice that received phage treatment by intraperitoneal injection did not demonstrate significantly reduced bacterial loads, although phage particles were isolated from their lung tissue. Based on these data, aerosol phage therapy appears to be an effective method for treating highly antibiotic-resistant bacterial respiratory infections, including those caused by BCC bacteria.

  12. Current taxonomy of phages infecting lactic acid bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, Jennifer; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Phages infecting lactic acid bacteria have been the focus of significant research attention over the past three decades. Through the isolation and characterization of hundreds of phage isolates, it has been possible to classify phages of the dairy starter and adjunct bacteria Lactococus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Leuconostoc spp., and Lactobacillus spp. Among these, phages of L. lactis have been most thoroughly scrutinized and serve as an excellent model system to address issues that arise when attempting taxonomic classification of phages infecting other LAB species. Here, we present an overview of the current taxonomy of phages infecting LAB genera of industrial significance, the methods employed in these taxonomic efforts and how these may be employed for the taxonomy of phages of currently underrepresented and emerging phage species. PMID:24478767

  13. Aerosol Phage Therapy Efficacy in Burkholderia cepacia Complex Respiratory Infections

    PubMed Central

    Semler, Diana D.; Goudie, Amanda D.; Finlay, Warren H.

    2014-01-01

    Phage therapy has been suggested as a potential treatment for highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as the species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC). To address this hypothesis, experimental B. cenocepacia respiratory infections were established in mice using a nebulizer and a nose-only inhalation device. Following infection, the mice were treated with one of five B. cenocepacia-specific phages delivered as either an aerosol or intraperitoneal injection. The bacterial and phage titers within the lungs were assayed 2 days after treatment, and mice that received the aerosolized phage therapy demonstrated significant decreases in bacterial loads. Differences in phage activity were observed in vivo. Mice that received phage treatment by intraperitoneal injection did not demonstrate significantly reduced bacterial loads, although phage particles were isolated from their lung tissue. Based on these data, aerosol phage therapy appears to be an effective method for treating highly antibiotic-resistant bacterial respiratory infections, including those caused by BCC bacteria. PMID:24798268

  14. Selection of phages and conditions for the safe phage therapy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

    PubMed

    Krylov, Victor; Shaburova, Olga; Pleteneva, Elena; Krylov, Sergey; Kaplan, Alla; Burkaltseva, Maria; Polygach, Olga; Chesnokova, Elena

    2015-02-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens forced us to consider the phage therapy as one of the possible alternative approaches to treatment. The purpose of this paper is to consider the conditions for the safe, long-term use of phage therapy against various infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We describe the selection of the most suitable phages, their most effective combinations and some approaches for the rapid recognition of phages unsuitable for use in therapy. The benefits and disadvantages of the various different approaches to the preparation of phage mixtures are considered, together with the specific conditions that are required for the safe application of phage therapy in general hospitals and the possibilities for the development of personalized phage therapy.

  15. Characterization of Marine Temperate Phage-Host Systems Isolated from Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Sunny C.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Paul, John H.

    1998-01-01

    To understand the ecological and genetic role of viruses in the marine environment, it is critical to know the infectivity of viruses and the types of interactions that occur between marine viruses and their hosts. We isolated four marine phages from turbid plaques by using four indigenous bacterial hosts obtained from concentrated water samples from Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Two of the rod-shaped bacterial hosts were identified as Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Flavobacterium sp. All of the phage isolates were tailed phages and contained double-stranded DNA. Two of the phage isolates had morphologies typical of the family Siphoviridae, while the other two belonged to the families Myoviridae and Podoviridae. The head diameters of these viruses ranged from 47 to 70.7 nm, and the tail lengths ranged from 12 to 146 nm. The burst sizes ranged from 7.8 to 240 phage/bacterial cell, and the genome sizes, as determined by restriction digestion, ranged from 36 to 112 kb. The members of the Siphoviridae, T-φHSIC, and T-φD0, and the member of the Myoviridae, T-φD1B, were found to form lysogenic associations with their bacterial hosts, which were isolated from the same water samples. Hybridization of phage T-φHSIC probe with lysogenic host genomic DNA was observed in dot blot hybridization experiments, indicating that prophage T-φHSIC was integrated within the host genome. These phage-host systems are available for use in studies of marine lysogeny and transduction. PMID:9464390

  16. [Advances in the treatment of wound bacterial infection with phage].

    PubMed

    Cui, Zelong

    2015-10-01

    The treatment of wound bacterial infection is an extremely difficult problem in clinic, especially in patients with large wounds which are infected by multidrug resistant, pan-resistant or omni-resistant bacteria. In recent years, with a grim prospect of antibiotic resistance, phage therapy is re-valued by researchers after being ignored for nearly half a century. Phage therapy has made great achievements in prevention and control of bacterial infection of open wounds. This review is mainly focused on the latest research progress of phage therapy in wound bacterial infection.

  17. Characterization of Five Podoviridae Phages Infecting Citrobacter freundii.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Sana; Rousseau, Geneviève M; Labrie, Simon J; Kourda, Rim S; Tremblay, Denise M; Moineau, Sylvain; Slama, Karim B

    2016-01-01

    Citrobacter freundii causes opportunistic infections in humans and animals, which are becoming difficult to treat due to increased antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to explore phages as potential antimicrobial agents against this opportunistic pathogen. We isolated and characterized five new virulent phages, SH1, SH2, SH3, SH4, and SH5 from sewage samples in Tunisia. Morphological and genomic analyses revealed that the five C. freundii phages belong to the Caudovirales order, Podoviridae family, and Autographivirinae subfamily. Their linear double-stranded DNA genomes range from 39,158 to 39,832 bp and are terminally redundant with direct repeats between 183 and 242 bp. The five genomes share the same organization as coliphage T7. Based on genomic comparisons and on the phylogeny of the DNA polymerases, we assigned the five phages to the T7virus genus but separated them into two different groups. Phages SH1 and SH2 are very similar to previously characterized phages phiYeO3-12 and phiSG-JL2, infecting, respectively, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica, as well as sharing more than 80% identity with most genes of coliphage T7. Phages SH3, SH4, and SH5 are very similar to phages K1F and Dev2, infecting, respectively, Escherichia coli and Cronobacter turicensis. Several structural proteins of phages SH1, SH3, and SH4 were detected by mass spectrometry. The five phages were also stable from pH 5 to 10. No genes coding for known virulence factors or integrases were found, suggesting that the five isolated phages could be good candidates for therapeutic applications to prevent or treat C. freundii infections. In addition, this study increases our knowledge about the evolutionary relationships within the T7virus genus.

  18. Characterization of Five Podoviridae Phages Infecting Citrobacter freundii

    PubMed Central

    Hamdi, Sana; Rousseau, Geneviève M.; Labrie, Simon J.; Kourda, Rim S.; Tremblay, Denise M.; Moineau, Sylvain; Slama, Karim B.

    2016-01-01

    Citrobacter freundii causes opportunistic infections in humans and animals, which are becoming difficult to treat due to increased antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to explore phages as potential antimicrobial agents against this opportunistic pathogen. We isolated and characterized five new virulent phages, SH1, SH2, SH3, SH4, and SH5 from sewage samples in Tunisia. Morphological and genomic analyses revealed that the five C. freundii phages belong to the Caudovirales order, Podoviridae family, and Autographivirinae subfamily. Their linear double-stranded DNA genomes range from 39,158 to 39,832 bp and are terminally redundant with direct repeats between 183 and 242 bp. The five genomes share the same organization as coliphage T7. Based on genomic comparisons and on the phylogeny of the DNA polymerases, we assigned the five phages to the T7virus genus but separated them into two different groups. Phages SH1 and SH2 are very similar to previously characterized phages phiYeO3-12 and phiSG-JL2, infecting, respectively, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica, as well as sharing more than 80% identity with most genes of coliphage T7. Phages SH3, SH4, and SH5 are very similar to phages K1F and Dev2, infecting, respectively, Escherichia coli and Cronobacter turicensis. Several structural proteins of phages SH1, SH3, and SH4 were detected by mass spectrometry. The five phages were also stable from pH 5 to 10. No genes coding for known virulence factors or integrases were found, suggesting that the five isolated phages could be good candidates for therapeutic applications to prevent or treat C. freundii infections. In addition, this study increases our knowledge about the evolutionary relationships within the T7virus genus. PMID:27446058

  19. Changes in Environmental Conditions Modify Infection Kinetics of Dairy Phages.

    PubMed

    Zaburlin, Delfina; Quiberoni, Andrea; Mercanti, Diego

    2017-04-08

    Latent period, burst time, and burst size, kinetic parameters of phage infection characteristic of a given phage/host system, have been measured for a wide variety of lactic acid bacteria. However, most studies to date were conducted in optimal growth conditions of host bacteria and did not consider variations due to changes in external factors. In this work, we determined the effect of temperature, pH, and starvation on kinetic parameters of phages infecting Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. For kinetics assessment, one-step growth curves were carried out in MRS broth at optimal conditions (control), lower temperature, pH 6.0 and 5.0 (MRS6 and MRS5, respectively), or in medium lacking carbon (MRSN) or nitrogen (MRSC) sources. Phage infection was progressively impaired as environmental conditions were modified from optimal. At lower temperature or pH, infection was delayed, as perceived by longer latent and burst times. Burst size, however, was lower, equal or higher than for controls, but this effect was highly dependent on the particular phage-host system studied. Phage infection was strongly inhibited in MRSC, but only mildly impaired in MRSN. Nevertheless, growth of all the bacterial strains tested was severely compromised by starvation, without significant differences between MRSC and MRSN, indicating that nitrogen compounds are specifically required for a successful phage infection, beyond their influence on bacterial growth.

  20. Marine phages as excellent tracers for reactive colloidal transport in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanem, Nawras; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Harms, Hauke; Wick, Lukas Y.

    2016-04-01

    Question: Here we evaluate marine phages as specific markers of hydrological flow and reactive transport of colloidal particles in the Earth's critical zone (CZ). Marine phages and their bacterial hosts are naturally absent in the CZ, and can be detected with extremely high sensitivity. In the framework of the DFG Collaborative Research Center AquaDiva, we asked the following questions: (1) Are marine phages useful specific markers of hydrological flow and reactive transport in porous media? and (2) Which phage properties are relevant drivers for the transport of marine phages in porous media? Methods: Seven marine phages from different families (as well two commonly used terrestrial phages) were selected based on their morphology, size and physico-chemical surface properties (surface charge and hydrophobicity). Phage properties were assessed by electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and water contact angle analysis (CA). Sand-filled laboratory percolation columns were used to study transport. The breakthrough curves of the phages were analyzed using the clean bed filtration theory and the XDLVO theory of colloid stability, respectively. Phages were quantified by a modified high- throughput plaque assay and a culture-independent particle counting method approach. Results: Our data show that most marine tested phages exhibited highly variable transport rates and deposition efficiency, yet generally high colloidal stability and viability. We find that size, morphology and hydrophobicity are key factors shaping the transport efficiency of phages. Differing deposition efficiencies of the phages were also supported by calculated XDLVO interaction energy profile. Conclusion: Marine phages have a high potential for the use as sensitive tracers in terrestrial habitats with their surface properties playing a crucial role for their transport. Marine phages however, exhibit differences in their deposition efficiency depending on their morphology, hydrophobicity and

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Phages Infecting Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Krasowska, Anna; Biegalska, Anna; Augustyniak, Daria; Łoś, Marcin; Richert, Malwina; Łukaszewicz, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophages have been suggested as an alternative approach to reduce the amount of pathogens in various applications. Bacteriophages of various specificity and virulence were isolated as a means of controlling food-borne pathogens. We studied the interaction of bacteriophages with Bacillus species, which are very often persistent in industrial applications such as food production due to their antibiotic resistance and spore formation. A comparative study using electron microscopy, PFGE, and SDS-PAGE as well as determination of host range, pH and temperature resistance, adsorption rate, latent time, and phage burst size was performed on three phages of the Myoviridae family and one phage of the Siphoviridae family which infected Bacillus subtilis strains. The phages are morphologically different and characterized by icosahedral heads and contractile (SIOΦ, SUBω, and SPOσ phages) or noncontractile (ARπ phage) tails. The genomes of SIOΦ and SUBω are composed of 154 kb. The capsid of SIOΦ is composed of four proteins. Bacteriophages SPOσ and ARπ have genome sizes of 25 kbp and 40 kbp, respectively. Both phages as well as SUBω phage have 14 proteins in their capsids. Phages SIOΦ and SPOσ are resistant to high temperatures and to the acid (4.0) and alkaline (9.0 and 10.0) pH. PMID:26273592

  2. Review: phage therapy: a modern tool to control bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of antibiotic-resistant in bacteria has aggravated curiosity in development of alternative therapy to conventional drugs. One of the emerging drugs that can be used alternative to antibiotics is bacteriophage therapy. The use of living phages in the cure of lethal infectious life threatening diseases caused by Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria has been reported. Another development in the field of bacteriophage therapy is the use of genetically modified and non replicating phages in the treatment of bacterial infection. Genetically engineered bacteriophages can be used as adjuvant along with antibiotic therapy. Phages encoded with lysosomal enzymes are also effectual in the treatment of infectious diseases.

  3. Diversity and geographical distribution of Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolates and their phages: patterns of susceptibility to phage infection and phage host range.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Daniel; Christiansen, Rói Hammershaimb; Espejo, Romilio; Middelboe, Mathias

    2014-05-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is an important fish pathogen worldwide that causes cold water disease (CWD) or rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS). Phage therapy has been suggested as an alternative method for the control of this pathogen in aquaculture. However, effective use of bacteriophages in disease control requires detailed knowledge about the diversity and dynamics of host susceptibility to phage infection. For this reason, we examined the genetic diversity of 49 F. psychrophilum strains isolated in three different areas (Chile, Denmark, and USA) through direct genome restriction enzyme analysis (DGREA) and their susceptibility to 33 bacteriophages isolated in Chile and Denmark, thus covering large geographical (>12,000 km) and temporal (>60 years) scales of isolation. An additional 40 phage-resistant isolates obtained from culture experiments after exposure to specific phages were examined for changes in phage susceptibility against the 33 phages. The F. psychrophilum and phage populations isolated from Chile and Denmark clustered into geographically distinct groups with respect to DGREA profile and host range, respectively. However, cross infection between Chilean phage isolates and Danish host isolates and vice versa was observed. Development of resistance to certain bacteriophages led to susceptibility to other phages suggesting that "enhanced infection" is potentially an important cost of resistance in F. psychrophilum, possibly contributing to the observed co-existence of phage-sensitive F. psychrophilum strains and lytic phages across local and global scales. Overall, our results showed that despite the identification of local communities of phages and hosts, some key properties determining phage infection patterns seem to be globally distributed.

  4. Development of phoH as a Novel Signature Gene for Assessing Marine Phage Diversity▿

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Dawn B.; Crosti, Giuseppe; Dwivedi, Bhakti; McDaniel, Lauren D.; Varsani, Arvind; Suttle, Curtis A.; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Breitbart, Mya

    2011-01-01

    Phages play a key role in the marine environment by regulating the transfer of energy between trophic levels and influencing global carbon and nutrient cycles. The diversity of marine phage communities remains difficult to characterize because of the lack of a signature gene common to all phages. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of host-derived auxiliary metabolic genes in phage genomes, such as those belonging to the Pho regulon, which regulates phosphate uptake and metabolism under low-phosphate conditions. Among the completely sequenced phage genomes in GenBank, this study identified Pho regulon genes in nearly 40% of the marine phage genomes, while only 4% of nonmarine phage genomes contained these genes. While several Pho regulon genes were identified, phoH was the most prevalent, appearing in 42 out of 602 completely sequenced phage genomes. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that phage phoH sequences formed a cluster distinct from those of their bacterial hosts. PCR primers designed to amplify a region of the phoH gene were used to determine the diversity of phage phoH sequences throughout a depth profile in the Sargasso Sea and at six locations worldwide. phoH was present at all sites examined, and a high diversity of phoH sequences was recovered. Most phoH sequences belonged to clusters without any cultured representatives. Each depth and geographic location had a distinct phoH composition, although most phoH clusters were recovered from multiple sites. Overall, phoH is an effective signature gene for examining phage diversity in the marine environment. PMID:21926220

  5. Marine phage genomics: the tip of the iceberg

    PubMed Central

    Perez Sepulveda, Blanca; Redgwell, Tamsin; Rihtman, Branko; Pitt, Frances; Scanlan, David J.; Millard, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Marine viruses are the most abundant biological entity in the oceans, the majority of which infect bacteria and are known as bacteriophages. Yet, the bulk of bacteriophages form part of the vast uncultured dark matter of the microbial biosphere. In spite of the paucity of cultured marine bacteriophages, it is known that marine bacteriophages have major impacts on microbial population structure and the biogeochemical cycling of key elements. Despite the ecological relevance of marine bacteriophages, there are relatively few isolates with complete genome sequences. This minireview focuses on knowledge gathered from these genomes put in the context of viral metagenomic data and highlights key advances in the field, particularly focusing on genome structure and auxiliary metabolic genes. PMID:27338950

  6. Diversity of phage infection types and associated terminology: the problem with 'Lytic or lysogenic'.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Zack; Abedon, Stephen T

    2016-04-01

    Bacteriophages, or phages, are viruses of members of domain Bacteria. These viruses play numerous roles in shaping the diversity of microbial communities, with impact differing depending on what infection strategies specific phages employ. From an applied perspective, these especially are communities containing undesired or pathogenic bacteria that can be modified through phage-mediated bacterial biocontrol, that is, through phage therapy. Here we seek to categorize phages in terms of their infection strategies as well as review or suggest more descriptive, accurate or distinguishing terminology. Categories can be differentiated in terms of (1) whether or not virion release occurs (productive infections versus lysogeny, pseudolysogeny and/or the phage carrier state), (2) the means of virion release (lytic versus chronic release) and (3) the degree to which phages are genetically equipped to display lysogenic cycles (temperate versus non-temperate phages). We address in particular the use or overuse of what can be a somewhat equivocal phrase, 'Lytic or lysogenic', especially when employed as a means of distinguishing among phages types. We suggest that the implied dichotomy is inconsistent with both modern as well as historical understanding of phage biology. We consider, therefore, less ambiguous terminology for distinguishing between 'Lytic' versus 'Lysogenic' phage types.

  7. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    PubMed

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-02-09

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations.

  8. Marine Viruses that infect Eukaryotic Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kei; Tomaru, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Marine microalgae, in general, explain large amount of the primary productions on the planet. Their huge biomass through photosynthetic activities is significant to understand the global geochemical cycles. Many researchers are, therefore, focused on studies of marine microalgae, i.e. phytoplankton. Since the first report of high abundance of viruses in the sea at late 1980's, the marine viruses have recognized as an important decreasing factor of its host populations. They seem to be composed of diverse viruses infectious to different organism groups; most of them are considered to be phages infectious to prokaryotes, and viruses infecting microalgae might be ranked in second level. Over the last quarter of a century, the knowledge on marine microalgal viruses has been accumulated in many aspects. Until today, ca. 40 species of marine microalgal viruses have been discovered, including dsDNA, ssDNA, dsRNA and ssRNA viruses. Their features are unique and comprise new ideas and discoveries, indicating that the marine microalgal virus research is still an intriguing unexplored field. In this review, we summarize their basic biology and ecology, and discuss how and what we should research in this area for further progress.

  9. Expression of Cre recombinase during transient phage infection permits efficient marker removal in Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Khodakaramian, Gholam; Lissenden, Sarah; Gust, Bertolt; Moir, Laura; Hoskisson, Paul A.; Chater, Keith F.; Smith, Margaret C. M.

    2006-01-01

    We report a system for the efficient removal of a marker flanked by two loxP sites in Streptomyces coelicolor, using a derivative of the temperate phage φC31 that expresses Cre recombinase during a transient infection. As the test case for this recombinant phage (called Cre-phage), we present the construction of an in-frame deletion of a gene, pglW, required for phage growth limitation or Pgl in S.coelicolor. Cre-phage was also used for marker deletion in other strains of S.coelicolor. PMID:16473843

  10. Stochasticity in the Expression of LamB and its Affect on λ phage Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Emily; Wu, Xiao-Lun

    2006-03-01

    λ phage binds to E. Coli's lamB protein and injects its DNA into the cell. The phage quickly replicates and after a latent period the bacteria bursts, emitting mature phages. We developed a mathematical model based on the known physical events that occur when a λ phage infects an E.Coli cell. The results of these models predict that the bacteria and phage populations become extinct unless the parameters of the model are very finely tuned, which is untrue in the nature. The lamB protein is part of the maltose regulon and can be repressed to minimal levels when grown in the absence of inducer. Therefore, a cell that is not expressing any lamB protein at that moment is resistant against phage infection. We studied the dynamic relationship between λ phage and E. Coli when the concentration of phage greatly outnumbers the concentration of bacteria. We study how the stochasticity of the expression of lamB affects the percentage of cells that the λ phage infects. We show that even in the case when the maltose regulon is fully induced a percentage of cells continue to persist against phage infection.

  11. Injected phage-displayed-VP28 vaccine reduces shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei mortality by white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Solís-Lucero, G; Manoutcharian, K; Hernández-López, J; Ascencio, F

    2016-08-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important viral pathogen for the global shrimp industry causing mass mortalities with huge economic losses. Recombinant phages are capable of expressing foreign peptides on viral coat surface and act as antigenic peptide carriers bearing a phage-displayed vaccine. In this study, the full-length VP28 protein of WSSV, widely known as potential vaccine against infection in shrimp, was successfully cloned and expressed on M13 filamentous phage. The functionality and efficacy of this vaccine immunogen was demonstrated through immunoassay and in vivo challenge studies. In ELISA assay phage-displayed VP28 was bind to Litopenaeus vannamei immobilized hemocyte in contrast to wild-type M13 phage. Shrimps were injected with 2 × 10(10) cfu animal(-1) single dose of VP28-M13 and M13 once and 48 h later intramuscularly challenged with WSSV to test the efficacy of the vaccine against the infection. All dead challenged shrimps were PCR WSSV-positive. The accumulative mortality of the vaccinated and challenged shrimp groups was significantly lower (36.67%) than the unvaccinated group (66.67%). Individual phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase activity was assayed on 8 and 48 h post-vaccination. No significant difference was found in those immunological parameters among groups at any sampled time evaluated. For the first time, phage display technology was used to express a recombinant vaccine for shrimp. The highest percentage of relative survival in vaccinated shrimp (RPS = 44.99%) suggest that the recombinant phage can be used successfully to display and deliver VP28 for farmed marine crustaceans.

  12. Extensive phage dynamics in Staphylococcus aureus contributes to adaptation to the human host during infection.

    PubMed

    Goerke, Christiane; Wirtz, Christiane; Flückiger, Ursula; Wolz, Christiane

    2006-09-01

    Bacteriophages serve as a driving force in microbial evolution, adaptation to new environments and the pathogenesis of human bacterial infections. In Staphylococcus aureus phages encoding immune evasion molecules (SAK, SCIN, CHIPS), which integrate specifically into the beta-haemolysin (Hlb) gene, are widely distributed. When comparing S. aureus strain collections from infectious and colonizing situations we could detect a translocation of sak-encoding phages to atypical genomic integration sites in the bacterium only in the disease-related isolates. Additionally, significantly more Hlb producing strains were detected in the infectious strain collection. Extensive phage dynamics (intragenomic translocation, duplication, transfer between hosts, recombination events) during infection was shown by analysing cocolonizing and consecutive isolates of patients. This activity leads to the splitting of the strain population into various subfractions exhibiting different virulence potentials (Hlb-production and/or production of immune evasion molecules). Thus, phage-inducing conditions and strong selection for survival of the bacterial host after phage movement are typical for the infectious situation. Further in vitro characterization of phages revealed that: (i) SAK is encoded not only on serogroup F phages showing a conserved tropism for hlb but also on serogroup B phages which always integrate in a distinct intergenic region, (ii) the level of sak transcription correlates to phage inducibility but is independent of the phage localization in the chromosome, and (iii) phages can be stabilized extra-chromosomally during their life cycle.

  13. Quorum sensing influences phage infection efficiency via affecting cell population and physiological state.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xuying; Sun, Qinghui; Yang, Baixue; Pan, Xuewei; He, Yang; Yang, Hongjiang

    2017-02-01

    Bacterial growth phase has been reported affecting phage infection. To underpin the related mechanism, infection efficiency of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage K5 is characterized. When infecting the logarithmic cells, phage K5 produced significantly more infection centers than the stationary cells, well concordant with the viable cell ratio in the different growth phases. Additionally, the burst size decreased dramatically in the stationary cells, implying that the physiological state of the viable cells contributed to the productivity of phage K5, and it was consistent with the expression variation of the phage RNA polymerase. Quorum sensing inhibitor penicillic acid was applied and could significantly improve the viable cell proportion and the infection center numbers, but had less effect on the corresponding burst sizes. Moreover, the effect of penicillic acid and the quorum sensing regulator mutants on the production of phage C11 was also analyzed. Taken together, our data suggest that quorum sensing is involved in the defense of phage K5 infection by influencing the viable cell population and their physiological state, and it is an efficient and intrinsic pathway allowing bacteria to resist phage attacks in natural environment.

  14. Phage Therapy in Bacterial Infections Treatment: One Hundred Years After the Discovery of Bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Cisek, Agata Anna; Dąbrowska, Iwona; Gregorczyk, Karolina Paulina; Wyżewski, Zbigniew

    2017-02-01

    The therapeutic use of bacteriophages has seen a renewal of interest blossom in the last few years. This reversion is due to increased difficulties in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics, a serious problem in contemporary medicine, does not implicate resistance to phage lysis mechanisms. Lytic bacteriophages are able to kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria at the end of the phage infection cycle. Thus, the development of phage therapy is potentially a way to improve the treatment of bacterial infections. However, there are antibacterial phage therapy difficulties specified by broadening the knowledge of the phage nature and influence on the host. It has been shown during experiments that both innate and adaptive immunity are involved in the clearance of phages from the body. Immunological reactions against phages are related to the route of administration and may vary depending on the type of bacterial viruses. For that reason, it is very important to test the immunological response of every single phage, particularly if intravenous therapy is being considered. The lack of these data in previous years was one of the reasons for phage therapy abandonment despite its century-long study. Promising results of recent research led us to look forward to a phage therapy that can be applied on a larger scale and subsequently put it into practice.

  15. Genomic Diversity of Phages Infecting Probiotic Strains of Lactobacillus paracasei

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Geneviève M.; Capra, María L.; Quiberoni, Andrea; Tremblay, Denise M.; Labrie, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Strains of the Lactobacillus casei group have been extensively studied because some are used as probiotics in foods. Conversely, their phages have received much less attention. We analyzed the complete genome sequences of five L. paracasei temperate phages: CL1, CL2, iLp84, iLp1308, and iA2. Only phage iA2 could not replicate in an indicator strain. The genome lengths ranged from 34,155 bp (iA2) to 39,474 bp (CL1). Phages iA2 and iLp1308 (34,176 bp) possess the smallest genomes reported, thus far, for phages of the L. casei group. The GC contents of the five phage genomes ranged from 44.8 to 45.6%. As observed with many other phages, their genomes were organized as follows: genes coding for DNA packaging, morphogenesis, lysis, lysogeny, and replication. Phages CL1, CL2, and iLp1308 are highly related to each other. Phage iLp84 was also related to these three phages, but the similarities were limited to gene products involved in DNA packaging and structural proteins. Genomic fragments of phages CL1, CL2, iLp1308, and iLp84 were found in several genomes of L. casei strains. Prophage iA2 is unrelated to these four phages, but almost all of its genome was found in at least four L. casei strains. Overall, these phages are distinct from previously characterized Lactobacillus phages. Our results highlight the diversity of L. casei phages and indicate frequent DNA exchanges between phages and their hosts. PMID:26475105

  16. Genomic Diversity of Phages Infecting Probiotic Strains of Lactobacillus paracasei.

    PubMed

    Mercanti, Diego J; Rousseau, Geneviève M; Capra, María L; Quiberoni, Andrea; Tremblay, Denise M; Labrie, Simon J; Moineau, Sylvain

    2015-10-16

    Strains of the Lactobacillus casei group have been extensively studied because some are used as probiotics in foods. Conversely, their phages have received much less attention. We analyzed the complete genome sequences of five L. paracasei temperate phages: CL1, CL2, iLp84, iLp1308, and iA2. Only phage iA2 could not replicate in an indicator strain. The genome lengths ranged from 34,155 bp (iA2) to 39,474 bp (CL1). Phages iA2 and iLp1308 (34,176 bp) possess the smallest genomes reported, thus far, for phages of the L. casei group. The GC contents of the five phage genomes ranged from 44.8 to 45.6%. As observed with many other phages, their genomes were organized as follows: genes coding for DNA packaging, morphogenesis, lysis, lysogeny, and replication. Phages CL1, CL2, and iLp1308 are highly related to each other. Phage iLp84 was also related to these three phages, but the similarities were limited to gene products involved in DNA packaging and structural proteins. Genomic fragments of phages CL1, CL2, iLp1308, and iLp84 were found in several genomes of L. casei strains. Prophage iA2 is unrelated to these four phages, but almost all of its genome was found in at least four L. casei strains. Overall, these phages are distinct from previously characterized Lactobacillus phages. Our results highlight the diversity of L. casei phages and indicate frequent DNA exchanges between phages and their hosts.

  17. Micron-scale holes terminate the phage infection cycle.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Jill S; Savva, Christos G; White, Rebecca L; Vitha, Stanislav; Holzenburg, Andreas; Young, Ry

    2010-02-02

    Holins are small phage-encoded proteins that accumulate harmlessly in the cytoplasmic membrane during the infection cycle until suddenly, at an allele-specific time, triggering to form lethal lesions, or "holes." In the phages lambda and T4, the holes have been shown to be large enough to allow release of prefolded active endolysin from the cytoplasm, which results in destruction of the cell wall, followed by lysis within seconds. Here, the holes caused by S105, the lambda-holin, have been captured in vivo by cryo-EM. Surprisingly, the scale of the holes is at least an order of magnitude greater than any previously described membrane channel, with an average diameter of 340 nm and some exceeding 1 microm. Most cells exhibit only one hole, randomly positioned in the membrane, irrespective of its size. Moreover, on coexpression of holin and endolysin, the degradation of the cell wall leads to spherically shaped cells and a collapsed inner membrane sac. To obtain a 3D view of the hole by cryo-electron tomography, we needed to reduce the average size of the cells significantly. By taking advantage of the coupling of bacterial cell size and growth rate, we achieved an 80% reduction in cell mass by shifting to succinate minimal medium for inductions of the S105 gene. Cryotomographic analysis of the holes revealed that they were irregular in shape and showed no evidence of membrane invagination. The unexpected scale of these holes has implications for models of holin function.

  18. The presence of phage-infected Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in localized juvenile periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Preus, H R; Olsen, I; Namork, E

    1987-11-01

    Electron microscopy revealed 2 different types of bacteriophages isolated from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans colonizing exclusively diseased sites in 4 patients with localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP). All sites infected with phage were undergoing periodontal destruction, as judged from consecutive routine radiographs. The phages isolated had a wide host range as assessed from their ability to infect a series of reference strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans. A 5th patient harboured non-infected A. actinomycetemcomitans in a surgically treated site which had undergone no bone destruction during the last 12 months. The present findings suggested that the pathogenic potential of A. actinomycetemcomitans in LJP may increase due to phage infection.

  19. Recombinant Phage Elicits Protective Immune Response against Systemic S. globosa Infection in Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Jiang, Rihua; Wang, Yicun; Zhu, Mingji; Zhang, Xu; Dong, Shuai; Shi, Hongxi; Wang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Sporothrix globosa is a type of fungus that typically infects immunocompromised patients. Its prevention continues to pose a challenge. A 70-KDa glycoprotein (Gp70) of Sporothrix has been previously reported to protect host against infection from this fungus. Here, we displayed an epitope peptide (kpvqhalltplgldr) of Gp70 on the major coat protein (pIII), and investigated its efficiency as a vaccine for preventing S. globosa infection. The recombinant phage and the heat-killed S. globosa were used to immunize mice separately. In this study, we evaluated the humoral and cellular immune responses in the mice and demonstrated that recombinant phage could induce mice to produce a stronger immune response and generate antibodies to inhibit S. globosa infection. Furthermore, immunization with recombinant phage could increase the survival rate of S. globosa infection in mice. All these results together indicated that recombinant phages displaying kpvqhalltplgldr are a potential vaccine candidate against S. globosa infection. PMID:28165018

  20. Complete Genome Sequences of Nine Phages Capable of Infecting Paenibacillus larvae, the Causative Agent of American Foulbrood Disease in Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Yost, Diane G.; Krohn, Andrew; LeBlanc, Lucy; Zhang, Anna; Stamereilers, Casey; Amy, Penny S.

    2015-01-01

    We present here the complete genome sequences of nine phages that infect Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood disease in honeybees. The phages were isolated from soil, propolis, and infected bees from three U.S. states. This is the largest number of P. larvae phage genomes sequenced in a single publication to date. PMID:26472825

  1. Lytic and inhibition responses to bacteriophages among marine bacteria, with special reference to the origin of phage-host systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moebus, K.

    1983-12-01

    The results of phage-host cross-reaction tests reported by Moebus & Nattkemper (1981) were re-examined using serially diluted bacteriophage suspensions to elicit the actual type of reaction between the bacteria and phage lysates tested. More than 1450 phage-host systems were studied at 25 °C incubation temperature. Among the nearly 300 phage strains used, 29 were identified as temperate ones. In about 65 % of the phage-host systems bacteriophage propagation was indicated by plaque formation. The remaining systems were characterized by the “inhibition” reaction of bacteria to phage lysates indicated by homogenously reduced bacterial growth within the test area without production of progeny phages. Since crude phage lysates had to be used, it remains obscure whether agents other than infective phage particles (defective ones or bacteriocins) caused this reaction. Among 269 systems of the inhibition type which were also tested at 5° and 15 °C, 54 were observed to propagate phages at one of or both the lower temperatures. Plaques produced at 15 °C with several phage-host systems were found to yield only few progeny phages which generally could not be propagated to produce high-titer phage stocks. With one system temperature-sensitive phage mutants were isolated. The probability of inhibition reactions occurring was found to be higher with phage-host systems isolated east of the Azores than with systems derived from the western Atlantic. With systems from the last mentioned area the proportion of inhibition versus lytic responses of bacteria to phages was observed to increase with the distance between the stations where both parts of the systems were derived. The latter findings are discussed in view of the assumption that bacterial and bacteriophage populations undergo genetic changes while being transported from west to east.

  2. Novel phage group infecting Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, as revealed by genomic and proteomic analysis of bacteriophage Ldl1.

    PubMed

    Casey, Eoghan; Mahony, Jennifer; Neve, Horst; Noben, Jean-Paul; Dal Bello, Fabio; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2015-02-01

    Ldl1 is a virulent phage infecting the dairy starter Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis LdlS. Electron microscopy analysis revealed that this phage exhibits a large head and a long tail and bears little resemblance to other characterized phages infecting Lactobacillus delbrueckii. In vitro propagation of this phage revealed a latent period of 30 to 40 min and a burst size of 59.9 +/- 1.9 phage particles. Comparative genomic and proteomic analyses showed remarkable similarity between the genome of Ldl1 and that of Lactobacillus plantarum phage ATCC 8014-B2. The genomic and proteomic characteristics of Ldl1 demonstrate that this phage does not belong to any of the four previously recognized L. delbrueckii phage groups, necessitating the creation of a new group, called group e, thus adding to the knowledge on the diversity of phages targeting strains of this industrially important lactic acid bacterial species.

  3. Phage Therapy: a Step Forward in the Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Diana P.; Vilas Boas, Diana; Sillankorva, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance constitutes one of the major worldwide public health concerns. Bacteria are becoming resistant to the vast majority of antibiotics, and nowadays, a common infection can be fatal. To address this situation, the use of phages for the treatment of bacterial infections has been extensively studied as an alternative therapeutic strategy. Since Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common causes of health care-associated infections, many studies have reported the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial efficacy of phage therapy against this bacterium. This review collects data of all the P. aeruginosa phages sequenced to date, providing a better understanding about their biodiversity. This review further addresses the in vitro and in vivo results obtained by using phages to treat or prevent P. aeruginosa infections as well as the major hurdles associated with this therapy. PMID:25972556

  4. Bacteriophage T4 Infection of Stationary Phase E. coli: Life after Log from a Phage Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Daniel; El-Shibiny, Ayman; Hobbs, Zack; Porter, Jillian; Kutter, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all studies of phage infections investigate bacteria growing exponentially in rich media. In nature, however, phages largely encounter non-growing cells. Bacteria entering stationary phase often activate well-studied stress defense mechanisms that drastically alter the cell, facilitating its long-term survival. An understanding of phage-host interactions in such conditions is of major importance from both an ecological and therapeutic standpoint. Here, we show that bacteriophage T4 can efficiently bind to, infect and kill E. coli in stationary phase, both in the presence and absence of a functional stationary-phase sigma factor, and explore the response of T4-infected stationary phase cells to the addition of fresh nutrients 5 or 24 h after that infection. An unexpected new mode of response has been identified. “Hibernation” mode is a persistent but reversible dormant state in which the infected cells make at least some phage enzymes, but halt phage development until appropriate nutrients become available before producing phage particles. Our evidence indicates that the block in hibernation mode occurs after the middle-mode stage of phage development; host DNA breakdown and the incorporation of the released nucleotides into phage DNA indicate that the enzymes of the nucleotide synthesizing complex, under middle-mode control, have been made and assembled into a functional state. Once fresh glucose and amino acids become available, the standard lytic infection process rapidly resumes and concentrations of up to 1011 progeny phage (an average of about 40 phage per initially present cell) are produced. All evidence is consistent with the hibernation-mode control point lying between middle mode and late mode T4 gene expression. We have also observed a “scavenger” response, where the infecting phage takes advantage of whatever few nutrients are available to produce small quantities of progeny within 2 to 5 h after infection. The scavenger response seems

  5. Phage therapy as an approach to prevent Vibrio anguillarum infections in fish larvae production.

    PubMed

    Silva, Yolanda J; Costa, Liliana; Pereira, Carla; Mateus, Cristiana; Cunha, Angela; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M; Pardo, Miguel A; Hernandez, Igor; Almeida, Adelaide

    2014-01-01

    Fish larvae in aquaculture have high mortality rates due to pathogenic bacteria, especially the Vibrio species, and ineffective prophylactic strategies. Vaccination is not feasible in larvae and antibiotics have reduced efficacy against multidrug resistant bacteria. A novel approach to controlling Vibrio infections in aquaculture is needed. The potential of phage therapy to combat vibriosis in fish larvae production has not yet been examined. We describe the isolation and characterization of two bacteriophages capable of infecting pathogenic Vibrio and their application to prevent bacterial infection in fish larvae. Two groups of zebrafish larvae were infected with V. anguillarum (∼106 CFU mL-1) and one was later treated with a phage lysate (∼108 PFU mL-1). A third group was only added with phages. A fourth group received neither bacteria nor phages (fish control). Larvae mortality, after 72 h, in the infected and treated group was similar to normal levels and significantly lower than that of the infected but not treated group, indicating that phage treatment was effective. Thus, directly supplying phages to the culture water could be an effective and inexpensive approach toward reducing the negative impact of vibriosis in larviculture.

  6. Phage Therapy as an Approach to Prevent Vibrio anguillarum Infections in Fish Larvae Production

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Yolanda J.; Costa, Liliana; Pereira, Carla; Mateus, Cristiana; Cunha, Ângela; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Pardo, Miguel A.; Hernandez, Igor; Almeida, Adelaide

    2014-01-01

    Fish larvae in aquaculture have high mortality rates due to pathogenic bacteria, especially the Vibrio species, and ineffective prophylactic strategies. Vaccination is not feasible in larvae and antibiotics have reduced efficacy against multidrug resistant bacteria. A novel approach to controlling Vibrio infections in aquaculture is needed. The potential of phage therapy to combat vibriosis in fish larvae production has not yet been examined. We describe the isolation and characterization of two bacteriophages capable of infecting pathogenic Vibrio and their application to prevent bacterial infection in fish larvae. Two groups of zebrafish larvae were infected with V. anguillarum (∼106 CFU mL−1) and one was later treated with a phage lysate (∼108 PFU mL−1). A third group was only added with phages. A fourth group received neither bacteria nor phages (fish control). Larvae mortality, after 72 h, in the infected and treated group was similar to normal levels and significantly lower than that of the infected but not treated group, indicating that phage treatment was effective. Thus, directly supplying phages to the culture water could be an effective and inexpensive approach toward reducing the negative impact of vibriosis in larviculture. PMID:25464504

  7. Factors Affecting Phage D29 Infection: A Tool to Investigate Different Growth States of Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Benjamin M. C.; Gerrard, Zara E.; Huxley, Jonathan N.; Rees, Catherine E. D.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophages D29 and TM4 are able to infect a wide range of mycobacteria, including pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. Successful phage infection of both fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria can be rapidly detected using the phage amplification assay. Using this method, the effect of oxygen limitation during culture of mycobacteria on the success of phage infection was studied. Both D29 and TM4 were able to infect cultures of M. smegmatis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) grown in liquid with aeration. However when cultures were grown under oxygen limiting conditions, only TM4 could productively infect the cells. Cell attachment assays showed that D29 could bind to the cells surface but did not complete the lytic cycle. The ability of D29 to productively infect the cells was rapidly recovered (within 1 day) when the cultures were returned to an aerobic environment and this recovery required de novo RNA synthesis. These results indicated that under oxygen limiting conditions the cells are entering a growth state which inhibits phage D29 replication, and this change in host cell biology which can be detected by using both phage D29 and TM4 in the phage amplification assay. PMID:25184428

  8. Personalized Therapeutic Cocktail of Wild Environmental Phages Rescues Mice from Acinetobacter baumannii Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Regeimbal, James M.; Jacobs, Anna C.; Corey, Brendan W.; Henry, Matthew S.; Thompson, Mitchell G.; Pavlicek, Rebecca L.; Quinones, Javier; Hannah, Ryan M.; Ghebremedhin, Meron; Crane, Nicole J.; Zurawski, Daniel V.; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa C.; Hall, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens are an increasing threat to public health, and lytic bacteriophages have reemerged as a potential therapeutic option. In this work, we isolated and assembled a five-member cocktail of wild phages against Acinetobacter baumannii and demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in a mouse full-thickness dorsal infected wound model. The cocktail lowers the bioburden in the wound, prevents the spread of infection and necrosis to surrounding tissue, and decreases infection-associated morbidity. Interestingly, this effective cocktail is composed of four phages that do not kill the parent strain of the infection and one phage that simply delays bacterial growth in vitro via a strong but incomplete selection event. The cocktail here appears to function in a combinatorial manner, as one constituent phage targets capsulated A. baumannii bacteria and selects for loss of receptor, shifting the population to an uncapsulated state that is then sensitized to the remaining four phages in the cocktail. Additionally, capsule is a known virulence factor for A. baumannii, and we demonstrated that the emergent uncapsulated bacteria are avirulent in a Galleria mellonella model. These results highlight the importance of anticipating population changes during phage therapy and designing intelligent cocktails to control emergent strains, as well as the benefits of using phages that target virulence factors. Because of the efficacy of this cocktail isolated from a limited environmental pool, we have established a pipeline for developing new phage therapeutics against additional clinically relevant multidrug-resistant pathogens by using environmental phages sourced from around the globe. PMID:27431214

  9. On size-dependent stability and infectivity of λ bacterial phages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Long; Wang, Jizeng

    2015-02-01

    The elastic icosahedral capsid of λ phages plays an important role in the life cycle of these phages, such as holding the viral genome and releasing confinement for DNA ejection. Understanding how a nanosized elastic capsid guarantees the stability and infectivity of λ phages is challenging. In this article, we propose a combined nonlinear continuum and statistical mechanics model by considering the effects of DNA bending deformation, electrostatic repulsion between DNA-DNA strands, and elastic deformation of phage capsid to investigate the coupled process between capsid and DNA in packaging and ejection. Based on this model, we show that packaging DNA into immature λ phage capsid uses less force than packaging DNA into mature λ phage because of the deformability and softness of the former. Consequently, resistance to DNA packaging inside capsid decreases compared with mature ones. We also observe relationships between phage capsid size and the maximum shear stress on the inner surface of capsid and required osmotic pressure for the complete inhibition of DNA ejection. An optimized radius of capsid, i.e., around 30 nm, is found for both stable DNA packaging and effective viral infection from mechanical standpoints, which may result from physical evolution. All these findings may be interesting to toxicologists, nanotechnologists, and virologists.

  10. Assessing phage therapy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa using a Galleria mellonella infection model.

    PubMed

    Beeton, M L; Alves, D R; Enright, M C; Jenkins, A T A

    2015-08-01

    The Galleria mellonella infection model was used to assess the in vivo efficacy of phage therapy against laboratory and clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In a first series of experiments, Galleria were infected with the laboratory strain P. aeruginosa PAO1 and were treated with varying multiplicity of infection (MOI) of phages either 2h post-infection (treatment) or 2h pre-infection (prevention) via injection into the haemolymph. To address the kinetics of infection, larvae were bled over a period of 24h for quantification of bacteria and phages. Survival rates at 24h when infected with 10 cells/larvae were greater in the prevention versus treatment model (47% vs. 40%, MOI=10; 47% vs. 20%, MOI=1; and 33% vs. 7%, MOI=0.1). This pattern held true when 100 cells/larvae were used (87% vs. 20%, MOI=10; 53% vs. 13%, MOI=1; 67% vs. 7%, MOI=0.1). By 24h post-infection, phages kept bacterial cell numbers in the haemolymph 1000-fold lower than in the non-treated group. In a second series of experiments using clinical strains to further validate the prevention model, phages protected Galleria when infected with both a bacteraemia (0% vs. 85%) and a cystic fibrosis (80% vs. 100%) isolate. Therefore, this study validates the use of G. mellonella as a simple, robust and cost-effective model for initial in vivo examination of P. aeruginosa-targeted phage therapy, which may be applied to other pathogens with similarly low infective doses.

  11. Characteristics and complete genome analysis of a novel jumbo phage infecting pathogenic Bacillus pumilus causing ginger rhizome rot disease.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yihui; Gao, Meiying

    2016-12-01

    Tailed phages with genomes larger than 200 kbp are classified as jumbo phage and exhibit extremely high diversity. In this study, a novel jumbo phage, vB_BpuM_BpSp, infecting pathogenic Bacillus pumilus, the cause of ginger rhizome rot disease, was isolated. Notable features of phage vB_BpuM_BpSp are the large phage capsid of 137 nm and baseplate-attached curly tail fibers. The genome of the phage is 255,569 bp in size with G+C content of 25.9 %, and it shows low similarity to known biological entities. The phage genome contains 318 predicted coding sequences. Among these predicted coding sequences, 26 genes responsible for nucleotide metabolism were found, and seven structural genes could be identified. The findings of this study provide new understanding of the genetic diversity of phages.

  12. Mechanisms of multi-strain coexistence in host-phage systems with nested infection networks.

    PubMed

    Jover, Luis F; Cortez, Michael H; Weitz, Joshua S

    2013-09-07

    Bacteria and their viruses (bacteriophages) coexist in natural environments forming complex infection networks. Recent empirical findings suggest that phage-bacteria infection networks often possess a nested structure such that there is a hierarchical relationship among who can infect whom. Here we consider how nested infection networks may affect phage and bacteria dynamics using a multi-type Lotka-Volterra framework with cross-infection. Analysis of similar models has, in the past, assumed simpler interaction structures as a first step towards tractability. We solve the proposed model, finding trade-off conditions on the life-history traits of both bacteria and viruses that allow coexistence in communities with nested infection networks. First, we find that bacterial growth rate should decrease with increasing defense against infection. Second, we find that the efficiency of viral infection should decrease with host range. Next, we establish a relationship between relative densities and the curvature of life history trade-offs. We compare and contrast the current findings to the "Kill-the-Winner" model of multi-species phage-bacteria communities. Finally, we discuss a suite of testable hypotheses stemming from the current model concerning relationships between infection range, life history traits and coexistence in complex phage-bacteria communities.

  13. Development of a Phage Cocktail to Control Proteus mirabilis Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Luís D. R.; Veiga, Patrícia; Cerca, Nuno; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Almeida, Carina; Azeredo, Joana; Sillankorva, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is an enterobacterium that causes catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) due to its ability to colonize and form crystalline biofilms on the catheters surface. CAUTIs are very difficult to treat, since biofilm structures are highly tolerant to antibiotics. Phages have been used widely to control a diversity of bacterial species, however, a limited number of phages for P. mirabilis have been isolated and studied. Here we report the isolation of two novel virulent phages, the podovirus vB_PmiP_5460 and the myovirus vB_PmiM_5461, which are able to target, respectively, 16 of the 26 and all the Proteus strains tested in this study. Both phages have been characterized thoroughly and sequencing data revealed no traces of genes associated with lysogeny. To further evaluate the phages’ ability to prevent catheter’s colonization by Proteus, the phages adherence to silicone surfaces was assessed. Further tests in phage-coated catheters using a dynamic biofilm model simulating CAUTIs, have shown a significant reduction of P. mirabilis biofilm formation up to 168 h of catheterization. These results highlight the potential usefulness of the two isolated phages for the prevention of surface colonization by this bacterium. PMID:27446059

  14. Genome sequence of the phage clP1, which infects the beer spoilage bacterium Pediococcus damnosus.

    PubMed

    Kelly, David; O'Sullivan, Orla; Mills, Susan; McAuliffe, Olivia; Ross, R Paul; Neve, Horst; Coffey, Aidan

    2012-08-01

    Pediococcus damnosus (P. damnosus) bacteriophage (phage) clP1 is a novel virulent phage isolated from a municipal sewage sample collected in Southern Ireland. This phage infects the beer spoilage strain P. damnosus P82 which was isolated from German breweries. Sequencing of the phage has revealed a linear double stranded DNA genome of 38,013 base pairs (bp) with an overall GC content of 47.6%. Fifty seven open reading frames (ORFs) were identified of which 30 showed homology to previously sequenced proteins, and as a consequence 20 of these were assigned predicted functions. The majority of genes displayed homology with genes from the Lactobacillus plantarum phage phiJL-1. All genes were located on the same coding strand and in the same orientation. Morphological characterisation placed phage clP1 as a member of the Siphoviridae family with an isometric head (59 nm diameter) and non-contractile tail (length 175 nm; diameter 10nm. Interestingly, the phage clP1 genome was found to share very limited identity with other phage genome sequences in the database, and was hence considered unique. This was highlighted by the genome organisation which differed slightly to the consensus pattern of genomic organisation usually found in Siphoviridae phages. With the genetic machinery present for a lytic lifecycle and the absence of potential endotoxin factors, this phage may have applications in the biocontrol of beer spoilage bacteria. To our knowledge, this study represents the first reported P. damnosus phage genome sequence.

  15. Development of Anti-Infectives Using Phage Display: Biological Agents against Bacteria, Viruses, and Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Johnny X.; Bishop-Hurley, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of anti-infective therapeutics on the market or in development are small molecules; however, there is now a nascent pipeline of biological agents in development. Until recently, phage display technologies were used mainly to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) targeted against cancer or inflammatory disease targets. Patent disputes impeded broad use of these methods and contributed to the dearth of candidates in the clinic during the 1990s. Today, however, phage display is recognized as a powerful tool for selecting novel peptides and antibodies that can bind to a wide range of antigens, ranging from whole cells to proteins and lipid targets. In this review, we highlight research that exploits phage display technology as a means of discovering novel therapeutics against infectious diseases, with a focus on antimicrobial peptides and antibodies in clinical or preclinical development. We discuss the different strategies and methods used to derive, select, and develop anti-infectives from phage display libraries and then highlight case studies of drug candidates in the process of development and commercialization. Advances in screening, manufacturing, and humanization technologies now mean that phage display can make a significant contribution in the fight against clinically important pathogens. PMID:22664969

  16. Strain Specific Phage Treatment for Staphylococcus aureus Infection Is Influenced by Host Immunity and Site of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, Nathan B.; Jammeh, Momodou L.; Datta, Sandip K.; Myles, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    The response to multi-drug resistant bacterial infections must be a global priority. While mounting resistance threatens to create what the World Health Organization has termed a “post-antibiotic era”, the recent discovery that antibiotic use may adversely impact the microbiome adds further urgency to the need for new developmental approaches for anti-pathogen treatments. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), in particular, has declared itself a serious threat within the United States and abroad. A potential solution to the problem of antibiotic resistance may not entail looking to the future for completely novel treatments, but instead looking into our history of bacteriophage therapy. This study aimed to test the efficacy, safety, and commercial viability of the use of phages to treat Staphylococcus aureus infections using the commercially available phage SATA-8505. We found that SATA-8505 effectively controls S. aureus growth and reduces bacterial viability both in vitro and in a skin infection mouse model. However, this killing effect was not observed when phage was cultured in the presence of human whole blood. SATA-8505 did not induce inflammatory responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cultures. However, phage did induce IFN gamma production in primary human keratinocyte cultures and induced inflammatory responses in our mouse models, particularly in a mouse model of chronic granulomatous disease. Our findings support the potential efficacy of phage therapy, although regulatory and market factors may limit its wider investigation and use. PMID:25909449

  17. Dispersal network structure and infection mechanism shape diversity in a coevolutionary bacteria-phage system.

    PubMed

    Sieber, Michael; Robb, Matthew; Forde, Samantha E; Gudelj, Ivana

    2014-03-01

    Resource availability, dispersal and infection genetics all have the potential to fundamentally alter the coevolutionary dynamics of bacteria-bacteriophage interactions. However, it remains unclear how these factors synergise to shape diversity within bacterial populations. We used a combination of laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling to test how the structure of a dispersal network affects host phenotypic diversity in a coevolving bacteria-phage system in communities of differential resource input. Unidirectional dispersal of bacteria and phage from high to low resources consistently increased host diversity compared with a no dispersal regime. Bidirectional dispersal, on the other hand, led to a marked decrease in host diversity. Our mathematical model predicted these opposing outcomes when we incorporated modified gene-for-gene infection genetics. To further test how host diversity depended on the genetic underpinnings of the bacteria-phage interaction, we expanded our mathematical model to include different infection mechanisms. We found that the direction of dispersal had very little impact on bacterial diversity when the bacteria-phage interaction was mediated by matching alleles, gene-for-gene or related infection mechanisms. Our experimental and theoretical results demonstrate that the effects of dispersal on diversity in coevolving host-parasite systems depend on an intricate interplay of the structure of the underlying dispersal network and the specifics of the host-parasite interaction.

  18. In vivo efficacy of single phage versus phage cocktail in resolving burn wound infection in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Parul; Katare, Om Prakash; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2016-10-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most predominant pathogens associated with burn wound infections, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. The indiscriminate usage of antibiotics has led to the development of resistant strains, which have contributed towards the inefficacy of antibiotics. Phage therapy is a promising alternative to hinder the progression of pathogenic bacteria. However, phage bacterial resistance is already well known but the use of phage cocktails can overcome this drawback. The aim of the study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of monophage (Kpn1, Kpn2, Kpn3, Kpn4 and Kpn5) in comparison to phage cocktail in resolving the course of burn wound infection in mice. Although, animals receiving monophage therapy exhibited efficacy in resolving the course of infection but phage cocktail was highly effective in arresting the entire infection process (bacterial load, wound contraction, skin myeloperoxidase activity, collagen formation and histopathological analysis). In comparison to untreated control mice, a significant reduction in bacterial load to 4.32, 4.64, 4.42, 4.11 and 4.27 log CFU/ml in Kpn1, Kpn2, Kpn3 Kpn4 and Kpn5 treated animals was obtained respectively was on peak day (3rd day). However, the group receiving phage cocktail (group 7) showed maximum reduction in bacterial load in the skin tissue. The bacterial load was significantly reduced to 3.01 log CFU/ml on peak day. This accounts for a significant reduction of 6 log cycles (p < 0.01) as compared to that of untreated control animals where a peak of 8.81 log CFU/ml was seen followed by steady decrease thereafter. Thus, phage cocktail gave maximum protection against burn wound infection by K. pneumoniae B5055. Compared to any single phage, phage cocktail significantly checked the emergence of resistant mutants. Hence this approach can serve as an effective strategy in treating Klebsiella mediated burn wound infections in individuals who do not respond to conventional

  19. Phages of non-dairy lactococci: isolation and characterization of ΦL47, a phage infecting the grass isolate Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris DPC6860

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Daniel; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Neve, Horst; Coffey, Aidan; Ross, R. Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; McAuliffe, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Lactococci isolated from non-dairy sources have been found to possess enhanced metabolic activity when compared to dairy strains. These capabilities may be harnessed through the use of these strains as starter or adjunct cultures to produce more diverse flavor profiles in cheese and other dairy products. To understand the interactions between these organisms and the phages that infect them, a number of phages were isolated against lactococcal strains of non-dairy origin. One such phage, ΦL47, was isolated from a sewage sample using the grass isolate L. lactis ssp. cremoris DPC6860 as a host. Visualization of phage virions by transmission electron microscopy established that this phage belongs to the family Siphoviridae and possesses a long tail fiber, previously unseen in dairy lactococcal phages. Determination of the lytic spectrum revealed a broader than expected host range, with ΦL47 capable of infecting 4 industrial dairy strains, including ML8, HP and 310, and 3 additional non-dairy isolates. Whole genome sequencing of ΦL47 revealed a dsDNA genome of 128, 546 bp, making it the largest sequenced lactococcal phage to date. In total, 190 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, and comparative analysis revealed that the predicted products of 117 of these ORFs shared greater than 50% amino acid identity with those of L. lactis phage Φ949, a phage isolated from cheese whey. Despite their different ecological niches, the genomic content and organization of ΦL47 and Φ949 are quite similar, with both containing 4 gene clusters oriented in different transcriptional directions. Other features that distinguish ΦL47 from Φ949 and other lactococcal phages, in addition to the presence of the tail fiber and the genome length, include a low GC content (32.5%) and a high number of predicted tRNA genes (8). Comparative genome analysis supports the conclusion that ΦL47 is a new member of the 949 lactococcal phage group which currently includes the dairy Φ949. PMID

  20. The tail-associated depolymerase of Erwinia amylovora phage L1 mediates host cell adsorption and enzymatic capsule removal, which can enhance infection by other phage.

    PubMed

    Born, Yannick; Fieseler, Lars; Klumpp, Jochen; Eugster, Marcel R; Zurfluh, Katrin; Duffy, Brion; Loessner, Martin J

    2014-07-01

    The depolymerase enzyme (DpoL1) encoded by the T7-like phage L1 efficiently degrades amylovoran, an important virulence factor and major component of the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) of its host, the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Mass spectrometry analysis of hydrolysed EPS revealed that DpoL1 cleaves the galactose-containing backbone of amylovoran. The enzyme is most active at pH 6 and 50°C, and features a modular architecture. Removal of 180 N-terminal amino acids was shown not to affect enzyme activity. The C-terminus harbours the hydrolase activity, while the N-terminal domain links the enzyme to the phage particle. Electron microscopy demonstrated that DpoL1-specific antibodies cross-link phage particles at their tails, either lateral or frontal, and immunogold staining confirmed that DpoL1 is located at the tail spikes. Exposure of high-level EPS-producing Er. amylovora strain CFBP1430 to recombinant DpoL1 dramatically increased sensitivity to the Dpo-negative phage Y2, which was not the case for EPS-negative mutants or low-level EPS-producing Er. amylovora. Our findings indicate that enhanced phage susceptibility is based on enzymatic removal of the EPS capsule, normally a physical barrier to Y2 infection, and that use of DpoL1 together with the broad host range, virulent phage Y2 represents an attractive combination for biocontrol of fire blight.

  1. Genome sequence of the phage-gene rich marine Phaeobacter arcticus type strain DSM 23566T

    PubMed Central

    Freese, Heike M.; Dalingault, Hajnalka; Petersen, Jörn; Pradella, Silke; Davenport, Karen; Teshima, Hazuki; Chen, Amy; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Chain, Patrick; Detter, John C.; Rohde, Manfred; Gronow, Sabine; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Woyke, Tanja; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Göker, Markus; Overmann, Jörg; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Phaeobacter arcticus Zhang et al. 2008 belongs to the marine Roseobacter clade whose members are phylogenetically and physiologically diverse. In contrast to the type species of this genus, Phaeobacter gallaeciensis, which is well characterized, relatively little is known about the characteristics of P. arcticus. Here, we describe the features of this organism including the annotated high-quality draft genome sequence and highlight some particular traits. The 5,049,232 bp long genome with its 4,828 protein-coding and 81 RNA genes consists of one chromosome and five extrachromosomal elements. Prophage sequences identified via PHAST constitute nearly 5% of the bacterial chromosome and included a potential Mu-like phage as well as a gene-transfer agent (GTA). In addition, the genome of strain DSM 23566T encodes all of the genes necessary for assimilatory nitrate reduction. Phylogenetic analysis and intergenomic distances indicate that the classification of the species might need to be reconsidered. PMID:24501630

  2. Loss of virulence of the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum through infection by φRSM filamentous phages.

    PubMed

    Addy, Hardian S; Askora, Ahmed; Kawasaki, Takeru; Fujie, Makoto; Yamada, Takashi

    2012-05-01

    φRSM1 and φRSM3 (φRSM phages) are filamentous phages (inoviruses) that infect Ralstonia solanacearum, the causative agent of bacterial wilt. Infection by φRSM phages causes several cultural and physiological changes to host cells, especially loss of virulence. In this study, we characterized changes related to the virulence in φRSM3-infected cells, including (i) reduced twitching motility and reduced amounts of type IV pili (Tfp), (ii) lower levels of β-1,4-endoglucanase (Egl) activity and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) production, and (iii) reduced expression of certain genes (egl, pehC, phcA, phcB, pilT, and hrpB). The significantly lower levels of phcA and phcB expression in φRSM3-infected cells suggested that functional PhcA was insufficient to activate many virulence genes. Tomato plants injected with φRSM3-infected cells of different R. solanacearum strains did not show wilting symptoms. The virulence and virulence factors were restored when φRSM3-encoded orf15, the gene for a putative repressor-like protein, was disrupted. Expression levels of phcA as well as other virulence-related genes in φRSM3-ΔORF15-infected cells were comparable with those in wild-type cells, suggesting that orf15 of φRSM3 may repress phcA and, consequently, result in loss of virulence.

  3. Photosynthesis genes in marine viruses yield proteins during host infection.

    PubMed

    Lindell, Debbie; Jaffe, Jacob D; Johnson, Zackary I; Church, George M; Chisholm, Sallie W

    2005-11-03

    Cyanobacteria, and the viruses (phages) that infect them, are significant contributors to the oceanic 'gene pool'. This pool is dynamic, and the transfer of genetic material between hosts and their phages probably influences the genetic and functional diversity of both. For example, photosynthesis genes of cyanobacterial origin have been found in phages that infect Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, the numerically dominant phototrophs in ocean ecosystems. These genes include psbA, which encodes the photosystem II core reaction centre protein D1, and high-light-inducible (hli) genes. Here we show that phage psbA and hli genes are expressed during infection of Prochlorococcus and are co-transcribed with essential phage capsid genes, and that the amount of phage D1 protein increases steadily over the infective period. We also show that the expression of host photosynthesis genes declines over the course of infection and that replication of the phage genome is a function of photosynthesis. We thus propose that the phage genes are functional in photosynthesis and that they may be increasing phage fitness by supplementing the host production of these proteins.

  4. Use of phages to control Vibrio splendidus infection in the juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Jiancheng; Wang, Xitao; Wang, Lili; Cao, Zhenhui; Xu, Yongping

    2016-07-01

    , ingestion rate or feed conversion among sea cucumber fed the 4 phage treatments compared with those fed the unsupplemented diet (P > 0.05). The levels of nitric oxide synthase and acid phosphatase of sea cucumbers fed phage-containing diets were significantly (P < 0.05) increased compared with those fed the control diet. However, no significant differences (P > 0.05) were detected among the 4 phage-fed treatments. An additional study was conducted in which 60 healthy sea cucumbers (23 ± 2 g) were randomly assigned to a control, an untreated group and a test group to investigate the effects of injecting phages by coelomic injection on the survival rate and enzyme activities in the coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers. The control was injected with 1 ml of sterilized seawater while the untreated group and the test group were injected with the same volume of V. splendidus-ABTNL culture (3 × 10(5) CFU/mL). Then, the test group was injected with 1 ml of the 3 phage cocktail (MOI = 10). After 48 h, the activities of lysozyme, acid phosphatase and superoxide dismutase were elevated in the untreated group while the levels of these enzymes in the test group were similar to the blank control. After 10-day observation, the survival rate of the sea cucumber was 100% for the blank control, 80% for the test group and 20% for the negative control. The overall results of this experiment indicate that phage therapy increased the survival of sea cucumber infected with V. splendidus VS-ABTNL. The above results demonstrate that using phages, especially a combination of different phages, may be a feasible way to control Vibrio infection in the sea cucumber industry.

  5. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh B; Corrier, Kristen L; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in unknowns dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four wellknown viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  6. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans.

    PubMed

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-07-30

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  7. Biotechnological war against biofilms. Could phages mean the end of device-related infections?

    PubMed

    Del Pozo, J L; Alonso, M; Arciola, C R; Gonzalez, R; Leiva, J; Lasa, I; Penades, J

    2007-09-01

    Microorganisms universally attach to surfaces, resulting in biofilm formation. These biofilms entail a serious problem in daily clinical practice because of the great prevalence of implantable device-related infections. Differences in antibiotic activity against planktonic and sessile bacteria may relate to clinical failures in the treatment of biofilm-related infections (BRI). Bacteriophages have several characteristics that make them potentially attractive therapeutic agents in some selected clinical settings, like for example BRI. They are highly specific and very effective in lysing targeted bacteria, moreover, they appear to be safe for humans. Many studies have shown the potential of phages for the treatment of infectious diseases in plants and animals, including infections with highly drug-resistant bacteria. The therapeutic use of bacteriophages, possibly in combination with antibiotics, may be a valuable approach in BRI. However, many important questions still remain that must be addressed before phages can be endorsed for therapeutic use in humans.

