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Sample records for phagocytosis requires triacylglycerol

  1. Efficient phagocytosis requires triacylglycerol hydrolysis by adipose triglyceride lipase.

    PubMed

    Chandak, Prakash G; Radovic, Branislav; Aflaki, Elma; Kolb, Dagmar; Buchebner, Marlene; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Magnes, Christoph; Sinner, Frank; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Tabas, Ira; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Kratky, Dagmar

    2010-06-25

    Macrophage phagocytosis is an essential biological process in host defense and requires large amounts of energy. To date, glucose is believed to represent the prime substrate for ATP production in macrophages. To investigate the relative contribution of free fatty acids (FFAs) in this process, we determined the phagocytosis rates in normal mouse macrophages and macrophages of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)-deficient mice. ATGL was shown to be the rate-limiting enzyme for the hydrolysis of lipid droplet-associated triacylglycerol (TG) in many tissues. Here, we demonstrate that Atgl(-/-) macrophages fail to efficiently hydrolyze cellular TG stores leading to decreased cellular FFA concentrations and concomitant accumulation of lipid droplets, even in the absence of exogenous lipid loading. The reduced availability of FFAs results in decreased cellular ATP concentrations and impaired phagocytosis suggesting that fatty acids must first go through a cycle of esterification and re-hydrolysis before they are available as energy substrate. Exogenously added glucose cannot fully compensate for the phagocytotic defect in Atgl(-/-) macrophages. Hence, phagocytosis was also decreased in vivo when Atgl(-/-) mice were challenged with bacterial particles. These findings imply that phagocytosis in macrophages depends on the availability of FFAs and that ATGL is required for their hydrolytic release from cellular TG stores. This novel mechanism links ATGL-mediated lipolysis to macrophage function in host defense and opens the way to explore possible roles of ATGL in immune response, inflammation, and atherosclerosis.

  2. Opsonic requirements for phagocytosis of Legionella micdadei by polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Steffensen, D O; Weinbaum, D L; Dowling, J N

    1985-01-01

    The roles of the classical and alternative pathways of complement activation and of antibody in the phagocytosis of Legionella micdadei by polymorphonuclear leukocytes were studied. Normal serum was treated with the appropriate chelators or with heat to inactivate the classical, alternate, or both pathways of complement activation. Normal and complement-depleted sera with or without antibody were employed as opsonins for L. micdadei in phagocytosis assays. There was no difference in the phagocytosis of L. micdadei promoted by normal serum and either C4-deficient serum or serum in which the classical pathway had been inactivated. Both normal and classical pathway-deficient sera promoted significantly greater phagocytosis than did sera in which the alternate pathway or both the alternate and classical pathways had been inactivated. Thus, polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytosis of L. micdadei in the absence of antibody required an intact alternate pathway. Specific antibody partially restored opsonization to sera deficient in the alternate or both complement pathways, but phagocytosis was still significantly less than that with the alternate pathway intact. PMID:4030099

  3. Carp thrombocyte phagocytosis requires activation factors secreted from other leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Takahiro; Somamoto, Tomonori; Nakao, Miki

    2015-10-01

    Thrombocytes are nucleated blood cells in non-mammalian vertebrates, which were recently focused on not only as hemostatic cells but also as immune cells with potent phagocytic activities. We have analyzed the phagocytic activation mechanisms in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) thrombocytes. MACS-sorted mAb(+) thrombocytes showed no phagocytic activity even in the presence of several stimulants. However, remixing these thrombocytes with other anti-thrombocyte mAb(-) leukocyte populations restored their phagocytic activities, indicating that carp thrombocyte phagocytosis requires an appropriate exogenous stimulation. Culture supernatant from anti-thrombocyte mAb(-) leukocytes harvested after PMA or LPS stimulation, but not culture supernatant from unstimulated leukocytes, could activate thrombocyte phagocytosis. This proposed mechanism of thrombocyte phagocytosis activation involving soluble factors produced by activated leukocytes suggests that thrombocyte activation is restricted to areas proximal to injured tissues, ensuring suppression of excessive thrombocyte activation and a balance between inflammation and tissue repair.

  4. TI-VAMP/VAMP7 is required for optimal phagocytosis of opsonised particles in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Braun, Virginie; Fraisier, Vincent; Raposo, Graça; Hurbain, Ilse; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Chavrier, Philippe; Galli, Thierry; Niedergang, Florence

    2004-10-27

    Phagocytosis relies on extension of plasmalemmal pseudopods generated by focal actin polymerisation and delivery of membranes from intracellular pools. Here we show that compartments of the late endocytic pathway, bearing the tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP/VAMP7), are recruited upon particle binding and undergo exocytosis before phagosome sealing in macrophages during Fc receptor (FcR)-mediated phagocytosis. Expression of the dominant-negative amino-terminal domain of TI-VAMP or depletion of TI-VAMP with small interfering RNAs inhibited phagocytosis mediated by Fc or complement receptors. In addition, inhibition of TI-VAMP activity led to a reduced exocytosis of late endocytic vesicles and this resulted in an early blockade of pseudopod extension, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Therefore, TI-VAMP defines a new pathway of membrane delivery required for optimal FcR-mediated phagocytosis.

  5. TI-VAMP/VAMP7 is required for optimal phagocytosis of opsonised particles in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Virginie; Fraisier, Vincent; Raposo, Graça; Hurbain, Ilse; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Chavrier, Philippe; Galli, Thierry; Niedergang, Florence

    2004-01-01

    Phagocytosis relies on extension of plasmalemmal pseudopods generated by focal actin polymerisation and delivery of membranes from intracellular pools. Here we show that compartments of the late endocytic pathway, bearing the tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP/VAMP7), are recruited upon particle binding and undergo exocytosis before phagosome sealing in macrophages during Fc receptor (FcR)-mediated phagocytosis. Expression of the dominant-negative amino-terminal domain of TI-VAMP or depletion of TI-VAMP with small interfering RNAs inhibited phagocytosis mediated by Fc or complement receptors. In addition, inhibition of TI-VAMP activity led to a reduced exocytosis of late endocytic vesicles and this resulted in an early blockade of pseudopod extension, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Therefore, TI-VAMP defines a new pathway of membrane delivery required for optimal FcR-mediated phagocytosis. PMID:15470500

  6. Cofilin regulator 14-3-3zeta is an evolutionarily conserved protein required for phagocytosis and microbial resistance.

    PubMed

    Ulvila, Johanna; Vanha-aho, Leena-Maija; Kleino, Anni; Vähä-Mäkilä, Mari; Vuoksio, Milka; Eskelinen, Sinikka; Hultmark, Dan; Kocks, Christine; Hallman, Mikko; Parikka, Mataleena; Rämet, Mika

    2011-05-01

    Phagocytosis is an ancient cellular process that plays an important role in host defense. In Drosophila melanogaster phagocytic, macrophage-like hemocytes recognize and ingest microbes. We performed an RNAi-based in vitro screen in the Drosophila hemocyte cell line S2 and identified Abi, cpa, cofilin regulator 14-3-3ζ, tlk, CG2765, and CG15609 as mediators of bacterial phagocytosis. Of these identified genes, 14-3-3ζ had an evolutionarily conserved role in phagocytosis: bacterial phagocytosis was compromised when 14-3-3ζ was targeted with RNAi in primary Drosophila hemocytes and when the orthologous genes Ywhab and Ywhaz were silenced in zebrafish and mouse RAW 264.7 cells, respectively. In Drosophila and zebrafish infection models, 14-3-3ζ was required for resistance against Staphylococcus aureus. We conclude that 14-3-3ζ is essential for phagocytosis and microbial resistance in insects and vertebrates. PMID:21208897

  7. Phagocytosis of virulent Porphyromonas gingivalis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes requires specific immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, C W; Kalmar, J R; Arnold, R R

    1991-01-01

    No studies to date clearly define the interactions between Porphyromonas gingivalis and human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), nor has a protective role for antibody to P. gingivalis been defined. Using a fluorochrome phagocytosis microassay, we investigated PMN phagocytosis and killing of P. gingivalis as a function of P. gingivalis-specific antibody. Sera from a nonimmune rabbit and a healthy human subject were not opsonic for virulent P. gingivalis A7436, W83, and HG405; phagocytosis of these strains (but not 33277) required opsonization with hyperimmune antiserum (RaPg). Diluting RaPg with a constant complement source decreased proportionally the number of P. gingivalis A7436 cells phagocytosed per phagocytic PMN. Enriching for the immunoglobulin G fraction of RAPg A7436 enriched for opsonic activity toward A7436. An opsonic evaluation of 18 serum samples from adult periodontitis patients revealed that only 3 adult periodontitis sera of 17 with elevated immunoglobulin G to P. gingivalis A7436 were opsonic for A7436 and, moreover, that the serum sample with the highest enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titer was most opsonic (patient 1). However, the opsonic activity of serum from patient 1 was qualitatively and not just quantitatively different from that of the nonopsonic human sera (but was less effective opsonin than RaPg). Strain variability was observed in resistance of P. gingivalis to phagocytosis, and opsonization was strain specific for some, but not all, strains tested. An evaluation of killing of A7436 revealed that serum killing and extracellular killing of P. gingivalis were less effective alone when compared with intracellular PMN killing alone. PMID:2037370

  8. The Breakdown of Stored Triacylglycerols Is Required during Light-Induced Stomatal Opening.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Deirdre H; Lan, Jue; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Dodd, Antony N; Larson, Tony; Baker, Alison; Hõrak, Hanna; Kollist, Hannes; He, Zhesi; Graham, Ian; Mickelbart, Michael V; Hetherington, Alistair M

    2016-03-01

    Stomata regulate the uptake of CO2 and the loss of water vapor [1] and contribute to the control of water-use efficiency [2] in plants. Although the guard-cell-signaling pathway coupling blue light perception to ion channel activity is relatively well understood [3], we know less about the sources of ATP required to drive K(+) uptake [3-6]. Here, we show that triacylglycerols (TAGs), present in Arabidopsis guard cells as lipid droplets (LDs), are involved in light-induced stomatal opening. Illumination induces reductions in LD abundance, and this involves the PHOT1 and PHOT2 blue light receptors [3]. Light also induces decreases in specific TAG molecular species. We hypothesized that TAG-derived fatty acids are metabolized by peroxisomal β-oxidation to produce ATP required for stomatal opening. In silico analysis revealed that guard cells express all the genes required for β-oxidation, and we showed that light-induced stomatal opening is delayed in three TAG catabolism mutants (sdp1, pxa1, and cgi-58) and in stomata treated with a TAG breakdown inhibitor. We reasoned that, if ATP supply was delaying light-induced stomatal opening, then the activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase should be reduced at this time. Monitoring changes in apoplastic pH in the mutants showed that this was the case. Together, our results reveal a new role for TAGs in vegetative tissue and show that PHOT1 and PHOT2 are involved in reductions in LD abundance. Reductions in LD abundance in guard cells of the lycophyte Selaginella suggest that TAG breakdown may represent an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in light-induced stomatal opening. PMID:26898465

  9. Allograft tolerance induced by donor apoptotic lymphocytes requires phagocytosis in the recipient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, E.; Gao, Y.; Chen, J.; Roberts, A. I.; Wang, X.; Chen, Z.; Shi, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cell death through apoptosis plays a critical role in regulating cellular homeostasis. Whether the disposal of apoptotic cells through phagocytosis can actively induce immune tolerance in vivo, however, remains controversial. Here, we report in a rat model that without using immunosuppressants, transfusion of apoptotic splenocytes from the donor strain prior to transplant dramatically prolonged survival of heart allografts. Histological analysis verified that rejection signs were significantly ameliorated. Splenocytes from rats transfused with donor apoptotic cells showed a dramatically decreased response to donor lymphocyte stimulation. Most importantly, blockade of phagocytosis in vivo, either with gadolinium chloride to disrupt phagocyte function or with annexin V to block binding of exposed phosphotidylserine to its receptor on phagocytes, abolished the beneficial effect of transfused apoptotic cells on heart allograft survival. Our results demonstrate that donor apoptotic cells promote specific allograft acceptance and that phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in vivo plays a crucial role in maintaining immune tolerance.

  10. The actin gene ACT1 is required for phagocytosis, motility, and cell separation of Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Williams, Norman E; Tsao, Che-Chia; Bowen, Josephine; Hehman, Gery L; Williams, Ruth J; Frankel, Joseph

    2006-03-01

    A previously identified Tetrahymena thermophila actin gene (C. G. Cupples and R. E. Pearlman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:5160-5164, 1986), here called ACT1, was disrupted by insertion of a neo3 cassette. Cells in which all expressed copies of this gene were disrupted exhibited intermittent and extremely slow motility and severely curtailed phagocytic uptake. Transformation of these cells with inducible genetic constructs that contained a normal ACT1 gene restored motility. Use of an epitope-tagged construct permitted visualization of Act1p in the isolated axonemes of these rescued cells. In ACT1Delta mutant cells, ultrastructural abnormalities of outer doublet microtubules were present in some of the axonemes. Nonetheless, these cells were still able to assemble cilia after deciliation. The nearly paralyzed ACT1Delta cells completed cleavage furrowing normally, but the presumptive daughter cells often failed to separate from one another and later became reintegrated. Clonal analysis revealed that the cell cycle length of the ACT1Delta cells was approximately double that of wild-type controls. Clones could nonetheless be maintained for up to 15 successive fissions, suggesting that the ACT1 gene is not essential for cell viability or growth. Examination of the cell cortex with monoclonal antibodies revealed that whereas elongation of ciliary rows and formation of oral structures were normal, the ciliary rows of reintegrated daughter cells became laterally displaced and sometimes rejoined indiscriminately across the former division furrow. We conclude that Act1p is required in Tetrahymena thermophila primarily for normal ciliary motility and for phagocytosis and secondarily for the final separation of daughter cells.

  11. Dynamin 2 is required for actin assembly in phagocytosis in Sertoli cells

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, Atsushi; Abe, Tadashi; Watanabe, Masami; Yagisawa, Hitoshi; Takei, Kohji; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2009-01-16

    Dynamin 2 has been reported to be implicated in phagocytosis. However, the mode of action of dynamin is poorly understood. In this study, we examined whether dynamin 2 participates in actin assembly during phagocytosis in Sertoli cells. In the presence of dynasore, a dynamin inhibitor, phagocytosis was reduced by 60-70% in Sertoli cells and macrophages. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that Sertoli cells treated with dynasore were unable to form phagocytic cups. In addition, dysfunction of dynamin 2 reduced both actin polymerization and recruitment of actin and dynamin 2 to phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P{sub 2}]-containing liposomes. The formation of dynamin 2-positive ruffles of Sertoli cells was decreased by 60-70% by sequestering PI(4,5)P{sub 2} either by expression of PH domain of PLC{delta} or treatment with neomycin. These results strongly suggest that dynamin 2 is involved in actin dynamics and the formation of dynamin 2-positive ruffles during phagocytosis.

  12. Quantitative Phagocytosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallister, Zane Gary; McCallister, Gary Loren

    1996-01-01

    Presents a model experiment for quantifying phagocytosis using earthworm coelomocytes and determining the optimum length of time necessary to obtain maximum phagocytosis. Involves incubating coelomocytes from invertebrates with an antigen, staining the cells, counting the number of antigen particles ingested, and measuring the effect of different…

  13. Phagocytosis of IgG-coated polystyrene beads by macrophages induces and requires high membrane order.

    PubMed

    Magenau, Astrid; Benzing, Carola; Proschogo, Nicholas; Don, Anthony S; Hejazi, Leila; Karunakaran, Denuja; Jessup, Wendy; Gaus, Katharina

    2011-12-01

    The biochemical composition and biophysical properties of cell membranes are hypothesized to affect cellular processes such as phagocytosis. Here, we examined the plasma membranes of murine macrophage cell lines during the early stages of uptake of immunoglobulin G (IgG)-coated polystyrene particles. We found that the plasma membrane undergoes rapid actin-independent condensation to form highly ordered phagosomal membranes, the biophysical hallmark of lipid rafts. Surprisingly, these membranes are depleted of cholesterol and enriched in sphingomyelin and ceramide. Inhibition of sphingomyelinase activity impairs membrane condensation, F-actin accumulation at phagocytic cups and particle uptake. Switching phagosomal membranes to a cholesterol-rich environment had no effect on membrane condensation and the rate of phagocytosis. In contrast, preventing membrane condensation with the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol, even in the presence of ceramide, blocked F-actin dissociation from nascent phagosomes and particle uptake. In conclusion, our results suggest that ordered membranes function to co-ordinate F-actin remodelling and that the biophysical properties of phagosomal membranes are essential for phagocytosis.

  14. Regulation of Hepatic Triacylglycerol Metabolism by CGI-58 Does Not Require ATGL Co-activation.

    PubMed

    Lord, Caleb C; Ferguson, Daniel; Thomas, Gwynneth; Brown, Amanda L; Schugar, Rebecca C; Burrows, Amy; Gromovsky, Anthony D; Betters, Jenna; Neumann, Chase; Sacks, Jessica; Marshall, Stephanie; Watts, Russell; Schweiger, Martina; Lee, Richard G; Crooke, Rosanne M; Graham, Mark J; Lathia, Justin D; Sakaguchi, Takuya F; Lehner, Richard; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Brown, J Mark

    2016-07-26

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58) are critical regulators of triacylglycerol (TAG) turnover. CGI-58 is thought to regulate TAG mobilization by stimulating the enzymatic activity of ATGL. However, it is not known whether this coactivation function of CGI-58 occurs in vivo. Moreover, the phenotype of human CGI-58 mutations suggests ATGL-independent functions. Through direct comparison of mice with single or double deficiency of CGI-58 and ATGL, we show here that CGI-58 knockdown causes hepatic steatosis in both the presence and absence of ATGL. CGI-58 also regulates hepatic diacylglycerol (DAG) and inflammation in an ATGL-independent manner. Interestingly, ATGL deficiency, but not CGI-58 deficiency, results in suppression of the hepatic and adipose de novo lipogenic program. Collectively, these findings show that CGI-58 regulates hepatic neutral lipid storage and inflammation in the genetic absence of ATGL, demonstrating that mechanisms driving TAG lipolysis in hepatocytes differ significantly from those in adipocytes.

  15. Regulation of Hepatic Triacylglycerol Metabolism by CGI-58 Does Not Require ATGL Co-activation.

    PubMed

    Lord, Caleb C; Ferguson, Daniel; Thomas, Gwynneth; Brown, Amanda L; Schugar, Rebecca C; Burrows, Amy; Gromovsky, Anthony D; Betters, Jenna; Neumann, Chase; Sacks, Jessica; Marshall, Stephanie; Watts, Russell; Schweiger, Martina; Lee, Richard G; Crooke, Rosanne M; Graham, Mark J; Lathia, Justin D; Sakaguchi, Takuya F; Lehner, Richard; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Brown, J Mark

    2016-07-26

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58) are critical regulators of triacylglycerol (TAG) turnover. CGI-58 is thought to regulate TAG mobilization by stimulating the enzymatic activity of ATGL. However, it is not known whether this coactivation function of CGI-58 occurs in vivo. Moreover, the phenotype of human CGI-58 mutations suggests ATGL-independent functions. Through direct comparison of mice with single or double deficiency of CGI-58 and ATGL, we show here that CGI-58 knockdown causes hepatic steatosis in both the presence and absence of ATGL. CGI-58 also regulates hepatic diacylglycerol (DAG) and inflammation in an ATGL-independent manner. Interestingly, ATGL deficiency, but not CGI-58 deficiency, results in suppression of the hepatic and adipose de novo lipogenic program. Collectively, these findings show that CGI-58 regulates hepatic neutral lipid storage and inflammation in the genetic absence of ATGL, demonstrating that mechanisms driving TAG lipolysis in hepatocytes differ significantly from those in adipocytes. PMID:27396333

  16. Rapid triacylglycerol turnover in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii requires a lipase with broad substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaobo; Benning, Christoph; Kuo, Min-Hao

    2012-12-01

    When deprived of nitrogen (N), the photosynthetic microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii accumulates large quantities of triacylglycerols (TAGs), making it a promising source of biofuel. Prominent transcriptional changes associated with the conditions leading to TAG accumulation have been found, suggesting that the key enzymes for TAG metabolism might be among those that fluctuate in their expression during TAG synthesis and breakdown. Using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipase null mutant strain for functional complementation, we identified the CrLIP1 gene from Chlamydomonas based on its ability to suppress the lipase deficiency-related phenotypes of the yeast mutant. In Chlamydomonas, an inverse correlation was found between the CrLIP1 transcript level and TAG abundance when Chlamydomonas cultures were reversibly deprived of N. The CrLIP1 protein expressed and purified from Escherichia coli exhibited lipolytic activity against diacylglycerol (DAG) and polar lipids. The lipase domain of CrLIP1 is most similar to two human DAG lipases, DAGLα and DAGLβ. The involvement of CrLIP1 in Chlamydomonas TAG hydrolysis was corroborated by reducing the abundance of the CrLIP1 transcript with an artificial micro-RNA, which resulted in an apparent delay in TAG lipolysis when N was resupplied. Together, these data suggest that CrLIP1 facilitates TAG turnover in Chlamydomonas primarily by degrading the DAG presumably generated from TAG hydrolysis.

  17. Phagocytosis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... eat" microorganisms and dead or damaged cells. The process where these white blood cells surround, engulf, and destroy foreign substances is called phagocytosis, and the cells are collectively referred to as ...

  18. The requirement for membrane sialic acid in the stimulation of superoxide production during phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    The effect of desialylation on phagocytosis of latex particles and oxidative metabolism of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes was studied. Removal of 20% total leukocyte sialic acid by bacterial neuraminidase had no effect on phagocytosis of latex particles and phagocytosis- associated activation of hexose monophosphate shunt in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In contrast, desialylation prevented the stimulation of superoxide production either by phagocytosis or by concanavalin A. It is concluded that membrane sialic acid is essential for the stimulation of superoxide production by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. PMID:178821

  19. Vacuolar protein sorting protein 13A, TtVPS13A, localizes to the tetrahymena thermophila phagosome membrane and is required for efficient phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Samaranayake, Haresha S; Cowan, Ann E; Klobutcher, Lawrence A

    2011-09-01

    Vacuolar protein sorting 13 (VPS13) proteins have been studied in a number of organisms, and mutations in VPS13 genes have been implicated in two human genetic disorders, but the function of these proteins is poorly understood. The TtVPS13A protein was previously identified in a mass spectrometry analysis of the Tetrahymena thermophila phagosome proteome (M. E. Jacobs et al., Eukaryot. Cell 5:1990-2000, 2006), suggesting that it is involved in phagocytosis. In this study, we analyzed the structure of the macronuclear TtVPS13A gene, which was found to be composed of 17 exons spanning 12.5 kb and was predicted to encode a protein of 3,475 amino acids (aa). A strain expressing a TtVPS13A-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein was constructed, and the protein was found to associate with the phagosome membrane during the entire cycle of phagocytosis. In addition, Tetrahymena cells with a TtVPS13A knockout mutation displayed impaired phagocytosis. Specifically, they grew slowly under conditions where phagocytosis is essential, they formed few phagosomes, and the digestion of phagosomal contents was delayed compared to wild-type cells. Overall, these results provide evidence that the TtVPS13A protein is required for efficient phagocytosis.

  20. The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation is required for phagocytosis of staphylococcus aureus by RAW 264.7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Fei Yue, Wanfu; Wang, Yongxia

    2014-10-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor which controls the expression of various genes involved in immune responses. However, it is not clear whether NF-κB activation is critical for phagocytosis when Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen. Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we investigated whether NF-κB cascade genes are altered in a mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) when the cells were stimulated to activate a host innate immune response against live S. aureus or heat-inactivated S. aureus (HISA). NF-κB cascade genes such as Nfκb1, Nfκbiz, Nfκbie, Rel, Traf1 and Tnfaip3 were up-regulated by all treatments at one hour after incubation. NF-κB play an important role in activating phagocytosis in RAW 264.7 cells infected with S. aureus. Inhibition of NF-κB significantly blocked phagocytosis of fluorescently labeled S. aureus and decreased the expression of NFκB1, IL1α, IL1β and TLR2 in this cell line. Our results demonstrate that S. aureus may activate the NF-κB pathway and that NF-κB activation is required for phagocytosis of S. aureus by macrophages. - Highlights: • NF-κB cascade genes such as Nfκb1 and Traf1 were up-regulated by heat-inactivated S. aureus. • Inhibition of NF-κB significantly blocked phagocytosis of fluorescently labeled S. aureus. • NF-κB activation is required for phagocytosis of S. aureus by macrophages.

  1. The cytohesin paralog Sec7 of Dictyostelium discoideum is required for phagocytosis and cell motility

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dictyostelium harbors several paralogous Sec7 genes that encode members of three subfamilies of the Sec7 superfamily of guanine nucleotide exchange factors. One of them is the cytohesin family represented by three members in D. discoideum, SecG, Sec7 and a further protein distinguished by several transmembrane domains. Cytohesins are characterized by a Sec7-PH tandem domain and have roles in cell adhesion and migration. Results We study here Sec7. In vitro its PH domain bound preferentially to phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2), phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3). When following the distribution of GFP-Sec7 in vivo we observed the protein in the cytosol and at the plasma membrane. Strikingly, when cells formed pseudopods, macropinosomes or phagosomes, GFP-Sec7 was conspicuously absent from areas of the plasma membrane which were involved in these processes. Mutant cells lacking Sec7 exhibited an impaired phagocytosis and showed significantly reduced speed and less persistence during migration. Cellular properties associated with mammalian cytohesins like cell-cell and cell-substratum adhesion were not altered. Proteins with roles in membrane trafficking and signal transduction have been identified as putative interaction partners consistent with the data obtained from mutant analysis. Conclusions Sec7 is a cytosolic component and is associated with the plasma membrane in a pattern distinctly different from the accumulation of PI(3,4,5)P3. Mutant analysis reveals that loss of the protein affects cellular processes that involve membrane flow and the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:23915312

  2. Stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane

    SciTech Connect

    Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Fahey, Jed W.; Bryan, Kelley E.; Healy, Zachary R.; Talalay, Paul

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Sulforaphane stimulates the phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages under conditions of serum deprivation. {yields} This effect does not require Nrf2-dependent induction of phase 2 genes. {yields} Inactivation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by sulforaphane may be involved in stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane. -- Abstract: Sulforaphane, a major isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, protects living systems against electrophile toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and radiation. A major protective mechanism is the induction of a network of endogenous cytoprotective (phase 2) genes that are regulated by transcription factor Nrf2. To obtain a more detailed understanding of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of sulforaphane, we evaluated its effect on the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells by measuring the uptake of 2-{mu}m diameter polystyrene beads. Sulforaphane raised the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 cells but only in the absence or presence of low concentrations (1%) of fetal bovine serum. Higher serum concentrations depressed phagocytosis and abolished its stimulation by sulforaphane. This stimulation did not depend on the induction of Nrf2-regulated genes since it occurred in peritoneal macrophages of nrf2{sup -/-} mice. Moreover, a potent triterpenoid inducer of Nrf2-dependent genes did not stimulate phagocytosis, whereas sulforaphane and another isothiocyanate (benzyl isothiocyanate) had comparable inducer potencies. It has been shown recently that sulforaphane is a potent and direct inactivator of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, the addition of recombinant MIF to RAW 264.7 cells attenuated phagocytosis, but sulforaphane-inactivated MIF did not affect phagocytosis. The inactivation of MIF may therefore be involved in the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of sulforaphane.

  3. Role of target geometry in phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Julie A.; Mitragotri, Samir

    2006-01-01

    Phagocytosis is a principal component of the body’s innate immunity in which macrophages internalize targets in an actin-dependent manner. Targets vary widely in shape and size and include particles such as pathogens and senescent cells. Despite considerable progress in understanding this complicated process, the role of target geometry in phagocytosis has remained elusive. Previous studies on phagocytosis have been performed using spherical targets, thereby overlooking the role of particle shape. Using polystyrene particles of various sizes and shapes, we studied phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. We report a surprising finding that particle shape, not size, plays a dominant role in phagocytosis. All shapes were capable of initiating phagocytosis in at least one orientation. However, the local particle shape, measured by tangent angles, at the point of initial contact dictates whether macrophages initiate phagocytosis or simply spread on particles. The local shape determines the complexity of the actin structure that must be created to initiate phagocytosis and allow the membrane to move over the particle. Failure to create the required actin structure results in simple spreading and not internalization. Particle size primarily impacts the completion of phagocytosis in cases where particle volume exceeds the cell volume. PMID:16549762

  4. Regulation of phagocytosis by Rho GTPases.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yingyu; Finnemann, Silvia C

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis is defined as a cellular uptake pathway for particles of greater than 0.5 μm in diameter. Particle clearance by phagocytosis is of critical importance for tissue health and homeostasis. The ultimate goal of anti-pathogen phagocytosis is to destroy engulfed bacteria or fungi and to stimulate cell-cell signaling that mount an efficient immune defense. In contrast, clearance phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and cell debris is anti-inflammatory. High capacity clearance phagocytosis pathways are available to professional phagocytes of the immune system and the retina. Additionally, a low capacity, so-called bystander phagocytic pathway is available to most other cell types. Different phagocytic pathways are stimulated by particle ligation of distinct surface receptors but all forms of phagocytosis require F-actin recruitment beneath tethered particles and F-actin re-arrangement promoting engulfment, which are controlled by Rho family GTPases. The specificity of Rho GTPase activity during the different forms of phagocytosis by mammalian cells is the subject of this review.

  5. Commensal Bacteria-Induced Inflammasome Activation in Mouse and Human Macrophages Is Dependent on Potassium Efflux but Does Not Require Phagocytosis or Bacterial Viability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kejie; Shanmugam, Nanda Kumar N; Pazos, Michael A; Hurley, Bryan P; Cherayil, Bobby J

    2016-01-01

    Gut commensal bacteria contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, in part by activating the inflammasome and inducing secretion of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). Although much has been learned about inflammasome activation by bacterial pathogens, little is known about how commensals carry out this process. Accordingly, we investigated the mechanism of inflammasome activation by representative commensal bacteria, the Gram-positive Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis and the Gram-negative Bacteroides fragilis. B. infantis and B. fragilis induced IL-1ß secretion by primary mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages after overnight incubation. IL-1ß secretion also occurred in response to heat-killed bacteria and was only partly reduced when phagocytosis was inhibited with cytochalasin D. Similar results were obtained with a wild-type immortalized mouse macrophage cell line but neither B. infantis nor B. fragilis induced IL-1ß secretion in a mouse macrophage line lacking the nucleotide-binding/leucine-rich repeat pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. IL-1ß secretion in response to B. infantis and B. fragilis was significantly reduced when the wild-type macrophage line was treated with inhibitors of potassium efflux, either increased extracellular potassium concentrations or the channel blocker ruthenium red. Both live and heat-killed B. infantis and B. fragilis also induced IL-1ß secretion by human macrophages (differentiated THP-1 cells or primary monocyte-derived macrophages) after 4 hours of infection, and the secretion was inhibited by raised extracellular potassium and ruthenium red but not by cytochalasin D. Taken together, our findings indicate that the commensal bacteria B. infantis and B. fragilis activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in both mouse and human macrophages by a mechanism that involves potassium efflux and that does not require bacterial viability or phagocytosis. PMID:27505062

  6. Commensal Bacteria-Induced Inflammasome Activation in Mouse and Human Macrophages Is Dependent on Potassium Efflux but Does Not Require Phagocytosis or Bacterial Viability

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kejie; Shanmugam, Nanda Kumar N.; Pazos, Michael A.; Hurley, Bryan P.; Cherayil, Bobby J.

    2016-01-01

    Gut commensal bacteria contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, in part by activating the inflammasome and inducing secretion of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). Although much has been learned about inflammasome activation by bacterial pathogens, little is known about how commensals carry out this process. Accordingly, we investigated the mechanism of inflammasome activation by representative commensal bacteria, the Gram-positive Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis and the Gram-negative Bacteroides fragilis. B. infantis and B. fragilis induced IL-1ß secretion by primary mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages after overnight incubation. IL-1ß secretion also occurred in response to heat-killed bacteria and was only partly reduced when phagocytosis was inhibited with cytochalasin D. Similar results were obtained with a wild-type immortalized mouse macrophage cell line but neither B. infantis nor B. fragilis induced IL-1ß secretion in a mouse macrophage line lacking the nucleotide-binding/leucine-rich repeat pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. IL-1ß secretion in response to B. infantis and B. fragilis was significantly reduced when the wild-type macrophage line was treated with inhibitors of potassium efflux, either increased extracellular potassium concentrations or the channel blocker ruthenium red. Both live and heat-killed B. infantis and B. fragilis also induced IL-1ß secretion by human macrophages (differentiated THP-1 cells or primary monocyte-derived macrophages) after 4 hours of infection, and the secretion was inhibited by raised extracellular potassium and ruthenium red but not by cytochalasin D. Taken together, our findings indicate that the commensal bacteria B. infantis and B. fragilis activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in both mouse and human macrophages by a mechanism that involves potassium efflux and that does not require bacterial viability or phagocytosis. PMID:27505062

  7. Phagocytosis: An Immunobiologic Process.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Siamon

    2016-03-15

    It has been a century since the death of Élie Metchnikoff, who championed the role of phagocytosis in cellular immunity. Whereas others had observed the uptake of particles by cells from simple to complex organisms, he grasped its significance in the host response to injury and infection and established a firm basis for our understanding of inflammation and tissue homeostasis. The past century has brought improved tools of cellular and molecular biology to the study of phagocytosis and its contribution to physiological and pathological processes, including receptor function in innate and acquired immunity. In this review, I assess our present knowledge and consider opportunities for future research and therapeutic targeting.

  8. Phagocytosis of Histoplasma capsulatum yeasts and microconidia by human cultured macrophages and alveolar macrophages. Cellular cytoskeleton requirement for attachment and ingestion.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, S L; Bucher, C; Rhodes, J; Bullock, W E

    1990-01-01

    Phagocytosis of Histoplasma capsulatum (Hc) yeasts and microconidia by human macrophages (M phi) was quantified by a fluorescence quenching technique. Phagocytosis of unopsonized Hc yeasts by monocyte-derived M phi and human alveolar M phi (AM) was rapid. After 60 min, 79% of cultured M phi and 59% of AM had ingested an average of 9.8 and 11 yeasts/M phi, respectively. In contrast, only 26% of monocytes ingested 4.5 yeasts/cell after 60 min. Phagocytosis of unopsonized microconidia by cultured M phi and by AM was equivalent. Monoclonal antibodies specific for the alpha-chains and beta-chain of the CD18 family of adhesion receptors inhibited the binding of Hc yeasts and microconidia to cultured M phi and AM. Thus, the M phi CD18 complex mediates recognition of both phases of this dimorphic fungus. Disruption of actin microfilaments with cytochalasin D inhibited both attachment and ingestion of yeasts by M phi. In contrast, nocodazole, which prevents polymerization of microtubules, did not inhibit binding or ingestion. Both drugs inhibited ingestion, but neither drug inhibited binding of C3b- and C3bi-coated sheep erythrocytes to complement receptors type one (CR1) or type three (CR3), respectively. Therefore, different signal transducing mechanisms for phagocytosis appear to be triggered by the binding of Hc yeasts to CD18, and by the binding of EC3bi to CD11b/CD18, respectively. Images PMID:2104879

  9. Entamoeba histolytica. Phagocytosis as a virulence factor

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, we attempted to define the role of phagocytosis in the virulence of Entamoeba histolytica. We have isolated, from a highly phagocytic and virulent strain, a clone deficient in phagocytosis. Trophozoites of wild-type strain HM1:IMSS were fed with Escherichia coli strain CR34-Thy- grown on 5-bromo,2'-deoxyuridine. The trophozoites that had incorporated the base analog through phagocytosis of the bacteria were killed by irradiation with 310 nm light. The survivors, presumably trophozoites defective in phagocytosis, were grown until log phase and submitted two more times to the selection procedure. Clone L-6, isolated from a subpopulation resulting from this selection procedure, showed 75-85% less erythrophagocytic activity than the wild-type strain. The virulence of clone L-6 and strain HM1:IMSS was measured. The inoculum required to induce liver abscesses in 50% of the newborn hamsters inoculated (AD50) of HM1:IMSS was 1.5 X 10(4) trophozoites. Clone L-6 trophozoites failed to induce liver abscesses in newborn hamsters even with inocula of 5 X 10(5) trophozoites. Virulence revertants were obtained by successive passage of L-6 trophozoites through the liver of young hamsters. The trophozoites that recovered the ability to produce liver abscesses simultaneously recuperate high erythrophagocytic rates. These results show that phagocytosis is involved in the aggressive mechanisms of E. histolytica. PMID:6313842

  10. Examination of galectins in phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan-Yuan; Weng, I-Chun; Li, Chi-Shan; Wan, Lei; Liu, Fu-Tong

    2015-01-01

    Galectins, a family of β-galactoside-binding proteins, are expressed in many different phagocytic leukocytes (granulocytes, monocytes, and macrophages). A number of family members have been shown to play an important role in ingestion of particles (phagocytosis), thus contributing to clearance of damaged cells and host defense against pathogens. Here we describe procedures for analysis of the roles of galectins in phagocytosis by using galectin-3 as an example. We emphasize the function of endogenous galectin-3 as determined by comparison of phagocytosis by macrophages from galectin-3 knockout mice and wild-type mice. We focus on the role of galectin-3 in phagocytosis of pathogens and Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis of opsonized cells and particles.

  11. Reticulocalbin-1 Facilitates Microglial Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ying; Caberoy, Nora B.; Guo, Feiye; LeBlanc, Michelle E.; Zhang, Chenming; Wang, Weiwen; Wang, Feng; Chen, Rui; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis is critical to the clearance of apoptotic cells, cellular debris and deleterious metabolic products for tissue homeostasis. Phagocytosis ligands directly recognizing deleterious cargos are the key to defining the functional roles of phagocytes, but are traditionally identified on a case-by-case basis with technical challenges. As a result, extrinsic regulation of phagocytosis is poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that microglial phagocytosis ligands can be systematically identified by a new approach of functional screening. One of the identified ligands is reticulocalbin-1 (Rcn1), which was originally reported as a Ca2+-binding protein with a strict expression in the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results showed that Rcn1 can be secreted from healthy cells and that secreted Rcn1 selectively bound to the surface of apoptotic neurons, but not healthy neurons. Independent characterization revealed that Rcn1 stimulated microglial phagocytosis of apoptotic but not healthy neurons. Ingested apoptotic cells were targeted to phagosomes and co-localized with phagosome marker Rab7. These data suggest that Rcn1 is a genuine phagocytosis ligand. The new approach described in this study will enable systematic identification of microglial phagocytosis ligands with broad applicability to many other phagocytes. PMID:25992960

  12. Reticulocalbin-1 facilitates microglial phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ying; Caberoy, Nora B; Guo, Feiye; LeBlanc, Michelle E; Zhang, Chenming; Wang, Weiwen; Wang, Feng; Chen, Rui; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis is critical to the clearance of apoptotic cells, cellular debris and deleterious metabolic products for tissue homeostasis. Phagocytosis ligands directly recognizing deleterious cargos are the key to defining the functional roles of phagocytes, but are traditionally identified on a case-by-case basis with technical challenges. As a result, extrinsic regulation of phagocytosis is poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that microglial phagocytosis ligands can be systematically identified by a new approach of functional screening. One of the identified ligands is reticulocalbin-1 (Rcn1), which was originally reported as a Ca2+-binding protein with a strict expression in the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results showed that Rcn1 can be secreted from healthy cells and that secreted Rcn1 selectively bound to the surface of apoptotic neurons, but not healthy neurons. Independent characterization revealed that Rcn1 stimulated microglial phagocytosis of apoptotic but not healthy neurons. Ingested apoptotic cells were targeted to phagosomes and co-localized with phagosome marker Rab7. These data suggest that Rcn1 is a genuine phagocytosis ligand. The new approach described in this study will enable systematic identification of microglial phagocytosis ligands with broad applicability to many other phagocytes.

  13. Beclin 1 is required for starvation-enhanced, but not rapamycin-enhanced, LC3-associated phagocytosis of Burkholderia pseudomallei in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuelei; Prescott, Mark; Adler, Ben; Boyce, John D; Devenish, Rodney J

    2013-01-01

    LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) of Burkholderia pseudomallei by murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) cells is an intracellular innate defense mechanism. Beclin 1, a protein with several roles in autophagic processes, is known to be recruited to phagosomal membranes as a very early event in LAP. We sought to determine whether knockdown of Beclin 1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) would affect recruitment of LC3 and subsequent LAP of infecting B. pseudomallei. Both starvation and rapamycin treatment can induce Beclin 1-dependent autophagy. Therefore, we analyzed the consequences of Beclin 1 knockdown for LAP in infected cells that had been either starved or treated with rapamycin by determining the levels of bacterial colocalization with LC3 and intracellular survival. Concurrently, we confirmed the location of bacteria as either contained in phagosomes or free in the cytoplasm. We found that both rapamycin and starvation treatment enhanced LAP of B. pseudomallei but that the rapamycin response is Beclin 1 independent whereas the starvation response is Beclin 1 dependent.

  14. Triacylglycerol metabolism in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Duncan, Robin E; Jaworski, Kathy; Sarkadi-Nagy, Eszter; Sul, Hei Sook

    2009-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) in adipose tissue serves as the major energy storage form in higher eukaryotes. Obesity, resulting from excess white adipose tissue, has increased dramatically in recent years resulting in a serious public health problem. Understanding of adipocyte-specific TAG synthesis and hydrolysis is critical to the development of strategies to treat and prevent obesity and its closely associated diseases, for example, Type 2 diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis. In this review, we present an overview of the major enzymes in TAG synthesis and lipolysis, including the recent discovery of a novel adipocyte TAG hydrolase. PMID:19194515

  15. Disruption of Sphingolipid Biosynthesis Blocks Phagocytosis of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Florian I.; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Dougan, Stephanie; Dougan, Michael; Esteban, Alexandre; Maruyama, Takeshi; Strijbis, Karin; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of phagocytes to clear pathogens is an essential attribute of the innate immune response. The role of signaling lipid molecules such as phosphoinositides is well established, but the role of membrane sphingolipids in phagocytosis is largely unknown. Using a genetic approach and small molecule inhibitors, we show that phagocytosis of Candida albicans requires an intact sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. Blockade of serine-palmitoyltransferase (SPT) and ceramide synthase-enzymes involved in sphingolipid biosynthesis- by myriocin and fumonisin B1, respectively, impaired phagocytosis by phagocytes. We used CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing to generate Sptlc2-deficient DC2.4 dendritic cells, which lack serine palmitoyl transferase activity. Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells exhibited a stark defect in phagocytosis, were unable to bind fungal particles and failed to form a normal phagocytic cup to engulf C. albicans. Supplementing the growth media with GM1, the major ganglioside present at the cell surface, restored phagocytic activity of Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells. While overall membrane trafficking and endocytic pathways remained functional, Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells express reduced levels of the pattern recognition receptors Dectin-1 and TLR2 at the cell surface. Consistent with the in vitro data, compromised sphingolipid biosynthesis in mice sensitizes the animal to C. albicans infection. Sphingolipid biosynthesis is therefore critical for phagocytosis and in vivo clearance of C. albicans. PMID:26431038

  16. Disruption of Sphingolipid Biosynthesis Blocks Phagocytosis of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Tafesse, Fikadu G; Rashidfarrokhi, Ali; Schmidt, Florian I; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Dougan, Stephanie; Dougan, Michael; Esteban, Alexandre; Maruyama, Takeshi; Strijbis, Karin; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2015-10-01

    The ability of phagocytes to clear pathogens is an essential attribute of the innate immune response. The role of signaling lipid molecules such as phosphoinositides is well established, but the role of membrane sphingolipids in phagocytosis is largely unknown. Using a genetic approach and small molecule inhibitors, we show that phagocytosis of Candida albicans requires an intact sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. Blockade of serine-palmitoyltransferase (SPT) and ceramide synthase-enzymes involved in sphingolipid biosynthesis- by myriocin and fumonisin B1, respectively, impaired phagocytosis by phagocytes. We used CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing to generate Sptlc2-deficient DC2.4 dendritic cells, which lack serine palmitoyl transferase activity. Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells exhibited a stark defect in phagocytosis, were unable to bind fungal particles and failed to form a normal phagocytic cup to engulf C. albicans. Supplementing the growth media with GM1, the major ganglioside present at the cell surface, restored phagocytic activity of Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells. While overall membrane trafficking and endocytic pathways remained functional, Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells express reduced levels of the pattern recognition receptors Dectin-1 and TLR2 at the cell surface. Consistent with the in vitro data, compromised sphingolipid biosynthesis in mice sensitizes the animal to C. albicans infection. Sphingolipid biosynthesis is therefore critical for phagocytosis and in vivo clearance of C. albicans.

  17. Animal Models, in "The Quest to Decipher RPE Phagocytosis".

    PubMed

    Nandrot, Emeline F

    2014-01-01

    Renewal and elimination of aged photoreceptor outer segment (POS) tips by cells from the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) is a daily rhythmic process that is crucial for long-term vision. Anomalies can arise during any of the sequential steps required for completion of this phagocytic function, from POS recognition to complete digestion of POS components. During the past 15 years, many animal models helped us characterize the molecular machinery implicated in RPE phagocytosis as well as understand associated defects leading to various retinal pathologies. Depending on which part of the machinery is flawed, phenotypes can either appear early in life, such as retinitis pigmentosa or Usher syndrome, or develop with aging of the individual, like age-related macular degeneration, affecting first either the peripheral or the central retina. This chapter describes mouse and rat models related to defective phagocytosis, and how they have been a tremendous help for us to comprehend RPE phagocytosis, its rhythm, and its failures.

  18. Perilipin A and the control of triacylglycerol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Brasaemle, Dawn L; Subramanian, Vidya; Garcia, Anne; Marcinkiewicz, Amy; Rothenberg, Alexis

    2009-06-01

    Perilipin A is the most abundant protein associated with the lipid droplets of adipocytes and functions to control both basal and stimulated lipolysis. Under basal or fed conditions, perilipin A shields stored triacylglycerols from cytosolic lipases, thus promoting triacylglycerol storage. When catecholamines bind to cell surface receptors to initiate signals that activate cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), phosphorylated perilipin A facilitates maximal lipolysis. Mutagenesis studies have revealed that central sequences of moderately hydrophobic amino acids are required to target nascent perilipin A to lipid droplets and provide an anchor into the hydrophobic environment of lipid droplets. Sequences of amino acids in the unique carboxyl terminus of perilipin A and those in amino terminal sequences flanking the first hydrophobic stretch are required for the barrier function of perilipin A in promoting triacylglycerol storage. Site-directed mutagenesis studies of serine residues within six PKA consensus sites of perilipin A reveal functions for phosphorylation of at least three of the sites. Phosphorylation of one or more of the serines within three amino terminal PKA sites is required to facilitate hormone-sensitive lipase access to lipid substrates. Phosphorylation of serines within two carboxyl terminal sites is also required for maximal lipolysis. Phosphorylation of serine 492 (site 5) triggers a massive remodeling of lipid droplets, whereby large peri-nuclear lipid droplets fragment into myriad lipid micro-droplets that scatter throughout the cytoplasm. We hypothesize that perilipin A binds accessory proteins to provide assistance in carrying out these functions. PMID:19116774

  19. In vitro phagocytosis and intracellular survival of Campylobacter jejuni with phagocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kiehlbauch, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    In vitro phagocytosis and intracellular survival of Campylobacter jejuni was studied using three types of mononuclear phagocytes: a J774G8 peritoneal macrophage line, resident BABL/c peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral blood monocytes. In phagocytosis assays using CFU determinations, phagocytosis increased steadily over an 8 hr time period. Results obtained using a /sup 51/Cr assay indicated no consistent significant difference between phagocytosis of C. jejuni between the three mononuclear phagocytes or PMN's and that maximum infection occurred prior to 0.5 hr and maintained throughout the 4 hr assay. Further investigation of the mechanism of attachment and entry of C. jejuni revealed this process required the expenditure of energy by the phagocyte, but was not inhibited by inhibitors of microfilament functions. In addition, phagocytosis was enhanced by the presence of 20% FCS,

  20. Tetrahymena: growth without phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Basmussen, L; Orias, E

    1975-10-31

    We have succeeded in growing a Tetrahymena mutant without food vacuoles in growth media supplemented with vitamins and heavy-metal salts. This finding implies the existence of adequate alternative routes of entry for every required nutrient, and clearly indicates that the food vacuole in Tetrahymena is a dispensable cellular organelle. The growth of the mutant without food vacuoles makes available a valuable experimental tool.

  1. Synthesis and analysis of symmetrical and nonsymmetrical disaturated/monounsaturated triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Adlof, Richard O; List, Gary R

    2003-03-26

    Symmetrical disaturated triacylglycerols of the structure SUS, where S is stearic acid (18:0) and U is an unsaturated fatty acid, either oleic (O; 9cis-18:1), linoleic (L; 9cis,12cis-18:2), or linolenic (Ln; 9cis,12cis,15cis-18:3), are important components providing functionality to interesterified fat blends and structurally modified oils. Nonsymmetrical triacylglycerols of the structure SSU can significantly change melting point and solid fat content profiles. To characterize the physical properties of pure and symmetrical and nonsymmetrical triacylglycerol mixtures, the same reaction sequence has been used to prepare multigram quantities of triacylglycerols SUS and SSU. Tristearin was converted to a mixture of mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols, and the 1,3- and 1,2-diacylglycerol fraction was isolated by silica column chromatography. The 1,3-diacylglycerols were removed by crystallization from acetone and esterified with the appropriate fatty acid to form the symmetrical triacylglycerols with >99% SUS structure. The more difficult to obtain 1,2-diacylglycerols were prepared by esterification of the enriched 1,2-diacylglycerol fraction (80-86% 1,2-diacylglycerols) remaining after removal of much of the 1,3-isomer by crystallization, but silver resin or silver nitrate impregnated silica gel chromatography was required to isolate the nonsymmetrical triacylglycerols. SSL and SSLn were prepared in purities of >98% by this procedure, but not SSO. Silver ion HPLC was found to be as accurate as, and more rapid than, lipolysis/gas chromatography for the determination of the isomeric purities of the synthesized triacylglycerols.

  2. Phagocytosis

    MedlinePlus

    Macrophages are scavenger cells that can ingest dead tissue and foreign cells. Macrophages form tentacles called pseudopods to surround an invader. Once inside the macrophage, the invader is walled off and then digested ...

  3. Teaching phagocytosis using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Boothby, John T; Kibler, Ruthann; Rech, Sabine; Hicks, Robert

    2004-05-01

    Investigative microbiology on protists in a basic teaching laboratory environment is limited by student skill level, ease of microbial culture and manipulation, instrumentation, and time. The flow cytometer is gaining use as a mainstream instrument in research and clinical laboratories, but has had minimal application in teaching laboratories. Although the cost of a flow cytometer is currently prohibitive for many microbiology teaching environments and the number of trained instructors and teaching materials is limited, in many ways the flow cytometer is an ideal instrument for teaching basic microbiology. We report here on a laboratory module to study phagocytosis in Tetrahymena sp. using flow cytometry in a basic microbiology teaching laboratory. Students and instructors found the flow cytometry data analysis program, Paint-AGate(PRO-TM), to be very intuitive and easy to learn within a short period of time. Assessment of student learning about Tetrahymena sp., phagocytosis, flow cytometry, and investigative microbiology using an inquiry-based format demonstrated an overall positive response from students.

  4. Particulate matter phagocytosis induces tissue factor in differentiating macrophages.

    PubMed

    Milano, M; Dongiovanni, P; Artoni, A; Gatti, S; Rosso, L; Colombo, F; Bollati, V; Maggioni, M; Mannucci, P M; Bertazzi, P A; Fargion, S; Valenti, L

    2016-01-01

    Airborne exposure to particulate matter with diameter < 10 mcM (PM10) has been linked to an increased risk of thromboembolic events, but the mechanisms are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PM10 phagocytosis on the release of procoagulant molecules in human differentiating macrophages, and that of PM10 inhalation in an experimental model in rats. Human monocytes were separated from the peripheral blood by the lymphoprep method, differentiated in vitro and treated with standard PM10 or vehicle. Sprague-Dawley rats were instilled intratracheally with PM10 or vehicle alone. The outcome was expression of proinflammatory genes and of tissue factor (TF). In human differentiating macrophages, PM10 exposure upregulated inflammatory genes, but most consistently induced TF mRNA and protein levels, but not TF protein inhibitor, resulting in increased TF membrane expression and a procoagulant phenotype. Differentiation towards the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype inhibited PM10 -mediated TF expression. TF induction required phagocytosis of PM10 , whereas phagocytosis of inert particles was less effective. PM10 phagocytosis was associated with a gene expression profile consistent with intracellular retention of iron, inducing oxidative stress. Both PM10 and iron activated the stress kinases ERK1/2 pathway, involved in the induction of TF expression. In rats, alveolar exposure to PM10 was associated with pulmonary recruitment of inflammatory cells and resulted in local, but not systemic, induction of TF expression, which was sufficient to increase circulating TF levels. In conclusion, TF induction by differentiating lung macrophages, activated following phagocytosis, contributes to the increased risk of thromboembolic complications associated with PM10 exposure.