  8. Transcription Profiling of Bacillus subtilis Cells Infected with AR9, a Giant Phage Encoding Two Multisubunit RNA Polymerases.

    PubMed

    Lavysh, Daria; Sokolova, Maria; Slashcheva, Marina; Förstner, Konrad U; Severinov, Konstantin

    2017-02-14

    Bacteriophage AR9 is a recently sequenced jumbo phage that encodes two multisubunit RNA polymerases. Here we investigated the AR9 transcription strategy and the effect of AR9 infection on the transcription of its host, Bacillus subtilis Analysis of whole-genome transcription revealed early, late, and continuously expressed AR9 genes. Alignment of sequences upstream of the 5' ends of AR9 transcripts revealed consensus sequences that define early and late phage promoters. Continuously expressed AR9 genes have both early and late promoters in front of them. Early AR9 transcription is independent of protein synthesis and must be determined by virion RNA polymerase injected together with viral DNA. During infection, the overall amount of host mRNAs is significantly decreased. Analysis of relative amounts of host transcripts revealed notable differences in the levels of some mRNAs. The physiological significance of up- or downregulation of host genes for AR9 phage infection remains to be established. AR9 infection is significantly affected by rifampin, an inhibitor of host RNA polymerase transcription. The effect is likely caused by the antibiotic-induced killing of host cells, while phage genome transcription is solely performed by viral RNA polymerases.IMPORTANCE Phages regulate the timing of the expression of their own genes to coordinate processes in the infected cell and maximize the release of viral progeny. Phages also alter the levels of host transcripts. Here we present the results of a temporal analysis of the host and viral transcriptomes of Bacillus subtilis infected with a giant phage, AR9. We identify viral promoters recognized by two virus-encoded RNA polymerases that are a unique feature of the phiKZ-related group of phages to which AR9 belongs. Our results set the stage for future analyses of highly unusual RNA polymerases encoded by AR9 and other phiKZ-related phages.

  9. Genetic Evidence for the Involvement of the S-Layer Protein Gene sap and the Sporulation Genes spo0A, spo0B, and spo0F in Phage AP50c Infection of Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Beaber, John W.; Zemansky, Jason; Kaur, Ajinder P.; George, Matroner; Biswas, Biswajit; Henry, Matthew; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A.; Mokashi, Vishwesh; Hannah, Ryan M.; Pope, Robert K.; Read, Timothy D.; Stibitz, Scott; Calendar, Richard; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga

    2014-01-01

    In order to better characterize the Bacillus anthracis typing phage AP50c, we designed a genetic screen to identify its bacterial receptor. Insertions of the transposon mariner or targeted deletions of the structural gene for the S-layer protein Sap and the sporulation genes spo0A, spo0B, and spo0F in B. anthracis Sterne resulted in phage resistance with concomitant defects in phage adsorption and infectivity. Electron microscopy of bacteria incubated with AP50c revealed phage particles associated with the surface of bacilli of the Sterne strain but not with the surfaces of Δsap, Δspo0A, Δspo0B, or Δspo0F mutants. The amount of Sap in the S layer of each of the spo0 mutant strains was substantially reduced compared to that of the parent strain, and incubation of AP50c with purified recombinant Sap led to a substantial reduction in phage activity. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole-genome sequences of B. cereus sensu lato strains revealed several closely related B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains that carry sap genes with very high similarities to the sap gene of B. anthracis. Complementation of the Δsap mutant in trans with the wild-type B. anthracis sap or the sap gene from either of two different B. cereus strains that are sensitive to AP50c infection restored phage sensitivity, and electron microscopy confirmed attachment of phage particles to the surface of each of the complemented strains. Based on these data, we postulate that Sap is involved in AP50c infectivity, most likely acting as the phage receptor, and that the spo0 genes may regulate synthesis of Sap and/or formation of the S layer. PMID:24363347

  10. Genetic evidence for the involvement of the S-layer protein gene sap and the sporulation genes spo0A, spo0B, and spo0F in Phage AP50c infection of Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Plaut, Roger D; Beaber, John W; Zemansky, Jason; Kaur, Ajinder P; George, Matroner; Biswas, Biswajit; Henry, Matthew; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A; Mokashi, Vishwesh; Hannah, Ryan M; Pope, Robert K; Read, Timothy D; Stibitz, Scott; Calendar, Richard; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga

    2014-03-01

    In order to better characterize the Bacillus anthracis typing phage AP50c, we designed a genetic screen to identify its bacterial receptor. Insertions of the transposon mariner or targeted deletions of the structural gene for the S-layer protein Sap and the sporulation genes spo0A, spo0B, and spo0F in B. anthracis Sterne resulted in phage resistance with concomitant defects in phage adsorption and infectivity. Electron microscopy of bacteria incubated with AP50c revealed phage particles associated with the surface of bacilli of the Sterne strain but not with the surfaces of Δsap, Δspo0A, Δspo0B, or Δspo0F mutants. The amount of Sap in the S layer of each of the spo0 mutant strains was substantially reduced compared to that of the parent strain, and incubation of AP50c with purified recombinant Sap led to a substantial reduction in phage activity. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole-genome sequences of B. cereus sensu lato strains revealed several closely related B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains that carry sap genes with very high similarities to the sap gene of B. anthracis. Complementation of the Δsap mutant in trans with the wild-type B. anthracis sap or the sap gene from either of two different B. cereus strains that are sensitive to AP50c infection restored phage sensitivity, and electron microscopy confirmed attachment of phage particles to the surface of each of the complemented strains. Based on these data, we postulate that Sap is involved in AP50c infectivity, most likely acting as the phage receptor, and that the spo0 genes may regulate synthesis of Sap and/or formation of the S layer.

  11. A proposed integrated approach for the preclinical evaluation of phage therapy in Pseudomonas infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danis-Wlodarczyk, Katarzyna; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Jang, Ho Bin; Briers, Yves; Olszak, Tomasz; Arabski, Michal; Wasik, Slawomir; Drabik, Marcin; Higgins, Gerard; Tyrrell, Jean; Harvey, Brian J.; Noben, Jean-Paul; Lavigne, Rob; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna

    2016-06-01

    Bacteriophage therapy is currently resurging as a potential complement/alternative to antibiotic treatment. However, preclinical evaluation lacks streamlined approaches. We here focus on preclinical approaches which have been implemented to assess bacteriophage efficacy against Pseudomonas biofilms and infections. Laser interferometry and profilometry were applied to measure biofilm matrix permeability and surface geometry changes, respectively. These biophysical approaches were combined with an advanced Airway Surface Liquid infection model, which mimics in vitro the normal and CF lung environments, and an in vivo Galleria larvae model. These assays have been implemented to analyze KTN4 (279,593 bp dsDNA genome), a type-IV pili dependent, giant phage resembling phiKZ. Upon contact, KTN4 immediately disrupts the P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm and reduces pyocyanin and siderophore production. The gentamicin exclusion assay on NuLi-1 and CuFi-1 cell lines revealed the decrease of extracellular bacterial load between 4 and 7 logs and successfully prevents wild-type Pseudomonas internalization into CF epithelial cells. These properties and the significant rescue of Galleria larvae indicate that giant KTN4 phage is a suitable candidate for in vivo phage therapy evaluation for lung infection applications.

  12. A proposed integrated approach for the preclinical evaluation of phage therapy in Pseudomonas infections

    PubMed Central

    Danis-Wlodarczyk, Katarzyna; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Jang, Ho Bin; Briers, Yves; Olszak, Tomasz; Arabski, Michal; Wasik, Slawomir; Drabik, Marcin; Higgins, Gerard; Tyrrell, Jean; Harvey, Brian J.; Noben, Jean-Paul; Lavigne, Rob; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophage therapy is currently resurging as a potential complement/alternative to antibiotic treatment. However, preclinical evaluation lacks streamlined approaches. We here focus on preclinical approaches which have been implemented to assess bacteriophage efficacy against Pseudomonas biofilms and infections. Laser interferometry and profilometry were applied to measure biofilm matrix permeability and surface geometry changes, respectively. These biophysical approaches were combined with an advanced Airway Surface Liquid infection model, which mimics in vitro the normal and CF lung environments, and an in vivo Galleria larvae model. These assays have been implemented to analyze KTN4 (279,593 bp dsDNA genome), a type-IV pili dependent, giant phage resembling phiKZ. Upon contact, KTN4 immediately disrupts the P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm and reduces pyocyanin and siderophore production. The gentamicin exclusion assay on NuLi-1 and CuFi-1 cell lines revealed the decrease of extracellular bacterial load between 4 and 7 logs and successfully prevents wild-type Pseudomonas internalization into CF epithelial cells. These properties and the significant rescue of Galleria larvae indicate that giant KTN4 phage is a suitable candidate for in vivo phage therapy evaluation for lung infection applications. PMID:27301427

  13. Designing phage therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Goodridge, Lawrence D

    2010-01-01

    Phage therapy is the application of phages to bodies, substances, or environments to effect the biocontrol of pathogenic or nuisance bacteria. To be effective, phages, minimally, must be capable of attaching to bacteria (adsorption), killing those bacteria (usually associated with phage infection), and otherwise surviving (resisting decay) until they achieve attachment and subsequent killing. While a strength of phage therapy is that phages that possess appropriate properties can be chosen from a large diversity of naturally occurring phages, a more rational approach to phage therapy also can include post-isolation manipulation of phages genetically, phenotypically, or in terms of combining different products into a single formulation. Genetic manipulation, especially in these modern times, can involve genetic engineering, though a more traditional approach involves the selection of spontaneously occurring phage mutants during serial transfer protocols. While genetic modification typically is done to give rise to phenotypic changes in phages, phage phenotype alone can also be modified in vitro, prior to phage application for therapeutic purposes, as for the sake of improving phage lethality (such as by linking phage virions to antibacterial chemicals such as chloramphenicol) or survival capabilities (e.g., via virion PEGylation). Finally, phages, both naturally occurring isolates or otherwise modified constructs, can be combined into cocktails which provide collectively enhanced capabilities such as expanded overall host range. Generally these strategies represent different routes towards improving phage therapy formulations and thereby efficacy through informed design.

  14. Structural rearrangements in the phage head-to-tail interface during assembly and infection

    PubMed Central

    Chaban, Yuriy; Lurz, Rudi; Brasilès, Sandrine; Cornilleau, Charlène; Karreman, Matthia; Zinn-Justin, Sophie; Tavares, Paulo; Orlova, Elena V.

    2015-01-01

    Many icosahedral viruses use a specialized portal vertex to control genome encapsidation and release from the viral capsid. In tailed bacteriophages, the portal system is connected to a tail structure that provides the pipeline for genome delivery to the host cell. We report the first, to our knowledge, subnanometer structures of the complete portal–phage tail interface that mimic the states before and after DNA release during phage infection. They uncover structural rearrangements associated with intimate protein–DNA interactions. The portal protein gp6 of bacteriophage SPP1 undergoes a concerted reorganization of the structural elements of its central channel during interaction with DNA. A network of protein–protein interactions primes consecutive binding of proteins gp15 and gp16 to extend and close the channel. This critical step that prevents genome leakage from the capsid is achieved by a previously unidentified allosteric mechanism: gp16 binding to two different regions of gp15 drives correct positioning and folding of an inner gp16 loop to interact with equivalent loops of the other gp16 subunits. Together, these loops build a plug that closes the channel. Gp16 then fastens the tail to yield the infectious virion. The gatekeeper system opens for viral genome exit at the beginning of infection but recloses afterward, suggesting a molecular diaphragm-like mechanism to control DNA efflux. The mechanisms described here, controlling the essential steps of phage genome movements during virus assembly and infection, are likely to be conserved among long-tailed phages, the largest group of viruses in the Biosphere. PMID:25991862

  15. The genomes, proteomes, and structures of three novel phages that infect the Bacillus cereus group and carry putative virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Grose, Julianne H; Belnap, David M; Jensen, Jordan D; Mathis, Andrew D; Prince, John T; Merrill, Bryan D; Burnett, Sandra H; Breakwell, Donald P

    2014-10-01

    This article reports the results of studying three novel bacteriophages, JL, Shanette, and Basilisk, which infect the pathogen Bacillus cereus and carry genes that may contribute to its pathogenesis. We analyzed host range and superinfection ability, mapped their genomes, and characterized phage structure by mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The JL and Shanette genomes were 96% similar and contained 217 open reading frames (ORFs) and 220 ORFs, respectively, while Basilisk has an unrelated genome containing 138 ORFs. Mass spectrometry revealed 23 phage particle proteins for JL and 15 for Basilisk, while only 11 and 4, respectively, were predicted to be present by sequence analysis. Structural protein homology to well-characterized phages suggested that JL and Shanette were members of the family Myoviridae, which was confirmed by TEM. The third phage, Basilisk, was similar only to uncharacterized phages and is an unrelated siphovirus. Cryogenic electron microscopy of this novel phage revealed a T=9 icosahedral capsid structure with the major capsid protein (MCP) likely having the same fold as bacteriophage HK97 MCP despite the lack of sequence similarity. Several putative virulence factors were encoded by these phage genomes, including TerC and TerD involved in tellurium resistance. Host range analysis of all three phages supports genetic transfer of such factors within the B. cereus group, including B. cereus, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis. This study provides a basis for understanding these three phages and other related phages as well as their contributions to the pathogenicity of B. cereus group bacteria. Importance: The Bacillus cereus group of bacteria contains several human and plant pathogens, including B. cereus, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis. Phages are intimately linked to the evolution of their bacterial hosts and often provide virulence factors, making the study of B. cereus phages important to understanding the

  16. The Genomes, Proteomes, and Structures of Three Novel Phages That Infect the Bacillus cereus Group and Carry Putative Virulence Factors

    PubMed Central

    Belnap, David M.; Jensen, Jordan D.; Mathis, Andrew D.; Prince, John T.; Merrill, Bryan D.; Burnett, Sandra H.; Breakwell, Donald P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article reports the results of studying three novel bacteriophages, JL, Shanette, and Basilisk, which infect the pathogen Bacillus cereus and carry genes that may contribute to its pathogenesis. We analyzed host range and superinfection ability, mapped their genomes, and characterized phage structure by mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The JL and Shanette genomes were 96% similar and contained 217 open reading frames (ORFs) and 220 ORFs, respectively, while Basilisk has an unrelated genome containing 138 ORFs. Mass spectrometry revealed 23 phage particle proteins for JL and 15 for Basilisk, while only 11 and 4, respectively, were predicted to be present by sequence analysis. Structural protein homology to well-characterized phages suggested that JL and Shanette were members of the family Myoviridae, which was confirmed by TEM. The third phage, Basilisk, was similar only to uncharacterized phages and is an unrelated siphovirus. Cryogenic electron microscopy of this novel phage revealed a T=9 icosahedral capsid structure with the major capsid protein (MCP) likely having the same fold as bacteriophage HK97 MCP despite the lack of sequence similarity. Several putative virulence factors were encoded by these phage genomes, including TerC and TerD involved in tellurium resistance. Host range analysis of all three phages supports genetic transfer of such factors within the B. cereus group, including B. cereus, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis. This study provides a basis for understanding these three phages and other related phages as well as their contributions to the pathogenicity of B. cereus group bacteria. IMPORTANCE The Bacillus cereus group of bacteria contains several human and plant pathogens, including B. cereus, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis. Phages are intimately linked to the evolution of their bacterial hosts and often provide virulence factors, making the study of B. cereus phages important to understanding

  17. Isolation and characterization of marine psychrophilic phage-host systems from Arctic sea ice.

    PubMed

    Borriss, Michael; Helmke, Elisabeth; Hanschke, Renate; Schweder, Thomas

    2003-10-01

    Phage-host systems from extreme cold environments have rarely been surveyed. This study is concerned with the isolation and characterization of three different phage-host systems from Arctic sea ice and melt pond samples collected north-west of Svalbard (Arctic). On the basis of 16S rDNA sequences, the three bacterial phage hosts exhibited the greatest similarity to the species Shewanella frigidimarina (96.0%), Flavobacterium hibernum (94.0%), and Colwellia psychrerythraea (98.4%), respectively. The host bacteria are psychrophilic with good growth at 0 degrees C, resulting in a rapid formation of visible colonies at this temperature. The phages showed an even more pronounced adaptation to cold temperatures than the bacteria, with growth maxima below 14 degrees C and good plaque formation at 0 degrees C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examinations revealed that the bacteriophages belonged to the tailed, double-stranded DNA phage families Siphoviridae and Myoviridae. All three phages were host-specific.

  18. Biological control of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using Aeromonas phage PAS-1.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Choresca, C H; Shin, S P; Han, J E; Jun, J W; Park, S C

    2015-02-01

    The potential control efficacy of Aeromonas phage PAS-1 was evaluated against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) model in this study. The phage was co-cultured with the virulent A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain AS05 that possesses the type III secretion system (TTSS) ascV gene, and efficient bacteriolytic activity was observed against the bacteria. The administration of PAS-1 in rainbow trout demonstrated that the phage was cleared from the fish within 200 h post-administration, and a temporal neutralizing activity against the phage was detected in the sera of phage-administrated fish. The administration of PAS-1 (multiplicity of infection: 10 000) in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infected rainbow trout model showed notable protective effects, with increased survival rates and mean times to death. These results demonstrated that Aeromonas phage PAS-1 could be considered as an alternative biological control agent against A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infections in rainbow trout culture.

  19. Phage Inhibit Pathogen Dissemination by Targeting Bacterial Migrants in a Chronic Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Darch, Sophie E.; Kragh, Kasper N.; Abbott, Evelyn A.; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Bull, James J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The microbial communities inhabiting chronic infections are often composed of spatially organized micrometer-sized, highly dense aggregates. It has recently been hypothesized that aggregates are responsible for the high tolerance of chronic infections to host immune functions and antimicrobial therapies. Little is currently known regarding the mechanisms controlling aggregate formation and antimicrobial tolerance primarily because of the lack of robust, biologically relevant experimental systems that promote natural aggregate formation. Here, we developed an in vitro model based on chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. This model utilizes a synthetic sputum medium that readily promotes the formation of P. aeruginosa aggregates with sizes similar to those observed in human CF lung tissue. Using high-resolution imaging, we exploited this model to elucidate the life history of P. aeruginosa and the mechanisms that this bacterium utilizes to tolerate antimicrobials, specifically, bacteriophage. In the early stages of growth in synthetic sputum, planktonic cells form aggregates that increase in size over time by expansion. In later growth, migrant cells disperse from aggregates and colonize new areas, seeding new aggregates. When added simultaneously with phage, P. aeruginosa was readily killed and aggregates were unable to form. When added after initial aggregate formation, phage were unable to eliminate all of the aggregates because of exopolysaccharide production; however, seeding of new aggregates by dispersed migrants was inhibited. We propose a model in which aggregates provide a mechanism that allows P. aeruginosa to tolerate phage therapy during chronic infection without the need for genetic mutation. PMID:28377527

  20. Phage therapy pharmacology: calculating phage dosing.

    PubMed

    Abedon, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Phage therapy, which can be described as a phage-mediated biocontrol of bacteria (or, simply, biocontrol), is the application of bacterial viruses-also bacteriophages or phages-to reduce densities of nuisance or pathogenic bacteria. Predictive calculations for phage therapy dosing should be useful toward rational development of therapeutic as well as biocontrol products. Here, I consider the theoretical basis of a number of concepts relevant to phage dosing for phage therapy including minimum inhibitory concentration (but also "inundation threshold"), minimum bactericidal concentration (but also "clearance threshold"), decimal reduction time (D value), time until bacterial eradication, threshold bacterial density necessary to support phage population growth ("proliferation threshold"), and bacterial density supporting half-maximal phage population growth rates (K(B)). I also address the concepts of phage killing titers, multiplicity of infection, and phage peak densities. Though many of the presented ideas are not unique to this chapter, I nonetheless provide variations on derivations and resulting formulae, plus as appropriate discuss relative importance. The overriding goal is to present a variety of calculations that are useful toward phage therapy dosing so that they may be found in one location and presented in a manner that allows facile appreciation, comparison, and implementation. The importance of phage density as a key determinant of the phage potential to eradicate bacterial targets is stressed throughout the chapter.

  1. Rapid Multiplex Creation of Escherichia coli Strains Capable of Interfering with Phage Infection Through CRISPR.

    PubMed

    Strotksaya, Alexandra; Semenova, Ekaterina; Savitskaya, Ekaterina; Severinov, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, acquisition of new spacers in the course of CRISPR-Cas adaptation is dramatically stimulated by preexisting partial matches between a bacterial CRISPR cassette spacer and a protospacer sequence in the DNA of the infecting bacteriophage or plasmid. This phenomenon, which we refer to as "priming," can be used for very simple and rapid construction of multiple E. coli strains capable of targeting, through CRISPR interference, any phage or plasmid of interest. Availability of such strains should allow rapid progress in the analysis of CRISPR-Cas system function against diverse mobile genetic elements.

  2. Altruism can evolve when relatedness is low: evidence from bacteria committing suicide upon phage infection.

    PubMed

    Refardt, Dominik; Bergmiller, Tobias; Kümmerli, Rolf

    2013-05-22

    High relatedness among interacting individuals has generally been considered a precondition for the evolution of altruism. However, kin-selection theory also predicts the evolution of altruism when relatedness is low, as long as the cost of the altruistic act is minor compared with its benefit. Here, we demonstrate evidence for a low-cost altruistic act in bacteria. We investigated Escherichia coli responding to the attack of an obligately lytic phage by committing suicide in order to prevent parasite transmission to nearby relatives. We found that bacterial suicide provides large benefits to survivors at marginal costs to committers. The cost of suicide was low, because infected cells are moribund, rapidly dying upon phage infection, such that no more opportunity for reproduction remains. As a consequence of its marginal cost, host suicide was selectively favoured even when relatedness between committers and survivors approached zero. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that low-cost suicide can evolve with ease, represents an effective host-defence strategy, and seems to be widespread among microbes. Moreover, low-cost suicide might also occur in higher organisms as exemplified by infected social insect workers leaving the colony to die in isolation.

  3. Isolation and characterization of a Siphoviridae phage infecting Bacillus megaterium from a heavily trafficked holy site in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Othman, B A; Askora, Ahmed; Abo-Senna, Amel S M

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we isolated and characterized a Siphoviridae phage isolated from the vicinity of a religious structure (Kaaba) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The phage was designated as φBM and characterized using transmission electron microscopy, restriction digestion of its DNA, and host range. Electron micrograph indicated that φBM phage has an icosahedral head with diameter of about 65 ± 5 nm and long, non-contractile tail with length of about 300 ± 10 nm and width of about 17 ± 2 nm, respectively. On the basis of the φBM phage morphology, we thus propose that φBM represents a member of Siphoviridae phages. The φBM phage was shown to be able to infect Bacillus megaterium and two other Bacillus species and has no effect on other tested bacteria. φBM was stable over the pH range of 5-9, chloroform resistant and stable at 4 °C. A one-step growth experiment showed a latent period of about 40 min and a burst size of approximately 65 per infected cell. The purified bacteriophage appeared to consist of ten proteins. The genome size was estimated to be ∼38 kb. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of a bacteriophage from Kaaba a heavily trafficked holy site in Saudi Arabia.

  4. Genomic and functional analysis of Vibrio phage SIO-2 reveals novel insights into ecology and evolution of marine siphoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Baudoux, A-C.; Hendrix, R.W.; Lander, G.C.; Bailly, X.; Podell, S.; Paillard, C.; Johnson, J.E.; Potter, C.S.; Carragher, B.; Azam, F.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a genomic and functional analysis of a novel marine siphovirus, the Vibrio phage SIO-2. This phage is lytic for related Vibrio species of great ecological interest including the broadly antagonistic bacterium Vibrio sp. SWAT3 as well as notable members of the Harveyi clade (V. harveyi ATTC BAA-1116 and V. campbellii ATCC 25920). Vibrio phage SIO-2 has a circularly permuted genome of 80,598 bp, which displays unusual features. This genome is larger than that of most known siphoviruses and only 38 of the 116 predicted proteins had homologues in databases. Another divergence is manifest by the origin of core genes, most of which share robust similarities with unrelated viruses and bacteria spanning a wide range of phyla. These core genes are arranged in the same order as in most bacteriophages but they are unusually interspaced at two places with insertions of DNA comprising a high density of uncharacterized genes. The acquisition of these DNA inserts is associated with morphological variation of SIO-2 capsid, which assembles as a large (80 nm) shell with a novel T=12 symmetry. These atypical structural features confer on SIO-2 a remarkable stability to a variety of physical, chemical and environmental factors. Given this high level of functional and genomic novelty, SIO-2 emerges as a model of considerable interest in ecological and evolutionary studies. PMID:22225728

  5. Phage Therapy: Combating Infections with Potential for Evolving from Merely a Treatment for Complications to Targeting Diseases.

    PubMed

    Górski, Andrzej; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Fortuna, Wojciech; Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Rogóż, Paweł; Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Dąbrowska, Krystyna; Majewska, Joanna; Borysowski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is considered to be one of the greatest challenges of medicine and our civilization. Lack of progress in developing new anti-bacterial agents has greatly revived interest in using phage therapy to combat antibiotic-resistant infections. Although a number of clinical trials are underway and more are planned, the realistic perspective of registration of phage preparations and their entering the health market and significantly contributing to the current antimicrobial crisis is rather remote. Therefore, in addition to planning further clinical trials, our present approach of phage treatment carried out as experimental therapy (compassionate use) should be expanded to address the growing and urgent needs of increasing cohorts of patients for whom no alternative treatment is currently available. During the past 11 years of our phage therapy center's operation, we have obtained relevant clinical and laboratory data which not only confirm the safety of the therapy but also provide important information shedding more light on many aspects of the therapy, contributing to its optimization and allowing for construction of the most appropriate clinical trials. New data on phage biology and interactions with the immune system suggest that in the future phage therapy may evolve from dealing with complications to targeting diseases. However, further studies are necessary to confirm this promising trend.

  6. Phage Therapy: Combating Infections with Potential for Evolving from Merely a Treatment for Complications to Targeting Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Górski, Andrzej; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Fortuna, Wojciech; Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Rogóż, Paweł; Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Dąbrowska, Krystyna; Majewska, Joanna; Borysowski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is considered to be one of the greatest challenges of medicine and our civilization. Lack of progress in developing new anti-bacterial agents has greatly revived interest in using phage therapy to combat antibiotic-resistant infections. Although a number of clinical trials are underway and more are planned, the realistic perspective of registration of phage preparations and their entering the health market and significantly contributing to the current antimicrobial crisis is rather remote. Therefore, in addition to planning further clinical trials, our present approach of phage treatment carried out as experimental therapy (compassionate use) should be expanded to address the growing and urgent needs of increasing cohorts of patients for whom no alternative treatment is currently available. During the past 11 years of our phage therapy center’s operation, we have obtained relevant clinical and laboratory data which not only confirm the safety of the therapy but also provide important information shedding more light on many aspects of the therapy, contributing to its optimization and allowing for construction of the most appropriate clinical trials. New data on phage biology and interactions with the immune system suggest that in the future phage therapy may evolve from dealing with complications to targeting diseases. However, further studies are necessary to confirm this promising trend. PMID:27725811

  7. Histopathology of marine vibrio wound infections.

    PubMed

    Beckman, E N; Leonard, G L; Castillo, L E; Genre, C F; Pankey, G A

    1981-12-01

    Although marine vibrio wound infections and septicemia are being reported with increasing frequency, description of the histopathologic changes has been scanty. The histologic alterations in three patients with primary marine vibrio wound infections are presented. The lesions are characterized by intense acute cellulitis of the subcutis with much tissue destruction and extension into the adjacent dermis. The superficial dermis is devitalized and lacks an inflammatory cellular infiltrate. Subepidermal noninflammatory bullae are formed. Many organisms are seen both within the areas of intense acute inflammation and in devitalized areas. Organisms and inflammation are especially oriented around vessels, with associated acute vasculitis. It is concluded that the morphologic picture in marine vibrio wound infections is nonspecific yet characteristic.

  8. Understanding the enormous diversity of bacteriophages: the tailed phages that infect the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Grose, Julianne H.; Casjens, Sherwood R.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophages are the predominant biological entity on the planet. The recent explosion of sequence information has made estimates of their diversity possible. We describe the genomic comparison of 337 fully sequenced tailed phages isolated on 18 genera and 31 species of bacteria in the Enterobacteriaceae. These phages were largely unambiguously grouped into 56 diverse clusters (32 lytic and 24 temperate) that have syntenic similarity over >50% of the genomes within each cluster, but substantially less sequence similarity between clusters. Most clusters naturally break into sets of more closely related subclusters, 78% of which are correlated with their host genera. The largest groups of related phages are superclusters united by genome synteny to lambda (81 phages) and T7 (51 phages). This study forms a robust framework for understanding diversity and evolutionary relationships of existing tailed phages, for relating newly discovered phages and for determining host/phage relationships. PMID:25240328

  9. Understanding the enormous diversity of bacteriophages: the tailed phages that infect the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Grose, Julianne H; Casjens, Sherwood R

    2014-11-01

    Bacteriophages are the predominant biological entity on the planet. The recent explosion of sequence information has made estimates of their diversity possible. We describe the genomic comparison of 337 fully sequenced tailed phages isolated on 18 genera and 31 species of bacteria in the Enterobacteriaceae. These phages were largely unambiguously grouped into 56 diverse clusters (32 lytic and 24 temperate) that have syntenic similarity over >50% of the genomes within each cluster, but substantially less sequence similarity between clusters. Most clusters naturally break into sets of more closely related subclusters, 78% of which are correlated with their host genera. The largest groups of related phages are superclusters united by genome synteny to lambda (81 phages) and T7 (51 phages). This study forms a robust framework for understanding diversity and evolutionary relationships of existing tailed phages, for relating newly discovered phages and for determining host/phage relationships.

  10. The extracellular phage-host interactions involved in the bacteriophage LL-H infection of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis ATCC 15808.

    PubMed

    Munsch-Alatossava, Patricia; Alatossava, Tapani

    2013-12-24

    The complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus bacteriophage LL-H was determined in 1996. Accordingly, LL-H has been used as a model phage for the infection of dairy Lactobacillus, specifically for thermophilic Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis host strains, such as ATCC 15808. One of the major goals of phage LL-H research consisted of the characterization of the first phage-host interactions at the level of phage adsorption and phage DNA injection steps to determine effective and practical methods to minimize the risks associated with the appearance and attack of phages in the manufacture of yogurt, and Swiss or Italian hard type cheeses, which typically use thermophilic lactic acid bacteria starter cultures containing L. delbrueckii strains among others. This mini review article summarizes the present data concerning (i) the special features, particle structure, and components of phage LL-H and (ii) the structure and properties of lipoteichoic acids (LTAs), which are the phage LL-H receptor components of L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis host strains. Moreover, a model of the first, extracellular, phage-host interactions for the infection of L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis ATCC 15808 by phage LL-H is presented and further discussed.

  11. Metagenomic recovery of phage genomes of uncultured freshwater actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ghai, Rohit; Mehrshad, Maliheh; Megumi Mizuno, Carolina; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Low-GC Actinobacteria are among the most abundant and widespread microbes in freshwaters and have largely resisted all cultivation efforts. Consequently, their phages have remained totally unknown. In this work, we have used deep metagenomic sequencing to assemble eight complete genomes of the first tailed phages that infect freshwater Actinobacteria. Their genomes encode the actinobacterial-specific transcription factor whiB, frequently found in mycobacteriophages and also in phages infecting marine pelagic Actinobacteria. Its presence suggests a common and widespread strategy of modulation of host transcriptional machinery upon infection via this transcriptional switch. We present evidence that some whiB-carrying phages infect the acI lineage of Actinobacteria. At least one of them encodes the ADP-ribosylating component of the widespread bacterial AB toxins family (for example, clostridial toxin). We posit that the presence of this toxin reflects a 'trojan horse' strategy, providing protection at the population level to the abundant host microbes against eukaryotic predators.

  12. Phylogenomic network and comparative genomics reveal a diverged member of the ΦKZ-related group, marine vibrio phage ΦJM-2012.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ho Bin; Fagutao, Fernand F; Nho, Seong Won; Park, Seong Bin; Cha, In Seok; Yu, Jong Earn; Lee, Jung Seok; Im, Se Pyeong; Aoki, Takashi; Jung, Tae Sung

    2013-12-01

    Bacteriophages are the largest reservoir of genetic diversity. Here we describe the novel phage ΦJM-2012. This natural isolate from marine Vibrio cyclitrophicus possesses very few gene contents relevant to other well-studied marine Vibrio phages. To better understand its evolutionary history, we built a mathematical model of pairwise relationships among 1,221 phage genomes, in which the genomes (nodes) are linked by edges representing the normalized number of shared orthologous protein families. This weighted network revealed that ΦJM-2012 was connected to only five members of the Pseudomonas ΦKZ-like phage family in an isolated network, strongly indicating that it belongs to this phage group. However, comparative genomic analyses highlighted an almost complete loss of colinearity with the ΦKZ-related genomes and little conservation of gene order, probably reflecting the action of distinct evolutionary forces on the genome of ΦJM-2012. In this phage, typical conserved core genes, including six RNA polymerase genes, were frequently displaced and the hyperplastic regions were rich in both unique genes and predicted unidirectional promoters with highly correlated orientations. Further, analysis of the ΦJM-2012 genome showed that segments of the conserved N-terminal parts of ΦKZ tail fiber paralogs exhibited evidence of combinatorial assortment, having switched transcriptional orientation, and there was recruitment and/or structural changes among phage endolysins and tail spike protein. Thus, this naturally occurring phage appears to have branched from a common ancestor of the ΦKZ-related groups, showing a distinct genomic architecture and unique genes that most likely reflect adaptation to its chosen host and environment.

  13. Transcription Profiling of Bacillus subtilis Cells Infected with AR9, a Giant Phage Encoding Two Multisubunit RNA Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Lavysh, Daria; Slashcheva, Marina; Förstner, Konrad U.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteriophage AR9 is a recently sequenced jumbo phage that encodes two multisubunit RNA polymerases. Here we investigated the AR9 transcription strategy and the effect of AR9 infection on the transcription of its host, Bacillus subtilis. Analysis of whole-genome transcription revealed early, late, and continuously expressed AR9 genes. Alignment of sequences upstream of the 5′ ends of AR9 transcripts revealed consensus sequences that define early and late phage promoters. Continuously expressed AR9 genes have both early and late promoters in front of them. Early AR9 transcription is independent of protein synthesis and must be determined by virion RNA polymerase injected together with viral DNA. During infection, the overall amount of host mRNAs is significantly decreased. Analysis of relative amounts of host transcripts revealed notable differences in the levels of some mRNAs. The physiological significance of up- or downregulation of host genes for AR9 phage infection remains to be established. AR9 infection is significantly affected by rifampin, an inhibitor of host RNA polymerase transcription. The effect is likely caused by the antibiotic-induced killing of host cells, while phage genome transcription is solely performed by viral RNA polymerases. PMID:28196958

  14. Infection of phytoplankton by aerosolized marine viruses

    PubMed Central

    Sharoni, Shlomit; Trainic, Miri; Schatz, Daniella; Lehahn, Yoav; Flores, Michel J.; Bidle, Kay D.; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rudich, Yinon; Vardi, Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Marine viruses constitute a major ecological and evolutionary driving force in the marine ecosystems. However, their dispersal mechanisms remain underexplored. Here we follow the dynamics of Emiliania huxleyi viruses (EhV) that infect the ubiquitous, bloom-forming phytoplankton E. huxleyi and show that EhV are emitted to the atmosphere as primary marine aerosols. Using a laboratory-based setup, we showed that the dynamic of EhV aerial emission is strongly coupled to the host–virus dynamic in the culture media. In addition, we recovered EhV DNA from atmospheric samples collected over an E. huxleyi bloom in the North Atlantic, providing evidence for aerosolization of marine viruses in their natural environment. Decay rate analysis in the laboratory revealed that aerosolized viruses can remain infective under meteorological conditions prevailing during E. huxleyi blooms in the ocean, allowing potential dispersal and infectivity over hundreds of kilometers. Based on the combined laboratory and in situ findings, we propose that atmospheric transport of EhV is an effective transmission mechanism for spreading viral infection over large areas in the ocean. This transmission mechanism may also have an important ecological impact on the large-scale host–virus “arms race” during bloom succession and consequently the turnover of carbon in the ocean. PMID:25964340

  15. Infection of phytoplankton by aerosolized marine viruses.

    PubMed

    Sharoni, Shlomit; Trainic, Miri; Schatz, Daniella; Lehahn, Yoav; Flores, Michel J; Bidle, Kay D; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rudich, Yinon; Koren, Ilan; Vardi, Assaf

    2015-05-26

    Marine viruses constitute a major ecological and evolutionary driving force in the marine ecosystems. However, their dispersal mechanisms remain underexplored. Here we follow the dynamics of Emiliania huxleyi viruses (EhV) that infect the ubiquitous, bloom-forming phytoplankton E. huxleyi and show that EhV are emitted to the atmosphere as primary marine aerosols. Using a laboratory-based setup, we showed that the dynamic of EhV aerial emission is strongly coupled to the host-virus dynamic in the culture media. In addition, we recovered EhV DNA from atmospheric samples collected over an E. huxleyi bloom in the North Atlantic, providing evidence for aerosolization of marine viruses in their natural environment. Decay rate analysis in the laboratory revealed that aerosolized viruses can remain infective under meteorological conditions prevailing during E. huxleyi blooms in the ocean, allowing potential dispersal and infectivity over hundreds of kilometers. Based on the combined laboratory and in situ findings, we propose that atmospheric transport of EhV is an effective transmission mechanism for spreading viral infection over large areas in the ocean. This transmission mechanism may also have an important ecological impact on the large-scale host-virus "arms race" during bloom succession and consequently the turnover of carbon in the ocean.

  16. Phage particles infecting branchial Rickettsiales-like organisms in banded carpet shell Polititapes virgineus (Bivalvia) from Galicia (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Darriba, S; Ruiz, M; López, C

    2012-09-12

    Basophilic intracellular prokaryotic-like colonies were observed in the gills of banded carpet shell Polititapes virgineus (= Tapes rhomboides) (Linnaeus, 1767) from a natural bed in Galicia (NW Spain). Light microscope observations suggested the presence of 2 types of colonies, but transmission electron microscopy revealed that these were the same Rickettsiales-like colonies, one infected and the other uninfected by phage particles. This is the first report of the presence of phage particles in Rickettsiales-like organisms in the gills of P. virgineus.

  17. The involvement of the PilQ secretin of type IV pili in phage infection in Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Narulita, Erlia; Addy, Hardian Susilo; Kawasaki, Takeru; Fujie, Makoto; Yamada, Takashi

    2016-01-22

    PilQ is a member of the secretin family of outer membrane proteins and specifically involved in type IV secretion. Here we report the effects of pilQ mutation in Ralstonia solanacearum on the host physiology including susceptibility to several phage types (Inoviridae, Podoviridae and Myoviridae). With three lines of cells, namely wild type, ΔpilQ and pilQ-complemented cells, the cell surface proteins, twitching motility and sensitivity to phages were compared. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the major TFP pilin (PilA) was specifically lost in pilQ mutants and was recovered in the complemented cells. Drastically inactivated twitching motility in pilQ mutants was recovered to the wild type level in the complemented cells. Several phages of different types including those of Inoviridae, Podoviridae, and Myoviridae that infect wild type cells could not form plaques on pilQ mutants but showed infectivity to pilQ-complemented cells. These results indicate that PilQ function is generally required for phage infection in R. solanacearum.

  18. Evaluating seasonal dynamics of bacterial communities in marine fish aquaculture: a preliminary study before applying phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Salvador, Sara; Arrojado, Cátia; Silva, Yolanda; Santos, Ana L; Cunha, Angela; Gomes, Newton C M; Gomes, Newton; Almeida, Adelaide

    2011-04-01

    The increasing problem of antibiotic resistance in common pathogenic bacteria and the concern about the spreading of antibiotics in the environment bring the need to find new methods to control fish pathogens. Phage therapy represents a potential alternative to antibiotics, but its use in aquaculture requires a detailed understanding of bacterial communities, namely of fish pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, in this study the seasonal dynamics of the overall bacterial communities, microbiological water quality and disease-causing bacteria were followed in a marine aquaculture system of Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). Analysis of the bacterial diversity of the water samples by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene fragments indicates that the bacterial community structure varied seasonally, showing a higher complexity during the warm season. The diversity of the main fish pathogenic bacteria, assessed by DGGE targeting the Vibrio genus, showed lower seasonal variation, with new dominating populations appearing mainly in the spring. Bacterial indicators, faecal coliforms and enterococci, enumerated by the filter-membrane method, also varied seasonally. The fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) results showed that the specific groups of bacteria varied during the study period and that the non-indigenous Enterobactereaceae family was the most abundant group followed by Vibrio and Aeromonas. The seasonal variation detected in terms of density and structure of total and pathogenic bacterial communities demonstrates the need for a careful monitoring of water through the year in order to select the suitable phages to inactivate fish pathogenic bacteria. The spring season seems to be the critical time period when phage therapy should be applied.

  19. Genes and Structural Proteins of the Phage Syn5 of the Marine Cyanobacteria Synechococcus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    was attached to an aquarium pump, filtered through a 0.4[1 bacterial air vent (VWR) and attached to the air input of the culture vessel. Opposite the...2005; Sullivan et al., 2005). The short-tailed Synechococcus phage P60 (isolated on WH7803 from a Georgia estuary), while morphologically identical to...isolates of the Sargasso Sea and Georgia Estuary, respectively, the latter 97 hypothesis seems unlikely. On the other hand, examination of ORF54 appears to

  20. Influenza Virus Infection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Fereidouni, Sasan; Munoz, Olga; Von Dobschuetz, Sophie; De Nardi, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Interspecies transmission may play a key role in the evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. The importance of marine mammals as hosts or carriers of potential zoonotic pathogens such as highly pathogenic H5 and H7 influenza viruses is not well understood. The fact that influenza viruses are some of the few zoonotic pathogens known to have caused infection in marine mammals, evidence for direct transmission of influenza A virus H7N7 subtype from seals to man, transmission of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses to seals and also limited evidence for long-term persistence of influenza B viruses in seal populations without significant genetic change, makes monitoring of influenza viruses in marine mammal populations worth being performed. In addition, such monitoring studies could be a great tool to better understand the ecology of influenza viruses in nature.

  1. N15: the linear phage-plasmid.

    PubMed

    Ravin, Nikolai V

    2011-03-01

    The lambdoid phage N15 of Escherichia coli is very unusual among temperate phages in that its prophage is not integrated into chromosome but is a linear plasmid molecule with covalently closed ends. Upon infection the phage DNA circularises via cohesive ends, then phage-encoded enzyme, protelomerase, cuts at an inverted repeat site and forms hairpin ends (telomeres) of the linear plasmid prophage. Replication of the N15 prophage is initiated at an internally located ori site and proceeds bidirectionally resulting in formation of duplicated telomeres. Then the N15 protelomerase cuts duplicated telomeres generating two linear plasmid molecules with hairpin telomeres. Stable inheritance of the plasmid prophage is ensured by partitioning operon similar to the F factor sop operon. Unlike F sop, the N15 centromere consists of four inverted repeats dispersed in the genome. The multiplicity and dispersion of centromeres are required for efficient partitioning of a linear plasmid. The centromeres are located in N15 genome regions involved in phage replication and control of lysogeny, and binding of partition proteins at these sites regulates these processes. Two N15-related lambdoid Siphoviridae phages, φKO2 in Klebsiella oxytoca and pY54 in Yersinia enterocolitica, also lysogenize their hosts as linear plasmids, as well as Myoviridae marine phages VP882 and VP58.5 in Vibrio parahaemolyticus and ΦHAP-1 in Halomonas aquamarina. The genomes of all these phages contain similar protelomerase genes, lysogeny modules and replication genes, as well as plasmid-partitioning genes, suggesting that these phages may belong to a group diverged from a common ancestor.

  2. Salmonella typhimurium phage type 141 infections in Sheffield during 1984 and 1985: association with hens' eggs.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, P. A.; Rhodes, P.; Rylands, W.

    1988-01-01

    Food poisoning due to Salmonella typhimurium phage type 141 was unusual in the Sheffield area before 1984. The sudden increase in incidence of this phage type during 1984 and 1985, and its causative role in several small outbreaks in this period have been investigated. Epidemiological and laboratory investigations suggested that hens' eggs were the most likely source of S. typhimurium phage type 141. PMID:3042440

  3. Bioinformatic analysis of phage AB3, a phiKMV-like virus infecting Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Liu, X; Li, X-J

    2015-01-16

    The phages of Acinetobacter baumannii has drawn increasing attention because of the multi-drug resistance of A. baumanni. The aim of this study was to sequence Acinetobacter baumannii phage AB3 and conduct bioinformatic analysis to lay a foundation for genome remodeling and phage therapy. We isolated and sequenced A. baumannii phage AB3 and attempted to annotate and analyze its genome. The results showed that the genome is a double-stranded DNA with a total length of 31,185 base pairs (bp) and 97 open reading frames greater than 100 bp. The genome includes 28 predicted genes, of which 24 are homologous to phage AB1. The entire coding sequence is located on the negative strand, representing 90.8% of the total length. The G+C mol% was 39.18%, without areas of high G+C content over 200 bp in length. No GC island, tRNA gene, or repeated sequence was identified. Gene lengths were 120-3099 bp, with an average of 1011 bp. Six genes were found to be greater than 2000 bp in length. Genomic alignment and phylogenetic analysis of the RNA polymerase gene showed that similar to phage AB1, phage AB3 is a phiKMV-like virus in the T7 phage family.

  4. A novel roseobacter phage possesses features of podoviruses, siphoviruses, prophages and gene transfer agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yuanchao; Huang, Sijun; Voget, Sonja; Simon, Meinhard; Chen, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Bacteria in the Roseobacter lineage have been studied extensively due to their significant biogeochemical roles in the marine ecosystem. However, our knowledge on bacteriophage which infects the Roseobacter clade is still very limited. Here, we report a new bacteriophage, phage DSS3Φ8, which infects marine roseobacter Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3. DSS3Φ8 is a lytic siphovirus. Genomic analysis showed that DSS3Φ8 is most closely related to a group of siphoviruses, CbK-like phages, which infect freshwater bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. DSS3Φ8 contains a smaller capsid and has a reduced genome size (146 kb) compared to the CbK-like phages (205–279 kb). DSS3Φ8 contains the DNA polymerase gene which is closely related to T7-like podoviruses. DSS3Φ8 also contains the integrase and repressor genes, indicating its potential to involve in lysogenic cycle. In addition, four GTA (gene transfer agent) genes were identified in the DSS3Φ8 genome. Genomic analysis suggests that DSS3Φ8 is a highly mosaic phage that inherits the genetic features from siphoviruses, podoviruses, prophages and GTAs. This is the first report of CbK-like phages infecting marine bacteria. We believe phage isolation is still a powerful tool that can lead to discovery of new phages and help interpret the overwhelming unknown sequences in the viral metagenomics.

  5. A novel roseobacter phage possesses features of podoviruses, siphoviruses, prophages and gene transfer agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Yuanchao; Huang, Sijun; Voget, Sonja; Simon, Meinhard; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria in the Roseobacter lineage have been studied extensively due to their significant biogeochemical roles in the marine ecosystem. However, our knowledge on bacteriophage which infects the Roseobacter clade is still very limited. Here, we report a new bacteriophage, phage DSS3Φ8, which infects marine roseobacter Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3. DSS3Φ8 is a lytic siphovirus. Genomic analysis showed that DSS3Φ8 is most closely related to a group of siphoviruses, CbK-like phages, which infect freshwater bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. DSS3Φ8 contains a smaller capsid and has a reduced genome size (146 kb) compared to the CbK-like phages (205–279 kb). DSS3Φ8 contains the DNA polymerase gene which is closely related to T7-like podoviruses. DSS3Φ8 also contains the integrase and repressor genes, indicating its potential to involve in lysogenic cycle. In addition, four GTA (gene transfer agent) genes were identified in the DSS3Φ8 genome. Genomic analysis suggests that DSS3Φ8 is a highly mosaic phage that inherits the genetic features from siphoviruses, podoviruses, prophages and GTAs. This is the first report of CbK-like phages infecting marine bacteria. We believe phage isolation is still a powerful tool that can lead to discovery of new phages and help interpret the overwhelming unknown sequences in the viral metagenomics. PMID:27460944

  6. Hyperthermostable binding molecules on phage: Assay components for point-of-care diagnostics for active tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ning; Spencer, John; Schmitt, Margaret A; Fisk, John D

    2017-03-15

    Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide. The low sensitivity, extended processing time, and high expense of current diagnostics are major challenges to the detection and treatment of tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis ornithine transcarbamylase (Mtb OTC, Rv1656) has been identified in the urine of patients with active TB infection and is a promising target for point-of-care diagnostics. Specific binding proteins with low nanomolar affinities for Mtb OTC were selected from a phage display library built upon a hyperthermostable Sso7d scaffold. Phage particles displaying Sso7d variants were utilized to generate a sandwich ELISA-based assay for Mtb OTC. The assay response is linear between 2 ng/mL and 125 ng/mL recombinant Mtb OTC and has a limit of detection of 400 pg/mL recombinant Mtb OTC. The assay employing a phage-based detection reagent is comparable to commercially-available antibody-based biosensors. Importantly, the assay maintains functionality at both neutral and basic pH in presence of salt and urea over the range of concentrations typical for human urine. Phage-based diagnostic systems may feature improved physical stability and cost of production relative to traditional antibody-based reagents, without sacrificing specificity and sensitivity.

  7. The cell surface protein Ag43 facilitates phage infection of Escherichia coli in the presence of bile salts and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Gabig, Magdalena; Herman-Antosiewicz, Anna; Kwiatkowska, Marta; Los, Marcin; Thomas, Mark S; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz

    2002-05-01

    It was found that infection of Escherichia coli by bacteriophage lambda is inhibited in the presence of certain bile salts and carbohydrates when cells are in the "OFF" state for production of the phase-variable cell surface protein antigen 43 (Ag43). The inhibition of phage growth was found to be due to a significant impairment in the process of phage adsorption. Expression of the gene encoding Ag43 (agn43) from a plasmid or inactivation of the oxyR gene (encoding an activator of genes important for defence against oxidative stress) suppressed this inhibition. A mutation, rpoA341, in the gene encoding the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase also facilitated phage adsorption in the presence of bile salts and carbohydrates. The rpoA341 mutation promoted efficient production of Ag43 in a genetic background that would otherwise be in the "OFF" phase for expression of the agn43 gene. Analysis of a reporter gene fusion demonstrated that the promoter for the agn43 gene was more active in the rpoA341 mutant than in the otherwise isogenic rpoA(+) strain. The combined inhibitory action of bile salts and carbohydrates on phage adsorption and the abolition of this inhibition by production of Ag43 was not restricted to lambda, as a similar phenomenon was observed for the coliphages P1 and T4.

  8. Effect of benzo[a]pyrene-diolepoxide on infectivity and in vitro translation of phage MS2 RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Sagher, D; Harvey, R G; Hsu, W T; Weiss, S B

    1979-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that alkylation of MS2 RNA by certain derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons renders it noninfectious. Since phage RNA serves as a template for translation and transcription, either of these RNA-directed processes, or both, could be responsible in vivo for the inhibition of phage replication by metabolically activated hydrocarbons. The present study correlates the degree of inhibition of MS2 RNA infectivity, at various levels of alkylation by (+/-)-trans, 7,8-dihydroxy-anti-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzol[a]pyrene, with the translation efficiency in vitro of the same alkylated RNA for the synthesis of viral synthetase and of maturation and coat proteins. The results indicate that dihydroxyepoxy-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene modification of MS2 RNA impairs its template capacity for the synthesis of phage-specific proteins; this inhibition is insufficient, however, to account for the loss of RNA infectivity at lower molar ratios of alkylation. For the three viral proteins synthesized in vitro, the translation of RNA synthetase is much more sensitive to MS2 RNA modification than either coat or maturation protein synthesis. Our results also indicate that the loss of viral RNA infectivity follows a single-hit inactivation mechanism, whereas several alkylation events in the viral RNA synthetase cistron may be necessary to block translation of this gene product. Images PMID:284386

  9. Coevolutionary diversification creates nested-modular structure in phage-bacteria interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Stephen J; Williams, Hywel T P

    2013-12-06

    Phage and their bacterial hosts are the most diverse and abundant biological entities in the oceans, where their interactions have a major impact on marine ecology and ecosystem function. The structure of interaction networks for natural phage-bacteria communities offers insight into their coevolutionary origin. At small phylogenetic scales, observed communities typically show a nested structure, in which both hosts and phages can be ranked by their range of resistance and infectivity, respectively. A qualitatively different multi-scale structure is seen at larger phylogenetic scales; a natural assemblage sampled from the Atlantic Ocean displays large-scale modularity and local nestedness within each module. Here, we show that such 'nested-modular' interaction networks can be produced by a simple model of host-phage coevolution in which infection depends on genetic matching. Negative frequency-dependent selection causes diversification of hosts (to escape phages) and phages (to track their evolving hosts). This creates a diverse community of bacteria and phage, maintained by kill-the-winner ecological dynamics. When the resulting communities are visualized as bipartite networks of who infects whom, they show the nested-modular structure characteristic of the Atlantic sample. The statistical significance and strength of this observation varies depending on whether the interaction networks take into account the density of the interacting strains, with implications for interpretation of interaction networks constructed by different methods. Our results suggest that the apparently complex community structures associated with marine bacteria and phage may arise from relatively simple coevolutionary origins.

  10. Genome of Staphylococcal Phage K: a New Lineage of Myoviridae Infecting Gram-Positive Bacteria with a Low G+C Content

    PubMed Central

    O'Flaherty, S.; Coffey, A.; Edwards, R.; Meaney, W.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Ross, R. P.

    2004-01-01

    Phage K is a polyvalent phage of the Myoviridae family which is active against a wide range of staphylococci. Phage genome sequencing revealed a linear DNA genome of 127,395 bp, which carries 118 putative open reading frames. The genome is organized in a modular form, encoding modules for lysis, structural proteins, DNA replication, and transcription. Interestingly, the structural module shows high homology to the structural module from Listeria phage A511, suggesting intergenus horizontal transfer. In addition, phage K exhibits the potential to encode proteins necessary for its own replisome, including DNA ligase, primase, helicase, polymerase, RNase H, and DNA binding proteins. Phage K has a complete absence of GATC sites, making it insensitive to restriction enzymes which cleave this sequence. Three introns (lys-I1, pol-I2, and pol-I3) encoding putative endonucleases were located in the genome. Two of these (pol-I2 and pol-I3) were found to interrupt the DNA polymerase gene, while the other (lys-I1) interrupts the lysin gene. Two of the introns encode putative proteins with homology to HNH endonucleases, whereas the other encodes a 270-amino-acid protein which contains two zinc fingers (CX2CX22CX2C and CX2CX23CX2C). The availability of the genome of this highly virulent phage, which is active against infective staphylococci, should provide new insights into the biology and evolution of large broad-spectrum polyvalent phages. PMID:15090528

  11. Genotyping, morphology and molecular characteristics of a lytic phage of Neisseria strain obtained from infected human dental plaque.

    PubMed

    Aljarbou, Ahmed N; Aljofan, Mohamad

    2014-07-01

    The lytic bacteriaphage (phage) A2 was isolated from human dental plaques along with its bacterial host. The virus was found to have an icosahedron-shaped head (60±3 nm), a sheathed and rigid long tail (∼175 nm) and was categorized into the family Siphoviridae of the order Caudovirales, which are dsDNA viral family, characterised by their ability to infect bacteria and are nonenveloped with a noncontractile tail. The isolated phage contained a linear dsDNA genome having 31,703 base pairs of unique sequence, which were sorted into three contigs and 12 single sequences. A latent period of 25 minutes and burst size of 24±2 particles was determined for the virus. Bioinformatics approaches were used to identify ORFs in the genome. A phylogenetic analysis confirmed the species inter-relationship and its placement in the family.

  12. Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitbart, Mya

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Recent work has also demonstrated that marine phages are extremely diverse and can carry a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes encoding critical ecological functions. This review is structured as a scientific "truth or dare," revealing several well-established "truths" about marine viruses and presenting a few "dares" for the research community to undertake in future studies.

  13. The presence of Chlamydia phage PhiCPG1 capsid protein VP1 genes and antibodies in patients infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingyue; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yuanjun; Li, Lingjie; Hou, Shuping; Gao, Xibo; Qi, Manli; Liu, Quanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia phage PhiCPG1 has been found in Chlamydia caviae in a guinea pig model for inclusion conjunctivitis, raising the possibility that Chlamydia phage is also present in patients infected with C. trachomatis (Ct). In the present study, we assayed for presence of Chlamydia phage capsid protein VP1 genes and antibodies in 84 non-Ct controls and 206 Ct patients using an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), followed by verification with Western blot. None of the subjects were exposed to an antibiotic treatment or had a C. pneumoniae infection. The VP1 antibody test was positive in both, the ELISA and Western blot assay, in 4 Ct patients. PCR amplification experiments revealed presence of the VP1 gene in 5 Ct patients. The results suggest that Chlamydia phage capsid protein VP1 may exist in some Ct patients.

  14. Genome of a SAR116 bacteriophage shows the prevalence of this phage type in the oceans.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ilnam; Oh, Hyun-Myung; Kang, Dongmin; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2013-07-23

    The abundance, genetic diversity, and crucial ecological and evolutionary roles of marine phages have prompted a large number of metagenomic studies. However, obtaining a thorough understanding of marine phages has been hampered by the low number of phage isolates infecting major bacterial groups other than cyanophages and pelagiphages. Therefore, there is an urgent requirement for the isolation of phages that infect abundant marine bacterial groups. In this study, we isolated and characterized HMO-2011, a phage infecting a bacterium of the SAR116 clade, one of the most abundant marine bacterial lineages. HMO-2011, which infects "Candidatus Puniceispirillum marinum" strain IMCC1322, has an ~55-kb dsDNA genome that harbors many genes with novel features rarely found in cultured organisms, including genes encoding a DNA polymerase with a partial DnaJ central domain and an atypical methanesulfonate monooxygenase. Furthermore, homologs of nearly all HMO-2011 genes were predominantly found in marine metagenomes rather than cultured organisms, suggesting the novelty of HMO-2011 and the prevalence of this phage type in the oceans. A significant number of the viral metagenome sequences obtained from the ocean surface were best assigned to the HMO-2011 genome. The number of reads assigned to HMO-2011 accounted for 10.3%-25.3% of the total reads assigned to viruses in seven viromes from the Pacific and Indian Oceans, making the HMO-2011 genome the most or second-most frequently assigned viral genome. Given its ability to infect the abundant SAR116 clade and its widespread distribution, Puniceispirillum phage HMO-2011 could be an important resource for marine virus research.

  15. Regulation of infection efficiency in a globally abundant marine Bacteriodetes virus

    PubMed Central

    Howard-Varona, Cristina; Roux, Simon; Dore, Hugo; Solonenko, Natalie E; Holmfeldt, Karin; Markillie, Lye M; Orr, Galya; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria impact humans, industry and nature, but do so under viral constraints. Problematically, knowledge of viral infection efficiencies and outcomes derives from few model systems that over-represent efficient lytic infections and under-represent virus–host natural diversity. Here we sought to understand infection efficiency regulation in an emerging environmental Bacteroidetes–virus model system with markedly different outcomes on two genetically and physiologically nearly identical host strains. For this, we quantified bacterial virus (phage) and host DNA, transcripts and phage particles throughout both infections. While phage transcriptomes were similar, transcriptional differences between hosts suggested host-derived regulation of infection efficiency. Specifically, the alternative host overexpressed DNA degradation genes and underexpressed translation genes, which seemingly targeted phage DNA particle production, as experiments revealed they were both significantly delayed (by >30 min) and reduced (by >50%) in the inefficient infection. This suggests phage failure to repress early alternative host expression and stress response allowed the host to respond against infection by delaying phage DNA replication and protein translation. Given that this phage type is ubiquitous and abundant in the global oceans and that variable viral infection efficiencies are central to dynamic ecosystems, these data provide a critically needed foundation for understanding and modeling viral infections in nature. PMID:27187794

  16. Replication and Maintenance of Linear Phage-Plasmid N15.

    PubMed

    Ravin, Nikolai V

    2015-02-01

    The lambdoid phage N15 of Escherichia coli is very unusual among temperate phages in that its prophage is not integrated into the chromosome but is a linear plasmid molecule with covalently closed ends (telomeres). Upon infection, the phage DNA circularizes via cohesive ends, and then a special phage enzyme of the tyrosine recombinase family, protelomerase, cuts at another site and joins the ends, forming hairpin telomeres of the linear plasmid prophage. Replication of the N15 prophage is initiated at an internally located ori site and proceeds bidirectionally, resulting in the formation of duplicated telomeres. The N15 protelomerase cuts them, generating two linear plasmid molecules with hairpin telomeres. Stable inheritance of the plasmid prophage is ensured by a partitioning operon similar to the F factor sop operon. Unlike the F centromere, the N15 centromere consists of four inverted repeats dispersed in the genome. The multiplicity and dispersion of centromeres are required for efficient partitioning of a linear plasmid. The centromeres are located in the N15 genome regions involved in phage replication and control of lytic development, and binding of partition proteins at these sites regulates these processes. The family of N15-like linear phage-plasmids includes lambdoid phages ɸKO2 and pY54, as well as Myoviridae phages ΦHAP-1, VHML, VP882, Vp58.5, and vB_VpaM_MAR of marine gamma-proteobacteria. The genomes of these phages contain similar protelomerase genes, lysogeny control modules, and replication genes, suggesting that these phages may belong to a group diverged from a common ancestor.

  17. The Discovery of phiAGATE, A Novel Phage Infecting Bacillus pumilus, Leads to New Insights into the Phylogeny of the Subfamily Spounavirinae

    PubMed Central

    Barylski, Jakub; Nowicki, Grzegorz; Goździcka-Józefiak, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The Bacillus phage phiAGATE is a novel myovirus isolated from the waters of Lake Góreckie (a eutrophic lake in western Poland). The bacteriophage infects Bacillus pumilus, a bacterium commonly observed in the mentioned reservoir. Analysis of the phiAGATE genome (149844 base pairs) resulted in 204 predicted protein-coding sequences (CDSs), of which 53 could be functionally annotated. Further investigation revealed that the bacteriophage is a member of a previously undescribed cluster of phages (for the purposes of this study we refer to it as “Bastille group”) within the Spounavirinae subfamily. Here we demonstrate that these viruses constitute a distinct branch of the Spounavirinae phylogenetic tree, with limited similarity to phages from the Twortlikevirus and Spounalikevirus genera. The classification of phages from the Bastille group into any currently accepted genus proved extremely difficult, prompting concerns about the validity of the present taxonomic arrangement of the subfamily. PMID:24466180

  18. The discovery of phiAGATE, a novel phage infecting Bacillus pumilus, leads to new insights into the phylogeny of the subfamily Spounavirinae.

    PubMed

    Barylski, Jakub; Nowicki, Grzegorz; Goździcka-Józefiak, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The Bacillus phage phiAGATE is a novel myovirus isolated from the waters of Lake Góreckie (a eutrophic lake in western Poland). The bacteriophage infects Bacillus pumilus, a bacterium commonly observed in the mentioned reservoir. Analysis of the phiAGATE genome (149844 base pairs) resulted in 204 predicted protein-coding sequences (CDSs), of which 53 could be functionally annotated. Further investigation revealed that the bacteriophage is a member of a previously undescribed cluster of phages (for the purposes of this study we refer to it as "Bastille group") within the Spounavirinae subfamily. Here we demonstrate that these viruses constitute a distinct branch of the Spounavirinae phylogenetic tree, with limited similarity to phages from the Twortlikevirus and Spounalikevirus genera. The classification of phages from the Bastille group into any currently accepted genus proved extremely difficult, prompting concerns about the validity of the present taxonomic arrangement of the subfamily.

  19. Use of Phage Display To Identify Potential Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gene Products Relevant to Early Cystic Fibrosis Airway Infections

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Christiane; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Ernst, Robert; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Miller, Samuel I.; Burns, Jane L.

    2005-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis. Treatment of established infections is difficult, even with microbiologically active agents. Thus, prevention of infection is an important goal of management. Isolates from cystic fibrosis patients appear to originate from the environment but adapt to the milieu of the airway of the cystic fibrosis patient and evolve toward a common phenotype. Identification of the antigens expressed early in infection may lead to novel targets for vaccine development. Immunogenic peptides were identified in a J404 random nonapeptide phage display library with serum from cystic fibrosis patients obtained within the first year of P. aeruginosa infection. One hundred sixty-five reactive clones were verified by plaque lift assays, and their inserts were sequenced. The sequenced nonapeptides were compared with the published sequence of strain PAO1, identifying homologies to 76 genes encoding outer membrane and secreted proteins. The majority of these were proteins involved in small-molecule transport, membrane structural proteins, and secreted factors. An in silico analysis was performed that suggested that the occurrence of multiple matches to predominantly outer membrane and secreted proteins was not attributable to random chance. Finally, gene expression array data from early isolates of P. aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis patients was compared with the results from phage display analysis. Eleven outer membrane and secreted proteins were common between the two data sets. These included genes involved in iron acquisition, antibiotic efflux, fimbrial biogenesis, and pyocin synthesis. These results demonstrate the feasibility and validity of this novel approach and suggest potential targets for future development. PMID:15618183

  20. Osmotic pressure: resisting or promoting DNA ejection from phage? Internal capsid-pressure dependence of viral infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evilevitch, Alex; Jeembaeva, Meerim; Koester, Sarah; Castelnovo, Martin; Weitz, David

    2009-03-01

    Recent in vitro experiments have shown that DNA ejection from phage can be partially stopped by surrounding osmotic pressure when ejected DNA is digested by DNase I on the course of ejection. We argue in this work by combination of experimental techniques (UV absorbance, pulse-field electrophoresis, and cryo-EM) that intact genome (i.e. undigested) ejection in a crowded environment is, on the contrary, enhanced or eventually complete with the help of a pulling force resulting from DNA condensation induced by the osmotic stress itself. This demonstrates that in vivo, the osmotically stressed cell cytoplasm will promote phage DNA ejection rather than resisting it. While, in vitro, the ejection depends sensitively on internal pressure within the virus capsid, the effect of internal pressure on infection of bacteria is unknown. We use microfluidics to monitor individual cells and determine the distribution of lysis due to infection as the capsid pressure is varied. The lysis probability decreases markedly with decreased capsid pressure.

  1. Phage Therapy: Future Inquiries

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sijia; Zachary, Elisabeth; Wells, Keenan; Loc-Carrillo, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Western scientists have steadily been gaining interest in phage therapy since the mid-1980’s due to the rising problem of antibiotic resistance. Its introduction in the 20th century by Felix d’Herelle marked the beginning for the uses of bacteriophages as antibacterial agents. However, a lack in understanding phage biology, as well as the arrival of broad-spectrum antibiotics deprioritized using phage therapy to treat bacterial infections in the West. With the advent of molecular biology, we are now better able to understand the predator-prey relationships with which phage co-evolve with their hosts as well as the specificity of phage-host interactions which could lend itself into personalized treatments for infection. These discoveries give us greater insights on how to most effectively use bacteriophage as potential therapeutic agents. It is encouraging to note that bacteriophages are used as food additives in the U.S., suggesting that the FDA acknowledges the positive potential of bacteriophages for human applications. Unfortunately, there are only a few examples to date of bacteriophages used on humans in controlled clinical trials. Rigorous studies in-vitro and especially in-vivo are critically important to avoid the mishaps of our predecessors. Phage biologists must strive to meet regulatory standards and to design thorough, rugged studies in order to establish a substantiated need for phage therapy in health care.

  2. Regulated CRISPR Modules Exploit a Dual Defense Strategy of Restriction and Abortive Infection in a Model of Prokaryote-Phage Coevolution

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M. Senthil; Plotkin, Joshua B.; Hannenhalli, Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    CRISPRs offer adaptive immunity in prokaryotes by acquiring genomic fragments from infecting phage and subsequently exploiting them for phage restriction via an RNAi-like mechanism. Here, we develop and analyze a dynamical model of CRISPR-mediated prokaryote-phage coevolution that incorporates classical CRISPR kinetics along with the recently discovered infection-induced activation and autoimmunity side effects. Our analyses reveal two striking characteristics of the CRISPR defense strategy: that both restriction and abortive infections operate during coevolution with phages, driving phages to much lower densities than possible with restriction alone, and that CRISPR maintenance is determined by a key dimensionless combination of parameters, which upper bounds the activation level of CRISPRs in uninfected populations. We contrast these qualitative observations with experimental data on CRISPR kinetics, which offer insight into the spacer deletion mechanism and the observed low CRISPR prevalence in clinical isolates. More generally, we exploit numerical simulations to delineate four regimes of CRISPR dynamics in terms of its host, kinetic, and regulatory parameters. PMID:26544847

  3. Enriching public descriptions of marine phages using the Genomic Standards Consortium MIGS standard.

    PubMed

    Duhaime, Melissa Beth; Kottmann, Renzo; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2011-04-29

    In any sequencing project, the possible depth of comparative analysis is determined largely by the amount and quality of the accompanying contextual data. The structure, content, and storage of this contextual data should be standardized to ensure consistent coverage of all sequenced entities and facilitate comparisons. The Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) has developed the "Minimum Information about Genome/Metagenome Sequences (MIGS/MIMS)" checklist for the description of genomes and here we annotate all 30 publicly available marine bacteriophage sequences to the MIGS standard. These annotations build on existing International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC) records, and confirm, as expected that current submissions lack most MIGS fields. MIGS fields were manually curated from the literature and placed in XML format as specified by the Genomic Contextual Data Markup Language (GCDML). These "machine-readable" reports were then analyzed to highlight patterns describing this collection of genomes. Completed reports are provided in GCDML. This work represents one step towards the annotation of our complete collection of genome sequences and shows the utility of capturing richer metadata along with raw sequences.

  4. Enriching public descriptions of marine phages using the Genomic Standards Consortium MIGS standard

    PubMed Central

    Duhaime, Melissa Beth; Kottmann, Renzo; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2011-01-01

    In any sequencing project, the possible depth of comparative analysis is determined largely by the amount and quality of the accompanying contextual data. The structure, content, and storage of this contextual data should be standardized to ensure consistent coverage of all sequenced entities and facilitate comparisons. The Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) has developed the “Minimum Information about Genome/Metagenome Sequences (MIGS/MIMS)” checklist for the description of genomes and here we annotate all 30 publicly available marine bacteriophage sequences to the MIGS standard. These annotations build on existing International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC) records, and confirm, as expected that current submissions lack most MIGS fields. MIGS fields were manually curated from the literature and placed in XML format as specified by the Genomic Contextual Data Markup Language (GCDML). These “machine-readable” reports were then analyzed to highlight patterns describing this collection of genomes. Completed reports are provided in GCDML. This work represents one step towards the annotation of our complete collection of genome sequences and shows the utility of capturing richer metadata along with raw sequences. PMID:21677864

  5. Phages in nature

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Andrew D; Letarov, Andrey V; Heaphy, Shaun

    2011-01-01

    Bacteriophages or phages are the most abundant organisms in the biosphere and they are a ubiquitous feature of prokaryotic existence. A bacteriophage is a virus which infects a bacterium. Archaea are also infected by viruses, whether these should be referred to as ‘phages’ is debatable, but they are included as such in the scope this article. Phages have been of interest to scientists as tools to understand fundamental molecular biology, as vectors of horizontal gene transfer and drivers of bacterial evolution, as sources of diagnostic and genetic tools and as novel therapeutic agents. Unraveling the biology of phages and their relationship with their hosts is key to understanding microbial systems and their exploitation. In this article we describe the roles of phages in different host systems and show how modeling, microscopy, isolation, genomic and metagenomic based approaches have come together to provide unparalleled insights into these small but vital constituents of the microbial world. PMID:21687533

  6. Marine peptides and their anti-infective activities.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee Kyoung; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

    2015-01-16

    Marine bioresources are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with industrial and nutraceutical potential. Numerous clinical trials evaluating novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from marine sources have revealed novel mechanisms of action. Recently, marine-derived bioactive peptides have attracted attention owing to their numerous beneficial effects. Moreover, several studies have reported that marine peptides exhibit various anti-infective activities, such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, anti-tuberculosis, and antiviral activities. In the last several decades, studies of marine plants, animals, and microbes have revealed tremendous number of structurally diverse and bioactive secondary metabolites. However, the treatments available for many infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses are limited. Thus, the identification of novel antimicrobial peptides should be continued, and all possible strategies should be explored. In this review, we will present the structures and anti-infective activity of peptides isolated from marine sources (sponges, algae, bacteria, fungi and fish) from 2006 to the present.

  7. Marine Peptides and Their Anti-Infective Activities

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee Kyoung; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

    2015-01-01

    Marine bioresources are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with industrial and nutraceutical potential. Numerous clinical trials evaluating novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from marine sources have revealed novel mechanisms of action. Recently, marine-derived bioactive peptides have attracted attention owing to their numerous beneficial effects. Moreover, several studies have reported that marine peptides exhibit various anti-infective activities, such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, anti-tuberculosis, and antiviral activities. In the last several decades, studies of marine plants, animals, and microbes have revealed tremendous number of structurally diverse and bioactive secondary metabolites. However, the treatments available for many infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses are limited. Thus, the identification of novel antimicrobial peptides should be continued, and all possible strategies should be explored. In this review, we will present the structures and anti-infective activity of peptides isolated from marine sources (sponges, algae, bacteria, fungi and fish) from 2006 to the present. PMID:25603351

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is important because they are considered as a sentinel for contamination of seas with T. gondii oocysts, and toxoplasmosis causes mortality in these animals, particularly sea otters. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was determined in 75 captive mari...

  9. Phage therapy pharmacology phage cocktails.

    PubMed

    Chan, Benjamin K; Abedon, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    Phage therapy is the clinical or veterinary application of bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) as antibacterial "drugs." More generally, phages can be used as biocontrol agents against plant as well as foodborne pathogens. In this chapter, we consider the therapeutic use of phage cocktails, which is the combining of two or more phage types to produce more pharmacologically diverse formulations. The primary motivation for the use of cocktails is their broader spectra of activity in comparison to individual phage isolates: they can impact either more bacterial types or achieve effectiveness under a greater diversity of conditions. The combining of phages can also facilitate better targeting of multiple strains making up individual bacterial species or covering multiple species that might be responsible for similar disease states, in general providing, relative to individual phage isolates, a greater potential for presumptive or empirical treatment. Contrasting the use of phage banks, or even phage isolation against specific etiologies that have been obtained directly from patients under treatment, here we consider the utility as well as potential shortcomings associated with the use of phage cocktails as therapeutic antibacterial agents.

  10. Bacteria-phage interactions in natural environments.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Muñoz, Samuel L; Koskella, Britt

    2014-01-01

    Phages are considered the most abundant and diverse biological entities on Earth and are notable not only for their sheer abundance, but also for their influence on bacterial hosts. In nature, bacteria-phage relationships are complex and have far-reaching consequences beyond particular pairwise interactions, influencing everything from bacterial virulence to eukaryotic fitness to the carbon cycle. In this review, we examine bacteria and phage distributions in nature first by highlighting biogeographic patterns and nonhost environmental influences on phage distribution, then by considering the ways in which phages and bacteria interact, emphasizing phage life cycles, bacterial responses to phage infection, and the complex patterns of phage host specificity. Finally, we discuss phage impacts on bacterial abundance, genetics, and physiology, and further aim to clarify distinctions between current theoretical models and point out areas in need of future research.

  11. Characterization and Complete Genome Sequences of Three N4-Like Roseobacter Phages Isolated from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Baolian; Zhang, Si; Long, Lijuan; Huang, Sijun

    2016-09-01

    Three bacteriophages (RD-1410W1-01, RD-1410Ws-07, and DS-1410Ws-06) were isolated from the surface water of Sanya Bay, northern South China Sea, on two marine bacteria type strains of the Roseobacter lineage. These phages have an isometric head and a short tail, morphologically belonging to the Podoviridae family. Two of these phages can infect four of seven marine roseobacter strains tested and the other one can infect three of them, showing relatively broader host ranges compared to known N4-like roseophages. One-step growth curves showed that these phages have similar short latent periods (1-2 h) but highly variable burst sizes (27-341 pfu cell(-1)). Their complete genomes show high level of similarities to known N4-like roseophages in terms of genome size, G + C content, gene content, and arrangement. The morphological and genomic features of these phages indicate that they belong to the N4likevirus genus. Moreover, comparative genomic analysis based on 43 N4-like phages (10 roseobacter phages and 33 phages infecting other lineages of bacteria) revealed a core genome of 18 genes shared by all the 43 phages and 38 genes shared by all the ten roseophages. The 38 core genes of N4-like roseophages nearly make up 70 % of each genome in length. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated core gene products showed that our phage isolates represent two new phyletic branches, suggesting the broad genetic diversity of marine N4-like roseophages remains.

  12. An outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 5a infection in a residential home for elderly people.

    PubMed

    Hansell, A L; Sen, S; Sufi, F; McCallum, A

    1998-09-01

    The first outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type (PT) 5a infection to be reported occurred after a party in a residential home for elderly people in May 1995. The party was attended attended by 96 residents, staff and guests. S. enteritidis PT5a was isolated from 14 of the 25 clinical cases identified after the party and S. enteritidis PT4 from another clinical case. Two elderly residents with S. enteritidis PT5a infection died. Infection with S. enteritidis PT5a was associated with consumption of prawn in mayonnaise vol-au-vents, sausage rolls, corned beef sandwiches, and sausages. The investigation of this outbreak illustrated the difficulty that elderly people may have in the completion of questionnaires. It also highlighted areas for intervention; such as reminders about basic hygiene precautions to prevent secondary spread and the importance of coordinated reinforcement in the workplace of formal food hygiene training for cooks. The Food Safety Regulations 1995 came into force soon after this outbreak: their implementation would probably have prevented it.

  13. Phage therapy--constraints and possibilities.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Anders S

    2014-05-01

    The rise of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, causing intractable infections, has resulted in an increased interest in phage therapy. Phage therapy preceded antibiotic treatment against bacterial infections and involves the use of bacteriophages, bacterial viruses, to fight bacteria. Virulent phages are abundant and have proven to be very effective in vitro, where they in most cases lyse any bacteria within the hour. Clinical trials on animals and humans show promising results but also that the treatments are not completely effective. This is partly due to the studies being carried out with few phages, and with limited experimental groups, but also the fact that phage therapy has limitations in vivo. Phages are large compared with small antibiotic molecules, and each phage can only infect one or a few bacterial strains. A very large number of different phages are needed to treat infections as these are caused by genetically different strains of bacteria. Phages are effective only if enough of them can reach the bacteria and increase in number in situ. Taken together, this entails high demands on resources for the construction of phage libraries and the testing of individual phages. The effectiveness and host range must be characterized, and immunological risks must be assessed for every single phage.

  14. The Global Reciprocal Reprogramming between Mycobacteriophage SWU1 and Mycobacterium Reveals the Molecular Strategy of Subversion and Promotion of Phage Infection.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiangyu; Duan, Xiangke; Tong, Yan; Huang, Qinqin; Zhou, Mingliang; Wang, Huan; Zeng, Lanying; Young, Ry F; Xie, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages are the viruses of bacteria, which have contributed extensively to our understanding of life and modern biology. The phage-mediated bacterial growth inhibition represents immense untapped source for novel antimicrobials. Insights into the interaction between mycobacteriophage and Mycobacterium host will inform better utilizing of mycobacteriophage. In this study, RNA sequencing technology (RNA-seq) was used to explore the global response of Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2)155 at an early phase of infection with mycobacteriophage SWU1, key host metabolic processes of M. smegmatis mc(2)155 shut off by SWU1, and the responsible phage proteins. The results of RNA-seq were confirmed by Real-time PCR and functional assay. 1174 genes of M. smegmatis mc(2)155 (16.9% of the entire encoding capacity) were differentially regulated by phage infection. These genes belong to six functional categories: (i) signal transduction, (ii) cell energetics, (iii) cell wall biosynthesis, (iv) DNA, RNA, and protein biosynthesis, (v) iron uptake, (vi) central metabolism. The transcription patterns of phage SWU1 were also characterized. This study provided the first global glimpse of the reciprocal reprogramming between the mycobacteriophage and Mycobacterium host.

  15. The use of hybrid phage displaying antigen epitope and recombinant protein in the diagnosis of systemic Candida albicans infection in rabbits and cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Quanping, Su; Yanyan, Huai; Yicun, Wang; Zhigang, Ju; Yuling, Geng; Li, Wang

    2010-12-01

    Hsp90 and Sap2 are 2 immunodominant antigens of Candida albicans. Both of them can induce the production of antibody. In this article, systemically infected rabbits were used to study the Hsp90 and Sap2 antibody production. Also, pET28a-Hsp90 protein, pET28a-Sap2 protein, hybrid phage displaying LKVIRK epitope, and hybrid phage displaying VKYTS epitope were used for diagnosis of the antibody in cancer patients. The results showed that the Sap2 antibody appeared earlier than Hsp90 antibody in systemically infected rabbits. Meanwhile, both of the antibodies can perform protection in rabbits. The conclusion is that Sap2 antibody, which appears at early stage in systemic candidiasis, may be better than Hsp90 antibody for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis. For 141 sera of cancer patients, 52 sera were detected Sap2 antibody and 57 sera were detected Hsp90 antibody. Only 14 sera contained both the 2 antibodies. Although recombinant protein was slightly more sensitive than hybrid phage, there was no significant difference between them. For its easy preparation, less expensive hybrid phage displaying antigen epitope may be a better agent for diagnosis of candidiasis.

  16. The Global Reciprocal Reprogramming between Mycobacteriophage SWU1 and Mycobacterium Reveals the Molecular Strategy of Subversion and Promotion of Phage Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiangyu; Duan, Xiangke; Tong, Yan; Huang, Qinqin; Zhou, Mingliang; Wang, Huan; Zeng, Lanying; Young, Ry F.; Xie, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages are the viruses of bacteria, which have contributed extensively to our understanding of life and modern biology. The phage-mediated bacterial growth inhibition represents immense untapped source for novel antimicrobials. Insights into the interaction between mycobacteriophage and Mycobacterium host will inform better utilizing of mycobacteriophage. In this study, RNA sequencing technology (RNA-seq) was used to explore the global response of Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 at an early phase of infection with mycobacteriophage SWU1, key host metabolic processes of M. smegmatis mc2155 shut off by SWU1, and the responsible phage proteins. The results of RNA-seq were confirmed by Real-time PCR and functional assay. 1174 genes of M. smegmatis mc2155 (16.9% of the entire encoding capacity) were differentially regulated by phage infection. These genes belong to six functional categories: (i) signal transduction, (ii) cell energetics, (iii) cell wall biosynthesis, (iv) DNA, RNA, and protein biosynthesis, (v) iron uptake, (vi) central metabolism. The transcription patterns of phage SWU1 were also characterized. This study provided the first global glimpse of the reciprocal reprogramming between the mycobacteriophage and Mycobacterium host. PMID:26858712

  17. Characterization, Genome Sequence, and Analysis of Escherichia Phage CICC 80001, a Bacteriophage Infecting an Efficient L-Aspartic Acid Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Xu, Youqiang; Ma, Yuyue; Yao, Su; Jiang, Zengyan; Pei, Jiangsen; Cheng, Chi

    2016-03-01

    Escherichia phage CICC 80001 was isolated from the bacteriophage contaminated medium of an Escherichia coli strain HY-05C (CICC 11022S) which could produce L-aspartic acid. The phage had a head diameter of 45-50 nm and a tail of about 10 nm. The one-step growth curve showed a latent period of 10 min and a rise period of about 20 min. The average burst size was about 198 phage particles per infected cell. Tests were conducted on the plaques, multiplicity of infection, and host range. The genome of CICC 80001 was sequenced with a length of 38,810 bp, and annotated. The key proteins leading to host-cell lysis were phylogenetically analyzed. One protein belonged to class II holin, and the other two belonged to the endopeptidase family and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase family, respectively. The genome showed the sequence identity of 82.7% with that of Enterobacteria phage T7, and carried ten unique open reading frames. The bacteriophage resistant E. coli strain designated CICC 11021S was breeding and its L-aspartase activity was 84.4% of that of CICC 11022S.

  18. In Vivo Assessment of Phage and Linezolid Based Implant Coatings for Treatment of Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) Mediated Orthopaedic Device Related Infections

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sandeep; Harjai, Kusum; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus comprises up to two-thirds of all pathogens in orthopaedic implant infections with two species respectively Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, being the predominate etiological agents isolated. Further, with the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), treatment of S. aureus implant infections has become more difficult, thus representing a devastating complication. Use of local delivery system consisting of S.aureus specific phage along with linezolid (incorporated in biopolymer) allowing gradual release of the two agents at the implant site represents a new, still unexplored treatment option (against orthopaedic implant infections) that has been studied in an animal model of prosthetic joint infection. Naked wire, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) coated wire and phage and /or linezolid coated K-wire were surgically implanted into the intra-medullary canal of mouse femur bone of respective groups followed by inoculation of S.aureus ATCC 43300(MRSA). Mice implanted with K-wire coated with both the agents i.e phage as well as linezolid (dual coated wires) showed maximum reduction in bacterial adherence, associated inflammation of the joint as well as faster resumption of locomotion and motor function of the limb. Also, all the coating treatments showed no emergence of resistant mutants. Use of dual coated implants incorporating lytic phage (capable of self-multiplication) as well as linezolid presents an attractive and aggressive early approach in preventing as well as treating implant associated infections caused by methicillin resistant S. aureus strains as assessed in a murine model of experimental joint infection. PMID:27333300

  19. Synergy as a rationale for phage therapy using phage cocktails

    PubMed Central

    Schmerer, Matthew; Molineux, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    Where phages are used to treat bacterial contaminations and infections, multiple phages are typically applied at once as a cocktail. When two or more phages in the cocktail attack the same bacterium, the combination may produce better killing than any single phage (synergy) or the combination may be worse than the best single phage (interference). Synergy is of obvious utility, especially if it can be predicted a priori, but it remains poorly documented with few examples known. This study addresses synergy in which one phage improves adsorption by a second phage. It first presents evidence of synergy from an experimental system of two phages and a mucoid E. coli host. The synergy likely stems from a tailspike enzyme produced by one of the phages. We then offer mathematical models and simulations to understand the dynamics of synergy and the enhanced magnitude of bacterial control possible. The models and observations complement each other and suggest that synergy may be of widespread utility and may be predictable from easily observed phenotypes. PMID:25279269

  20. Phage neutralization by sera of patients receiving phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Łusiak-Szelachowska, Marzanna; Zaczek, Maciej; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Kłak, Marlena; Fortuna, Wojciech; Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Rogóż, Paweł; Szufnarowski, Krzysztof; Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Owczarek, Barbara; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-08-01

    The aim of our investigation was to verify whether phage therapy (PT) can induce antiphage antibodies. The antiphage activity was determined in sera from 122 patients from the Phage Therapy Unit in Wrocław with bacterial infections before and during PT, and in sera from 30 healthy volunteers using a neutralization test. Furthermore, levels of antiphage antibodies were investigated in sera of 19 patients receiving staphylococcal phages and sera of 20 healthy volunteers using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The phages were administered orally, locally, orally/locally, intrarectally, or orally/intrarectally. The rate of phage inactivation (K) estimated the level of phages' neutralization by human sera. Low K rates were found in sera of healthy volunteers (K ≤ 1.73). Low K rates were detected before PT (K ≤ 1.64). High antiphage activity of sera K > 18 was observed in 12.3% of examined patients (n = 15) treated with phages locally (n = 13) or locally/orally (n = 2) from 15 to 60 days of PT. High K rates were found in patients treated with some Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis phages. Low K rates were observed during PT in sera of patients using phages orally (K ≤ 1.04). Increased inactivation of phages by sera of patients receiving PT decreased after therapy. These results suggest that the antiphage activity in patients' sera depends on the route of phage administration and phage type. The induction of antiphage activity of sera during or after PT does not exclude a favorable result of PT.

  1. Phage Neutralization by Sera of Patients Receiving Phage Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Żaczek, Maciej; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Kłak, Marlena; Fortuna, Wojciech; Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Rogóż, Paweł; Szufnarowski, Krzysztof; Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Owczarek, Barbara; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of our investigation was to verify whether phage therapy (PT) can induce antiphage antibodies. The antiphage activity was determined in sera from 122 patients from the Phage Therapy Unit in Wrocław with bacterial infections before and during PT, and in sera from 30 healthy volunteers using a neutralization test. Furthermore, levels of antiphage antibodies were investigated in sera of 19 patients receiving staphylococcal phages and sera of 20 healthy volunteers using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The phages were administered orally, locally, orally/locally, intrarectally, or orally/intrarectally. The rate of phage inactivation (K) estimated the level of phages' neutralization by human sera. Low K rates were found in sera of healthy volunteers (K≤1.73). Low K rates were detected before PT (K≤1.64). High antiphage activity of sera K>18 was observed in 12.3% of examined patients (n=15) treated with phages locally (n=13) or locally/orally (n=2) from 15 to 60 days of PT. High K rates were found in patients treated with some Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis phages. Low K rates were observed during PT in sera of patients using phages orally (K≤1.04). Increased inactivation of phages by sera of patients receiving PT decreased after therapy. These results suggest that the antiphage activity in patients' sera depends on the route of phage administration and phage type. The induction of antiphage activity of sera during or after PT does not exclude a favorable result of PT. PMID:24893003

  2. A novel Omp25-binding peptide screened by phage display can inhibit Brucella abortus 2308 infection in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junbo; Guo, Fei; Huang, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yuanzhi; Yin, Shuanghong; Li, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is a globally distributed zoonotic disease affecting animals and humans, and current antibiotic and vaccine strategies are not optimal. The surface-exposed protein Omp25 is involved in Brucella virulence and plays an important role in Brucella pathogenesis during infection, suggesting that Omp25 could be a useful target for selecting potential therapeutic molecules to inhibit Brucella pathogenesis. In this study, we identified, we believe for the first time, peptides that bind specifically to the Omp25 protein of pathogens, using a phage panning technique, After four rounds of panning, 42 plaques of eluted phages were subjected to pyrosequencing. Four phage clones that bound better than the other clones were selected following confirmation by ELISA and affinity constant determination. The peptides selected could significantly inhibit Brucella abortus 2308 (S2308) internalization and intracellular growth in RAW264.7 macrophages, and significantly induce secretion of TNF-α and IL-12 in peptide- and S2308-treated cells. Any observed peptide (OP11, OP27, OP35 or OP40) could significantly inhibit S2308 infection in BALB/c mice. Moreover, the peptide OP11 was the best candidate peptide for inhibiting S2308 infection in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that peptide OP11 has potential for exploitation as a peptide drug in resisting S2308 infection. PMID:24722798

  3. Clostridium difficile phages: still difficult?

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Katherine R.; Clokie, Martha R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Phages that infect Clostridium difficile were first isolated for typing purposes in the 1980s, but their use was short lived. However, the rise of C. difficile epidemics over the last decade has triggered a resurgence of interest in using phages to combat this pathogen. Phage therapy is an attractive treatment option for C. difficile infection, however, developing suitable phages is challenging. In this review we summarize the difficulties faced by researchers in this field, and we discuss the solutions and strategies used for the development of C. difficile phages for use as novel therapeutics. Epidemiological data has highlighted the diversity and distribution of C. difficile, and shown that novel strains continue to emerge in clinical settings. In parallel with epidemiological studies, advances in molecular biology have bolstered our understanding of C. difficile biology, and our knowledge of phage–host interactions in other bacterial species. These three fields of biology have therefore paved the way for future work on C. difficile phages to progress and develop. Benefits of using C. difficile phages as therapeutic agents include the fact that they have highly specific interactions with their bacterial hosts. Studies also show that they can reduce bacterial numbers in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Genetic analysis has revealed the genomic diversity among these phages and provided an insight into their taxonomy and evolution. No strictly virulent C. difficile phages have been reported and this contributes to the difficulties with their therapeutic exploitation. Although treatment approaches using the phage-encoded endolysin protein have been explored, the benefits of using “whole-phages” are such that they remain a major research focus. Whilst we don’t envisage working with C. difficile phages will be problem-free, sufficient study should inform future strategies to facilitate their development to combat this problematic pathogen. PMID:24808893

  4. Phage therapy to reduce pre-proccessing Salmonella infections in market-weight swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of meat and meat products with foodborne pathogens is usually the result of the carcass coming in contact with the feces of an infected animal during processing. In the case of Salmonella, several recent studies have reported that pigs become rapidly infected with the organism during p...

  5. Phage cocktails and the future of phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Benjamin K; Abedon, Stephen T; Loc-Carrillo, Catherine

    2013-06-01

    Viruses of bacteria, known as bacteriophages or phages, were discovered nearly 100 years ago. Their potential as antibacterial agents was appreciated almost immediately, with the first 'phage therapy' trials predating Fleming's discovery of penicillin by approximately a decade. In this review, we consider phage therapy that can be used for treating bacterial infections in humans, domestic animals and even biocontrol in foods. Following an overview of the topic, we explore the common practice - both experimental and, in certain regions of the world, clinical - of mixing therapeutic phages into cocktails consisting of multiple virus types. We conclude with a discussion of the commercial and medical context of phage cocktails as therapeutic agents. In comparing off-the-shelf versus custom approaches, we consider the merits of a middle ground, which we deem 'modifiable'. Finally, we explore a regulatory framework for such an approach based on an influenza vaccine model.

  6. Genome and proteome analysis of 7-7-1, a flagellotropic phage infecting Agrobacterium sp H13-3

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The flagellotropic phage 7-7-1 infects motile cells of Agrobacterium sp H13-3 by attaching to and traveling along the rotating flagellar filament to the secondary receptor at the base, where it injects its DNA into the host cell. Here we describe the complete genomic sequence of 69,391 base pairs of this unusual bacteriophage. Methods The sequence of the 7-7-1 genome was determined by pyro(454)sequencing to a coverage of 378-fold. It was annotated using MyRAST and a variety of internet resources. The structural proteome was analyzed by SDS-PAGE coupled electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Results Sequence annotation and a structural proteome analysis revealed 127 open reading frames, 84 of which are unique. In six cases 7-7-1 proteins showed sequence similarity to proteins from the virulent Burkholderia myovirus BcepB1A. Unique features of the 7-7-1 genome are the physical separation of the genes encoding the small (orf100) and large (orf112) subunits of the DNA packaging complex and the apparent lack of a holin-lysin cassette. Proteomic analysis revealed the presence of 24 structural proteins, five of which were identified as baseplate (orf7), putative tail fibre (orf102), portal (orf113), major capsid (orf115) and tail sheath (orf126) proteins. In the latter case, the N-terminus was removed during capsid maturation, probably by a putative prohead protease (orf114). PMID:22650361

  7. The origin of phage virology.

    PubMed

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    The history of bacteriophage (phage) had its start in 1915, when Twort isolated an unusual filterable and infectious agent from excrete of patients struck by diarrhoea; this discovery was followed by an analogous, and probably independent, finding of d'Hérelle in 1917. For several years phage research made scant progress but great attention was paid to the question of phage nature, which saw the contrast between d'Hérelle and Bordet's views (living against chemical nature, respectively). This situation changed with the independent discovery of lysogeny, in 1925, thanks to Bordet and Bail: this phenomenon was considered of genetical origin, a view that Wollman interpreted by assimilating the properties of phage to those of gene (according to a previous idea of Muller). In the 1930s, Burnet's work opened a new era by demonstrating the occurrence of several species of phages and their antigenic property. In the same period, the physical and chemical characteristics of these viruses were disclosed thanks, in particular, to the work of Schlesinger, who first demonstrated that a virus (phage) was constituted of nucleoproteins. The peculiarity of phage was finally shown after the invention of electron microscope: H. Ruska, in 1940, and Anderson and Luria in the next years, obtained the first images of tailed phages, a finding that strongly helped the investigation on the first steps of the infection process. The decisive impulse to phage virology came from Delbrück, a physicist who entered biology giving it a new arrangement. The so-called "phage group" assembled brilliant minds (Luria, Hershey and Delbrück himself, and later a dozen of other scientists): this group faced three fundamental questions of phage virology, i.e., the mechanisms of attack, multiplication and lysis. In ten years' time, phage virology became an integrant part of molecular biology, also thanks to the discovery of the genetical properties of DNA: in such scientific context, Delbrück, Luria and

  8. Statistical structure of host-phage interactions.

    PubMed

    Flores, Cesar O; Meyer, Justin R; Valverde, Sergi; Farr, Lauren; Weitz, Joshua S

    2011-07-12

    Interactions between bacteria and the viruses that infect them (i.e., phages) have profound effects on biological processes, but despite their importance, little is known on the general structure of infection and resistance between most phages and bacteria. For example, are bacteria-phage communities characterized by complex patterns of overlapping exploitation networks, do they conform to a more ordered general pattern across all communities, or are they idiosyncratic and hard to predict from one ecosystem to the next? To answer these questions, we collect and present a detailed metaanalysis of 38 laboratory-verified studies of host-phage interactions representing almost 12,000 distinct experimental infection assays across a broad spectrum of taxa, habitat, and mode of selection. In so doing, we present evidence that currently available host-phage infection networks are statistically different from random networks and that they possess a characteristic nested structure. This nested structure is typified by the finding that hard to infect bacteria are infected by generalist phages (and not specialist phages) and that easy to infect bacteria are infected by generalist and specialist phages. Moreover, we find that currently available host-phage infection networks do not typically possess a modular structure. We explore possible underlying mechanisms and significance of the observed nested host-phage interaction structure. In addition, given that most of the available host-phage infection networks examined here are composed of taxa separated by short phylogenetic distances, we propose that the lack of modularity is a scale-dependent effect, and then, we describe experimental studies to test whether modular patterns exist at macroevolutionary scales.

  9. Influenza A virus infections in marine mammals and terrestrial carnivores.

    PubMed

    Harder, Timm C; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Vahlenkamp, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV), members of the Orthomyxoviridae, cover a wide host spectrum comprising a plethora of avian and, in comparison, a few mammalian species. The viral reservoir and gene pool are kept in metapopulations of aquatic wild birds. The mammalian-adapted IAVs originally arose by transspecies transmission from avian sources. In swine, horse and man, species-adapted IAV lineages circulate independently of the avian reservoir and cause predominantly respiratory disease of highly variable severity. Sporadic outbreaks of IAV infections associated with pneumonic clinical signs have repeatedly occurred in marine mammals (harbour seals [Phoca vitulina]) off the New England coast of the U.S.A. due to episodic transmission of avian IAV. However, no indigenous marine mammal IAV lineages are described. In contrast to marine mammals, avian- and equine-derived IAVs have formed stable circulating lineages in terrestrial carnivores: IAVs of subtype H3N2 and H3N8 are found in canine populations in South Korea, China, and the U.S.A. Experimental infections revealed that dogs and cats can be infected with an even wider range of avian IAVs. Cats, in particular, also proved susceptible to native infection with human pandemic H1N1 viruses and, according to serological data, may be vulnerable to infection with further human-adapted IAVs. Ferrets are susceptible to a variety of avian and mammalian IAVs and are an established animal model of human IAV infection. Thus, a potential role of pet cats, dogs and ferrets as mediators of avian-derived viruses to the human population does exist. A closer observation for influenza virus infections and transmissions at this animal-human interface is indicated.

  10. Marine netpen farming leads to infections with some unusual parasites.

    PubMed

    Kent, M L

    2000-03-01

    Marine netpen farming of salmonid fishes is a rapidly growing industry in several countries. With this relatively recent industry, new or unusual infections by parasitic pathogens have been observed. This is due to different hosts being reared in new geographic areas, or by indigenous species being reared in a different environmental condition, i.e. the marine netpen. Examples of the former include Kudoa thyrsites (Myxozoa) and Hemobaphes disphaerocephalus (Copepoda) infections in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared in the Pacific Northwest, Ceratothoa gaudichaudii (Isopoda) infections in Atlantic salmon reared in Chile, Neoparamoeba (=Paramoeba) sp. (Sacromastigophora) from salmonids reared in Tasmania, and Stephanostomum tenue (Digenea) infections in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in Atlantic Canada. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) reared in its native region, the Pacific Northwest, provides some examples of unusual or more severe infections than those normally seen in wild or freshwater reared chinook salmon. These include infections by Loma salmonae (Microsporidia), Gilguina squali (Cestoda) and the rosette agent, an undescribed fungus-like organism related to choanoflagellates. As the industry continues to expand, it is certain that more novel host-parasite relationships will be observed, providing challenges for fish farmers and parasitologists.

  11. Insights into the diversity of φRSM phages infecting strains of the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum complex: regulation and evolution.

    PubMed

    Askora, Ahmed; Kawasaki, Takeru; Fujie, Makoto; Yamada, Takashi

    2014-08-01

    The filamentous φRSM phages (φRSM1 and φRSM3) have integration/excision capabilities in the phytopathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. In the present study, we further investigated φRSM-like sequences present in the genomes of R. solanacearum strains belonging to the four major evolutionary lineages (phylotypes I-IV). Based on bioinformatics and comparative genomic analyses, we found that φRSM homologs are highly diverse in R. solanacearum complex strains. We detected an open reading frame (ORF)15 located upstream of the gene for φRSM integrase, which exhibited amino acid sequence similarity to phage repressor proteins. ORF15-encoded protein (a putative repressor) was found to encode a 104-residue polypeptide containing a DNA-binding (helix-turn-helix) domain and was expressed in R. solanacearum lysogenic strains. This suggested that φRSM3-ORF15 might be involved in the establishment and maintenance of a lysogenic state, as well as in phage immunity. Comparison of the putative repressor proteins and their binding sites within φRSM-related prophages provides insights into how these regulatory systems of filamentous phages have evolved and diverged in the R. solanacearum complex. In conclusion, φRSM phages represent a unique group of filamentous phages that are equipped with innate integration/excision (ORF14) and regulatory systems (ORF15).

  12. The habits of highly effective phages: population dynamics as a framework for identifying therapeutic phages

    PubMed Central

    Bull, James J.; Gill, Jason J.

    2014-01-01

    The use of bacteriophages as antibacterial agents is being actively researched on a global scale. Typically, the phages used are isolated from the wild by plating on the bacteria of interest, and a far larger set of candidate phages is often available than can be used in any application. When an excess of phages is available, how should the best phages be identified? Here we consider phage-bacterial population dynamics as a basis for evaluating and predicting phage success. A central question is whether the innate dynamical properties of phages are the determinants of success, or instead, whether extrinsic, indirect effects can be responsible. We address the dynamical perspective, motivated in part by the absence of dynamics in previously suggested principles of phage therapy. Current mathematical models of bacterial-phage dynamics do not capture the realities of in vivo dynamics, nor is this likely to change, but they do give insight to qualitative properties that may be generalizable. In particular, phage adsorption rate may be critical to treatment success, so understanding the effects of the in vivo environment on host availability may allow prediction of useful phages prior to in vivo experimentation. Principles for predicting efficacy may be derived by developing a greater understanding of the in vivo system, or such principles could be determined empirically by comparing phages with known differences in their dynamic properties. The comparative approach promises to be a powerful method of discovering the key to phage success. We offer five recommendations for future study: (i) compare phages differing in treatment efficacy to identify the phage properties associated with success, (ii) assay dynamics in vivo, (iii) understand mechanisms of bacterial escape from phages, (iv) test phages in model infections that are relevant to the intended clinical applications, and (v) develop new classes of models for phage growth in spatially heterogeneous environments

  13. Two flagellotropic phages and one pilus-specific phage active against Asticcacaulis biprosthecum.

    PubMed

    Pate, J L; Petzold, S J; Umbreit, T H

    1979-04-15

    Three phages active against cells of Asticcacaulis biprosthecum attach to receptor sites located at the pole of the cell where pili, flagella, and holdfast are produced. Phage phiAcS2, a large phage with a prolate cylindrical head and flexible, noncontractile tail, attaches to flagella as well as to receptor sites at the pole of the cell. Attachment to flagella occurs at the region where head and tail of the phage are joined, leaving the distal end of the tail free for attachment to receptor sites at the cell surface. Phages phiAcM2 and phiAcM4, are identical in appearance to each other, possessing prolate cylindrical heads and flexible, noncontractile tails, and are smaller than phage phiAcS2. Phage phiAcM4, exhibits the same flagellotropic characteristic as described for phage phiAcS2, including the manner of attachment to flagella. Phage phiAcM2 has no affinity for flagella, but attaches by the distal end of the tail to pili and to receptor sites at the pole of the cell. Mechanical removal of flagella and pili protects against infection by all three phages. Studies with phage-resistant mutants and with KCN-treated cells suggest that pili are required for infection by both flagellotropic and pilus-specific phages.

  14. Influence of Environmental Factors on Phage–Bacteria Interaction and on the Efficacy and Infectivity of Phage P100

    PubMed Central

    Fister, Susanne; Robben, Christian; Witte, Anna K.; Schoder, Dagmar; Wagner, Martin; Rossmanith, Peter

    2016-01-01

    When using bacteriophages to control food-borne bacteria in food production plants and processed food, it is crucial to consider that environmental conditions influence their stability. These conditions can also affect the physiological state of bacteria and consequently host–virus interaction and the effectiveness of the phage ability to reduce bacteria numbers. In this study we investigated the stability, binding, and replication capability of phage P100 and its efficacy to control Listeria monocytogenes under conditions typically encountered in dairy plants. The influences of SDS, Lutensol AO 7, salt, smear water, and different temperatures were investigated. Results indicate that phage P100 is stable and able to bind to the host under most conditions tested. Replication was dependent upon the growth of L. monocytogenes and efficacy was higher when bacterial growth was reduced by certain environmental conditions. In long-term experiments at different temperatures phages were initially able to reduce bacteria up to seven log10 units after 2 weeks at 4°C. However, thereafter, re-growth and development of phage-resistant L. monocytogenes isolates were encountered. PMID:27516757

  15. Phage Therapy: Eco-Physiological Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Abedon, Stephen T.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial virus use as antibacterial agents, in the guise of what is commonly known as phage therapy, is an inherently physiological, ecological, and also pharmacological process. Physiologically we can consider metabolic properties of phage infections of bacteria and variation in those properties as a function of preexisting bacterial states. In addition, there are patient responses to pathogenesis, patient responses to phage infections of pathogens, and also patient responses to phage virions alone. Ecologically, we can consider phage propagation, densities, distribution (within bodies), impact on body-associated microbiota (as ecological communities), and modification of the functioning of body “ecosystems” more generally. These ecological and physiological components in many ways represent different perspectives on otherwise equivalent phenomena. Comparable to drugs, one also can view phages during phage therapy in pharmacological terms. The relatively unique status of phages within the context of phage therapy as essentially replicating antimicrobials can therefore result in a confluence of perspectives, many of which can be useful towards gaining a better mechanistic appreciation of phage therapy, as I consider here. Pharmacology more generally may be viewed as a discipline that lies at an interface between organism-associated phenomena, as considered by physiology, and environmental interactions as considered by ecology. PMID:25031881

  16. Peptides Derived from a Phage Display Library Inhibit Adhesion and Protect the Host against Infection by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Haroldo C.; Michaloski, Jussara S.; da Silva, Julhiany F.; Scorzoni, Liliana; de Paula e Silva, Ana C. A.; Marcos, Caroline M.; Assato, Patrícia A.; Yamazaki, Daniella S.; Fusco-Almeida, Ana M.; Giordano, Ricardo J.; Mendes-Giannini, Maria J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii are dimorphic fungi and are the etiological agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Adhesion is one of the most important steps in infections with Paracoccidioides and is responsible for the differences in the virulence of isolates of these fungi. Because of the importance of adhesion to the establishment of an infection, this study focused on the preliminary development of a new therapeutic strategy to inhibit adhesion by Paracoccidioides, thus inhibiting infection and preventing the disease. We used two phage display libraries to select peptides that strongly bind to the Paracoccidioides cell wall to inhibit adhesion to host cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) components (laminin, fibronectin, and type I and type IV collagen). This approach allowed us to identify four peptides that inhibited up to 64% of the adhesion of Paracoccidioides to pneumocytes in vitro and inhibited the adhesion to the ECM components by up to 57%. Encouraged by these results, we evaluated the ability of these peptides to protect Galleria mellonella from Paracoccidioides infection by treating G. mellonella larvae with the different peptides prior to infection with Paracoccidioides and observing larval survival. The results show that all of the peptides tested increased the survival of the larvae infected with P. brasiliensis by up to 64% and by up to 60% in those infected with P. lutzii. These data may open new horizons for therapeutic strategies to prevent PCM, and anti-adhesion therapy could be an important strategy. PMID:28066254

  17. Peptides Derived from a Phage Display Library Inhibit Adhesion and Protect the Host against Infection by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Haroldo C; Michaloski, Jussara S; da Silva, Julhiany F; Scorzoni, Liliana; de Paula E Silva, Ana C A; Marcos, Caroline M; Assato, Patrícia A; Yamazaki, Daniella S; Fusco-Almeida, Ana M; Giordano, Ricardo J; Mendes-Giannini, Maria J S

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii are dimorphic fungi and are the etiological agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Adhesion is one of the most important steps in infections with Paracoccidioides and is responsible for the differences in the virulence of isolates of these fungi. Because of the importance of adhesion to the establishment of an infection, this study focused on the preliminary development of a new therapeutic strategy to inhibit adhesion by Paracoccidioides, thus inhibiting infection and preventing the disease. We used two phage display libraries to select peptides that strongly bind to the Paracoccidioides cell wall to inhibit adhesion to host cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) components (laminin, fibronectin, and type I and type IV collagen). This approach allowed us to identify four peptides that inhibited up to 64% of the adhesion of Paracoccidioides to pneumocytes in vitro and inhibited the adhesion to the ECM components by up to 57%. Encouraged by these results, we evaluated the ability of these peptides to protect Galleria mellonella from Paracoccidioides infection by treating G. mellonella larvae with the different peptides prior to infection with Paracoccidioides and observing larval survival. The results show that all of the peptides tested increased the survival of the larvae infected with P. brasiliensis by up to 64% and by up to 60% in those infected with P. lutzii. These data may open new horizons for therapeutic strategies to prevent PCM, and anti-adhesion therapy could be an important strategy.

  18. Clinical aspects of phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Borysowski, Jan; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Fortuna, Wojciech; Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Szufnarowski, Krzysztof; Pawełczyk, Zdzisław; Rogóż, Paweł; Kłak, Marlena; Wojtasik, Elżbieta; Górski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Phage therapy (PT) is a unique method of treatment of bacterial infections using bacteriophages (phages)-viruses that specifically kill bacteria, including their antibiotic-resistant strains. Over the last decade a marked increase in interest in the therapeutic use of phages has been observed, which has resulted from a substantial rise in the prevalence of antibiotic resistance of bacteria, coupled with an inadequate number of new antibiotics. The first, and so far the only, center of PT in the European Union is the Phage Therapy Unit (PTU) established at the Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Wrocław, Poland in 2005. This center continues the rich tradition of PT in Poland, which dates from the early 1920s. The main objective of this chapter is to present a detailed retrospective analysis of the results of PT of 153 patients with a wide range of infections resistant to antibiotic therapy admitted for treatment at the PTU between January 2008 and December 2010. Analysis includes the evaluation of both the efficacy and the safety of PT. In general, data suggest that PT can provide good clinical results in a significant cohort of patients with otherwise untreatable chronic bacterial infections and is essentially well tolerated. In addition, the whole complex procedure employed to obtain and characterize therapeutic phage preparations, as well as ethical aspects of PT, is discussed.

  19. Characterization of Two Virulent Phages of Lactobacillus plantarum

    PubMed Central

    Briggiler Marcó, Mariángeles; Garneau, Josiane E.; Tremblay, Denise; Quiberoni, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    We characterized two Lactobacillus plantarum virulent siphophages, ATCC 8014-B1 (B1) and ATCC 8014-B2 (B2), previously isolated from corn silage and anaerobic sewage sludge, respectively. Phage B2 infected two of the eight L. plantarum strains tested, while phage B1 infected three. Phage adsorption was highly variable depending on the strain used. Phage defense systems were found in at least two L. plantarum strains, LMG9211 and WCSF1. The linear double-stranded DNA genome of the pac-type phage B1 had 38,002 bp, a G+C content of 47.6%, and 60 open reading frames (ORFs). Surprisingly, the phage B1 genome has 97% identity with that of Pediococcus damnosus phage clP1 and 77% identity with that of L. plantarum phage JL-1; these phages were isolated from sewage and cucumber fermentation, respectively. The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome of the cos-type phage B2 had 80,618 bp, a G+C content of 36.9%, and 127 ORFs with similarities to those of Bacillus and Lactobacillus strains as well as phages. Some phage B2 genes were similar to ORFs from L. plantarum phage LP65 of the Myoviridae family. Additionally, 6 tRNAs were found in the phage B2 genome. Protein analysis revealed 13 (phage B1) and 9 (phage B2) structural proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing such high identity between phage genomes infecting different genera of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:23042172

  20. Characterization of two virulent phages of Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Briggiler Marcó, Mariángeles; Garneau, Josiane E; Tremblay, Denise; Quiberoni, Andrea; Moineau, Sylvain

    2012-12-01

    We characterized two Lactobacillus plantarum virulent siphophages, ATCC 8014-B1 (B1) and ATCC 8014-B2 (B2), previously isolated from corn silage and anaerobic sewage sludge, respectively. Phage B2 infected two of the eight L. plantarum strains tested, while phage B1 infected three. Phage adsorption was highly variable depending on the strain used. Phage defense systems were found in at least two L. plantarum strains, LMG9211 and WCSF1. The linear double-stranded DNA genome of the pac-type phage B1 had 38,002 bp, a G+C content of 47.6%, and 60 open reading frames (ORFs). Surprisingly, the phage B1 genome has 97% identity with that of Pediococcus damnosus phage clP1 and 77% identity with that of L. plantarum phage JL-1; these phages were isolated from sewage and cucumber fermentation, respectively. The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome of the cos-type phage B2 had 80,618 bp, a G+C content of 36.9%, and 127 ORFs with similarities to those of Bacillus and Lactobacillus strains as well as phages. Some phage B2 genes were similar to ORFs from L. plantarum phage LP65 of the Myoviridae family. Additionally, 6 tRNAs were found in the phage B2 genome. Protein analysis revealed 13 (phage B1) and 9 (phage B2) structural proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing such high identity between phage genomes infecting different genera of lactic acid bacteria.

  1. Phage-host interplay: examples from tailed phages and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chaturongakul, Soraya; Ounjai, Puey

    2014-01-01

    Complex interactions between bacteriophages and their bacterial hosts play significant roles in shaping the structure of environmental microbial communities, not only by genetic transduction but also by modification of bacterial gene expression patterns. Survival of phages solely depends on their ability to infect their bacterial hosts, most importantly during phage entry. Successful dynamic adaptation of bacteriophages when facing selective pressures, such as host adaptation and resistance, dictates their abundance and diversification. Co-evolution of the phage tail fibers and bacterial receptors determine bacterial host ranges, mechanisms of phage entry, and other infection parameters. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the physical interactions between tailed bacteriophages and bacterial pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and the influences of the phage on host gene expression. Understanding these interactions can offer insights into phage-host dynamics and suggest novel strategies for the design of bacterial pathogen biological controls.

  2. Population Dynamics of Phage and Bacteria in Spatially Structured Habitats Using Phage λ and Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stanley; Sneppen, Kim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria living in physically structured habitats are exposed heterogeneously to both resources and different types of phages. While there have been numerous experimental approaches to examine spatially distributed bacteria exposed to phages, there is little theory to guide the design of these experiments, interpret their results, or expand the inferences drawn to a broader ecological and evolutionary context. Plaque formation provides a window into understanding phage-bacterium interactions in physically structured populations, including surfaces, semisolids, and biofilms. We develop models to address the plaque dynamics for a temperate phage and its virulent mutants. The models are compared with phage λ-Escherichia coli system to quantify their applicability. We found that temperate phages gave an increasing number of gradually smaller colonies as the distance increased from the plaque center. For low-lysogen frequency this resulted in plaques with most of the visible colonies at an intermediate distance between the center and periphery. Using spot inoculation, where phages in excess of bacteria were inoculated in a circular area, we measured the frequency and spatial distribution of lysogens. The spot morphology of cII-negative (cII−) and cIII− mutants of phage λ displays concentric rings of high-density lysogenic colonies. The simplest of these ring morphologies was reproduced by including multiplicity of infection (MOI) sensitivity in lysis-lysogeny decisions, but its failure to explain the occasional observation of multiple rings in cIII− mutant phages highlights unknown features of this phage. Our findings demonstrated advantages of temperate phages over virulent phages in exploiting limited resources in spatially distributed microbial populations. IMPORTANCE Phages are the most abundant organisms on earth, and yet little is known about how phages and bacterial hosts are influencing each other in density and evolution. Phages can be either

  3. Novel group of podovirus infecting the marine bacterium Alteromonas macleodii

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Heredia, Inmaculada; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Martin-Cuadrado, Ana-Belen

    2013-01-01

    Four novel, closely related podoviruses, which displayed lytic activity against the gamma-proteobacterium Alteromonas macleodii, have been isolated and sequenced. Alterophages AltAD45-P1 to P4 were obtained from water recovered near a fish farm in the Mediterranean Sea. Their morphology indicates that they belong to the Podoviridae. Their linear and dsDNA genomes are 100–104 kb in size, remarkably larger than any other described podovirus. The four AltAD45-phages share 99% nucleotide sequence identity over 97% of their ORFs, although an insertion was found in AltAD45-P1 and P2 and some regions were slightly more divergent. Despite the high overall sequence similarity among these four phages, the group with the insertion and the group without it, have different host ranges against the A. macleodii strains tested. The AltAD45-P1 to P4 phages have genes for DNA replication and transcription as well as structural genes, which are similar to the N4-like Podoviridae genus that is widespread in proteobacteria. However, in terms of their genomic structure, AltAD45-P1 to P4 differ from that of the N4-like phages. Some distinguishing features include the lack of a large virion encapsidated RNA polymerase gene, very well conserved among all the previously described N4-like phages, a single-stranded DNA binding protein and different tail protein genes. We conclude that the AltAD45 phages characterized in this study constitute a new genus within the Podoviridae. PMID:24228219

  4. Acinetobacter Species Infections among Navy and Marine Corps Beneficiaries: 2014 Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-20

    Acinetobacter Species Infections among Navy and Marine Corps Beneficiaries: 2014 Annual Report NMCPHC-EDC-TR-371-2015 By Paul...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Acinetobacter Species Infections among Navy and Marine Corps Beneficiaries: 2014 Annual Report 5b. GRANT...ORGANIZATION NAME(SI AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT Navy and Marine Corps Public Health Center NUMBER EpiData Center Department

  5. Viruses infecting marine picoplancton encode functional potassium ion channels.

    PubMed

    Siotto, Fenja; Martin, Corinna; Rauh, Oliver; Van Etten, James L; Schroeder, Indra; Moroni, Anna; Thiel, Gerhard

    2014-10-01

    Phycodnaviruses are dsDNA viruses, which infect algae. Their large genomes encode many gene products, like small K(+) channels, with homologs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Screening for K(+) channels revealed their abundance in viruses from fresh-water habitats. Recent sequencing of viruses from marine algae or from salt water in Antarctica revealed sequences with the predicted characteristics of K(+) channels but with some unexpected features. Two genes encode either 78 or 79 amino acid proteins, which are the smallest known K(+) channels. Also of interest is an unusual sequence in the canonical α-helixes in K(+) channels. Structural prediction algorithms indicate that the new channels have the conserved α-helix folds but the algorithms failed to identify the expected transmembrane domains flanking the K(+) channel pores. In spite of these unexpected properties electophysiological studies confirmed that the new proteins are functional K(+) channels.

  6. Heterogeneity in Induction Level, Infection Ability, and Morphology of Shiga Toxin-Encoding Phages (Stx Phages) from Dairy and Human Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, Ludivine; Petit, Marie-Agnès; Loukiadis, Estelle; Michel, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) bacteria are foodborne pathogens responsible for diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxin, the main STEC virulence factor, is encoded by the stx gene located in the genome of a bacteriophage inserted into the bacterial chromosome. The O26:H11 serotype is considered to be the second-most-significant HUS-causing serotype worldwide after O157:H7. STEC O26:H11 bacteria and their stx-negative counterparts have been detected in dairy products. They may convert from the one form to the other by loss or acquisition of Stx phages, potentially confounding food microbiological diagnostic methods based on stx gene detection. Here we investigated the diversity and mobility of Stx phages from human and dairy STEC O26:H11 strains. Evaluation of their rate of in vitro induction, occurring either spontaneously or in the presence of mitomycin C, showed that the Stx2 phages were more inducible overall than Stx1 phages. However, no correlation was found between the Stx phage levels produced and the origin of the strains tested or the phage insertion sites. Morphological analysis by electron microscopy showed that Stx phages from STEC O26:H11 displayed various shapes that were unrelated to Stx1 or Stx2 types. Finally, the levels of sensitivity of stx-negative E. coli O26:H11 to six Stx phages differed among the 17 strains tested and our attempts to convert them into STEC were unsuccessful, indicating that their lysogenization was a rare event. PMID:26826235

  7. Heterogeneity in Induction Level, Infection Ability, and Morphology of Shiga Toxin-Encoding Phages (Stx Phages) from Dairy and Human Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 Isolates.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, Ludivine; Petit, Marie-Agnès; Loukiadis, Estelle; Michel, Valérie; Auvray, Frédéric

    2016-01-29

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) bacteria are foodborne pathogens responsible for diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxin, the main STEC virulence factor, is encoded by the stx gene located in the genome of a bacteriophage inserted into the bacterial chromosome. The O26:H11 serotype is considered to be the second-most-significant HUS-causing serotype worldwide after O157:H7. STEC O26:H11 bacteria and their stx-negative counterparts have been detected in dairy products. They may convert from the one form to the other by loss or acquisition of Stx phages, potentially confounding food microbiological diagnostic methods based on stx gene detection. Here we investigated the diversity and mobility of Stx phages from human and dairy STEC O26:H11 strains. Evaluation of their rate of in vitro induction, occurring either spontaneously or in the presence of mitomycin C, showed that the Stx2 phages were more inducible overall than Stx1 phages. However, no correlation was found between the Stx phage levels produced and the origin of the strains tested or the phage insertion sites. Morphological analysis by electron microscopy showed that Stx phages from STEC O26:H11 displayed various shapes that were unrelated to Stx1 or Stx2 types. Finally, the levels of sensitivity of stx-negative E. coli O26:H11 to six Stx phages differed among the 17 strains tested and our attempts to convert them into STEC were unsuccessful, indicating that their lysogenization was a rare event.

  8. Mimotope peptides selected from phage display combinatorial library by serum antibodies of pigs experimentally infected with Taenia solium as leads to developing diagnostic antigens for human neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Gazarian, Karlen; Rowlay, Merril; Gazarian, Tatiana; Vazquez Buchelli, Jorge Enrique; Hernández Gonzáles, Marisela

    2012-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by penetration of the tapeworm Taenia solium larvae into the central nervous system resulting in a diverse range of neurologic complications including epilepsy in endemic areas that globalization spreads worldwide. Sensitive and specific immunodiagnosis is needed for the early detection and elimination of the parasite, but the lack of standardized, readily obtainable antigens is a challenge. Here, we used the phage display for resolving the problem. The rationale of the strategy rests on the concept that the screening of combinatorial libraries with polyclonal serum to pathogens reveals families of peptides mimicking the pathogen most immunodominant epitopes indispensable for the successful diagnosis. The screening of a 7mer library with serum IgG of four pigs experimentally infected with parasite followed by computer aided segregation of the selected sequences resulted in the discovery of four clusters of homologous sequences of which one presented a family of ten mimotopes selected by three infected pig serum IgGs; the common motif sequence LSPF carried by the family was considered to be the core of an immunodominant epitope of the parasite critical for the binding with the antibody that selected the mimotopes. The immunoassay testing permitted to select a mimotope whose synthetic peptide free of the phage with the amino acid sequence Leu-Ser-Fen-Pro-Ser-Val-Val that distinguished well a panel of 21 cerebrospinal fluids of neurocysticercosis patients from the fluids of individuals with neurological complications of other etiology. This peptide is proposed as a lead for developing a novel molecularly defined diagnostic antigen(s) for the neurocysticercosis.

  9. Development of a High Throughput Assay for Indirectly Measuring Phage Growth Using the OmniLog (trademark) System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    and phage Giraffe exhibits a similar morphology (Fig. 1A). Phage BA39 (Fig. 1E) appears to belong to the Myoviridae family (icosahedral head and...see later) but this assignment is tentative. Monitoring the kinetics of bacterial growth using OmniLogTM system upon infection with Giraffe phage...spores with and without infection by Giraffe phage are shown in Figure 2A and B respectively. The growth of 7702 without phage infection followed a

  10. Yersinia enterocolitica-Specific Infection by Bacteriophages TG1 and ϕR1-RT Is Dependent on Temperature-Regulated Expression of the Phage Host Receptor OmpF

    PubMed Central

    Happonen, Lotta; Pajunen, Maria; Leskinen, Katarzyna; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Mattinen, Laura; Rajtor, Monika; Zur, Joanna; Smith, Darren; Chen, Shu; Nawaz, Ayesha; Johnson, Roger P.; Odumeru, Joseph A.; Griffiths, Mansel W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteriophages present huge potential both as a resource for developing novel tools for bacterial diagnostics and for use in phage therapy. This potential is also valid for bacteriophages specific for Yersinia enterocolitica. To increase our knowledge of Y. enterocolitica-specific phages, we characterized two novel yersiniophages. The genomes of the bacteriophages vB_YenM_TG1 (TG1) and vB_YenM_ϕR1-RT (ϕR1-RT), isolated from pig manure in Canada and from sewage in Finland, consist of linear double-stranded DNA of 162,101 and 168,809 bp, respectively. Their genomes comprise 262 putative coding sequences and 4 tRNA genes and share 91% overall nucleotide identity. Based on phylogenetic analyses of their whole-genome sequences and large terminase subunit protein sequences, a genus named Tg1virus within the family Myoviridae is proposed, with TG1 and ϕR1-RT (R1RT in the ICTV database) as member species. These bacteriophages exhibit a host range restricted to Y. enterocolitica and display lytic activity against the epidemiologically significant serotypes O:3, O:5,27, and O:9 at and below 25°C. Adsorption analyses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and OmpF mutants demonstrate that these phages use both the LPS inner core heptosyl residues and the outer membrane protein OmpF as phage receptors. Based on RNA sequencing and quantitative proteomics, we also demonstrate that temperature-dependent infection is due to strong repression of OmpF at 37°C. In addition, ϕR1-RT was shown to be able to enter into a pseudolysogenic state. Together, this work provides further insight into phage-host cell interactions by highlighting the importance of understanding underlying factors which may affect the abundance of phage host receptors on the cell surface. IMPORTANCE Only a small number of bacteriophages infecting Y. enterocolitica, the predominant causative agent of yersiniosis, have been previously described. Here, two newly isolated Y. enterocolitica phages were studied in

  11. The Phage Shock Protein Response.

    PubMed

    Flores-Kim, Josué; Darwin, Andrew J

    2016-09-08

    The phage shock protein (Psp) system was identified as a response to phage infection in Escherichia coli, but rather than being a specific response to a phage, it detects and mitigates various problems that could increase inner-membrane (IM) permeability. Interest in the Psp system has increased significantly in recent years due to appreciation that Psp-like proteins are found in all three domains of life and because the bacterial Psp response has been linked to virulence and other important phenotypes. In this article, we summarize our current understanding of what the Psp system detects and how it detects it, how four core Psp proteins form a signal transduction cascade between the IM and the cytoplasm, and current ideas that explain how the Psp response keeps bacterial cells alive. Although recent studies have significantly improved our understanding of this system, it is an understanding that is still far from complete.

  12. Three New Escherichia coli Phages from the Human Gut Show Promising Potential for Phage Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dalmasso, Marion; Strain, Ronan; Neve, Horst; Franz, Charles M. A. P.; Cousin, Fabien J.; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin

    2016-01-01

    With the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria the use of bacteriophages (phages) is gaining renewed interest as promising anti-microbial agents. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize phages from human fecal samples. Three new coliphages, ɸAPCEc01, ɸAPCEc02 and ɸAPCEc03, were isolated. Their phenotypic and genomic characteristics, and lytic activity against biofilm, and in combination with ciprofloxacin, were investigated. All three phages reduced the growth of E. coli strain DPC6051 at multiplicity of infection (MOI) between 10−3 and 105. A cocktail of all three phages completely inhibited the growth of E. coli. The phage cocktail also reduced biofilm formation and prevented the emergence of phage-resistant mutants which occurred with single phage. When combined with ciprofloxacin, phage alone or in cocktail inhibited the growth of E. coli and prevented the emergence of resistant mutants. These three new phages are promising biocontrol agents for E. coli infections. PMID:27280590

  13. Phages Preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Many bacteriophages (phages) have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, γ-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here. PMID:25010767

  14. Development of transient phage resistance in Campylobacter coli against the group II phage CP84.

    PubMed

    Orquera, Stefanie; Hertwig, Stefan; Alter, Thomas; Hammerl, Jens A; Jirova, Alice; Gölz, Greta

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there is a growing interest in the use of bacteriophages for pre- and post-harvest applications to reduce foodborne pathogens (including Campylobacter) along the food chain. Quantitative Campylobacter reductions of up to three log10 units have been achieved by phage application. However, possible phage resistance might limit this approach. In Campylobacter (C.) jejuni, phage resistance mechanisms have been described in detail but data on these mechanisms in C. coli are still missing. To study phage resistance in C. coli, strain NCTC 12668 was infected with the lytic phage CP84, belonging to group II of Campylobacter phages. Resistant and sensitive clones were analysed using phenotypic and genotypic assays. C. coli clones acquired only transient resistance against CP84. The resistance led to cross-protection to one out of five other group II phages tested. Phage resistance was apparently neither caused by large genomic rearrangements nor by a CRISPR system. Binding assays demonstrated that CP84 could not adsorb to resistant C. coli clones suggesting a bacterial phage receptor to be involved in resistance. However, phage resistant C. coli clones did not reveal an altered motility or modified flaA sequence. Considering the loss of binding capacity and the reversion to a phage sensitive phenotype we hypothesize that acquired resistance depends on temporal phase variable switch-off modifications of the phage receptor genes, even though the resistance mechanism could not be elucidated in detail. We further speculate that even closely related phages of the same group use different bacterial receptors for binding on C. coli.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the catalytic module of endolysin from Cp-7, a phage infecting Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Martin, Noella; Molina, Rafael; Angulo, Ivan; Mancheño, José M.; García, Pedro; Hermoso, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the life cycle of the pneumococcal phage Cp-7, the endolysin Cpl-­7 cleaves the glycosidic β1,4 bonds between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-­acetylglucosamine in the pneumococcal cell wall, resulting in bacterial lysis. Recombinant Cpl-7 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method at 291 K. Diffraction-quality tetragonal crystals of the catalytic module of Cpl-7 were obtained from a mixture of PEG 3350 and sodium formate. The crystals belonged to space group I422, with unit-cell parameters a = 127.93, b = 127.93, c = 82.07 Å. Diffraction data sets were collected to 2.4 Å resolution using a rotating-anode generator. PMID:20516596

  16. Distribution, Isolation, Host Specificity, and Diversity of Cyanophages Infecting Marine Synechococcus spp. in River Estuaries†

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jingrang; Chen, Feng; Hodson, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    The abundance of cyanophages infecting marine Synechococcus spp. increased with increasing salinity in three Georgia coastal rivers. About 80% of the cyanophage isolates were cyanomyoviruses. High cross-infectivity was found among the cyanophages infecting phycoerythrin-containing Synechococcus strains. Cyanophages in the river estuaries were diverse in terms of their morphotypes and genotypes. PMID:11425754

  17. Introduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutator phage D3112 into Alcaligenes eutrophus strain CH34.