  5. Hydration of Cuphea seeds containing crystallized triacylglycerols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds that exhibit intermediate storage behavior do not appear to survive under conventional -18C storage conditions. Cuphea wrightii, C. laminuligera, C. carthagenensis, and C. aequipetala are considered sensitive to low temperature storage. The seeds of these species have triacylglycerols (TAG) ...

  6. Autophagy supports Candida glabrata survival during phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Roetzer, Andreas; Gratz, Nina; Kovarik, Pavel; Schüller, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    The opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is confronted with phagocytic cells of the host defence system. Survival of internalized cells is thought to contribute to successful dissemination. We investigated the reaction of engulfed C. glabrata cells using fluorescent protein fusions of the transcription factors CgYap1 and CgMig1 and catalase CgCta1. The expression level and peroxisomal localization of catalase was used to monitor the metabolic and stress status of internalized C. glabrata cells. These reporters revealed that the phagocytosed C. glabrata cells were exposed to transient oxidative stress and starved for carbon source. Cells trapped within macrophages increased their peroxisome numbers indicating a metabolic switch. Prolonged phagocytosis caused a pexophagy-mediated decline in peroxisome numbers. Autophagy, and in particular pexophagy, contributed to survival of C. glabrata during engulfment. Mutants lacking CgATG11 or CgATG17, genes required for pexophagy and non-selective autophagy, respectively, displayed reduced survival rates. Furthermore, both CgAtg11 and CgAtg17 contribute to survival, since the double mutant was highly sensitive to engulfment. Inhibition of peroxisome formation by deletion of CgPEX3 partially restored viability of CgATG11 deletion mutants during engulfment. This suggests that peroxisome formation and maintenance might sequester resources required for optimal survival. Mobilization of intracellular resources via autophagy is an important virulence factor that supports the viability of C. glabrata in the phagosomal compartment of infected innate immune cells. PMID:19811500

  7. Yeast mannans inhibit binding and phagocytosis of zymosan by mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sung, S S; Nelson, R S; Silverstein, S C

    1983-01-01

    We have examined the effects of various mannans, glycoproteins, oligosaccharides, monosaccharides, and sugar phosphates on the binding and phagocytosis of yeast cell walls (zymosan) by mouse peritoneal macrophages. A phosphonomannan (PO(4):mannose ratio = 1:8:6) from kloeckera brevis was the most potent inhibitor tested; it inhibited binding and phagocytosis by 50 percent at concentrations of approximately 3-5 mug/ml and 10 mug/ml, respectively. Removal of the phosphate from this mannan by mild acid and alkaline phosphatase treatment did not appreciably reduce its capacity to inhibit zymosan phagocytosis. The mannan from saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant LB301 inhibits phagocytosis by 50 percent at 0.3 mg/ml, and a neutral exocellular glucomannan from pichia pinus inhibited phagocytosis by 50 percent at 1 mg/ml. Cell wall mannans from wild type S. cervisiae X2180, its mnn2 mutant which contains mannan with predominantly 1(arrow)6- linked mannose residues, yeast exocellular mannans and O-phosphonomannans were less efficient inhibitors requiring concentrations of 1-5 mg/ml to achieve 50 percent reduction in phagocytosis. Horseradish peroxidase, which contains high-mannose type oligosaccharides, was also inhibitory. Mannan is a specific inhibitor of zymosan binding and phagocytosis. The binding and ingestion of zymosan but not of IgG- or complement-coated erythrocytes can be obliterated by plating macrophages on substrates coated with poly-L-lysin (PLL)-mannan. Zymosan uptake was completely abolished by trypsin treatment of the macrophages and reduced by 50-60 percent in the presence of 10 mM EGTA. Pretreatment of the macrophages with chloroquine inhibited zymosan binding and ingestion. These results support the proposal that the macrophage mannose/N-acetylglucosamine receptor (P. Stahl, J.S. Rodman, M.J. Miller, and P.H. Schlesinger, 1978, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75:1399-1403, mediates the phagocytosis of zymosan particles. PMID:6298248

  8. Participation of the serine-rich Entamoeba histolytica protein in amebic phagocytosis of apoptotic host cells.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jose E; Huston, Christopher D

    2008-03-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an intestinal ameba that causes dysentery and liver abscesses. Cytotoxicity and phagocytosis of host cells characterize invasive E. histolytica infection. Prior to phagocytosis of host cells, E. histolytica induces apoptotic host cell death, using a mechanism that requires contact via an amebic galactose-specific lectin. However, lectin inhibition only partially blocks phagocytosis of already dead cells, implicating at least one additional receptor in phagocytosis. To identify receptors for engulfment of apoptotic cells, monoclonal antibodies against E. histolytica membrane antigens were screened for inhibition of phagocytosis. Of 43 antibodies screened, one blocked lectin-independent uptake of apoptotic cells, with >90% inhibition at a dose of 20 microg/ml (P < 0.0003 versus control). The same antibody also inhibited adherence to apoptotic lymphocytes and, to a lesser extent, adherence to and killing of viable lymphocytes. The antigen recognized by the inhibitory antibody was purified by affinity chromatography and identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as the serine-rich E. histolytica protein (SREHP). Consistent with this, the inhibitory antibody bound to recombinant SREHP present in bacterial lysates on immunoblots. The SREHP is an abundant immunogenic surface protein of unclear function. The results of this unbiased antibody screen strongly implicate the SREHP as a participant in E. histolytica phagocytosis and suggest that it may play an important role in adherence to apoptotic cells. PMID:18086807

  9. Ankyrin-repeat proteins from sponge symbionts modulate amoebal phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mary T H D; Liu, Michael; Thomas, Torsten

    2014-03-01

    Bacteria-eukaryote symbiosis occurs in all stages of evolution, from simple amoebae to mammals, and from facultative to obligate associations. Sponges are ancient metazoans that form intimate symbiotic interactions with complex communities of bacteria. The basic nutritional requirements of the sponge are in part satisfied by the phagocytosis of bacterial food particles from the surrounding water. How bacterial symbionts, which are permanently associated with the sponge, survive in the presence of phagocytic cells is largely unknown. Here, we present the discovery of a genomic fragment from an uncultured gamma-proteobacterial sponge symbiont that encodes for four proteins, whose closest known relatives are found in a sponge genome. Through recombinant approaches, we show that these four eukaryotic-like, ankyrin-repeat proteins (ARP) when expressed in Eschericha coli can modulate phagocytosis of amoebal cells and lead to accumulation of bacteria in the phagosome. Mechanistically, two ARPs appear to interfere with phagosome development in a similar way to reduced vacuole acidification, by blocking the fusion of the early phagosome with the lysosome and its digestive enzymes. Our results show that ARP from sponge symbionts can function to interfere with phagocytosis, and we postulate that this might be one mechanism by which symbionts can escape digestion in a sponge host.

  10. Rho kinase regulates fragmentation and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Orlando, Kelly A.; Stone, Nicole L.; Pittman, Randall N. . E-mail: pittman@pharm.med.upenn.edu

    2006-01-01

    During the execution phase of apoptosis, a cell undergoes cytoplasmic and nuclear changes that prepare it for death and phagocytosis. The end-point of the execution phase is condensation into a single apoptotic body or fragmentation into multiple apoptotic bodies. Fragmentation is thought to facilitate phagocytosis; however, mechanisms regulating fragmentation are unknown. An isoform of Rho kinase, ROCK-I, drives membrane blebbing through its activation of actin-myosin contraction; this raises the possibility that ROCK-I may regulate other execution phase events, such as cellular fragmentation. Here, we show that COS-7 cells fragment into a number of small apoptotic bodies during apoptosis; treating with ROCK inhibitors (Y-27632 or H-1152) prevents fragmentation. Latrunculin B and blebbistatin, drugs that interfere with actin-myosin contraction, also inhibit fragmentation. During apoptosis, ROCK-I is cleaved and activated by caspases, while ROCK-II is not activated, but rather translocates to a cytoskeletal fraction. siRNA knock-down of ROCK-I but not ROCK-II inhibits fragmentation of dying cells, consistent with ROCK-I being required for apoptotic fragmentation. Finally, cells dying in the presence of the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 are not efficiently phagocytized. These data show that ROCK plays an essential role in fragmentation and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.

  11. Phagocytosis in Teleosts. Implications of the New Cells Involved.

    PubMed

    Esteban, María Ángeles; Cuesta, Alberto; Chaves-Pozo, Elena; Meseguer, José

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis is the process by which cells engulf some solid particles to form internal vesicles known as phagosomes. Phagocytosis is in fact a specific form of endocytosis involving the vesicular interiorization of particles. Phagocytosis is essentially a defensive reaction against infection and invasion of the body by foreign substances and, in the immune system, phagocytosis is a major mechanism used to remove pathogens and/or cell debris. For these reasons, phagocytosis in vertebrates has been recognized as a critical component of the innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens. Furthermore, more recent studies have revealed that phagocytosis is also crucial for tissue homeostasis and remodeling. Professional phagocytes in teleosts are monocyte/macrophages, granulocytes and dendritic cells. Nevertheless, in recent years phagocytic properties have also been attributed to teleost lymphocytes and thrombocytes. The possible implications of such cells on this important biological process, new factors affecting phagocytosis, evasion of phagocytosis or new forms of phagocytosis will be considered and discussed.

  12. Phagocytosis: receptors, signal integration, and the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Spencer A; Grinstein, Sergio

    2014-11-01

    Phagocytosis is a remarkably complex and versatile process: it contributes to innate immunity through the ingestion and elimination of pathogens, while also being central to tissue homeostasis and remodeling by clearing effete cells. The ability of phagocytes to perform such diverse functions rests, in large part, on their vast repertoire of receptors. In this review, we address the various receptor types, their mobility in the plane of the membrane, and two modes of receptor crosstalk: priming and synergy. A major section is devoted to the actin cytoskeleton, which not only governs receptor mobility and clustering but also is instrumental in particle engulfment. Four stages of the actin remodeling process are identified and discussed: (i) the 'resting' stage that precedes receptor engagement, (ii) the disruption of the cortical actin prior to formation of the phagocytic cup, (iii) the actin polymerization that propels pseudopod extension, and (iv) the termination of polymerization and removal of preassembled actin that are required for focal delivery of endomembranes and phagosomal sealing. These topics are viewed in the larger context of the differentiation and polarization of the phagocytic cells.

  13. Triacylglycerol metabolism in isolated rat kidney cortex tubules

    PubMed Central

    Wirthensohn, Gabriele; Guder, Walter G.

    1980-01-01

    Triacylglycerol metabolism has been studied in kidney cortex tubules from starved rats, prepared by collagenase treatment. Triacylglycerol was determined by a newly developed fully enzymic method. Incubation of tubules in the absence of fatty acids led to a decrease of endogenous triacylglycerol by about 50% in 1h. Addition of albuminbound oleate or palmitate resulted in a steady increase of tissue triacylglycerol over 2h. The rate of triacylglycerol synthesis was linearly dependent on oleate concentration up to 0.8mm, reaching a saturation at higher concentrations. Triacylglycerol formation from palmitate was less than that from oleate. This difference was qualitatively the same when net synthesis was compared with incorporation of labelled fatty acids. Quantitatively, however, the difference was less with the incorporation technique. Gluconeogenic substrates, which by themselves had no effect on triacylglycerol concentrations, stimulated neutral lipid formation from fatty acids. Glucose and lysine did not have such a stimulatory effect. Inhibition of gluconeogenesis from lactate by mercaptopicolinic acid likewise inhibited triacylglycerol formation. This inhibitory effect was seen with oleate as well as with oleate plus lactate. When [2-14C]lactate was used the incorporation of label into triacylglycerol was found in the glycerol moiety exclusively. Addition of dl-β-hydroxybutyrate (5mm) to the incubation medium in the presence of oleate or oleate plus lactate led to a significant increase in triacylglycerol formation. In contrast with the gluconeogenic substrates, dl-β-hydroxybutyrate had no stimulatory effect on fatty acid uptake. The results suggest that renal triacylglycerol formation is a quantitatively important metabolic process. The finding that gluconeogenic substrates, but not glucose, increase lipid formation, indicates that the glycerol moiety is formed by glyceroneogenesis in the proximal tubules. The effect of ketone bodies seems to be caused by

  14. [Microglial Phagocytosis in the Neurodegenerative Diseases].

    PubMed

    Cao, Sheng-nan; Bao, Xiu-qi; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Microglia are the resident innate immune cells in the brain. Under endogenous or exogenous stimulates, they become activated and play an important role in the neurodegenerative diseases. Microglial phagocytosis is a process of receptor-mediated engulfment and degradation of apoptotic cells. In addition, microglia can phagocyte brain-specific cargo, such as myelin debris and abnormal protein aggregation. However, recent studies have shown that microglia can also phagocyte stressed-but-viable neurons, causing loss of neurons in the brain. Thus, whether microglial phagocytosis is beneficial or not in neurodegenerative disease remains controversial. This article reviews microglial phagocytosis related mechanisms and its potential roles in neurodegenerative diseases, with an attempt to provide new insights in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27181903

  15. [Microglial Phagocytosis in the Neurodegenerative Diseases].

    PubMed

    Cao, Sheng-nan; Bao, Xiu-qi; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Microglia are the resident innate immune cells in the brain. Under endogenous or exogenous stimulates, they become activated and play an important role in the neurodegenerative diseases. Microglial phagocytosis is a process of receptor-mediated engulfment and degradation of apoptotic cells. In addition, microglia can phagocyte brain-specific cargo, such as myelin debris and abnormal protein aggregation. However, recent studies have shown that microglia can also phagocyte stressed-but-viable neurons, causing loss of neurons in the brain. Thus, whether microglial phagocytosis is beneficial or not in neurodegenerative disease remains controversial. This article reviews microglial phagocytosis related mechanisms and its potential roles in neurodegenerative diseases, with an attempt to provide new insights in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Neurofibromin controls macropinocytosis and phagocytosis in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Gareth; Traynor, David; Sander, Sophia P; Veltman, Douwe M; Pachebat, Justin A; Kay, Robert R

    2015-03-27

    Cells use phagocytosis and macropinocytosis to internalise bulk material, which in phagotrophic organisms supplies the nutrients necessary for growth. Wildtype Dictyostelium amoebae feed on bacteria, but for decades laboratory work has relied on axenic mutants that can also grow on liquid media. We used forward genetics to identify the causative gene underlying this phenotype. This gene encodes the RasGAP Neurofibromin (NF1). Loss of NF1 enables axenic growth by increasing fluid uptake. Mutants form outsized macropinosomes which are promoted by greater Ras and PI3K activity at sites of endocytosis. Relatedly, NF1 mutants can ingest larger-than-normal particles using phagocytosis. An NF1 reporter is recruited to nascent macropinosomes, suggesting that NF1 limits their size by locally inhibiting Ras signalling. Our results link NF1 with macropinocytosis and phagocytosis for the first time, and we propose that NF1 evolved in early phagotrophs to spatially modulate Ras activity, thereby constraining and shaping their feeding structures.

  17. Independent mechanisms for macrophage binding and macrophage phagocytosis of damaged erythrocytes. Evidence of receptor cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Sambrano, G R; Terpstra, V; Steinberg, D

    1997-12-01

    .e., by antibody concentrations that do not by themselves cause binding and phagocytosis of native RBCs. Finally, treatment with low concentrations of glutaraldehyde, which causes membrane protein cross-linking, promotes the phagocytosis of VaRBCs, but, at the low concentration used, has little or no effect on binding and phagocytosis of native RBCs. We suggest that the internalization of damaged cells, bound because of PS exposure, requires the cooperation of a PS-binding receptor with at least one additional receptor to trigger an intracellular signaling pathway to initiate phagocytosis.

  18. Abl family kinases regulate FcγR-mediated phagocytosis in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Greuber, Emileigh K; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2012-12-01

    Phagocytosis of Ab-coated pathogens is mediated through FcγRs, which activate intracellular signaling pathways to drive actin cytoskeletal rearrangements. Abl and Arg define a family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases that regulate actin-dependent processes in a variety of cell types, including those important in the adaptive immune response. Using pharmacological inhibition as well as dominant negative and knockout approaches, we demonstrate a role for the Abl family kinases in phagocytosis by macrophages and define a mechanism whereby Abl kinases regulate this process. Bone marrow-derived macrophages from mice lacking Abl and Arg kinases exhibit inefficient phagocytosis of sheep erythrocytes and zymosan particles. Treatment with the Abl kinase inhibitors imatinib and GNF-2 or overexpression of kinase-inactive forms of the Abl family kinases also impairs particle internalization in murine macrophages, indicating Abl kinase activity is required for efficient phagocytosis. Further, Arg kinase is present at the phagocytic cup, and Abl family kinases are activated by FcγR engagement. The regulation of phagocytosis by Abl family kinases is mediated in part by the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). Loss of Abl and Arg expression or treatment with Abl inhibitors reduced Syk phosphorylation in response to FcγR ligation. The link between Abl family kinases and Syk may be direct, as purified Arg kinase phosphorylates Syk in vitro. Further, overexpression of membrane-targeted Syk in cells treated with Abl kinase inhibitors partially rescues the impairment in phagocytosis. Together, these findings reveal that Abl family kinases control the efficiency of phagocytosis in part through the regulation of Syk function.

  19. Naturally occurring anti-band-3 antibodies and complement together mediate phagocytosis of oxidatively stressed human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, H.U.; Bussolino, F.; Flepp, R.; Fasler, S.; Stammler, P.; Kazatchkine, M.D.; Arese, P.

    1987-11-01

    Treatment of erythrocytes with the thiol-specific oxidant azodicarboxylic acid bis(dimethylamide) (diamide) enhances their phagocytosis by adherent monocytes. Phagocytosis of diamide-treated erythrocytes required that the cells were opsonized with whole serum, since complement inactivation abolished phagocytosis. Opsonization with whole serum containing 20-100 times the physiological concentration of naturally occurring anti-band-3- antibodies enhanced phagocytosis of diamide-treated erythrocytes. High inputs of anti-band-3 also restored phagocytosis of erythrocytes that had been incubated with complement-inactivated serum. Elevated concentrations of anti-spectrin antibodies were ineffective in whole and complement-inactivated serum. Specific recognition of diamide-treated erythrocytes by anti-band-3 antibodies may be due to generation of anti-band-3 reactive protein oligomers on intact diamide-treated erythrocytes. Generation of such oligomers was dose-dependent with respect to diamide. Bound anti-band-3 alone was not sufficient to mediate phagocytosis. It resulted in deposition of complement component C3b on the cells through activation of the alternative complement pathway in amounts exceeding that of bound antibodies by two orders of magnitude. Thus, anti-band-3 and complement together mediate phagocytosis of oxidatively stressed erythrocytes, which simulate senescent erythrocytes with respect to bound antibody and complement.

  20. Triacylglycerol profiling of microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Nannochloropsis oceanica.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bensheng; Vieler, Astrid; Li, Chao; Jones, A Daniel; Benning, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) from microalgae can serve as feedstock for the production of biofuels. To gain a comprehensive understanding of TAG metabolism in algae through genetic and molecular approaches, and to improve algal biofuel production, efficient and quantitative phenotyping methods focusing on TAGs are required. Towards this end, a facile ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry protocol was developed for TAG profiling, achieving identification and quantification of intact TAG molecular species in two algae. TAG profiling was performed in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Nannochloropsis oceanica grown in nitrogen (N)-replete or N-depleted medium. For the quantification of algal TAGs and fatty acids, two sets of internal standards were developed by taking advantage of the presence of pheophytin and specific fatty acids in algal samples. Comparison of algal TAG levels was simplified by using these internal standards for TAG analysis, paving the way for high-throughput mutant screening. PMID:23948268

  1. The DHR96 nuclear receptor controls triacylglycerol homeostasis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sieber, Matthew H; Thummel, Carl S

    2009-12-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) homeostasis is an integral part of normal physiology and essential for proper energy metabolism. Here we show that the single Drosophila ortholog of the PXR and CAR nuclear receptors, DHR96, plays an essential role in TAG homeostasis. DHR96 mutants are sensitive to starvation, have reduced levels of TAG in the fat body and midgut, and are resistant to diet-induced obesity, while DHR96 overexpression leads to starvation resistance and increased TAG levels. We show that DHR96 function is required in the midgut for the breakdown of dietary fat and that it exerts this effect through the CG5932 gastric lipase, which is essential for TAG homeostasis. This study provides insights into the regulation of dietary fat metabolism in Drosophila and demonstrates that the regulation of lipid metabolism is an ancestral function of the PXR/CAR/DHR96 nuclear receptor subfamily. PMID:19945405

  2. KIM-1-/TIM-1-mediated phagocytosis links ATG5-/ULK1-dependent clearance of apoptotic cells to antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Craig R; Yeung, Melissa Y; Brooks, Yang S; Chen, Hui; Ichimura, Takaharu; Henderson, Joel M; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2015-10-01

    Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by both professional and semi-professional phagocytes is required for resolution of organ damage and maintenance of immune tolerance. KIM-1/TIM-1 is a phosphatidylserine receptor that is expressed on epithelial cells and can transform the cells into phagocytes. Here, we demonstrate that KIM-1 phosphorylation and association with p85 results in encapsulation of phagosomes by lipidated LC3 in multi-membrane organelles. KIM-1-mediated phagocytosis is not associated with increased ROS production, and NOX inhibition does not block LC3 lipidation. Autophagy gene expression is required for efficient clearance of apoptotic cells and phagosome maturation. KIM-1-mediated phagocytosis leads to pro-tolerogenic antigen presentation, which suppresses CD4 T-cell proliferation and increases the percentage of regulatory T cells in an autophagy gene-dependent manner. Taken together, these data reveal a novel mechanism of epithelial biology linking phagocytosis, autophagy and antigen presentation to regulation of the inflammatory response.

  3. Photoreceptor phagocytosis is mediated by phosphoinositide signaling.

    PubMed

    Mustafi, Debarshi; Kevany, Brian M; Genoud, Christel; Bai, Xiaodong; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2013-11-01

    Circadian oscillations in peripheral tissues, such as the retinal compartment of the eye, are critical to anticipating changing metabolic demands. Circadian shedding of retinal photoreceptor cell discs with subsequent phagocytosis by the neighboring retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) is essential for removal of toxic metabolites and lifelong survival of these postmitotic neurons. Defects in photoreceptor phagocytosis can lead to severe retinal pathology, but the biochemical mechanisms remain poorly defined. By first documenting a 2.8-fold burst of photoreceptor phagocytosis events in the mouse eye in the morning compared with the afternoon by serial block face imaging, we established time points to assess transcriptional readouts by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). We identified 365 oscillating protein-coding transcripts that implicated the phosphoinositide lipid signaling network mediating the discrete steps of photoreceptor phagocytosis. Moreover, examination of overlapping cistromic sites by core clock transcription factors and promoter elements of these effector genes provided a functional basis for the circadian cycling of these transcripts. RNA-Seq also revealed oscillating expression of 16 long intergenic noncoding RNAs and key histone modifying enzymes critical for circadian gene expression. Our phenotypic and genotypic characterization reveals a complex global landscape of overlapping and temporally controlled networks driving the essential circadian process in the eye.

  4. Phagocytosis of immunoglobulin-coated emulsion droplets.

    PubMed

    Ben M'Barek, Kalthoum; Molino, Diana; Quignard, Sandrine; Plamont, Marie-Aude; Chen, Yong; Chavrier, Philippe; Fattaccioli, Jacques

    2015-05-01

    Phagocytosis by macrophages represents a fundamental process essential for both immunity and tissue homeostasis. The size of targets to be eliminated ranges from small particles as bacteria to large objects as cancerous or senescent cells. Most of our current quantitative knowledge on phagocytosis is based on the use of solid polymer microparticles as model targets that are well adapted to the study of phagocytosis mechanisms that do not involve any lateral mobility of the ligands, despite the relevance of this parameter in the immunological context. Herein we designed monodisperse, IgG-coated emulsion droplets that are efficiently and specifically internalized by macrophages through in-vitro FcγR-mediated phagocytosis. We show that, contrary to solid polymeric beads, droplet uptake is efficient even for low IgG densities, and is accompagnied by the clustering of the opsonins in the zone of contact with the macrophage during the adhesion step. Beyond the sole interest in the design of the material, our results suggest that lateral mobility of proteins at the interface of a target greatly enhances the phagocytic uptake.

  5. Small molecule phagocytosis inhibitors for immune cytopenias.

    PubMed

    Neschadim, Anton; Kotra, Lakshmi P; Branch, Donald R

    2016-08-01

    Immune cytopenias are conditions characterized by low blood cell counts, such as platelets in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and red blood cells in autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). Chronic ITP affects approximately 4 in 100,000 adults annually while AIHA is much less common. Extravascular phagocytosis and massive destruction of autoantibody-opsonized blood cells by macrophages in the spleen and liver are the hallmark of these conditions. Current treatment modalities for ITP and AIHA include the first-line use of corticosteroids; whereas, IVIg shows efficacy in ITP but not AIHA. One main mechanism of action by which IVIg treatment leads to the reduction in platelet destruction rates in ITP is thought to involve Fcγ receptor (FcγR) blockade, ultimately leading to the inhibition of extravascular platelet phagocytosis. IVIg, which is manufactured from the human plasma of thousands of donors, is a limited resource, and alternative treatments, particularly those based on bioavailable small molecules, are needed. In this review, we overview the pathophysiology of ITP, the role of Fcγ receptors, and the mechanisms of action of IVIg in treating ITP, and outline the efforts and progress towards developing novel, first-in-class inhibitors of phagocytosis as synthetic, small molecule substitutes for IVIg in ITP and other conditions where the pathobiology of the disease involves phagocytosis.