    PubMed

    Krylov, V; Merlin, C; Toussaint, A

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of growing mutator phages from Pseudomonas aeruginosa on various isolates of Alcaligenes eutrophus. Although none out of 10 A. eutrophus strains were susceptible to infection with any of the phages tested, phage D3112 could be readily transferred in our model strain CH34 by means of an RP4::D3112 plasmid. CH34/RP4::D3112 lysogens were stable and produced phages. However, neither mitomycin C nor UV treatment increased the phage yield.

  18. Engineered phages for electronics.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yue

    2016-11-15

    Phages are traditionally widely studied in biology and chemistry. In recent years, engineered phages have attracted significant attentions for functionalization or construction of electronic devices, due to their specific binding, catalytic, nucleating or electronic properties. To apply the engineered phages in electronics, these are a number of interesting questions: how to engineer phages for electronics? How are the engineered phages characterized? How to assemble materials with engineered phages? How are the engineered phages micro or nanopatterned? What are the strategies to construct electronics devices with engineered phages? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions and explore the fundamental and practical aspects of engineered phages in electronics, including the approaches for selection or expression of specific peptides on phage coat proteins, characterization of engineered phages in electronics, assembly of electronic materials, patterning of engineered phages, and construction of electronic devices. It provides the methodologies and opens up ex-cit-ing op-por-tu-ni-ties for the development of a variety of new electronic materials and devices based on engineered phages for future applications.

  19. Primary isolation strain determines both phage type and receptors recognised by Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Martine C Holst; Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Birk, Tina; Baldvinsson, Signe Berg; Jäckel, Claudia; Hammerl, Jens A; Vegge, Christina S; Neve, Horst; Brøndsted, Lone

    2015-01-01

    In this study we isolated novel bacteriophages, infecting the zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. These phages may be used in phage therapy of C. jejuni colonized poultry to prevent spreading of the bacteria to meat products causing disease in humans. Many C. jejuni phages have been isolated using NCTC12662 as the indicator strain, which may have biased the selection of phages. A large group of C. jejuni phages rely on the highly diverse capsular polysaccharide (CPS) for infection and recent work identified the O-methyl phosphoramidate modification (MeOPN) of CPS as a phage receptor. We therefore chose seven C. jejuni strains each expressing different CPS structures as indicator strains in a large screening for phages in samples collected from free-range poultry farms. Forty-three phages were isolated using C. jejuni NCTC12658, NCTC12662 and RM1221 as host strains and 20 distinct phages were identified based on host range analysis and genome restriction profiles. Most phages were isolated using C. jejuni strains NCTC12662 and RM1221 and interestingly phage genome size (140 kb vs. 190 kb), host range and morphological appearance correlated with the isolation strain. Thus, according to C. jejuni phage grouping, NCTC12662 and NCTC12658 selected for CP81-type phages, while RM1221 selected for CP220-type phages. Furthermore, using acapsular ∆kpsM mutants we demonstrated that phages isolated on NCTC12658 and NCTC12662 were dependent on the capsule for infection. In contrast, CP220-type phages isolated on RM1221 were unable to infect non-motile ∆motA mutants, hence requiring motility for successful infection. Hence, the primary phage isolation strain determines both phage type (CP81 or CP220) as well as receptors (CPS or flagella) recognised by the isolated phages.

  20. Phage lytic enzymes: a history.

    PubMed

    Trudil, David

    2015-02-01

    There are many recent studies regarding the efficacy of bacteriophage-related lytic enzymes: the enzymes of 'bacteria-eaters' or viruses that infect bacteria. By degrading the cell wall of the targeted bacteria, these lytic enzymes have been shown to efficiently lyse Gram-positive bacteria without affecting normal flora and non-related bacteria. Recent studies have suggested approaches for lysing Gram-negative bacteria as well (Briersa Y, et al., 2014). These enzymes include: phage-lysozyme, endolysin, lysozyme, lysin, phage lysin, phage lytic enzymes, phageassociated enzymes, enzybiotics, muralysin, muramidase, virolysin and designations such as Ply, PAE and others. Bacteriophages are viruses that kill bacteria, do not contribute to antimicrobial resistance, are easy to develop, inexpensive to manufacture and safe for humans, animals and the environment. The current focus on lytic enzymes has been on their use as anti-infectives in humans and more recently in agricultural research models. The initial translational application of lytic enzymes, however, was not associated with treating or preventing a specific disease but rather as an extraction method to be incorporated in a rapid bacterial detection assay (Bernstein D, 1997).The current review traces the translational history of phage lytic enzymes-from their initial discovery in 1986 for the rapid detection of group A streptococcus in clinical specimens to evolving applications in the detection and prevention of disease in humans and in agriculture.

  1. Epidemiology of contemporary seroincident HIV infection in the Navy and Marine corps.

    PubMed

    Brett-Major, David M; Hakre, Shilpa; Naito, Neal A; Armstrong, Adam; Bower, Eric A; Michael, Nelson L; Scott, Paul T

    2012-11-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection continues at a steady rate among U.S. Sailors and Marines. This study provides the first service-specific description of HIV infection demographics. All Sailors and Marines identified as HIV infected between January 2005 and August 2010 were included. The project compared personnel and epidemiologic data, and tested reposed sera in the Department of Defense Serum Repository. This group comprised 410 Sailors and 86 Marines, predominantly men. HIV infected Marines were more likely to be foreign born than their Navy counterparts, 42% versus 10%, p < 0.001. Approximately half of the patients had deployed including to the wars in Iraq or Afghanistan. Nearly half of each group was infected by the age of 25. Similar to the U.S. epidemic, Black race was over-represented. Unlike national rates, Hispanic Sailors and Marines were not over-represented. Demographics were distinct for those of specific occupational specialties. Certain ship classes carried lower incidences. Clustering of HIV infection risk occurred around deployment. The Navy and Marine Corps have different patterns of HIV infection, which may merit distinct approaches to prevention. The Navy may have unique targets for prevention efforts to include pipeline training and first assignment as well as particular occupational environments.

  2. Phage as a modulator of immune responses: practical implications for phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Górski, Andrzej; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Borysowski, Jan; Dąbrowska, Krystyna; Wierzbicki, Piotr; Ohams, Monika; Korczak-Kowalska, Grażyna; Olszowska-Zaremba, Natasza; Łusiak-Szelachowska, Marzena; Kłak, Marlena; Jończyk, Ewa; Kaniuga, Ewelina; Gołaś, Aneta; Purchla, Sylwia; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Fortuna, Wojciech; Szufnarowski, Krzysztof; Pawełczyk, Zdzisław; Rogóż, Paweł; Kłosowska, Danuta

    2012-01-01

    Although the natural hosts for bacteriophages are bacteria, a growing body of data shows that phages can also interact with some populations of mammalian cells, especially with cells of the immune system. In general, these interactions include two main aspects. The first is the phage immunogenicity, that is, the capacity of phages to induce specific immune responses, in particular the generation of specific antibodies against phage antigens. The other aspect includes the immunomodulatory activity of phages, that is, the nonspecific effects of phages on different functions of major populations of immune cells involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses. These functions include, among others, phagocytosis and the respiratory burst of phagocytic cells, the production of cytokines, and the generation of antibodies against nonphage antigens. The aim of this chapter is to discuss the interactions between phages and cells of the immune system, along with their implications for phage therapy. These topics are presented based on the results of experimental studies and unique data on immunomodulatory effects found in patients with bacterial infections treated with phage preparations.

  3. The Resistance of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Strains to the Typing Phage 919TP, a Member of K139 Phage Family

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaona; Zhang, Jingyun; Xu, Jialiang; Du, Pengcheng; Pang, Bo; Li, Jie; Kan, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophage 919TP is a temperate phage of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 El Tor and is used as a subtyping phage in the phage-biotyping scheme in cholera surveillance in China. In this study, sequencing of the 919TP genome showed that it belonged to the Vibrio phage K139 family. The mechanisms conferring resistance to 919TP infection of El Tor strains were explored to help understand the subtyping basis of phage 919TP and mutations related to 919TP resistance. Among the test strains resistant to phage 919TP, most contained the temperate 919TP phage genome, which facilitated superinfection exclusion to 919TP. Our data suggested that this immunity to Vibrio phage 919TP occurred after absorption of the phage onto the bacteria. Other strains contained LPS receptor synthesis gene mutations that disable adsorption of phage 919TP. Several strains resistant to 919TP infection possessed unknown resistance mechanisms, since they did not contain LPS receptor mutations or temperate K139 phage genome. Further research is required to elucidate the phage infection steps involved in the resistance of these strains to phage infection. PMID:27242744

  4. Peptide mimics selected from immune sera using phage display technology can replace native antigens in the diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Casey, J L; Coley, A M; Parisi, K; Foley, M

    2009-02-01

    There is an expanding area of small molecule discovery, especially in the area of peptide mimetics. Peptide sequences can be used to substitute for the entire native antigen for use in diagnostic assays. Our approach is to select peptides that mimic epitopes of the natural immune response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) that may be recognised by antibodies typically produced after infection with EBV. We screened a random peptide library on sera from rabbits immunised with a crude preparation of EBV and serum antibodies from a patient with a high titer of EBV antibodies. We selected four peptides (Eb1-4) with the highest relative binding affinity with immune rabbit sera and a single peptide with high affinity to human serum antibodies. The peptides were coupled to the carrier molecule BSA and the recognition of the peptides by IgM antibodies in clinical samples after infection with EBV was measured. The sensitivities were Eb1 94%, Eb2, 3, 4 88%, H1 81% and all had 100% specificity. This study illustrates that the phage display approach to select epitope mimics can be applied to polyclonal antibodies and peptides that represent several diagnostically important epitopes can be selected simultaneously. This panel of EBV peptides representing a wide coverage of immunodominant epitopes could replace crude antigen preparations currently used for capture in commercial diagnostic tests for EBV.

  5. Peptide mimics selected from immune sera using phage display technology can replace native antigens in the diagnosis of Epstein–Barr virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Casey, J.L.; Coley, A.M.; Parisi, K.; Foley, M.

    2009-01-01

    There is an expanding area of small molecule discovery, especially in the area of peptide mimetics. Peptide sequences can be used to substitute for the entire native antigen for use in diagnostic assays. Our approach is to select peptides that mimic epitopes of the natural immune response to Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) that may be recognised by antibodies typically produced after infection with EBV. We screened a random peptide library on sera from rabbits immunised with a crude preparation of EBV and serum antibodies from a patient with a high titer of EBV antibodies. We selected four peptides (Eb1–4) with the highest relative binding affinity with immune rabbit sera and a single peptide with high affinity to human serum antibodies. The peptides were coupled to the carrier molecule BSA and the recognition of the peptides by IgM antibodies in clinical samples after infection with EBV was measured. The sensitivities were Eb1 94%, Eb2, 3, 4 88%, H1 81% and all had 100% specificity. This study illustrates that the phage display approach to select epitope mimics can be applied to polyclonal antibodies and peptides that represent several diagnostically important epitopes can be selected simultaneously. This panel of EBV peptides representing a wide coverage of immunodominant epitopes could replace crude antigen preparations currently used for capture in commercial diagnostic tests for EBV. PMID:19073711

  6. Preparation and assay of phage lambda.

    PubMed

    Dale, J W; Greenaway, P J

    1985-01-01

    Lambda, a temperate bacteriophage of E. coli, has two alternative modes of replication in sensitive cells, known as the lytic and lysogenic cycles. In the lytic cycle, after the lambda DNA enters the cells, various phage functions are expressed that result in the production of a large number of mature phage particles and cell lysis. In the lysogenic mode, which normally occurs in only a small proportion of the infected cells, the phage forms a more or less stable relationship with the host bacterium; this stable state is known as lysogeny. In a lysogenic cell, phage DNA is normally incorporated into the chromosomal DNA via specific attachment sites on both the phage DNA and the host chromosome. Replication of lambda DNA then occurs only during replication of the host chromosome, and the phage genome is inherited by each daughter cell at cell division. The phage is maintained in this prophage state through the action of a repressor protein, coded for by the phage gene cl. This repressor protein turns off the expression of virtually the whole of the lambda genome. If the repressor is inactivated, the expression of phage genes is initiated. This leads to the excision of lambda DNA from the host chromosome and entry into the lytic cycle. The balance between the lytic and lysogenic modes of replication is a delicate and complex one in which a key factor is the concentration of the cl gene product. Some of the many sources of further information about the basic biology of lambda phage are listed in the references to this chapter.

  7. Targeting Enterococcus faecalis Biofilms with Phage Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa, Leron; Brosh, Yair; Gelman, Daniel; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Shaul; Poradosu-Cohen, Ronit; Que, Yok-Ai; Beyth, Nurit

    2015-01-01

    Phage therapy has been proven to be more effective, in some cases, than conventional antibiotics, especially regarding multidrug-resistant biofilm infections. The objective here was to isolate an anti-Enterococcus faecalis bacteriophage and to evaluate its efficacy against planktonic and biofilm cultures. E. faecalis is an important pathogen found in many infections, including endocarditis and persistent infections associated with root canal treatment failure. The difficulty in E. faecalis treatment has been attributed to the lack of anti-infective strategies to eradicate its biofilm and to the frequent emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. To this end, an anti-E. faecalis and E. faecium phage, termed EFDG1, was isolated from sewage effluents. The phage was visualized by electron microscopy. EFDG1 coding sequences and phylogeny were determined by whole genome sequencing (GenBank accession number KP339049), revealing it belongs to the Spounavirinae subfamily of the Myoviridae phages, which includes promising candidates for therapy against Gram-positive pathogens. This analysis also showed that the EFDG1 genome does not contain apparent harmful genes. EFDG1 antibacterial efficacy was evaluated in vitro against planktonic and biofilm cultures, showing effective lytic activity against various E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates, regardless of their antibiotic resistance profile. In addition, EFDG1 efficiently prevented ex vivo E. faecalis root canal infection. These findings suggest that phage therapy using EFDG1 might be efficacious to prevent E. faecalis infection after root canal treatment. PMID:25662974

  8. Targeting Enterococcus faecalis biofilms with phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Leron; Brosh, Yair; Gelman, Daniel; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Shaul; Poradosu-Cohen, Ronit; Que, Yok-Ai; Beyth, Nurit; Hazan, Ronen

    2015-04-01

    Phage therapy has been proven to be more effective, in some cases, than conventional antibiotics, especially regarding multidrug-resistant biofilm infections. The objective here was to isolate an anti-Enterococcus faecalis bacteriophage and to evaluate its efficacy against planktonic and biofilm cultures. E. faecalis is an important pathogen found in many infections, including endocarditis and persistent infections associated with root canal treatment failure. The difficulty in E. faecalis treatment has been attributed to the lack of anti-infective strategies to eradicate its biofilm and to the frequent emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. To this end, an anti-E. faecalis and E. faecium phage, termed EFDG1, was isolated from sewage effluents. The phage was visualized by electron microscopy. EFDG1 coding sequences and phylogeny were determined by whole genome sequencing (GenBank accession number KP339049), revealing it belongs to the Spounavirinae subfamily of the Myoviridae phages, which includes promising candidates for therapy against Gram-positive pathogens. This analysis also showed that the EFDG1 genome does not contain apparent harmful genes. EFDG1 antibacterial efficacy was evaluated in vitro against planktonic and biofilm cultures, showing effective lytic activity against various E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates, regardless of their antibiotic resistance profile. In addition, EFDG1 efficiently prevented ex vivo E. faecalis root canal infection. These findings suggest that phage therapy using EFDG1 might be efficacious to prevent E. faecalis infection after root canal treatment.

  9. Burkholderia cepacia complex Phage-Antibiotic Synergy (PAS): antibiotics stimulate lytic phage activity.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Fatima; Dennis, Jonathan J

    2015-02-01

    The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of at least 18 species of Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens that can cause chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Bcc organisms possess high levels of innate antimicrobial resistance, and alternative therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. One proposed alternative treatment is phage therapy, the therapeutic application of bacterial viruses (or bacteriophages). Recently, some phages have been observed to form larger plaques in the presence of sublethal concentrations of certain antibiotics; this effect has been termed phage-antibiotic synergy (PAS). Those reports suggest that some antibiotics stimulate increased production of phages under certain conditions. The aim of this study is to examine PAS in phages that infect Burkholderia cenocepacia strains C6433 and K56-2. Bcc phages KS12 and KS14 were tested for PAS, using 6 antibiotics representing 4 different drug classes. Of the antibiotics tested, the most pronounced effects were observed for meropenem, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline. When grown with subinhibitory concentrations of these three antibiotics, cells developed a chain-like arrangement, an elongated morphology, and a clustered arrangement, respectively. When treated with progressively higher antibiotic concentrations, both the sizes of plaques and phage titers increased, up to a maximum. B. cenocepacia K56-2-infected Galleria mellonella larvae treated with phage KS12 and low-dose meropenem demonstrated increased survival over controls treated with KS12 or antibiotic alone. These results suggest that antibiotics can be combined with phages to stimulate increased phage production and/or activity and thus improve the efficacy of bacterial killing.

  10. Burkholderia cepacia Complex Phage-Antibiotic Synergy (PAS): Antibiotics Stimulate Lytic Phage Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of at least 18 species of Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens that can cause chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Bcc organisms possess high levels of innate antimicrobial resistance, and alternative therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. One proposed alternative treatment is phage therapy, the therapeutic application of bacterial viruses (or bacteriophages). Recently, some phages have been observed to form larger plaques in the presence of sublethal concentrations of certain antibiotics; this effect has been termed phage-antibiotic synergy (PAS). Those reports suggest that some antibiotics stimulate increased production of phages under certain conditions. The aim of this study is to examine PAS in phages that infect Burkholderia cenocepacia strains C6433 and K56-2. Bcc phages KS12 and KS14 were tested for PAS, using 6 antibiotics representing 4 different drug classes. Of the antibiotics tested, the most pronounced effects were observed for meropenem, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline. When grown with subinhibitory concentrations of these three antibiotics, cells developed a chain-like arrangement, an elongated morphology, and a clustered arrangement, respectively. When treated with progressively higher antibiotic concentrations, both the sizes of plaques and phage titers increased, up to a maximum. B. cenocepacia K56-2-infected Galleria mellonella larvae treated with phage KS12 and low-dose meropenem demonstrated increased survival over controls treated with KS12 or antibiotic alone. These results suggest that antibiotics can be combined with phages to stimulate increased phage production and/or activity and thus improve the efficacy of bacterial killing. PMID:25452284

  11. Bacteriophages of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: long-term prospects for use in phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Krylov, Victor N

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, being opportunistic pathogens, are the major cause of nosocomial infections and, in some cases, the primary cause of death. They are virtually untreatable with currently known antibiotics. Phage therapy is considered as one of the possible approaches to the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. Difficulties in the implementation of phage therapy in medical practice are related, for example, to the insufficient number and diversity of virulent phages that are active against P. aeruginosa. Results of interaction of therapeutic phages with bacteria in different conditions and environments are studied insufficiently. A little is known about possible interactions of therapeutic phages with resident prophages and plasmids in clinical strains in the foci of infections. This chapter highlights the different approaches to solving these problems and possible ways to expand the diversity of therapeutic P. aeruginosa phages and organizational arrangements (as banks of phages) to ensure long-term use of phages in the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections.

  12. Evolutionary consequences of intra-patient phage predation on microbial populations.

    PubMed

    Seed, Kimberley D; Yen, Minmin; Shapiro, B Jesse; Hilaire, Isabelle J; Charles, Richelle C; Teng, Jessica E; Ivers, Louise C; Boncy, Jacques; Harris, Jason B; Camilli, Andrew

    2014-08-26

    The impact of phage predation on bacterial pathogens in the context of human disease is not currently appreciated. Here, we show that predatory interactions of a phage with an important environmentally transmitted pathogen, Vibrio cholerae, can modulate the evolutionary trajectory of this pathogen during the natural course of infection within individual patients. We analyzed geographically and temporally disparate cholera patient stool samples from Haiti and Bangladesh and found that phage predation can drive the genomic diversity of intra-patient V. cholerae populations. Intra-patient phage-sensitive and phage-resistant isolates were isogenic except for mutations conferring phage resistance, and moreover, phage-resistant V. cholerae populations were composed of a heterogeneous mix of many unique mutants. We also observed that phage predation can significantly alter the virulence potential of V. cholerae shed from cholera patients. We provide the first molecular evidence for predatory phage shaping microbial community structure during the natural course of infection in humans.

  13. Primary Adsorption Site of Phage PBS1: the Flagellum of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Raimondo, Linda M.; Lundh, Nancy P.; Martinez, Rafael J.

    1968-01-01

    The adsorption of Bacillus subtilis phage PBS1 was studied, and it was demonstrated that the primary adsorption site for this phage is the flagellum of B. subtilis. The capacity of flagella to function for motility may be lost without the loss of their capacity to adsorb the phage and permit infection. Deoxyribonucleic acid injection by the phage is inhibited by cyanide, suggesting the requirement for cellular energy in the infection process. Images PMID:4986906

  14. Revival of an old problem: an increase in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage type 8 infections in 2010 in England and Northern Ireland linked to duck eggs.

    PubMed

    Noble, D J; Lane, C; Little, C L; Davies, R; De Pinna, E; Larkin, L; Morgan, D

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 8 is uncommon in humans in the UK. In July 2010, the Health Protection Agency reported an excess isolation rate of pan-susceptible S. Typhimurium DT8 in England and Northern Ireland. By the end of October, this amounted to 81 laboratory-confirmed human cases for all regions of England and Northern Ireland in 2010, an increase of 26% and 41% on 2009 and 2008, respectively. Descriptive epidemiological investigation found a strong association with infection and consumption of duck eggs. Duck eggs contaminated with S. Typhimurium DT8 were collected from a patient's home and also at farms in the duck-egg supply chain. Although duck eggs form a small part of total UK eggs sales, there has been significant growth in sales in recent years. This is the first known outbreak of salmonellosis linked to duck eggs in the UK since 1949 and highlighted the impact of a changing food source and market on the re-emergence of salmonellosis linked to duck eggs. Control measures by the duck-egg industry should be improved along with a continued need to remind the public and commercial caterers of the potential high risks of contracting salmonellosis from duck eggs.

  15. Evolutionary Rationale for Phages as Complements of Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Torres-Barceló, Clara; Hochberg, Michael E

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections are a major concern to public health. Phage therapy has been proposed as a promising alternative to antibiotics, but an increasing number of studies suggest that both of these antimicrobial agents in combination are more effective in controlling pathogenic bacteria than either alone. We advocate the use of phages in combination with antibiotics and present the evolutionary basis for our claim. In addition, we identify compelling challenges for the realistic application of phage-antibiotic combined therapy.

  16. Using Phage Lytic Enzymes to Destroy Pathogenic and BW Bacteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-14

    B. anthracis than the gamma-phage since it will not recognize the occasional B. cereus strain yielding a false positive reaction. This phage is a...bacteriolytic agent that can rapidly and specifically detect and kill Bacillus anthracis. Nature. 418: 884– 889. Nelson, D., Schuch, R., S. Zhu, D...Djurkovic and V.A. Fischetti. 2003. The phage lytic enzyme Cpl-1 as a novel antimicrobial for pneumococcal bacteremia and sepsis. Infect. Immun.71:6199

  17. Bacteriophages and phage-derived proteins--application approaches.

    PubMed

    Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grazyna; Maciejewska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the bacterial resistance, especially to most commonly used antibiotics has proved to be a severe therapeutic problem. Nosocomial and community-acquired infections are usually caused by multidrug resistant strains. Therefore, we are forced to develop an alternative or supportive treatment for successful cure of life-threatening infections. The idea of using natural bacterial pathogens such as bacteriophages is already well known. Many papers have been published proving the high antibacterial efficacy of lytic phages tested in animal models as well as in the clinic. Researchers have also investigated the application of non-lytic phages and temperate phages, with promising results. Moreover, the development of molecular biology and novel generation methods of sequencing has opened up new possibilities in the design of engineered phages and recombinant phage-derived proteins. Encouraging performances were noted especially for phage enzymes involved in the first step of viral infection responsible for bacterial envelope degradation, named depolymerases. There are at least five major groups of such enzymes - peptidoglycan hydrolases, endosialidases, endorhamnosidases, alginate lyases and hyaluronate lyases - that have application potential. There is also much interest in proteins encoded by lysis cassette genes (holins, endolysins, spanins) responsible for progeny release during the phage lytic cycle. In this review, we discuss several issues of phage and phage-derived protein application approaches in therapy, diagnostics and biotechnology in general.

  18. Bacteriophages and Phage-Derived Proteins – Application Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grazyna; Maciejewska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the bacterial resistance, especially to most commonly used antibiotics has proved to be a severe therapeutic problem. Nosocomial and community-acquired infections are usually caused by multidrug resistant strains. Therefore, we are forced to develop an alternative or supportive treatment for successful cure of life-threatening infections. The idea of using natural bacterial pathogens such as bacteriophages is already well known. Many papers have been published proving the high antibacterial efficacy of lytic phages tested in animal models as well as in the clinic. Researchers have also investigated the application of non-lytic phages and temperate phages, with promising results. Moreover, the development of molecular biology and novel generation methods of sequencing has opened up new possibilities in the design of engineered phages and recombinant phage-derived proteins. Encouraging performances were noted especially for phage enzymes involved in the first step of viral infection responsible for bacterial envelope degradation, named depolymerases. There are at least five major groups of such enzymes – peptidoglycan hydrolases, endosialidases, endorhamnosidases, alginate lyases and hyaluronate lyases – that have application potential. There is also much interest in proteins encoded by lysis cassette genes (holins, endolysins, spanins) responsible for progeny release during the phage lytic cycle. In this review, we discuss several issues of phage and phage-derived protein application approaches in therapy, diagnostics and biotechnology in general. PMID:25666799

  19. Emerging causes of superficial and invasive infections following marine injuries and exposures.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2014-01-01

    Soft tissue bacterial infections following aquatic animal bites, stings, and minor injuries occur commonly and usually on the extremities in fishermen and beachgoers worldwide after freshwater and saltwater exposures. Louisiana has more tidal, saltwater, and brackish water shorelines (more than 7,000 miles) than any other state, including Alaska and Hawaii. As a result, Louisiana residents are often exposed to marine pathogens when fishing or working offshore or when enjoying Louisiana's miles of shorelines. Although many species of bacteria have been isolated from marine wounds, superficial soft tissue and invasive infections following marine injuries and exposures are most commonly caused by a small number of bacterial species, including Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Mycobacterium marinum, and Vibrio vulnificus. In addition to these species, several other aquatic bacteria have recently been identified as emerging causes of superficial and invasive infections following marine injuries and exposures, including marine mammal (dolphins and seals) Brucella species, Chromobacterium violaceum, Comamonas species, Shewanella algae, and Streptococcus iniae. The objectives of this review are to describe the epidemiology, presenting clinical manifestations, diagnostic and treatment strategies, and outcomes of both the superficial and the deeper invasive infections caused by the newly emerging marine bacterial pathogens.

  20. Bacteriophage exploitation of bacterial biofilms: phage preference for less mature targets?

    PubMed

    Abedon, Stephen T

    2016-02-01

    Robust evidence is somewhat lacking for biofilm susceptibility to bacteriophages in nature, contrasting often substantial laboratory biofilm vulnerability to phages. To help bridge this divide, I review a two-part scenario for 'heterogeneous' phage interaction even with phage-permissive single-species biofilms. First, through various mechanisms, those bacteria which are both more newly formed and located at biofilm surfaces may be particularly vulnerable to phage adsorption, rather than biofilm matrix being homogeneously resistant to phage penetration. Second, though phage infection of older, less metabolically active bacteria may still be virion productive, nevertheless the majority of phage population growth in association with biofilm bacteria could involve infection particularly of those bacteria which are more metabolically active and thereby better able to support larger phage bursts, versus clonally related biofilm bacteria equivalently supporting phage production. To the extent that biofilms are physiologically or structurally heterogeneous, with phages exploiting particularly relatively newly divided biofilm-surface bacteria, then even effective phage predation of natural biofilms could result in less than complete overall biofilm clearance. Phage tendencies toward only partial exploitation of even single-species biofilms could be consistent with observations that chronic bacterial infections in the clinic can require more aggressive or extensive phage therapy to eradicate.

  1. Acinetobacter Species Infections Among Navy and Marine Corps Beneficiaries: 2013 Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-19

    the propagation of Acinetobacter, which flourishes in warm , humid environments . 3,5-7 DON and DOD rates peaked during the summer months (June-August...locations of the MCRDs. Another contributing factor to the high Marine recruit prevalence could be related to the unique environmental conditions...Acinetobacter Species Infections among Navy and Marine Corps Beneficiaries: 2013 Annual Report NMCPHC-EDC-TR-168-2014 By Paul Meddaugh and

  2. Diversity of Streptococcus thermophilus phages in a large-production cheese factory in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Quiberoni, A; Tremblay, D; Ackermann, H-W; Moineau, S; Reinheimer, J A

    2006-10-01

    Phage infections still represent a serious risk to the dairy industry, in which Streptococcus thermophilus is used in starter cultures for the manufacture of yogurt and cheese. The goal of the present study was to analyze the biodiversity of the virulent S. thermophilus phage population in one Argentinean cheese plant. Ten distinct S. thermophilus phages were isolated from cheese whey samples collected in a 2-mo survey. They were then characterized by their morphology, host range, and restriction patterns. These phages were also classified within the 2 main groups of S. thermophilus phages (cos- and pac-type) using a newly adapted multiplex PCR method. Six phages were classified as cos-type phages, whereas the 4 others belonged to the pac-type group. This study illustrates the phage diversity that can be found in one factory that rotates several cultures of S. thermophilus. Limiting the number of starter cultures is likely to reduce phage biodiversity within a fermentation facility.

  3. Engineering resistance to phage GVE3 in Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, Leonardo Joaquim; Taylor, Mark Paul; Trindade, Marla

    2016-02-01

    Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius is a promising platform organism for the production of biofuels and other metabolites of interest. G. thermoglucosidasius fermentations could be subject to bacteriophage-related failure and financial loss. We develop two strains resistant to a recently described G. thermoglucosidasius-infecting phage GVE3. The phage-encoded immunity gene, imm, was overexpressed in the host leading to phage resistance. A phage-resistant mutant was isolated following expression of a putative anti-repressor-like protein and phage challenge. A point mutation was identified in the polysaccharide pyruvyl transferase, csaB. A double crossover knockout mutation of csaB confirmed its role in the phage resistance phenotype. These resistance mechanisms appear to prevent phage DNA injection and/or lysogenic conversion rather than just reducing efficiency of plating, as no phage DNA could be detected in resistant bacteria challenged with GVE3 and no plaques observed even at high phage titers. Not only do the strains developed here shed light on the biological relationship between the GVE3 phage and its host, they could be employed by those looking to make use of this organism for metabolite production, with reduced occurrence of GVE3-related failure.

  4. Serological evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive marine mammals in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Sánchez-Okrucky, R; Dubey, J P

    2012-03-23

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is important because they are considered as a sentinel for contamination of seas with T. gondii oocysts, and toxoplasmosis causes mortality in these animals, particularly sea otters. Serological evidence of T. gondii infection was determined in 75 captive marine mammals from four facilities in southern and central geographical regions in Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT, 1:25 or higher) to T. gondii were found in 55 (87.3%) of 63 Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus truncatus), 3 of 3 Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus gillii), 2 of 4 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), but not in 3 West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus), and 2 Patagonian sea lions (Otaria flavescens). Seropositive marine mammals were found in all 4 (100%) facilities sampled. All marine mammals were healthy and there has not been any case of clinical toxoplasmosis in the facilities sampled for at least the last 15 years. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in marine mammals of the same species did not vary significantly with respect to sex and age. This is the first report on the detection of antibodies to T. gondii in marine mammals in Mexico.

  5. Orally Administered P22 Phage Tailspike Protein Reduces Salmonella Colonization in Chickens: Prospects of a Novel Therapy against Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Waseh, Shakeeba; Hanifi-Moghaddam, Pejman; Coleman, Russell; Masotti, Michael; Ryan, Shannon; Foss, Mary; MacKenzie, Roger; Henry, Matthew; Szymanski, Christine M.; Tanha, Jamshid

    2010-01-01

    One of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in man and economically important animals is bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The emergence of difficult-to-treat infections, primarily caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria, demands for alternatives to antibiotic therapy. Currently, one of the emerging therapeutic alternatives is the use of lytic bacteriophages. In an effort to exploit the target specificity and therapeutic potential of bacteriophages, we examined the utility of bacteriophage tailspike proteins (Tsps). Among the best-characterized Tsps is that from the Podoviridae P22 bacteriophage, which recognizes the lipopolysaccharides of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In this study, we utilized a truncated, functionally equivalent version of the P22 tailspike protein, P22sTsp, as a prototype to demonstrate the therapeutic potential of Tsps in the GI tract of chickens. Bacterial agglutination assays showed that P22sTsp was capable of agglutinating S. Typhimurium at levels similar to antibodies and incubating the Tsp with chicken GI fluids showed no proteolytic activity against the Tsp. Testing P22sTsp against the three major GI proteases showed that P22sTsp was resistant to trypsin and partially to chymotrypsin, but sensitive to pepsin. However, in formulated form for oral administration, P22sTsp was resistant to all three proteases. When administered orally to chickens, P22sTsp significantly reduced Salmonella colonization in the gut and its further penetration into internal organs. In in vitro assays, P22sTsp effectively retarded Salmonella motility, a factor implicated in bacterial colonization and invasion, suggesting that the in vivo decolonization ability of P22sTsp may, at least in part, be due to its ability to interfere with motility… Our findings show promise in terms of opening novel Tsp-based oral therapeutic approaches against bacterial infections in production animals and potentially in humans. PMID:21124920

  6. A century of the phage: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Salmond, George P C; Fineran, Peter C

    2015-12-01

    Viruses that infect bacteria (bacteriophages; also known as phages) were discovered 100 years ago. Since then, phage research has transformed fundamental and translational biosciences. For example, phages were crucial in establishing the central dogma of molecular biology - information is sequentially passed from DNA to RNA to proteins - and they have been shown to have major roles in ecosystems, and help drive bacterial evolution and virulence. Furthermore, phage research has provided many techniques and reagents that underpin modern biology - from sequencing and genome engineering to the recent discovery and exploitation of CRISPR-Cas phage resistance systems. In this Timeline, we discuss a century of phage research and its impact on basic and applied biology.

  7. Isolation and characterization of phage-host systems from the Baltic Sea ice.

    PubMed

    Luhtanen, Anne-Mari; Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Rintala, Janne-Markus; Autio, Riitta; Roine, Elina

    2014-01-01

    In search for sea ice bacteria and their phages from the Baltic Sea ice, two ice samples were collected from land-fast ice in a south-west Finland coastal site in February and March 2011. Bacteria were isolated from the melted sea ice samples and phages were screened from the same samples for 43 purified isolates. Plaque-producing phages were found for 15 bacterial isolates at 3 °C. Ten phage isolates were successfully plaque purified and eight of them were chosen for particle purification to analyze their morphology and structural proteins. Phage 1/32 infecting an isolate affiliated to phylum Bacteroidetes (Flavobacterium sp.) is a siphovirus and six phages infecting isolates affiliated to γ-Proteobacteria (Shewanella sp.) hosts were myoviruses. Cross titrations between the hosts showed that all studied phages are host specific. Phage solutions, host growth and phage infection were tested in different temperatures revealing phage temperature tolerance up to 45 °C, whereas phage infection was in most of the cases retarded above 15 °C. This study is the first to report isolation and cultivation of ice bacteria and cold-active phages from the Baltic Sea ice.

  8. Precisely modulated pathogenicity island interference with late phage gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Ram, Geeta; Chen, John; Ross, Hope F; Novick, Richard P

    2014-10-07

    Having gone to great evolutionary lengths to develop resistance to bacteriophages, bacteria have come up with resistance mechanisms directed at every aspect of the bacteriophage life cycle. Most genes involved in phage resistance are carried by plasmids and other mobile genetic elements, including bacteriophages and their relatives. A very special case of phage resistance is exhibited by the highly mobile phage satellites, staphylococcal pathogenicity islands (SaPIs), which carry and disseminate superantigen and other virulence genes. Unlike the usual phage-resistance mechanisms, the SaPI-encoded interference mechanisms are carefully crafted to ensure that a phage-infected, SaPI-containing cell will lyse, releasing the requisite crop of SaPI particles as well as a greatly diminished crop of phage particles. Previously described SaPI interference genes target phage functions that are not required for SaPI particle production and release. Here we describe a SaPI-mediated interference system that affects expression of late phage gene transcription and consequently is required for SaPI and phage. Although when cloned separately, a single SaPI gene totally blocks phage production, its activity in situ is modulated accurately by a second gene, achieving the required level of interference. The advantage for the host bacteria is that the SaPIs curb excessive phage growth while enhancing their gene transfer activity. This activity is in contrast to that of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), which totally block phage growth at the cost of phage-mediated gene transfer. In staphylococci the SaPI strategy seems to have prevailed during evolution: The great majority of Staphylococcus aureus strains carry one or more SaPIs, whereas CRISPRs are extremely rare.

  9. Complete genome sequence of Roseophage vB_DshP-R1, which infects Dinoroseobacter shibae DFL12

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Roseophages, a group of marine viruses that uniquely infect the Roseobacter clade of bacteria, play a significant role in marine ecosystems. Here we present a complete genomic sequence of an N4 phage ‘vB_DshP-R1’, which infects Dinoroseobacter shibae DFL12, together with its structural and genomic features. vB_DshP-R1 has an ~ 75 nm diameter icosahedral structure and a complete genome of 75,028 bp. This is the first genome sequence of a lytic phage of the genus Dinoroseobacter. PMID:25685262

  10. Temperate phages both mediate and drive adaptive evolution in pathogen biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Emily V.; James, Chloe E.; Williams, David; O’Brien, Siobhan; Fothergill, Joanne L.; Haldenby, Sam; Paterson, Steve; Winstanley, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Temperate phages drive genomic diversification in bacterial pathogens. Phage-derived sequences are more common in pathogenic than nonpathogenic taxa and are associated with changes in pathogen virulence. High abundance and mobilization of temperate phages within hosts suggests that temperate phages could promote within-host evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, their role in pathogen evolution has not been experimentally tested. We experimentally evolved replicate populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with or without a community of three temperate phages active in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung infections, including the transposable phage, ɸ4, which is closely related to phage D3112. Populations grew as free-floating biofilms in artificial sputum medium, mimicking sputum of CF lungs where P. aeruginosa is an important pathogen and undergoes evolutionary adaptation and diversification during chronic infection. Although bacterial populations adapted to the biofilm environment in both treatments, population genomic analysis revealed that phages altered both the trajectory and mode of evolution. Populations evolving with phages exhibited a greater degree of parallel evolution and faster selective sweeps than populations without phages. Phage ɸ4 integrated randomly into the bacterial chromosome, but integrations into motility-associated genes and regulators of quorum sensing systems essential for virulence were selected in parallel, strongly suggesting that these insertional inactivation mutations were adaptive. Temperate phages, and in particular transposable phages, are therefore likely to facilitate adaptive evolution of bacterial pathogens within hosts. PMID:27382184

  11. Polyparasitism Is Associated with Increased Disease Severity in Toxoplasma gondii-Infected Marine Sentinel Species

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Amanda K.; Raverty, Stephen; Lambourn, Dyanna M.; Huggins, Jessica; Magargal, Spencer L.; Grigg, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    In 1995, one of the largest outbreaks of human toxoplasmosis occurred in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Genetic typing identified a novel Toxoplasma gondii strain linked to the outbreak, in which a wide spectrum of human disease was observed. For this globally-distributed, water-borne zoonosis, strain type is one variable influencing disease, but the inability of strain type to consistently explain variations in disease severity suggests that parasite genotype alone does not determine the outcome of infection. We investigated polyparasitism (infection with multiple parasite species) as a modulator of disease severity by examining the association of concomitant infection of T. gondii and the related parasite Sarcocystis neurona with protozoal disease in wild marine mammals from the Pacific Northwest. These hosts ostensibly serve as sentinels for the detection of terrestrial parasites implicated in water-borne epidemics of humans and wildlife in this endemic region. Marine mammals (151 stranded and 10 healthy individuals) sampled over 6 years were assessed for protozoal infection using multi-locus PCR-DNA sequencing directly from host tissues. Genetic analyses uncovered a high prevalence and diversity of protozoa, with 147/161 (91%) of our sampled population infected. From 2004 to 2009, the relative frequency of S. neurona infections increased dramatically, surpassing that of T. gondii. The majority of T. gondii infections were by genotypes bearing Type I lineage alleles, though strain genotype was not associated with disease severity. Significantly, polyparasitism with S. neurona and T. gondii was common (42%) and was associated with higher mortality and more severe protozoal encephalitis. Our finding of widespread polyparasitism among marine mammals indicates pervasive contamination of waterways by zoonotic agents. Furthermore, the significant association of concomitant infection with mortality and protozoal encephalitis identifies polyparasitism as

  12. Genomic and proteomic characterization of two novel siphovirus infecting the sedentary facultative epibiont cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yi-Wah; Millard, Andrew D; Wheatley, Peter J; Holmes, Antony B; Mohr, Remus; Whitworth, Anna L; Mann, Nicholas H; Larkum, Anthony W D; Hess, Wolfgang R; Scanlan, David J; Clokie, Martha R J

    2015-11-01

    Acaryochloris marina is a symbiotic species of cyanobacteria that is capable of utilizing far-red light. We report the characterization of the phages A-HIS1 and A-HIS2, capable of infecting Acaryochloris. Morphological characterization of these phages places them in the family Siphoviridae. However, molecular characterization reveals that they do not show genetic similarity with any known siphoviruses. While the phages do show synteny between each other, the nucleotide identity between the phages is low at 45-67%, suggesting they diverged from each other some time ago. The greatest number of genes shared with another phage (a myovirus infecting marine Synechococcus) was four. Unlike most other cyanophages and in common with the Siphoviridae infecting Synechococcus, no photosynthesis-related genes were found in the genome. CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) spacers from the host Acaryochloris had partial matches to sequences found within the phages, which is the first time CRISPRs have been reported in a cyanobacterial/cyanophage system. The phages also encode a homologue of the proteobacterial RNase T. The potential function of RNase T in the mark-up or digestion of crRNA hints at a novel mechanism for evading the host CRISPR system.

  13. Estimating richness from phage metagenomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteriophages are important drivers of ecosystem functions, yet little is known about the vast majority of phages. Phage metagenomics, or the study of the collective genome of an assemblage of phages, enables the investigation of broad ecological questions in phage communities. One ecological cha...

  14. Phage therapy: present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikova, S. G.; Tulyakova, E. N.; Moiseeva, I. Y.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, bacteriophages are known to have become an effective alternative to antibiotic drugs. The article describes the current and potential applications of bacteriophages and phage endolysins. Also of interest is the devastating effect of phages on biofilms. The development of phage resistance is touched upon as well. Furthermore, the authors discuss the issue of laying down the rules of rational phage therapy.

  15. Phage display as a promising approach for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Bakhshinejad, Babak; Baradaran, Behzad; Motallebnezhad, Morteza; Aghebati-Maleki, Ali; Nickho, Hamid; Yousefi, Mehdi; Majidi, Jafar

    2016-09-29

    Bacteriophages are specific antagonists to bacterial hosts. These viral entities have attracted growing interest as optimal vaccine delivery vehicles. Phages are well-matched for vaccine design due to being highly stable under harsh environmental conditions, simple and inexpensive large scale production, and potent adjuvant capacities. Phage vaccines have efficient immunostimulatory effects and present a high safety profile because these viruses have made a constant relationship with the mammalian body during a long-standing evolutionary period. The birth of phage display technology has been a turning point in the development of phage-based vaccines. Phage display vaccines are made by expressing multiple copies of an antigen on the surface of immunogenic phage particles, thereby eliciting a powerful and effective immune response. Also, the ability to produce combinatorial peptide libraries with a highly diverse pool of randomized ligands has transformed phage display into a straightforward, versatile and high throughput screening methodology for the identification of potential vaccine candidates against different diseases in particular microbial infections. These libraries can be conveniently screened through an affinity selection-based strategy called biopanning against a wide variety of targets for the selection of mimotopes with high antigenicity and immunogenicity. Also, they can be panned against the antiserum of convalescent individuals to recognize novel peptidomimetics of pathogen-related epitopes. Phage display has represented enormous promise for finding new strategies of vaccine discovery and production and current breakthroughs promise a brilliant future for the development of different phage-based vaccine platforms.

  16. Phage choice, isolation, and preparation for phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Gill, Jason J; Hyman, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Phage therapy is the use of bacteriophages--viruses that use bacteria as their host cells--as biocontrol agents of bacteria. Currently, phage therapy is garnering renewed interest as bacterial resistance to antibiotics becomes widespread. Historically, phage therapy was largely abandoned in the West in the 1940s due to the advent of chemical antibiotics, and the unreliability of phage-based treatments when compared to antibiotics. The choice of phage strain and the methods of phage preparation are now thought to have been critical to the success or failure of phage therapy trials. Insufficiently virulent phages, especially against actual target bacteria, allow bacteria to survive treatment while poorly prepared phage stocks, even if of sufficiently virulent phages, lack the numbers of viable phages required for adequate treatment. In this review we discuss the factors that determine the methods of isolation, analysis, and identification of phage species for phage therapy. We go on to discuss the various methods available for purifying phages as well as considerations of the degree of purification which is sufficient for various applications. Lastly, we review the current practices used to prepare commercial phage therapy products.

  17. Safety and efficacy of phage therapy via the intravenous route.

    PubMed

    Speck, Peter; Smithyman, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    Increasing development of antimicrobial resistance is driving a resurgence in interest in phage therapy: the use of bacteriophages to treat bacterial infections. As the lytic action of bacteriophages is unaffected by the antibiotic resistance status of their bacterial target, it is thought that phage therapy may have considerable potential in the treatment of a wide range of topical and localized infections. As yet this interest has not extended to intravenous (IV) use, which is surprising given that the historical record shows that phages are likely to be safe and effective when delivered by this route. Starting almost 100 years ago, phages were administered intravenously in treatment of systemic infections including typhoid, and Staphylococcal bacteremia. There was extensive IV use of phages in the 1940s to treat typhoid, reportedly with outstanding efficacy and safety. The safety of IV phage administration is also underpinned by the detailed work of Ochs and colleagues in Seattle who have over four decades' experience with IV injection into human subjects of large doses of highly purified coliphage PhiX174. Though these subjects included a large number of immune-deficient children, no serious side effects were observed over this extended time period. The large and continuing global health problems of typhoid and Staphylococcus aureus are exacerbated by the increasing antibiotic resistance of these pathogens. We contend that these infections are excellent candidates for use of IV phage therapy.

  18. Chromosomal DNA deletion confers phage resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Le, Shuai; Yao, Xinyue; Lu, Shuguang; Tan, Yinling; Rao, Xiancai; Li, Ming; Jin, Xiaolin; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Yan; Wu, Nicholas C; Lux, Renate; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan; Hu, Fuquan

    2014-04-28

    Bacteria develop a broad range of phage resistance mechanisms, such as prevention of phage adsorption and CRISPR/Cas system, to survive phage predation. In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1 strain was infected with lytic phage PaP1, and phage-resistant mutants were selected. A high percentage (~30%) of these mutants displayed red pigmentation phenotype (Red mutant). Through comparative genomic analysis, one Red mutant PA1r was found to have a 219.6 kb genomic fragment deletion, which contains two key genes hmgA and galU related to the observed phenotypes. Deletion of hmgA resulted in the accumulation of a red compound homogentisic acid; while A galU mutant is devoid of O-antigen, which is required for phage adsorption. Intriguingly, while the loss of galU conferred phage resistance, it significantly attenuated PA1r in a mouse infection experiment. Our study revealed a novel phage resistance mechanism via chromosomal DNA deletion in P. aeruginosa.

  19. Isolation of phages for phage therapy: a comparison of spot tests and efficiency of plating analyses for determination of host range and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Khan Mirzaei, Mohammadali; Nilsson, Anders S

    2015-01-01

    Phage therapy, treating bacterial infections with bacteriophages, could be a future alternative to antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. There are, however, several problems to be solved, mainly associated to the biology of phages, the interaction between phages and their bacterial hosts, but also to the vast variation of pathogenic bacteria which implies that large numbers of different phages are going to be needed. All of these phages must under present regulation of medical products undergo extensive clinical testing before they can be applied. It will consequently be of great economic importance that effective and versatile phages are selected and collected into phage libraries, i.e., the selection must be carried out in a way that it results in highly virulent phages with broad host ranges. We have isolated phages using the Escherichia coli reference (ECOR) collection and compared two methods, spot testing and efficiency of plating (EOP), which are frequently used to identify phages suitable for phage therapy. The analyses of the differences between the two methods show that spot tests often overestimate both the overall virulence and the host range and that the results are not correlated to the results of EOP assays. The conclusion is that single dilution spot tests cannot be used for identification and selection of phages to a phage library and should be replaced by EOP assays. The difference between the two methods can be caused by many factors. We have analysed if the differences and lack of correlation could be caused by lysis from without, bacteriocins in the phage lysate, or by the presence of prophages harbouring genes coding for phage resistance systems in the genomes of the bacteria in the ECOR collection.

  20. Proteomic Analysis of a Novel Bacillus Jumbo Phage Revealing Glycoside Hydrolase As Structural Component

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yihui; Gao, Meiying

    2016-01-01

    Tailed phages with genomes of larger than 200 kbp are classified as Jumbo phages and exhibited extremely high uncharted diversity. The genomic annotation of Jumbo phage is often disappointing because most of the predicted proteins, including structural proteins, failed to make good hits to the sequences in the databases. In this study, 23 proteins of a novel Bacillus Jumbo phage, vB_BpuM_BpSp, were identified as phage structural proteins by the structural proteome analysis, including 14 proteins of unknown function, 5 proteins with predicted function as structural proteins, a glycoside hydrolase, a Holliday junction resolvase, a RNA-polymerase β-subunit, and a host-coding portal protein, which might be hijacked from the host strain during phage virion assembly. The glycoside hydrolase (Gp255) was identified as phage virion component and was found to interact with the phage baseplate protein. Gp255 shows specific lytic activity against the phage host strain GR8 and has high temperature tolerance. In situ peptidoglycan-hydrolyzing activities analysis revealed that the expressed Gp255 and phage structural proteome exhibited glycoside hydrolysis activity against the tested GR8 cell extracts. This study identified the first functional individual structural glycoside hydrolase in phage virion. The presence of activated glycoside hydrolase in phage virions might facilitate the injection of the phage genome during infection by forming pores on the bacterial cell wall. PMID:27242758

  1. Isolation and characterization of five lytic bacteriophages infecting a Vibrio strain closely related to Vibrio owensii.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan-Ping; Gong, Ting; Jost, Günter; Liu, Wen-Hua; Ye, De-Zan; Luo, Zhu-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Vibrio owensii is a potential bacterial pathogen in marine aquaculture system. In this study, five lytic phages specific against Vibrio strain B8D, closely related to V. owensii, were isolated from seawater of an abalone farm. The phages were characterized with respect to morphology, genome size, growth phenotype, as well as thermal, and pH stability. All phages were found to belong to the family Siphoviridae with long noncontractile tails and terminal fibers. Restriction analysis indicated that the five phages were dsDNA viruses with molecular weights ranging from c. 30 to 48 kb. One-step growth experiments revealed that the phages were heterogeneous in latent periods (10-70 min), rise periods (40-70 min), and burst sizes [23-331 plaque-forming units (PFU) per infected cell] at the same host strain. All phages were thermal stable and were tolerant to a wide range of pH. The results indicated that these phages could be potential candidates of a phage cocktail for biological control of V. owensii in aquaculture systems.

  2. Electron microscope evidence of virus infection in cultured marine fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiu-Qin; Zhang, Jin-Xing; Qu, Ling-Yun

    2000-09-01

    Electron microscope investigation on the red sea bream ( Pagrosomus major), bastard halibut ( Paralichthys olivaceus) and stone flounder ( Kareius bicoloratus) in North China revealed virus infection in the bodies of the dead and diseased fish. These viruses included the lymphocystis disease virus (LDV), parvovirus, globular virus, and a kind of baculavirus which was not discovered and reported before and is now tentatively named baculavirus of stone flounder ( Kareius bicoloratus).

  3. The use of phage FCL-2 as an alternative to chemotherapy against columnaris disease in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Laanto, Elina; Bamford, Jaana K H; Ravantti, Janne J; Sundberg, Lotta-Riina

    2015-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease in fish, causes millions of dollars of losses in the US channel catfish industry alone, not to mention aquaculture industry worldwide. Novel methods are needed for the control and treatment of bacterial diseases in aquaculture to replace traditionally used chemotherapies. A potential solution could be the use of phages, i.e., bacterial viruses, host-specific and self-enriching particles that can be can easily distributed via water flow. We examined the efficacy of phages to combat columnaris disease. A previously isolated phage, FCL-2, infecting F. columnare, was characterized by sequencing. The 47 142 bp genome of the phage had G + C content of 30.2%, and the closest similarities regarding the structural proteins were found in Cellulophaga phage phiSM. Under controlled experimental conditions, two host fish species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), were used to study the success of phage therapy to prevent F. columnare infections. The survival of both fish species was significantly higher in the presence of the phage. Hundred percent of the zebrafish and 50% of the rainbow trout survived in the phage treatment (survival without phage 0 and 8.3%, respectively). Most importantly, the rainbow trout population was rescued from infection by a single addition of the phage into the water in a flow-through fish tank system. Thus, F. columnare could be used as a model system to test the benefits and risks of phage therapy on a larger scale.

  4. Biofilm control with natural and genetically-modified phages.

    PubMed

    Motlagh, Amir Mohaghegh; Bhattacharjee, Ananda Shankar; Goel, Ramesh

    2016-04-01

    Bacteriophages, as the most dominant and diverse entities in the universe, have the potential to be one of the most promising therapeutic agents. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria and the antibiotic crisis in the last few decades have resulted in a renewed interest in phage therapy. Furthermore, bacteriophages, with the capacity to rapidly infect and overcome bacterial resistance, have demonstrated a sustainable approach against bacterial pathogens-particularly in biofilm. Biofilm, as complex microbial communities located at interphases embedded in a matrix of bacterial extracellular polysaccharide substances (EPS), is involved in health issues such as infections associated with the use of biomaterials and chronic infections by multidrug resistant bacteria, as well as industrial issues such as biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces in food industry and membrane biofouling in water and wastewater treatment processes. In this paper, the most recent studies on the potential of phage therapy using natural and genetically-modified lytic phages and their associated enzymes in fighting biofilm development in various fields including engineering, industry, and medical applications are reviewed. Phage-mediated prevention approaches as an indirect phage therapy strategy are also explored in this review. In addition, the limitations of these approaches and suggestions to overcome these constraints are discussed to enhance the efficiency of phage therapy process. Finally, future perspectives and directions for further research towards a better understanding of phage therapy to control biofilm are recommended.

  5. Coxiella burnetii infection of marine mammals in the Pacific Northwest, 1997-2010.

    PubMed

    Kersh, Gilbert J; Lambourn, Dyanna M; Raverty, Stephen A; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A; Self, Joshua S; Akmajian, Adrianne M; Jeffries, Steven J; Huggins, Jessica; Drew, Clifton P; Zaki, Sherif R; Massung, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Humans are commonly exposed via inhalation of aerosolized bacteria derived from the waste products of domesticated sheep and goats, and particularly from products generated during parturition. However, many other species can be infected with C. burnetii, and the host range and full zoonotic potential of C. burnetii is unknown. Two cases of C. burnetii infection in marine mammal placenta have been reported, but it is not known if this infection is common in marine mammals. To address this issue, placenta samples were collected from Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi), harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), and Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Coxiella burnetii was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the placentas of Pacific harbor seals (17/27), harbor porpoises (2/6), and Steller sea lions (1/2) collected in the Pacific Northwest. A serosurvey of 215 Pacific harbor seals sampled in inland and outer coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest showed that 34.0% (73/215) had antibodies against either Phase 1 or Phase 2 C. burnetii. These results suggest that C. burnetii infection is common among marine mammals in this region.

  6. Filamentous bacteriophage: biology, phage display and nanotechnology applications.

    PubMed

    Rakonjac, Jasna; Bennett, Nicholas J; Spagnuolo, Julian; Gagic, Dragana; Russel, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous bacteriophage, long and thin filaments that are secreted from the host cells without killing them, have been an antithesis to the standard view of head-and-tail bacterial killing machines. Episomally replicating filamentous phage Ff of Escherichia coli provide the majority of information about the principles and mechanisms of filamentous phage infection, episomal replication and assembly. Chromosomally- integrated "temperate" filamentous phage have complex replication and integration, which are currently under active investigation. The latter are directly or indirectly implicated in diseases caused by bacterial pathogens Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Neisseria meningitidis. In the first half of the review, both the Ff and temperate phage are described and compared. A large section of the review is devoted to an overview of phage display technology and its applications in nanotechnology.

  7. Convergent evolution toward an improved growth rate and a reduced resistance range in Prochlorococcus strains resistant to phage.

    PubMed

    Avrani, Sarit; Lindell, Debbie

    2015-04-28

    Prochlorococcus is an abundant marine cyanobacterium that grows rapidly in the environment and contributes significantly to global primary production. This cyanobacterium coexists with many cyanophages in the oceans, likely aided by resistance to numerous co-occurring phages. Spontaneous resistance occurs frequently in Prochlorococcus and is often accompanied by a pleiotropic fitness cost manifested as either a reduced growth rate or enhanced infection by other phages. Here, we assessed the fate of a number of phage-resistant Prochlorococcus strains, focusing on those with a high fitness cost. We found that phage-resistant strains continued evolving toward an improved growth rate and a narrower resistance range, resulting in lineages with phenotypes intermediate between those of ancestral susceptible wild-type and initial resistant substrains. Changes in growth rate and resistance range often occurred in independent events, leading to a decoupling of the selection pressures acting on these phenotypes. These changes were largely the result of additional, compensatory mutations in noncore genes located in genomic islands, although genetic reversions were also observed. Additionally, a mutator strain was identified. The similarity of the evolutionary pathway followed by multiple independent resistant cultures and clones suggests they undergo a predictable evolutionary pathway. This process serves to increase both genetic diversity and infection permutations in Prochlorococcus populations, further augmenting the complexity of the interaction network between Prochlorococcus and its phages in nature. Last, our findings provide an explanation for the apparent paradox of a multitude of resistant Prochlorococcus cells in nature that are growing close to their maximal intrinsic growth rates.

  8. Life-Style and Genome Structure of Marine Pseudoalteromonas Siphovirus B8b Isolated from the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    DOE PAGES

    Lara, Elena; Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; ...

    2015-01-14

    Marine viruses (phages) alter bacterial diversity and evolution with impacts on marine biogeochemical cycles, and yet few well-developed model systems limit opportunities for hypothesis testing. We isolate phage B8b from the Mediterranean Sea using Pseudoalteromonas sp. QC-44 as a host and characterize it using myriad techniques. Morphologically, phage B8b was classified as a member of the Siphoviridae family. One-step growth analyses showed that this siphovirus had a latent period of 70 min and released 172 new viral particles per cell. In the host range analysis against 89 bacterial host strains revealed that phage B8b infected 3 Pseudoalteromonas strains (52 tested,more » >99.9% 16S rRNA gene nucleotide identity) and 1 non-Pseudoaltermonas strain belonging to Alteromonas sp. (37 strains from 6 genera tested), which helps bound the phylogenetic distance possible in a phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer event. The Pseudoalteromonas phage B8b genome size was 42.7 kb, with clear structural and replication modules where the former were delineated leveraging identification of 16 structural genes by virion structural proteomics, only 4 of which had any similarity to known structural proteins. In nature, this phage was common in coastal marine environments in both photic and aphotic layers (found in 26.5% of available viral metagenomes), but not abundant in any sample (average per sample abundance was 0.65% of the reads). Together these data improve our understanding of siphoviruses in nature, and provide foundational information for a new 'rare virosphere' phage-host model system.« less

  9. Life-Style and Genome Structure of Marine Pseudoalteromonas Siphovirus B8b Isolated from the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lara, Elena; Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Sà, Elisabet Laia; Ignacio-Espinoza, J. Cesar; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M.; Verberkmoes, Nathan C.; Vaqué, Dolors; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Acinas, Silvia G.; Kellogg, Christina A.

    2015-01-14

    Marine viruses (phages) alter bacterial diversity and evolution with impacts on marine biogeochemical cycles, and yet few well-developed model systems limit opportunities for hypothesis testing. We isolate phage B8b from the Mediterranean Sea using Pseudoalteromonas sp. QC-44 as a host and characterize it using myriad techniques. Morphologically, phage B8b was classified as a member of the Siphoviridae family. One-step growth analyses showed that this siphovirus had a latent period of 70 min and released 172 new viral particles per cell. In the host range analysis against 89 bacterial host strains revealed that phage B8b infected 3 Pseudoalteromonas strains (52 tested, >99.9% 16S rRNA gene nucleotide identity) and 1 non-Pseudoaltermonas strain belonging to Alteromonas sp. (37 strains from 6 genera tested), which helps bound the phylogenetic distance possible in a phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer event. The Pseudoalteromonas phage B8b genome size was 42.7 kb, with clear structural and replication modules where the former were delineated leveraging identification of 16 structural genes by virion structural proteomics, only 4 of which had any similarity to known structural proteins. In nature, this phage was common in coastal marine environments in both photic and aphotic layers (found in 26.5% of available viral metagenomes), but not abundant in any sample (average per sample abundance was 0.65% of the reads). Together these data improve our understanding of siphoviruses in nature, and provide foundational information for a new 'rare virosphere' phage-host model system.

  10. An outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 34a infection in primary school children: the use of visual aids and food preferences to overcome recall bias in a case control study.

    PubMed Central

    Linnane, E.; Roberts, R. J.; Mannion, P. T.

    2002-01-01

    Outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease are common in schools. Case control studies are useful in the investigation of infectious disease outbreaks but the time interval between illness and investigation can lead to recall bias, particularly in young children. We describe an outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 34a infection involving 54 clinical cases in two adjacent schools, and a novel approach to overcome recall bias. The likely dates of infection were identified from the epidemic curve. We created a visual display of the menu from those days and asked 9 cases and 18 matched controls to identify their food preferences from this display. Preference for chocolate mouse was significantly associated with illness (P = 0.006). The results of the case control study agreed with the findings of the environmental investigation. We believe our approach could be used in other circumstances, where subjects are young children or recall bias is a concern. PMID:12211594

  11. Visualizing Adsorption of Cyanophage P-SSP7 onto Marine Prochlorococcus

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Kazuyoshi; Zhang, Qinfen; Gerardo Galaz-Montoya, Jesús; Fu, Caroline; Coleman, Maureen L.; Osburne, Marcia S.; Schmid, Michael F.; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Chisholm, Sallie W.; Chiu, Wah

    2017-01-01

    Marine cyanobacteria perform roughly a quarter of global carbon fixation, and cyanophages that infect them liberate some of this carbon during infection and cell lysis. Studies of the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MED4 and its associated cyanophage P-SSP7 have revealed complex gene expression dynamics once infection has begun, but the initial cyanophage-host interactions remain poorly understood. Here, we used single particle cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) to investigate cyanophage-host interactions in this model system, based on 170 cyanophage-to-host adsorption events. Subtomogram classification and averaging revealed three main conformations characterized by different angles between the phage tail and the cell surface. Namely, phage tails were (i) parallel to, (ii) ~45 degrees to, or (iii) perpendicular to the cell surface. Furthermore, different conformations of phage tail fibers correlated with the aforementioned orientations of the tails. We also observed density beyond the tail tip in vertically-oriented phages that had penetrated the cell wall, capturing the final stage of adsorption. Together, our data provide a quantitative characterization of the orientation of phages as they adsorb onto cells, and suggest that cyanophages that abut their cellular targets are only transiently in the “perpendicular” orientation required for successful infection. PMID:28281671

  12. Core Lipopolysaccharide-Specific Phage SSU5 as an Auxiliary Component of a Phage Cocktail for Salmonella Biocontrol

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minsik; Kim, Sujin; Park, Bookyung

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella spp. are among the major food-borne pathogens that cause mild diarrhea to severe bacteremia. The use of bacteriophages to control various food-borne pathogens, including Salmonella, has emerged as a promising alternative to traditional chemotherapy. We isolated the Siphoviridae family phage SSU5, which can infect only rough strains of Salmonella. The blocking of SSU5 adsorption by periodate treatment of host Salmonella cells and spotting and adsorption assays with mutants that contain various truncations in their lipopolysaccharide (LPS) cores revealed that the outer core region of the LPS is a receptor of SSU5. SSU5 could infect O-antigen (O-Ag)-deficient Salmonella mutants that developed by challenging of O-Ag-specific phages, and consequently, it delayed the emergence of the phage-resistant Salmonella population in broth culture when treated together with phages using O-Ag as a receptor. Therefore, these results suggested that phage SSU5 would be a promising auxiliary component of a phage cocktail to control rough strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, which might emerge as resistant mutants upon infection by phages using O-Ag as a receptor. PMID:24271179

  13. Gene Expression Patterns during Light and Dark Infection of Prochlorococcus by Cyanophage

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, Sallie W.

    2016-01-01

    Cyanophage infecting the marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus require light and host photosystem activity for optimal reproduction. Many cyanophages encode multiple photosynthetic electron transport (PET) proteins, which are presumed to maintain electron flow and produce ATP and NADPH for nucleotide biosynthesis and phage genome replication. However, evidence suggests phage augment NADPH production via the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), thus calling into question the need for NADPH production by PET. Genes implicated in cyclic PET have since been identified in cyanophage genomes. It remains an open question which mode of PET, cyclic or linear, predominates in infected cyanobacteria, and thus whether the balance is towards producing ATP or NADPH. We sequenced transcriptomes of a cyanophage (P-HM2) and its host (Prochlorococcus MED4) throughout infection in the light or in the dark, and analyzed these data in the context of phage replication and metabolite measurements. Infection was robust in the light, but phage were not produced in the dark. Host gene transcripts encoding high-light inducible proteins and two terminal oxidases (plastoquinol terminal oxidase and cytochrome c oxidase)—implicated in protecting the photosynthetic membrane from light stress—were the most enriched in light but not dark infection. Among the most diminished transcripts in both light and dark infection was ferredoxin–NADP+ reductase (FNR), which uses the electron acceptor NADP+ to generate NADPH in linear photosynthesis. The phage gene for CP12, which putatively inhibits the Calvin cycle enzyme that receives NADPH from FNR, was highly expressed in light infection. Therefore, both PET production of NADPH and its consumption by carbon fixation are putatively repressed during phage infection in light. Transcriptomic evidence is thus consistent with cyclic photophosphorylation using oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor as the dominant mode of PET under infection

  14. Safety analysis of a Russian phage cocktail: from metagenomic analysis to oral application in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    McCallin, Shawna; Alam Sarker, Shafiqul; Barretto, Caroline; Sultana, Shamima; Berger, Bernard; Huq, Sayeda; Krause, Lutz; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Schmitt, Bertrand; Reuteler, Gloria; Brüssow, Harald

    2013-09-01

    Phage therapy has a long tradition in Eastern Europe, where preparations are comprised of complex phage cocktails whose compositions have not been described. We investigated the composition of a phage cocktail from the Russian pharmaceutical company Microgen targeting Escherichia coli/Proteus infections. Electron microscopy identified six phage types, with numerically T7-like phages dominating over T4-like phages. A metagenomic approach using taxonomical classification, reference mapping and de novo assembly identified 18 distinct phage types, including 7 genera of Podoviridae, 2 established and 2 proposed genera of Myoviridae, and 2 genera of Siphoviridae. De novo assembly yielded 7 contigs greater than 30 kb, including a 147-kb Myovirus genome and a 42-kb genome of a potentially new phage. Bioinformatic analysis did not reveal undesired genes and a small human volunteer trial did not associate adverse effects with oral phage exposure.

  15. Computational models of populations of bacteria and lytic phage.

    PubMed

    Krysiak-Baltyn, Konrad; Martin, Gregory J O; Stickland, Anthony D; Scales, Peter J; Gras, Sally L

    2016-11-01

    The use of phages to control and reduce numbers of unwanted bacteria can be traced back to the early 1900s, when phages were explored as a tool to treat infections before the wide scale use of antibiotics. Recently, phage therapy has received renewed interest as a method to treat multiresistant bacteria. Phages are also widely used in the food industry to prevent the growth of certain bacteria in foods, and are currently being explored as a tool for use in bioremediation and wastewater treatment. Despite the large body of biological research on phages, relatively little attention has been given to computational modeling of the population dynamics of phage and bacterial interactions. The earliest model was described by Campbell in the 1960s. Subsequent modifications to this model include partial or complete resistance, multiple phage binding sites, and spatial heterogeneity. This review provides a general introduction to modeling of the population dynamics of bacteria and phage. The review introduces the basic model and relevant concepts and evaluates more complex variations of the basic model published to date, including a model of disease epidemics caused by infectious bacteria. Finally, the shortcomings and potential ways to improve the models are discussed.

  16. Antibiofilm and Anti-Infection of a Marine Bacterial Exopolysaccharide Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shimei; Liu, Ge; Jin, Weihua; Xiu, Pengyuan; Sun, Chaomin

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a well-known pathogenic bacterium that forms biofilms and produces virulence factors, thus leading to major problems in many fields, such as clinical infection, food contamination, and marine biofouling. In this study, we report the purification and characterization of an exopolysaccharide EPS273 from the culture supernatant of marine bacterium P. stutzeri 273. The exopolysaccharide EPS273 not only effectively inhibits biofilm formation but also disperses preformed biofilm of P. aeruginosa PAO1. High performance liquid chromatography traces of the hydrolyzed polysaccharides shows that EPS273 primarily consists of glucosamine, rhamnose, glucose and mannose. Further investigation demonstrates that EPS273 reduces the production of the virulence factors pyocyanin, exoprotease, and rhamnolipid, and the virulence of P. aeruginosa PAO1 to human lung cells A549 and zebrafish embryos is also obviously attenuated by EPS273. In addition, EPS273 also greatly reduces the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and extracellular DNA (eDNA), which are important factors for biofilm formation. Furthermore, EPS273 exhibits strong antioxidant potential by quenching hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals. Notably, the antibiofouling activity of EPS273 is observed in the marine environment up to 2 weeks according to the amounts of bacteria and diatoms in the glass slides submerged in the ocean. Taken together, the properties of EPS273 indicate that it has a promising prospect in combating bacterial biofilm-associated infection, food-processing contamination and marine biofouling. PMID:26903981

  17. Emerging morbillivirus infections of marine mammals: development of two diagnostic approaches.

    PubMed

    Saliki, Jeremiah T; Cooper, Emily J; Gustavson, Jonathan P

    2002-10-01

    In the last 13 years, four viruses belonging in the Morbillivirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae family have emerged as significant causes of disease and mortality in marine mammals. The viruses involved are canine distemper virus (CDV) in seals and polar bears, dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) and porpoise morbillivirus (PMV) in cetaceans, and phocine distemper virus (PDV) in pinnipeds. The two cetacean morbilliviruses (DMV and PMV) are now considered to be the same viral species, named cetacean morbillivirus (CMV). All three morbillivirus species (CDV, CMV, and PDV) are genetically and antigenically related and cross-react in various serological tests. The diagnosis of morbilliviral infections in marine mammal specimens poses two challenges. First, various marine mammal species can be infected by more than one closely related but distinct morbilliviruses, making definitive virus identification unattainable by classical virology methods. Second, standard immunological reagents such as anti-species conjugates are unavailable for most marine mammal species, rendering definitive serological diagnosis difficult by classical serological techniques. The objectives of this study were to develop two diagnostic approaches that alleviate these difficulties, providing simple, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic methods. For nucleic acid detection, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and restriction endonuclease digestions were used to differentiate the three viruses. For antibody detection, a monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) was used on sera from several species, thus avoiding the need for multiple anti-species enzyme conjugates.

  18. Antibiofilm and Anti-Infection of a Marine Bacterial Exopolysaccharide Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shimei; Liu, Ge; Jin, Weihua; Xiu, Pengyuan; Sun, Chaomin

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a well-known pathogenic bacterium that forms biofilms and produces virulence factors, thus leading to major problems in many fields, such as clinical infection, food contamination, and marine biofouling. In this study, we report the purification and characterization of an exopolysaccharide EPS273 from the culture supernatant of marine bacterium P. stutzeri 273. The exopolysaccharide EPS273 not only effectively inhibits biofilm formation but also disperses preformed biofilm of P. aeruginosa PAO1. High performance liquid chromatography traces of the hydrolyzed polysaccharides shows that EPS273 primarily consists of glucosamine, rhamnose, glucose and mannose. Further investigation demonstrates that EPS273 reduces the production of the virulence factors pyocyanin, exoprotease, and rhamnolipid, and the virulence of P. aeruginosa PAO1 to human lung cells A549 and zebrafish embryos is also obviously attenuated by EPS273. In addition, EPS273 also greatly reduces the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and extracellular DNA (eDNA), which are important factors for biofilm formation. Furthermore, EPS273 exhibits strong antioxidant potential by quenching hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals. Notably, the antibiofouling activity of EPS273 is observed in the marine environment up to 2 weeks according to the amounts of bacteria and diatoms in the glass slides submerged in the ocean. Taken together, the properties of EPS273 indicate that it has a promising prospect in combating bacterial biofilm-associated infection, food-processing contamination and marine biofouling.

  19. Potential of marine natural products against drug-resistant fungal, viral, and parasitic infections.

    PubMed

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Balasubramanian, Srikkanth; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A; Grkovic, Tanja; Pham, Ngoc B; Quinn, Ronald J; Hentschel, Ute

    2017-02-01

    Antibiotics have revolutionised medicine in many aspects, and their discovery is considered a turning point in human history. However, the most serious consequence of the use of antibiotics is the concomitant development of resistance against them. The marine environment has proven to be a very rich source of diverse natural products with significant antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antitumour, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activities. Many marine natural products (MNPs)-for example, neoechinulin B-have been found to be promising drug candidates to alleviate the mortality and morbidity rates caused by drug-resistant infections, and several MNP-based anti-infectives have already entered phase 1, 2, and 3 clinical trials, with six approved for usage by the US Food and Drug Administration and one by the EU. In this Review, we discuss the diversity of marine natural products that have shown in-vivo efficacy or in-vitro potential against drug-resistant infections of fungal, viral, and parasitic origin, and describe their mechanism of action. We highlight the drug-like physicochemical properties of the reported natural products that have bioactivity against drug-resistant pathogens in order to assess their drug potential. Difficulty in isolation and purification procedures, toxicity associated with the active compound, ecological impacts on natural environment, and insufficient investments by pharmaceutical companies are some of the clear reasons behind market failures and a poor pipeline of MNPs available to date. However, the diverse abundance of natural products in the marine environment could serve as a ray of light for the therapy of drug-resistant infections. Development of resistance-resistant antibiotics could be achieved via the coordinated networking of clinicians, microbiologists, natural product chemists, and pharmacologists together with pharmaceutical venture capitalist companies.

  20. Marine-Derived Metabolites of S-Adenosylmethionine as Templates for New Anti-Infectives

    PubMed Central

    Sufrin, Janice R.; Finckbeiner, Steven; Oliver, Colin M.

    2009-01-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) is a key biochemical co-factor whose proximate metabolites include methylated macromolecules (e.g., nucleic acids, proteins, phospholipids), methylated small molecules (e.g., sterols, biogenic amines), polyamines (e.g., spermidine, spermine), ethylene, and N-acyl-homoserine lactones. Marine organisms produce numerous AdoMet metabolites whose novel structures can be regarded as lead compounds for anti-infective drug design. PMID:19841722

  1. Phage mutations in response to CRISPR diversification in a bacterial population.

    PubMed

    Sun, Christine L; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Thomas, Brian C; Horvath, Philippe; Fremaux, Christophe; Banfield, Jillian F

    2013-02-01

    Interactions between bacteria and their coexisting phage populations impact evolution and can strongly influence biogeochemical processes in natural ecosystems. Periodically, mutation or migration results in exposure of a host to a phage to which it has no immunity; alternatively, a phage may be exposed to a host it cannot infect. To explore the processes by which coexisting, co-evolving hosts and phage populations establish, we cultured Streptococcus thermophilus DGCC7710 with phage 2972 and tracked CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) diversification and host-phage co-evolution in a population derived from a colony that acquired initial CRISPR-encoded immunity. After 1 week of co-culturing, the coexisting host-phage populations were metagenomically characterized using 454 FLX Titanium sequencing. The evolved genomes were compared with reference genomes to identify newly incorporated spacers in S. thermophilus DGCC7710 and recently acquired single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in phage 2972. Following phage exposure, acquisition of immune elements (spacers) led to a genetically diverse population with multiple subdominant strain lineages. Phage mutations that circumvented three early immunization events were localized in the proto-spacer adjacent motif (PAM) or near the PAM end of the proto-spacer, suggesting a strong selective advantage for the phage that mutated in this region. The sequential fixation or near fixation of these single mutations indicates selection events so severe that single phage genotypes ultimately gave rise to all surviving lineages and potentially carried traits unrelated to immunity to fixation.

  2. Phage ΦPan70, a Putative Temperate Phage, Controls Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Planktonic, Biofilm and Burn Mouse Model Assays

    PubMed Central

    Holguín, Angela V.; Rangel, Guillermo; Clavijo, Viviana; Prada, Catalina; Mantilla, Marcela; Gomez, María Catalina; Kutter, Elizabeth; Taylor, Corinda; Fineran, Peter C.; Barrios, Andrés Fernando González; Vives, Martha J.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the Multi-Drug-Resistant organisms most frequently isolated worldwide and, because of a shortage of new antibiotics, bacteriophages are considered an alternative for its treatment. Previously, P. aeruginosa phages were isolated and best candidates were chosen based on their ability to form clear plaques and their host range. This work aimed to characterize one of those phages, ΦPan70, preliminarily identified as a good candidate for phage-therapy. We performed infection curves, biofilm removal assays, transmission-electron-microscopy, pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis, and studied the in vivo ΦPan70 biological activity in the burned mouse model. ΦPan70 was classified as a member of the Myoviridae family and, in both planktonic cells and biofilms, was responsible for a significant reduction in the bacterial population. The burned mouse model showed an animal survival between 80% and 100%, significantly different from the control animals (0%). However, analysis of the ΦPan70 genome revealed that it was 64% identical to F10, a temperate P. aeruginosa phage. Gene annotation indicated ΦPan70 as a new, but possible temperate phage, therefore not ideal for phage-therapy. Based on this, we recommend genome sequence analysis as an early step to select candidate phages for potential application in phage-therapy, before entering into a more intensive characterization. PMID:26274971

  3. PHAGE FORMATION IN STAPHYLOCOCCUS MUSCAE CULTURES

    PubMed Central

    Price, Winston H.

    1952-01-01

    1. Under a variety of conditions in which cells are infected with one or a few virus particles and the host cells are killed, but no infective particles or virus material is formed as indicated by plaque count, one-step growth curve, or protein or desoxyribonucleic determinations, the cells neither lyse nor release ribonucleic acid into the medium. 2. The "killing" effect of S. muscae phage is separate from its lytic property. 3. The release of ribonucleic acid into the medium is not simply due to the killing of the cell by the virus, and ribonucleic acid is never found in the medium unless virus material is synthesized. 4. Infected cells of S. muscae synthesizing virus release ribonucleic acid into the medium before cellular lysis begins and before any virus is liberated. 5. The higher the phage yield the more ribonucleic acid is released into the medium before any virus is released. 6. Phage may be released from one strain of Staphylococcus muscae without cellular lysis, although bacterial lysis begins shortly after the virus is released. In another strain, infected under similar conditions, virus liberation occurs simultaneously with cellular lysis. 7. The viruses liberated from both bacterial strains appear to be the same in so far as they cannot be distinguished by serological tests, have the same plaque type and plaque size, and need the same amino acids added to the medium in order to grow. Furthermore, the virus liberated from one strain can infect and multiply in the other strain and vice versa. 8. It is suggested that virus synthesis, in S. muscae cells infected with one or a few phage particles, leads to a disturbance of the normal cellular metabolism, resulting in lysis of the host cell. PMID:14898025

  4. Listeria phage A511, a model for the contractile tail machineries of SPO1-related bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Habann, Matthias; Leiman, Petr G; Vandersteegen, Katrien; Van den Bossche, An; Lavigne, Rob; Shneider, Mikhail M; Bielmann, Regula; Eugster, Marcel R; Loessner, Martin J; Klumpp, Jochen

    2014-04-01

    Recognition of the bacterial host and attachment to its surface are two critical steps in phage infection. Here we report the identification of Gp108 as the host receptor-binding protein of the broad host-range, virulent Listeria phage A511. The ligands for Gp108 were found to be N-acetylglucosamine and rhamnose substituents of the wall teichoic acids of the bacterial cell wall. Transmission electron microscopy and immunogold-labelling allowed us to create a model of the A511 baseplate in which Gp108 forms emanating short tail fibres. Data obtained for related phages, such as Staphylococcus phages ISP and Twort, demonstrate the evolutionary conservation of baseplate components and receptor-binding proteins within the Spounavirinae subfamily, and contractile tail machineries in general. Our data reveal key elements in the infection process of large phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria and generate insights into the complex adsorption process of phage A511 to its bacterial host.

  5. Dispersal and survival of Flavobacterium psychrophilum phages in vivo in rainbow trout and in vitro under laboratory conditions: implications for their use in phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Lone; Bertelsen, Sif K; Dalsgaard, Inger; Middelboe, Mathias

    2013-08-01

    Attention has been drawn to phage therapy as an alternative approach for controlling pathogenic bacteria such as Flavobacterium psychrophilum in salmonid aquaculture, which can give rise to high mortalities, especially in rainbow trout fry. Recently, phages have been isolated with a broad host range and a strong lytic potential against pathogenic F. psychrophilum under experimental conditions. However, little is known about the fate of phages at environmental conditions. Here, we quantified the dispersal and fate of F. psychrophilum phages and hosts in rainbow trout fry after intraperitoneal injection. Both phages and bacteria were isolated from the fish organs for up to 10 days after injection, and coinjection with both bacteria and phages resulted in a longer persistence of the phage in the fish organs, than when the fish had been injected with the phages only. The occurrence of both phage and bacterium was most prevalent in the kidney and spleen, with only minor occurrence in the brain. The experiment showed that injected phages were rapidly spread in the internal organs of the fish, also in the absence of bacteria. Parallel examination of the regulation of bacteriophage infectivity in controlled laboratory experiments at various environmental conditions showed that pH had only minor effects on long-term (3 months) phage infectivity within a pH range of 4.5 to 7.5, whereas phage infectivity was immediately lost at pH 3. In the absence of host cells, phage infectivity decreased by a factor of 10,000 over 55 days in untreated pond water, while the sterilization and removal of particles caused a 100-fold increase in phage survival relative to the control. In addition, F. psychrophilum-specific phages maintained their infectivity for ∼2 months in glycerol at -80°C, whereas infectivity decreased by a factor 10 when kept in a buffer at 20°C. Only a very small degradation in infectivity was seen when bacteriophages were added and dried on fish feed pellets

  6. Phage approved in food, why not as a therapeutic?

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Wessam A; Azzazy, Hassan M E

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial resistance is not only restricted to human infections but is also a major problem in food. With the marked decrease in produced antimicrobials, the world is now reassessing bacteriophages. In 2006, ListShield™ received the US FDA approval for using phage in food. Nevertheless, regulatory approval of phage-based therapeutics is still facing many challenges. This review highlights the use of bacteriophages as biocontrol agents in the food industry. It also focuses on the challenges still facing the regulatory approval of phage-based therapeutics and the proposed approaches to overcome such challenges.

  7. Phage display creates innovative applications to combat hepatitis B virus

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wen Siang; Ho, Kok Lian

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has killed countless lives in human history. The invention of HBV vaccines in the 20th century has reduced significantly the rate of the viral infection. However, currently there is no effective treatment for chronic HBV carriers. Newly emerging vaccine escape mutants and drug resistant strains have complicated the viral eradication program. The entire world is now facing a new threat of HBV and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. Could phage display provide solutions to these life-threatening problems? This article reviews critically and comprehensively the innovative and potential applications of phage display in the development of vaccines, therapeutic agents, diagnostic reagents, as well as gene and drug delivery systems to combat HBV. The application of phage display in epitope mapping of HBV antigens is also discussed in detail. Although this review mainly focuses on HBV, the innovative applications of phage display could also be extended to other infectious diseases. PMID:25206271

  8. Impact of a single phage and a phage cocktail application in broilers on reduction of Campylobacter jejuni and development of resistance.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Samuel; Kittler, Sophie; Klein, Günter; Glünder, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is currently the most frequent foodborne zoonosis in many countries. One main source is poultry. The aim of this study was to enhance the knowledge about the potential of bacteriophages in reducing colonization of broilers with Campylobacter , as there are only a few in vivo studies published. Commercial broilers were inoculated with 10⁴ CFU/bird of a Campylobacter jejuni field strain. Groups of 88 birds each were subsequently treated with a single phage or a four-phage cocktail (10⁷ PFU/bird in CaCO₃ buffered SM-Buffer). Control birds received the solvent only. Afterwards, subgroups of eleven birds each were examined for their loads with phages and Campylobacter on day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after phage application. The susceptibility of the Campylobacter population to phage infection was determined using ten isolates per bird. In total 4180 re-isolates were examined. The study demonstrated that the deployed phages persisted over the whole investigation period. The Campylobacter load was permanently reduced by the phage-cocktail as well as by the single phage. The reduction was significant between one and four weeks after treatment and reached a maximum of log₁₀ 2.8 CFU/g cecal contents. Phage resistance rates of initially up to 43% in the single phage treated group and 24% in the cocktail treated group later stabilized at low levels. The occurrence of phage resistance influenced but did not override the Campylobacter reducing effect. Regarding the reduction potential, the cocktail treatment had only a small advantage over the singe phage treatment directly after phage administration. However, the cocktail moderated and delayed the emergence of phage resistance.

  9. Impact of a Single Phage and a Phage Cocktail Application in Broilers on Reduction of Campylobacter jejuni and Development of Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Samuel; Kittler, Sophie; Klein, Günter; Glünder, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is currently the most frequent foodborne zoonosis in many countries. One main source is poultry. The aim of this study was to enhance the knowledge about the potential of bacteriophages in reducing colonization of broilers with Campylobacter , as there are only a few in vivo studies published. Commercial broilers were inoculated with 104 CFU/bird of a Campylobacter jejuni field strain. Groups of 88 birds each were subsequently treated with a single phage or a four-phage cocktail (107 PFU/bird in CaCO3 buffered SM-Buffer). Control birds received the solvent only. Afterwards, subgroups of eleven birds each were examined for their loads with phages and Campylobacter on day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after phage application. The susceptibility of the Campylobacter population to phage infection was determined using ten isolates per bird. In total 4180 re-isolates were examined. The study demonstrated that the deployed phages persisted over the whole investigation period. The Campylobacter load was permanently reduced by the phage-cocktail as well as by the single phage. The reduction was significant between one and four weeks after treatment and reached a maximum of log10 2.8 CFU/g cecal contents. Phage resistance rates of initially up to 43% in the single phage treated group and 24% in the cocktail treated group later stabilized at low levels. The occurrence of phage resistance influenced but did not override the Campylobacter reducing effect. Regarding the reduction potential, the cocktail treatment had only a small advantage over the singe phage treatment directly after phage administration. However, the cocktail moderated and delayed the emergence of phage resistance. PMID:24205254

  10. Learning from Bacteriophages - Advantages and Limitations of Phage and Phage-Encoded Protein Applications

    PubMed Central

    Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grażyna; Maciejewska, Barbara; Delattre, Anne-Sophie; Lavigne, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of bacteria resistance to most of the currently available antibiotics has become a critical therapeutic problem. The bacteria causing both hospital and community-acquired infections are most often multidrug resistant. In view of the alarming level of antibiotic resistance between bacterial species and difficulties with treatment, alternative or supportive antibacterial cure has to be developed. The presented review focuses on the major characteristics of bacteriophages and phage-encoded proteins affecting their usefulness as antimicrobial agents. We discuss several issues such as mode of action, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, resistance and manufacturing aspects of bacteriophages and phage-encoded proteins application. PMID:23305359

  11. Learning from bacteriophages - advantages and limitations of phage and phage-encoded protein applications.

    PubMed

    Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grazyna; Maciejewska, Barbara; Delattre, Anne-Sophie; Lavigne, Rob

    2012-12-01

    The emergence of bacteria resistance to most of the currently available antibiotics has become a critical therapeutic problem. The bacteria causing both hospital and community-acquired infections are most often multidrug resistant. In view of the alarming level of antibiotic resistance between bacterial species and difficulties with treatment, alternative or supportive antibacterial cure has to be developed. The presented review focuses on the major characteristics of bacteriophages and phage-encoded proteins affecting their usefulness as antimicrobial agents. We discuss several issues such as mode of action, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, resistance and manufacturing aspects of bacteriophages and phage-encoded proteins application.

  12. A phagemid vector using the E. coli phage shock promoter facilitates phage display of toxic proteins.

    PubMed

    Beekwilder, J; Rakonjac, J; Jongsma, M; Bosch, D

    1999-03-04

    Phage display is a powerful tool with which to adapt the specificity of protease inhibitors. To this end, a library of variants of the potato protease inhibitor PI2 was introduced in a canonical phagemid vector. Although PI2 is a natural trypsin inhibitor, we were unable to select trypsin-binding variants from the library. Instead, only mutants carrying deletions or amber stop codons were found. Bacteria carrying these mutations had a much faster growth rate than those carrying the wt PI2-encoding gene, even when the promoter was repressed. To overcome these problems, two new phagemid vectors for g3-mediated phage display were constructed. The first vector has a lower plasmid copy number, as compared to the canonical vector. Bacteria harboring this new vector are much less affected by the presence of the PI2-g3 fusion gene, which appears from a markedly reduced growth retardation. A second vector was equipped with the promoter of the Escherichia coli psp operon, instead of the lac promoter, to control the PI2-g3 gene fusion expression. The psp promoter is induced upon helper phage infection. A phagemid vector with this promoter controlling a PI2-g3 gene fusion did not affect the viability of the host. Furthermore, both new vectors were shown to produce phage particles that display the inhibitor protein and were therefore considered suitable for phage display. The inhibitor library was introduced in both new vectors. Trypsin-binding phages with inhibitory sequences were selected, instead of sequences with stop codons or deletions. This demonstrates the usefulness of these new vectors for phage display of proteins that affect the viability of E. coli.

  13. Zoosporic parasites infecting marine diatoms — A black box that needs to be opened

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Bettina; Guillou, Laure; Marano, Agostina V.; Neuhauser, Sigrid; Sullivan, Brooke K.; Karsten, Ulf; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Gleason, Frank H.

    2016-01-01

    Living organisms in aquatic ecosystems are almost constantly confronted by pathogens. Nevertheless, very little is known about diseases of marine diatoms, the main primary producers of the oceans. Only a few examples of marine diatoms infected by zoosporic parasites are published, yet these studies suggest that diseases may have significant impacts on the ecology of individual diatom hosts and the composition of communities at both the producer and consumer trophic levels of food webs. Here we summarize available ecological and morphological data on chytrids, aphelids, stramenopiles (including oomycetes, labyrinthuloids, and hyphochytrids), parasitic dinoflagellates, cercozoans and phytomyxids, all of which are known zoosporic parasites of marine diatoms. Difficulties in identification of host and pathogen species and possible effects of environmental parameters on the prevalence of zoosporic parasites are discussed. Based on published data, we conclude that zoosporic parasites are much more abundant in marine ecosystems than the available literature reports, and that, at present, both the diversity and the prevalence of such pathogens are underestimated. PMID:28083074

  14. Zoosporic parasites infecting marine diatoms - A black box that needs to be opened.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Bettina; Guillou, Laure; Marano, Agostina V; Neuhauser, Sigrid; Sullivan, Brooke K; Karsten, Ulf; Küpper, Frithjof C; Gleason, Frank H

    2016-02-01

    Living organisms in aquatic ecosystems are almost constantly confronted by pathogens. Nevertheless, very little is known about diseases of marine diatoms, the main primary producers of the oceans. Only a few examples of marine diatoms infected by zoosporic parasites are published, yet these studies suggest that diseases may have significant impacts on the ecology of individual diatom hosts and the composition of communities at both the producer and consumer trophic levels of food webs. Here we summarize available ecological and morphological data on chytrids, aphelids, stramenopiles (including oomycetes, labyrinthuloids, and hyphochytrids), parasitic dinoflagellates, cercozoans and phytomyxids, all of which are known zoosporic parasites of marine diatoms. Difficulties in identification of host and pathogen species and possible effects of environmental parameters on the prevalence of zoosporic parasites are discussed. Based on published data, we conclude that zoosporic parasites are much more abundant in marine ecosystems than the available literature reports, and that, at present, both the diversity and the prevalence of such pathogens are underestimated.

  15. Phage therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa, Leron; Shlezinger, Mor; Beyth, Shaul; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Nurit; Hazan, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues. Hence, development of a highly effective antibacterial practice has become inevitable. One example of a hard-to-eradicate pathogen in dentistry is Enterococcus faecalis, which is one of the most common threats observed in recurrent root canal treatment failures, of which the most problematic to treat are its biofilm-forming VRE strains. An effective response against such infections could be the use of bacteriophages (phages). Phage therapy was found to be highly effective against biofilm and multidrug-resistant bacteria and has other advantages like ease of isolation and possibilities for genetic manipulations. The potential of phage therapy in dentistry, in particular against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals, is almost unexplored. Here we review the efforts to develop phage therapy against biofilms. We also focus on the phages isolated against E. faecalis and discuss the possibility of using phages against E. faecalis biofilm in root canals. PMID:27640530

  16. Phage therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Leron; Shlezinger, Mor; Beyth, Shaul; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Nurit; Hazan, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues. Hence, development of a highly effective antibacterial practice has become inevitable. One example of a hard-to-eradicate pathogen in dentistry is Enterococcus faecalis, which is one of the most common threats observed in recurrent root canal treatment failures, of which the most problematic to treat are its biofilm-forming VRE strains. An effective response against such infections could be the use of bacteriophages (phages). Phage therapy was found to be highly effective against biofilm and multidrug-resistant bacteria and has other advantages like ease of isolation and possibilities for genetic manipulations. The potential of phage therapy in dentistry, in particular against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals, is almost unexplored. Here we review the efforts to develop phage therapy against biofilms. We also focus on the phages isolated against E. faecalis and discuss the possibility of using phages against E. faecalis biofilm in root canals.

  17. Novel Variants of Streptococcus thermophilus Bacteriophages Are Indicative of Genetic Recombination among Phages from Different Bacterial Species.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Paula; Janzen, Thomas; Neves, Ana Rute; Kot, Witold; Hansen, Lars H; Lametsch, René; Neve, Horst; Franz, Charles M A P; Vogensen, Finn K

    2017-03-01

    Bacteriophages are the main cause of fermentation failures in dairy plants. The majority of Streptococcus thermophilus phages can be divided into either cos- or pac-type phages and are additionally characterized by examining the V2 region of their antireceptors. We screened a large number of S. thermophilus phages from the Chr. Hansen A/S collection, using PCR specific for the cos- or pac-type phages, as well as for the V2 antireceptor region. Three phages did not produce positive results with the assays. Analysis of phage morphologies indicated that two of these phages, CHPC577 and CHPC926, had shorter tails than the traditional S. thermophilus phages. The third phage, CHPC1151, had a tail size similar to those of the cos- or pac-type phages, but it displayed a different baseplate structure. Sequencing analysis revealed the genetic similarity of CHPC577 and CHPC926 with a subgroup of Lactococcus lactis P335 phages. Phage CHPC1151 was closely related to the atypical S. thermophilus phage 5093, homologous with a nondairy streptococcal prophage. By testing adsorption of the related streptococcal and lactococcal phages to the surface of S. thermophilus and L. lactis strains, we revealed the possibility of cross-interactions. Our data indicated that the use of S. thermophilus together with L. lactis, extensively applied for dairy fermentations, triggered the recombination between phages infecting different bacterial species. A notable diversity among S. thermophilus phage populations requires that a new classification of the group be proposed.IMPORTANCEStreptococcus thermophilus is a component of thermophilic starter cultures commonly used for cheese and yogurt production. Characterizing streptococcal phages, understanding their genetic relationships, and studying their interactions with various hosts are the necessary steps for preventing and controlling phage attacks that occur during dairy fermentations.

  18. Novel Variants of Streptococcus thermophilus Bacteriophages Are Indicative of Genetic Recombination among Phages from Different Bacterial Species

    PubMed Central

    Szymczak, Paula; Neves, Ana Rute; Kot, Witold; Hansen, Lars H.; Lametsch, René; Neve, Horst; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteriophages are the main cause of fermentation failures in dairy plants. The majority of Streptococcus thermophilus phages can be divided into either cos- or pac-type phages and are additionally characterized by examining the V2 region of their antireceptors. We screened a large number of S. thermophilus phages from the Chr. Hansen A/S collection, using PCR specific for the cos- or pac-type phages, as well as for the V2 antireceptor region. Three phages did not produce positive results with the assays. Analysis of phage morphologies indicated that two of these phages, CHPC577 and CHPC926, had shorter tails than the traditional S. thermophilus phages. The third phage, CHPC1151, had a tail size similar to those of the cos- or pac-type phages, but it displayed a different baseplate structure. Sequencing analysis revealed the genetic similarity of CHPC577 and CHPC926 with a subgroup of Lactococcus lactis P335 phages. Phage CHPC1151 was closely related to the atypical S. thermophilus phage 5093, homologous with a nondairy streptococcal prophage. By testing adsorption of the related streptococcal and lactococcal phages to the surface of S. thermophilus and L. lactis strains, we revealed the possibility of cross-interactions. Our data indicated that the use of S. thermophilus together with L. lactis, extensively applied for dairy fermentations, triggered the recombination between phages infecting different bacterial species. A notable diversity among S. thermophilus phage populations requires that a new classification of the group be proposed. IMPORTANCE Streptococcus thermophilus is a component of thermophilic starter cultures commonly used for cheese and yogurt production. Characterizing streptococcal phages, understanding their genetic relationships, and studying their interactions with various hosts are the necessary steps for preventing and controlling phage attacks that occur during dairy fermentations. PMID:28039135

  19. Diversity and distribution of single-stranded DNA phages in the North Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Kimberly P; Parsons, Rachel; Symonds, Erin M; Breitbart, Mya

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of marine phages is highly biased toward double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) phages; however, recent metagenomic surveys have also identified single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) phages in the oceans. Here, we describe two complete ssDNA phage genomes that were reconstructed from a viral metagenome from 80 m depth at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site in the northwestern Sargasso Sea and examine their spatial and temporal distributions. Both genomes (SARssφ1 and SARssφ2) exhibited similarity to known phages of the Microviridae family in terms of size, GC content, genome organization and protein sequence. PCR amplification of the replication initiation protein (Rep) gene revealed narrow and distinct depth distributions for the newly described ssDNA phages within the upper 200 m of the water column at the BATS site. Comparison of Rep gene sequences obtained from the BATS site over time revealed changes in the diversity of ssDNA phages over monthly time scales, although some nearly identical sequences were recovered from samples collected 4 years apart. Examination of ssDNA phage diversity along transects through the North Atlantic Ocean revealed a positive correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance between sampling sites. Together, the data suggest fundamental differences between the distribution of these ssDNA phages and the distribution of known marine dsDNA phages, possibly because of differences in host range, host distribution, virion stability, or viral evolution mechanisms and rates. Future work needs to elucidate the host ranges for oceanic ssDNA phages and determine their ecological roles in the marine ecosystem. PMID:21124487

  20. Effect of Bacteriophages on the Growth of Flavobacterium psychrophilum and Development of Phage-Resistant Strains.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Rói Hammershaimb; Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger; Castillo, Daniel; Kalatzis, Panos G; Middelboe, Mathias

    2016-05-01

    The controlling effect of single and multiple phages on the density of Flavobacterium psychrophilum at different initial multiplicity of infection (MOI) was assessed in batch cultures to explore the potential for phage-based treatment of this important fish pathogen. A high initial phage concentration (MOI = 0.3-4) was crucial for efficient viral lysis, resulting in a 10(4)-10(5)-fold reduction of phage-sensitive cells (both single phages and phage cocktails), which was maintained throughout the incubation (>10 days). Following cell lysis, regrowth of phage-resistant strains was examined and resistant strains were isolated for further characterization. The application of a mathematical model allowed simulation of phage-host interactions and resistance development, confirming indications from strain isolations that phage-sensitive strains dominated the regrowing population (>99.8%) at low MOI and phage-resistant strains (>87.8%) dominated at high MOI. A cross-infectivity test covering 68 isolated strains and 22 phages resulted in 23 different host susceptibility patterns, with 20 of the isolates being resistant to all the applied phages. Eleven isolated strains with different susceptibility patterns had lower growth rates (0.093 to 0.31 h(-1)) than the host strain (0.33 h(-1)), while 10 of 14 examined strains had lost the ability to take up specific substrates as shown by BIOLOG profiles. Despite increased selection for phage resistance at high MOI, the results emphasize that high initial MOI is essential for fast and effective control of F. psychrophilum infection and suggest that the small populations of resistant clones had reduced competitive abilities relative to the sensitive ancestral strain.

  1. Genomics of staphylococcal Twort-like phages--potential therapeutics of the post-antibiotic era.

    PubMed

    Łobocka, Małgorzata; Hejnowicz, Monika S; Dąbrowski, Kamil; Gozdek, Agnieszka; Kosakowski, Jarosław; Witkowska, Magdalena; Ulatowska, Magdalena I; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Kwiatek, Magdalena; Parasion, Sylwia; Gawor, Jan; Kosowska, Helena; Głowacka, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Polyvalent bacteriophages of the genus Twort-like that infect clinically relevant Staphylococcus strains may be among the most promising phages with potential therapeutic applications. They are obligatorily lytic, infect the majority of Staphylococcus strains in clinical strain collections, propagate efficiently and do not transfer foreign DNA by transduction. Comparative genomic analysis of 11 S. aureus/S. epidermidis Twort-like phages, as presented in this chapter, emphasizes their strikingly high similarity and clear divergence from phage Twort of the same genus, which might have evolved in hosts of a different species group. Genetically, these phages form a relatively isolated group, which minimizes the risk of acquiring potentially harmful genes. The order of genes in core parts of their 127 to 140-kb genomes is conserved and resembles that found in related representatives of the Spounavirinae subfamily of myoviruses. Functions of certain conserved genes can be predicted based on their homology to prototypical genes of model spounavirus SPO1. Deletions in the genomes of certain phages mark genes that are dispensable for phage development. Nearly half of the genes of these phages have no known homologues. Unique genes are mostly located near termini of the virion DNA molecule and are expressed early in phage development as implied by analysis of their potential transcriptional signals. Thus, many of them are likely to play a role in host takeover. Single genes encode homologues of bacterial virulence-associated proteins. They were apparently acquired by a common ancestor of these phages by horizontal gene transfer but presumably evolved towards gaining functions that increase phage infectivity for bacteria or facilitate mature phage release. Major differences between the genomes of S. aureus/S. epidermidis Twort-like phages consist of single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions of short stretches of nucleotides, single genes, or introns of group I

  2. Phage genomics: small is beautiful.

    PubMed

    Brüssow, Harald; Hendrix, Roger W

    2002-01-11

    The Age of Genomics dawned only gradually for bacteriophages. It was 1977 when the genome of phage phi X174 was published and 1983 when the "large" genome of phage lambda hit the streets. More recently, the pace has quickened, so that we now have over 100 complete phage genomes and can expect thousands in a very few years. These sequences have been marvelously informative for the biology of the individual phages, but with the advent of high volume sequencing technology, the real excitement for phage biology is that it is now possible to analyze the sequences together and thereby address--for the first time at whole genome resolution--a set of fundamental biological questions related to populations: What is the structure of the global phage population? What are its dynamics? How do phages evolve? This is Comparative Genomics with a capital "C".

  3. Phage Biodiversity in Artisanal Cheese Wheys Reflects the Complexity of the Fermentation Process

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, Jennifer; Moscarelli, Angelo; Kelleher, Philip; Lugli, Gabriele A.; Ventura, Marco; Settanni, Luca; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2017-01-01

    Dairy fermentations constitute a perfect “breeding ground” for bacteriophages infecting starter cultures, particularly strains of Lactococcus lactis. In modern fermentations, these phages typically belong to one of three groups, i.e., the 936, P335, and c2 phage groups. Traditional production methods present fewer chemical and physical barriers to phage proliferation compared to modern production systems, while the starter cultures used are typically complex, variable, and undefined. In the current study, a variety of cheese whey, animal-derived rennet, and vat swab samples from artisanal cheeses produced in Sicily were analysed for the presence of lactococcal phages to assess phage diversity in such environments. The complete genomes of 18 representative phage isolates were sequenced, allowing the identification of 10 lactococcal 949 group phages, six P087 group phages, and two members of the 936 group phages. The genetic diversity of these isolates was examined using phylogenetic analysis as well as a focused analysis of the receptor binding proteins, which dictate specific interactions with the host-encoded receptor. Thermal treatments at 63 °C and 83 °C indicate that the 949 phages are particularly sensitive to thermal treatments, followed by the P087 and 936 isolates, which were shown to be much less sensitive to such treatments. This difference may explain the relatively low frequency of isolation of the so-called “rare” 949 and P087 group phages in modern fermentations. PMID:28300778

  4. Identification and characterisation of new Campylobacter group III phages of animal origin.

    PubMed

    Janež, Nika; Kokošin, Andreja; Zaletel, Eva; Vranac, Tanja; Kovač, Jasna; Vučković, Darinka; Smole Možina, Sonja; Curin Šerbec, Vladka; Zhang, Qijing; Accetto, Tomaž; Podgornik, Aleš; Peterka, Matjaž

    2014-10-01

    Campylobacter-specific bacteriophages (phages) are considered as an alternative intervention strategy to decrease the level of poultry contamination with Campylobacter, a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Eradication efficiency depends primarily on phage-host interaction mediated by phage tail-spike proteins and bacterial receptors. Here, this interaction was characterised using tail-spike gene sequence analysis, phage neutralisation by antiserum and host range analysis of newly isolated group III Campylobacter phages with 68 Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains. Three different groups of phages were obtained using antibody neutralisation assay, and they were further divided according to polymorphisms observed within tail fibre sequences and host range. Only moderate congruence was observed between these criteria with notable exception of two phages. The infection relied on capsule in all phages isolated, and flagella were found to influence phage propagation on agar plates, but not in broth. Their specificity was more C. jejuni oriented with tendency to lyse human isolates more efficiently. Additionally, natural resistance of C. jejuni to phages did not correlate with their antibiotic resistance patterns. These findings provide new insights into Campylobacter-phage interaction.

  5. Genome analysis of two virulent Streptococcus thermophilus phages isolated in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Guglielmotti, Daniela M; Deveau, Hélène; Binetti, Ana G; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Moineau, Sylvain; Quiberoni, Andrea

    2009-11-30

    Two Streptococcus thermophilus phages (ALQ13.2 and phiAbc2) were previously isolated from breakdowns of cheese manufacture in Argentina. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis indicated that both phages contained linear double-stranded DNA: 35,525 bp in length for the pac-type phage ALQ13.2 and 34,882 bp for the cos-type phage phiAbc2. Forty-four and 48 open reading frames (ORF) were identified for ALQ13.2 and phiAbc2, respectively. Comparative genomic analysis showed that these isolates shared many similarities with the eight previously studied cos- and pac-phages infecting different S. thermophilus strains. In particular, part of the phiAbc2 genome was highly similar to a region of phage 7201, which was thought to be unique to this latter phage. Protein analysis of the pac-phage ALQ13.2 using SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) identified three major proteins and seven minor proteins. Parallel structural proteome analysis of phiAbc2 revealed seven protein bands, two of which were related to major structural proteins, as expected for a cos-type phage. Similarities to other S. thermophilus phages suggest that the streptococcal phage diversity is not extensive in worldwide dairy factories possibly because related high-performing bacterial strains are used in starter cultures.

  6. The phage-host arms race: Shaping the evolution of microbes

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Adi; Sorek, Rotem

    2010-10-26

    Bacteria, the most abundant organisms on the planet, are outnumbered by a factor of 10 to 1 by phages that infect them. Faced with the rapid evolution and turnover of phage particles, bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to evade phage infection and killing, leading to an evolutionary arms race. The extensive co-evolution of both phage and host has resulted in considerable diversity on the part of both bacterial and phage defensive and offensive strategies. In this paper, we discuss the unique and common features of phage resistance mechanisms and their role in global biodiversity. Finally, the commonalities between defense mechanisms suggest avenues for the discovery of novel forms of these mechanisms based on their evolutionary traits.

  7. Plasmid carriage can limit bacteria-phage coevolution.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ellie; Truman, Julie; Wright, Rosanna; Spiers, Andrew J; Paterson, Steve; Brockhurst, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Coevolution with bacteriophages is a major selective force shaping bacterial populations and communities. A variety of both environmental and genetic factors has been shown to influence the mode and tempo of bacteria-phage coevolution. Here, we test the effects that carriage of a large conjugative plasmid, pQBR103, had on antagonistic coevolution between the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens and its phage, SBW25ϕ2. Plasmid carriage limited bacteria-phage coevolution; bacteria evolved lower phage-resistance and phages evolved lower infectivity in plasmid-carrying compared with plasmid-free populations. These differences were not explained by effects of plasmid carriage on the costs of phage resistance mutations. Surprisingly, in the presence of phages, plasmid carriage resulted in the evolution of high frequencies of mucoid bacterial colonies. Mucoidy can provide weak partial resistance against SBW25ϕ2, which may have limited selection for qualitative resistance mutations in our experiments. Taken together, our results suggest that plasmids can have evolutionary consequences for bacteria that go beyond the direct phenotypic effects of their accessory gene cargo.

  8. Evolution of Lactococcus lactis phages within a cheese factory.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Geneviève M; Moineau, Sylvain

    2009-08-01

    We have sequenced the double-stranded DNA genomes of six lactococcal phages (SL4, CB13, CB14, CB19, CB20, and GR7) from the 936 group that were isolated over a 9-year period from whey samples obtained from a Canadian cheese factory. These six phages infected the same two industrial Lactococcus lactis strains out of 30 tested. The CB14 and GR7 genomes were found to be 100% identical even though they were isolated 14 months apart, indicating that a phage can survive in a cheese plant for more than a year. The other four genomes were related but notably different. The length of the genomes varied from 28,144 to 32,182 bp, and they coded for 51 to 55 open reading frames. All five genomes possessed a 3' overhang cos site that was 11 nucleotides long. Several structural proteins were also identified by nano-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, confirming bioinformatic analyses. Comparative analyses suggested that the most recently isolated phages (CB19 and CB20) were derived, in part, from older phage isolates (CB13 and CB14/GR7). The organization of the five distinct genomes was similar to the previously sequenced lactococcal phage genomes of the 936 group, and from these sequences, a core genome was determined for lactococcal phages of the 936 group.

  9. Coevolution of CRISPR bacteria and phage in 2 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Pu; Deem, Michael

    2014-03-01

    CRISPR (cluster regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) is a newly discovered adaptive, heritable immune system of prokaryotes. It can prevent infection of prokaryotes by phage. Most bacteria and almost all archae have CRISPR. The CRISPR system incorporates short nucleotide sequences from viruses. These incorporated sequences provide a historical record of the host and predator coevolution. We simulate the coevolution of bacteria and phage in 2 dimensions. Each phage has multiple proto-spacers that the bacteria can incorporate. Each bacterium can store multiple spacers in its CRISPR. Phages can escape recognition by the CRISPR system via point mutation or recombination. We will discuss the different evolutionary consequences of point mutation or recombination on the coevolution of bacteria and phage. We will also discuss an intriguing ``dynamic phase transition'' in the number of phage as a function of time and mutation rate. We will show that due to the arm race between phages and bacteria, the frequency of spacers and proto-spacers in a population can oscillate quite rapidly.

  10. Phage display in the study of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Lisa M; Nair, Sean P; Ward, John M; Rycroft, Andrew N; Henderson, Brian

    2006-03-01

    Microbial infections are dependent on the panoply of interactions between pathogen and host and identifying the molecular basis of such interactions is necessary to understand and control infection. Phage display is a simple functional genomic methodology for screening and identifying protein-ligand interactions and is widely used in epitope mapping, antibody engineering and screening for receptor agonists or antagonists. Phage display is also used widely in various forms, including the use of fragment libraries of whole microbial genomes, to identify peptide-ligand and protein-ligand interactions that are of importance in infection. In particular, this technique has proved successful in identifying microbial adhesins that are vital for colonization.

  11. Properties of Klebsiella phage P13 and associated exopolysaccharide depolymerase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Guiyang; Mo, Zhaolan; Chai, Zihan; Shang, Anqi; Mou, Haijin

    2013-11-01

    The bacteriophage P13 that infects Klebsiella serotype K13 contains a heat-stable depolymerase capable of effective degradation of exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by this microorganism. In this study, the titer of phage P13, initially 2.0 × 107 pfu mL-1, was found increasing 20 min after infection and reached 5.0 × 109 pfu mL-1 in 60 min. Accordingly, the enzyme activity of depolymerase approached the maximum 60 min after infection. Treatment at 70°C for 30 min inactivated all the phage, but retained over 90% of the depolymerase activity. Addition of acetone into the crude phage lysate led to precipitation of the protein, with a marked increase in bacterial EPS degradation activity and a rapid drop in the titer of phage. After partial purification by acetone precipitation and ultrafiltration centrifugation, the enzyme was separated from the phage particles, showing two components with enzyme activity on Q-Sepharose Fast Flow. The soluble enzyme had an optimum degradation activity at 60°C and pH 6.5. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the phage P13 particles were spherical with a diameter of 50 nm and a short stumpy tail. It was a doublestrand DNA virus consisting of a nucleic acid molecule of 45976 bp. This work provides an efficient purification operation including thermal treatment and ultrafiltration centrifugation, to dissociate depolymerase from phage particles. The characterization of phage P13 and associated EPS depolymerase is beneficial for further application of this enzyme.

  12. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dubey, J.P.; Zarnke, R.; Thomas, N.J.; Wong, S.K.; Vanbonn, W.; Briggs, M.; Davis, J.W.; Ewing, R.; Mense, M.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Romand, S.; Thulliez, P.

    2003-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. As yet, there is no report of natural exposure of N. caninum in marine mammals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum were assayed in sera of several species of marine mammals. For T. gondii, sera were diluted 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 and assayed in the T. gondii modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT a?Y1:25) to T. gondii were found in 89 of 115 (77%) dead, and 18 of 30 (60%) apparently healthy sea otters (Enhydra lutris), 51 of 311 (16%) Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 19 of 45 (42%) sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 5 of 32 (16%) ringed seals (Phoca hispida), 4 of 8 (50%) bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), 1 of 9 (11.1%) spotted seals (Phoca largha), 138 of 141 (98%) Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and 3 of 53 (6%) walruses (Odobenus rosmarus). For N. caninum, sera were diluted 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, and 1:320 and examined with the Neospora agglutination test (NAT) using mouse-derived tachyzoites. NAT antibodies were found in 3 of 53 (6%) walruses, 28 of 145 (19%) sea otters, 11 of 311 (3.5%) harbor seals, 1 of 27 (3.7%) sea lions, 4 of 32 (12.5%) ringed seals, 1 of 8 (12.5%) bearded seals, and 43 of 47 (91%) bottlenose dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum antibodies in any marine mammal, and the first report of T. gondii antibodies in walruses and in ringed, bearded, spotted, and ribbon seals. Current information on T. gondii-like and Sarcocystis-like infections in marine mammals is reviewed. New cases of clinical S. canis and T. gondii infections are also reported in sea lions, and T. gondii infection in an Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

  13. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Zarnke, R; Thomas, N J; Wong, S K; Van Bonn, W; Briggs, M; Davis, J W; Ewing, R; Mense, M; Kwok, O C H; Romand, S; Thulliez, P

    2003-10-30

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. As yet, there is no report of natural exposure of N. caninum in marine mammals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum were assayed in sera of several species of marine mammals. For T. gondii, sera were diluted 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 and assayed in the T. gondii modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT > or =1:25) to T. gondii were found in 89 of 115 (77%) dead, and 18 of 30 (60%) apparently healthy sea otters (Enhydra lutris), 51 of 311 (16%) Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 19 of 45 (42%) sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) [corrected] 5 of 32 (16%) ringed seals (Phoca hispida), 4 of 8 (50%) bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), 1 of 9 (11.1%) spotted seals (Phoca largha), 138 of 141 (98%) Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and 3 of 53 (6%) walruses (Odobenus rosmarus). For N. caninum, sera were diluted 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, and 1:320 and examined with the Neospora agglutination test (NAT) using mouse-derived tachyzoites. NAT antibodies were found in 3 of 53 (6%) walruses, 28 of 145 (19%) sea otters, 11 of 311 (3.5%) harbor seals, 1 of 27 (3.7%) sea lions, 4 of 32 (12.5%) ringed seals, 1 of 8 (12.5%) bearded seals, and 43 of 47 (91%) bottlenose dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum antibodies in any marine mammal, and the first report of T. gondii antibodies in walruses and in ringed, bearded, spotted, and ribbon seals. Current information on T. gondii-like and Sarcocystis-like infections in marine mammals is reviewed. New cases of clinical S. canis and T. gondii infections are also reported in sea lions, and T. gondii infection in an Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

  14. Life-Style and Genome Structure of Marine Pseudoalteromonas Siphovirus B8b Isolated from the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Elena; Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Sà, Elisabet Laia; Ignacio-Espinoza, J. Cesar; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M.; Verberkmoes, Nathan C.; Vaqué, Dolors; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Acinas, Silvia G.

    2015-01-01

    Marine viruses (phages) alter bacterial diversity and evolution with impacts on marine biogeochemical cycles, and yet few well-developed model systems limit opportunities for hypothesis testing. Here we isolate phage B8b from the Mediterranean Sea using Pseudoalteromonas sp. QC-44 as a host and characterize it using myriad techniques. Morphologically, phage B8b was classified as a member of the Siphoviridae family. One-step growth analyses showed that this siphovirus had a latent period of 70 min and released 172 new viral particles per cell. Host range analysis against 89 bacterial host strains revealed that phage B8b infected 3 Pseudoalteromonas strains (52 tested, >99.9% 16S rRNA gene nucleotide identity) and 1 non-Pseudoaltermonas strain belonging to Alteromonas sp. (37 strains from 6 genera tested), which helps bound the phylogenetic distance possible in a phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer event. The Pseudoalteromonas phage B8b genome size was 42.7 kb, with clear structural and replication modules where the former were delineated leveraging identification of 16 structural genes by virion structural proteomics, only 4 of which had any similarity to known structural proteins. In nature, this phage was common in coastal marine environments in both photic and aphotic layers (found in 26.5% of available viral metagenomes), but not abundant in any sample (average per sample abundance was 0.65% of the reads). Together these data improve our understanding of siphoviruses in nature, and provide foundational information for a new ‘rare virosphere’ phage–host model system. PMID:25587991

  15. Bacteriophage module reshuffling results in adaptive host range as exemplified by the baseplate model of listerial phage A118.

    PubMed

    Cambillau, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Each phage infects its specific bacterial host strain through highly specific interactions between the baseplate-associated receptor binding protein (RBP) at the tip of the phage tail and the receptor at the host surface. Baseplates incorporate structural core modules, Dit and Tal, largely conserved among phages, and peripheral modules anchoring the RBPs. Exploiting structural information from the HHpred program and EM data from the Bielmann et al. (2015) paper, a molecular model of the A118 phage baseplate was generated from different building blocks. This model implies the occurrence of baseplate module reshuffling and suggests that listerial phage A118 may have been derived from lactococcal phage TP901-1 through host species exchange. With the increase of available viral module structures, modelling phage baseplates will become easier and more reliant, and will provide insightful information on the nature of the phage host receptor and its mode of recognition.

  16. Giant virus with a remarkable complement of genes infects marine zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Matthias G.; Allen, Michael J.; Wilson, William H.; Suttle, Curtis A.

    2010-01-01

    As major consumers of heterotrophic bacteria and phytoplankton, microzooplankton are a critical link in aquatic foodwebs. Here, we show that a major marine microflagellate grazer is infected by a giant virus, Cafeteria roenbergensis virus (CroV), which has the largest genome of any described marine virus (≈730 kb of double-stranded DNA). The central 618-kb coding part of this AT-rich genome contains 544 predicted protein-coding genes; putative early and late promoter motifs have been detected and assigned to 191 and 72 of them, respectively, and at least 274 genes were expressed during infection. The diverse coding potential of CroV includes predicted translation factors, DNA repair enzymes such as DNA mismatch repair protein MutS and two photolyases, multiple ubiquitin pathway components, four intein elements, and 22 tRNAs. Many genes including isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, eIF-2γ, and an Elp3-like histone acetyltransferase are usually not found in viruses. We also discovered a 38-kb genomic region of putative bacterial origin, which encodes several predicted carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, including an entire pathway for the biosynthesis of 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonate, a key component of the outer membrane in Gram-negative bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that CroV is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus, with Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus as its closest relative, although less than one-third of the genes of CroV have homologs in Mimivirus. CroV is a highly complex marine virus and the only virus studied in genetic detail that infects one of the major groups of predators in the oceans. PMID:20974979

  17. Serologic evidence of influenza A infection in marine mammals of arctic Canada.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, O; Clavijo, A; Boughen, J A

    2001-10-01

    A serologic survey of influenza A antibodies was undertaken on 1,611 blood samples from five species of marine mammals collected from Arctic Canada from 1984-98. Sampling was done in 24 locations throughout the Canadian Arctic encompassing Sachs Harbor (72 degrees N, 125 degrees W), Northwest Territories in the west to Loks Land (63 degrees N, 64 degrees W), Nunavut in the east, to Eureka (80 degrees N, 86 degrees W), Nunavut in the north to Sanikiluaq (56 degrees N, 79 degrees W), Nunavut in the south. A competitive ELISA using a monoclonal antibody (Mab) against influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) was used. Five of 418 (1.2%) belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) and 23 of 903 (2.5%) ringed seals (Phoca hispida) were serologically positive. None of the 210 walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus), 76 narwhals (Monodon monoceros) and four bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) had detectable antibodies to influenza A. Positive belugas were identified from communities on southeast Baffin Island while positive ringed seals came from communities in the eastern, western and high Arctic. Virus isolation attempts on lung tissue from a seropositive beluga were unsuccessful. We believe that influenza A infection in marine mammals is sporadic, the infection is probably self-limiting, and it may not be able to be maintained in these animals. Although the predominant hemagglutinin (H) type was not determined and therefore the pathogenicity of the strains to humans is unknown, the hunting and consumption of marine mammals by the Inuit, may put them at risk for influenza A infection.

  18. Amplification and Purification of T4-Like Escherichia coli Phages for Phage Therapy: from Laboratory to Pilot Scale

    PubMed Central

    Bourdin, Gilles; Schmitt, Bertrand; Marvin Guy, Laure; Germond, Jacques-Edouard; Zuber, Sophie; Michot, Lise; Reuteler, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the amplification and purification of phage preparations with respect to titer, contamination level, stability, and technical affordability. Using various production systems (wave bags, stirred-tank reactors, and Erlenmeyer flasks), we obtained peak titers of 109 to 1010 PFU/ml for T4-like coliphages. Phage lysates could be sterilized through 0.22-μm membrane filters without titer loss. Phages concentrated by differential centrifugation were not contaminated with cellular debris or bacterial proteins, as assessed by electron microscopy and mass spectrometry, respectively. Titer losses occurred by high-speed pelleting of phages but could be decreased by sedimentation through a sucrose cushion. Alternative phage concentration methods are prolonged medium-speed centrifugation, strong anion-exchange chromatography, and ultrafiltration, but the latter still allowed elevated lipopolysaccharide contamination. T4-like phages could not be pasteurized but maintained their infectivity titer in the cold chain. In the presence of 10 mM magnesium ions, phages showed no loss of titer over 1 month at 30°C. PMID:24362424

  19. Reduction of Campylobacter jejuni in Broiler Chicken by Successive Application of Group II and Group III Phages

    PubMed Central

    Hammerl, Jens A.; Jäckel, Claudia; Alter, Thomas; Janzcyk, Pawel; Stingl, Kerstin; Knüver, Marie Theres; Hertwig, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacteriophage treatment is a promising tool to reduce Campylobacter in chickens. Several studies have been published where group II or group III phages were successfully applied. However, these two groups of phages are different regarding their host ranges and host cell receptors. Therefore, a concerted activity of group II and group III phages might enhance the efficacy of a treatment and decrease the number of resistant bacteria. Results In this study we have compared the lytic properties of some group II and group III phages and analysed the suitability of various phages for a reduction of C. jejuni in broiler chickens. We show that group II and group III phages exhibit different kinetics of infection. Two group III and one group II phage were selected for animal experiments and administered in different combinations to three groups of chickens, each containing ten birds. While group III phage CP14 alone reduced Campylobacter counts by more than 1 log10 unit, the concomitant administration of a second group III phage (CP81) did not yield any reduction, probably due to the development of resistance induced by this phage. One group of chickens received phage CP14 and, 24 hours later, group II phage CP68. In this group of animals, Campylobacter counts were reduced by more than 3 log10 units. Conclusion The experiments illustrated that Campylobacter phage cocktails have to be carefully composed to achieve the best results. PMID:25490713

  20. Identification of Essential Genes in the Salmonella Phage SPN3US Reveals Novel Insights into Giant Phage Head Structure and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Benítez Quintana, Andrea Denisse; Bosch, Martine A.; Coll De Peña, Adriana; Aguilera, Elizabeth; Coulibaly, Assitan; Wu, Weimin; Osier, Michael V.; Hudson, André O.; Weintraub, Susan T.; Black, Lindsay W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Giant tailed bacterial viruses, or phages, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage ϕKZ, have long genomes packaged into large, atypical virions. Many aspects of ϕKZ and related phage biology are poorly understood, mostly due to the fact that the functions of the majority of their proteins are unknown. We hypothesized that the Salmonella enterica phage SPN3US could be a useful model phage to address this gap in knowledge. The 240-kb SPN3US genome shares a core set of 91 genes with ϕKZ and related phages, ∼61 of which are virion genes, consistent with the expectation that virion complexity is an ancient, conserved feature. Nucleotide sequencing of 18 mutants enabled assignment of 13 genes as essential, information which could not have been determined by sequence-based searches for 11 genes. Proteome analyses of two SPN3US virion protein mutants with knockouts in 64 and 241 provided new insight into the composition and assembly of giant phage heads. The 64 mutant analyses revealed all the genetic determinants required for assembly of the SPN3US head and a likely head-tail joining role for gp64, and its homologs in related phages, due to the tailless-particle phenotype produced. Analyses of the mutation in 241, which encodes an RNA polymerase β subunit, revealed that without this subunit, no other subunits are assembled into the head, and enabled identification of a “missing” β′ subunit domain. These findings support SPN3US as an excellent model for giant phage research, laying the groundwork for future analyses of their highly unusual virions, host interactions, and evolution. IMPORTANCE In recent years, there has been a paradigm shift in virology with the realization that extremely large viruses infecting prokaryotes (giant phages) can be found in many environments. A group of phages related to the prototype giant phage ϕKZ are of great interest due to their virions being among the most complex of prokaryotic viruses and their potential for

  1. Phage selection restores antibiotic sensitivity in MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Chan, Benjamin K; Sistrom, Mark; Wertz, John E; Kortright, Kaitlyn E; Narayan, Deepak; Turner, Paul E

    2016-05-26

    Increasing prevalence and severity of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections has necessitated novel antibacterial strategies. Ideally, new approaches would target bacterial pathogens while exerting selection for reduced pathogenesis when these bacteria inevitably evolve resistance to therapeutic intervention. As an example of such a management strategy, we isolated a lytic bacteriophage, OMKO1, (family Myoviridae) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that utilizes the outer membrane porin M (OprM) of the multidrug efflux systems MexAB and MexXY as a receptor-binding site. Results show that phage selection produces an evolutionary trade-off in MDR P. aeruginosa, whereby the evolution of bacterial resistance to phage attack changes the efflux pump mechanism, causing increased sensitivity to drugs from several antibiotic classes. Although modern phage therapy is still in its infancy, we conclude that phages, such as OMKO1, represent a new approach to phage therapy where bacteriophages exert selection for MDR bacteria to become increasingly sensitive to traditional antibiotics. This approach, using phages as targeted antibacterials, could extend the lifetime of our current antibiotics and potentially reduce the incidence of antibiotic resistant infections.