  6. Air-Drying of Cells, the Novel Conditions for Stimulated Synthesis of Triacylglycerol in a Green Alga, Chlorella kessleri

    PubMed Central

    Minoda, Ayumi; Tsuzuki, Mikio; Sato, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Triacylglycerol is used for the production of commodities including food oils and biodiesel fuel. Microalgae can accumulate triacylglycerol under adverse environmental conditions such as nitrogen-starvation. This study explored the possibility of air-drying of green algal cells as a novel and simple protocol for enhancement of their triacylglycerol content. Chlorella kessleri cells were fixed on the surface of a glass fibre filter and then subjected to air-drying with light illumination. The dry cell weight, on a filter, increased by 2.7-fold in 96 h, the corresponding chlorophyll content ranging from 1.0 to 1.3-fold the initial one. Concomitantly, the triacylglycerol content remarkably increased to 70.3 mole% of fatty acids and 15.9% (w/w), relative to total fatty acids and dry cell weight, respectively, like in cells starved of nitrogen. Reduction of the stress of air-drying by placing the glass filter on a filter paper soaked in H2O lowered the fatty acid content of triacylglycerol to 26.4 mole% as to total fatty acids. Moreover, replacement of the H2O with culture medium further decreased the fatty acid content of triacylglycerol to 12.2 mole%. It thus seemed that severe dehydration is required for full induction of triacylglycerol synthesis, and that nutritional depletion as well as dehydration are crucial environmental factors. Meanwhile, air-drying of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells increased the triacylglycerol content to only 37.9 mole% of fatty acids and 4.8% (w/w), relative to total fatty acids and dry cell weight, respectively, and a marked decrease in the chlorophyll content, on a filter, of 33%. Air-drying thus has an impact on triacylglycerol synthesis in C. reinhardtii also, however, the effect is considerably limited, owing probably to instability of the photosynthetic machinery. This air-drying protocol could be useful for the development of a system for industrial production of triacylglycerol with appropriate selection of the algal species. PMID

  7. Triacylglycerol Metabolism, Function, and Accumulation in Plant Vegetative Tissues.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changcheng; Shanklin, John

    2016-04-29

    Oils in the form of triacylglycerols are the most abundant energy-dense storage compounds in eukaryotes, and their metabolism plays a key role in cellular energy balance, lipid homeostasis, growth, and maintenance. Plants accumulate oils primarily in seeds and fruits. Plant oils are used for food and feed and, increasingly, as feedstocks for biodiesel and industrial chemicals. Although plant vegetative tissues do not accumulate significant levels of triacylglycerols, they possess a high capacity for their synthesis, storage, and metabolism. The development of plants that accumulate oil in vegetative tissues presents an opportunity for expanded production of triacylglycerols as a renewable and sustainable bioenergy source. Here, we review recent progress in the understanding of triacylglycerol synthesis, turnover, storage, and function in leaves and discuss emerging genetic engineering strategies targeted at enhancing triacylglycerol accumulation in biomass crops. Such plants could potentially be modified to produce oleochemical feedstocks or nutraceuticals. PMID:26845499

  8. Neurofibromin controls macropinocytosis and phagocytosis in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Gareth; Traynor, David; Sander, Sophia P; Veltman, Douwe M; Pachebat, Justin A; Kay, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Cells use phagocytosis and macropinocytosis to internalise bulk material, which in phagotrophic organisms supplies the nutrients necessary for growth. Wildtype Dictyostelium amoebae feed on bacteria, but for decades laboratory work has relied on axenic mutants that can also grow on liquid media. We used forward genetics to identify the causative gene underlying this phenotype. This gene encodes the RasGAP Neurofibromin (NF1). Loss of NF1 enables axenic growth by increasing fluid uptake. Mutants form outsized macropinosomes which are promoted by greater Ras and PI3K activity at sites of endocytosis. Relatedly, NF1 mutants can ingest larger-than-normal particles using phagocytosis. An NF1 reporter is recruited to nascent macropinosomes, suggesting that NF1 limits their size by locally inhibiting Ras signalling. Our results link NF1 with macropinocytosis and phagocytosis for the first time, and we propose that NF1 evolved in early phagotrophs to spatially modulate Ras activity, thereby constraining and shaping their feeding structures. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04940.001 PMID:25815683

  9. Combining chromatography and chemometrics for the characterization and authentication of fats and oils from triacylglycerol compositional data--a review.

    PubMed

    Bosque-Sendra, Juan M; Cuadros-Rodríguez, Luis; Ruiz-Samblás, Cristina; de la Mata, A Paulina

    2012-04-29

    The characterization and authentication of fats and oils is a subject of great importance for market and health aspects. Identification and quantification of triacylglycerols in fats and oils can be excellent tools for detecting changes in their composition due to the mixtures of these products. Most of the triacylglycerol species present in either fats or oils could be analyzed and identified by chromatographic methods. However, the natural variability of these samples and the possible presence of adulterants require the application of chemometric pattern recognition methods to facilitate the interpretation of the obtained data. In view of the growing interest in this topic, this paper reviews the literature of the application of exploratory and unsupervised/supervised chemometric methods on chromatographic data, using triacylglycerol composition for the characterization and authentication of several foodstuffs such as olive oil, vegetable oils, animal fats, fish oils, milk and dairy products, cocoa and coffee. PMID:22483203

  10. Triacylglycerol mobilization is suppressed by brefeldin A in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Kato, Naohiro; Dong, Trung; Bailey, Michael; Lum, Tony; Ingram, Drury

    2013-10-01

    Brefeldin A suppresses vesicle trafficking by inhibiting exchange of GDP for GTP in ADP-ribosylation factor. We report that brefeldin A suppresses mobilization of triacylglycerols in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a model organism of green microalgae. Analyses revealed that brefeldin A causes Chlamydomonas to form lipid droplets in which triacylglycerols accumulate in a dose-dependent manner. Pulse labeling experiment using fluorescent fatty acids suggested that brefeldin A inhibits the cells from degrading fatty acids. The experiment also revealed that the cells transiently form novel compartments that accumulate exogenously added fatty acids in the cytoplasm, designated fatty acid-induced microbodies (FAIMs). Brefeldin A up-regulates the formation of FAIMs, whereas nitrogen deprivation that up-regulates triacylglycerol synthesis in Chlamydomonas does not cause the cells to form FAIMs. These results underscore the role of the vesicle trafficking machinery in triacylglycerol metabolism in green microalgae.

  11. Identification of Arabidopsis GPAT9 (At5g60620) as an essential gene involved in Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first step in the biosynthesis of nearly all plant membrane phospholipids and storage triacylglycerols is catalyzed by a glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT). The requirement for an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localized GPAT for both of these critical metabolic pathways was recognized more...

  12. Phagocytosis in Teleosts. Implications of the New Cells Involved

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, María Ángeles; Cuesta, Alberto; Chaves-Pozo, Elena; Meseguer, José

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis is the process by which cells engulf some solid particles to form internal vesicles known as phagosomes. Phagocytosis is in fact a specific form of endocytosis involving the vesicular interiorization of particles. Phagocytosis is essentially a defensive reaction against infection and invasion of the body by foreign substances and, in the immune system, phagocytosis is a major mechanism used to remove pathogens and/or cell debris. For these reasons, phagocytosis in vertebrates has been recognized as a critical component of the innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens. Furthermore, more recent studies have revealed that phagocytosis is also crucial for tissue homeostasis and remodeling. Professional phagocytes in teleosts are monocyte/macrophages, granulocytes and dendritic cells. Nevertheless, in recent years phagocytic properties have also been attributed to teleost lymphocytes and thrombocytes. The possible implications of such cells on this important biological process, new factors affecting phagocytosis, evasion of phagocytosis or new forms of phagocytosis will be considered and discussed. PMID:26690236

  13. Production and clearance of plasma triacylglycerols in ponies fed diets containing either medium-chain triacylglycerols or soya bean oil.

    PubMed

    Hallebeek, J M; Beynen, A C

    2003-06-01

    The hypothesis was tested that feeding ponies a diet containing medium-chain triacylglcyerols (MCT) instead of soya bean oil causes an increase in the production of plasma triacylglycerols, which, under steady-state conditions, is associated with an increased clearance of triacylglycerols. Six ponies were fed rations containing either MCT or an isoenergetic amount of soya bean oil according to a cross-over design. The concentration of MCT in the total dietary dry matter was about 13%. When the ponies were fed the diets for 3 weeks, plasma triacylglycerol concentrations were 0.42 +/- 0.09 and 0.17 +/- 0.03 mmol/l (mean +/- SE, n = 6; p < 0.05) for the MCT and soya bean-oil treatment, respectively. Plasma triacylglycerol production was assessed using the Triton method and clearance with the use of Intralipid(R) infusion. Plasma triacylglycerol production was 2.91 +/- 0.88 and 0.50 +/- 0.14 micromol/l.min (means +/- SE, n = 4; p < 0.05) for the diets containing MCT and soya bean oil, respectively. It is suggested that the calculated rates of triacylglycerol production are underestimated, the deviation being greatest when the ponies were fed the ration of soya bean oil. Triacylglycerol clearance rates were calculated on the basis of group mean values for both the fractional clearance rate and the baseline levels of plasma triacylglycerols; the values were 4.28 and 3.52 micromol/l.min for MCT and soya bean oil feeding, respectively. The mean, absolute clearance rates as based on those found in individual ponies did not show an increase when the diet with MCT was fed. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the data obtained support our hypothesis.

  14. Increased synthesis of phospholipid during phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Elsbach, Peter

    1968-01-01

    Incorporation in vitro of 32P-labeled lysolecithin (LPC) or lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) into respectively lecithin (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) of rabbit granulocytes and alveolar macrophages was compared in the absence and in the presence of ingestible particles. Maximal synthesis of PC by intact cells occurred at added LPC concentrations of less than 0.05 mmole/liter, i.e., at levels found in plasma. Accumulation of PC-32P proceeded linearly for at least 30 min and varied directly with cell concentration. While per cell granulocytes and macrophages converted comparable amounts of medium LPC to cellular PC, per milligram of protein, the granulocytes were approximately four times more active than the much larger macrophages. After 30 min newly synthesized PC-32P represented as much as 5% of total granulocyte PC. For macrophages this fraction did not exceed 1%. Addition of polystyrene or zymosan particles to the cell suspension resulted in up to 3-fold stimulation of incorporation of LPC-32P or LPE-32P into their respective diacyl derivatives. This stimulation did not occur when the cells were homogenized. Breakdown of LPC to water-soluble products during phagocytosis of polystyrene particles was the same as at rest. By use of doubly labeled LPC, the mechanism of PC synthesis by the two cell types has been identified as direct acylation of medium LPC, both at rest and during engulfment. Evidence presented in the case of granulocytes suggests that the increased translocation of medium LPC-32P during phagocytosis and its conversion to PC represents net synthesis. The findings indicate that LPC, a normal constituent of plasma, can serve as substrate in PC synthesis by phagocytic cells. This mechanism of PC synthesis can account for appreciable addition of membrane PC, especially by granulocytes. It is proposed that stimulation of this pathway provides building blocks for increased membrane formation during phagocytosis. PMID:5676518

  15. Endogenous triacylglycerol utilization by the isolated rat atria.

    PubMed

    Varela, A; Savino, E A

    1988-03-01

    The isolated atria from 24 h fasted rats, either in the presence of glucose or in a substrate-free medium containing 2-deoxyglucose, mobilized the endogenous triacylglycerol (TG) to a greater extent than those from fed rats. The TG of the fasted atria had almost disappeared at the end of the 90 min incubation in the substrate-free plus 2-deoxyglucose medium, whereas in those from fed rats a mobilization-resistant portion of about 40% of the TG pool remained. This finding coincided with a lower decay of the contractile and pacemaker activities in the atria from fasted rats. Insulin abolished the TG mobilization in the atria from fed rats in the presence of glucose, but it was ineffective in the fasted atria. These data suggest that the endogenous-TG and glucose share in supporting the atrial functions, that insulin is involved in the control of TG consumption only in the fed state and that the greater TG mobilization in the fasted atria, at least partly, meets the energy requirements of the tissue.

  16. The complement fragment C3d facilitates phagocytosis by monocytes.

    PubMed

    Gaither, T A; Vargas, I; Inada, S; Frank, M M

    1987-11-01

    Two receptors for fragments of C3 are described for human monocytes: CR1 and CR3, which bind C3b and iC3b, respectively. Recently a leucocyte receptor that binds C3dg has also been described, designated CR4. We previously reported that IgM-sensitized sheep erythrocytes that are heavily coated with C3d (EAC3d) can bind to human monocytes that have been cultured in fetal calf serum (FCS). Here we determine whether such binding of C3d-coated targets can lead to phagocytosis, and identify the specific monocyte receptor involved in C3d binding. We confirm that EAC3d bearing greater than 10,000 C3d/cell bind to FCS-cultured monocytes. Furthermore, using non-cultured monocytes, we demonstrate that C3d enhances rosette formation of IgG-coated E and, like C3b and iC3b, C3d augments IgG Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Less than 100 C3d/cell are capable of enhancing phagocytosis, whereas 10,000 or more C3d/cell are required for rosette formation with cultured cells. These results indicate that the C3d-binding receptor is present on peripheral blood monocytes but has poor affinity for target particles coated only with C3d. Anti-CR2 monoclonal antibodies, which recognize the C3d receptor of lymphocytes, do not block EAC3d rosette formation with monocytes. In contrast anti-Mol, a monoclonal antibody against CR3, inhibits EAC3d rosettes by approximately 42%. Anti-CR1 increases this effect, but complete inhibition is not achieved. Ethylenediamine tetraacetate also markedly reduces EAC3d rosetting, reducing the numbers to less than 5%. Thus, the C3d-binding receptor on monocytes, unlike CR4, is metal dependent. Together these data indicate that CR3 is predominantly responsible for C3d binding to monocytes. PMID:3499379

  17. Influenza-Specific Antibody-Dependent Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Ana-Sosa-Batiz, Fernanda; Vanderven, Hillary; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Johnston, Angus; Rockman, Steven; Laurie, Karen; Barr, Ian; Reading, Patrick; Lichtfuss, Marit; Kent, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Immunity to human influenza A virus (IAV) infection is only partially understood. Broadly non-neutralizing antibodies may assist in reducing disease but have not been well characterized. Methods We measured internalization of opsonized, influenza protein-coated fluorescent beads and live IAV into a monocytic cell line to study antibody-dependent phagocytosis (ADP) against multiple influenza hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes. We analyzed influenza HA-specific ADP in healthy human donors, in preparations of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and following IAV infection of humans and macaques. Results We found that both sera from healthy adults and IVIG preparations had broad ADP to multiple seasonal HA proteins and weak cross-reactive ADP to non-circulating HA proteins. The ADP in experimentally influenza-infected macaque plasma and naturally influenza-infected human sera mediated phagocytosis of both homologous and heterologous IAVs. Further, the IAV phagocytosed in an antibody-mediated manner had reduced infectivity in vitro. Conclusion We conclude that IAV infections in humans and macaques leads to the development of influenza-specific ADP that can clear IAV infection in vitro. Repeated exposure of humans to multiple IAV infections likely leads to the development of ADP that is cross-reactive to strains not previously encountered. Further analyses of the protective capacity of broadly reactive influenza-specific ADP is warranted. PMID:27124730

  18. High-throughput quantification of early stages of phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jeremy Changyu; Wall, Adam Alexander; Stow, Jennifer Lea; Hamilton, Nicholas Ahti

    2013-09-01

    Phagocytosis--the engulfment of cells and foreign bodies--is an important cellular process in innate immunity, development, and disease. Quantification of various stages of phagocytosis, especially in a rapid screening fashion, is an invaluable tool for elucidating protein function during this process. However, current methods for assessing phagocytosis are largely limited to flow cytometry and manual image-based assays, providing limited information. Here, we present an image-based, semi-automated phagocytosis assay to rapidly quantitate three distinct stages during the early engulfment of opsonized beads. Captured images are analyzed using the image-processing software ImageJ and quantified using a macro. Modifications to this method allowed quantification of phagocytosis only in fluorescently labeled transfected cells. Additionally, the time course of bead internalization could be measured using this approach. The assay could discriminate perturbations to stages of phagocytosis induced by known pharmacological inhibitors of filamentous actin and phosphoinositol-3-kinase. Our methodology offers the ability to automatically categorize large amounts of image data into the three early stages of phagocytosis within minutes, clearly demonstrating its potential value in investigating aberrant phagocytosis when manipulating proteins of interest in drug screens and disease.

  19. Tubby regulates microglial phagocytosis through MerTK.

    PubMed

    Caberoy, Nora B; Alvarado, Gabriela; Li, Wei

    2012-11-15

    Immunologically-silent microglial phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and cellular debris is critical for CNS homeostasis and innate immune balance. The beneficial and detrimental effects of microglial phagocytosis on neurons remain controversial. Phagocytosis ligands are the key to selecting extracellular cargos, initiating the engulfment process, defining phagocyte functional roles and regulating phagocyte activities with therapeutic potentials. Here we characterized tubby as a new ligand to regulate microglial phagocytosis through MerTK receptor, which is well known for its immunosuppressive signaling. Tubby at 0.1nM significantly induced microglial phagocytosis of apoptotic cells with a maximal activity at 10nM. Tubby activated MerTK with receptor autophosphorylation in a similar dose range. Excessive soluble MerTK extracellular domain blocked tubby-mediated microglial phagocytosis of plasma membrane vesicles as cellular debris. Immunocytochemistry revealed that the ingested cargos were co-localized with MerTK-dependent non-muscle myosin II, whose rearrangement is necessary for cargo engulfment. Phagosome biomarker Rab7 was colocalized with cargos, suggesting that internalized cargos were targeted to phagocytic pathway. Tubby stimulated phagocytosis by neonatal and aged microglia with similar activities, but not by MerTK(-/-) microglia. These results suggest that tubby is a ligand to facilitate microglial phagocytosis through MerTK for the maintenance of CNS homeostasis.

  20. A novel real time imaging platform to quantify macrophage phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kapellos, Theodore S; Taylor, Lewis; Lee, Heyne; Cowley, Sally A; James, William S; Iqbal, Asif J; Greaves, David R

    2016-09-15

    Phagocytosis of pathogens, apoptotic cells and debris is a key feature of macrophage function in host defense and tissue homeostasis. Quantification of macrophage phagocytosis in vitro has traditionally been technically challenging. Here we report the optimization and validation of the IncuCyte ZOOM® real time imaging platform for macrophage phagocytosis based on pHrodo® pathogen bioparticles, which only fluoresce when localized in the acidic environment of the phagolysosome. Image analysis and fluorescence quantification were performed with the automated IncuCyte™ Basic Software. Titration of the bioparticle number showed that the system is more sensitive than a spectrofluorometer, as it can detect phagocytosis when using 20× less E. coli bioparticles. We exemplified the power of this real time imaging platform by studying phagocytosis of murine alveolar, bone marrow and peritoneal macrophages. We further demonstrate the ability of this platform to study modulation of the phagocytic process, as pharmacological inhibitors of phagocytosis suppressed bioparticle uptake in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas opsonins augmented phagocytosis. We also investigated the effects of macrophage polarization on E. coli phagocytosis. Bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) priming with M2 stimuli, such as IL-4 and IL-10 resulted in higher engulfment of bioparticles in comparison with M1 polarization. Moreover, we demonstrated that tolerization of BMDMs with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in impaired E. coli bioparticle phagocytosis. This novel real time assay will enable researchers to quantify macrophage phagocytosis with a higher degree of accuracy and sensitivity and will allow investigation of limited populations of primary phagocytes in vitro.

  1. A novel real time imaging platform to quantify macrophage phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kapellos, Theodore S; Taylor, Lewis; Lee, Heyne; Cowley, Sally A; James, William S; Iqbal, Asif J; Greaves, David R

    2016-09-15

    Phagocytosis of pathogens, apoptotic cells and debris is a key feature of macrophage function in host defense and tissue homeostasis. Quantification of macrophage phagocytosis in vitro has traditionally been technically challenging. Here we report the optimization and validation of the IncuCyte ZOOM® real time imaging platform for macrophage phagocytosis based on pHrodo® pathogen bioparticles, which only fluoresce when localized in the acidic environment of the phagolysosome. Image analysis and fluorescence quantification were performed with the automated IncuCyte™ Basic Software. Titration of the bioparticle number showed that the system is more sensitive than a spectrofluorometer, as it can detect phagocytosis when using 20× less E. coli bioparticles. We exemplified the power of this real time imaging platform by studying phagocytosis of murine alveolar, bone marrow and peritoneal macrophages. We further demonstrate the ability of this platform to study modulation of the phagocytic process, as pharmacological inhibitors of phagocytosis suppressed bioparticle uptake in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas opsonins augmented phagocytosis. We also investigated the effects of macrophage polarization on E. coli phagocytosis. Bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) priming with M2 stimuli, such as IL-4 and IL-10 resulted in higher engulfment of bioparticles in comparison with M1 polarization. Moreover, we demonstrated that tolerization of BMDMs with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in impaired E. coli bioparticle phagocytosis. This novel real time assay will enable researchers to quantify macrophage phagocytosis with a higher degree of accuracy and sensitivity and will allow investigation of limited populations of primary phagocytes in vitro. PMID:27475716

  2. Normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, S H; Netting, A G

    1988-08-31

    Triacylglycerols have been separated by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on silica utilising a solvent system consisting of dry acetonitrile-half water saturated hexane (0.7:99.3). This solvent system is UV transparent allowing detection at 200 nm and affords a separation in which retention is primarily dependent on the number of constituent double bonds. There is also a slight separation on chainlength, the longer chainlengths being eluted first. The system is therefore complementary to currently used reversed-phase HPLC systems. Chromatograms for some polyunsaturated fats and oils are given, and the most polyunsaturated triacylglycerols from linseed oil are analysed in more detail. Data are given for the separation and quantitation of the pentafluorobenzyl esters of constituent fatty acids from these triacylglycerols by a similar normal-phase HPLC system.

  3. Perfluorochemical emulsions decrease Kupffer cell phagocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bottalico, L.A.; Betensky, H.T.; Min, Y.B.; Weinstock, S.B. )

    1991-07-01

    One drawback to using perfluorochemical emulsions as blood substitutes is that perfluorochemical particles are cleared from the blood by the reticuloendothelial system, primarily liver and spleen. The authors measured the impact of two perfluorochemical emulsions on clearance of colloidal carbon (less than 1 microns) and 51Cr-sheep red blood cells (about 8 microns) by the reticuloendothelial system in vivo and in the isolated perfused liver. Male rats were injected with 2 ml/100 gm body wt of Fluosol-DA or Oxypherol-ET for 4 consecutive days. Carbon (1 ml/100 gm body wt) or sheep red blood cells (0.05 ml of 5% vol/vol/100 gm body wt) were then injected intravenously (in vivo) or added to perfusate. Samples were taken at several time points for 1 hr. In the isolated perfused liver, carbon clearance was depressed by 25% 1 day after treatment. Rates returned to control levels by 12 days in Fluosol-DA-treated rats but remained depressed by 67% in Oxypherol-ET-treated rats. Sheep red blood cell (8 microns) clearance was two to five times slower than carbon clearance and depressed by 40% in livers from Fluosol-DA rats 1 day and 12 days after treatment. Added serum did not improve phagocytosis. In vivo carbon clearance remained normal in Fluosol-DA-treated rats but decreased by 74% in Oxypherol-ET-treated rats 1 day after treatment, returning to normal by 12 days. Clearance rates were similar in control rats in vivo and in the perfused liver. They conclude that the isolated perfused liver is a good model to measure liver clearance function. Although low doses of perfluorochemical emulsions may depress Kupffer cell phagocytosis, general reticuloendothelial system function is not significantly compromised.

  4. Lyar Is a New Ligand for Retinal Pigment Epithelial Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feiye; Ding, Ying; Caberoy, Nora B; Alvarado, Gabriela; Liu, Robert; Shen, Chen; Yu, Jisu; Zhou, Yixiong; Salero, Enrique; LeBlanc, Michelle E; Wang, Weiwen; Li, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Phagocytosis is critical to tissue homeostasis, as highlighted by phagocytosis defect of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells with debris accumulation, photoreceptor degeneration and blindness. Phagocytosis ligands are the key to delineating molecular mechanisms and functional roles of phagocytes, but are traditionally identified in individual cases with technical challenges. We recently developed open reading frame phage display (OPD) for phagocytosis-based functional cloning (PFC) to identify unknown ligands. One of the identified ligands was Ly-1 antibody reactive clone (Lyar) with functions poorly defined. Herein, we characterized Lyar as a new ligand to stimulate RPE phagocytosis. In contrast to its reported nucleolar expression, immunohistochemistry showed that Lyar was highly expressed in photoreceptor outer segments (POSs) of the retina. Cytoplasmic Lyar was released from apoptotic cells, and selectively bound to shed POSs and apoptotic cells, but not healthy cells. POS vesicles engulfed through Lyar-dependent pathway were targeted to phagosomes and colocalized with phagosome marker Rab7. These results suggest that Lyar is a genuine RPE phagocytosis ligand, which in turn supports the validity of OPD/PFC as the only available approach for unbiased identification of phagocytosis ligands with broad applicability to various phagocytes.

  5. Plasticity and constraints on fatty acid composition in the phospholipids and triacylglycerols of Arabidopsis accessions grown at different temperatures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Natural selection acts on multiple traits in an organism, and the final outcome of adaptive evolution may be constrained by the interaction of physiological and functional integration of those traits. Fatty acid composition is an important determinant of seed oil quality. In plants the relative proportions of unsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids and seed triacylglycerols often increases adaptively in response to lower growing temperatures to increase fitness. Previous work produced evidence of genetic constraints between phospholipids and triacylglycerols in the widely studied Arabidopsis lines Col and Ler, but because these lines are highly inbred, the correlations might be spurious. In this study, we grew 84 wild Arabidopsis accessions at two temperatures to show that genetic correlation between the fatty acids of the two lipid types is not expected and one should not influence the other and seed oil evolution and also tested for the adaptive response of fatty acids to latitude and temperature. Results As expected no significant correlations between the two lipids classes at either growing temperature were observed. The saturated fatty acids and erucic acid of triacylglycerols followed a significant latitudinal cline, while the fatty acids in phospholipids did not respond to latitude as expected. The expected plastic response to temperature was observed for all the triacylglycerol fatty acids whereas only oleic acid showed the expected pattern in phospholipids. Considerable phenotypic variation of the fatty acids in both the lipid types was seen. Conclusion We report the first evidence supporting adaptive evolution of seed triacylglycerols in Arabidopsis on a latitudinal cline as seen in other species and also their plastic adaptive response to growing temperature. We show that as expected there is no genetic correlations between the fatty acids in triacylglycerols and phospholipids, indicating selection can act on seed triacylglycerols without

  6. TRPV4 Mechanosensitive Ion Channel Regulates Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophage Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Scheraga, Rachel G; Abraham, Susamma; Niese, Kathryn A; Southern, Brian D; Grove, Lisa M; Hite, R Duncan; McDonald, Christine; Hamilton, Thomas A; Olman, Mitchell A

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage phagocytosis of particles and pathogens is an essential aspect of innate host defense. Phagocytic function requires cytoskeletal rearrangements that depend on the interaction between macrophage surface receptors, particulates/pathogens, and the extracellular matrix. In the present study we determine the role of a mechanosensitive ion channel, transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), in integrating the LPS and matrix stiffness signals to control macrophage phenotypic change for host defense and resolution from lung injury. We demonstrate that active TRPV4 mediates LPS-stimulated murine macrophage phagocytosis of nonopsonized particles (Escherichia coli) in vitro and opsonized particles (IgG-coated latex beads) in vitro and in vivo in intact mice. Intriguingly, matrix stiffness in the range seen in inflamed or fibrotic lung is required to sensitize the TRPV4 channel to mediate the LPS-induced increment in macrophage phagocytosis. Furthermore, TRPV4 is required for the LPS induction of anti-inflammatory/proresolution cytokines. These findings suggest that signaling through TRPV4, triggered by changes in extracellular matrix stiffness, cooperates with LPS-induced signals to mediate macrophage phagocytic function and lung injury resolution. These mechanisms are likely to be important in regulating macrophage function in the context of pulmonary infection and fibrosis.

  7. Comparison of rosetting, phagocytosis, and IgG binding assays for detection of IgG on old red cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bassel, P.; Bosman, G.; Kay, M.

    1986-03-01

    Various methods have been used for detecting or inferring the presence of IgG on senescent red cells. In the authors studies, they have used a method for directly measuring IgG on senescent red cells. In our studies, the authors have used a method for directly measuring IgG on cells (e.g. scanning immunoelectron microscopy) along with determining phagocytosis. Thus, phagocytosis is used as a biological assay for determining the biological significance of the IgG on cells. However, the phagocytosis assay as performed in the authors laboratory is tedious, time-consuming, and requires meticulous technique. In contrast, rosetting is a quick, simple assay that does not require special techniques or supplies. Therefore, the authors compared the phagocytosis assay employed by us to rosetting, and correlated each of these with the amount of IgG present on red cells as determined with an /sup 125/I protein A binding assay. Although senescent red cells were phagocytized, they did not form rosettes with K562 cells even at 25 RBC:K562. Further experiments indicated that the rosette assay depended on the RBC:K561 cell ratio and not on the amount of IgG/red cell. Rosette formation (%) at varying RBC:K562 ratios was as follows: 100:1, 81 +/- 12; 50:1, 65 +/- 18; 25:1, 34 +/- 30, 10:1, 20 +/- 33; 5:1, 15 +/- 29; 1: 1, 3 +/- 7 (n = 14). In contrast, phagocytosis of old RBC correlated well with the amount of IgG present on red cells (r = 0.96, 0.94, 0.92 and 0.94 in each of 4 different experiments with n = 16, 19, 14, and 19 respectively). Thus, the phagocytosis assay the authors have used correlates with IgG on red cells; whereas rosette formation does not.

  8. Identification of Characteristic Fatty Acids to Quantify Triacylglycerols in Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Pei-Li; Wang, Hai-Tao; Pan, Yan-Fei; Meng, Ying-Ying; Wu, Pei-Chun; Xue, Song

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid profiles of lipids from microalgae are unique. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are generally enriched in polar lipids, whereas saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids constitute the majority of fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TAG). Each species has characteristic fatty acids, and their content is positively or negatively correlated with TAGs. The marine oleaginous diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was used as the paradigm to determine the quantitative relationship between TAG and characteristic fatty acid content. Fatty acid profiles and TAG content of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were determined in a time course. C16:0/C16:1 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) were identified as characteristic fatty acids in TAGs and polar lipids, respectively. The percentage of those characteristic fatty acids in total fatty acids had a significant linear relationship with TAG content, and thus, the correlation coefficient presenting r2 were 0.96, 0.94, and 0.97, respectively. The fatty acid-based method for TAG quantification could also be applied to other microalgae such as Nannochloropsis oceanica in which the r2 of C16:0 and EPA were 0.94 and 0.97, respectively, and in Chlorella pyrenoidosa r2-values for C18:1 and C18:3 with TAG content were 0.91 and 0.99, repectively. This characteristic fatty acid-based method provided a distinct way to quantify TAGs in microalgae, by which TAGs could be measured precisely by immediate transesterification from wet biomass rather than using conventional methods. This procedure simplified the operation and required smaller samples than conventional methods. PMID:26941747

  9. Identification of Characteristic Fatty Acids to Quantify Triacylglycerols in Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Pei-Li; Wang, Hai-Tao; Pan, Yan-Fei; Meng, Ying-Ying; Wu, Pei-Chun; Xue, Song

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid profiles of lipids from microalgae are unique. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are generally enriched in polar lipids, whereas saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids constitute the majority of fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TAG). Each species has characteristic fatty acids, and their content is positively or negatively correlated with TAGs. The marine oleaginous diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was used as the paradigm to determine the quantitative relationship between TAG and characteristic fatty acid content. Fatty acid profiles and TAG content of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were determined in a time course. C16:0/C16:1 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) were identified as characteristic fatty acids in TAGs and polar lipids, respectively. The percentage of those characteristic fatty acids in total fatty acids had a significant linear relationship with TAG content, and thus, the correlation coefficient presenting r (2) were 0.96, 0.94, and 0.97, respectively. The fatty acid-based method for TAG quantification could also be applied to other microalgae such as Nannochloropsis oceanica in which the r (2) of C16:0 and EPA were 0.94 and 0.97, respectively, and in Chlorella pyrenoidosa r (2)-values for C18:1 and C18:3 with TAG content were 0.91 and 0.99, repectively. This characteristic fatty acid-based method provided a distinct way to quantify TAGs in microalgae, by which TAGs could be measured precisely by immediate transesterification from wet biomass rather than using conventional methods. This procedure simplified the operation and required smaller samples than conventional methods. PMID:26941747

  10. Critical ratios for structural analysis of triacylglycerols using mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent developments have finally allowed fragment behaviors using APCI-MS to be elucidated after twenty years of literature reports. Critical Ratios have been defined that correspond to various aspects of triacylglycerol (TAG) analysis, from overall degree of unsaturation to localization of fatty ac...

  11. Studies on crystal-induced chemotactic factor. II. Role of phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Spilberg, I; Gallacher, A; Mendell, B

    1975-04-01

    The interaction of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's) and urate crystal leads to the formation of a chemotactic factor. The purpose of this study was to determine the need for ingestion of crystals by the cells in the generation of the chemotactic factor. Our studies showed that when PMN's were incubated with cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of phagocytosis, and urate crystals, no chemotactic activity appeared in the lysosomal extract of the cells. Likewise, no chemotactic activity was present in the media of PMN's incubated with crystals although lysosomal enzyme activity was increased. These findings indicate that phagocytosis is required for chemotactic activity to appear. Our studies also show that cytochalasin B increases the release of lysosomal enzyme B-glucuronidase but not of cytoplasmic enzyme lactic dehydrogenase from PMN's when the cell encounters urate crystals. PMID:1120930

  12. Caspases regulate VAMP-8 expression and phagocytosis in dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yong Hou Sunny; Cai, Deyu Tarika; Huang, Dachuan; Wang, Cheng Chun; Wong, Siew Heng

    2009-09-18

    During an inflammation and upon encountering pathogens, immature dendritic cells (DC) undergo a maturation process to become highly efficient in presenting antigens. This transition from immature to mature state is accompanied by various physiological, functional and morphological changes including reduction of caspase activity and inhibition of phagocytosis in the mature DC. Caspases are cysteine proteases which play essential roles in apoptosis, necrosis and inflammation. Here, we demonstrate that VAMP-8, (a SNARE protein of the early/late endosomes) which has been shown previously to inhibit phagocytosis in DC, is a substrate of caspases. Furthermore, we identified two putative conserved caspase recognition/cleavage sites on the VAMP-8 protein. Consistent with the up-regulation of VAMP-8 expression upon treatment with caspase inhibitor (CI), immature DC treated with CI exhibits lower phagocytosis activity. Thus, our results highlight the role of caspases in regulating VAMP-8 expression and subsequently phagocytosis during maturation of DC.

  13. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate as an inhibitor of phagocytosis of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, N; Kataoka, T; Tajika, T; Uramoto, M; Magae, J; Nagai, K

    1995-08-01

    We screened extracts of edible plants for inhibitors of phagocytosis by peritoneal exudate macrophages. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Languas galanga, and this compound strongly inhibited phagocytosis at an IC50 value of 1.2 microM with negligible effects on pinocytosis and cell viability. Target(s) of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate was suggested to be downstream of the signal transduction pathway that is mediated by protein kinase C.

  14. Mesd extrinsically promotes phagocytosis by retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiuping; Guo, Feiye; LeBlanc, Michelle E; Ding, Ying; Zhang, Chenming; Shakya, Akhalesh; Li, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Phagocytosis is a critical process to maintain tissue homeostasis. In the retina, photoreceptor cells renew their photoexcitability by shedding photoreceptor outer segments (POSs) in a diurnal rhythm. Shed POSs are phagocytosed by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells to prevent debris accumulation, retinal degeneration, and blindness. Phagocytosis ligands are the key to understanding how RPE recognizes shed POSs. Here, we characterized mesoderm development candidate 2 (Mesd or Mesdc2), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperon for low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins (LRPs), to extrinsically promote RPE phagocytosis. The results showed that Mesd stimulated phagocytosis of fluorescence-labeled POS vesicles by D407 RPE cells. Ingested POSs were partially degraded within 3 h in some RPE cells to dispense undegradable fluorophore throughout the cytoplasm. Internalized POSs were colocalized with phagosome biomarker Rab7, suggesting that Mesd-mediated engulfment is involved in a phagocytosis pathway. Mesd also facilitated phagocytosis of POSs by primary RPE cells. Mesd bound to unknown phagocytic receptor(s) on RPE cells. Mesd was detected in the cytoplasm, but not nuclei, of different retinal layers and is predominantly expressed in the ER-free cellular compartment of POSs. Mesd was not secreted into medium from healthy cells but passively released from apoptotic cells with increased membrane permeability. Released Mesd selectively bound to the surface of POS vesicles and apoptotic cells, but not healthy cells. These results suggest that Mesd may be released from and bind to shed POSs to facilitate their phagocytic clearance.

  15. Cleavage of Mer tyrosine kinase (MerTK) from the cell surface contributes to the regulation of retinal phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Law, Ah-Lai; Parinot, Célia; Chatagnon, Jonathan; Gravez, Basile; Sahel, José-Alain; Bhattacharya, Shomi S; Nandrot, Emeline F

    2015-02-20

    Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages and spent photoreceptor outer segments (POS) by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells requires several proteins, including MerTK receptors and associated Gas6 and protein S ligands. In the retina, POS phagocytosis is rhythmic, and MerTK is activated promptly after light onset via the αvβ5 integrin receptor and its ligand MFG-E8, thus generating a phagocytic peak. The phagocytic burst is limited in time, suggesting a down-regulation mechanism that limits its duration. Our previous data showed that MerTK helps control POS binding of integrin receptors at the RPE cell surface as a negative feedback loop. Our present results show that a soluble form of MerTK (sMerTK) is released in the conditioned media of RPE-J cells during phagocytosis and in the interphotoreceptor matrix of the mouse retina during the morning phagocytic peak. In contrast to macrophages, the two cognate MerTK ligands have an opposite effect on phagocytosis and sMerTK release, whereas the integrin ligand MFG-E8 markedly increases both phagocytosis and sMerTK levels. sMerTK acts as a decoy receptor blocking the effect of both MerTK ligands. Interestingly, stimulation of sMerTK release decreases POS binding. Conversely, blocking MerTK cleavage increased mostly POS binding by RPE cells. Therefore, our data suggest that MerTK cleavage contributes to the acute regulation of RPE phagocytosis by limiting POS binding to the cell surface.

  16. Triacylglycerols Determination by High-temperature Gas Chromatography in the Analysis of Vegetable Oils and Foods: A Review of the Past 10 Years.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Samblás, C; González-Casado, A; Cuadros-Rodríguez, L

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of triacylglycerols by high-temperature gas chromatography, along the last 10 years has been reviewed in this paper. The interest in this topic has grown along the last years due to the triacylglycerols are the main components of oils and fats and they are being used for the characterization and authentication of foods products. The most commonly used procedures, including the official methodologies, applying high-temperature gas chromatographic techniques are shown. Their importance in the characterization of different kind of samples, vegetable oils, seeds, dairy products, etc., is considered. This review is not intended to be a comprehensive dissertation on the field of triacylglycerols analysis since that would require sufficient space to occupy a book in its own right. Rather, it will outline selected considerations and developments, where the technique has been applied.

  17. Rab31 and APPL2 enhance FcγR-mediated phagocytosis through PI3K/Akt signaling in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jeremy C; Wall, Adam A; Luo, Lin; Stow, Jennifer L

    2015-03-01

    Membrane remodeling in the early stages of phagocytosis enables the engulfment of particles or pathogens and receptor signaling to activate innate immune responses. Members of the Rab GTPase family and their disparate effectors are recruited sequentially to regulate steps throughout phagocytosis. Rab31 (Rab22b) is known for regulating post-Golgi trafficking, and here we show in macrophages that Rab31-GTP is additionally and specifically recruited to early-stage phagosomes. At phagocytic cups, Rab31 is first recruited during the phosphoinositide transition from PI(4,5)P2 to PI(3,4,5)P3, and it persists on PI(3)P-enriched phagosomes. During early phagocytosis, we find that Rab31 recruits the signaling adaptor APPL2. siRNA depletion of either Rab31 or APPL2 reduces FcγR-mediated phagocytosis. Mechanistically, this corresponds with a delay in the transition to PI(3,4,5)P3 and phagocytic cup closure. APPL2 depletion also reduced PI3K/Akt signaling and enhanced p38 signaling from FcγR. We thus conclude that Rab31/APPL2 is required for key roles in phagocytosis and prosurvival responses of macrophages. Of interest, in terms of localization and function, this Rab31/APPL2 complex is distinct from the Rab5/APPL1 complex, which is also involved in phagocytosis and signaling.

  18. A putative link between phagocytosis-induced apoptosis and hemocyanin-derived phenoloxidase activation.

    PubMed

    Coates, Christopher J; Whalley, Tim; Wyman, Michael; Nairn, Jacqueline

    2013-11-01

    Apoptosis and phagocytosis are crucial processes required for developmental morphogenesis, pathogen deterrence and immunomodulation in metazoans. We present data showing that amebocytes of the chelicerate, Limulus polyphemus, undergo phagocytosis-induced cell death after ingesting spores of the fungus, Beauveria bassiana, in vitro. The observed biochemical and morphological modifications associated with dying amebocytes are congruent with the hallmarks of apoptosis, including: extracellularisation of phosphatidylserine, intranucleosomal DNA fragmentation and an increase in caspase 3/7-like activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that phosphatidylserine is a putative endogenous activator of hemocyanin-derived phenoloxidase, inducing conformational changes that permit phenolic substrate access to the active site. Here, we observed extracellular hemocyanin-derived phenoloxidase activity levels increase in the presence of apoptotic amebocytes. Enzyme activity induced by phosphatidylserine or apoptotic amebocytes was reduced completely upon incubation with the phosphatidylserine binding protein, annexin V. We propose that phosphatidylserine redistributed to the outer plasma membrane of amebocytes undergoing phagocytosis-induced apoptosis could interact with hemocyanin, thus facilitating its conversion into a phenoloxidase-like enzyme, during immune challenge. PMID:23925540

  19. Extracellular amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi are potent inducers of phagocytosis in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Maria Cecilia; Flannery, Andrew R; Andrews, Norma; Mortara, Renato A

    2013-06-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas' disease, has two infective life cycle stages, trypomastigotes and amastigotes. While trypomastigotes actively enter mammalian cells, highly infective extracellular amastigotes (type I T. cruzi) rely on actin-mediated uptake, which is generally inefficient in non-professional phagocytes. We found that extracellular amastigotes (EAs) of T. cruzi G strain (type I), but not Y strain (type II), were taken up 100-fold more efficiently than inert particles. Mammalian cell lines showed levels of parasite uptake comparable to macrophages, and extensive actin recruitment and polymerization was observed at the site of entry. EA uptake was not dependent on parasite-secreted molecules and required the same molecular machinery utilized by professional phagocytes during large particle phagocytosis. Transcriptional silencing of synaptotagmin VII and CD63 significantly inhibited EA internalization, demonstrating that delivery of supplemental lysosomal membrane to form the phagosome is involved in parasite uptake. Importantly, time-lapse live imaging using fluorescent reporters revealed phagosome-associated modulation of phosphoinositide metabolism during EA uptake that closely resembles what occurs during phagocytosis by macrophages. Collectively, our results demonstrate that T. cruzi EAs are potent inducers of phagocytosis in non-professional phagocytes, a process that may facilitate parasite persistence in infected hosts.

  20. Lyn Delivers Bacteria to Lysosomes for Eradication through TLR2-Initiated Autophagy Related Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuefeng; He, Sisi; Zhou, Xikun; Ye, Yan; Tan, Shirui; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Rongpeng; Yu, Min; Jundt, Michael C; Hidebrand, Alec; Wang, Yongsheng; Li, Guoping; Huang, Canhua; Wu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, have been reported to induce autophagy; however, the role and machinery of infection-induced autophagy remain elusive. We show that the pleiotropic Src kinase Lyn mediates phagocytosis and autophagosome maturation in alveolar macrophages (AM), which facilitates eventual bacterial eradication. We report that Lyn is required for bacterial infection-induced recruitment of autophagic components to pathogen-containing phagosomes. When we blocked autophagy with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or by depleting Lyn, we observed less phagocytosis and subsequent bacterial clearance by AM. Both morphological and biological evidence demonstrated that Lyn delivered bacteria to lysosomes through xenophagy. TLR2 initiated the phagocytic process and activated Lyn following infection. Cytoskeletal trafficking proteins, such as Rab5 and Rab7, critically facilitated early phagosome formation, autophagosome maturation, and eventual autophagy-mediated bacterial degradation. These findings reveal that Lyn, TLR2 and Rab modulate autophagy related phagocytosis and augment bactericidal activity, which may offer insight into novel therapeutic strategies to control lung infection.

  1. Lyn Delivers Bacteria to Lysosomes for Eradication through TLR2-Initiated Autophagy Related Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xikun; Ye, Yan; Tan, Shirui; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Rongpeng; Yu, Min; Jundt, Michael C.; Hidebrand, Alec; Wang, Yongsheng; Li, Guoping; Huang, Canhua; Wu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, have been reported to induce autophagy; however, the role and machinery of infection-induced autophagy remain elusive. We show that the pleiotropic Src kinase Lyn mediates phagocytosis and autophagosome maturation in alveolar macrophages (AM), which facilitates eventual bacterial eradication. We report that Lyn is required for bacterial infection-induced recruitment of autophagic components to pathogen-containing phagosomes. When we blocked autophagy with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or by depleting Lyn, we observed less phagocytosis and subsequent bacterial clearance by AM. Both morphological and biological evidence demonstrated that Lyn delivered bacteria to lysosomes through xenophagy. TLR2 initiated the phagocytic process and activated Lyn following infection. Cytoskeletal trafficking proteins, such as Rab5 and Rab7, critically facilitated early phagosome formation, autophagosome maturation, and eventual autophagy-mediated bacterial degradation. These findings reveal that Lyn, TLR2 and Rab modulate autophagy related phagocytosis and augment bactericidal activity, which may offer insight into novel therapeutic strategies to control lung infection. PMID:26735693

  2. A putative link between phagocytosis-induced apoptosis and hemocyanin-derived phenoloxidase activation.

    PubMed

    Coates, Christopher J; Whalley, Tim; Wyman, Michael; Nairn, Jacqueline

    2013-11-01

    Apoptosis and phagocytosis are crucial processes required for developmental morphogenesis, pathogen deterrence and immunomodulation in metazoans. We present data showing that amebocytes of the chelicerate, Limulus polyphemus, undergo phagocytosis-induced cell death after ingesting spores of the fungus, Beauveria bassiana, in vitro. The observed biochemical and morphological modifications associated with dying amebocytes are congruent with the hallmarks of apoptosis, including: extracellularisation of phosphatidylserine, intranucleosomal DNA fragmentation and an increase in caspase 3/7-like activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that phosphatidylserine is a putative endogenous activator of hemocyanin-derived phenoloxidase, inducing conformational changes that permit phenolic substrate access to the active site. Here, we observed extracellular hemocyanin-derived phenoloxidase activity levels increase in the presence of apoptotic amebocytes. Enzyme activity induced by phosphatidylserine or apoptotic amebocytes was reduced completely upon incubation with the phosphatidylserine binding protein, annexin V. We propose that phosphatidylserine redistributed to the outer plasma membrane of amebocytes undergoing phagocytosis-induced apoptosis could interact with hemocyanin, thus facilitating its conversion into a phenoloxidase-like enzyme, during immune challenge.

  3. Phagocytosis of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia by primary nasal epithelial cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Botterel, Françoise; Gross, Karine; Ibrahim-Granet, Oumaïma; Khoufache, Khaled; Escabasse, Virginie; Coste, André; Cordonnier, Catherine; Escudier, Estelle; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    Background Invasive aspergillosis, which is mainly caused by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, is an increasing problem in immunocompromised patients. Infection occurs by inhalation of airborne conidia, which are first encountered by airway epithelial cells. Internalization of these conidia into the epithelial cells could serve as a portal of entry for this pathogenic fungus. Results We used an in vitro model of primary cultures of human nasal epithelial cells (HNEC) at an air-liquid interface. A. fumigatus conidia were compared to Penicillium chrysogenum conidia, a mould that is rarely responsible for invasive disease. Confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and anti-LAMP1 antibody labeling studies showed that conidia of both species were phagocytosed and trafficked into a late endosomal-lysosomal compartment as early as 4 h post-infection. In double immunolabeling experiments, the mean percentage of A. fumigatus conidia undergoing phagocytosis 4 h post-infection was 21.8 ± 4.5%. Using combined staining with a fluorescence brightener and propidium iodide, the mean rate of phagocytosis was 18.7 ± 9.3% and the killing rate 16.7 ± 7.5% for A. fumigatus after 8 h. The phagocytosis rate did not differ between the two fungal species for a given primary culture. No germination of the conidia was observed until 20 h of observation. Conclusion HNEC can phagocytose fungal conidia but killing of phagocytosed conidia is low, although the spores do not germinate. This phagocytosis does not seem to be specific to A. fumigatus. Other immune cells or mechanisms are required to kill A. fumigatus conidia and to avoid further invasion. PMID:18564423

  4. HIV-1 TAT Inhibits Microglial Phagocytosis of Aβ Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Giunta, Brian; Zhou, Yuyan; Hou, Huayan; Rrapo, Elona; Fernandez, Francisco; Tan, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia (HAD) is a subcortical neuropsychiatric syndrome that has increased in prevalence in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Several studies demonstrated increased amyloidosis in brains of HIV patients and suggested that there may be a significant number of long-term HIV survivors with co-morbid Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the future. We show HIV-1 Tat protein inhibits microglial uptake of Aβ1-42 peptide, a process that is enhanced by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and rescued by the STAT1 inhibitor (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). It is hypothesized that reduced Aβ uptake occurs through IFN-γ mediated STAT1 activation. This process promotes a switch from a phagocytic to an antigen presenting phenotype in microglia through activation of class II transactivator (CIITA). Additionally, we show that HIV-1 Tat significantly disrupts apolipoprotein-3 (Apo-E3) promoted microglial Aβ uptake. As Tat has been shown to directly interact with the low density lipoprotein (LRP) receptor and thus inhibit the uptake of its ligands including apolipoprotein E4 (Apo-E4) and Aβ peptide in neurons, we further hypothesize that a similar inhibition of LRP may occur in microglia. Future studies will be required to fully characterize the mechanisms underlying IFN-γ enhancement of HIV-1 Tats disruption of microglial phagocytosis of Aβ and Apo-E3. PMID:18784813

  5. The Phagocytosis and Toxicity of Amorphous Silica

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Lindsey M.; Gilberti, Renée M.; Knecht, David A.

    2011-01-01

    cases. However, the result suggests a mechanistic difference between FcγRIIA receptor-mediated and non-opsonized silica particle phagocytosis. PMID:21311600

  6. Triacylglycerol metabolism in the phenobarbital-treated rat

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, David M.; Roomi, M. Waheed; Yu, Alexander; Roncari, Daniel A. K.

    1981-01-01

    1. Various aspects of triacylglycerol metabolism were compared in rats given phenobarbital at a dose of 100mg/kg body wt. per day by intraperitoneal injection; controls were injected with an equal volume of 0.15m-NaCl by the same route. Animals were killed after 5 days of treatment. 2. Rats injected with phenobarbital demonstrated increased liver weight, and increased microsomal protein per g of liver. Other evidence of microsomal enzyme induction was provided by increased activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase and cytochrome P-450 content. Increased hepatic activity of γ-glutamyltransferase (EC 2.3.2.2) occurred in male rats, but not in females, and was not accompanied by any detectable change in the activity of this enzyme in serum. 3. Phenobarbital treatment increased the hepatic content of triacylglycerol after 5 days in starved male and female rats, as well as in non-starved male rats; non-starved females were not tested in this regard. At 5 days after withdrawal of the drug, there was no difference in hepatic triacylglycerol content or in hepatic functions of microsomal enzyme induction between the treated and control rats. 4. After 5 days, phenobarbital increased the synthesis in vitro of glycerolipids in cell-free liver fractions fortified with optimal concentrations of substrates and co-substrates when results were expressed per whole liver. The drug caused a significant increment in the activity of hepatic diacylglycerol acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.20), but did not affect the activity per liver of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (EC 3.1.3.4) in cytosolic or washed microsomal fractions. A remarkable sex-dependent difference was observed for this latter enzyme. In female rats, the activity of the microsomal enzyme per liver was 10-fold greater than that of the cytosolic enzyme, whereas in males, the activities of phosphohydrolases per liver from both subcellular fractions were similar. 5. The phenobarbital-mediated increase in hepatic triacylglycerol content

  7. Triacylglycerol profiling of marine microalgae by mass spectrometry[S

    PubMed Central

    Danielewicz, Megan A.; Anderson, Lisa A.; Franz, Annaliese K.