  2. Analyses of the Distribution Patterns of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Associated Phages in Soil Samples in Thailand Suggest That Phage Presence Reduces the Frequency of Bacterial Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Withatanung, Patoo; Chantratita, Narisara; Muangsombut, Veerachat; Saiprom, Natnaree; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Klumpp, Jochen; Clokie, Martha R. J.; Galyov, Edouard E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil saprophytic bacterium that causes melioidosis. The infection occurs through cutaneous inoculation, inhalation or ingestion. Bacteriophages (phages) in the same ecosystem may significantly impact the biology of this bacterium in the environment, and in their culturability in the laboratory. Methods/Principal Findings The soil samples were analysed for the presence of bacteria using culture methods, and for phages using plaque assays on B. pseudomallei strain 1106a lawns. Of the 86 soil samples collected from northeastern Thailand, B. pseudomallei was cultured from 23 (26.7%) samples; no phage capable of infecting B. pseudomallei was detected in these samples. In contrast, phages capable of infecting B. pseudomallei, but no bacteria, were present in 10 (11.6%) samples. B. pseudomallei and their phages were co-isolated from only 3 (3.5%) of soil samples. Since phage capable of infecting B. pseudomallei could not have appeared in the samples without the prior presence of bacteria, or exposure to bacteria nearby, our data suggest that all phage-positive/bacteria-negative samples have had B. pseudomallei in or in a close proximity to them. Taken together, these findings indicate that the presence of phages may influence the success of B. pseudomallei isolation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the isolated phages are podoviruses. The temperate phages residing in soil-isolated strains of B. pseudomallei that were resistant to the dominant soil borne phages could be induced by mitomycin C. These induced-temperate phages were closely related, but not identical, to the more dominant soil-isolated phage type. Conclusion/Significance The presence of podoviruses capable of infecting B. pseudomallei may affect the success of the pathogen isolation from the soil. The currently used culture-based methods of B. pseudomallei isolation appear to under-estimate the bacterial abundance. The detection of phage capable of

  3. Role of the phi 11 phage genome in competence of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Sjöström, J E; Philipson, L

    1974-07-01

    Both phage ø11 and 83A, when present as prophage or when used as helper phage, induce competence for transfection and transformation to the same level in Staphylococcus aureus, strain 8325-4. Cells lysogenized with certain temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of phage ø11 show competence at the nonpermissive temperature (41 C) without production of infectious phages. Phage ø11ts allele 31 can neither as a prophage nor as a helper phage develop competence under nonpermissive conditions. This mutant appears, therefore, to be mutated in the region of the phage genome controlling competence. The competence level for both transfection and transformation is increased by superinfecting strain 8325-4 (ø11) or 8325-4 (83A) at high multiplicities with phage ø11 with some of its mutants or with phage 83A. This superinfection enhancement appears to require protein synthesis but not deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis as judged from studies with inhibitors of macromolecular synthesis. Besides the phage particle, no extracellular or cell-bound factors so far detected can induce competence. The phage-induced product conferring competence is rapidly synthesized by strain 8325-4 (tsø11(31)) after shift to permissive conditions, but requires deoxyribonucleic acid and protein synthesis to be expressed. Recombination between the sus mutants of phage ø11 of Kretschmer and Egan and tsø11(31) indicate that competence is controlled by an early gene in the lytic cycle which may be expressed also in lysogenic cells. The phage product inducing competence appears to have a half-life of 10 to 15 min in the conditional lethal mutant at shift to nonpermissive temperature. Ultraviolet inactivation of phage ø11 infectivity occurs more rapidly than inactivation of competence induction. In fact, the number of transformants is increased at low doses of irradiation. Competence induction is, however, decreased at high does of ultraviolet irradiation.

  4. The population and evolutionary dynamics of phage and bacteria with CRISPR-mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Levin, Bruce R; Moineau, Sylvain; Bushman, Mary; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2013-01-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR), together with associated genes (cas), form the CRISPR-cas adaptive immune system, which can provide resistance to viruses and plasmids in bacteria and archaea. Here, we use mathematical models, population dynamic experiments, and DNA sequence analyses to investigate the host-phage interactions in a model CRISPR-cas system, Streptococcus thermophilus DGCC7710 and its virulent phage 2972. At the molecular level, the bacteriophage-immune mutant bacteria (BIMs) and CRISPR-escape mutant phage (CEMs) obtained in this study are consistent with those anticipated from an iterative model of this adaptive immune system: resistance by the addition of novel spacers and phage evasion of resistance by mutation in matching sequences or flanking motifs. While CRISPR BIMs were readily isolated and CEMs generated at high rates (frequencies in excess of 10(-6)), our population studies indicate that there is more to the dynamics of phage-host interactions and the establishment of a BIM-CEM arms race than predicted from existing assumptions about phage infection and CRISPR-cas immunity. Among the unanticipated observations are: (i) the invasion of phage into populations of BIMs resistant by the acquisition of one (but not two) spacers, (ii) the survival of sensitive bacteria despite the presence of high densities of phage, and (iii) the maintenance of phage-limited communities due to the failure of even two-spacer BIMs to become established in populations with wild-type bacteria and phage. We attribute (i) to incomplete resistance of single-spacer BIMs. Based on the results of additional modeling and experiments, we postulate that (ii) and (iii) can be attributed to the phage infection-associated production of enzymes or other compounds that induce phenotypic phage resistance in sensitive bacteria and kill resistant BIMs. We present evidence in support of these hypotheses and discuss the implications of these results

  5. Co-evolutionary dynamics of the bacteria Vibrio sp. CV1 and phages V1G, V1P1, and V1P2: implications for phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Camilo; Venail, Patrick; Holguin, Angela V; Vives, Martha J

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial infections are the second largest cause of mortality in shrimp hatcheries. Among them, bacteria from the genus Vibrio constitute a major threat. As the use of antibiotics may be ineffective and banned from the food sector, alternatives are required. Historically, phage therapy, which is the use of bacteriophages, is thought to be a promising option to fight against bacterial infections. However, as for antibiotics, resistance can be rapidly developed. Since the emergence of resistance is highly undesirable, a formal characterization of the dynamics of its acquisition is mandatory. Here, we explored the co-evolutionary dynamics of resistance between the bacteria Vibrio sp. CV1 and the phages V1G, V1P1, and V1P2. Single-phage treatments as well as a cocktail composed of the three phages were considered. We found that in the presence of a single phage, bacteria rapidly evolved resistance, and the phages decreased their infectivity, suggesting that monotherapy may be an inefficient treatment to fight against Vibrio infections in shrimp hatcheries. On the contrary, the use of a phage cocktail considerably delayed the evolution of resistance and sustained phage infectivity for periods in which shrimp larvae are most susceptible to bacterial infections, suggesting the simultaneous use of multiple phages as a serious strategy for the control of vibriosis. These findings are very promising in terms of their consequences to different industrial and medical scenarios where bacterial infections are present.

  6. A novel lineage of myoviruses infecting cyanobacteria is widespread in the oceans.

    PubMed

    Sabehi, Gazalah; Shaulov, Lihi; Silver, David H; Yanai, Itai; Harel, Amnon; Lindell, Debbie

    2012-02-07

    Viruses infecting bacteria (phages) are thought to greatly impact microbial population dynamics as well as the genome diversity and evolution of their hosts. Here we report on the discovery of a novel lineage of tailed dsDNA phages belonging to the family Myoviridae and describe its first representative, S-TIM5, that infects the ubiquitous marine cyanobacterium, Synechococcus. The genome of this phage encodes an entirely unique set of structural proteins not found in any currently known phage, indicating that it uses lineage-specific genes for virion morphogenesis and represents a previously unknown lineage of myoviruses. Furthermore, among its distinctive collection of replication and DNA metabolism genes, it carries a mitochondrial-like DNA polymerase gene, providing strong evidence for the bacteriophage origin of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase. S-TIM5 also encodes an array of bacterial-like metabolism genes commonly found in phages infecting cyanobacteria including photosynthesis, carbon metabolism and phosphorus acquisition genes. This suggests a common gene pool and gene swapping of cyanophage-specific genes among different phage lineages despite distinct sets of structural and replication genes. All cytosines following purine nucleotides are methylated in the S-TIM5 genome, constituting a unique methylation pattern that likely protects the genome from nuclease degradation. This phage is abundant in the Red Sea and S-TIM5 gene homologs are widespread in the oceans. This unusual phage type is thus likely to be an important player in the oceans, impacting the population dynamics and evolution of their primary producing cyanobacterial hosts.

  7. Drugs derived from phage display

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Andrew E; Sexton, Daniel J; Ladner, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Phage display, one of today’s fundamental drug discovery technologies, allows identification of a broad range of biological drugs, including peptides, antibodies and other proteins, with the ability to tailor critical characteristics such as potency, specificity and cross-species binding. Further, unlike in vivo technologies, generating phage display-derived antibodies is not restricted by immunological tolerance. Although more than 20 phage display-derived antibody and peptides are currently in late-stage clinical trials or approved, there is little literature addressing the specific challenges and successes in the clinical development of phage-derived drugs. This review uses case studies, from candidate identification through clinical development, to illustrate the utility of phage display as a drug discovery tool, and offers a perspective for future developments of phage display technology. PMID:24262785

  8. Characterization of novel Staphylococcus aureus lytic phage and defining their combinatorial virulence using the OmniLog® system

    PubMed Central

    Estrella, Luis A.; Quinones, Javier; Henry, Matthew; Hannah, Ryan M.; Pope, Robert K.; Hamilton, Theron; Teneza-mora, Nimfa; Hall, Eric; Biswajit, Biswas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are difficult to treat. Bacteriophage (phage) represent a potential alternate treatment for antibiotic resistant bacterial infections. In this study, 7 novel phage with broad lytic activity for S. aureus were isolated and identified. Screening of a diverse collection of 170 clinical isolates by efficiency of plating (EOP) assays shows that the novel phage are virulent and effectively prevent growth of 70–91% of MRSA and methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolates. Phage K, which was previously identified as having lytic activity on S. aureus was tested on the S. aureus collection and shown to prevent growth of 82% of the isolates. These novel phage group were examined by electron microscopy, the results of which indicate that the phage belong to the Myoviridae family of viruses. The novel phage group requires β-N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNac) moieties on cell wall teichoic acids for infection. The phage were distinct from, but closely related to, phage K as characterized by restriction endonuclease analysis. Furthermore, growth rate analysis via OmniLog® microplate assay indicates that a combination of phage K, with phage SA0420ᶲ1, SA0456ᶲ1 or SA0482ᶲ1 have a synergistic phage-mediated lytic effect on MRSA and suppress formation of phage resistance. These results indicate that a broad spectrum lytic phage mixture can suppress the emergence of resistant bacterial populations and hence have great potential for combating S. aureus wound infections. PMID:27738555

  9. Phage Therapy is Effective in Protecting Honeybee Larvae from American Foulbrood Disease.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani-Nezami, Sara; LeBlanc, Lucy; Yost, Diane G; Amy, Penny S

    2015-01-01

    American foulbrood disease has a major impact on honeybees (Apis melifera) worldwide. It is caused by a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, Paenibacillus larvae. The disease can only affect larval honeybees, and the bacterial endospores are the infective unit of the disease. Antibiotics are not sufficient to combat the disease due to increasing resistance among P. larvae strains. Because of the durability and virulence of P. larvae endospores, infections spread rapidly, and beekeepers are often forced to burn beehives and equipment. To date, very little information is available on the use of bacteriophage therapy in rescuing and preventing American foulbrood disease, therefore the goal of this study was to test the efficacy of phage therapy against P. larvae infection. Out of 32 previously isolated P. larvae phages, three designated F, WA, and XIII were tested on artificially reared honeybee larvae infected with P. larvae strain NRRL B-3650 spores. The presence of P. larvae DNA in dead larvae was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene-specific polymerase chain reaction amplification. Survival rates for phage-treated larvae were approximately the same as for larvae never infected with spores (84%), i.e., the phages had no deleterious effect on the larvae. Additionally, prophylactic treatment of larvae with phages before spore infection was more effective than administering phages after infection, although survival in both cases was higher than spores alone (45%). Further testing to determine the optimal combination and concentration of phages, and testing in actual hive conditions are needed.

  10. Phage Therapy is Effective in Protecting Honeybee Larvae from American Foulbrood Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani-Nezami, Sara; LeBlanc, Lucy; Yost, Diane G.; Amy, Penny S.

    2015-01-01

    American foulbrood disease has a major impact on honeybees (Apis melifera) worldwide. It is caused by a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, Paenibacillus larvae. The disease can only affect larval honeybees, and the bacterial endospores are the infective unit of the disease. Antibiotics are not sufficient to combat the disease due to increasing resistance among P. larvae strains. Because of the durability and virulence of P. larvae endospores, infections spread rapidly, and beekeepers are often forced to burn beehives and equipment. To date, very little information is available on the use of bacteriophage therapy in rescuing and preventing American foulbrood disease, therefore the goal of this study was to test the efficacy of phage therapy against P. larvae infection. Out of 32 previously isolated P. larvae phages, three designated F, WA, and XIII were tested on artificially reared honeybee larvae infected with P. larvae strain NRRL B-3650 spores. The presence of P. larvae DNA in dead larvae was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene-specific polymerase chain reaction amplification. Survival rates for phage-treated larvae were approximately the same as for larvae never infected with spores (84%), i.e., the phages had no deleterious effect on the larvae. Additionally, prophylactic treatment of larvae with phages before spore infection was more effective than administering phages after infection, although survival in both cases was higher than spores alone (45%). Further testing to determine the optimal combination and concentration of phages, and testing in actual hive conditions are needed. PMID:26136497

  11. Anti-CRISPR Proteins: Counterattack of Phages on Bacterial Defense (CRISPR/Cas) System.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Kulbhushan; Chattopadhyay, Anirudha; Pratap, Dharmendra

    2017-03-01

    Since the dawn of life there is a never ending strife between bacteria and phages. Both are perpetually changing their strategies to take over each other. CRISPR/Cas is the most widespread defense system used by bacteria against mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as phages, cojugative palsmids, transoposons and pathogenicity islands. This system utilizes small guide RNA molecules to protect against phages infection and invasion by MGEs. Phages circumvent to these antiviral barriers by point mutation in PAM (protospacer-adjacent motif) sequence, genome rearrangements and by using anti-CRISPR proteins. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Phage Therapy Is Effective in a Mouse Model of Bacterial Equine Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Furusawa, Takaaki; Hiyashimizu, Yutaro; Matsubara, Kazuki; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Nagahata, Hajime; Niwa, Hidekazu; Katayama, Yoshinari; Kinoshita, Yuta; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Iwasaki, Tomohito; Tanji, Yasunori; Yokota, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial keratitis of the horse is mainly caused by staphylococci, streptococci, and pseudomonads. Of these bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa sometimes causes rapid corneal corruption and, in some cases, blindness. Antimicrobial resistance can make treatment very difficult. Therefore, new strategies to control bacterial infection are required. A bacteriophage (phage) is a virus that specifically infects and kills bacteria. Since phage often can lyse antibiotic-resistant bacteria because the killing mechanism is different, we examined the use of phage to treat horse bacterial keratitis. We isolated Myoviridae or Podoviridae phages, which together have a broad host range. They adsorb efficiently to host bacteria; more than 80% of the ΦR18 phage were adsorbed to host cells after 30 s. In our keratitis mouse model, the administration of phage within 3 h also could kill bacteria and suppress keratitis. A phage multiplicity of infection of 100 times the host bacterial number could kill host bacteria effectively. A cocktail of two phages suppressed bacteria in the keratitis model mouse. These data demonstrated that the phages in this study could completely prevent the keratitis caused by P. aeruginosa in a keratitis mouse model. Furthermore, these results suggest that phage may be a more effective prophylaxis for horse keratitis than the current preventive use of antibiotics. Such treatment may reduce the use of antibiotics and therefore antibiotic resistance. Further studies are required to assess phage therapy as a candidate for treatment of horse keratitis. IMPORTANCE Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are emerging all over the world. Bacteriophages have great potential for resolution of this problem. A bacteriophage, or phage, is a virus that infects bacteria specifically. As a novel therapeutic strategy against racehorse keratitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we propose the application of phages for treatment. Phages isolated in this work had in vitro

  13. Going viral: next-generation sequencing applied to phage populations in the human gut.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Alejandro; Semenkovich, Nicholas P; Whiteson, Katrine; Rohwer, Forest; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2012-09-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have begun to characterize viral diversity using metagenomic methods. These studies have shown that viruses, the majority of which infect bacteria, are probably the most genetically diverse components of the biosphere. Here, we briefly review the incipient rise of a phage biology renaissance, which has been catalysed by advances in next-generation sequencing. We explore how work characterizing phage diversity and lifestyles in the human gut is changing our view of ourselves as supra-organisms. Finally, we discuss how a renewed appreciation of phage dynamics may yield new applications for phage therapies designed to manipulate the structure and functions of our gut microbiomes.

  14. Evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence as a result of phage predation.

    PubMed

    Hosseinidoust, Zeinab; van de Ven, Theo G M; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2013-10-01

    The rapid increase in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has attracted attention to bacteriophages for treating and preventing bacterial infections. Bacteriophages can drive the diversification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, giving rise to phage-resistant variants with different phenotypes from their ancestral hosts. In this study, we sought to investigate the effect of phage resistance on cytotoxicity of host populations toward cultured mammalian cells. The library of phage-resistant P. aeruginosa PAO1 variants used was developed previously via experimental evolution of an isogenic host population using phages PP7 and E79. Our results presented herein indicate that the phage-resistant variants developed in a heterogeneous phage environment exhibit a greater ability to impede metabolic action of cultured human keratinocytes and have a greater tendency to cause membrane damage even though they cannot invade the cells in large numbers. They also show a heightened resistance to phagocytosis by model murine macrophages. Furthermore, all isolates produced higher levels of at least one of the secreted virulence factors, namely, total proteases, elastase, phospholipase C, and hemolysins. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed upregulation in the transcription of a number of genes associated with virulence of P. aeruginosa for the phage-resistant variants. The results of this study indicate a significant change in the in vitro virulence of P. aeruginosa following phage predation and highlight the need for caution in the selection and design of phages and phage cocktails for therapeutic use.

  15. Single-stranded DNA phages: from early molecular biology tools to recent revolutions in environmental microbiology.

    PubMed

    Székely, Anna J; Breitbart, Mya

    2016-03-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) phages are profoundly different from tailed phages in many aspects including the nature and size of their genome, virion size and morphology, mutation rate, involvement in horizontal gene transfer, infection dynamics and cell lysis mechanisms. Despite the importance of ssDNA phages as molecular biology tools and model systems, the environmental distribution and ecological roles of these phages have been largely unexplored. Viral metagenomics and other culture-independent viral diversity studies have recently challenged the perspective of tailed, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) phages, dominance by demonstrating the prevalence of ssDNA phages in diverse habitats. However, the differences between ssDNA and dsDNA phages also substantially limit the efficacy of simultaneously assessing the abundance and diversity of these two phage groups. Here we provide an overview of the major differences between ssDNA and tailed dsDNA phages that may influence their effects on bacterial communities. Furthermore, through the analysis of 181 published metaviromes we demonstrate the environmental distribution of ssDNA phages and present an analysis of the methodological biases that distort their study through metagenomics.

  16. Phage Encoded H-NS: A Potential Achilles Heel in the Bacterial Defence System

    PubMed Central

    Skennerton, Connor T.; Angly, Florent E.; Breitbart, Mya; Bragg, Lauren; He, Shaomei; McMahon, Katherine D.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Tyson, Gene W.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between phage and their microbial hosts is difficult to elucidate in complex natural ecosystems. Engineered systems performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), offer stable, lower complexity communities for studying phage-host interactions. Here, metagenomic data from an EBPR reactor dominated by Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis (CAP), led to the recovery of three complete and six partial phage genomes. Heat-stable nucleoid structuring (H-NS) protein, a global transcriptional repressor in bacteria, was identified in one of the complete phage genomes (EPV1), and was most similar to a homolog in CAP. We infer that EPV1 is a CAP-specific phage and has the potential to repress up to 6% of host genes based on the presence of putative H-NS binding sites in the CAP genome. These genes include CRISPR associated proteins and a Type III restriction-modification system, which are key host defense mechanisms against phage infection. Further, EPV1 was the only member of the phage community found in an EBPR microbial metagenome collected seven months prior. We propose that EPV1 laterally acquired H-NS from CAP providing it with a means to reduce bacterial defenses, a selective advantage over other phage in the EBPR system. Phage encoded H-NS could constitute a previously unrecognized weapon in the phage-host arms race. PMID:21625595

  17. Phage sensitivity and prophage carriage in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from foods in Spain and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Diana; Rodríguez-Rubio, Lorena; García, Pilar; Billington, Craig; Premarante, Aruni; Rodríguez, Ana; Martínez, Beatriz

    2016-08-02

    Bacteriophages (phages) are a promising tool for the biocontrol of pathogenic bacteria, including those contaminating food products and causing infectious diseases. However, the success of phage preparations is limited by the host ranges of their constituent phages. The phage resistance/sensitivity profile of eighty seven Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated in Spain and New Zealand from dairy, meat and seafood sources was determined for six phages (Φ11, K, ΦH5, ΦA72, CAPSa1 and CAPSa3). Most of the S. aureus strains were sensitive to phage K (Myoviridae) and CAPSa1 (Siphoviridae) regardless of their origin. There was a higher sensitivity of New Zealand S. aureus strains to phages isolated from both Spain (ΦH5 and ΦA72) and New Zealand (CAPSa1 and CAPSa3). Spanish phages had a higher infectivity on S. aureus strains of Spanish dairy origin, while Spanish strains isolated from other environments were more sensitive to New Zealand phages. Lysogeny was more prevalent in Spanish S. aureus compared to New Zealand strains. A multiplex PCR reaction, which detected ΦH5 and ΦA72 sequences, indicated a high prevalence of these prophages in Spanish S. aureus strains, but were infrequently detected in New Zealand strains. Overall, the correlation between phage resistance and lysogeny in S. aureus strains was found to be weak.

  18. Functional characterization of a novel lytic phage EcSw isolated from Sus scrofa domesticus and its potential for phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Easwaran, Maheswaran; Paudel, Sarita; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Shin, Hyun-Jin

    2015-06-01

    In this study, multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli Sw1 (E. coli Sw1) and active lytic phage EcSw was isolated from feces samples of Sus scrofa domesticus (piglet) suffering from diarrhea. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that isolated EcSw belongs to the Myoviridae family with an icosahedral head (80 ± 4) and a long tail (180 ± 5 nm). The EcSw phage genome size was estimated to be approximately 75 Kb of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Phage dynamic studies show that the latent period and burst size of EcSw were approximately 20 min and 28 PFU per cell, respectively. Interestingly, the EcSw phage can tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions, such as temperature, pH and ions (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)). Furthermore, genome sequence analysis revealed that the lytic genes of the EcSw phage are notably similar to those of enterobacteria phages. In addition, phage-antibiotic synergy has notable effects compared with the effects of phages or antibiotics alone. Inhibition of E. coli Sw1 and 0157:H7 strains showed that the limitations of host specificity and infectivity of EcSw. Even though, it has considerable potential for phage therapy for handling the problem of the emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens.

  19. Lactococcal 949 Group Phages Recognize a Carbohydrate Receptor on the Host Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, Jennifer; Randazzo, Walter; Neve, Horst; Settanni, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Lactococcal bacteriophages represent one of the leading causes of dairy fermentation failure and product inconsistencies. A new member of the lactococcal 949 phage group, named WRP3, was isolated from cheese whey from a Sicilian factory in 2011. The genome sequence of this phage was determined, and it constitutes the largest lactococcal phage genome currently known, at 130,008 bp. Detailed bioinformatic analysis of the genomic region encoding the presumed initiator complex and baseplate of WRP3 has aided in the functional assignment of several open reading frames (ORFs), particularly that for the receptor binding protein required for host recognition. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the 949 phages target cell wall phospho-polysaccharides as their receptors, accounting for the specificity of the interactions of these phages with their lactococcal hosts. Such information may ultimately aid in the identification of strains/strain blends that do not present the necessary saccharidic target for infection by these problematic phages. PMID:25746988

  20. Whole genome comparison of a large collection of mycobacteriophages reveals a continuum of phage genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Pope, Welkin H; Bowman, Charles A; Russell, Daniel A; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Asai, David J; Cresawn, Steven G; Jacobs, William R; Hendrix, Roger W; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Hatfull, Graham F

    2015-04-28

    The bacteriophage population is large, dynamic, ancient, and genetically diverse. Limited genomic information shows that phage genomes are mosaic, and the genetic architecture of phage populations remains ill-defined. To understand the population structure of phages infecting a single host strain, we isolated, sequenced, and compared 627 phages of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Their genetic diversity is considerable, and there are 28 distinct genomic types (clusters) with related nucleotide sequences. However, amino acid sequence comparisons show pervasive genomic mosaicism, and quantification of inter-cluster and intra-cluster relatedness reveals a continuum of genetic diversity, albeit with uneven representation of different phages. Furthermore, rarefaction analysis shows that the mycobacteriophage population is not closed, and there is a constant influx of genes from other sources. Phage isolation and analysis was performed by a large consortium of academic institutions, illustrating the substantial benefits of a disseminated, structured program involving large numbers of freshman undergraduates in scientific discovery.

  1. Coexistence of phage and bacteria on the boundary of self-organized refuges

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, Silja; Sneppen, Kim; Krishna, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriophage are voracious predators of bacteria and a major determinant in shaping bacterial life strategies. Many phage species are virulent, meaning that infection leads to certain death of the host and immediate release of a large batch of phage progeny. Despite this apparent voraciousness, bacteria have stably coexisted with virulent phages for eons. Here, using individual-based stochastic spatial models, we study the conditions for achieving coexistence on the edge between two habitats, one of which is a bacterial refuge with conditions hostile to phage whereas the other is phage friendly. We show how bacterial density-dependent, or quorum-sensing, mechanisms such as the formation of biofilm can produce such refuges and edges in a self-organized manner. Coexistence on these edges exhibits the following properties, all of which are observed in real phage–bacteria ecosystems but difficult to achieve together in nonspatial ecosystem models: (i) highly efficient virulent phage with relatively long lifetimes, high infection rates and large burst sizes; (ii) large, stable, and high-density populations of phage and bacteria; (iii) a fast turnover of both phage and bacteria; and (iv) stability over evolutionary timescales despite imbalances in the rates of phage vs. bacterial evolution. PMID:22807479

  2. Ascaridoid parasites infecting in the frequently consumed marine fishes in the coastal area of China: A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Ting; Lü, Liang; Chen, Hui-Xia; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2016-04-01

    Marine fishes represent the important components of the diet in the coastal areas of China and they are also natural hosts of various parasites. However, to date, little is known about the occurrence of ascaridoid parasites in the frequently consumed marine fishes in China. In order to determine the presence of ascaridoid parasites in the frequently consumed marine fishes in the coastal town Huizhou, Guangdong Province, China, 211 fish representing 45 species caught from the South China Sea (off Daya Gulf) were examined. Five species of ascaridoid nematodes at different developmental stages were detected in the marine fishes examined herein, including third-stage larva of Anisakis typica (Diesing, 1860), third and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. IV-A of Shamsi, Gasser & Beveridge, 2013, adult and third-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium zhoushanense Li, Liu & Zhang, 2014, adults and third-stage larvae of Raphidascaris lophii (Wu, 1949) and adults of Raphidascaris longispicula Li, Liu & Zhang, 2012. The overall prevalence of infection is 18.0%. Of them, Hysterothylacium sp. IV-A with the highest prevalence (17.5%) and intensity (mean=14.6) of infection was the predominant species. The prevalence and intensity of A. typica were very low (1/211 of marine fish infected with an intensity of one parasite per fish). The morphological and molecular characterization of all nematode species was provided. A cladistic analysis based on ITS sequence was constructed in order to determine the phylogenetic relationships of these ascaridoid parasites obtained herein. The present study provided important information on the occurrence and diagnosis of ascaridoid nematodes in the commercially important marine fishes from the South China Sea. The low level of infection and the species composition of ascaridoid nematodes seem to indicate the presence of low risk of human anisakidosis when local population consumed these marine fishes examined herein.

  3. Viruses versus bacteria-novel approaches to phage therapy as a tool against multidrug-resistant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Viertel, Tania Mareike; Ritter, Klaus; Horz, Hans-Peter

    2014-09-01

    Bacteriophage therapy (the application of phages to treat bacterial infections) has a tradition dating back almost a century, but interest in phage therapy slowed down in the West when antibiotics were discovered. With the emerging threat of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria and scarce prospects of newly introduced antibiotics in the future, phages are currently being reconsidered as alternative therapeutics. Conventional phage therapy uses lytic bacteriophages for treatment and recent human clinical trials have revealed encouraging results. In addition, several other modern approaches to phages as therapeutics have been made in vitro and in animal models. Dual therapy with phages and antibiotics has resulted in significant reductions in the number of bacterial pathogens. Bioengineered phages have overcome many of the problems of conventional phage therapy, enabled targeted drug delivery or reversed the resistance of drug-resistant bacteria. The use of enzymes derived from phages, such as endolysin, as therapeutic agents has been efficient in the elimination of Gram-positive pathogens. This review presents novel strategies for phage-related therapies and describes our current knowledge of natural bacteriophages within the human microbiome. Our aim is to provide an overview of the high number of different methodological concepts, thereby encouraging further research on this topic, with the ultimate goal of using phages as therapeutic or preventative medicines in daily clinical practice.

  4. The Legacy of 20th Century Phage Research.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Allan M

    2010-09-01

    The Golden Age of Phage Research, where phage was the favored material for attacking many basic questions in molecular biology, lasted from about 1940 to 1970. The era was initiated by Ellis and Delbrück, whose analysis defined the relevant parameters to measure in studying phage growth, and depended on the fact that the contents of a plaque can comprise descendants of a single infecting particle. It ended around 1970 because definitive methods had then become available for answering the same questions in other systems. Some of the accomplishments of phage research were the demonstration by Hershey and Chase that the genetic material of phage T2 is largely composed of DNA, the construction of linkage maps of T2 and T4 by Hershey and Rotman and their extension to very short molecular distances by Benzer, and the isolation of conditionally lethal mutants in T4 by Epstein et al. and in λ by Campbell. The dissection of the phage life cycle into causal chains was explored by Edgar and Wood for T4 assembly and later in the regulation of lysogeny by Kaiser, extended to the molecular level by Ptashne and others. Restriction/modification was discovered in λ by Bertani and Weigle, and the biochemical mechanism was elucidated by Arber and by Smith.

  5. The genome of the Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis temperate phage EV3

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacteriophages infection modulates microbial consortia and transduction is one of the most important mechanism involved in the bacterial evolution. However, phage contamination brings food fermentations to a halt causing economic setbacks. The number of phage genome sequences of lactic acid bacteria especially of lactobacilli is still limited. We analysed the genome of a temperate phage active on Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, the predominant strain in type I sourdough fermentations. Results Sequencing of the DNA of EV3 phage revealed a genome of 34,834 bp and a G + C content of 36.45%. Of the 43 open reading frames (ORFs) identified, all but eight shared homology with other phages of lactobacilli. A similar genomic organization and mosaic pattern of identities align EV3 with the closely related Lactobacillus vaginalis ATCC 49540 prophage. Four unknown ORFs that had no homologies in the databases or predicted functions were identified. Notably, EV3 encodes a putative dextranase. Conclusions EV3 is the first L. sanfranciscensis phage that has been completely sequenced so far. PMID:24308641

  6. Hybrid Nanomaterial Complexes for Advanced Phage-guided Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yata, Teerapong; Lee, Koon-Yang; Dharakul, Tararaj; Songsivilai, Sirirurg; Bismarck, Alexander; Mintz, Paul J; Hajitou, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Developing nanomaterials that are effective, safe, and selective for gene transfer applications is challenging. Bacteriophages (phage), viruses that infect bacteria only, have shown promise for targeted gene transfer applications. Unfortunately, limited progress has been achieved in improving their potential to overcome mammalian cellular barriers. We hypothesized that chemical modification of the bacteriophage capsid could be applied to improve targeted gene delivery by phage vectors into mammalian cells. Here, we introduce a novel hybrid system consisting of two classes of nanomaterial systems, cationic polymers and M13 bacteriophage virus particles genetically engineered to display a tumor-targeting ligand and carry a transgene cassette. We demonstrate that the phage complex with cationic polymers generates positively charged phage and large aggregates that show enhanced cell surface attachment, buffering capacity, and improved transgene expression while retaining cell type specificity. Moreover, phage/polymer complexes carrying a therapeutic gene achieve greater cancer cell killing than phage alone. This new class of hybrid nanomaterial platform can advance targeted gene delivery applications by bacteriophage. PMID:25118171

  7. RECOMBINATIONS OF MUTANT PHAGES OF BACILLUS MEGATHERIUM 899A

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, James S.

    1953-01-01

    A group of mutant phages stemming from the virus of B. megatherium 899a (lysogenic), growing on a sensitive B. megatherium strain (KM), have been studied with respect to their recombination reactions. All these mutants and many of their recombinations can be recognized by a characteristic plaque morphology. A similar group of phages have been isolated directly from a culture of B. megatherium 899a in this laboratory. Previous work has shown that when two different plaque mutant phages both infect essentially all the bacteria in a culture, a characteristic per cent of recombinants is produced. This percentage depends on the two recombinants used, each pair having its own value. Hershey and coworkers (2–5) have demonstrated with coli-phage T2, that the percentages of recombination found can be handled mathematically and that they demonstrate the existence of a relationship between the mutations entirely comparable to crossover percentages as used in gene locus maps in genetics. This has been found to hold true for the phages studied in the present work. Only one "linkage group" has been detected and all the mutants studied showed low percentages of recombination (0.8 to 7.6). B. megatherium 899a phage and some of its mutants have been examined with an electron microscope and no differences have been detected between the different mutant strains. PMID:13109115

  8. Two Novel Myoviruses from the North of Iraq Reveal Insights into Clostridium difficile Phage Diversity and Biology.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Srwa J; Barylski, Jakub; Hargreaves, Katherine R; Millard, Andrew A; Vinner, Gurinder K; Clokie, Martha R J

    2016-11-16

    Bacteriophages (phages) are increasingly being explored as therapeutic agents to combat bacterial diseases, including Clostridium difficile infections. Therapeutic phages need to be able to efficiently target and kill a wide range of clinically relevant strains. While many phage groups have yet to be investigated in detail, those with new and useful properties can potentially be identified when phages from newly studied geographies are characterised. Here, we report the isolation of C. difficile phages from soil samples from the north of Iraq. Two myoviruses, CDKM15 and CDKM9, were selected for detailed sequence analysis on the basis of their broad and potentially useful host range. CDKM9 infects 25/80 strains from 12/20 C. difficile ribotypes, and CDKM15 infects 20/80 strains from 9/20 ribotypes. Both phages can infect the clinically relevant ribotypes R027 and R001. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole genome sequencing revealed that the phages are genetically distinct from each other but closely related to other long-tailed myoviruses. A comparative genomic analysis revealed key differences in the genes predicted to encode for proteins involved in bacterial infection. Notably, CDKM15 carries a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) array with spacers that are homologous to sequences in the CDKM9 genome and of phages from diverse localities. The findings presented suggest a possible shared evolutionary past for these phages and provides evidence of their widespread dispersal.

  9. Two Novel Myoviruses from the North of Iraq Reveal Insights into Clostridium difficile Phage Diversity and Biology

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Srwa J.; Barylski, Jakub; Hargreaves, Katherine R.; Millard, Andrew A.; Vinner, Gurinder K.; Clokie, Martha R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages (phages) are increasingly being explored as therapeutic agents to combat bacterial diseases, including Clostridium difficile infections. Therapeutic phages need to be able to efficiently target and kill a wide range of clinically relevant strains. While many phage groups have yet to be investigated in detail, those with new and useful properties can potentially be identified when phages from newly studied geographies are characterised. Here, we report the isolation of C. difficile phages from soil samples from the north of Iraq. Two myoviruses, CDKM15 and CDKM9, were selected for detailed sequence analysis on the basis of their broad and potentially useful host range. CDKM9 infects 25/80 strains from 12/20 C. difficile ribotypes, and CDKM15 infects 20/80 strains from 9/20 ribotypes. Both phages can infect the clinically relevant ribotypes R027 and R001. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole genome sequencing revealed that the phages are genetically distinct from each other but closely related to other long-tailed myoviruses. A comparative genomic analysis revealed key differences in the genes predicted to encode for proteins involved in bacterial infection. Notably, CDKM15 carries a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) array with spacers that are homologous to sequences in the CDKM9 genome and of phages from diverse localities. The findings presented suggest a possible shared evolutionary past for these phages and provides evidence of their widespread dispersal. PMID:27854339

  10. The use of phage FCL-2 as an alternative to chemotherapy against columnaris disease in aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Laanto, Elina; Bamford, Jaana K. H.; Ravantti, Janne J.; Sundberg, Lotta-Riina

    2015-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease in fish, causes millions of dollars of losses in the US channel catfish industry alone, not to mention aquaculture industry worldwide. Novel methods are needed for the control and treatment of bacterial diseases in aquaculture to replace traditionally used chemotherapies. A potential solution could be the use of phages, i.e., bacterial viruses, host-specific and self-enriching particles that can be can easily distributed via water flow. We examined the efficacy of phages to combat columnaris disease. A previously isolated phage, FCL-2, infecting F. columnare, was characterized by sequencing. The 47 142 bp genome of the phage had G + C content of 30.2%, and the closest similarities regarding the structural proteins were found in Cellulophaga phage phiSM. Under controlled experimental conditions, two host fish species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), were used to study the success of phage therapy to prevent F. columnare infections. The survival of both fish species was significantly higher in the presence of the phage. Hundred percent of the zebrafish and 50% of the rainbow trout survived in the phage treatment (survival without phage 0 and 8.3%, respectively). Most importantly, the rainbow trout population was rescued from infection by a single addition of the phage into the water in a flow-through fish tank system. Thus, F. columnare could be used as a model system to test the benefits and risks of phage therapy on a larger scale. PMID:26347722

  11. Connecting marine productivity to sea-spray via microscale biological processes: phytoplancton demise and viral infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, C.; O'Dowd, C. D. D.; Danovaro, R.

    2015-12-01

    The processes that link phytoplankton biomass and productivity to the organic matter enrichment in sea spray aerosol are far from being elucidated and modelling predictions remain highly uncertain at the moment. While some studies have asserted that the enrichment of OM in sea spray aerosol is independent on marine productivity, others, have shown significant correlation with phytoplankton biomass and productivity (Chl-a retrieved by satellites). We present here new results illustrating a clear link between OM mass-fraction enrichment in sea spray (OMss) and both phytoplankton-biomass and Net Primary Productivity (NPP). We suggest that the OM enrichment of sea spray through the demise of the bloom, driven by nanoscale biological processes (such as viral infections), which determine the release of celldebris, exudates and other colloidal material. This OM, through processes, leads to enrichment in sea-spray, thus demonstrating an important coupling between biologically-drive plankton bloom termination, marine productivity and sea-spraymodification with potentially significant climate impacts.

  12. Antimicrobial peptides from marine invertebrates as a new frontier for microbial infection control.

    PubMed

    Otero-González, Anselmo Jesus; Magalhães, Beatriz Simas; Garcia-Villarino, Monica; López-Abarrategui, Carlos; Sousa, Daniel Amaro; Dias, Simoni Campos; Franco, Octávio Luiz

    2010-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are widely expressed in organisms and have been linked to innate and acquired immunities in vertebrates. These compounds are constitutively expressed and rapidly induced at different cellular levels to interact directly with infectious agents and/or modulate immunoreactions involved in defense against pathogenic microorganisms. In invertebrates, antimicrobial peptides represent the major humoral defense system against infection, showing a diverse spectrum of action mechanisms, most of them related to plasma membrane disturbance and lethal alteration of microbial integrity. Marine invertebrates are widespread, extremely diverse, and constantly under an enormous microbial challenge from the ocean environment, itself altered by anthropic influences derived from industrialization and transportation. Consequently, this study reexamines the peptides isolated over the past 2 decades from different origins, bringing phyla not previously reviewed up to date. Moreover, a promising novel use of antimicrobial peptides as effective drugs in human and veterinary medicine could be based on their unusual properties and synergic counterparts as immune response humoral effectors, in addition to their direct microbicidal activity. This has been seen in many other marine proteins that are sufficiently immunogenic to humans, not necessarily in terms of antibody generation but as inflammation promoters and recruitment agents or immune enhancers.

  13. Phage therapy: delivering on the promise.

    PubMed

    Harper, D R; Anderson, J; Enright, M C

    2011-07-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and, in many cases, destroy their bacterial targets. Within a few years of their initial discovery they were being investigated as therapeutic agents for infectious disease, an approach known as phage therapy. However, the nature of these exquisitely specific agents was not understood and much early use was both uninformed and unsuccessful. As a result they were replaced by chemical antibiotics once these became available. Although work on phage therapy continued (and continues) in Eastern Europe, this was not conducted to a standard allowing it to support clinical uses in areas regulated by the European Medicines Agency or the US FDA. To develop phage therapy for these areas requires work carried out in accordance with the requirements of these agencies, and, driven by the current crisis of antibiotic resistance, such clinical trials are now under way. The first Phase I clinical trial of safety was reported in 2005, and the results of the first Phase II clinical trial of efficacy of a bacteriophage therapeutic was published in 2009. While the delivery of these relatively large and complex agents to the site of disease can be more challenging than for conventional, small-molecule antibiotics, bacteriophages are then able to multiply locally even from an extremely low (picogram range) initial dose. This multiplication where and only where they are needed underlies the potential for bacteriophage therapeutics to become a much needed and powerful weapon against bacterial disease.

  14. Effect of distance from the polluting focus on relative concentrations of Bacteroides fragilis phages and coliphages in mussels.

    PubMed Central

    Lucena, F; Lasobras, J; McIntosh, D; Forcadell, M; Jofre, J

    1994-01-01

    Concentrations of fecal bacteria, somatic and F-specific coliphages, and phages infecting Bacteroides fragilis in naturally occurring black mussels (Mytilus edulis) were determined. Mussels were collected over a 7-month period at four sampling sites with different levels of fecal pollution. Concentrations of both fecal bacteria and bacteriophages in mussel meat paralleled the concentration of fecal bacteria in the overlying waters. Mussels bioaccumulated efficiently, although with different efficiencies, all of the microorganisms studied. Ratios comparing the levels of microorganisms in mussels were determined. These ratios changed in mussels collected at the different sites. They suggest that bacteriophages infecting B. fragilis and somatic coliphages have the lowest decay rates among the microorganisms studied, with the exception of Clostridium perfringens. On the contrary, concentrations of F-specific coliphages showed a greater rate of decay than the other bacteriophages at sites more distant from the focus of contamination. Additionally, levels of enteroviruses were studied in a number of samples, and in these samples, the B. fragilis bacteriophages clearly outnumbered the enteroviruses. The results of this study indicate that, under the environmental conditions studied, the fate of phages infecting B. fragilis released into the marine environment resembles that of human viruses more than any other microorganism examined. Images PMID:8074509

  15. Phage therapy of the white plague-like disease of Favia favus in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atad, I.; Zvuloni, A.; Loya, Y.; Rosenberg, E.

    2012-09-01

    Coral disease is a major factor in the global decline of coral reefs. At present, there are no known procedures for preventing or treating infectious diseases of corals. Immunization is not possible because corals have a restricted adaptive immune system and antibiotics are neither ecologically safe nor practical in an open system. Thus, we tested phage therapy as an alternative therapeutic method for treating diseased corals. Phage BA3, specific to the coral pathogen Thalassomonas loyana, inhibited the progression of the white plague-like disease and transmission to healthy corals in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Only one out of 19 (5 %) of the healthy corals became infected when placed near phage-treated diseased corals, whereas 11 out of 18 (61 %) healthy corals were infected in the no-phage control. This is the first successful treatment for a coral disease in the sea. We posit that phage therapy of certain coral diseases is achievable in situ.

  16. Isolation and development of bioluminescent reporter phages for bacterial dysentery.

    PubMed

    Schofield, D A; Wray, D J; Molineux, I J

    2015-02-01

    Shigellosis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, most notably amongst children. Moreover, there is a global increase in the occurrence of multidrug-resistant isolates, including the epidemic and pandemic Shigella dysenteriae type 1 strain. We developed a bioluminescent reporter phage assay to facilitate detection and simultaneously determine antibiotic susceptibility. A Shigella flexneri phage (Shfl25875) was isolated from environmental wastewater and characterized by DNA sequencing. Shfl25875 is T4-like, harbors a 169,062-bp genome, and grows on most (28/29) S. flexneri strains and all 12 S. dysenteriae type 1 strains tested. The genes encoding bacterial luciferase were integrated into the Shfl25875 genome to create a "light-tagged" phage capable of transducing a bioluminescent phenotype to infected cells. Shfl25875::luxAB rapidly detects cultured isolates with high sensitivity. Specificity experiments indicate that the reporter does not respond to Shigella boydii, non-type 1 S. dysenteriae strains, and most non-Shigella Enterobacteriaceae. Shfl25875::luxAB generates ampicillin and ciprofloxacin susceptibility profiles that are similar to the standard Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) growth microdilution method, but in a significantly shorter time. In addition, the reporter phage detects Shigella in mock-infected stool. This new reporter phage shows promise as a tool for the detection of cultured isolates or complex clinical samples.

  17. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Escherichia coli Phages, vB_EcoM_ ESCO5 and vB_EcoM_ESCO13, Which Are Related to phAPEC8

    PubMed Central

    Trotereau, Angélina; Gonnet, Mathieu; Viardot, Antoine; Lalmanach, Anne-Christine; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Chanteloup, Nathalie Katy

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the complete genome sequences of two Myoviridae phages that infect various avian-pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and that are closely related to phage phAPEC8. PMID:28360172

  18. PhiSiGns: an online tool to identify signature genes in phages and design PCR primers for examining phage diversity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Phages (viruses that infect bacteria) have gained significant attention because of their abundance, diversity and important ecological roles. However, the lack of a universal gene shared by all phages presents a challenge for phage identification and characterization, especially in environmental samples where it is difficult to culture phage-host systems. Homologous conserved genes (or "signature genes") present in groups of closely-related phages can be used to explore phage diversity and define evolutionary relationships amongst these phages. Bioinformatic approaches are needed to identify candidate signature genes and design PCR primers to amplify those genes from environmental samples; however, there is currently no existing computational tool that biologists can use for this purpose. Results Here we present PhiSiGns, a web-based and standalone application that performs a pairwise comparison of each gene present in user-selected phage genomes, identifies signature genes, generates alignments of these genes, and designs potential PCR primer pairs. PhiSiGns is available at (http://www.phantome.org/phisigns/; http://phisigns.sourceforge.net/) with a link to the source code. Here we describe the specifications of PhiSiGns and demonstrate its application with a case study. Conclusions PhiSiGns provides phage biologists with a user-friendly tool to identify signature genes and design PCR primers to amplify related genes from uncultured phages in environmental samples. This bioinformatics tool will facilitate the development of novel signature genes for use as molecular markers in studies of phage diversity, phylogeny, and evolution. PMID:22385976

  19. Synergy and Order Effects of Antibiotics and Phages in Killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Waqas Nasir; Concepción-Acevedo, Jeniffer; Park, Taehyun; Andleeb, Saadia; Bull, James J.

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to planktonic cells, bacteria imbedded biofilms are notoriously refractory to treatment by antibiotics or bacteriophage (phage) used alone. Given that the mechanisms of killing differ profoundly between drugs and phages, an obvious question is whether killing is improved by combining antibiotic and phage therapy. However, this question has only recently begun to be explored. Here, in vitro biofilm populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 were treated singly and with combinations of two phages and bactericidal antibiotics of five classes. By themselves, phages and drugs commonly had only modest effects in killing the bacteria. However some phage-drug combinations reduced bacterial densities to well below that of the best single treatment; in some cases, bacterial densities were reduced even below the level expected if both agents killed independently of each other (synergy). Furthermore, there was a profound order effect in some cases: treatment with phages before drugs achieved maximum killing. Combined treatment was particularly effective in killing in Pseudomonas biofilms grown on layers of cultured epithelial cells. Phages were also capable of limiting the extent to which minority populations of bacteria resistant to the treating antibiotic ascend. The potential of combined antibiotic and phage treatment of biofilm infections is discussed as a realistic way to evaluate and establish the use of bacteriophage for the treatment of humans. PMID:28076361

  20. Conservation of phage reference materials and water samples containing bacteriophages of enteric bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mendez, J; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Contreras, N; Mooijman, K; Araujo, R

    2002-12-01

    The survival was determined in different conservation conditions of: somatic coliphages, F-specific RNA bacteriophages and phages infecting Bacteroides fragilis proposed as model micro-organisms for water quality control. Titres of phages of all groups either in pure culture phage suspensions or in naturally occurring phage suspensions were stable at (-70+/-10) degrees C and at (-20+/-5) degrees C when protected with glycerol. Moreover, phage analysis of stored suspensions demonstrated that their numbers were homogeneous, both between vials and within vials, and consequently they can be used as reference materials. Furthermore, changes in the storage temperature of the vials cause unpredictable changes in the numbers of bacteriophages. Consequently, phage reference materials and samples containing a quantitative number of phages must be maintained and dispatched at a constant temperature. Consequently, the results indicate that bacteriophages should be packed in dry ice during transport and storage. Finally, the number of phages in water samples stored at (5+/-3) degrees C in the dark does not decrease significantly during the first 72 h of storage. In addition, phage concentrates from natural samples obtained by adsorption-elution to cellulose nitrate filters and mixed with 10% glycerol were stable at least for 2 months at (-70+/-10) degrees C and at (-20+/-5) degrees C.

  1. The targeted recognition of Lactococcus lactis phages to their polysaccharide receptors.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Orla; Spinelli, Silvia; Farenc, Carine; Labbé, Myriam; Tremblay, Denise; Blangy, Stéphanie; Oscarson, Stefan; Moineau, Sylvain; Cambillau, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Each phage infects a limited number of bacterial strains through highly specific interactions of the receptor-binding protein (RBP) at the tip of phage tail and the receptor at the bacterial surface. Lactococcus lactis is covered with a thin polysaccharide pellicle (hexasaccharide repeating units), which is used by a subgroup of phages as a receptor. Using L. lactis and phage 1358 as a model, we investigated the interaction between the phage RBP and the pellicle hexasaccharide of the host strain. A core trisaccharide (TriS), derived from the pellicle hexasaccharide repeating unit, was chemically synthesised, and the crystal structure of the RBP/TriS complex was determined. This provided unprecedented structural details of RBP/receptor site-specific binding. The complete hexasaccharide repeating unit was modelled and found to aptly fit the extended binding site. The specificity observed in in vivo phage adhesion assays could be interpreted in view of the reported structure. Therefore, by combining synthetic carbohydrate chemistry, X-ray crystallography and phage plaquing assays, we suggest that phage adsorption results from distinct recognition of the RBP towards the core TriS or the remaining residues of the hexasacchride receptor. This study provides a novel insight into the adsorption process of phages targeting saccharides as their receptors.

  2. Staphylococcal pathogenicity island interference with helper phage reproduction is a paradigm of molecular parasitism.

    PubMed

    Ram, Geeta; Chen, John; Kumar, Krishan; Ross, Hope F; Ubeda, Carles; Damle, Priyadarshan K; Lane, Kristin D; Penadés, José R; Christie, Gail E; Novick, Richard P

    2012-10-02

    Staphylococcal pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) carry superantigen and resistance genes and are extremely widespread in Staphylococcus aureus and in other Gram-positive bacteria. SaPIs represent a major source of intrageneric horizontal gene transfer and a stealth conduit for intergeneric gene transfer; they are phage satellites that exploit the life cycle of their temperate helper phages with elegant precision to enable their rapid replication and promiscuous spread. SaPIs also interfere with helper phage reproduction, blocking plaque formation, sharply reducing burst size and enhancing the survival of host cells following phage infection. Here, we show that SaPIs use several different strategies for phage interference, presumably the result of convergent evolution. One strategy, not described previously in the bacteriophage microcosm, involves a SaPI-encoded protein that directly and specifically interferes with phage DNA packaging by blocking the phage terminase small subunit. Another strategy involves interference with phage reproduction by diversion of the vast majority of virion proteins to the formation of SaPI-specific small infectious particles. Several SaPIs use both of these strategies, and at least one uses neither but possesses a third. Our studies illuminate a key feature of the evolutionary strategy of these mobile genetic elements, in addition to their carriage of important genes-interference with helper phage reproduction, which could ensure their transferability and long-term persistence.

  3. Filamentous phages prevalent in Pseudoalteromonas spp. confer properties advantageous to host survival in Arctic sea ice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zi-Chao; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Shen, Qing-Tao; Zhao, Dian-Li; Tang, Bai-Lu; Su, Hai-Nan; Wu, Zhao-Yu; Qin, Qi-Long; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Yu, Yong; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2015-03-17

    Sea ice is one of the most frigid environments for marine microbes. In contrast to other ocean ecosystems, microbes in permanent sea ice are space confined and subject to many extreme conditions, which change on a seasonal basis. How these microbial communities are regulated to survive the extreme sea ice environment is largely unknown. Here, we show that filamentous phages regulate the host bacterial community to improve survival of the host in permanent Arctic sea ice. We isolated a filamentous phage, f327, from an Arctic sea ice Pseudoalteromonas strain, and we demonstrated that this type of phage is widely distributed in Arctic sea ice. Growth experiments and transcriptome analysis indicated that this phage decreases the host growth rate, cell density and tolerance to NaCl and H2O2, but enhances its motility and chemotaxis. Our results suggest that the presence of the filamentous phage may be beneficial for survival of the host community in sea ice in winter, which is characterized by polar night, nutrient deficiency and high salinity, and that the filamentous phage may help avoid over blooming of the host in sea ice in summer, which is characterized by polar day, rich nutrient availability, intense radiation and high concentration of H2O2. Thus, while they cannot kill the host cells by lysing them, filamentous phages confer properties advantageous to host survival in the Arctic sea ice environment. Our study provides a foremost insight into the ecological role of filamentous phages in the Arctic sea ice ecosystem.

  4. Filamentous phages prevalent in Pseudoalteromonas spp. confer properties advantageous to host survival in Arctic sea ice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zi-Chao; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Shen, Qing-Tao; Zhao, Dian-Li; Tang, Bai-Lu; Su, Hai-Nan; Wu, Zhao-Yu; Qin, Qi-Long; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Yu, Yong; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Sea ice is one of the most frigid environments for marine microbes. In contrast to other ocean ecosystems, microbes in permanent sea ice are space confined and subject to many extreme conditions, which change on a seasonal basis. How these microbial communities are regulated to survive the extreme sea ice environment is largely unknown. Here, we show that filamentous phages regulate the host bacterial community to improve survival of the host in permanent Arctic sea ice. We isolated a filamentous phage, f327, from an Arctic sea ice Pseudoalteromonas strain, and we demonstrated that this type of phage is widely distributed in Arctic sea ice. Growth experiments and transcriptome analysis indicated that this phage decreases the host growth rate, cell density and tolerance to NaCl and H2O2, but enhances its motility and chemotaxis. Our results suggest that the presence of the filamentous phage may be beneficial for survival of the host community in sea ice in winter, which is characterized by polar night, nutrient deficiency and high salinity, and that the filamentous phage may help avoid over blooming of the host in sea ice in summer, which is characterized by polar day, rich nutrient availability, intense radiation and high concentration of H2O2. Thus, while they cannot kill the host cells by lysing them, filamentous phages confer properties advantageous to host survival in the Arctic sea ice environment. Our study provides a foremost insight into the ecological role of filamentous phages in the Arctic sea ice ecosystem. PMID:25303713

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF KNOWN PHAGE ENDOLYSIN GENES BY PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    S. aureus phage endolysins degrade staphylococcal peptidoglycan when released from within an infected cell. Some have been shown to also be effective when purified and exposed to the bacteria externally (lysis 'from without'). These have been proposed for use in antimicrobial applications, especia...

  6. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Phages Benczkowski14 and Katyusha

    PubMed Central

    Benczkowski, Matthew S.; Green, Daryn E.; Hwang, Melina; Kennedy, Bryan; Kocak, Bradley; Kruczek, Ellen; Lin, Leon; Moretti, Matthew L.; Onelangsy, Faith L.; Mezghani, Nadia; Milliken, Katherine A.; Toner, Chelsea L.; Thompson, Paige K.; Ulbrich, Megan C.; Furbee, Emily C.; Grubb, Sarah R.; Warner, Marcie H.; Montgomery, Matthew T.; Garlena, Rebecca A.; Russell, Daniel A.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages Katyusha and Benczkowski14 are newly isolated phages that infect Gordonia terrae 3612. Both have siphoviral morphologies with isometric heads and long tails (500 nm). The genomes are 75,380 bp long and closely related, and the tape measure genes (9 kbp) are among the largest to be identified. PMID:27340062

  7. Safety analysis of a Russian phage cocktail: From MetaGenomic analysis to oral application in healthy human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    McCallin, Shawna; Alam Sarker, Shafiqul; Barretto, Caroline; Sultana, Shamima; Berger, Bernard; Huq, Sayeda; Krause, Lutz; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Schmitt, Bertrand; Reuteler, Gloria; Brüssow, Harald

    2013-09-01

    Phage therapy has a long tradition in Eastern Europe, where preparations are comprised of complex phage cocktails whose compositions have not been described. We investigated the composition of a phage cocktail from the Russian pharmaceutical company Microgen targeting Escherichia coli/Proteus infections. Electron microscopy identified six phage types, with numerically T7-like phages dominating over T4-like phages. A metagenomic approach using taxonomical classification, reference mapping and de novo assembly identified 18 distinct phage types, including 7 genera of Podoviridae, 2 established and 2 proposed genera of Myoviridae, and 2 genera of Siphoviridae. De novo assembly yielded 7 contigs greater than 30 kb, including a 147-kb Myovirus genome and a 42-kb genome of a potentially new phage. Bioinformatic analysis did not reveal undesired genes and a small human volunteer trial did not associate adverse effects with oral phage exposure. - Highlights: • We analyzed the composition of a commercial Russian phage cocktail. • The cocktail consists of at least 10 different phage genera. • No undesired genes were detected. • No adverse effects were seen upon oral application in a small human clinical trial.

  8. Characterization of a new virulent phage (MLC-A) of Lactobacillus paracasei.

    PubMed

    Capra, M L; Del L Quiberoni, A; Ackermann, H-W; Moineau, S; Reinheimer, J A

    2006-07-01

    A new virulent bacteriophage (MLC-A) was recently isolated in Argentina from a probiotic dairy product containing a strain of Lactobacillus paracasei. Observation of the lysate with an electron microscope revealed bacteriophage particles with an icosahedral capsid of 57 +/- 2 nm; with a collar and a noncontractile tail of 156 +/- 3 nm terminating with a baseplate to which a tail fiber was attached. Therefore, phage MLC-A belongs to the Siphoviridae family. This phage was able to survive the pasteurization process and was resistant to alcohols and sodium hypochlorite (400 mg/kg). Only peracetic acid could inactivate high-titer suspensions of phages in a short time. The maximum rates of phage adsorption to its host cells were obtained at 30 degrees C with a pH between 5 and 7, and in the presence of calcium or magnesium ions. The host range of phage MLC-A encompassed L. paracasei and Lactobacillus casei strains, but it was not able to infect Lactobacillus rhamnosus or Lactobacillus gasseri strains. One-step growth kinetics of its lytic development revealed latent and burst periods of 30 and 135 min, respectively, with a burst size of about 69 +/- 4 plaque-forming units per infected cell. Phage MLC-A had a distinctive restriction profile when compared with the 2 well-studied Lactobacillus phages, PL-1 and J-1. The genome size of the MLC-A phage was estimated to be approximately 37 kb. This study presents the description of the first phage specific for L. paracasei isolated in Argentina. The isolation of phage MLC-A indicates that, beside lactic acid bacteria starters, probiotic cultures can also be sensitive to virulent phages in industrial processes.

  9. The impact of phages on interspecific competition in experimental populations of bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Brockhurst, Michael A; Fenton, Andrew; Roulston, Barrie; Rainey, Paul B

    2006-01-01

    Background Phages are thought to play a crucial role in the maintenance of diversity in natural bacterial communities. Theory suggests that phages impose density dependent regulation on bacterial populations, preventing competitive dominants from excluding less competitive species. To test this, we constructed experimental communities containing two bacterial species (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and their phage parasites. Communities were propagated at two environmental temperatures that reversed the outcome of competition in the absence of phage. Results The evenness of coexistence was enhanced in the presence of a phage infecting the superior competitor and in the presence of phage infecting both competitors. This occurred because phage altered the balance of competitive interactions through reductions in density of the superior competitor, allowing concomitant increases in density of the weaker competitor. However, even coexistence was not equally stable at the two environmental temperatures. Conclusion Phage can alter competitive interactions between bacterial species in a way that is consistent with the maintenance of coexistence. However, the stability of coexistence is likely to depend upon the nature of the constituent bacteria-bacteriophage interactions and environmental conditions. PMID:17166259

  10. Phage inactivation of foodborne Shigella on ready-to-eat spiced chicken.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Ran; Bao, Hongduo

    2013-01-01

    Shigellosis, also called bacillary dysentery, is an infectious disease caused by Shigella species, including Shigella flexneri, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei, and Shigella boydii. Infection with S. flexneri can result in epidemics, and Shigella-contaminated food is often the source of infection, such as ready-to-eat spiced chicken and duck. Therefore, we investigated the ability of Shigella phages to inhibit pathogenic Shigella spp. in ready-to-eat spiced chicken. Food samples were inoculated with individual species (1 × 10(4) cfu/g) or a mixture (S. flexneri 2a, S. dysenteriae, and S. sonnei) to a total concentration of 3 × 10(4) cfu/g. Single phages or a phage cocktail were added thereafter (1 × 10(8) pfu/g or 3 × 10(8) pfu/g), respectively, and samples were incubated at 4°C for 72 h. In general, the application of more phages (3 × 10(8) pfu/g) was the most effective treatment. Phages could reduce bacterial counts by up to 2 log(10)/g after 48 h incubation when treated with the cocktail, and after 72 h the host could not be detected. Similarly, the host in spiced chicken treated with single phage was also sharply reduced after 72 h incubation. The results suggest that an obligately virulent phage cocktail, such as S. flexneri, S. dysenteriae, and S. sonnei phages, can effectively reduce potential contamination of Shigella spp. in ready-to-eat chicken products.

  11. Short communication: Characterization of Salmonella phages from dairy calves on farms with history of diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Dueñas, Fernando; Rivera, Dácil; Toledo, Viviana; Tardone, Rodolfo; Hervé-Claude, Luis P; Hamilton-West, Christopher; Switt, Andrea I Moreno

    2017-03-01

    Salmonella enterica can cause disease and mortality in calves. This pathogen is also a zoonosis that can be transmitted by animal contact or by food. The prevalence of Salmonella in dairy farms has been reported to range from 0 to 64%, and, due to the diversity of Salmonella serovars that can be circulating, Salmonella is an important concern for dairy production. Bacteriophages that infect Salmonella have been documented to be abundant and widely distributed in the dairy environment. The current study investigated the diversity of Salmonella serovars and Salmonella phages in 8 dairy farms with a history of diarrhea in southern Chile. A total of 160 samples from sick calves, healthy calves, and the environment were analyzed for Salmonella and phage. Isolated phages were characterized and classified by their host range using a panel of 26 Salmonella isolates representing 23 serovars. Host ranges were classified according to lysis profiles (LP) and their spatial distribution was mapped. Salmonella-infecting phages were identified, but none of the 160 samples were positive for Salmonella. A total of 45 phage isolates were obtained from sick calves (11), healthy calves (16), or the environment (18). According to their host range, 19 LP were identified, with LP1 being the most common on all 8 farms; LP1 represents phages that only lyse serogroup D Salmonella. The identification of Salmonella phages but not Salmonella in the same samples could suggest that these phages are controlling Salmonella in these farms.

  12. Romulus and Remus, two phage isolates representing a distinct clade within the Twortlikevirus genus, display suitable properties for phage therapy applications.

    PubMed

    Vandersteegen, Katrien; Kropinski, Andrew M; Nash, John H E; Noben, Jean-Paul; Hermans, Katleen; Lavigne, Rob

    2013-03-01

    The renewed interest in controlling Staphylococcus aureus infections using their natural enemies, bacteriophages, has led to the isolation of a limited number of virulent phages so far. These phages are all members of the Twortlikevirus, displaying little variance. We present two novel closely related (95.9% DNA homology) lytic myoviruses, Romulus and Remus, with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes of 131,333 bp and 134,643 bp, respectively. Despite their relatedness to Staphylococcus phages K, G1, ISP, and Twort and Listeria phages A511 and P100, Romulus and Remus can be proposed as isolates of a new species within the Twortlikevirus genus. A distinguishing feature for these phage genomes is the unique distribution of group I introns compared to that in other staphylococcal myoviruses. In addition, a hedgehog/intein domain was found within their DNA polymerase genes, and an insertion sequence-encoded transposase exhibits splicing behavior and produces a functional portal protein. From a phage therapy application perspective, Romulus and Remus infected approximately 70% of the tested S. aureus isolates and displayed promising lytic activity against these isolates. Furthermore, both phages showed a rapid initial adsorption and demonstrated biofilm-degrading capacity in a proof-of-concept experiment.