    2011-01-01

    We present a method for the determination of triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles of oleaginous saltwater microalgae relevant for the production of biofuels, bioactive lipids, and high-value lipid-based chemical precursors. We describe a technique to remove chlorophyll using quick, simple solid phase extraction (SPE) and directly compare the intact TAG composition of four microalgae species (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Nannochloropsis salina, Nannochloropsis oculata, and Tetraselmis suecica) using MALDI time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), ESI linear ion trap-orbitrap (LTQ Orbitrap) MS, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Direct MS analysis is particularly effective to compare the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition for triacylglycerols because oxidation can often degrade samples upon derivatization. Using these methods, we observed that T. suecica contains significant PUFA levels with respect to other microalgae. This method is applicable for high-throughput MS screening of microalgae TAG profiles and may aid in the commercial development of biofuels. PMID:21840867

  8. Red palm oil-supplemented and biofortified gari on the carotenoid and retinyl palmitate concentrations of triacylglycerol-rich plasma of women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boiled biofortified cassava containing ß-carotene (BC) can increase retinyl palmitate (RP) in triacylglycerol (TAG)-rich plasma. Thus, it might alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Cassava requires extensive preparation to decrease its level of cyanogenic glucosides, which can be fatal. Garification ...

  9. Impaired leukocyte phagocytosis in patients undergoing hemihepatectomy for liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Wiezer, M J; Meijer, C; Wallast-Groenewoud, H P; Tool, A T; Prins, H A; Houdijk, A P; Beelen, R H; Meijer, S; Hack, C E; van Leeuwen, P A

    1999-05-01

    Patients undergoing partial hepatectomy have an increased susceptibility to infection. To investigate whether this increased risk is related to impaired leukocyte function, we studied polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) phagocytosis in patients undergoing a hemihepatectomy because of liver metastasis (LM, n = 11) and in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery because of abdominal malignancy (AM, n = 8). Eight healthy volunteers (HVs) served as controls. Leukocyte suspensions were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled Staphylococcus aureus, and phagocytosis was measured by flow cytometry. Preoperative PMN phagocytosis, in the presence of autologous plasma, was significantly less in patients with LM compared with patients with AM or HVs. This impaired phagocytosis was potentially restored in the presence of normal plasma. The decreased phagocytic capacity of PMNs from patients with LM was not related to levels of known plasma opsonins or phenotypic changes of PMNs. Rather, it was related to a deficiency of unidentified plasma factors. After surgery, the phagocytic capacity of PMNs of patients with AM decreased by approximately 30%, which correlated with decreasing levels of immunoglobulin G and C3. In conclusion, patients with LM had a decreased PMN phagocytic capacity before surgery. This impairment in phagocytosis disappeared 1 week after surgery. We propose that the presence of LM leads to a deficiency of factor(s) in the blood that impairs PMN phagocytic capacity.

  10. Disulfide linked pyrazole derivatives inhibit phagocytosis of opsonized blood cells.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Meena K; Scovell, Iain; Neschadim, Anton; Katsman, Yulia; Branch, Donald R; Kotra, Lakshmi P

    2013-04-15

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is caused by production of an autoantibody to autologous platelets. ITP can be treated either by reducing platelet destruction or by increasing platelet production. Fcγ receptor mediated phagocytosis of the opsonized blood cells is a well-accepted mechanism for the underlying pathogenesis of ITP and inhibition of this phagocytosis process with small molecules is a potential strategy for the development of drugs against ITP. A broad screen indicated that 4-methyl-1-phenyl-pyrazole derivative (1) could inhibit the phagocytosis of opsonized blood cells with weak potency. We reveal here the discovery of the polysulfide products, synthesis of various 1-phenyl-pyrazole derivatives, and the biological evaluation of pyrazole derivatives as inhibitors of phagocytosis for potential use as therapeutics for ITP. Substitution at C4 of the pyrazole moiety in the disulfide-bridged dimers influenced the potency in the increasing order of 10 ~/= 11~/= 16 < 19 < 20. A novel scaffold, 20 with an IC(50) of 100 nM inhibiting opsonized blood cell phagocytosis was identified as a potential candidate for further studies. Confirmation of the disulfide bridge additionally provides clues for the non-thiol or non-disulfide bridge carrying ligands targeting ITP and other similar disorders.

  11. Quantitative assessment of neutrophil phagocytosis using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Nordenfelt, Pontus

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils have an incredible ability to find and eradicate intruders such as bacteria and fungi. They do this largely through the process of phagocytosis, where the target is internalized into a phagosome, and eventually destroyed by the hostile phagosomal environment. It is important to study phagocytosis in order to understand how neutrophils interact with various pathogens and how they respond to different stimuli. Here, I describe a method to study neutrophil phagocytosis of bacteria using flow cytometry. The bacteria are fluorescently labeled before being introduced to neutrophils. After phagocytosis, both any remaining extracellular bacteria and neutrophils are labeled using one-step staining before three-color analysis. To assess phagocytosis, first the average time it takes for the neutrophils to internalize all bound bacteria is determined. Experiments are then performed using that time point while varying the bacteria-to-neutrophil ratio for full control of the analysis. Due to the ease with which multiple samples can be analyzed, and the quantitative nature of flow cytometry, this approach is both reproducible and sensitive.

  12. Host-pathogen interactions: leukocyte phagocytosis and associated sequelae.

    PubMed

    Voyich, Jovanka M; DeLeo, Frank R

    2002-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are a critical component of the human innate immune response and are the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. Phagocytosis of invading microbes induces production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by PMNs, which facilitates bactericidal activity. In addition to eliminating microorganisms, phagocytosis also accelerates PMN apoptosis, a process critical for resolution of inflammation. Inasmuch as leukocyte phagocytosis and ROS production are key components of the innate immune response, we developed flow cytometric methods to evaluate these processes in human PMNs. In contrast to traditional microscopy-based analyses, the methods described herein provide objective and high throughput measures of host cell-pathogen interactions. Importantly, they can be adapted for use with a number of fluorometric probes, and bacterium and host cell of choice, and each is based upon a common phagocytosis assay system. We also describe methods to measure phagocytosis-induced PMN apoptosis with this assay system. These methods entail detecting surface-exposed phosphatidylserine (early apoptosis), and measuring PMN chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation (late apoptosis). Taken together, these assays provide rapid and accurate assessment of critical PMN processes. PMID:12815296

  13. The Mechanism of Phagocytosis: Two Stages of Engulfment

    PubMed Central

    Richards, David M.; Endres, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Despite being of vital importance to the immune system, the mechanism by which cells engulf relatively large solid particles during phagocytosis is still poorly understood. From movies of neutrophil phagocytosis of polystyrene beads, we measure the fractional engulfment as a function of time and demonstrate that phagocytosis occurs in two distinct stages. During the first stage, engulfment is relatively slow and progressively slows down as phagocytosis proceeds. However, at approximately half-engulfment, the rate of engulfment increases dramatically, with complete engulfment attained soon afterwards. By studying simple mathematical models of phagocytosis, we suggest that the first stage is due to a passive mechanism, determined by receptor diffusion and capture, whereas the second stage is more actively controlled, perhaps with receptors being driven toward the site of engulfment. We then consider a more advanced model that includes signaling and captures both stages of engulfment. This model predicts that there is an optimum ligand density for quick engulfment. Further, we show how this model explains why nonspherical particles engulf quickest when presented tip-first. Our findings suggest that active regulation may be a later evolutionary innovation, allowing fast and robust engulfment even for large particles. PMID:25296306

  14. The Mechanism of Phagocytosis: Two Stages of Engulfment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, David M.; Endres, Robert G.

    2014-10-01

    Despite being of vital importance to the immune system, the mechanism by which cells engulf relatively large solid particles during phagocytosis is still poorly understood. From movies of neutrophil phagocytosis of polystyrene beads, we measure the fractional engulfment as a function of time and demonstrate that phagocytosis occurs in two distinct stages. During the first stage, engulfment is relatively slow and progressively slows down as phagocytosis proceeds. However, at approximately half-engulfment, the rate of engulfment increases dramatically, with complete engulfment attained soon afterwards. By studying simple mathematical models of phagocytosis, we suggest that the first stage is due to a passive mechanism, determined by receptor diffusion and capture, whereas the second stage is more actively controlled, perhaps with receptors being driven towards the site of engulfment. We then consider a more advanced model that includes signaling and captures both stages of engulfment. This model predicts that there is an optimum ligand density for quick engulfment. Further, we show how this model explains why non-spherical particles engulf quickest when presented tip-first. Our findings suggest that active regulation may be a later evolutionary innovation, allowing fast and robust engulfment even for large particles.

  15. Aliphatic alcohols in spirits inhibit phagocytosis by human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Pál, László; Árnyas, Ervin M; Bujdosó, Orsolya; Baranyi, Gergő; Rácz, Gábor; Ádány, Róza; McKee, Martin; Szűcs, Sándor

    2015-04-01

    A large volume of alcoholic beverages containing aliphatic alcohols is consumed worldwide. Previous studies have confirmed the presence of ethanol-induced immunosuppression in heavy drinkers, thereby increasing susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, the aliphatic alcohols contained in alcoholic beverages might also impair immune cell function, thereby contributing to a further decrease in microbicidal activity. Previous research has shown that aliphatic alcohols inhibit phagocytosis by granulocytes but their effect on human monocytes has not been studied. This is important as they play a crucial role in engulfment and killing of pathogenic microorganisms and a decrease in their phagocytic activity could lead to impaired antimicrobial defence in heavy drinkers. The aim of this study was to measure monocyte phagocytosis following their treatment with those aliphatic alcohols detected in alcoholic beverages. Monocytes were separated from human peripheral blood and phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan particles by monocytes treated with ethanol and aliphatic alcohols individually and in combination was determined. It was shown that these alcohols could suppress the phagocytic activity of monocytes in a concentration-dependent manner and when combined with ethanol, they caused a further decrease in phagocytosis. Due to their additive effects, it is possible that they may inhibit phagocytosis in a clinically meaningful way in alcoholics and episodic heavy drinkers thereby contribute to their increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, further research is needed to address this question.

  16. Effect of Pili on Susceptibility of Escherichia coli to Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Silverblatt, Fredric J.; Dreyer, Jerrold S.; Schauer, Susan

    1979-01-01

    The degree of piliation of 20 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli was correlated with their susceptibility to phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Piliation was quantitated by negative staining, and phagocytosis was quantitated by a monolayer technique. Ingestion was confirmed by electron microscopy. In the absence of source of opsonins, there was a positive correlation between the degree of piliation and susceptibility to phagocytosis (y = 0.83x + 19.58; correlation coefficient = 0.65; P < 0.01). Heavily piliated strains were no longer phagocytized after their pili were removed by ultraviolet irradiation. Phagocytosis was reduced 75% in the presence of 0.1 M d-mannose, an agent which competitively inhibits binding of pili to cell surfaces. l-Mannose, d-glucose, and d-galactose were much less inhibitory. The viability of piliated organisms was reduced by 1 log after 1 h of incubation with polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Addition of 10% fresh human serum increased both the rate and completeness of killing. These observations suggest that polymorphonuclear leukocytes may interact with the pili of E. coli to promote phagocytosis. This phenomenon may have clinical relevance in situations where normal opsonic activity is poor, such as the renal medulla. Images PMID:378843

  17. Identification of a Chemoattractant G-Protein-Coupled Receptor for Folic Acid that Controls Both Chemotaxis and Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Miao; Xu, Xuehua; Chen, Yong; Jin, Tian

    2016-02-22

    Eukaryotic phagocytes search and destroy invading microorganisms via chemotaxis and phagocytosis. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a professional phagocyte that chases bacteria through chemotaxis and engulfs them as food via phagocytosis. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are known for detecting chemoattractants and directing cell migration, but their roles in phagocytosis are not clear. Here, we developed a quantitative phosphoproteomic technique to discover signaling components. Using this approach, we discovered the long sought after folic acid receptor, fAR1, in D. discoideum. We showed that the seven-transmembrane receptor fAR1 is required for folic acid-mediated signaling events. Significantly, we discovered that fAR1 is essential for both chemotaxis and phagocytosis of bacteria, thereby representing a chemoattractant GPCR that mediates not only chasing but also ingesting bacteria. We revealed that a phagocyte is able to internalize particles via a chemoattractant-mediated engulfment process. We propose that mammalian phagocytes may also use this mechanism to engulf and ingest bacterial pathogens.

  18. Identification of a Chemoattractant G-Protein-Coupled Receptor for Folic Acid that Controls Both Chemotaxis and Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Miao; Xu, Xuehua; Chen, Yong; Jin, Tian

    2016-02-22

    Eukaryotic phagocytes search and destroy invading microorganisms via chemotaxis and phagocytosis. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a professional phagocyte that chases bacteria through chemotaxis and engulfs them as food via phagocytosis. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are known for detecting chemoattractants and directing cell migration, but their roles in phagocytosis are not clear. Here, we developed a quantitative phosphoproteomic technique to discover signaling components. Using this approach, we discovered the long sought after folic acid receptor, fAR1, in D. discoideum. We showed that the seven-transmembrane receptor fAR1 is required for folic acid-mediated signaling events. Significantly, we discovered that fAR1 is essential for both chemotaxis and phagocytosis of bacteria, thereby representing a chemoattractant GPCR that mediates not only chasing but also ingesting bacteria. We revealed that a phagocyte is able to internalize particles via a chemoattractant-mediated engulfment process. We propose that mammalian phagocytes may also use this mechanism to engulf and ingest bacterial pathogens. PMID:26906738

  19. Endothelial Cells Use a Formin-Dependent Phagocytosis-Like Process to Internalize the Bacterium Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Rengarajan, Michelle; Hayer, Arnold; Theriot, Julie A

    2016-05-01

    Vascular endothelial cells act as gatekeepers that protect underlying tissue from blood-borne toxins and pathogens. Nevertheless, endothelial cells are able to internalize large fibrin clots and apoptotic debris from the bloodstream, although the precise mechanism of such phagocytosis-like uptake is unknown. We show that cultured primary human endothelial cells (HUVEC) internalize both pathogenic and non-pathogenic Listeria bacteria comparably, in a phagocytosis-like process. In contrast with previously studied host cell types, including intestinal epithelial cells and hepatocytes, we find that endothelial internalization of Listeria is independent of all known pathogenic bacterial surface proteins. Consequently, we exploited the internalization and intracellular replication of L. monocytogenes to identify distinct host cell factors that regulate phagocytosis-like uptake in HUVEC. Using siRNA screening and subsequent genetic and pharmacologic perturbations, we determined that endothelial infectivity was modulated by cytoskeletal proteins that normally modulate global architectural changes, including phosphoinositide-3-kinase, focal adhesions, and the small GTPase Rho. We found that Rho kinase (ROCK) is acutely necessary for adhesion of Listeria to endothelial cells, whereas the actin-nucleating formins FHOD1 and FMNL3 specifically regulate internalization of bacteria as well as inert beads, demonstrating that formins regulate endothelial phagocytosis-like uptake independent of the specific cargo. Finally, we found that neither ROCK nor formins were required for macrophage phagocytosis of L. monocytogenes, suggesting that endothelial cells have distinct requirements for bacterial internalization from those of classical professional phagocytes. Our results identify a novel pathway for L. monocytogenes uptake by human host cells, indicating that this wily pathogen can invade a variety of tissues by using a surprisingly diverse suite of distinct uptake mechanisms that

  20. Endothelial Cells Use a Formin-Dependent Phagocytosis-Like Process to Internalize the Bacterium Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Rengarajan, Michelle; Hayer, Arnold; Theriot, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells act as gatekeepers that protect underlying tissue from blood-borne toxins and pathogens. Nevertheless, endothelial cells are able to internalize large fibrin clots and apoptotic debris from the bloodstream, although the precise mechanism of such phagocytosis-like uptake is unknown. We show that cultured primary human endothelial cells (HUVEC) internalize both pathogenic and non-pathogenic Listeria bacteria comparably, in a phagocytosis-like process. In contrast with previously studied host cell types, including intestinal epithelial cells and hepatocytes, we find that endothelial internalization of Listeria is independent of all known pathogenic bacterial surface proteins. Consequently, we exploited the internalization and intracellular replication of L. monocytogenes to identify distinct host cell factors that regulate phagocytosis-like uptake in HUVEC. Using siRNA screening and subsequent genetic and pharmacologic perturbations, we determined that endothelial infectivity was modulated by cytoskeletal proteins that normally modulate global architectural changes, including phosphoinositide-3-kinase, focal adhesions, and the small GTPase Rho. We found that Rho kinase (ROCK) is acutely necessary for adhesion of Listeria to endothelial cells, whereas the actin-nucleating formins FHOD1 and FMNL3 specifically regulate internalization of bacteria as well as inert beads, demonstrating that formins regulate endothelial phagocytosis-like uptake independent of the specific cargo. Finally, we found that neither ROCK nor formins were required for macrophage phagocytosis of L. monocytogenes, suggesting that endothelial cells have distinct requirements for bacterial internalization from those of classical professional phagocytes. Our results identify a novel pathway for L. monocytogenes uptake by human host cells, indicating that this wily pathogen can invade a variety of tissues by using a surprisingly diverse suite of distinct uptake mechanisms that

  1. Altered microglial phagocytosis in GPR34-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Preissler, Julia; Grosche, Antje; Lede, Vera; Le Duc, Diana; Krügel, Katja; Matyash, Vitali; Szulzewsky, Frank; Kallendrusch, Sonja; Immig, Kerstin; Kettenmann, Helmut; Bechmann, Ingo; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schulz, Angela

    2015-02-01

    GPR34 is a Gi/o protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) of the nucleotide receptor P2Y12 -like group. This receptor is highly expressed in microglia, however, the functional relevance of GPR34 in these glial cells is unknown. Previous results suggested an impaired immune response in GPR34-deficient mice infected with Cryptococcus neoformans. Here we show that GPR34 deficiency results in morphological changes in retinal and cortical microglia. RNA sequencing analysis of microglia revealed a number of differentially expressed transcripts involved in cell motility and phagocytosis. We found no differences in microglial motility after entorhinal cortex lesion and in response to laser lesion. However, GPR34-deficient microglia showed reduced phagocytosis activity in both retina and acutely isolated cortical slices. Our study identifies GPR34 as an important signaling component controlling microglial function, morphology and phagocytosis.

  2. Investigations of biomechanical activity of macrophages during phagocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovari, Daniel; Curtis, Jennifer

    2012-02-01

    Phagocytosis has traditionally been investigated in terms of the relevant biochemical signaling pathways that trigger the process and lead to the deformation of the cell as it engulfs a target. Physical changes in the cell include rearrangement and polymerization of actin in the phagocytic cup, large membrane deformations, increased membrane area via exocytosis, and closure of the phagocytic cup through membrane fusion. Hence, phagocytosis is a fine-tuned balance between biophysical cellular events and chemical signaling, which are responsible for driving these materials and mechanical changes. We present a series of assays designed to probe the physical/mechanical parameters that govern a cell during phagocytosis. Custom built micropipette manipulators are used to manipulate individual cells, facilitating high-resolution microscopy of individual phagocytic events. This work has been supported by NSF PoLS #0848797.

  3. Microglial phagocytosis of living photoreceptors contributes to inherited retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lian; Zabel, Matthew K; Wang, Xu; Ma, Wenxin; Shah, Parth; Fariss, Robert N; Qian, Haohua; Parkhurst, Christopher N; Gan, Wen-Biao; Wong, Wai T

    2015-07-02

    Retinitis pigmentosa, caused predominantly by mutations in photoreceptor genes, currently lacks comprehensive treatment. We discover that retinal microglia contribute non-cell autonomously to rod photoreceptor degeneration by primary phagocytosis of living rods. Using rd10 mice, we found that the initiation of rod degeneration is accompanied by early infiltration of microglia, upregulation of phagocytic molecules in microglia, and presentation of "eat-me" signals on mutated rods. On live-cell imaging, infiltrating microglia interact dynamically with photoreceptors via motile processes and engage in rapid phagocytic engulfment of non-apoptotic rods. Microglial contribution to rod demise is evidenced by morphological and functional amelioration of photoreceptor degeneration following genetic ablation of retinal microglia. Molecular inhibition of microglial phagocytosis using the vitronectin receptor antagonist cRGD also improved morphological and functional parameters of degeneration. Our findings highlight primary microglial phagocytosis as a contributing mechanism underlying cell death in retinitis pigmentosa and implicate microglia as a potential cellular target for therapy.

  4. Measuring actin dynamics during phagocytosis using photo-switchable fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovari, Daniel T.; Curtis, Jennifer E.

    2013-03-01

    Phagocytosis has traditionally been investigated in terms of the relevant biochemical signaling pathways. However, a growing number of studies investigating the physical aspects of phagocytosis have demonstrated that several distinct forces are exerted throughout particle ingestion. We use variations on FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching) in combination with photo-switchable fluorescent protein to investigate actin dynamics as a phagocyte attempts to engulf its prey. The goal of our actin studies are to determine the recruitment and polymerization rate of actin in the forming phagosome and whether an organized contractile actin ring is present and responsible for phagosome closure, as proposed in the literature. These experiments are ongoing and contribute to our long term effort of developing a physics based model of phagocytosis.

  5. Does tuftsin alter phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.R.; DeChatelet, L.R.; Shirley, P.S.; Cooper, M.R.

    1982-03-01

    The physiological significance of the putative phagocytosis-promoting peptide, tuftsin, was investigated by measurement of chemiluminescence generated during phagocytosis and by assay of the uptake of radiolabeled bacteria. Researchers found no differences in either assay when reasearchers compared serum from splenectomized patients (which purportedly lacks tuftsin) with normal serum. Further, there was no difference when serum from splenectomized patients was employed in the presence of absence of exogenous tuftsin. Similar results were obtained under a variety of conditions, utilizing three different challenge particles with varying particle-cell ratios and serum from 20 different splenectomized patients. These results do not agree with the hypothesis that tuftsin plays a major role in promoting phagocytosis.

  6. Effect of biogenic amines on phagocytosis in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Quiñones-Maldonado, V; Renaud, F L

    1987-11-01

    Stimulation of phagocytosis by serotonin and catecholamines in Tetrahymena grown in proteose-peptone medium proved to be concentration dependent, the optimal concentrations being approximately 0.1 to 1.0 microM. The serotonergic antagonists, spiperone, and metergoline, also stimulated the process, whereas the beta- and alpha-adrenergic antagonists, propranolol, alprenolol, and ergocryptine, had no effect or inhibited phagocytosis. A wide variety of derivatives of the biogenic amines had no effect on phagocytosis, demonstrating the specificity of recognition mechanism for neurohormones in Tetrahymena. Such hormones act by at least two independent mechanisms, one for adrenergic agonists, another for dopamine. Presumably, recognition mechanisms for hormones in protozoa resemble in some respects those in multicellular organisms, therefore bespeaking a common origin.

  7. Altered microglial phagocytosis in GPR34-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Preissler, Julia; Grosche, Antje; Lede, Vera; Le Duc, Diana; Krügel, Katja; Matyash, Vitali; Szulzewsky, Frank; Kallendrusch, Sonja; Immig, Kerstin; Kettenmann, Helmut; Bechmann, Ingo; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schulz, Angela

    2015-02-01

    GPR34 is a Gi/o protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) of the nucleotide receptor P2Y12 -like group. This receptor is highly expressed in microglia, however, the functional relevance of GPR34 in these glial cells is unknown. Previous results suggested an impaired immune response in GPR34-deficient mice infected with Cryptococcus neoformans. Here we show that GPR34 deficiency results in morphological changes in retinal and cortical microglia. RNA sequencing analysis of microglia revealed a number of differentially expressed transcripts involved in cell motility and phagocytosis. We found no differences in microglial motility after entorhinal cortex lesion and in response to laser lesion. However, GPR34-deficient microglia showed reduced phagocytosis activity in both retina and acutely isolated cortical slices. Our study identifies GPR34 as an important signaling component controlling microglial function, morphology and phagocytosis. PMID:25142016

  8. CD13 mediates phagocytosis in human monocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Licona-Limón, Ileana; Garay-Canales, Claudia A; Muñoz-Paleta, Ofelia; Ortega, Enrique

    2015-07-01

    CD13 is a membrane-bound ectopeptidase, highly expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. CD13 is involved in diverse functions, including degradation of peptide mediators, cellular adhesion, migration, viral endocytosis, signaling, and positive modulation of phagocytosis mediated by FcγRs and other phagocytic receptors. In this work, we explored whether besides acting as an accessory receptor, CD13 by itself is a primary phagocytic receptor. We found that hCD13 mediates efficient phagocytosis of large particles (erythrocytes) modified so as to interact with the cell only through CD13 in human macrophages and THP-1 monocytic cells. The extent of this phagocytosis is comparable with the phagocytosis mediated through the canonical phagocytic receptor FcγRI. Furthermore, we demonstrated that hCD13 expression in the nonphagocytic cell line HEK293 is sufficient to enable these cells to internalize particles bound through hCD13. CD13-mediated phagocytosis is independent of other phagocytic receptors, as it occurs in the absence of FcγRs, CR3, and most phagocytic receptors. Phagocytosis through CD13 is independent of its enzymatic activity but is dependent on actin rearrangement and activation of PI3K and is partially dependent on Syk activation. Moreover, the cross-linking of CD13 with antibodies rapidly induced pSyk in human macrophages. Finally, we observed that antibody-mediated cross-linking of hCD13, expressed in the murine macrophage-like J774 cell line, induces production of ROS. These results demonstrate that CD13 is a fully competent phagocytic receptor capable of mediating internalization of large particles.

  9. Structural Analysis of Triacylglycerols by Using a MALDI-TOF/TOF System with Monoisotopic Precursor Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Ayumi; Satoh, Takaya; Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Tamura, Jun; Cody, Robert B.

    2013-05-01

    A new MALDI-TOF/TOF system with monoisotopic precursor selection was applied to the analysis of triacylglycerols in an olive oil sample. Monoisotopic precursor selection made it possible to obtain product-ion mass spectra without interference from species that differed by a single double bond. Complete structure determination of all triacylglycerols, including structural isomers, was made possible by interpreting the charge-remote fragmentation resulting from high-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the sodiated triacylglycerols.

  10. Recombinant form of human wild type mannan-binding lectin (MBL/A) but not its structural variant (MBL/C) promotes phagocytosis of zymosan by activating complement.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Rema; Nyaundi, Takazvida; Salvi, Veena P; Rawal, Nenoo

    2010-09-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) mediates innate immune responses, such as activation of the complement lectin pathway and phagocytosis, to help fight infections. In the present study, employing recombinant forms of human MBL (rMBL), the role of wild type MBL (rMBL/A) and its structural variant rMBL/C in mediating THP-1 phagocytosis of fluorescent-labeled zymosan was examined and compared to MBL purified from human plasma (pMBL/A). Flow cytometric analyses revealed that opsonization of zymosan with rMBL/A and pMBL/A (0.5-30microg/ml) resulted in a 1.9- and 2.7-fold enhancement in its uptake by THP-1 cells in the presence of serum that was depleted of both MBL and the classical pathway component, C1q (MBL/C1q Dpl serum). In contrast, no enhancement in phagocytosis was observed when zymosan was opsonized with rMBL/C. Addition of MBL monoclonal antibody, EDTA, or mannan to the opsonization reaction mixture inhibited THP-1 phagocytosis of pMBL/A opsonized zymosan. Heat inactivation of MBL/C1q Dpl serum abolished the 2-fold increase in phagocytosis and in the absence of serum the direct opsonic activity of MBL did not contribute significantly to the uptake of zymosan into THP-1 cells. Activation products of complement components C3 and C4 were deposited on zymosan opsonized with pMBL/A and rMBL/A but not rMBL/C indicating that MBL-mediated phagocytosis of zymosan requires activation of the complement lectin pathway. The findings imply that impaired MBL-mediated phagocytosis may put individuals homozygous for the mutant allele MBL/C but not wild type MBL/A at increased risk to infections such as yeast. PMID:20579738

  11. Control of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-31

    Seeds of most species of the Umbelliferae (Apiaciae), Araliaceae, and Garryaceae families are characterized by their high content of the unusual C[sub 18] monounsaturated fatty acid petroselinic acid (18:l[Delta][sup 6cis]). Prior to a recent report of this lab, little was known of the biosynthetic origin of the cis[Delta][sup 6] double bond of petroselinic acid. Such knowledge may be of both biochemical and biotechnological significance. Because petroselinic acid is potentially the product of a novel desaturase, information regarding its synthesis may contribute to an understanding of fatty acid desaturation mechanisms in plants. Through chemical cleavage at its double bond, petroselinic acid can be used as a precursor of lauric acid (12:0), a component of detergents and surfactants, and adipic acid (6:0 dicarboxylic), the monomeric component of nylon 6,6. Therefore, the development of an agronomic source of an oil rich in petroselinic acid is of biotechnological interest. As such, studies of petroselinic acid biosynthesis may provide basic information required for any attempt to genetically engineer the production and accumulation of this fatty acid in an existing oilseed.

  12. Anion Exchanger 2 Regulates Dectin-1-Dependent Phagocytosis and Killing of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Urso, Katia; Charles, Julia F; Shull, Gary E; Aliprantis, Antonios O; Balestrieri, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Anion exchanger 2 (Ae2; gene symbol, Slc4a2) is a plasma membrane Cl-/HCO3- exchanger expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, kidney and bone. We have previously shown that Ae2 is required for the function of osteoclasts, bone resorbing cells of the macrophage lineage, to maintain homeostatic cytoplasmic pH and electroneutrality during acid secretion. Macrophages require endosomal acidification for pathogen killing during the process known as phagocytosis. Chloride is thought to be the principal ion responsible for maintaining electroneutrality during organelle acidification, but whether Cl-/HCO3- exchangers such as Ae2 contribute to macrophage function is not known. In this study we investigated the role of Ae2 in primary macrophages during phagocytosis. We find that Ae2 is expressed in macrophages where it regulates intracellular pH and the binding of Zymosan, a fungal cell wall derivative. Surprisingly, the transcription and surface expression of Dectin-1, the major phagocytic receptor for Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Zymosan, is reduced in the absence of Ae2. As a consequence, Zymosan-induced Tnfα expression is also impaired in Ae2-deficient macrophages. Similar to Ae2 deficiency, pharmacological alkalinization of lysosomal pH with bafilomycin A decreases both Dectin-1 mRNA and cell surface expression. Finally, Ae2-deficient macrophages demonstrate defective phagocytosis and killing of the human pathogenic fungus C. albicans. Our results strongly suggest that Ae2 is a critical factor in the innate response to C. albicans. This study represents an important contribution to a better understanding of how Dectin-1 expression and fungal clearance is regulated. PMID:27391897

  13. Anion Exchanger 2 Regulates Dectin-1-Dependent Phagocytosis and Killing of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Urso, Katia; Charles, Julia F.; Shull, Gary E.; Aliprantis, Antonios O.; Balestrieri, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Anion exchanger 2 (Ae2; gene symbol, Slc4a2) is a plasma membrane Cl-/HCO3- exchanger expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, kidney and bone. We have previously shown that Ae2 is required for the function of osteoclasts, bone resorbing cells of the macrophage lineage, to maintain homeostatic cytoplasmic pH and electroneutrality during acid secretion. Macrophages require endosomal acidification for pathogen killing during the process known as phagocytosis. Chloride is thought to be the principal ion responsible for maintaining electroneutrality during organelle acidification, but whether Cl-/HCO3- exchangers such as Ae2 contribute to macrophage function is not known. In this study we investigated the role of Ae2 in primary macrophages during phagocytosis. We find that Ae2 is expressed in macrophages where it regulates intracellular pH and the binding of Zymosan, a fungal cell wall derivative. Surprisingly, the transcription and surface expression of Dectin-1, the major phagocytic receptor for Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Zymosan, is reduced in the absence of Ae2. As a consequence, Zymosan-induced Tnfα expression is also impaired in Ae2-deficient macrophages. Similar to Ae2 deficiency, pharmacological alkalinization of lysosomal pH with bafilomycin A decreases both Dectin-1 mRNA and cell surface expression. Finally, Ae2-deficient macrophages demonstrate defective phagocytosis and killing of the human pathogenic fungus C. albicans. Our results strongly suggest that Ae2 is a critical factor in the innate response to C. albicans. This study represents an important contribution to a better understanding of how Dectin-1 expression and fungal clearance is regulated. PMID:27391897

  14. ABCF1 extrinsically regulates retinal pigment epithelial cell phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Feiye; Ding, Ying; Caberoy, Nora; Alvarado, Gabriela; Wang, Feng; Chen, Rui; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis of shed photoreceptor outer segments (POSs) by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is critical to retinal homeostasis and shares many conserved signaling pathways with other phagocytes, including extrinsic regulations. Phagocytotic ligands are the key to cargo recognition, engulfment initiation, and activity regulation. In this study, we identified intracellular protein ATP-binding cassette subfamily F member 1 (ABCF1) as a novel RPE phagocytotic ligand by a new approach of functional screening. ABCF1 was independently verified to extrinsically promote phagocytosis of shed POSs by D407 RPE cells. This finding was further corroborated with primary RPE cells and RPE explants. Internalized POS vesicles were colocalized with a phagosome marker, suggesting that ABCF1-mediated engulfment is through a phagocytic pathway. ABCF1 was released from apoptotic cells and selectively bound to shed POS vesicles and apoptotic cells, possibly via externalized phosphatidylserine. ABCF1 is predominantly expressed in POSs and colocalized with the POS marker rhodopsin, providing geographical convenience for regulation of RPE phagocytosis. Collectively these results suggest that ABCF1 is released from and binds to shed POSs in an autocrine manner to facilitate RPE phagocytosis through a conserved pathway. Furthermore, the new approach is broadly applicable to many other phagocytes and will enable systematic elucidation of their ligands to understand extrinsic regulation and cargo recognition. PMID:25904329

  15. Feed-forward regulation of phagocytosis by Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Sateriale, Adam; Vaithilingam, Archana; Donnelly, Liam; Miller, Peter; Huston, Christopher D

    2012-12-01

    The parasitic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica is aptly named for its capacity to destroy host tissue. When E. histolytica trophozoites invade the lamina propria of a host colon, extracellular matrices are degraded while host cells are killed and phagocytosed. The ability of E. histolytica to phagocytose host cells correlates with virulence in vivo. In order to better understand the mechanism of phagocytosis, we used an E. histolytica Affymetrix microarray chip to measure the total gene expression of phagocytic and nonphagocytic subpopulations. Using paramagnetic beads coated with a known host ligand that stimulates phagocytosis, phagocytic and nonphagocytic amoebae from a single culture were purified. Microarray analysis of the subpopulations identified 121 genes with >2-fold higher expression in phagocytic than in nonphagocytic amoebae. Functional annotation identified genes encoding proteins involved in actin binding and cytoskeletal organization as highly enriched gene clusters. Post hoc analyses of selected genes showed that the gene expression profile identified in the microarray experiment did not exist prior to cell sorting but rather was stimulated through phagocytosis. Further, these expression profiles correlated with an increase in phagocytic ability, as E. histolytica cultures exposed to an initial stimulus of phagocytosis showed increased phagocytic ability upon a second stimulus. To our knowledge, this is the first description of such feed-forward regulation of gene expression and phagocytic ability in a phagocyte.

  16. Phagocytosis executes delayed neuronal death after focal brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Neher, Jonas J; Emmrich, Julius V; Fricker, Michael; Mander, Palwinder K; Théry, Clotilde; Brown, Guy C

    2013-10-22

    Delayed neuronal loss and brain atrophy after cerebral ischemia contribute to stroke and dementia pathology, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Phagocytic removal of neurons is generally assumed to be beneficial and to occur only after neuronal death. However, we report herein that inhibition of phagocytosis can prevent delayed loss and death of functional neurons after transient brain ischemia. Two phagocytic proteins, Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (MerTK) and Milk fat globule EGF-like factor 8 (MFG-E8), were transiently up-regulated by macrophages/microglia after focal brain ischemia in vivo. Strikingly, deficiency in either protein completely prevented long-term functional motor deficits after cerebral ischemia and strongly reduced brain atrophy as a result of inhibiting phagocytosis of neurons. Correspondingly, in vitro glutamate-stressed neurons reversibly exposed the "eat-me" signal phosphatidylserine, leading to their phagocytosis by microglia; this neuronal loss was prevented in the absence of microglia and reduced if microglia were genetically deficient in MerTK or MFG-E8, both of which mediate phosphatidylserine-recognition. Thus, phagocytosis of viable neurons contributes to brain pathology and, surprisingly, blocking this process is strongly beneficial. Therefore, inhibition of specific phagocytic pathways may present therapeutic targets for preventing delayed neuronal loss after transient cerebral ischemia.

  17. Pharmacologic immunosuppression of mononuclear phagocyte phagocytosis by caffeine.

    PubMed

    Steck, Ryan P; Hill, Spencer L; Weagel, Evita G; Weber, K Scott; Robison, Richard A; O'Neill, Kim L

    2015-12-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used neurostimulant in the world. There is considerable debate on its effect on immune cells as it has been shown to antagonize adenosine receptors (ARs), which mediate an anti-inflammatory switch in activated immune cells. A second target is phosphodiesterase, where it acts as an inhibitor. If the primary effect of caffeine on mononuclear phagocytes were to antagonize ARs we would expect cells exposed to caffeine to have a prolonged proinflammatory response. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of action of caffeine in mononuclear phagocytes. Human mononuclear phagocytes were separated from whole blood and pretreated with protein kinase A inhibitor (PKA) and then exposed to micromolar physiological concentrations of caffeine. Phagocytosis and phagocytosis exhaustion were quantified using flow cytometry. Treatments were analyzed and compared to controls, using a beta regression controlling for factors of age, gender, caffeine intake, and exercise. We found that caffeine suppresses phagocytosis at micromolar physiological concentrations. This suppression was prevented when mononuclear phagocytes were pretreated with PKA inhibitor, suggesting that caffeine's phagocytic suppression may be due to its function as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, pushing cells towards an anti-inflammatory response. Additionally, these effects are altered by regular caffeine intake and fitness level, emphasizing that tolerance and immune robustness are important factors in mononuclear phagocyte activation. These results demonstrate that caffeine may be acting as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor and suppressing phagocytosis in mononuclear phagocytes by promoting an anti-inflammatory response.

  18. ACTIVATED NEUTROPHILS INHIBIT PHAGOCYTOSIS BY HUMAN MONOCYTE CELLS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have previously reported the correlation of decreased phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan by sputum monocytic cells with the increase in sputum neutrophils in volunteers 6h after inhalation of endotoxin (20,000 EU) (Alexis, et al. JACI, 2003;112:353). To define whether an intrin...

  19. ABCF1 extrinsically regulates retinal pigment epithelial cell phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feiye; Ding, Ying; Caberoy, Nora; Alvarado, Gabriela; Wang, Feng; Chen, Rui; Li, Wei

    2015-06-15

    Phagocytosis of shed photoreceptor outer segments (POSs) by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is critical to retinal homeostasis and shares many conserved signaling pathways with other phagocytes, including extrinsic regulations. Phagocytotic ligands are the key to cargo recognition, engulfment initiation, and activity regulation. In this study, we identified intracellular protein ATP-binding cassette subfamily F member 1 (ABCF1) as a novel RPE phagocytotic ligand by a new approach of functional screening. ABCF1 was independently verified to extrinsically promote phagocytosis of shed POSs by D407 RPE cells. This finding was further corroborated with primary RPE cells and RPE explants. Internalized POS vesicles were colocalized with a phagosome marker, suggesting that ABCF1-mediated engulfment is through a phagocytic pathway. ABCF1 was released from apoptotic cells and selectively bound to shed POS vesicles and apoptotic cells, possibly via externalized phosphatidylserine. ABCF1 is predominantly expressed in POSs and colocalized with the POS marker rhodopsin, providing geographical convenience for regulation of RPE phagocytosis. Collectively these results suggest that ABCF1 is released from and binds to shed POSs in an autocrine manner to facilitate RPE phagocytosis through a conserved pathway. Furthermore, the new approach is broadly applicable to many other phagocytes and will enable systematic elucidation of their ligands to understand extrinsic regulation and cargo recognition.

  20. Bovine-associated CNS species resist phagocytosis differently

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) cause usually subclinical or mild clinical bovine mastitis, which often remains persistent. Symptoms are usually mild, mostly only comprising slight changes in the appearance of milk and possibly slight swelling. However, clinical mastitis with severe signs has also been reported. The reasons for the differences in clinical expression are largely unknown. Macrophages play an important role in the innate immunity of the udder. This study examined phagocytosis and killing by mouse macrophage cells of three CNS species: Staphylococcus chromogenes (15 isolates), Staphylococcus agnetis (6 isolates) and Staphylococcus simulans (15 isolates). Staphylococcus aureus (7 isolates) was also included as a control. Results All the studied CNS species were phagocytosed by macrophages, but S. simulans resisted phagocytosis more effectively than the other CNS species. Only S. chromogenes was substantially killed by macrophages. Significant variations between isolates were seen in both phagocytosis and killing by macrophages and were more common in the killing assays. Significant differences between single CNS species and S. aureus were observed in both assays. Conclusion This study demonstrated that differences in the phagocytosis and killing of mastitis-causing staphylococci by macrophages exist at both the species and isolate level. PMID:24207012

  1. Buoyant triacylglycerol-filled green algae and methods therefor

    DOEpatents

    Goodenough, Ursula; Goodson, Carrie

    2015-04-14

    Cultures of Chlamydomonas are disclosed comprising greater than 340 mg/l triacylglycerols (TAG). The cultures can include buoyant Chlamydomonas. Methods of forming the cultures are also disclosed. In some embodiments, these methods comprise providing Chlamydomonas growing in log phase in a first culture medium comprising a nitrogen source and acetate, replacing the first culture medium with a second medium comprising acetate but no nitrogen source, and subsequently supplementing the second medium with additional acetate. In some embodiments, a culture can comprise at least 1,300 mg/l triacyglycerols. In some embodiments, cultures can be used to produce a biofuel such as biodiesel.

  2. Disappearance of macrophage surface folds after antibody-dependent phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    We have employed the method of Burwen and Satir (J. Cell Biol., 1977, 74:690) to measure the disappearance of surface folds from resident guinea pig peritoneal macrophages after antibody-dependent phagocytosis. Unilamellar phospholipid vesicles containing dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and 1 mol % dinitrophenyl-epsilon- aminocaproyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, a lipid that possesses a hapten headgroup, were prepared by an ether injection technique. These vesicles were taken up by macrophages in a time- and temperature- dependent fashion. Vesicles that contained ferritin trapped in the internal aqueous volume were identified within macrophages by transmission electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy has shown that macrophage surface folds decrease dramatically after phagocytosis. The surface fold length (micrometer) per unit smooth sphere surface area (micrometer2) decreases from 1.3 +/- 0.3 micrometer- 1 to 0.53 +/- 0.25 micrometer-1 when cells are incubated in the presence of specific anti-DNP antibody and vesicles at 37 degrees C. No significant effect was observed in the presence of antibody only or vesicles only. Our studies shown that phagocytosis is associated with a loss of cell surface folds and a loss of cell surface area, which is consonant with current views of the endocytic process. On the basis of our uptake data, we estimate that approximately 400 micrometer2 of vesicle surface membrane is internalized. The guinea pig macrophage plasma membrane has a total area of approximately 400 micrometer2 in control studies, whereas the cells have roughly 300 micrometer2 after phagocytosis. These estimates of surface areas include membrane ruffles and changes directly related to changes in cell volume. We suggest that during antibody-dependent phagocytosis a membrane reservoir is made available to the cell surface. PMID:7251651

  3. Prostaglandins may play a signal-coupling role during phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Prusch, R D; Goette, S M; Haberman, P

    1989-03-01

    Phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus can be induced with prostaglandins (PG). In addition, arachidonic acid (the fatty acid precursor to the PG-2 series) also induces phagocytosis. The induction of phagocytosis with arachidonic acid can be partially inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. Phagocytosis in the amoeba can also be induced with the chemotactic peptide N-formylmethionyl-leucylphenylalanine (NFMLP). The peptide presumably induces phagocytosis by interacting with receptors on the amoeba surface, which may initiate the release of arachidonic acid from membrane lipids. NFMLP-induced phagocytosis can also be partially inhibited by indomethacin. It is suggested that PG's or biochemically related substances may play a signal-coupling role during phagocytosis in the amoeba.

  4. Mechanisms of glucocorticoid induced suppression of phagocytosis in murine peritoneal macrophage cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Glucocorticoids suppress phagocytosis of heat killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae in macrophage cultures. In order to determine the mechanisms by which this response occurs, this investigation was initiated to examine whether the suppression of phagocytosis is mediated by a steroid induced phagocytosis inhibitory protein (PIP). Furthermore, it is postulated that these suppressive effects may be associated with alterations in macrophage phospholipid metabolism. To assess the association between phospholipid metabolism and phagocytosis, control and 1 ..mu..M dexamethasone treated macrophages were exposed to the phospholipase inhibitor bromophenacylbromide. The enzyme inhibitor suppressed phagocytosis in a time and dose dependent manner. However, supplying dexamethasone treated cultures with arachidonate did not reverse the steroid induced suppression of phagocytosis, whether the arachidonate was supplied alone or together with indomethacin and nordihydroguaiaretic acid. Control cells, prelabeled with /sup 3/H-arachidonate, exhibited an increased percentage of the radiolabeled fatty acid in neutral lipids following phagocytosis, with a corresponding decrease in the percentage associated with phosphatidylcholine.

  5. Enhanced Phagocytosis and Bactericidal Activity of Hepatic Reticuloendothelial System During Endotoxin Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Giuseppe; Andreana, Augusto; Utili, Riccardo; Galante, Domenico

    1980-01-01

    The effects of tolerance to Escherichia coli endotoxin on the phagocytic and bactericidal activity of the hepatic reticuloendothelial system against viable E. coli were examined using ex vivo perfused rat livers. Livers were isolated from control and endotoxin-tolerant rats and perfused with a medium containing 5% homologous serum from either control or tolerant rats. After the addition of the E. coli (2 × 107 cells per ml) to the perfusate, the hepatic clearance of the bacteria was followed for 30 min. The highest activation of the hepatic reticuloendothelial system was observed when serum from tolerant animals was added to the perfusate. Under these conditions phagocytosis was 47% (12% in controls), and 37 to 38% of the bacteria were killed (5% in controls). This activation was less when livers obtained from tolerant rats were perfused with serum from controls or with saline only. The data suggests that, during endotoxin tolerance, humoral factors play an important role in the activation of the hepatic reticulendothelial system, although a direct stimulation of Kupffer cells also occurs. The enhancement of phagocytosis by tolerant serum did not require the presence of homologous antibodies and involved the activation of the alternative complement pathway, since it was lost after removal of factor B activity. On the other hand, stimulation of intracellular killing required both complement and specific antibodies. The data suggest a role of endotoxin in the activation of humoral and cellular mechanisms involved in the host resistance to gram-negative bacterial infection. PMID:6991430

  6. [The phagocytosis of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes in progressive periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Konopka, T; Zietek, M

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this paper was the evaluation of the phagocytic activity of neutrophils in blood and in gingival pocket fluid in patients suffering from rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP) and postjuvenile periodontitis (PJP). Prior to periodontal treatment the authors evaluated the capacity to phagocytose latex particles of peripheral blood neutrophils from 21 patients with RPP, 51 with PJP and 59 healthy subjects (control group) as well as the phagocytic activity of neutrophils in pocket fluid from 21 patients with RPP, 14 with PJP and from 20 healthy subjects. This phagocytic activity was significantly lower in all examined groups in comparison with the control group. A similar evaluation executed 3 months after treatment revealed normal phagocytosis of blood neutrophils from patients with RPP. In patients receiving complementary pharmacotherapy (spiramycine combined with metronidazol), a better improvement of phagocytosis was noted, than that observed in patients treated only surgically. PMID:7481699

  7. Phagocytosis and leucocyte enzymes in protein–calorie malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Ratnam J.; Bhat, K. Seetharam

    1972-01-01

    1. Enzymes pertinent to bactericidal activities of leucocytes were assayed in children suffering from protein–calorie malnutrition. 2. Leucocytes obtained from malnourished and control children contained similar activities for glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Granule-bound NADPH oxidase activity was low in leucocytes isolated from malnourished patients and failed to show the phagocytic stimulation which is normally seen in control leucocytes. Further, leucocytes obtained from malnourished patients did not release the acid phosphatase from lysosomes during phagocytosis, unlike those from controls. 3. Treatment of the malnourishment with a diet high in calories and protein resulted in significant increase in the activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and NADPH oxidase and in releasing the acid phosphatase from the lysosomes into the supernatant fraction during phagocytosis. 4. The significance of these enzyme changes are discussed in relation to the increased susceptibility of these patients to infection. PMID:4403728

  8. Stimulation of Paramecium phagocytosis by phorbol ester and forskolin.

    PubMed

    Wyroba, E

    1987-09-01

    Phorbol ester (PMA) exerted a dose- and time- dependent stimulating effect on phagocytosis in axenic Paramecium aurelia. When cells were exposed to 200-800 nM PMA in the presence of latex beads, the phagocytic coefficient was enhanced 2.25 to 3.14 times, during 10 min of continuous treatment and then rapidly declined. A similar effect was observed when the cells were exposed to a forskolin treatment, which resulted in nearly a twofold increase in phagocytic activity after a 10 min pulse. Both PMA and forskolin strongly stimulated phagocytosis (i.e. fivefold and threefold, respectively) in cells in which such activity had been completely inhibited by pre-exposure to the beta-receptor antagonist 1-propranolol.

  9. [The phagocytosis of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes in progressive periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Konopka, T; Zietek, M

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this paper was the evaluation of the phagocytic activity of neutrophils in blood and in gingival pocket fluid in patients suffering from rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP) and postjuvenile periodontitis (PJP). Prior to periodontal treatment the authors evaluated the capacity to phagocytose latex particles of peripheral blood neutrophils from 21 patients with RPP, 51 with PJP and 59 healthy subjects (control group) as well as the phagocytic activity of neutrophils in pocket fluid from 21 patients with RPP, 14 with PJP and from 20 healthy subjects. This phagocytic activity was significantly lower in all examined groups in comparison with the control group. A similar evaluation executed 3 months after treatment revealed normal phagocytosis of blood neutrophils from patients with RPP. In patients receiving complementary pharmacotherapy (spiramycine combined with metronidazol), a better improvement of phagocytosis was noted, than that observed in patients treated only surgically.

  10. Insulin antagonizes the phagocytosis stimulating action of histamine in Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Csaba, G; Darvas, Z

    1992-02-01

    Histamine increased specifically the phagocytic activity of the unicellular Tetrahymena, whereas insulin had no influence on it. Insulin antagonized the phagocytosis stimulating action of histamine after simultaneous exposure and after preexposure two days earlier as well, although in the latter case to a lesser degree. Double exposure to a combination of histamine+insulin didn't influence the phagocytic activity at all, demonstrating the histamine antagonizing effect of insulin in this model.

  11. Phagocytosis in pup and adult harbour, grey and harp seals.

    PubMed

    Frouin, Héloïse; Lebeuf, Michel; Hammill, Mike; Fournier, Michel

    2010-04-15

    Knowledge on pinniped immunology is still in its infancy. For instance, age-related and developmental aspects of the immune system in pinnipeds need to be better described. The present study examined the phagocytic activity and efficiency of harbour, grey and harp seal leukocytes. In the first part of the study, peripheral blood was collected from captive female harbour seals of various ages. Data showed an age-related decrease in phagocytosis in female harbour seals from sub-adult to adulthood. In the second part of the study, changes in phagocytosis were quantified during lactation in wild newborn harbour, grey and harp seals and in their mothers (harp and grey seals). In newborns of the same age, leukocytes of harbour and harp seals phagocytosed less than those of grey seal pups. The phagocytic activity and efficiency increased significantly from early to mid-lactation in newborn harbour seals, and from early to late lactation in newborn grey seals, which could suggest that the transfer of phagocytosis-promoting factor(s) in colostrum is an important feature of temporary protection for pups. In contrast, no changes in phagocytic activity and efficiency were observed in lactating females of the two seal species, harp and grey, examined. At late lactation, phagocytic activity in both grey and harp seal pups and phagocytic efficiency in grey seal pups were significantly higher than in their mothers. These results could reflect either the capacity of phagocytes of the newborn harp and grey seals to respond to pathogens. Results from this study suggest that the phagocytosis of the seal species examined is not fully developed at birth as it generally increases in pups during lactation. Thereafter, the phagocytic activity of seals appears to decrease throughout adulthood.