  13. Romulus and Remus, Two Phage Isolates Representing a Distinct Clade within the Twortlikevirus Genus, Display Suitable Properties for Phage Therapy Applications

    PubMed Central

    Vandersteegen, Katrien; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Nash, John H. E.; Noben, Jean-Paul; Hermans, Katleen

    2013-01-01

    The renewed interest in controlling Staphylococcus aureus infections using their natural enemies, bacteriophages, has led to the isolation of a limited number of virulent phages so far. These phages are all members of the Twortlikevirus, displaying little variance. We present two novel closely related (95.9% DNA homology) lytic myoviruses, Romulus and Remus, with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes of 131,333 bp and 134,643 bp, respectively. Despite their relatedness to Staphylococcus phages K, G1, ISP, and Twort and Listeria phages A511 and P100, Romulus and Remus can be proposed as isolates of a new species within the Twortlikevirus genus. A distinguishing feature for these phage genomes is the unique distribution of group I introns compared to that in other staphylococcal myoviruses. In addition, a hedgehog/intein domain was found within their DNA polymerase genes, and an insertion sequence-encoded transposase exhibits splicing behavior and produces a functional portal protein. From a phage therapy application perspective, Romulus and Remus infected approximately 70% of the tested S. aureus isolates and displayed promising lytic activity against these isolates. Furthermore, both phages showed a rapid initial adsorption and demonstrated biofilm-degrading capacity in a proof-of-concept experiment. PMID:23302893

  14. Targeting mammalian organelles with internalizing phage (iPhage) libraries

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Roberto; Dobroff, Andrey S.; Guzman-Rojas, Liliana; Salmeron, Carolina C.; Gelovani, Juri G.; Sidman, Richard L.; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2015-01-01

    Techniques largely used for protein interaction studies and discovery of intracellular receptors, such as affinity capture complex purification and yeast two-hybrid, may produce inaccurate datasets due to protein insolubility, transient or weak protein interactions, or irrelevant intracellular context. A versatile tool to overcome these limitations as well as to potentially create vaccines and engineer peptides and antibodies as targeted diagnostic and therapeutic agents, is the phage display technique. We have recently developed a new technology for screening internalizing phage (iPhage) vectors and libraries utilizing a ligand/receptor-independent mechanism to penetrate eukaryotic cells. iPhage particles provide a unique discovery platform for combinatorial intracellular targeting of organelle ligands along with their corresponding receptors and to fingerprint functional protein domains in living cells. Here we explain the design, cloning, construction, and production of iPhage-based vectors and libraries, along with basic ligand-receptor identification and validation methodologies for organelle receptors. An iPhage library screening can be performed in ~8 weeks. PMID:24030441

  15. Kinetics of filamentous phage assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploss, Martin; Kuhn, Andreas

    2010-12-01

    Filamentous phages release their progeny particles by a secretory process without lysing the bacterial cell. By this process about 6 viral particles per min are secreted from each cell. We show here that when the major coat protein (gp8) is provided from a plasmid we observe a phage progeny production rate depending on the induction of gp8 by IPTG. We also show that a transfection of Escherichia coli lacking F-pili is observed using a mutant of M13 that carries an ampicillin resistance gene, and phage particles are secreted in the absence of an F-plasmid. Extruding phage was visualized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using gold-labeled antibodies to the major coat protein.

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Two Lytic Bacteriophages, φSt2 and φGrn1; Phage Therapy Application for Biological Control of Vibrio alginolyticus in Aquaculture Live Feeds

    PubMed Central

    Kalatzis, Panos G.; Bastías, Roberto; Kokkari, Constantina; Katharios, Pantelis

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections are a serious problem in aquaculture since they can result in massive mortalities in farmed fish and invertebrates. Vibriosis is one of the most common diseases in marine aquaculture hatcheries and its causative agents are bacteria of the genus Vibrio mostly entering larval rearing water through live feeds, such as Artemia and rotifers. The pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus strain V1, isolated during a vibriosis outbreak in cultured seabream, Sparus aurata, was used as host to isolate and characterize the two novel bacteriophages φSt2 and φGrn1 for phage therapy application. In vitro cell lysis experiments were performed against the bacterial host V. alginolyticus strain V1 but also against 12 presumptive Vibrio strains originating from live prey Artemia salina cultures indicating the strong lytic efficacy of the 2 phages. In vivo administration of the phage cocktail, φSt2 and φGrn1, at MOI = 100 directly on live prey A. salina cultures, led to a 93% decrease of presumptive Vibrio population after 4 h of treatment. Current study suggests that administration of φSt2 and φGrn1 to live preys could selectively reduce Vibrio load in fish hatcheries. Innovative and environmental friendly solutions against bacterial diseases are more than necessary and phage therapy is one of them. PMID:26950336

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Two Lytic Bacteriophages, φSt2 and φGrn1; Phage Therapy Application for Biological Control of Vibrio alginolyticus in Aquaculture Live Feeds.

    PubMed

    Kalatzis, Panos G; Bastías, Roberto; Kokkari, Constantina; Katharios, Pantelis

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections are a serious problem in aquaculture since they can result in massive mortalities in farmed fish and invertebrates. Vibriosis is one of the most common diseases in marine aquaculture hatcheries and its causative agents are bacteria of the genus Vibrio mostly entering larval rearing water through live feeds, such as Artemia and rotifers. The pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus strain V1, isolated during a vibriosis outbreak in cultured seabream, Sparus aurata, was used as host to isolate and characterize the two novel bacteriophages φSt2 and φGrn1 for phage therapy application. In vitro cell lysis experiments were performed against the bacterial host V. alginolyticus strain V1 but also against 12 presumptive Vibrio strains originating from live prey Artemia salina cultures indicating the strong lytic efficacy of the 2 phages. In vivo administration of the phage cocktail, φSt2 and φGrn1, at MOI = 100 directly on live prey A. salina cultures, led to a 93% decrease of presumptive Vibrio population after 4 h of treatment. Current study suggests that administration of φSt2 and φGrn1 to live preys could selectively reduce Vibrio load in fish hatcheries. Innovative and environmental friendly solutions against bacterial diseases are more than necessary and phage therapy is one of them.

  18. A Review of Phage Therapy against Bacterial Pathogens of Aquatic and Terrestrial Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Doss, Janis; Culbertson, Kayla; Hahn, Delilah; Camacho, Joanna; Barekzi, Nazir

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of bacteriophage in the early 1900s, there have been numerous attempts to exploit their innate ability to kill bacteria. The purpose of this report is to review current findings and new developments in phage therapy with an emphasis on bacterial diseases of marine organisms, humans, and plants. The body of evidence includes data from studies investigating bacteriophage in marine and land environments as modern antimicrobial agents against harmful bacteria. The goal of this paper is to present an overview of the topic of phage therapy, the use of phage-derived protein therapy, and the hosts that bacteriophage are currently being used against, with an emphasis on the uses of bacteriophage against marine, human, animal and plant pathogens. PMID:28335451

  19. Phage-Enabled Nanomedicine: From Probes to Therapeutics in Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Kegan S; Yang, Mingying; Mao, Chuanbin

    2017-02-13

    Both lytic and temperate bacteriophages (phages) can be applied in nanomedicine, in particular, as nanoprobes for precise disease diagnosis and nanotherapeutics for targeted disease treatment. Since phages are bacteria-specific viruses, they do not naturally infect eukaryotic cells and are not toxic to them. They can be genetically engineered to target nanoparticles, cells, tissues, and organs, and can also be modified with functional abiotic nanomaterials for disease diagnosis and treatment. This Review will summarize the current use of phage structures in many aspects of precision nanomedicine, including ultrasensitive biomarker detection, enhanced bioimaging for disease diagnosis, targeted drug and gene delivery, directed stem cell differentiation, accelerated tissue formation, effective vaccination, and nanotherapeutics for targeted disease treatment. We will also propose future directions in the area of phage-based nanomedicines, and discuss the state of phage-based clinical trials.

  20. Current insights into phage biodiversity and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-10-01

    Phages exert tremendous ecological and evolutionary forces directly on their bacterial hosts. Phage induced cell lysis also indirectly contributes to organic and inorganic nutrient recycling. Phage abundance, diversity, and distribution are therefore important parameters in ecosystem function. The assumption that phage consortia are ubiquitous and homogenous across habitats (everything is everywhere) is currently being re-evaluated. New studies on phage biogeography have found that some phages are globally distributed while others are unique and perhaps endemic to specific environments. Furthermore, advances in technology have allowed scientists to conduct experiments aimed at analyzing phage consortia over temporal scales, and surprisingly have found reoccurring patterns. This review discusses currents in the field of phage ecology with particular focus on efforts to characterize phage diversity and biogeography across various spatial and temporal scales.

  1. Ecological Dynamics of Two Distinct Viruses Infecting Marine Eukaryotic Decomposer Thraustochytrids (Labyrinthulomycetes, Stramenopiles).

    PubMed

    Takao, Yoshitake; Tomaru, Yuji; Nagasaki, Keizo; Honda, Daiske

    2015-01-01

    Thraustochytrids are cosmopolitan osmotrophic or heterotrophic microorganisms that are considered as important decomposers in coastal ecosystems. However, because of a lack of estimation method for each genus or systematic group of them, relatively little is known about their ecology in situ. Previously, we reported two distinct types of virus infecting thraustochytrids (AuRNAV: reported as SssRNAV, and SmDNAV) suggesting they have wide distributions in the host-virus systems of coastal environments. Here we conducted a field survey from 2004 through 2005 to show the fluctuation pattern of thraustochytrids and their viruses in Hiroshima Bay, Japan. During the field survey, we monitored the dynamics of the two types of thraustochytrid-infecting virus: small viruses causing lysis of Aurantiochytrium sp. NIBH N1-27 (identified as AuRNAV) and the large viruses of Sicyoidochytrium minutum NBRC 102975 (similar to SmDNAV in physiology and morphology). Fluctuation patterns of the two distinct types of virus were different from each other. This may reflect the difference in the preference of organic substrates; i.e., it may be likely the host of AuRNAV (Aurantiochytrium sp.) increases utilizing algal dead bodies or feeble cells as the virus shows a large increase in abundance following raphidophyte blooms; whereas, the trophic nutrient supply for S. minutum may primarily depend on other constantly-supplied organic compounds because it did not show any significant change in abundance throughout the survey. Further study concerning the population composition of thraustochytrids and their viruses may demonstrate the microbial ecology (especially concerning the detrital food web) of marine environments.

  2. Advance in phage display technology for bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yuyu; Tian, Tian; Liu, Wenli; Zhu, Zhi; J Yang, Chaoyong

    2016-06-01

    Phage display technology has emerged as a powerful tool for target gene expression and target-specific ligand selection. It is widely used to screen peptides, proteins and antibodies with the advantages of simplicity, high efficiency and low cost. A variety of targets, including ions, small molecules, inorganic materials, natural and biological polymers, nanostructures, cells, bacteria, and even tissues, have been demonstrated to generate specific binding ligands by phage display. Phages and target-specific ligands screened by phage display have been widely used as affinity reagents in therapeutics, diagnostics and biosensors. In this review, comparisons of different types of phage display systems are first presented. Particularly, microfluidic-based phage display, which enables screening with high throughput, high efficiency and integration, is highlighted. More importantly, we emphasize the advances in biosensors based on phages or phage-derived probes, including nonlytic phages, lytic phages, peptides or proteins screened by phage display, phage assemblies and phage-nanomaterial complexes. However, more efficient and higher throughput phage display methods are still needed to meet an explosion in demand for bioanalysis. Furthermore, screening of cyclic peptides and functional peptides will be the hotspot in bioanalysis.

  3. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37-3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126-141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae.

  4. Liposome-Encapsulated Bacteriophages for Enhanced Oral Phage Therapy against Salmonella spp.

    PubMed Central

    Colom, Joan; Cano-Sarabia, Mary; Otero, Jennifer; Cortés, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophages UAB_Phi20, UAB_Phi78, and UAB_Phi87 were encapsulated in liposomes, and their efficacy in reducing Salmonella in poultry was then studied. The encapsulated phages had a mean diameter of 309 to 326 nm and a positive charge between +31.6 and +35.1 mV (pH 6.1). In simulated gastric fluid (pH 2.8), the titer of nonencapsulated phages decreased by 5.7 to 7.8 log units, whereas encapsulated phages were significantly more stable, with losses of 3.7 to 5.4 log units. The liposome coating also improved the retention of bacteriophages in the chicken intestinal tract. When cocktails of the encapsulated and nonencapsulated phages were administered to broilers, after 72 h the encapsulated phages were detected in 38.1% of the animals, whereas the nonencapsulated phages were present in only 9.5%. The difference was significant. In addition, in an in vitro experiment, the cecal contents of broilers promoted the release of the phages from the liposomes. In broilers experimentally infected with Salmonella, the daily administration of the two cocktails for 6 days postinfection conferred similar levels of protection against Salmonella colonization. However, once treatment was stopped, protection by the nonencapsulated phages disappeared, whereas that provided by the encapsulated phages persisted for at least 1 week, showing the enhanced efficacy of the encapsulated phages in protecting poultry against Salmonella over time. The methodology described here allows the liposome encapsulation of phages of different morphologies. The preparations can be stored for at least 3 months at 4°C and could be added to the drinking water and feed of animals. PMID:25956778

  5. Characterization of Five Novel Brevibacillus Bacteriophages and Genomic Comparison of Brevibacillus Phages

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Jordan A.; Merrill, Bryan D.; Crockett, Justin T.; Esplin, Kyle P.; Evans, Marlee R.; Heaton, Karli E.; Hilton, Jared A.; Hyde, Jonathan R.; McBride, Morgan S.; Schouten, Jordan T.; Simister, Austin R.; Thurgood, Trever L.; Ward, Andrew T.; Breakwell, Donald P.; Hope, Sandra; Grose, Julianne H.

    2016-01-01

    Brevibacillus laterosporus is a spore-forming bacterium that causes a secondary infection in beehives following European Foulbrood disease. To better understand the contributions of Brevibacillus bacteriophages to the evolution of their hosts, five novel phages (Jenst, Osiris, Powder, SecTim467, and Sundance) were isolated and characterized. When compared with the five Brevibacillus phages currently in NCBI, these phages were assigned to clusters based on whole genome and proteome synteny. Powder and Osiris, both myoviruses, were assigned to the previously described Jimmer-like cluster. SecTim467 and Jenst, both siphoviruses, formed a novel phage cluster. Sundance, a siphovirus, was assigned as a singleton phage along with the previously isolated singleton, Emery. In addition to characterizing the basic relationships between these phages, several genomic features were observed. A motif repeated throughout phages Jenst and SecTim467 was frequently upstream of genes predicted to function in DNA replication, nucleotide metabolism, and transcription, suggesting transcriptional co-regulation. In addition, paralogous gene pairs that encode a putative transcriptional regulator were identified in four Brevibacillus phages. These paralogs likely evolved to bind different DNA sequences due to variation at amino acid residues predicted to bind specific nucleotides. Finally, a putative transposable element was identified in SecTim467 and Sundance that carries genes homologous to those found in Brevibacillus chromosomes. Remnants of this transposable element were also identified in phage Jenst. These discoveries provide a greater understanding of the diversity of phages, their behavior, and their evolutionary relationships to one another and to their host. In addition, they provide a foundation with which further Brevibacillus phages can be compared. PMID:27304881

  6. Phages of dairy Leuconostoc mesenteroides: genomics and factors influencing their adsorption.

    PubMed

    Pujato, Silvina A; Mercanti, Diego J; Guglielmotti, Daniela M; Rousseau, Geneviève M; Moineau, Sylvain; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Quiberoni, Andrea del L

    2015-05-18

    Phages infecting Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains can be overlooked during milk fermentation because they do not slowdown the acidification process. However, they can negatively impact the flavor profile of the final product. Yet, the information about these phages is still scarce. In this work, we investigated diverse factors influencing the adsorption of seven virulent Ln. mesenteroides phages, isolated from blue cheese manufacture in Argentina, to their host cells. The addition of calcium ions was generally necessary to observe complete cell lysis and plaque formation for four of the seven phages, but adsorption was very high even in the absence of this cation for all phages. The temperature barely influenced the adsorption process as it was high within the temperature range tested (0 to 50 °C). Moreover, the kinetics of adsorption were similar on viable and non-viable cells, revealing that phage adsorption does not depend on physiological state of the bacterial cells. The adsorption rates were also high at pH values from 4 to 9 for all Ln. mesenteroides phages. We also analyzed the complete genome sequences of two of these phages. Complete nucleotide analysis of phages Ln-8 and Ln-9 showed dsDNA genomes with sizes of 28.5 and 28.9 kb, and the presence of 45 and 48 open reading frames (ORFs), respectively. These genomes were highly similar to those of previously characterized Φ1-A4 (USA, sauerkraut, fermentation) and ΦLN25 (England, whey), both virulent Ln. mesenteroides phages. A detailed understanding of these phages will lead to better control strategies.

  7. Characterization of Five Novel Brevibacillus Bacteriophages and Genomic Comparison of Brevibacillus Phages.

    PubMed

    Berg, Jordan A; Merrill, Bryan D; Crockett, Justin T; Esplin, Kyle P; Evans, Marlee R; Heaton, Karli E; Hilton, Jared A; Hyde, Jonathan R; McBride, Morgan S; Schouten, Jordan T; Simister, Austin R; Thurgood, Trever L; Ward, Andrew T; Breakwell, Donald P; Hope, Sandra; Grose, Julianne H

    2016-01-01

    Brevibacillus laterosporus is a spore-forming bacterium that causes a secondary infection in beehives following European Foulbrood disease. To better understand the contributions of Brevibacillus bacteriophages to the evolution of their hosts, five novel phages (Jenst, Osiris, Powder, SecTim467, and Sundance) were isolated and characterized. When compared with the five Brevibacillus phages currently in NCBI, these phages were assigned to clusters based on whole genome and proteome synteny. Powder and Osiris, both myoviruses, were assigned to the previously described Jimmer-like cluster. SecTim467 and Jenst, both siphoviruses, formed a novel phage cluster. Sundance, a siphovirus, was assigned as a singleton phage along with the previously isolated singleton, Emery. In addition to characterizing the basic relationships between these phages, several genomic features were observed. A motif repeated throughout phages Jenst and SecTim467 was frequently upstream of genes predicted to function in DNA replication, nucleotide metabolism, and transcription, suggesting transcriptional co-regulation. In addition, paralogous gene pairs that encode a putative transcriptional regulator were identified in four Brevibacillus phages. These paralogs likely evolved to bind different DNA sequences due to variation at amino acid residues predicted to bind specific nucleotides. Finally, a putative transposable element was identified in SecTim467 and Sundance that carries genes homologous to those found in Brevibacillus chromosomes. Remnants of this transposable element were also identified in phage Jenst. These discoveries provide a greater understanding of the diversity of phages, their behavior, and their evolutionary relationships to one another and to their host. In addition, they provide a foundation with which further Brevibacillus phages can be compared.

  8. Liposome-Encapsulated Bacteriophages for Enhanced Oral Phage Therapy against Salmonella spp.

    PubMed

    Colom, Joan; Cano-Sarabia, Mary; Otero, Jennifer; Cortés, Pilar; Maspoch, Daniel; Llagostera, Montserrat

    2015-07-01

    Bacteriophages UAB_Phi20, UAB_Phi78, and UAB_Phi87 were encapsulated in liposomes, and their efficacy in reducing Salmonella in poultry was then studied. The encapsulated phages had a mean diameter of 309 to 326 nm and a positive charge between +31.6 and +35.1 mV (pH 6.1). In simulated gastric fluid (pH 2.8), the titer of nonencapsulated phages decreased by 5.7 to 7.8 log units, whereas encapsulated phages were significantly more stable, with losses of 3.7 to 5.4 log units. The liposome coating also improved the retention of bacteriophages in the chicken intestinal tract. When cocktails of the encapsulated and nonencapsulated phages were administered to broilers, after 72 h the encapsulated phages were detected in 38.1% of the animals, whereas the nonencapsulated phages were present in only 9.5%. The difference was significant. In addition, in an in vitro experiment, the cecal contents of broilers promoted the release of the phages from the liposomes. In broilers experimentally infected with Salmonella, the daily administration of the two cocktails for 6 days postinfection conferred similar levels of protection against Salmonella colonization. However, once treatment was stopped, protection by the nonencapsulated phages disappeared, whereas that provided by the encapsulated phages persisted for at least 1 week, showing the enhanced efficacy of the encapsulated phages in protecting poultry against Salmonella over time. The methodology described here allows the liposome encapsulation of phages of different morphologies. The preparations can be stored for at least 3 months at 4°C and could be added to the drinking water and feed of animals.

  9. Characterization of marine diatom-infecting virus promoters in the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Kadono, Takashi; Miyagawa-Yamaguchi, Arisa; Kira, Nozomu; Tomaru, Yuji; Okami, Takuma; Yoshimatsu, Takamichi; Hou, Liyuan; Ohama, Takeshi; Fukunaga, Kazunari; Okauchi, Masanori; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Ohnishi, Kohei; Falciatore, Angela; Adachi, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are considered key players in phytoplankton population control in oceans. However, mechanisms that control viral gene expression in prominent microalgae such as diatoms remain largely unknown. In this study, potential promoter regions isolated from several marine diatom-infecting viruses (DIVs) were linked to the egfp reporter gene and transformed into the Pennales diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. We analysed their activity in cells grown under different conditions. Compared to diatom endogenous promoters, novel DIV promoter (ClP1) mediated a significantly higher degree of reporter transcription and translation. Stable expression levels were observed in transformants grown under both light and dark conditions, and high levels of expression were reported in cells in the stationary phase compared to the exponential phase of growth. Conserved motifs in the sequence of DIV promoters were also found. These results allow the identification of novel regulatory regions that drive DIV gene expression and further examinations of the mechanisms that control virus-mediated bloom control in diatoms. Moreover, the identified ClP1 promoter can serve as a novel tool for metabolic engineering of diatoms. This is the first report describing a promoter of DIVs that may be of use in basic and applied diatom research. PMID:26692124

  10. Experimental infection of yellow stingrays Urobatis jamaicensis with the marine leech Branchellion torpedinis.

    PubMed

    Marancik, David P; Dove, Alistair D; Camus, Alvin C

    2012-10-10

    Infestations of elasmobranchs by the marine leech Branchellion torpedinis can be problematic in aquaria and negatively affect host health. To better characterize the extent and pathogenesis of disease, 12 yellow stingrays Urobatis jamaicensis were infected with 1 or 3 leeches for 14 d. Leeches were associated with anorexia, extensive cutaneous ulceration, decreased host packed cell volume (PCV) and serum total solids (TS), and mortality in 3 rays. Average decrease in host PCV positively correlated with ulcer size and parasite:host ratio. Average decrease in host serum TS positively correlated with parasite:host ratio. Blood chemistry and total white blood cell counts revealed no significant trends. Additional necropsy findings included gill and splenic pallor, pericardial edema, perirenal edema, and decreased hepatocellular lipid deposits. Microscopic evaluation of leeches demonstrated host erythrocytes and proteinaceous fluid within parasite intestines, confirming active blood feeding. Results indicate B. torpedinis has the potential to cause significant disease in elasmobranchs, including death in as few as 5 d, and identifies ulcer size and parasite:host ratio as risk factors for disease. Elucidation of this host-parasite interaction helps characterize host response to parasites and facilitate care of parasitized elasmobranchs in aquarium and wild settings.

  11. Characterization of marine diatom-infecting virus promoters in the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Kadono, Takashi; Miyagawa-Yamaguchi, Arisa; Kira, Nozomu; Tomaru, Yuji; Okami, Takuma; Yoshimatsu, Takamichi; Hou, Liyuan; Ohama, Takeshi; Fukunaga, Kazunari; Okauchi, Masanori; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Ohnishi, Kohei; Falciatore, Angela; Adachi, Masao

    2015-12-22

    Viruses are considered key players in phytoplankton population control in oceans. However, mechanisms that control viral gene expression in prominent microalgae such as diatoms remain largely unknown. In this study, potential promoter regions isolated from several marine diatom-infecting viruses (DIVs) were linked to the egfp reporter gene and transformed into the Pennales diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. We analysed their activity in cells grown under different conditions. Compared to diatom endogenous promoters, novel DIV promoter (ClP1) mediated a significantly higher degree of reporter transcription and translation. Stable expression levels were observed in transformants grown under both light and dark conditions, and high levels of expression were reported in cells in the stationary phase compared to the exponential phase of growth. Conserved motifs in the sequence of DIV promoters were also found. These results allow the identification of novel regulatory regions that drive DIV gene expression and further examinations of the mechanisms that control virus-mediated bloom control in diatoms. Moreover, the identified ClP1 promoter can serve as a novel tool for metabolic engineering of diatoms. This is the first report describing a promoter of DIVs that may be of use in basic and applied diatom research.

  12. The Presence of Two Receptor-Binding Proteins Contributes to the Wide Host Range of Staphylococcal Twort-Like Phages

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Ippei; Osada, Keita; Azam, Aa Haeruman; Asakawa, Hiroaki; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thanks to their wide host range and virulence, staphylococcal bacteriophages (phages) belonging to the genus Twortlikevirus (staphylococcal Twort-like phages) are regarded as ideal candidates for clinical application for Staphylococcus aureus infections due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria of this species. To increase the usability of these phages, it is necessary to understand the mechanism underlying host recognition, especially the receptor-binding proteins (RBPs) that determine host range. In this study, we found that the staphylococcal Twort-like phage ΦSA012 possesses at least two RBPs. Genomic analysis of five mutant phages of ΦSA012 revealed point mutations in orf103, in a region unique to staphylococcal Twort-like phages. Phages harboring mutated ORF103 could not infect S. aureus strains in which wall teichoic acids (WTAs) are glycosylated with α-N-acetylglucosamine (α-GlcNAc). A polyclonal antibody against ORF103 also inhibited infection by ΦSA012 in the presence of α-GlcNAc, suggesting that ORF103 binds to α-GlcNAc. In contrast, a polyclonal antibody against ORF105, a short tail fiber component previously shown to be an RBP, inhibited phage infection irrespective of the presence of α-GlcNAc. Immunoelectron microscopy indicated that ORF103 is a tail fiber component localized at the bottom of the baseplate. From these results, we conclude that ORF103 binds α-GlcNAc in WTAs, whereas ORF105, the primary RBP, is likely to bind the WTA backbone. These findings provide insight into the infection mechanism of staphylococcal Twort-like phages. IMPORTANCE Staphylococcus phages belonging to the genus Twortlikevirus (called staphylococcal Twort-like phages) are considered promising agents for control of Staphylococcus aureus due to their wide host range and highly lytic capabilities. Although staphylococcal Twort-like phages have been studied widely for therapeutic purposes, the host recognition process of staphylococcal Twort

  13. A giant Pseudomonas phage from Poland.

    PubMed

    Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Olszak, Tomasz; Danis, Katarzyna; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grazyna; Ackermann, Hans-W

    2014-03-01

    A novel giant phage of the family Myoviridae is described. Pseudomonas phage PA5oct was isolated from a sewage sample from an irrigated field near Wroclaw, Poland. The virion morphology indicates that PA5oct differs from known giant phages. The phage has a head of about 131 nm in diameter and a tail of 136 × 19 nm. Phage PA5oct contains a genome of approximately 375 kbp and differs in size from any tailed phages known. PA5oct was further characterized by determination of its latent period and burst size and its sensitivity to heating, chloroform, and pH.

  14. The filamentous phage ϕRSS1 enhances virulence of phytopathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum on tomato.

    PubMed

    Addy, Hardian S; Askora, Ahmed; Kawasaki, Takeru; Fujie, Makoto; Yamada, Takashi

    2012-03-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is the causative agent of bacterial wilt in many important crops. ϕRSS1 is a filamentous phage that infects R. solanacearum strains. Upon infection, it alters the physiological state and the behavior of host cells. Here, we show that R. solanacearum infected by ϕRSS1 becomes more virulent on host plants. Some virulence and pathogenicity factors, such as extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) synthesis and twitching motility, increased in the bacterial host cells infected with ϕRSS1, resulting in early wilting. Tomato plants inoculated with ϕRSS1-infected bacteria wilted 2 to 3 days earlier than those inoculated with wild-type bacteria. Infection with ϕRSS1 induced early expression of phcA, the global virulence regulator. phcA expression was detected in ϕRSS1-infected cells at cell density as low as 10(4) CFU/ml. Filamentous phages are assembled on the host cell surface and many phage particles accumulate on the cell surface. These surface-associated phage particles (phage proteins) may change the cell surface nature (hydrophobicity) to give high local cell densities. ϕRSS1 infection also enhanced PilA and type IV pilin production, resulting in increased twitching motility.

  15. Identification of a New P335 Subgroup through Molecular Analysis of Lactococcal Phages Q33 and BM13

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, Jennifer; Martel, Bruno; Tremblay, Denise M.; Neve, Horst; Heller, Knut J.; Moineau, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Lactococcal dairy starter strains are under constant threat from phages in dairy fermentation facilities, especially by members of the so-called 936, P335, and c2 species. Among these three phage groups, members of the P335 species are the most genetically diverse. Here, we present the complete genome sequences of two P335-type phages, Q33 and BM13, isolated in North America and representing a novel lineage within this phage group. The Q33 and BM13 genomes exhibit homology, not only to P335-type, but also to elements of the 936-type phage sequences. The two phage genomes also have close relatedness to phages infecting Enterococcus and Clostridium, a heretofore unknown feature among lactococcal P335 phages. The Q33 and BM13 genomes are organized in functionally related clusters with genes encoding functions such as DNA replication and packaging, morphogenesis, and host cell lysis. Electron micrographic analysis of the two phages highlights the presence of a baseplate more reminiscent of the baseplate of 936 phages than that of the majority of members of the P335 group, with the exception of r1t and LC3. PMID:23666331

  16. Spatial vulnerability: bacterial arrangements, microcolonies, and biofilms as responses to low rather than high phage densities.

    PubMed

    Abedon, Stephen T

    2012-05-01

    The ability of bacteria to survive and propagate can be dramatically reduced upon exposure to lytic bacteriophages. Study of this impact, from a bacterium's perspective, tends to focus on phage-bacterial interactions that are governed by mass action, such as can be observed within continuous flow or similarly planktonic ecosystems. Alternatively, bacterial molecular properties can be examined, such as specific phage‑resistance adaptations. In this study I address instead how limitations on bacterial movement, resulting in the formation of cellular arrangements, microcolonies, or biofilms, could increase the vulnerability of bacteria to phages. Principally: (1) Physically associated clonal groupings of bacteria can represent larger targets for phage adsorption than individual bacteria; and (2), due to a combination of proximity and similar phage susceptibility, individual bacteria should be especially vulnerable to phages infecting within the same clonal, bacterial grouping. Consistent with particle transport theory-the physics of movement within fluids-these considerations are suggestive that formation into arrangements, microcolonies, or biofilms could be either less profitable to bacteria when phage predation pressure is high or require more effective phage-resistance mechanisms than seen among bacteria not living within clonal clusters. I consider these ideas of bacterial 'spatial vulnerability' in part within a phage therapy context.

  17. Isolation and characterization of novel giant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia phage phiSMA5.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsiao-Chuan; Chen, Chiy-Rong; Lin, Juey-Wen; Shen, Gwan-Han; Chang, Kai-Ming; Tseng, Yi-Hsiung; Weng, Shu-Fen

    2005-03-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is one of the most prevalent opportunistic bacteria causing nosocomial infections. It has become problematic because most of the isolates are resistant to multiple antibiotics, and therefore, development of phage therapy has attracted strong attention. In this study, eight S. maltophilia phages were isolated from clinical samples including patient specimens, catheter-related devices, and wastewater. These phages can be divided into four distinct groups based on host range and digestibility of the phage DNAs with different restriction endonucleases. One of them, designated phiSMA5, was further characterized. Electron microscopy showed it resembled Myoviridae, with an isometric head (90 nm in diameter), a tail (90 nm long), a baseplate (25 nm wide), and short tail fibers. The phiSMA5 double-stranded DNA, refractory to digestion by most restriction enzymes, was tested and estimated to be 250 kb by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This genome size is second to that of the largest phage, phiKZ of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 25 virion proteins were visualized. N-terminal sequencing of four of them suggested that each of them might have had its N terminus cleaved off. Among the 87 S. maltophilia strains collected in this study, only 61 were susceptible to phiSMA5, indicating that more phages are needed toward a phage therapy strategy. Since literature search yielded no information about S. maltophilia phages, phiSMA5 appears to be the first reported.

  18. A bioinformatic analysis of ribonucleotide reductase genes in phage genomes and metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), the enzyme responsible for the formation of deoxyribonucleotides from ribonucleotides, is found in all domains of life and many viral genomes. RNRs are also amongst the most abundant genes identified in environmental metagenomes. This study focused on understanding the distribution, diversity, and evolution of RNRs in phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Hidden Markov Model profiles were used to analyze the proteins encoded by 685 completely sequenced double-stranded DNA phages and 22 environmental viral metagenomes to identify RNR homologs in cultured phages and uncultured viral communities, respectively. Results RNRs were identified in 128 phage genomes, nearly tripling the number of phages known to encode RNRs. Class I RNR was the most common RNR class observed in phages (70%), followed by class II (29%) and class III (28%). Twenty-eight percent of the phages contained genes belonging to multiple RNR classes. RNR class distribution varied according to phage type, isolation environment, and the host’s ability to utilize oxygen. The majority of the phages containing RNRs are Myoviridae (65%), followed by Siphoviridae (30%) and Podoviridae (3%). The phylogeny and genomic organization of phage and host RNRs reveal several distinct evolutionary scenarios involving horizontal gene transfer, co-evolution, and differential selection pressure. Several putative split RNR genes interrupted by self-splicing introns or inteins were identified, providing further evidence for the role of frequent genetic exchange. Finally, viral metagenomic data indicate that RNRs are prevalent and highly dynamic in uncultured viral communities, necessitating future research to determine the environmental conditions under which RNRs provide a selective advantage. Conclusions This comprehensive study describes the distribution, diversity, and evolution of RNRs in phage genomes and environmental viral metagenomes. The distinct distributions of

  19. φ29 Family of Phages

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Wilfried J. J.; Horcajadas, José A.; Salas, Margarita

    2001-01-01

    Continuous research spanning more than three decades has made the Bacillus bacteriophage φ29 a paradigm for several molecular mechanisms of general biological processes, such as DNA replication, regulation of transcription, phage morphogenesis, and phage DNA packaging. The genome of bacteriophage φ29 consists of a linear double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), which has a terminal protein (TP) covalently linked to its 5′ ends. Initiation of DNA replication, carried out by a protein-primed mechanism, has been studied in detail and is considered to be a model system for the protein-primed DNA replication that is also used by most other linear genomes with a TP linked to their DNA ends, such as other phages, linear plasmids, and adenoviruses. In addition to a continuing progress in unraveling the initiation of DNA replication mechanism and the role of various proteins involved in this process, major advances have been made during the last few years, especially in our understanding of transcription regulation, the head-tail connector protein, and DNA packaging. Recent progress in all these topics is reviewed. In addition to φ29, the genomes of several other Bacillus phages consist of a linear dsDNA with a TP molecule attached to their 5′ ends. These φ29-like phages can be divided into three groups. The first group includes, in addition to φ29, phages PZA, φ15, and BS32. The second group comprises B103, Nf, and M2Y, and the third group contains GA-1 as its sole member. Whereas the DNA sequences of the complete genomes of φ29 (group I) and B103 (group II) are known, only parts of the genome of GA-1 (group III) were sequenced. We have determined the complete DNA sequence of the GA-1 genome, which allowed analysis of differences and homologies between the three groups of φ29-like phages, which is included in this review. PMID:11381102

  20. Biogeographic Variation in Host Range Phenotypes and Taxonomic Composition of Marine Cyanophage Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, China A.; Marston, Marcia F.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the important role of phages in marine systems, little is understood about how their diversity is distributed in space. Biogeographic patterns of marine phages may be difficult to detect due to their vast genetic diversity, which may not be accurately represented by conserved marker genes. To investigate the spatial biogeographic structure of marine phages, we isolated over 400 cyanophages on Synechococcus host strain WH7803 at three coastal locations in the United States (Rhode Island, Washington, and southern California). Approximately 90% of the cyanophage isolates were myoviruses, while the other 10% were podoviruses. The diversity of isolates was further characterized in two ways: (i) taxonomically, using conserved marker genes and (ii) phenotypically, by testing isolates for their ability to infect a suite of hosts, or their “host range.” Because host range is a highly variable trait even among closely related isolates, we hypothesized that host range phenotypes of cyanophage isolates would vary more strongly among locations than would taxonomic composition. Instead, we found evidence for strong biogeographic variation both in taxonomic composition and host range phenotypes, with little taxonomic overlap among the three coastal regions. For both taxonomic composition and host range phenotypes, cyanophage communities from California and Rhode Island were the most dissimilar, while Washington communities exhibited similarity to each of the other two locations. These results suggest that selection imposed by spatial variation in host dynamics influence the biogeographic distribution of cyanophages. PMID:27446023

  1. Conditionally replicating luciferase reporter phages: improved sensitivity for rapid detection and assessment of drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Carrière, C; Riska, P F; Zimhony, O; Kriakov, J; Bardarov, S; Burns, J; Chan, J; Jacobs, W R

    1997-01-01

    TM4 is a lytic mycobacteriophage which infects mycobacteria of clinical importance. A luciferase reporter phage, phAE40, has been constructed from TM4 and was previously shown to be useful for the rapid detection and drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the lytic nature of the phage results in a loss of detectable light output and limits the sensitivity of detection. We describe several strategies aimed at improving the luciferase activity generated by TM4 luciferase phages, including (i) varying the position of the luciferase gene in the phage genome, (ii) isolating host-range mutants of the phage, and (iii) introducing temperature-sensitive mutations in the phage such that it will not replicate at the infecting temperature. Several new phages generated by these methods show increased intensity of luciferase production compared to the first-generation reporter phage phAE40, and one phage, phAE88, also demonstrates an enhanced duration of luciferase activity. This has allowed the detection of as few as 120 BCG cells and the determination of drug susceptibilities of M. tuberculosis in as little as 1 day. PMID:9399525

  2. Genetic diversity and infection levels of anisakid nematodes parasitic in fish and marine mammals from Boreal and Austral hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Mattiucci, Simonetta; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2007-08-19

    Anisakid nematodes have complex life-cycles that include invertebrate and vertebrate hosts at various levels of the marine food chain. Different types of habitat disturbances of the marine ecosystem (pollution, overfishing, by-catch) could impoverish the host population size, resulting in concomitant and detrimental effects on parasitic nematode populations. This in turn would lead to the loss of genetic diversity of these parasites at both the species and population levels. In order to test for a correlation existing between the genetic diversity of anisakid nematodes and habitat disturbance, the genetic variability, estimated by nuclear markers (19 allozyme loci), was evaluated among several anisakid populations from fish and marine mammals in various areas of the Boreal and Austral regions. Antarctic and sub-antarctic populations showed significantly (P<0.001) higher levels of genetic diversity (on average, He=0.23) than those from the Arctic and sub-Arctic populations and species (on average, He=0.07). Correlations between the degree of genetic variability and the levels of parasitic infections within their hosts were considered. Data revealed higher intensities in anisakid infections in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic hosts, presumably resulting from a lower degree of habitat disturbance in less stressed areas. The absence of disturbance presumably allowed anisakid species to reach a larger population size, with a reduced probability of genetic drift in their gene pools. This suggests that anisakid nematodes, and their levels of genetic diversity may be suitable indicators of the integrity of marine food webs and of the general biodiversity of a marine ecosystem.

  3. Polar flagella rotation in Vibrio parahaemolyticus confers resistance to bacteriophage infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Lu; Zhao, Zhe; Peng, Daxin; Zhou, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophage has been recognized as a novel approach to treat bacterial infectious diseases. However, phage resistance may reduce the efficacy of phage therapy. Here, we described a mechanism of bacterial resistance to phage infections. In Gram-negative enteric pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus, we found that polar flagella can reduce the phage infectivity. Deletion of polar flagella, but not the lateral flagella, can dramatically promote the adsorption of phage to the bacteria and enhances the phage infectivity to V. parahaemolyticus, indicating that polar flagella play an inhibitory role in the phage infection. Notably, it is the rotation, not the physical presence, of polar flagella that inhibits the phage infection of V. parahaemolyticus. Strikingly, phage dramatically reduces the virulence of V. parahaemolyticus only when polar flagella were absent both in vitro and in vivo. These results indicated that polar flagella rotation is a previously unidentified mechanism that confers bacteriophage resistance. PMID:27189325

  4. The Promise of Bacteriophage Therapy for Burkholderia cepacia Complex Respiratory Infections

    PubMed Central

    Semler, Diana D.; Lynch, Karlene H.; Dennis, Jonathan J.

    2012-01-01

    In recent times, increased attention has been given to evaluating the efficacy of phage therapy, especially in scenarios where the bacterial infectious agent of interest is highly antibiotic resistant. In this regard, phage therapy is especially applicable to infections caused by the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) since members of the BCC are antibiotic pan-resistant. Current studies in BCC phage therapy are unique from many other avenues of phage therapy research in that the investigation is not only comprised of phage isolation, in vitro phage characterization and assessment of in vivo infection model efficacy, but also adapting aerosol drug delivery techniques to aerosol phage formulation delivery and storage. PMID:22919592

  5. Comparative genomics of phages and prophages in lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Desiere, Frank; Lucchini, Sacha; Canchaya, Carlos; Ventura, Marco; Brüssow, Harald

    2002-08-01

    Comparative phage genomics has become possible due to the availability of more than 100 complete phage genome sequences and the development of powerful bioinformatics tools. This technology, profiting from classical molecular-biology knowledge, has opened avenues of research for topics, which were difficult to address in the past. Now, it is possible to retrace part of the evolutionary history of phage modules by comparative genomics. The diagnosis of relatedness is hereby not uniquely based on sequence similarity alone, but includes topological considerations of genome organization. Detailed transcription maps have allowed in silico predictions of genome organization to be verified and refined. This comparative knowledge is providing the basis for a new taxonomic classification concept for bacteriophages infecting low G + C-content Gram-positive bacteria based on the genetic organization of the structural gene module. An Sfi21-like and an Sfi11-like genus of Siphoviridae is proposed. The gene maps of many phages show remarkable synteny in their structural genes defining a lambda super-group within Siphoviridae. A hierarchy of relatedness within the lambda super-group suggests elements of vertical evolution in Siphoviridae. Tailed phages are the result of both vertical and horizontal evolution and are thus fascinating objects for the study of molecular evolution. Prophage sequences integrated into the genomes of their bacterial host present theoretical challenges for evolutionary biologists. Prophages represent up to 10% of the genome in some LAB. In pathogenic streptococci prophages confer genes of selective value for the lysogenic cell. The lysogenic conversion genes are located between the lysin gene and the right phage attachment site. Non-attributed genes were found at the same genome position of prophages from lactic streptococci. These genes belong to the few prophage genes transcribed in the lysogen. Prophages from dairy bacteria might therefore also

  6. Viral infection of the marine alga Emiliania huxleyi triggers lipidome remodeling and induces the production of highly saturated triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Malitsky, Sergey; Ziv, Carmit; Rosenwasser, Shilo; Zheng, Shuning; Schatz, Daniella; Porat, Ziv; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Aharoni, Asaph; Vardi, Assaf

    2016-04-01

    Viruses that infect marine photosynthetic microorganisms are major ecological and evolutionary drivers of microbial food webs, estimated to turn over more than a quarter of the total photosynthetically fixed carbon. Viral infection of the bloom-forming microalga Emiliania huxleyi induces the rapid remodeling of host primary metabolism, targeted towards fatty acid metabolism. We applied a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based lipidomics approach combined with imaging flow cytometry and gene expression profiling to explore the impact of viral-induced metabolic reprogramming on lipid composition. Lytic viral infection led to remodeling of the cellular lipidome, by predominantly inducing the biosynthesis of highly saturated triacylglycerols (TAGs), coupled with a significant accumulation of neutral lipids within lipid droplets. Furthermore, TAGs were found to be a major component (77%) of the lipidome of isolated virions. Interestingly, viral-induced TAGs were significantly more saturated than TAGs produced under nitrogen starvation. This study highlights TAGs as major products of the viral-induced metabolic reprogramming during the host-virus interaction and indicates a selective mode of membrane recruitment during viral assembly, possibly by budding of the virus from specialized subcellular compartments. These findings provide novel insights into the role of viruses infecting microalgae in regulating metabolism and energy transfer in the marine environment and suggest their possible biotechnological application in biofuel production.

  7. Coliphage and indigenous phage in Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Paul, J H; Rose, J B; Jiang, S C; London, P; Xhou, X; Kellogg, C

    1997-01-01

    Public concern over the discharge of primarily treated sewage by two offshore outfalls in Mamala Bay, Oahu, prompted a multidisciplinary study to determine the impact of such activities on the water quality in the bay and at adjacent recreational beaches. As part of this study, we determined the abundance of coliphage as an indicator of fecal pollution along with total viral direct counts and phages infective for Vibrio parahaemoltyicus 16 at stations in Mamala Bay in four quarterly samplings over 13 months. Coliphage (< 1 to 1.2 x 10(3)/liter) were found during each quarterly sampling along an offshore transect to the Sand Island waste treatment facility outfall. The nonpoint coastal stations (Pearl Harbor, Ala Wai Canal, and Ke'ehi Lagoon) had high levels of coliphage during the storm event sampling in February 1994 but much lower levels or none when sampled during dry weather. Coliphage were absent at all samplings at Waikiki Beach and at the control station off Diamond Head. Viral direct counts in eutrophic coastal stations (Pearl Harbor, Ke'ehi Lagoon, Ala Moana Beach, and Ala Wai canal) averaged 10(9)/liter, while counts at offshore stations ranged from 9 x 10(7) to 1 x 10(9) viruses/liter, values similar to those for other marine environments. Vibriophage were found mainly in eutrophic coastal environments (Ala Wai Canal, Pearl Harbor, and Ke'ehi Lagoon) and at the Sand Island Transect stations D1 and D2. The greatest abundance was found during the storm event (February 1994) sampling. These results suggest that the Sand Island outfall influenced the water quality of the immediate surrounding waters but had little effect on the quality of the recreational beaches. Nonpoint discharge sources appeared to be more important in the distribution of fecal indicators in the coastal zone.

  8. Amoeba-like infections in cultured marine fishes: systemic infection in pompano Trachinotus falcatus L. from Singapore and gill disease associated with Paramoeba sp. in sea bream Sparus aurata L. from Greece.

    PubMed

    Athanassopoulou, F; Cawthorn, R; Lytra, K

    2002-10-01

    Two cases of Amoeba-like infections in cultured warmwater marine fish are described, an unusual systemic infection in pompano Trachinotus falcatus L. from Singapore and a gill infection in Mediterranean sea bream Sparus aurata L. All pompano showed marked systemic infection of Amoeba-like parasites in gills, kidney, intestine, pancreas and spleen. The most severe lesions were in the gills and renal tissue with minimal tissue reaction in other organs.

  9. Application of phage therapy during bivalve depuration improves Escherichia coli decontamination.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Moreirinha, Catarina; Teles, Luís; Rocha, Rui J M; Calado, Ricardo; Romalde, Jesús L; Nunes, Maria L; Almeida, Adelaide

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated the potential application of the bacteriophage (or phage) phT4A, ECA2 and the phage cocktail phT4A/ECA2 to decrease the concentration of Escherichia coli during the depuration of natural and artificially contaminated cockles. Depuration in static seawater at multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 with single phage suspensions of phT4A and ECA2 was the best condition, as it decreased by ∼2.0 log CFU/g the concentration of E. coli in artificially contaminated cockles after a 4 h of treatment. When naturally contaminated cockles were treated in static seawater with single phage suspensions and the phage cocktail, similar decreases in the concentration of E. coli (∼0.7 log CFU/g) were achieved. However, when employing the phage cocktail, a longer treatment time was required to obtain comparable results to those achieved when using single phage suspensions. When naturally contaminated cockles were depurated with phage phT4A in a recirculated seawater system (mimicking industrial depuration conditions), a 0.6 log CFU/g reduction of E. coli was achieved after a 2 h of treatment. When the depuration process was performed without phage addition, a 4 h treatment was necessary to obtain a similar decrease. By combining phage therapy and depuration procedures, a reduction in bivalves depuration period can be achieved for, thus decreasing the cost associated with this procedure and even enhance the quality and safety of depurated bivalves destined for human consumption.

  10. Phage-driven loss of virulence in a fish pathogenic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Laanto, Elina; Bamford, Jaana K H; Laakso, Jouni; Sundberg, Lotta-Riina

    2012-12-20

    Parasites provide a selective pressure during the evolution of their hosts, and mediate a range of effects on ecological communities. Due to their short generation time, host-parasite interactions may also drive the virulence of opportunistic bacteria. This is especially relevant in systems where high densities of hosts and parasites on different trophic levels (e.g. vertebrate hosts, their bacterial pathogens, and virus parasitizing bacteria) co-exist. In farmed salmonid fingerlings, Flavobacterium columnare is an emerging pathogen, and phage that infect F. columnare have been isolated. However, the impact of these phage on their host bacterium is not well understood. To study this, four strains of F. columnare were exposed to three isolates of lytic phage and the development of phage resistance and changes in colony morphology were monitored. Using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model system, the ancestral rhizoid morphotypes were associated with a 25-100% mortality rate, whereas phage-resistant rough morphotypes that lost their virulence and gliding motility (which are key characteristics of the ancestral types), did not affect zebrafish survival. Both morphotypes maintained their colony morphologies over ten serial passages in liquid culture, except for the low-virulence strain, Os06, which changed morphology with each passage. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the effects of phage-host interactions in a commercially important fish pathogen where phage resistance directly correlates with a decline in bacterial virulence. These results suggest that phage can cause phenotypic changes in F. columnare outside the fish host, and antagonistic interactions between bacterial pathogens and their parasitic phage can favor low bacterial virulence under natural conditions. Furthermore, these results suggest that phage-based therapies can provide a disease management strategy for columnaris disease in aquaculture.

  11. Characterization of novel virulent broad-host-range phages of Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Stephen J; Das, Mayukh; Bhowmick, Tushar Suvra; Young, Ry; Gonzalez, Carlos F

    2014-01-01

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of several plant diseases, most notably Pierce's disease of grape and citrus variegated chlorosis. We report the isolation and characterization of the first virulent phages for X. fastidiosa, siphophages Sano and Salvo and podophages Prado and Paz, with a host range that includes Xanthomonas spp. Phages propagated on homologous hosts had observed adsorption rate constants of ~4 × 10(-12) ml cell(-1) min(-1) for X. fastidiosa strain Temecula 1 and ~5 × 10(-10) to 7 × 10(-10) ml cell(-1) min(-1) for Xanthomonas strain EC-12. Sano and Salvo exhibit >80% nucleotide identity to each other in aligned regions and are syntenic to phage BcepNazgul. We propose that phage BcepNazgul is the founding member of a novel phage type, to which Sano and Salvo belong. The lysis genes of the Nazgul-like phage type include a gene that encodes an outer membrane lipoprotein endolysin and also spanin gene families that provide insight into the evolution of the lysis pathway for phages of Gram-negative hosts. Prado and Paz, although exhibiting no significant DNA homology to each other, are new members of the phiKMV-like phage type, based on the position of the single-subunit RNA polymerase gene. The four phages are type IV pilus dependent for infection of both X. fastidiosa and Xanthomonas. The phages may be useful as agents for an effective and environmentally responsible strategy for the control of diseases caused by X. fastidiosa.

  12. Who went into phage research?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A total of 30,000 phage papers, books, or book chapters, published between 1965 and 2010, were analyzed for the ethnic origins of 14,429 first authors. Their names represent 40 linguistic domains or geographic areas and at least 70 languages. British and German names predominate. Results broadly concur with statistics on the frequency of publications by country and show the growing role of Third-World countries in phage research. Irish and Jewish scientists are prominent. Historical and societal factors appear to be very important elements in the advancement of science. PMID:22666657

  13. The T7-Related Pseudomonas putida Phage ϕ15 Displays Virion-Associated Biofilm Degradation Properties

    PubMed Central

    Cornelissen, Anneleen; Ceyssens, Pieter-Jan; T'Syen, Jeroen; Van Praet, Helena; Noben, Jean-Paul; Shaburova, Olga V.; Krylov, Victor N.; Volckaert, Guido; Lavigne, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Formation of a protected biofilm environment is recognized as one of the major causes of the increasing antibiotic resistance development and emphasizes the need to develop alternative antibacterial strategies, like phage therapy. This study investigates the in vitro degradation of single-species Pseudomonas putida biofilms, PpG1 and RD5PR2, by the novel phage ϕ15, a ‘T7-like virus’ with a virion-associated exopolysaccharide (EPS) depolymerase. Phage ϕ15 forms plaques surrounded by growing opaque halo zones, indicative for EPS degradation, on seven out of 53 P. putida strains. The absence of haloes on infection resistant strains suggests that the EPS probably act as a primary bacterial receptor for phage infection. Independent of bacterial strain or biofilm age, a time and dose dependent response of ϕ15-mediated biofilm degradation was observed with generally a maximum biofilm degradation 8 h after addition of the higher phage doses (104 and 106 pfu) and resistance development after 24 h. Biofilm age, an in vivo very variable parameter, reduced markedly phage-mediated degradation of PpG1 biofilms, while degradation of RD5PR2 biofilms and ϕ15 amplification were unaffected. Killing of the planktonic culture occurred in parallel with but was always more pronounced than biofilm degradation, accentuating the need for evaluating phages for therapeutic purposes in biofilm conditions. EPS degrading activity of recombinantly expressed viral tail spike was confirmed by capsule staining. These data suggests that the addition of high initial titers of specifically selected phages with a proper EPS depolymerase are crucial criteria in the development of phage therapy. PMID:21526174

  14. Global Transcriptional Analysis of Virus-Host Interactions between Phage ϕ29 and Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The study of phage-host relationships is essential to understanding the dynamic of microbial systems. Here, we analyze genome-wide interactions of Bacillus subtilis and its lytic phage ϕ29 during the early stage of infection. Simultaneous high-resolution analysis of virus and host transcriptomes by deep RNA sequencing allowed us to identify differentially expressed bacterial genes. Phage ϕ29 induces significant transcriptional changes in about 0.9% (38/4,242) and 1.8% (76/4,242) of the host protein-coding genes after 8 and 16 min of infection, respectively. Gene ontology enrichment analysis clustered upregulated genes into several functional categories, such as nucleic acid metabolism (including DNA replication) and protein metabolism (including translation). Surprisingly, most of the transcriptional repressed genes were involved in the utilization of specific carbon sources such as ribose and inositol, and many contained promoter binding-sites for the catabolite control protein A (CcpA). Another interesting finding is the presence of previously uncharacterized antisense transcripts complementary to the well-known phage ϕ29 messenger RNAs that adds an additional layer to the viral transcriptome complexity. IMPORTANCE The specific virus-host interactions that allow phages to redirect cellular machineries and energy resources to support the viral progeny production are poorly understood. This study provides, for the first time, an insight into the genome-wide transcriptional response of the Gram-positive model Bacillus subtilis to phage ϕ29 infection. PMID:27489274

  15. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer between Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia phage

    PubMed Central

    Rosenwald, Anne G; Murray, Bradley; Toth, Theodore; Madupu, Ramana; Kyrillos, Alexandra; Arora, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia-infecting bacteriophages, members of the Microviridae family, specifically the Gokushovirinae subfamily, are small (4.5–5 kb) single-stranded circles with 8–10 open-reading frames similar to E. coli phage ϕX174. Using sequence information found in GenBank, we examined related genes in Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia-infecting bacteriophages. The 5 completely sequenced C. pneumoniae strains contain a gene orthologous to a phage gene annotated as the putative replication initiation protein (PRIP, also called VP4), which is not found in any other members of the Chlamydiaceae family sequenced to date. The C. pneumoniae strain infecting koalas, LPCoLN, in addition contains another region orthologous to phage sequences derived from the minor capsid protein gene, VP3. Phylogenetically, the phage PRIP sequences are more diverse than the bacterial PRIP sequences; nevertheless, the bacterial sequences and the phage sequences each cluster together in their own clade. Finally, we found evidence for another Microviridae phage-related gene, the major capsid protein gene, VP1 in a number of other bacterial species and 2 eukaryotes, the woodland strawberry and a nematode. Thus, we find considerable evidence for DNA sequences related to genes found in bacteriophages of the Microviridae family not only in a variety of prokaryotic but also eukaryotic species. PMID:26713222

  16. CRISPR: new horizons in phage resistance and strain identification.

    PubMed

    Barrangou, Rodolphe; Horvath, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria have been widely used as starter cultures in the food industry, notably for the fermentation of milk into dairy products such as cheese and yogurt. Lactic acid bacteria used in food manufacturing, such as lactobacilli, lactococci, streptococci, Leuconostoc, pediococci, and bifidobacteria, are selectively formulated based on functional characteristics that provide idiosyncratic flavor and texture attributes, as well as their ability to withstand processing and manufacturing conditions. Unfortunately, given frequent viral exposure in industrial environments, starter culture selection and development rely on defense systems that provide resistance against bacteriophage predation, including restriction-modification, abortive infection, and recently discovered CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats). CRISPRs, together with CRISPR-associated genes (cas), form the CRISPR/Cas immune system, which provides adaptive immunity against phages and invasive genetic elements. The immunization process is based on the incorporation of short DNA sequences from virulent phages into the CRISPR locus. Subsequently, CRISPR transcripts are processed into small interfering RNAs that guide a multifunctional protein complex to recognize and cleave matching foreign DNA. Hypervariable CRISPR loci provide insights into the phage and host population dynamics, and new avenues for enhanced phage resistance and genetic typing and tagging of industrial strains.

  17. Characterization of phages virulent for Sarothamnus scoparius bradyrhizobia.

    PubMed

    Małek, Wanda; Sajnaga, Ewa; Wdowiak-Wróbel, Sylwia; Studzińska, Bozena; Icka, Izabela Swie; Nosalewicz, Izabela; Słomka, Marta; Tatara, Agnieszka; Gawron, Antoni

    2005-10-01

    Four virulent phages--PhiDl, PhiTl, PhiCYT21, and PhiOS6, infective on Sarothamnus scoparius rhizobia--were isolated from the soil and characterized for morphology, host range, rate of adsorption to bacterial cells, and genome size. New phages were separated into two morphological families: Siphoviridae with long, noncontractile tails (PhiDl, PhiTl) and Myoviridae with long, contractile tails (PhiCYT21, PhiOS6). They were also classified into two groups by a host specificity. One of them included viruses (PhiDl and PhiTl) that lysed S. scoparius bradyrhizobia and Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) strain Dl, and the second one comprised phages (PhiCYT21 and PhiOS6) that parasitized only Scotch broom native microsymbionts. Phages specific for S. scoparius rhizobia were differentiated not only by morphology and host range but also by a genome size that was in the range from 47,583 to 60,098 b.p.

  18. Thioredoxin is required for filamentous phage assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Russel, M; Model, P

    1985-01-01

    Sequence comparisons show that the fip gene product of Escherichia coli, which is required for filamentous phage assembly, is thioredoxin. Thioredoxin serves as a cofactor for reductive processes in many cell types and is a constituent of phage T7 DNA polymerase. The fip-1 mutation makes filamentous phage and T7 growth temperature sensitive in cells that carry it. The lesion lies within a highly conserved thioredoxin active site. Thioredoxin reductase (NADPH), as well as thioredoxin, is required for efficient filamentous phage production. Mutant phages defective in phage gene I are particularly sensitive to perturbations in the fip-thioredoxin system. A speculative model is presented in which thioredoxin reductase, thioredoxin, and the gene I protein interact to drive an engine for filamentous phage assembly. Images PMID:3881756

  19. Complete nucleotide sequence of a new filamentous phage, Xf109, which integrates its genome into the chromosomal DNA of Xanthomonas oryzae.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ting Y

    2017-02-01

    Unlike Ff-like coliphages, certain filamentous Inoviridae phages integrate their genomes into the host chromosome and enter a prophage state in their infectious cycle. This lysogenic life cycle was first reported for Xanthomonas citri Cf phage. However, except for the X. citri phages Cf and XacF1, complete genome sequence information about lysogenic Xanthomonas phages is not available to date. A proviral sequence of Xf109 phage was identified in the genome of Xanthomonas oryzae, the rice bacterial blight pathogen, and revived as infectious virions to lysogenize its host de novo. The genome of Xf109 phage is 7190 nucleotides in size and contains 12 predicted open reading frames in an organization similar to that of the Cf phage genome. Seven of the Xf109 proteins show significant sequence similarity to Cf and XacF1 phage proteins, while its ORF4 shares 92 % identity with the major coat protein of X. phage oryzae Xf. Integration of Xf109 phage DNA into the host genome is site-specific, and the attP/attB sequence contains the dif core sequence 5'-TATACATTATGCGAA-3', which is identical to that of Cf, XacF1, and Xanthomonas campestris phage ϕLf. To my knowledge, this is the first complete genome sequence of a filamentous bacteriophage that infects X. oryzae.

  20. Anisakis simplex larvae: infection status in marine fish and cephalopods purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Jung; Jo, Jin Ok; Cho, Min Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun; Cha, Hee Jae; Ock, Mee Sun

    2011-03-01

    The infection status of marine fish and cephalopods with Anisakis simplex third stage larva (L3) was studied over a period of 1 year. A total of 2,537 specimens, which consisted of 40 species of fish and 3 species of cephalopods, were purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea, from August 2006 to July 2007. They were examined for A. simplex L3 from the whole body cavity, viscera, and muscles. A. simplex L3 were confirmed by light microscopy. The overall infection rate reached 34.3%, and average 17.1 larvae were parasitized per infected fish. Fish that recorded the highest infection rate was Lophiomus setigerus (100%), followed by Liparis tessellates (90%), Pleurogrammus azonus (90%), and Scomber japonicus (88.7%). The intensity of infection was the highest in Gadus macrocephalus (117.7 larvae per fish), followed by S. japonicus (103.9 larvae) and L. setigerus (54.2 larvae). Although abundance of A. simplex L3 was not seasonal in most of the fish species, 10 of the 16 selected species showed the highest abundance in February and April. A positive correlation between the intensity of L3 infection and the fish length was obvious in S. japonicus and G. macrocephalus. It was likely that A. simplex L3 are more frequently infected during the spring season in some species of fish. Our study revealed that eating raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods could still be a source of human infection with A. simplex L3 in Korea.

  1. Prospects of Phage Application in the Treatment of Acne Caused by Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Żaczek, Maciej; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Łusiak-Szelchowska, Marzanna; Górski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is associated with purulent skin infections, and it poses a global problem for both patients and doctors. Acne vulgaris (acne) remains a problem due to its chronic character and difficulty of treatment, as well as its large impact on patients' quality of life. Due to the chronic course of the disease, treatment is long lasting, and often ineffective. Currently there are data regarding isolation of P. acnes phages, and there have been numerous studies on phage killing of P. acnes, but no data are available on phage application specifically in acne treatment. In this review, we have summarized the current knowledge on the phages active against P. acnes described so far and their potential application in the treatment of acne associated with P. acnes. The treatment of acne with phages may be important in order to reduce the overuse of antibiotics, which are currently the main acne treatment. However, more detailed studies are first needed to understand phage functioning in the skin microbiome and the possibility to use phages to combat P. acnes. PMID:28228751

  2. New rapid and simple methods for detection of bacteria and determination of their antibiotic susceptibility by using phage mutants.

    PubMed

    Ulitzur, Nirit; Ulitzur, Shimon

    2006-12-01

    Three new methods applying a novel approach for rapid and simple detection of specific bacteria, based on plaque formation as the end point of the phage lytic cycle, are described. Different procedures were designed to ensure that the resulting plaques were derived only from infected target bacteria ("infectious centers"). (i) A pair of amber mutants that cannot form plaques at concentrations lower than their reversion rate underwent complementation in the tested bacteria; the number of plaques formed was proportional to the concentration of the bacteria that were coinfected by these phage mutants. (ii) UV-irradiated phages were recovered by photoreactivation and/or SOS repair mediated by target bacteria and plated on a recA uvrA bacterial lawn in the dark to avoid recovery of noninfecting phages. (iii) Pairs of temperature-sensitive mutants were allowed to coinfect their target bacteria at the permissive temperature, followed by incubation of the plates at the restrictive temperature to avoid phage infection of the host cells. This method allowed the omission of centrifuging and washing the infected cells. Only phages that recovered by recombination or complementation were able to form plaques. The detection limit was 1 to 10 living Salmonella or Escherichia coli O157 cells after 3 to 5 h. The antibiotic susceptibility of the target bacteria could also be determined in each of these procedures by preincubating the target bacteria with antibiotic prior to phage infection. Bacteria sensitive to the antibiotic lost the ability to form infectious centers.

  3. Potential of phage cocktails in the inactivation of Enterobacter cloacae--An in vitro study in a buffer solution and in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Pereira, S; Pereira, C; Santos, L; Klumpp, J; Almeida, A

    2016-01-04

    The objective of this study was to compare the dynamics of three previously isolated phages for Enterobacter cloacae in order to evaluate their ability to treat urinary tract infections (UTI). The phages genomes, survival, host range, were characterized, and the host-phage dynamics was determined in culture medium and urine samples. The presence of prophages in bacteria, host recovery and development of resistance to phage after treatment was also evaluated. The growth of the E. cloacae was inhibited by the three phages, resulting in a decrease of ≈3 log. The use of cocktails with two or three phages was significantly more effective (decrease of ≈4 log). In urine, the inactivation was still effective (≈2 log). Both phages were considered safe to inactivate the bacteria (no integrase and toxin codifying genes). Some bacteria remained viable in the presence of the phages, but their colonies were smaller than those of the non-treated control and were visible only after 5 days of incubation (visible after 24h in the control). A high bacterial inactivation efficiency with phage cocktails combined with the safety of the phages and their long periods of survival, even in urine samples, paves the way for depth studies, especially in vivo studies, to control urinary tract infection and to overcome the development of resistances by the nosocomial bacterium E. cloacae.

  4. Phage displayed peptide recognizing porcine aminopeptidase N is a potent small molecule inhibitor of PEDV entry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three phage-displayed peptides designated H, S and F that recognize porcine aminopeptidase N (pAPN), the cellular receptor of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) were able to inhibit cell infection by TGEV. These same peptides had no inhibitory effects on infection of Vero cells by po...

  5. Transcription of the phage-encoded Panton-Valentine leukocidin of Staphylococcus aureus is dependent on the phage life-cycle and on the host background.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Christiane; Witte, Wolfgang; Wolz, Christiane; Goerke, Christiane

    2009-11-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming, bi-component toxin secreted by Staphylococcus aureus strains epidemiologically associated with diseases such as necrotizing pneumonia and skin and soft-tissue infections. Here we demonstrate that transcription of the phage-encoded PVL (encoded in the luk-PV operon) is dependent on two major determinants: the phage life-cycle and the host chromosomal background. Mitomycin C induction of PVL-encoding prophages from different community-acquired MRSA strains led to an increase in the amount of luk-PV mRNA as a result of read-through transcription from latent phage promoters and an increase in phage copy numbers. Failing prophage excision was reflected in a constant expression of luk-PV as in the case of strain USA300, suggesting that phi Sa2USA300 is a replication-defective prophage. Additionally, we could show that luk-PV transcription is influenced by the S. aureus global virulence regulators agr and sae. We found a strong impact of the host background on prophage induction and replication when analysing PVL phages in different S. aureus strains. For example phage phi Sa2mw was greatly induced by mitomycin C in its native host MW2 and in strain Newman but to a considerably lesser extent in strains 8325-4, RN6390 and ISP479c. This discrepancy was not linked to the SOS response of the bacteria since recA transcription did not vary between the strains. These results suggest a fine tuning between certain phages and their host, with major impact on the expression of phage-encoded virulence genes.

  6. Phage adsorption to Lactobacillus plantarum: influence of physiological and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Marcó, M Briggiler; Reinheimer, J A; Quiberoni, A

    2010-04-15

    Bacteriophage infection of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitutes one of the major problems in the dairy industry, causing economic losses and a constant risk of low quality and/or unsafe foods. The first step in the phage biology is the adsorption on the host cell surface. In a previous study, a remarkable thermal, chemical and photocatalytic resistance was demonstrated by four phages of Lactobacillus plantarum (ATCC 8014-B1, ATCC 8014-B2, FAGK1 and FAGK2). In the present work, these phages were used to characterize the adsorption process on L. plantarum ATCC 8014. Clearly, the characterization of this process could increase the possibilities of design useful strategies in order to prevent phage infections. The influence of Ca(2+), temperature, pH and physiological cell state on phage adsorption was investigated. Burst sizes of phages ATCC 8014-B1 and ATCC 8014-B2 were 60 and 83 PFU/infective centre, respectively. The four phages exhibited a high infectivity even at pH 4 and pH 11. Calcium or magnesium ions were not indispensable for cell lysis and plaque formation, and more than 99% of phage particles were adsorbed either in the presence or absence of Ca(2+), after 15 min at 37 degrees C. Phage adsorption was only partially affected at 50 degrees C, while reached its maximum between 30 and 42 degrees C. The highest adsorption values (99.9%) were observed from pH 5 to 7, after 30 min at 37 degrees C. Adsorption rates decreased after the thermal inactivation of cells, though, when 20 microg/ml of chloramphenicol was used, adsorption values were similar on treated and untreated cells. All these results showed that the adsorption process was only partially affected by a few conditions: thermally killed host cells, an incubation temperature of 50 degrees C and pH values of 9 and 10. Nevertheless, and unfortunately, those conditions are not commonly applied during fermented food manufacturing, thus restricting highly the application of strategies currently available to

  7. The Impact of Prophage on the Equilibria and Stability of Phage and Host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Pei; Nadeem, Alina; Wahl, Lindi M.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a bacteriophage model that includes prophage, that is, phage genomes that are incorporated into the host cell genome. The general model is described by an 18-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations. This study focuses on asymptotic behaviour of the model, and thus the system is reduced to a simple six-dimensional model, involving uninfected host cells, infected host cells and phage. We use dynamical system theory to explore the dynamic behaviour of the model, studying in particular the impact of prophage on the equilibria and stability of phage and host. We employ bifurcation and stability theory, centre manifold and normal form theory to show that the system has multiple equilibrium solutions which undergo a series of bifurcations, finally leading to oscillating motions. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate and confirm the analytical predictions. The results of this study indicate that in some parameter regimes, the host cell population may drive the phage to extinction through diversification, that is, if multiple types of host emerge; this prediction holds even if the phage population is likewise diverse. This parameter regime is restricted, however, if infecting phage are able to recombine with prophage sequences in the host cell genome.

  8. Parasite diversity drives rapid host dynamics and evolution of resistance in a bacteria‐phage system

    PubMed Central

    Betts, Alex; Gifford, Danna R.; MacLean, R. Craig; King, Kayla C.

    2016-01-01

    Host–parasite evolutionary interactions are typically considered in a pairwise species framework. However, natural infections frequently involve multiple parasites. Altering parasite diversity alters ecological and evolutionary dynamics as parasites compete and hosts resist multiple infection. We investigated the effects of parasite diversity on host–parasite population dynamics and evolution using the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and five lytic bacteriophage parasites. To manipulate parasite diversity, bacterial populations were exposed for 24 hours to either phage monocultures or diverse communities containing up to five phages. Phage communities suppressed host populations more rapidly but also showed reduced phage density, likely due to interphage competition. The evolution of resistance allowed rapid bacterial recovery that was greater in magnitude with increases in phage diversity. We observed no difference in the extent of resistance with increased parasite diversity, but there was a profound impact on the specificity of resistance; specialized resistance evolved to monocultures through mutations in a diverse set of genes. In summary, we demonstrate that parasite diversity has rapid effects on host–parasite population dynamics and evolution by selecting for different resistance mutations and affecting the magnitude of bacterial suppression and recovery. Finally, we discuss the implications of phage diversity for their use as biological control agents. PMID:27005577

  9. Genetically engineered virulent phage banks in the detection and control of emergent pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pouillot, Flavie; Blois, Hélène; Iris, François

    2010-06-01

    Natural outbreaks of multidrug-resistant microorganisms can cause widespread devastation, and several can be used or engineered as agents of bioterrorism. From a biosecurity standpoint, the capacity to detect and then efficiently control, within hours, the spread and the potential pathological effects of an emergent outbreak, for which there may be no effective antibiotics or vaccines, become key challenges that must be met. We turned to phage engineering as a potentially highly flexible and effective means to both detect and eradicate threats originating from emergent (uncharacterized) bacterial strains. To this end, we developed technologies allowing us to (1) concurrently modify multiple regions within the coding sequence of a gene while conserving intact the remainder of the gene, (2) reversibly interrupt the lytic cycle of an obligate virulent phage (T4) within its host, (3) carry out efficient insertion, by homologous recombination, of any number of engineered genes into the deactivated genomes of a T4 wild-type phage population, and (4) reactivate the lytic cycle, leading to the production of engineered infective virulent recombinant progeny. This allows the production of very large, genetically engineered lytic phage banks containing, in an E. coli host, a very wide spectrum of variants for any chosen phage-associated function, including phage host-range. Screening of such a bank should allow the rapid isolation of recombinant T4 particles capable of detecting (ie, diagnosing), infecting, and destroying hosts belonging to gram-negative bacterial species far removed from the original E. coli host.

  10. Recombinant phage probes for Listeria monocytogenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnazza, S.; Gioffrè, G.; Felici, F.; Guglielmino, S.

    2007-10-01

    Monitoring of food and environmental samples for biological threats, such as Listeria monocytogenes, requires probes that specifically bind biological agents and ensure their immediate and efficient detection. There is a need for robust and inexpensive affinity probes as an alternative to antibodies. These probes may be recruited from random peptide libraries displayed on filamentous phage. In this study, we selected from two phage peptide libraries phage clones displaying peptides capable of specific and strong binding to the L. monocytogenes cell surface. The ability of isolated phage clones to interact specifically with L. monocytogenes was demonstrated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by co-precipitation assay. We also assessed the sensitivity of phage-bacteria binding by PCR on phage-captured Listeria cells, which could be detected at a concentration of 104 cells ml-1. In addition, as proof-of-concept, we tested the possibility of immobilizing the affinity-selected phages to a putative biosensor surface. The quality of phage deposition was monitored by ELISA and fluorescent microscopy. Phage-bacterial binding was confirmed by high power optical phase contrast microscopy. Overall, the results of this work validate the concept of affinity-selected recombinant filamentous phages as probes for detecting and monitoring bacterial agents under any conditions that warrant their recognition, including in food products.

  11. Subtractive phage display selection from canine visceral leishmaniasis identifies novel epitopes that mimic Leishmania infantum antigens with potential serodiagnosis applications.

    PubMed

    Costa, Lourena E; Lima, Mayara I S; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Martins, Vivian T; Duarte, Mariana C; Lage, Paula S; Lopes, Eliane G P; Lage, Daniela P; Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Andrade, Pedro H R; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle F; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A P; Goulart, Luiz R; Coelho, Eduardo A F

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease that is endemic to Brazil, where dogs are the main domestic parasite reservoirs, and the percentages of infected dogs living in regions where canine VL (CVL) is endemic have ranged from 10% to 62%. Despite technological advances, some problems have been reported with CVL serodiagnosis. The present study describes a sequential subtractive selection through phage display technology from polyclonal antibodies of negative and positive sera that resulted in the identification of potential bacteriophage-fused peptides that were highly sensitive and specific to antibodies of CVL. A negative selection was performed in which phage clones were adhered to purified IgGs from healthy and Trypanosoma cruzi-infected dogs to eliminate cross-reactive phages. The remaining supernatant nonadhered phages were submitted to positive selection against IgG from the blood serum of dogs that were infected with Leishmania infantum. Phage clones that adhered to purified IgGs from the CVL-infected serum samples were selected. Eighteen clones were identified and their reactivities tested by a phage enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (phage-ELISA) against the serum samples from infected dogs (n = 31) compared to those from vaccinated dogs (n = 21), experimentally infected dogs with cross-reactive parasites (n = 23), and healthy controls (n = 17). Eight clones presented sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 100%, and they showed no cross-reactivity with T. cruzi- or Ehrlichia canis-infected dogs or with dogs vaccinated with two different commercial CVL vaccines in Brazil. Our study identified eight mimotopes of L. infantum antigens with 100% accuracy for CVL serodiagnosis. The use of these mimotopes by phage-ELISA proved to be an excellent assay that was reproducible, simple, fast, and inexpensive, and it can be applied in CVL-monitoring programs.

  12. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P.

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John’s snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37–3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126–141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae. PMID:25654578

  13. Comparative Functional Genomic Analysis of Two Vibrio Phages Reveals Complex Metabolic Interactions with the Host Cell.

    PubMed

    Skliros, Dimitrios; Kalatzis, Panos G; Katharios, Pantelis; Flemetakis, Emmanouil

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing and annotation was performed for two large double stranded DNA bacteriophages, φGrn1 and φSt2 of the Myoviridae family, considered to be of great interest for phage therapy against Vibrios in aquaculture live feeds. In addition, phage-host metabolic interactions and exploitation was studied by transcript profiling of selected viral and host genes. Comparative genomic analysis with other large Vibrio phages was also performed to establish the presence and location of homing endonucleases highlighting distinct features for both phages. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they belong to the "schizoT4like" clade. Although many reports of newly sequenced viruses have provided a large set of information, basic research related to the shift of the bacterial metabolism during infection remains stagnant. The function of many viral protein products in the process of infection is still unknown. Genome annotation identified the presence of several viral open reading frames (ORFs) participating in metabolism, including a Sir2/cobB (sirtuin) protein and a number of genes involved in auxiliary NAD(+) and nucleotide biosynthesis, necessary for phage DNA replication. Key genes were subsequently selected for detail study of their expression levels during infection. This work suggests a complex metabolic interaction and exploitation of the host metabolic pathways and biochemical processes, including a possible post-translational protein modification, by the virus during infection.

  14. Genome Analysis of a Novel Broad Host Range Proteobacteria Phage Isolated from a Bioreactor Treating Industrial Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    de Leeuw, Marina; Baron, Maayan; Brenner, Asher; Kushmaro, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria, and consequently they have a major impact on the development of a microbial population. In this study, the genome of a novel broad host range bacteriophage, Aquamicrobium phage P14, isolated from a wastewater treatment plant, was analyzed. The Aquamicrobium phage P14 was found to infect members of different Proteobacteria classes (Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria). This phage contains a 40,551 bp long genome and 60% of its genes had blastx hits. Furthermore, the bacteriophage was found to share more than 50% of its genes with several podoviruses and has the same gene order as other polyvalent bacteriophages. The results obtained in this study led to the conclusion that indeed general features of the genome of the Aquamicrobium phage P14 are shared with other broad host range bacteriophages, however further analysis of the genome is needed in order to identify the specific mechanisms which enable the bacteriophage to infect both Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. PMID:28106814

  15. Visualizing a Complete Siphoviridae Member by Single-Particle Electron Microscopy: the Structure of Lactococcal Phage TP901-1

    PubMed Central

    Bebeacua, Cecilia; Lai, Livia; Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; van Heel, Marin

    2013-01-01

    Tailed phages are genome delivery machines exhibiting unequaled efficiency acquired over more than 3 billion years of evolution. Siphophages from the P335 and 936 families infect the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis using receptor-binding proteins anchored to the host adsorption apparatus (baseplate). Crystallographic and electron microscopy (EM) studies have shed light on the distinct adsorption strategies used by phages of these two families, suggesting that they might also rely on different infection mechanisms. Here, we report electron microscopy reconstructions of the whole phage TP901-1 (P335 species) and propose a composite EM model of this gigantic molecular machine. Our results suggest conservation of structural proteins among tailed phages and add to the growing body of evidence pointing to a common evolutionary origin for these virions. Finally, we propose that host adsorption apparatus architectures have evolved in correlation with the nature of the receptors used during infection. PMID:23135714

  16. Immunodiagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Mimotope Peptides Selected from Phage Displayed Combinatorial Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Toledo-Machado, Christina Monerat; Machado de Avila, Ricardo Andrez; NGuyen, Christophe; Granier, Claude; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Carneiro, Claudia Martins; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Carneiro, Rubens Antonio; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2015-01-01

    ELISA and RIFI are currently used for serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). The accuracy of these tests is controversial in endemic areas where canine infections by Trypanosoma cruzi may occur. We evaluated the usefulness of synthetic peptides that were selected through phage display technique in the serodiagnosis of CVL. Peptides were chosen based on their ability to bind to IgGs purified from infected dogs pooled sera. We selected three phage clones that reacted only with those IgGs. Peptides were synthesized, polymerized with glutaraldehyde, and used as antigens in ELISA assays. Each individual peptide or a mix of them was reactive with infected dogs serum. The assay was highly sensitive and specific when compared to soluble Leishmania antigen that showed cross-reactivity with anti-T. cruzi IgGs. Our results demonstrate that phage display technique is useful for selection of peptides that may represent valuable synthetic antigens for an improved serodiagnosis of CVL. PMID:25710003

  17. Phage-host interactions analysis of newly characterized Oenococcus oeni bacteriophages: Implications for malolactic fermentation in wine.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Antonella; Doria, Francesca; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Garcia-Moruno, Emilia

    2017-04-04

    Nowadays, only few phages infecting Oenococcus oeni, the principal lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species responsible for malolactic fermentation (MLF) in wine, have been characterized. In the present study, to better understanding the factors affecting the lytic activity of Oenococcus phages, fifteen O. oeni bacteriophages have been studied in detail, both with molecular and microbiological methods. No correlations were found between genome sizes, type of integrase genes, or morphology and the lytic activity of the 15 tested phages. Interestingly, though phage attack in a wine at the end of alcoholic fermentation seems not to be a problem, it can indeed represent a risk factor for MLF when the alcohol content is low, feature that may be a key point for choosing the appropriate time for malolactic starter inoculation. Additionally, it was observed that some phages genomes bear 2 or 3 types of integrase genes, which point to horizontal gene transfer between O. oeni bacteriophages.

  18. Phage display: applications, innovations, and issues in phage and host biology.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D R; Finlay, B B

    1998-04-01

    In the 7 years since the first publications describing phage-displayed peptide libraries, phage display has been successfully employed in a variety of research. Innovations in vector design and methods to identify target clones account for much of this success. At the same time, not all ventures have been entirely successful and it appears that phage and host biology play important roles in this. A key issue concerns the role played by a displayed peptide or protein in its successful expression and incorporation into virions. While few studies have examined these issues specifically in context of phage display, the literature as a whole provides insight. Accordingly, we review phage biology, relevant aspects of host biology, and phage display applications with the goals of illustrating (i) relevant aspects of the interplay between phage-host biology and successful phage display and (ii) the limitations and considerable potential of this important technology.

  19. Application of Bacteroides fragilis phage as an alternative indicator of sewage pollution in Tampa Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, M.R.; Rose, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Traditional fecal coliform bacterial indicators have been found to be severely limited in determining the significance and sources of fecal contamination in ambient waters of tropical and subtropical regions. The bacteriophages that infect Bacteroides fragilis have been suggested as better fecal indicators and at least one type may be human specific. In this study, the phages that infect B. fragilis host RYC2056 (RYC), including phage B56-3, and host ATCC 51477-HSP40 (HSP), including the human specific phage B40-8, were evaluated in the drainage basins of Tampa Bay, 7 samples (n = 62), or 11%, tested positive for the presence of phages infecting the host HSP, whereas 28 samples, or 45%, tested positive using the host RYC. A survival study was also done to compare the persistence of phages B56-3 and B40-8 to MS2 coliphage in seawater at various temperatures. The decay rates for MS2 were 0.239 log 10 d-1 at 10??C, but increased to 0.896 at 20??C and 2.62 log10 d-1 at 30??C. The two B. fragilis phages persisted much longer in the seawater compared to the coliphage and showed little variation between the temperatures. All sewage influents sampled from area wastewater treatment plants contained phages that infected the two B. fragilis hosts at levels from 1.2 ?? 104 to 1.11 ?? 10 5 pfu 100 ml-1 for host RYC and 67 to 350 pfu 100 ml -1 for host HSP. Of the 7 chlorinated effluent samples tested, 3 were positive for the presence of the phage using the host RYC and the phage enrichment method, with levels estimated to be <10 pfu 100 ml-1. No phages were detected using the host HSP in the treated sewage effluent. Coliphages were found in 3 of the 7 effluent samples at a range of 30 to 1.2 ?? 103 pfu 100 ml-1. ?? 2006 Estuarine Research Federation.

  20. A genomic virulence reference map of Enterococcus faecalis reveals an important contribution of phage03-like elements in nosocomial genetic lineages to pathogenicity in a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Snipen, Lars-Gustav; Murray, Barbara E; Willems, Rob J L; Gilmore, Michael S; Diep, Dzung B; Nes, Ingolf F; Brede, Dag Anders

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, the commensal and pathogenic host-microbe interaction of Enterococcus faecalis was explored using a Caenorhabditis elegans model system. The virulence of 28 E. faecalis isolates representing 24 multilocus sequence types (MLSTs), including human commensal and clinical isolates as well as isolates from animals and of insect origin, was investigated using C. elegans strain glp-4 (bn2ts); sek-1 (km4). This revealed that 6 E. faecalis isolates behaved in a commensal manner with no nematocidal effect, while the remaining strains showed a time to 50% lethality ranging from 47 to 120 h. Principal component analysis showed that the difference in nematocidal activity explained 94% of the variance in the data. Assessment of known virulence traits revealed that gelatinase and cytolysin production accounted for 40.8% and 36.5% of the observed pathogenicity, respectively. However, coproduction of gelatinase and cytolysin did not increase virulence additively, accounting for 50.6% of the pathogenicity and therefore indicating a significant (26.7%) saturation effect. We employed a comparative genomic analysis approach using the 28 isolates comprising a collection of 82,356 annotated coding sequences (CDS) to identify 2,325 patterns of presence or absence among the investigated strains. Univariate statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) established that individual patterns positively correlated (n = 61) with virulence. The patterns were investigated to identify potential new virulence traits, among which we found five patterns consisting of the phage03-like gene clusters. Strains harboring phage03 showed, on average, 17% higher killing of C. elegans (P = 4.4e(-6)). The phage03 gene cluster was also present in gelatinase-and-cytolysin-negative strain E. faecalis JH2-2. Deletion of this phage element from the JH2-2 clinical strain rendered the mutant apathogenic in C. elegans, and a similar mutant of the nosocomial V583 isolate showed significantly attenuated

  1. The genome of the Erwinia amylovora phage PhiEaH1 reveals greater diversity and broadens the applicability of phages for the treatment of fire blight.

    PubMed

    Meczker, Katalin; Dömötör, Dóra; Vass, János; Rákhely, Gábor; Schneider, György; Kovács, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    The enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight. This study presents the analysis of the complete genome of phage PhiEaH1, isolated from the soil surrounding an E. amylovora-infected apple tree in Hungary. Its genome is 218 kb in size, containing 244 ORFs. PhiEaH1 is the second E. amylovora infecting phage from the Siphoviridae family whose complete genome sequence was determined. Beside PhiEaH2, PhiEaH1 is the other active component of Erwiphage, the first bacteriophage-based pesticide on the market against E. amylovora. Comparative genome analysis in this study has revealed that PhiEaH1 not only differs from the 10 formerly sequenced E. amylovora bacteriophages belonging to other phage families, but also from PhiEaH2. Sequencing of more Siphoviridae phage genomes might reveal further diversity, providing opportunities for the development of even more effective biological control agents, phage cocktails against Erwinia fire blight disease of commercial fruit crops.

  2. Control of Pierce's Disease by Phage

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mayukh; Bhowmick, Tushar Suvra; Ahern, Stephen J.; Young, Ry; Gonzalez, Carlos F.

    2015-01-01

    Pierce’s Disease (PD) of grapevines, caused by Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (Xf), is a limiting factor in the cultivation of grapevines in the US. There are presently no effective control methods to prevent or treat PD. The therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of a phage cocktail composed of four virulent (lytic) phages was evaluated for control of PD. Xf levels in grapevines were significantly reduced in therapeutically or prophylactically treated grapevines. PD symptoms ceased to progress one week post-therapeutic treatment and symptoms were not observed in prophylactically treated grapevines. Cocktail phage levels increased in grapevines in the presence of the host. No in planta phage-resistant Xf isolates were obtained. Moreover, Xf mutants selected for phage resistance in vitro did not cause PD symptoms. Our results indicate that phages have great potential for biocontrol of PD and other economically important diseases caused by Xylella. PMID:26107261

  3. Bacteriophages with potential to inactivate Salmonella Typhimurium: Use of single phage suspensions and phage cocktails.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Moreirinha, Catarina; Lewicka, Magdalena; Almeida, Paulo; Clemente, Carla; Cunha, Ângela; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Romalde, Jésus L; Nunes, Maria L; Almeida, Adelaide

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the dynamics of three previously isolated bacteriophages (or phages) individually (phSE-1, phSE-2 and phSE-5) or combined in cocktails of two or three phages (phSE-1/phSE-2, phSE-1/phSE-5, phSE-2/phSE-5 and phSE-1/phSE-2/phSE-5) to control Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) in order to evaluate their potential application during depuration. Phages were assigned to the family Siphoviridae and revealed identical restriction digest profiles, although they showed a different phage adsorption, host range, burst size, explosion time and survival in seawater. The three phages were effective against S. Typhimurium (reduction of ∼2.0 log CFU/mL after 4h treatment). The use of cocktails was not significantly more effective than the use of single phages. A big fraction of the remained bacteria are phage-resistant mutants (frequency of phage-resistant mutants 9.19×10(-5)-5.11×10(-4)) but phage- resistant bacterial mutants was lower for the cocktail phages than for the single phage suspensions and the phage phSE-1 presented the highest rate of resistance and phage phSE-5 the lowest one. The spectral changes of S. Typhimurium resistant and phage-sensitive cells were compared and revealed relevant differences for peaks associated to amide I (1620cm(-1)) and amide II (1515cm(-1)) from proteins and from carbohydrates and phosphates region (1080-1000cm(-1)). Despite the similar efficiency of individual phages, the development of lower resistance indicates that phage cocktails might be the most promising choice to be used during the bivalve depuration to control the transmission of salmonellosis.

  4. Oligopeptidase A is required for normal phage P22 development.

    PubMed Central

    Conlin, C A; Vimr, E R; Miller, C G

    1992-01-01

    The opdA gene of Salmonella typhimurium encodes an endoprotease, oligopeptidase A (OpdA). Strains carrying opdA mutations were deficient as hosts for phage P22. P22 and the closely related phages L and A3 formed tiny plaques on an opdA host. Salmonella phages 9NA, KB1, and ES18.h1 were not affected by opdA mutations. Although opdA strains displayed normal doubling times and were infected by P22 as efficiently as opdA+ strains, the burst size of infectious particles from an opdA host was less than 1/10 of that from an opdA+ host. This decrease resulted from a reduced efficiency of plating of particles from an opdA infection. In the absence of a functional opdA gene, most of the P22 particles are defective. To identify the target of OpdA action, P22 mutants which formed plaques larger than wild-type plaques on an opdA mutant lawn were isolated. Marker rescue experiments using cloned fragments of P22 DNA localized these mutations to a 1-kb fragment. The nucleotide sequence of this fragment and a contiguous region (including all of both P22 gene 7 and gene 14) was determined. The mutations leading to opdA independence affected the region of gene 7 coding for the amino terminus of gp7, a protein required for DNA injection by the phage. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of gp7 suggested that a 20-amino-acid peptide is removed from gp7 during phage development. Further experiments showed that this processing was opdA dependent and rapid (half-life, less than 2 min) and occurred in the absence of other phage proteins. The opdA-independent mutations lead to mutant forms of gp7 which function without processing. Images PMID:1522065

  5. [Peptide phage display in biotechnology and biomedicine].

    PubMed

    Kuzmicheva, G A; Belyavskaya, V A

    2016-07-01

    To date peptide phage display is one of the most common combinatorial methods used for identifying specific peptide ligands. Phage display peptide libraries containing billions different clones successfully used for selection of ligands with high affinity and selectivity toward wide range of targets including individual proteins, bacteria, viruses, spores, different kind of cancer cells and variety of nonorganic targets (metals, alloys, semiconductors etc.) Success of using filamentous phage in phage display technologies relays on the robustness of phage particles and a possibility to genetically modify its DNA to construct new phage variants with novel properties. In this review we are discussing characteristics of the most known non-commercial peptide phage display libraries of different formats (landscape libraries in particular) and their successful applications in several fields of biotechnology and biomedicine: discovery of peptides with diagnostic values against different pathogens, discovery and using of peptides recognizing cancer cells, trends in using of phage display technologies in human interactome studies, application of phage display technologies in construction of novel nano materials.

  6. Oral Immunization of Rabbits with S. enterica Typhimurium Expressing Neisseria gonorrhoeae Filamentous Phage Φ6 Induces Bactericidal Antibodies Against N. gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Piekarowicz, Andrzej; Kłyż, Aneta; Majchrzak, Michał; Stein, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    All Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains whose DNA sequences have been determined possess filamentous phage DNA sequences. To ascertain if phage encoded proteins could form the basis of a gonococcal vaccine, rabbits were orally infected with S. enterica Typhimurium strain χ3987 harboring phagemid NgoΦ6 fm. The elicited sera contained large quantities of anti-phage IgG and IgA antibodies that bound to the surface of N. gonorrhoeae cells, as shown by indirect fluorescent analysis and flow cytometry. The elicited sera was able to bind to several phage proteins. The sera also had bactericidal activity. These data demonstrate that N. gonorrhoeae filamentous phage can induce antibodies with anti-gonococcal activity and that phage proteins may be a candidate for vaccine development. PMID:26939573

  7. Reversing bacterial resistance to antibiotics by phage-mediated delivery of dominant sensitive genes.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Rotem; Friedman, Nir; Molshanski-Mor, Shahar; Qimron, Udi

    2012-02-01

    Pathogen resistance to antibiotics is a rapidly growing problem, leading to an urgent need for novel antimicrobial agents. Unfortunately, development of new antibiotics faces numerous obstacles, and a method that resensitizes pathogens to approved antibiotics therefore holds key advantages. We present a proof of principle for a system that restores antibiotic efficiency by reversing pathogen resistance. This system uses temperate phages to introduce, by lysogenization, the genes rpsL and gyrA conferring sensitivity in a dominant fashion to two antibiotics, streptomycin and nalidixic acid, respectively. Unique selective pressure is generated to enrich for bacteria that harbor the phages carrying the sensitizing constructs. This selection pressure is based on a toxic compound, tellurite, and therefore does not forfeit any antibiotic for the sensitization procedure. We further demonstrate a possible way of reducing undesirable recombination events by synthesizing dominant sensitive genes with major barriers to homologous recombination. Such synthesis does not significantly reduce the gene's sensitization ability. Unlike conventional bacteriophage therapy, the system does not rely on the phage's ability to kill pathogens in the infected host, but instead, on its ability to deliver genetic constructs into the bacteria and thus render them sensitive to antibiotics prior to host infection. We believe that transfer of the sensitizing cassette by the constructed phage will significantly enrich for antibiotic-treatable pathogens on hospital surfaces. Broad usage of the proposed system, in contrast to antibiotics and phage therapy, will potentially change the nature of nosocomial infections toward being more susceptible to antibiotics rather than more resistant.

  8. Phage-displayed peptide targeting on the Puumala hantavirus neutralization site.

    PubMed Central

    Heiskanen, T; Lundkvist, A; Vaheri, A; Lankinen, H

    1997-01-01

    We have selected ligands for Puumala hantavirus, the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica, from a seven-amino-acid peptide library flanked by cysteines and displayed on a filamentous phage. To direct the selection to areas on the virus particle which are essential for infection, phages were competitively eluted with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies specific for the viral glycoproteins. The selected phage populations were specific for the same sites as the antibodies and mimicked their functions. The peptide insert, CHWMFSPWC, when displayed on the phages, completely inhibited Puumala virus infection in cell culture at the same effective concentration as the eluting antibody specific for envelope glycoprotein G2. The binding of the phage clones to the virus and inhibition of infection were not necessarily coincident; Pro-6 was critical for virus inhibition, while consensus residues Trp-2 and Phe-4 were essential for binding. The strategy described can be applied to any virus for production of molecules mimicking the effect of neutralizing antibodies. PMID:9094664

  9. 'Bioluminescent' reporter phage for the detection of Category A bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Schofield, David A; Molineux, Ian J; Westwater, Caroline

    2011-07-08

    Yersinia pestis and Bacillus anthracis are Category A bacterial pathogens that are the causative agents of the plague and anthrax, respectively. Although the natural occurrence of both diseases' is now relatively rare, the possibility of terrorist groups using these pathogens as a bioweapon is real. Because of the disease's inherent communicability, rapid clinical course, and high mortality rate, it is critical that an outbreak be detected quickly. Therefore methodologies that provide rapid detection and diagnosis are essential to ensure immediate implementation of public health measures and activation of crisis management. Recombinant reporter phage may provide a rapid and specific approach for the detection of Y. pestis and B. anthracis. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention currently use the classical phage lysis assays for the confirmed identification of these bacterial pathogens. These assays take advantage of naturally occurring phage which are specific and lytic for their bacterial hosts. After overnight growth of the cultivated bacterium in the presence of the specific phage, the formation of plaques (bacterial lysis) provides a positive identification of the bacterial target. Although these assays are robust, they suffer from three shortcomings: 1) they are laboratory based; 2) they require bacterial isolation and cultivation from the suspected sample, and 3) they take 24-36 h to complete. To address these issues, recombinant "light-tagged" reporter phage were genetically engineered by integrating the Vibrio harveyi luxAB genes into the genome of Y. pestis and B. anthracis specific phage. The resulting luxAB reporter phage were able to detect their specific target by rapidly (within minutes) and sensitively conferring a bioluminescent phenotype to recipient cells. Importantly, detection was obtained either with cultivated recipient cells or with mock-infected clinical specimens. For demonstration purposes, here we describe the method for the phage

  10. Holding a grudge: persisting anti-phage CRISPR immunity in multiple human gut microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Mick, Eran; Stern, Adi; Sorek, Rotem

    2013-05-01

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) system of bacteria and archaea constitutes a mechanism of acquired adaptive immunity against phages, which is based on genome-encoded markers of previously infecting phage sequences ("spacers"). As a repository of phage sequences, these spacers make the system particularly suitable for elucidating phage-bacteria interactions in metagenomic studies. Recent metagenomic analyses of CRISPRs associated with the human microbiome intriguingly revealed conserved "memory spacers" shared by bacteria in multiple unrelated, geographically separated individuals. Here, we discuss possible avenues for explaining this phenomenon by integrating insights from CRISPR biology and phage-bacteria ecology, with a special focus on the human gut. We further explore the growing body of evidence for the role of CRISPR/Cas in regulating the interplay between bacteria and lysogenic phages, which may be intimately related to the presence of memory spacers and sheds new light on the multifaceted biological and ecological modes of action of CRISPR/Cas.

  11. Evidence of Geobacter-associated phage in a uranium-contaminated aquifer.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Dawn E; Giloteaux, Ludovic; Chaurasia, Akhilesh K; Williams, Kenneth H; Luef, Birgit; Wilkins, Michael J; Wrighton, Kelly C; Thompson, Courtney A; Comolli, Luis R; Lovley, Derek R

    2015-02-01

    Geobacter species may be important agents in the bioremediation of organic and metal contaminants in the subsurface, but as yet unknown factors limit the in situ growth of subsurface Geobacter well below rates predicted by analysis of gene expression or in silico metabolic modeling. Analysis of the genomes of five different Geobacter species recovered from contaminated subsurface sites indicated that each of the isolates had been infected with phage. Geobacter-associated phage sequences were also detected by metagenomic and proteomic analysis of samples from a uranium-contaminated aquifer undergoing in situ bioremediation, and phage particles were detected by microscopic analysis in groundwater collected from sediment enrichment cultures. Transcript abundance for genes from the Geobacter-associated phage structural proteins, tail tube Gp19 and baseplate J, increased in the groundwater in response to the growth of Geobacter species when acetate was added, and then declined as the number of Geobacter decreased. Western blot analysis of a Geobacter-associated tail tube protein Gp19 in the groundwater demonstrated that its abundance tracked with the abundance of Geobacter species. These results suggest that the enhanced growth of Geobacter species in the subsurface associated with in situ uranium bioremediation increased the abundance and activity of Geobacter-associated phage and show that future studies should focus on how these phages might be influencing the ecology of this site.

  12. A3R Phage and Staphylococcus aureus Lysate Do Not Induce Neutrophil Degranulation

    PubMed Central

    Borysowski, Jan; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Wierzbicki, Piotr; Kłosowska, Danuta; Korczak-Kowalska, Grażyna; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Górski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of A3R phage and Staphylococcus aureus lysate obtained after phage infection on neutrophil degranulation. The exocytosis of primary and secondary granules from neutrophils was investigated in vitro in whole blood specimens by flow cytometry based on the expression of specific markers of exocytosis (CD63 for primary granules and CD66b for secondary granules). We found that both A3R and S. aureus lysate had no significant effect on the exocytosis of primary and secondary granules. These data suggest that neither A3R virions nor any products of phage-induced lysis of S. aureus are likely to induce neutrophil degranulation in patients who are treated with phage preparations. Since neutrophil granules contain some potentially toxic proteins, our results provide an important argument for the safety of phage therapy. Moreover, these data indicate that the induction of neutrophil degranulation is not likely to contribute to antibacterial effects of phages. PMID:28230780

  13. Whole genome comparison of a large collection of mycobacteriophages reveals a continuum of phage genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Welkin H; Bowman, Charles A; Russell, Daniel A; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Asai, David J; Cresawn, Steven G; Jacobs, William R; Hendrix, Roger W; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Hatfull, Graham F; Abbazia, Patrick; Ababio, Amma; Adam, Naazneen

    2015-01-01

    The bacteriophage population is large, dynamic, ancient, and genetically diverse. Limited genomic information shows that phage genomes are mosaic, and the genetic architecture of phage populations remains ill-defined. To understand the population structure of phages infecting a single host strain, we isolated, sequenced, and compared 627 phages of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Their genetic diversity is considerable, and there are 28 distinct genomic types (clusters) with related nucleotide sequences. However, amino acid sequence comparisons show pervasive genomic mosaicism, and quantification of inter-cluster and intra-cluster relatedness reveals a continuum of genetic diversity, albeit with uneven representation of different phages. Furthermore, rarefaction analysis shows that the mycobacteriophage population is not closed, and there is a constant influx of genes from other sources. Phage isolation and analysis was performed by a large consortium of academic institutions, illustrating the substantial benefits of a disseminated, structured program involving large numbers of freshman undergraduates in scientific discovery. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06416.001 PMID:25919952

  14. Isolation of a Novel Phage with Activity against Streptococcus mutans Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Dalmasso, Marion; de Haas, Eric; Neve, Horst; Strain, Ronan; Cousin, Fabien J.; Stockdale, Stephen R.; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is one of the principal agents of caries formation mainly, because of its ability to form biofilms at the tooth surface. Bacteriophages (phages) are promising antimicrobial agents that could be used to prevent or treat caries formation by S. mutans. The aim of this study was to isolate new S. mutans phages and to characterize their antimicrobial properties. A new phage, ɸAPCM01, was isolated from a human saliva sample. Its genome was closely related to the only two other available S. mutans phage genomes, M102 and M102AD. ɸAPCM01 inhibited the growth of S. mutans strain DPC6143 within hours in broth and in artificial saliva at multiplicity of infections as low as 2.5x10-5. In the presence of phage ɸAPCM01 the metabolic activity of a S. mutans biofilm was reduced after 24 h of contact and did not increased again after 48 h, and the live cells in the biofilm decreased by at least 5 log cfu/ml. Despite its narrow host range, this newly isolated S. mutans phage exhibits promising antimicrobial properties. PMID:26398909

  15. Evidence of Geobacter-associated phage in a uranium-contaminated aquifer

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Dawn E; Giloteaux, Ludovic; Chaurasia, Akhilesh K; Williams, Kenneth H; Luef, Birgit; Wilkins, Michael J; Wrighton, Kelly C; Thompson, Courtney A; Comolli, Luis R; Lovley, Derek R

    2015-01-01

    Geobacter species may be important agents in the bioremediation of organic and metal contaminants in the subsurface, but as yet unknown factors limit the in situ growth of subsurface Geobacter well below rates predicted by analysis of gene expression or in silico metabolic modeling. Analysis of the genomes of five different Geobacter species recovered from contaminated subsurface sites indicated that each of the isolates had been infected with phage. Geobacter-associated phage sequences were also detected by metagenomic and proteomic analysis of samples from a uranium-contaminated aquifer undergoing in situ bioremediation, and phage particles were detected by microscopic analysis in groundwater collected from sediment enrichment cultures. Transcript abundance for genes from the Geobacter-associated phage structural proteins, tail tube Gp19 and baseplate J, increased in the groundwater in response to the growth of Geobacter species when acetate was added, and then declined as the number of Geobacter decreased. Western blot analysis of a Geobacter-associated tail tube protein Gp19 in the groundwater demonstrated that its abundance tracked with the abundance of Geobacter species. These results suggest that the enhanced growth of Geobacter species in the subsurface associated with in situ uranium bioremediation increased the abundance and activity of Geobacter-associated phage and show that future studies should focus on how these phages might be influencing the ecology of this site. PMID:25083935

  16. Influence of environmental variables in the efficiency of phage therapy in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Silva, Yolanda J; Costa, Liliana; Pereira, Carla; Cunha, Ângela; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M; Almeida, Adelaide

    2014-09-01

    Aquaculture facilities worldwide continue to experience significant economic losses because of disease caused by pathogenic bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. This scenario drives the search for alternative methods to inactivate pathogenic bacteria. Phage therapy is currently considered as a viable alternative to antibiotics for inactivation of bacterial pathogens in aquaculture systems. While phage therapy appears to represent a useful and flexible tool for microbiological decontamination of aquaculture effluents, the effect of physical and chemical properties of culture waters on the efficiency of this technology has never been reported. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of physical and chemical properties of aquaculture waters (e.g. pH, temperature, salinity and organic matter content) on the efficiency of phage therapy under controlled experimental conditions in order to provide a basis for the selection of the most suitable protocol for subsequent experiments. A bioluminescent genetically transformed Escherichia coli was selected as a model microorganism to monitor real-time phage therapy kinetics through the measurement of bioluminescence, thus avoiding the laborious and time-consuming conventional method of counting colony-forming units (CFU). For all experiments, a bacterial concentration of ≈ 10(5) CFU ml(-1) and a phage concentration of ≈ 10(6-8) plaque forming unit ml(-1) were used. Phage survival was not significantly affected by the natural variability of pH (6.5-7.4), temperature (10-25 °C), salinity (0-30 g NaCl l(-1) ) and organic matter concentration of aquaculture waters in a temperate climate. Nonetheless, the efficiency of phage therapy was mostly affected by the variation of salinity and organic matter content. As the effectiveness of phage therapy increases with water salt content, this approach appears to be a suitable choice for marine aquaculture systems. The success of phage therapy may also be enhanced in

  17. Influence of environmental variables in the efficiency of phage therapy in aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Yolanda J; Costa, Liliana; Pereira, Carla; Cunha, Ângela; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M; Almeida, Adelaide

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture facilities worldwide continue to experience significant economic losses because of disease caused by pathogenic bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. This scenario drives the search for alternative methods to inactivate pathogenic bacteria. Phage therapy is currently considered as a viable alternative to antibiotics for inactivation of bacterial pathogens in aquaculture systems. While phage therapy appears to represent a useful and flexible tool for microbiological decontamination of aquaculture effluents, the effect of physical and chemical properties of culture waters on the efficiency of this technology has never been reported. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of physical and chemical properties of aquaculture waters (e.g. pH, temperature, salinity and organic matter content) on the efficiency of phage therapy under controlled experimental conditions in order to provide a basis for the selection of the most suitable protocol for subsequent experiments. A bioluminescent genetically transformed Escherichia coli was selected as a model microorganism to monitor real-time phage therapy kinetics through the measurement of bioluminescence, thus avoiding the laborious and time-consuming conventional method of counting colony-forming units (CFU). For all experiments, a bacterial concentration of ≈ 105 CFU ml−1 and a phage concentration of ≈ 106–8 plaque forming unit ml−1 were used. Phage survival was not significantly affected by the natural variability of pH (6.5–7.4), temperature (10–25°C), salinity (0–30 g NaCl l−1) and organic matter concentration of aquaculture waters in a temperate climate. Nonetheless, the efficiency of phage therapy was mostly affected by the variation of salinity and organic matter content. As the effectiveness of phage therapy increases with water salt content, this approach appears to be a suitable choice for marine aquaculture systems. The success of phage therapy may also be enhanced in

  18. Worldwide occurrence of virus-infections in filamentous marine brown algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D. G.; Stache, B.

    1992-03-01

    Virus infections were detected in Ectocarpus siliculosus and Ectocarpus fasciculatus on the coasts of Ireland, California, Peru, southern South America, Australia and New Zealand; in three Feldmannia species on the coasts of Ireland, continental Chile and Archipelago Juan Fernandez (Chile); and in Leptonematella from Antarctica. Natural populations on the Irish coast contained 3% infected plants in E. fasciculatus, and less than 1% in Feldmannia simplex. On the Californian coast, 15 to 25% of Ectocarpus isolates were infected. Virus symptoms were absent in E. siliculosus from Peru, but appeared after meiosis in laboratory cultures. The virus particles in E. fasciculatus are identical in size and capsid structure to those reported for E. siliculosus, while the virus in F. simplex is smaller and has a different envelope. Our findings suggest that virus infections are a common and worldwide phenomenon in filamentous brown algae.

  19. A method for evaluating the host range of bacteriophages using phages fluorescently labeled with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU).

    PubMed

    Ohno, Sayaka; Okano, Hironori; Tanji, Yasunori; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Watanabe, Kazuya; Takai, Ken; Imachi, Hiroyuki

    2012-08-01

    The evaluation of bacteriophage (phage) host range is a significant issue in understanding phage and prokaryotic community interactions. However, in conventional methods, such as plaque assay, target host strains must be isolated, although almost all environmental prokaryotes are recalcitrant to cultivation. Here, we introduce a novel phage host range evaluation method using fluorescently labeled phages (the FLP method), which consists of the following four steps: (i) Fluorescently labeled phages are added to a microbial consortium, and host cells are infected and fluorescently labeled. (ii) Fluorescent cells are sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. (iii) 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from sorted cells are analyzed, and specific oligonucleotide probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are designed. (iv) Cells labeled with both fluorescently labeled phage and FISH probe are identified as host cells. To verify the feasibility of this method, we used T4 phage and Escherichia coli as a model. We first used nucleic acid stain reagents for phage labeling; however, the reagents also stained non-host cells. Next, we employed the Click-iT EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) assay kit from Invitrogen for phage labeling. Using EdU-labeled T4 phage, we could specifically detect E. coli cells in a complex microbial consortium from municipal sewage. We also confirmed that FISH could be applied to the infected E. coli cells. These results suggest that this FLP method using the EdU assay kit is a useful method for evaluating phage host range and may have a potential application for various types of phages, even if their prokaryotic hosts are currently unculturable.

  20. Limited genetic diversity among Sarcocystis neurona strains infecting southern sea otters precludes distinction between marine and terrestrial isolates

    PubMed Central

    Wendte, J.M.; Miller, M.A.; Nandra, A.K.; Peat, S.M.; Crosbie, P.R.; Conrad, P.A.; Grigg, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is an apicomplexan parasite identified as a cause of fatal neurological disease in the threatened southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). In an effort to characterize virulent S. neurona strains circulating in the marine ecosystem, this study developed a range of markers relevant for molecular genotyping. Highly conserved sequences within the 18S ribosomal gene array, the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (RPOb) and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial gene (CO1) were assessed for their ability to distinguish isolates at the genus and species level. For within-species comparisons, five surface antigens (SnSAG1-SnSAG5) and one high resolution microsatellite marker (Sn9) were developed as genotyping markers to evaluate intra-strain diversity. Molecular analysis at multiple loci revealed insufficient genetic diversity to distinguish terrestrial isolates from strains infecting marine mammals. Furthermore, SnSAG specific primers applied against DNA from the closely related species, Sarcocystis falcatula, lead to the discovery of highly similar orthologs to SnSAG2, 3, and 4, calling into question the specificity of diagnostic tests based on these antigens. The results of this study suggest a population genetic structure for S. neurona similar to that reported for the related parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, dominated by a limited number of successful genotypes. PMID:20071081

  1. Limited genetic diversity among Sarcocystis neurona strains infecting southern sea otters precludes distinction between marine and terrestrial isolates.

    PubMed

    Wendte, J M; Miller, M A; Nandra, A K; Peat, S M; Crosbie, P R; Conrad, P A; Grigg, M E

    2010-04-19

    Sarcocystis neurona is an apicomplexan parasite identified as a cause of fatal neurological disease in the threatened southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). In an effort to characterize virulent S. neurona strains circulating in the marine ecosystem, this study developed a range of markers relevant for molecular genotyping. Highly conserved sequences within the 18S ribosomal gene array, the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (RPOb) and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial gene (CO1) were assessed for their ability to distinguish isolates at the genus and species level. For within-species comparisons, five surface antigens (SnSAG1-SnSAG5) and one high resolution microsatellite marker (Sn9) were developed as genotyping markers to evaluate intra-strain diversity. Molecular analysis at multiple loci revealed insufficient genetic diversity to distinguish terrestrial isolates from strains infecting marine mammals. Furthermore, SnSAG specific primers applied against DNA from the closely related species, Sarcocystis falcatula, lead to the discovery of highly similar orthologs to SnSAG2, 3, and 4, calling into question the specificity of diagnostic tests based on these antigens. The results of this study suggest a population genetic structure for S. neurona similar to that reported for the related parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, dominated by a limited number of successful genotypes.

  2. Intra-domain phage display (ID-PhD) of peptides and protein mini-domains censored from canonical pIII phage display.

    PubMed

    Tjhung, Katrina F; Deiss, Frédérique; Tran, Jessica; Chou, Ying; Derda, Ratmir

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe multivalent display of peptide and protein sequences typically censored from traditional N-terminal display on protein pIII of filamentous bacteriophage M13. Using site-directed mutagenesis of commercially available M13KE phage cloning vector, we introduced sites that permit efficient cloning using restriction enzymes between domains N1 and N2 of the pIII protein. As infectivity of phage is directly linked to the integrity of the connection between N1 and N2 domains, intra-domain phage display (ID-PhD) allows for simple quality control of the display and the natural variations in the displayed sequences. Additionally, direct linkage to phage propagation allows efficient monitoring of sequence cleavage, providing a convenient system for selection and evolution of protease-susceptible or protease-resistant sequences. As an example of the benefits of such an ID-PhD system, we displayed a negatively charged FLAG sequence, which is known to be post-translationally excised from pIII when displayed on the N-terminus, as well as positively charged sequences which suppress production of phage when displayed on the N-terminus. ID-PhD of FLAG exhibited sub-nanomolar apparent Kd suggesting multivalent nature of the display. A TEV-protease recognition sequence (TEVrs) co-expressed in tandem with FLAG, allowed us to demonstrate that 99.9997% of the phage displayed the FLAG-TEVrs tandem and can be recognized and cleaved by TEV-protease. The residual 0.0003% consisted of phage clones that have excised the insert from their genome. ID-PhD is also amenable to display of protein mini-domains, such as the 33-residue minimized Z-domain of protein A. We show that it is thus possible to use ID-PhD for multivalent display and selection of mini-domain proteins (Affibodies, scFv, etc.).

  3. Simple sequence repeat variations expedite phage divergence: Mechanisms of indels and gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tiao-Yin

    2016-07-01

    Phages are the most abundant biological entities and influence prokaryotic communities on Earth. Comparing closely related genomes sheds light on molecular events shaping phage evolution. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) variations impart over half of the genomic changes between T7M and T3, indicating an important role of SSRs in accelerating phage genetic divergence. Differences in coding and noncoding regions of phages infecting different hosts, coliphages T7M and T3, Yersinia phage ϕYeO3-12, and Salmonella phage ϕSG-JL2, frequently arise from SSR variations. Such variations modify noncoding and coding regions; the latter efficiently changes multiple amino acids, thereby hastening protein evolution. Four classes of events are found to drive SSR variations: insertion/deletion of SSR units, expansion/contraction of SSRs without alteration of genome length, changes of repeat motifs, and generation/loss of repeats. The categorization demonstrates the ways SSRs mutate in genomes during phage evolution. Indels are common constituents of genome variations and human diseases, yet, how they occur without preexisting repeat sequence is less understood. Non-repeat-unit-based misalignment-elongation (NRUBME) is proposed to be one mechanism for indels without adjacent repeats. NRUBME or consecutive NRUBME may also change repeat motifs or generate new repeats. NRUBME invoking a non-Watson-Crick base pair explains insertions that initiate mononucleotide repeats. Furthermore, NRUBME successfully interprets many inexplicable human di- to tetranucleotide repeat generations. This study provides the first evidence of SSR variations expediting phage divergence, and enables insights into the events and mechanisms of genome evolution. NRUBME allows us to emulate natural evolution to design indels for various applications.

  4. BREX is a novel phage resistance system widespread in microbial genomes.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Tamara; Sberro, Hila; Weinstock, Eyal; Cohen, Ofir; Doron, Shany; Charpak-Amikam, Yoav; Afik, Shaked; Ofir, Gal; Sorek, Rotem

    2015-01-13

    The perpetual arms race between bacteria and phage has resulted in the evolution of efficient resistance systems that protect bacteria from phage infection. Such systems, which include the CRISPR-Cas and restriction-modification systems, have proven to be invaluable in the biotechnology and dairy industries. Here, we report on a six-gene cassette in Bacillus cereus which, when integrated into the Bacillus subtilis genome, confers resistance to a broad range of phages, including both virulent and temperate ones. This cassette includes a putative Lon-like protease, an alkaline phosphatase domain protein, a putative RNA-binding protein, a DNA methylase, an ATPase-domain protein, and a protein of unknown function. We denote this novel defense system BREX (Bacteriophage Exclusion) and show that it allows phage adsorption but blocks phage DNA replication. Furthermore, our results suggest that methylation on non-palindromic TAGGAG motifs in the bacterial genome guides self/non-self discrimination and is essential for the defensive function of the BREX system. However, unlike restriction-modification systems, phage DNA does not appear to be cleaved or degraded by BREX, suggesting a novel mechanism of defense. Pan genomic analysis revealed that BREX and BREX-like systems, including the distantly related Pgl system described in Streptomyces coelicolor, are widely distributed in ~10% of all sequenced microbial genomes and can be divided into six coherent subtypes in which the gene composition and order is conserved. Finally, we detected a phage family that evades the BREX defense, implying that anti-BREX mechanisms may have evolved in some phages as part of their arms race with bacteria.

  5. Phage-antibiotic synergism: a possible approach to combatting Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Knezevic, Petar; Curcin, Sanja; Aleksic, Verica; Petrusic, Milivoje; Vlaski, Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly resistant opportunistic pathogen and an important etiological agent of various types of infections. During the last decade, P. aeruginosa phages have been extensively examined as alternative antimicrobial agents. The aim of the study was to determine antimicrobial effectiveness of combining subinhibitory concentrations of gentamicin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin or polymyxin B with P. aeruginosa-specific bacteriophages belonging to families Podoviridae and Siphoviridae. The time-kill curve method showed that a combination of bacteriophages and subinhibitory concentrations of ceftriaxone generally reduced bacterial growth, and synergism was proven for a Siphoviridae phage σ-1 after 300 min of incubation. The detected alteration in morphology after ceftriaxone application, resulting in cell elongation, along with its specific mode of action, seemed to be a necessary but was not a sufficient reason for phage-antibiotic synergism. The phenomenon offers an opportunity for future development of treatment strategies for potentially lethal infections caused by P. aeruginosa.

  6. A phage protein that inhibits the bacterial ATPase required for type IV pilus assembly.

    PubMed

    Chung, In-Young; Jang, Hye-Jeong; Bae, Hee-Won; Cho, You-Hee

    2014-08-05

    Type IV pili (TFPs) are required for bacterial twitching motility and for phage infection in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here we describe a phage-encoded protein, D3112 protein gp05 (hereafter referred to as Tip, representing twitching inhibitory protein), whose expression is necessary and sufficient to mediate the inhibition of twitching motility. Tip interacts with and blocks the activity of bacterial-encoded PilB, the TFP assembly/extension ATPase, at an internal 40-aa region unique to PilB. Tip expression results in the loss of surface piliation. Based on these observations and the fact that many P. aeruginosa phages require TFPs for infection, Tip-mediated twitching inhibition may represent a generalized strategy for superinfection exclusion. Moreover, because TFPs are required for full virulence, PilB may be an attractive target for the development of novel antiinfectives.

  7. Methods for Selecting Phage Display Antibody Libraries.

    PubMed

    Jara-Acevedo, Ricardo; Diez, Paula; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Maria; Degano, Rosa Maria; Ibarrola, Nieves; Gongora, Rafael; Orfao, Alberto; Fuentes, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The selection process aims sequential enrichment of phage antibody display library in clones that recognize the target of interest or antigen as the library undergoes successive rounds of selection. In this review, selection methods most commonly used for phage display antibody libraries have been comprehensively described.

  8. Epitope Mapping with Random Phage Display Library

    PubMed Central

    Midoro-Horiuti, Terumi; Goldblum, Randall M.

    2017-01-01

    Random phage display library is used to map conformational as well as linear epitopes. These libraries are available in varying lengths and with circularization. We provide here a protocol conveying our experience using a commercially available peptide phage display library, which in our hands provides good results. PMID:24515483

  9. Aeromonas phages encode tRNAs for their overused codons.

    PubMed

    Prabhakaran, Ramanandan; Chithambaram, Shivapriya; Xia, Xuhua

    2014-01-01

    The GC-rich bacterial species, Aeromonas salmonicida, is parasitised by both GC-rich phages (Aeromonas phages - phiAS7 and vB_AsaM-56) and GC-poor phages (Aeromonas phages - 25, 31, 44RR2.8t, 65, Aes508, phiAS4 and phiAS5). Both the GC-rich Aeromonas phage phiAS7 and Aeromonas phage vB_AsaM-56 have nearly identical codon usage bias as their host. While all the remaining seven GC-poor Aeromonas phages differ dramatically in codon usage from their GC-rich host. Here, we investigated whether tRNA encoded in the genome of Aeromonas phages facilitate the translation of phage proteins. We found that tRNAs encoded in the phage genome correspond to synonymous codons overused in the phage genes but not in the host genes.

  10. Facing antibiotic resistance: Staphylococcus aureus phages as a medical tool.

    PubMed

    Kaźmierczak, Zuzanna; Górski, Andrzej; Dąbrowska, Krystyna

    2014-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common and often virulent pathogen in humans. This bacterium is widespread, being present on the skin and in the nose of healthy people. Staphylococcus aureus can cause infections with severe outcomes ranging from pustules to sepsis and death. The introduction of antibiotics led to a general belief that the problem of bacterial infections would be solved. Nonetheless, pathogens including staphylococci have evolved mechanisms of drug resistance. Among current attempts to address this problem, phage therapy offers a promising alternative to combat staphylococcal infections. Here, we present an overview of current knowledge on staphylococcal infections and bacteriophages able to kill Staphylococcus, including experimental studies and available data on their clinical use.

  11. Facing Antibiotic Resistance: Staphylococcus aureus Phages as a Medical Tool

    PubMed Central

    Kaźmierczak, Zuzanna; Górski, Andrzej; Dąbrowska, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common and often virulent pathogen in humans. This bacterium is widespread, being present on the skin and in the nose of healthy people. Staphylococcus aureus can cause infections with severe outcomes ranging from pustules to sepsis and death. The introduction of antibiotics led to a general belief that the problem of bacterial infections would be solved. Nonetheless, pathogens including staphylococci have evolved mechanisms of drug resistance. Among current attempts to address this problem, phage therapy offers a promising alternative to combat staphylococcal infections. Here, we present an overview of current knowledge on staphylococcal infections and bacteriophages able to kill Staphylococcus, including experimental studies and available data on their clinical use. PMID:24988520

  12. Thinking about microcolonies as phage targets

    PubMed Central

    Abedon, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Phage targets for adsorption can include: (1) individual bacteria; (2) bacterial cellular arrangements such as streptococci; (3) microcolonies consisting of bacterial clones as can make up bacterial lawns and biofilms; and (4) bacterial biofilms themselves. While much effort has gone into considering category 1, and some into category 4, substantially less has been put into the question of how bacterial association into clonal arrangements or microcolonies might affect phage-bacterial interactions. Recently I have been exploring just this issue—within a single-authored monograph published in 2011 and a theoretical article published in 2012 as part of a special issue of the journal, Viruses. For this commentary, I have been invited to summarize my thinking on how bacterial association into either cellular arrangements or microcolonies might affect their susceptibility to phages along with related issues of bacterial resistance to phages and phage propagation in the context of both plaques and biofilms. PMID:23275871

  13. Isolation and Characterization of a Cyanophage Infecting the Toxic Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Takashi; Takashima, Yukari; Tomaru, Yuji; Shirai, Yoko; Takao, Yoshitake; Hiroishi, Shingo; Nagasaki, Keizo

    2006-01-01

    We isolated a cyanophage (Ma-LMM01) that specifically infects a toxic strain of the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the virion is composed of anisometric head and a tail complex consisting of a central tube and a contractile sheath with helical symmetry. The morphological features and the host specificity suggest that Ma-LMM01 is a member of the cyanomyovirus group. Using semi-one-step growth experiments, the latent period and burst size were estimated to be 6 to 12 h and 50 to 120 infectious units per cell, respectively. The size of the phage genome was estimated to be ca. 160 kbp using pulse-field gel electrophoresis; the nucleic acid was sensitive to DNase I, Bal31, and all 14 restriction enzymes tested, suggesting that it is a linear double-stranded DNA having a low level of methylation. Phylogenetic analyses based on the deduced amino acid sequences of two open reading frames coding for ribonucleotide reductase alpha- and beta-subunits showed that Ma-LMM01 forms a sister group with marine and freshwater cyanobacteria and is apparently distinct from T4-like phages. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the putative sheath protein showed that Ma-LMM01 does not form a monophyletic group with either the T4-like phages or prophages, suggesting that Ma-LMM01 is distinct from other T4-like phages that have been described despite morphological similarity. The host-phage system which we studied is expected to contribute to our understanding of the ecology of Microcystis blooms and the genetics of cyanophages, and our results suggest the phages could be used to control toxic cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:16461672

  14. Phage therapy treatment of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yossi; Joseph Pollock, F; Rosenberg, Eugene; Bourne, David G

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio coralliilyticus is an important coral pathogen demonstrated to cause disease outbreaks worldwide. This study investigated the feasibility of applying bacteriophage therapy to treat the coral pathogen V. coralliilyticus. A specific bacteriophage for V. coralliilyticus strain P1 (LMG23696), referred to here as bacteriophage YC, was isolated from the seawater above corals at Nelly Bay, Magnetic Island, central Great Barrier Reef (GBR), the same location where the bacterium was first isolated. Bacteriophage YC was shown to be a lytic phage belonging to the Myoviridae family, with a rapid replication rate, high burst size, and high affinity to its host. By infecting its host bacterium, bacteriophage YC was able to prevent bacterial-induced photosystem inhibition in pure cultures of Symbiodinium, the photosymbiont partner of coral and a target for virulence factors produced by the bacterial pathogen. Phage therapy experiments using coral juveniles in microtiter plates as a model system revealed that bacteriophage YC was able to prevent V. coralliilyticus-induced photoinactivation and tissue lysis. These results demonstrate that bacteriophage YC has the potential to treat coral disease outbreaks caused by the bacterial pathogen V. coralliilyticus, making it a good candidate for phage therapy treatment of coral disease. PMID:23239510

  15. Genome Sequencing Reveals a Phage in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Lehours, Philippe; Vale, Filipa F.; Bjursell, Magnus K.; Melefors, Ojar; Advani, Reza; Glavas, Steve; Guegueniat, Julia; Gontier, Etienne; Lacomme, Sabrina; Alves Matos, António; Menard, Armelle; Mégraud, Francis; Engstrand, Lars; Andersson, Anders F.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Helicobacter pylori chronically infects the gastric mucosa in more than half of the human population; in a subset of this population, its presence is associated with development of severe disease, such as gastric cancer. Genomic analysis of several strains has revealed an extensive H. pylori pan-genome, likely to grow as more genomes are sampled. Here we describe the draft genome sequence (63 contigs; 26× mean coverage) of H. pylori strain B45, isolated from a patient with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The major finding was a 24.6-kb prophage integrated in the bacterial genome. The prophage shares most of its genes (22/27) with prophage region II of Helicobacter acinonychis strain Sheeba. After UV treatment of liquid cultures, circular DNA carrying the prophage integrase gene could be detected, and intracellular tailed phage-like particles were observed in H. pylori cells by transmission electron microscopy, indicating that phage production can be induced from the prophage. PCR amplification and sequencing of the integrase gene from 341 H. pylori strains from different geographic regions revealed a high prevalence of the prophage (21.4%). Phylogenetic reconstruction showed four distinct clusters in the integrase gene, three of which tended to be specific for geographic regions. Our study implies that phages may play important roles in the ecology and evolution of H. pylori. PMID:22086490

  16. Commensal E. coli Stx2 lysogens produce high levels of phages after spontaneous prophage induction.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Hildegunn; L' Abée-Lund, Trine M; Aspholm, Marina; Arnesen, Lotte P S; Lindbäck, Toril

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is a food-borne pathogen that causes disease ranging from uncomplicated diarrhea to life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and nervous system complications. Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) is the major virulence factor of EHEC and is critical for development of HUS. The genes encoding Stx2 are carried by lambdoid bacteriophages and the toxin production is tightly linked to the production of phages during lytic cycle. It has previously been suggested that commensal E. coli could amplify the production of Stx2-phages and contribute to the severity of disease. In this study we examined the susceptibility of commensal E. coli strains to the Stx2-converting phage ϕ734, isolated from a highly virulent EHEC O103:H25 (NIPH-11060424). Among 38 commensal E. coli strains from healthy children below 5 years, 15 were lysogenized by the ϕ734 phage, whereas lytic infection was not observed. Three of the commensal E. coli ϕ734 lysogens were tested for stability, and appeared stable and retained the phage for at least 10 cultural passages. When induced to enter lytic cycle by H2O2 treatment, 8 out of 13 commensal lysogens produced more ϕ734 phages than NIPH-11060424. Strikingly, five of them even spontaneously (non-induced) produced higher levels of phage than the H2O2 induced NIPH-11060424. An especially high frequency of HUS (60%) was seen among children infected by NIPH-11060424 during the outbreak in 2006. Based on our findings, a high Stx2 production by commensal E. coli lysogens cannot be ruled out as a contributor to the high frequency of HUS during this outbreak.

  17. Phage therapy--history from Twort and d'Herelle through Soviet experience to current approaches.

    PubMed

    Chanishvili, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Felix d'Herelle proposed the use of bacteriophages for the therapy of human and animal bacterial infections at the beginning of the 20th century. This approach, however, was not widely accepted in the West. After the emergence of antibiotics in 1940s, phage research was diverted to a more fundamental level. At the same time, phage therapy was widely practiced in the Soviet Union due to collaboration of Felix d'Herelle with his Georgian colleagues. The majority of the articles dedicated to this subject are from the 1930s and 1940s. The old Soviet literature indicates that phage therapy was used extensively to treat a wide range of bacterial infections in the areas of dermatology (Beridze, 1938), ophthalmology (Rodigina, 1938), urology (Tsulukidze, 1938), stomatology (Ruchko and Tretyak, 1936), pediatrics (Alexandrova et al., 1935; Lurie, 1938), otolaryngology (Ermolieva, 1939), and surgery (Tsulukidze, 1940, 1941). These articles were published in Russian and thus were not readily available to Western scientists. The Western skepticism toward phage therapy itself was again followed by renewed interest and reappraisal, mainly due to the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. Often the experiments described in the old Soviet articles were not designed properly: the use of placebos and the coding of preparations were absent from most of the studies, number of patients in the experimental and control groups was unequal or missing, sometimes no control groups were used at all, or patients treated previously unsuccessfully with antibiotics were employed as an experimental group and as control. The results obtained and the efficiency of phage prophylaxis were estimated by comparing with results obtained in previous years. In most publications, phage titers and descriptions of methods used for evaluation of the results are not specified. Nevertheless, past experience indicates some effectiveness of phage therapy and prophylaxis. Therefore, these clinical results should not

  18. Phage display: concept, innovations, applications and future.

    PubMed

    Pande, Jyoti; S