  12. Preparation of ethyl magnesium bromide for regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Ando, Yasuhiro; Tomita, Yuki; Haba, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for preparation of a Grignard reagent, ethyl magnesium bromide, used for partial deacylation of triacylglycerols (TAG) in their regiospecific analysis. Magnesium turnings were reacted with ethereal solution of bromoethane in a screw-capped test tube to synthesize 2 mL of 1 M ethyl magnesium bromide. Continuously stirred with a vortex mixer, the reaction smoothly proceeded at room temperature. Regiospecific analysis of 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol using this product showed that fatty acid compositions of the sn-1(3) and sn-2 positions were contaminated by less than 2 mol% of fatty acids migrated from isomeric positions. The analyses of lard and cod liver/mackerel oil TAG showed typical distribution patterns of 16:0, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in pig and fish depot TAG. These results confirmed the view that the freshly prepared reagent is usable for regiospecific analysis of TAG.

  13. Authentication of Coffea arabica according to Triacylglycerol Stereospecific Composition

    PubMed Central

    Cossignani, L.; Simonetti, M. S.; Blasi, F.

    2016-01-01

    Stereospecific analysis is an important tool for the characterization of lipid fraction of food products. In the present research, an approach to characterize arabica and robusta varieties by structural analysis of the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction is reported. The lipids were Soxhlet extracted from ground roasted coffee beans with petroleum ether, and the fatty acids (FA) were determined as their corresponding methyl esters. The results of a chemical-enzymatic-chromatographic method were elaborated by a chemometric procedure, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). According to the total and intrapositional FA composition of TAG fraction, the obtained results were able to characterize roasted pure coffee samples and coffee mixtures with 10% robusta coffee added to arabica coffee. Totally correct classified samples were obtained when the TAG stereospecific results of the considered coffee mixture (90 : 10 arabica/robusta) were elaborated by LDA procedure. PMID:27547482

  14. Lag phase and hydrolysis mechanisms of triacylglycerol film lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Snabe, Torben; Petersen, Steffen Bjørn

    2003-09-01

    We here present novel insights into the dynamic changes of a nanosized lipid film during enzymatic degradation. When adding an aqueous solution containing a triacylglycerol lipase to an approximately 100nm thin triolein film, which is supported on a hard surface, the film thickness, elasticity, viscosity, and chemical composition were obtained continuously. Both a mechanical technique (quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring) and a spectroscopic technique (attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) were utilised for this study. Detailed data revealed the effects of pH, Ca(2+), and catalytic rate on lipolysis, including product release from the film. It was found that under basic conditions and without Ca(2+), the lipolytic activity commence instantaneously upon addition of enzyme, whereas product release from the substrate film awaits conditions that favours release. A model for removal of degradation products from the film is introduced, including a novel interpretation of the lag phase phenomenon.

  15. Authentication of Coffea arabica according to Triacylglycerol Stereospecific Composition.

    PubMed

    Cossignani, L; Montesano, D; Simonetti, M S; Blasi, F

    2016-01-01

    Stereospecific analysis is an important tool for the characterization of lipid fraction of food products. In the present research, an approach to characterize arabica and robusta varieties by structural analysis of the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction is reported. The lipids were Soxhlet extracted from ground roasted coffee beans with petroleum ether, and the fatty acids (FA) were determined as their corresponding methyl esters. The results of a chemical-enzymatic-chromatographic method were elaborated by a chemometric procedure, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). According to the total and intrapositional FA composition of TAG fraction, the obtained results were able to characterize roasted pure coffee samples and coffee mixtures with 10% robusta coffee added to arabica coffee. Totally correct classified samples were obtained when the TAG stereospecific results of the considered coffee mixture (90 : 10 arabica/robusta) were elaborated by LDA procedure. PMID:27547482

  16. Serotonin modulates insect hemocyte phagocytosis via two different serotonin receptors.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yi-Xiang; Huang, Jia; Li, Meng-Qi; Wu, Ya-Su; Xia, Ren-Ying; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates both neural and immune responses in vertebrates, but its role in insect immunity remains uncertain. We report that hemocytes in the caterpillar, Pieris rapae are able to synthesize 5-HT following activation by lipopolysaccharide. The inhibition of a serotonin-generating enzyme with either pharmacological blockade or RNAi knock-down impaired hemocyte phagocytosis. Biochemical and functional experiments showed that naive hemocytes primarily express 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptors. The blockade of 5-HT1B significantly reduced phagocytic ability; however, the blockade of 5-HT2B increased hemocyte phagocytosis. The 5-HT1B-null Drosophila melanogaster mutants showed higher mortality than controls when infected with bacteria, due to their decreased phagocytotic ability. Flies expressing 5-HT1B or 5-HT2B RNAi in hemocytes also showed similar sensitivity to infection. Combined, these data demonstrate that 5-HT mediates hemocyte phagocytosis through 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptors and serotonergic signaling performs critical modulatory functions in immune systems of animals separated by 500 million years of evolution. PMID:26974346

  17. Serotonin modulates insect hemocyte phagocytosis via two different serotonin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yi-xiang; Huang, Jia; Li, Meng-qi; Wu, Ya-su; Xia, Ren-ying; Ye, Gong-yin

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates both neural and immune responses in vertebrates, but its role in insect immunity remains uncertain. We report that hemocytes in the caterpillar, Pieris rapae are able to synthesize 5-HT following activation by lipopolysaccharide. The inhibition of a serotonin-generating enzyme with either pharmacological blockade or RNAi knock-down impaired hemocyte phagocytosis. Biochemical and functional experiments showed that naive hemocytes primarily express 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptors. The blockade of 5-HT1B significantly reduced phagocytic ability; however, the blockade of 5-HT2B increased hemocyte phagocytosis. The 5-HT1B-null Drosophila melanogaster mutants showed higher mortality than controls when infected with bacteria, due to their decreased phagocytotic ability. Flies expressing 5-HT1B or 5-HT2B RNAi in hemocytes also showed similar sensitivity to infection. Combined, these data demonstrate that 5-HT mediates hemocyte phagocytosis through 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptors and serotonergic signaling performs critical modulatory functions in immune systems of animals separated by 500 million years of evolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12241.001 PMID:26974346

  18. Endothelial cell phagocytosis of senescent neutrophils decreases procoagulant activity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chunyan; Xie, Rui; Li, Wen; Zhou, Jin; Liu, Shuchuan; Cao, Fenglin; Liu, Yue; Ma, Ruishuang; Si, Yu; Liu, Yan; Bi, Yayan; Gilbert, Gary E; Shi, Jialan

    2013-06-01

    Abundant senescent neutrophils traverse the vascular compartment and may contribute to pathologic conditions. For example, they become procoagulant when undergoing apoptosis and may contribute to thrombosis or inflammation. Our previous studies demonstrated a dominant clearance pathway in which the neutrophils can be phagocytosed by liver macrophages. The aim of this study was to explore an alternate pathway of neutrophil clearance by endothelial cells. Phagocytosis of the neutrophils by endothelial cells was performed using various experimental approaches includingflow cytometry, confocal microscopy and electron microscopy assays in vitro and in vivo. Procoagulant activity of cultured neutrophils was evaluated by coagulation time, factor Xase and prothrombinase assays. Lactadherin functioned as a novel probe for the detection of phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells, an opsonin (bridge) between apoptotic cell and phagocyte for promoting phagocytosis, and an efficient anticoagulant for inhibition of factor Xase and thrombin formation. When cultured, purified human neutrophils spontaneously entered apoptosis and developed procoagulant activity that was directly related to the degree of phosphatidylserine exposure. Co-culture of aged neutrophils and endothelial cells resulted in phagocytosis of the neutrophils and prolonged coagulation time. Lactadherin diminished the procoagulant activity and increased the rate of neutrophil clearance. In vivo, neutrophils were sequestered by endothelial cells after blockade of Kupffer cells, a process that was dependent upon both phosphatidylserine exposure and P-selectin expression. Thus, the ability of endothelial cells to clear senescent neutrophils may limit the procoagulant and/or inflammatory impact of these cells.

  19. Phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Lu, Thea; Porter, Adeline R; Kennedy, Adam D; Kobayashi, Scott D; DeLeo, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils are essential for host defense against Staphylococcus aureus infections. Although significant progress has been made, our understanding of neutrophil interactions with S. aureus remains incomplete. To provide a more comprehensive view of this process, we investigated phagocytosis and killing of S. aureus by human neutrophils using varied assay conditions in vitro. A greater percentage of bacteria were internalized by adherent neutrophils compared to those in suspension, and, unexpectedly, uptake of S. aureus by adherent neutrophils occurred efficiently in the absence of opsonins. An antibody specific for S. aureus promoted uptake of unopsonized bacteria in suspension, but had little or no capacity to enhance phagocytosis of S. aureus opsonized with normal human serum or by adherent neutrophils. Collectively, these results indicate that assay conditions can have a significant influence on the phagocytosis and killing of S. aureus by neutrophils. More importantly, the results suggest a vaccine approach directed to enhance opsonophagocytosis alone is not sufficient to promote increased killing of S. aureus by human neutrophils. With the emergence and reemergence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, establishing parameters that are optimal for studying neutrophil-S. aureus interactions will pave the way towards developing immune-directed strategies for anti-staphylococcal therapies.

  20. Microglial phagocytosis of living photoreceptors contributes to inherited retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lian; Zabel, Matthew K; Wang, Xu; Ma, Wenxin; Shah, Parth; Fariss, Robert N; Qian, Haohua; Parkhurst, Christopher N; Gan, Wen-Biao; Wong, Wai T

    2015-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa, caused predominantly by mutations in photoreceptor genes, currently lacks comprehensive treatment. We discover that retinal microglia contribute non-cell autonomously to rod photoreceptor degeneration by primary phagocytosis of living rods. Using rd10 mice, we found that the initiation of rod degeneration is accompanied by early infiltration of microglia, upregulation of phagocytic molecules in microglia, and presentation of “eat-me” signals on mutated rods. On live-cell imaging, infiltrating microglia interact dynamically with photoreceptors via motile processes and engage in rapid phagocytic engulfment of non-apoptotic rods. Microglial contribution to rod demise is evidenced by morphological and functional amelioration of photoreceptor degeneration following genetic ablation of retinal microglia. Molecular inhibition of microglial phagocytosis using the vitronectin receptor antagonist cRGD also improved morphological and functional parameters of degeneration. Our findings highlight primary microglial phagocytosis as a contributing mechanism underlying cell death in retinitis pigmentosa and implicate microglia as a potential cellular target for therapy. PMID:26139610

  1. Group V secreted phospholipase A2 is upregulated by IL-4 in human macrophages and mediates phagocytosis via hydrolysis of ethanolamine phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Julio M; Rodríguez, Juan P; Gil-de-Gómez, Luis; Guijas, Carlos; Balboa, María A; Balsinde, Jesús

    2015-04-01

    Studies on the heterogeneity and plasticity of macrophage populations led to the identification of two major polarization states: classically activated macrophages or M1, induced by IFN-γ plus LPS, and alternatively activated macrophages, induced by IL-4. We studied the expression of multiple phospholipase A2 enzymes in human macrophages and the effect that polarization of the cells has on their levels. At least 11 phospholipase A2 genes were found at significant levels in human macrophages, as detected by quantitative PCR. None of these exhibited marked changes after treating the cells with IFN-γ plus LPS. However, macrophage treatment with IL-4 led to strong upregulation of the secreted group V phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-V), both at the mRNA and protein levels. In parallel with increasing sPLA2-V expression levels, IL-4-treated macrophages exhibited increased phagocytosis of yeast-derived zymosan and bacteria, and we show that both events are causally related, because cells deficient in sPLA2-V exhibited decreased phagocytosis, and cells overexpressing the enzyme manifested higher rates of phagocytosis. Mass spectrometry analyses of lipid changes in the IL-4-treated macrophages suggest that ethanolamine lysophospholipid (LPE) is an sPLA2-V-derived product that may be involved in regulating phagocytosis. Cellular levels of LPE are selectively maintained by sPLA2-V. By supplementing sPLA2-V-deficient cells with LPE, phagocytosis of zymosan or bacteria was fully restored in IL-4-treated cells. Collectively, our results show that sPLA2-V is required for efficient phagocytosis by IL-4-treated human macrophages and provide evidence that sPLA2-V-derived LPE is involved in the process. PMID:25725101

  2. Group V secreted phospholipase A2 is upregulated by IL-4 in human macrophages and mediates phagocytosis via hydrolysis of ethanolamine phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Julio M; Rodríguez, Juan P; Gil-de-Gómez, Luis; Guijas, Carlos; Balboa, María A; Balsinde, Jesús

    2015-04-01

    Studies on the heterogeneity and plasticity of macrophage populations led to the identification of two major polarization states: classically activated macrophages or M1, induced by IFN-γ plus LPS, and alternatively activated macrophages, induced by IL-4. We studied the expression of multiple phospholipase A2 enzymes in human macrophages and the effect that polarization of the cells has on their levels. At least 11 phospholipase A2 genes were found at significant levels in human macrophages, as detected by quantitative PCR. None of these exhibited marked changes after treating the cells with IFN-γ plus LPS. However, macrophage treatment with IL-4 led to strong upregulation of the secreted group V phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-V), both at the mRNA and protein levels. In parallel with increasing sPLA2-V expression levels, IL-4-treated macrophages exhibited increased phagocytosis of yeast-derived zymosan and bacteria, and we show that both events are causally related, because cells deficient in sPLA2-V exhibited decreased phagocytosis, and cells overexpressing the enzyme manifested higher rates of phagocytosis. Mass spectrometry analyses of lipid changes in the IL-4-treated macrophages suggest that ethanolamine lysophospholipid (LPE) is an sPLA2-V-derived product that may be involved in regulating phagocytosis. Cellular levels of LPE are selectively maintained by sPLA2-V. By supplementing sPLA2-V-deficient cells with LPE, phagocytosis of zymosan or bacteria was fully restored in IL-4-treated cells. Collectively, our results show that sPLA2-V is required for efficient phagocytosis by IL-4-treated human macrophages and provide evidence that sPLA2-V-derived LPE is involved in the process.

  3. Investigation of the triacylglycerol composition of iceman's mummified tissue by high-temperature gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mayer, B X; Reiter, C; Bereuter, T L

    1997-04-25

    The pattern of intact triacylglycerols of a skin sample from the 5300-year-old Iceman mummy (nicknamed Otzi) was resolved on a diphenyl-dimethylpolysiloxane stationary phase by high-temperature gas chromatography. Adipocere from a 64-year-old glacier mummy as well as recent human subcutaneous fat served as a comparison in this study. Qualitatively, the results for mummy samples were similar with well-preserved saturated, but decomposed unsaturated, triacylglycerols, the latter being predominant in subcutaneous fat. Excellent preservation of triacylglycerols with odd carbon numbers and branched acyl chains was observed. The results presented here shed new light on the process of mummification.

  4. Screening in planarians identifies MORN2 as a key component in LC3-associated phagocytosis and resistance to bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Abnave, Prasad; Mottola, Giovanna; Gimenez, Gregory; Boucherit, Nicolas; Trouplin, Virginie; Torre, Cedric; Conti, Filippo; Ben Amara, Amira; Lepolard, Catherine; Djian, Benjamin; Hamaoui, Daniel; Mettouchi, Amel; Kumar, Atul; Pagnotta, Sophie; Bonatti, Stefano; Lepidi, Hubert; Salvetti, Alessandra; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Mege, Jean-Louis; Ghigo, Eric

    2014-09-10

    Dugesia japonica planarian flatworms are naturally exposed to various microbes but typically survive this challenge. We show that planarians eliminate bacteria pathogenic to Homo sapiens, Caenorhabditis elegans, and/or Drosophila melanogaster and thus represent a model to identify innate resistance mechanisms. Whole-transcriptome analysis coupled with RNAi screening of worms infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Legionella pneumophila identified 18 resistance genes with nine human orthologs, of which we examined the function of MORN2. Human MORN2 facilitates phagocytosis-mediated restriction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, L. pneumophila, and S. aureus in macrophages. MORN2 promotes the recruitment of LC3, an autophagy protein also involved in phagocytosis, to M. tuberculosis-containing phagosomes and subsequent maturation to degradative phagolysosomes. MORN2-driven trafficking of M. tuberculosis to single-membrane, LC3-positive compartments requires autophagy-related proteins Atg5 and Beclin-1, but not Ulk-1 and Atg13, highlighting the importance of MORN2 in LC3-associated phagocytosis. These findings underscore the value of studying planarian defenses to identify immune factors.

  5. Contribution of Ion Channels in Calcium Signaling Regulating Phagocytosis: MaxiK, Cav1.3 and Bestrophin-1.

    PubMed

    Strauß, Olaf; Reichhart, Nadine; Gomez, Nestor Mas; Müller, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the BEST1 gene lead to a variety of retinal degenerations including Best's vitelliforme macular degeneration. The BEST1 gene product, bestrophin-1, is expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). It is likely that mutant bestrophin-1 impairs functions of the RPE which support photoreceptor function and will thus lead to retinal degeneration. However, the RPE function which is influenced by bestrophin-1 is so far not identified. Previously we showed that bestrophin-1 interacts with L-type Ca²⁺ channels of the CaV1.3 subtype and that the endogenously expressed bestrophin-1 is required for intracellular Ca²⁺ regulation. A hallmark of Best's disease is the fast lipofuscin accumulation occurring already at young ages. Therefore, we addressed the hypothesis that bestrophin-1 might influence phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments (POS) by the RPE. Here, siRNA knock-down of bestrophin-1 expression as well as inhibition of L-type Ca²⁺ channel activity modulated the POS phagocytosis in vitro. In vivo CaV1.3 expression appeared to be diurnal regulated with a higher expression rate in the afternoon. Compared to wild-type littermates, Ca V 1.3 (-/-) mice showed a shift in the circadian POS phagocytosis with an increased activity in the afternoon. Thus we suggest that mutant bestrophin-1 leads to an impaired regulation of the POS phagocytosis by the RPE which would explain the fast lipofuscin accumulation in Best patients.

  6. Sweepers in the CNS: Microglial Migration and Phagocytosis in the Alzheimer Disease Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Noda, Mariko; Suzumura, Akio

    2012-01-01

    Microglia are multifunctional immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS). In the neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), accumulation of glial cells, gliosis, occurs in the lesions. The role of accumulated microglia in the pathophysiology of AD is still controversial. When neuronal damage occurs, microglia exert diversified functions, including migration, phagocytosis, and production of various cytokines and chemokines. Among these, microglial phagocytosis of unwanted neuronal debris is critical to maintain the healthy neuronal networks. Microglia express many surface receptors implicated in phagocytosis. It has been suggested that the lack of microglial phagocytosis worsens pathology of AD and induces memory impairment. The present paper summarizes recent evidences on implication of microglial chemotaxis and phagocytosis in AD pathology and discusses the mechanisms related to chemotaxis toward injured neurons and phagocytosis of unnecessary debris.

  7. Phagocytic receptors activate and immune inhibitory receptor SIRPα inhibits phagocytosis through paxillin and cofilin.

    PubMed

    Gitik, Miri; Kleinhaus, Rachel; Hadas, Smadar; Reichert, Fanny; Rotshenker, Shlomo

    2014-01-01

    The innate immune function of phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, tissue debris, pathogens, and cancer cells is essential for homeostasis, tissue repair, fighting infection, and combating malignancy. Phagocytosis is carried out in the central nervous system (CNS) by resident microglia and in both CNS and peripheral nervous system by recruited macrophages. While phagocytosis proceeds, bystander healthy cells protect themselves by sending a "do not eat me" message to phagocytes as CD47 on their surface ligates immune inhibitory receptor SIRPα on the surface of phagocytes and SIRPα then produces the signaling which inhibits phagocytosis. This helpful mechanism becomes harmful when tissue debris and unhealthy cells inhibit their own phagocytosis by employing the same mechanism. However, the inhibitory signaling that SIRPα produces has not been fully revealed. We focus here on how SIRPα inhibits the phagocytosis of the tissue debris "degenerated myelin" which hinders repair in axonal injury and neurodegenerative diseases. We tested whether SIRPα inhibits phagocytosis by regulating cytoskeleton function through paxillin and cofilin since (a) the cytoskeleton generates the mechanical forces that drive phagocytosis and (b) both paxillin and cofilin control cytoskeleton function. Paxillin and cofilin were transiently activated in microglia as phagocytosis was activated. In contrast, paxillin and cofilin were continuously activated and phagocytosis augmented in microglia in which SIRPα expression was knocked-down by SIRPα-shRNA. Further, levels of phagocytosis, paxillin activation, and cofilin activation positively correlated with one another. Taken together, these observations suggest a novel mechanism whereby paxillin and cofilin are targeted to control phagocytosis by both the activating signaling that phagocytic receptors produce by promoting the activation of paxillin and cofilin and the inhibiting signaling that immune inhibitory SIRPα produces by promoting the

  8. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase enables phagocytosis of large particles by terminating actin assembly through Rac/Cdc42 GTPase-activating proteins.

    PubMed

    Schlam, Daniel; Bagshaw, Richard D; Freeman, Spencer A; Collins, Richard F; Pawson, Tony; Fairn, Gregory D; Grinstein, Sergio

    2015-10-14

    Phagocytosis is responsible for the elimination of particles of widely disparate sizes, from large fungi or effete cells to small bacteria. Though superficially similar, the molecular mechanisms involved differ: engulfment of large targets requires phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), while that of small ones does not. Here, we report that inactivation of Rac and Cdc42 at phagocytic cups is essential to complete internalization of large particles. Through a screen of 62 RhoGAP-family members, we demonstrate that ARHGAP12, ARHGAP25 and SH3BP1 are responsible for GTPase inactivation. Silencing these RhoGAPs impairs phagocytosis of large targets. The GAPs are recruited to large--but not small--phagocytic cups by products of PI3K, where they synergistically inactivate Rac and Cdc42. Remarkably, the prominent accumulation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate characteristic of large-phagosome formation is less evident during phagocytosis of small targets, accounting for the contrasting RhoGAP distribution and the differential requirement for PI3K during phagocytosis of dissimilarly sized particles.

  9. Identification of Arabidopsis GPAT9 (At5g60620) as an Essential Gene Involved in Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Browse, John

    2016-01-01

    The first step in the biosynthesis of nearly all plant membrane phospholipids and storage triacylglycerols is catalyzed by a glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT). The requirement for an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized GPAT for both of these critical metabolic pathways was recognized more than 60 years ago. However, identification of the gene(s) encoding this GPAT activity has remained elusive. Here, we present the results of a series of in vivo, in vitro, and in silico experiments in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) designed to assign this essential function to AtGPAT9. This gene has been highly conserved throughout evolution and is largely present as a single copy in most plants, features consistent with essential housekeeping functions. A knockout mutant of AtGPAT9 demonstrates both male and female gametophytic lethality phenotypes, consistent with the role in essential membrane lipid synthesis. Significant expression of developing seed AtGPAT9 is required for wild-type levels of triacylglycerol accumulation, and the transcript level is directly correlated to the level of microsomal GPAT enzymatic activity in seeds. Finally, the AtGPAT9 protein interacts with other enzymes involved in ER glycerolipid biosynthesis, suggesting the possibility of ER-localized lipid biosynthetic complexes. Together, these results suggest that GPAT9 is the ER-localized GPAT enzyme responsible for plant membrane lipid and oil biosynthesis. PMID:26586834

  10. Fast comprehensive analysis of vitamin D and triacylglycerols in dietary supplements using multiple parallel mass spectrometers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New, faster methods have been developed for analysis of vitamin D and triacylglycerols that eliminate hours of wet chemistry and preparative chromatography, while providing more information than classical methods for analysis. Unprecedented detail is provided by combining liquid chromatography with ...

  11. Impact of Association Colloids on Lipid Oxidation in Triacylglycerols and Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Homma, Rika; Suzuki, Karin; Cui, Leqi; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-11-25

    The impact of association colloids on lipid oxidation in triacylglycerols and fatty acid ethyl esters was investigated. Association colloids did not affect lipid oxidation of high oleic safflower and high linoleic safflower triacylglycerols, but were prooxidative in fish triacylglycerols. Association colloids retarded aldehyde formation in stripped ethyl oleate, linoleate, and fish oil ethyl esters. Interfacial tension revealed that lipid hydroperoxides were surface active in the presence of the surfactants found in association colloids. The lipid hydroperoxides from ethyl esters were less surface active than triacylglycerol hydroperoxides. Stripping decreased iron and copper concentrations in all oils, but more so in fatty acid ethyl esters. The combination of lower hydroperoxide surface activity and low metal concentrations could explain why association colloids inhibited lipid oxidation in fatty acid ethyl esters. This research suggests that association colloids could be used as an antioxidant technology in fatty acid ethyl esters.

  12. Impact of Association Colloids on Lipid Oxidation in Triacylglycerols and Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Homma, Rika; Suzuki, Karin; Cui, Leqi; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-11-25

    The impact of association colloids on lipid oxidation in triacylglycerols and fatty acid ethyl esters was investigated. Association colloids did not affect lipid oxidation of high oleic safflower and high linoleic safflower triacylglycerols, but were prooxidative in fish triacylglycerols. Association colloids retarded aldehyde formation in stripped ethyl oleate, linoleate, and fish oil ethyl esters. Interfacial tension revealed that lipid hydroperoxides were surface active in the presence of the surfactants found in association colloids. The lipid hydroperoxides from ethyl esters were less surface active than triacylglycerol hydroperoxides. Stripping decreased iron and copper concentrations in all oils, but more so in fatty acid ethyl esters. The combination of lower hydroperoxide surface activity and low metal concentrations could explain why association colloids inhibited lipid oxidation in fatty acid ethyl esters. This research suggests that association colloids could be used as an antioxidant technology in fatty acid ethyl esters. PMID:26506263

  13. An isozyme of earthworm serine proteases acts on hydrolysis of triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Sugimoto, Manabu; Tsuboi, Sadao; Tsuji, Hideaki; Ishihara, Kohji

    2005-10-01

    An enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol was purified from an earthworm. The N-terminal amino acid sequence and the catalytic function of the purified enzyme were identical to those of Isozyme C, an isozyme of the earthworm-serine proteases. No other lipase proteins were found in the earthworm cells. The isozyme might act on the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol as well as the protein decomposition.

  14. Screening for hydrolytic enzymes reveals Ayr1p as a novel triacylglycerol lipase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ploier, Birgit; Scharwey, Melanie; Koch, Barbara; Schmidt, Claudia; Schatte, Jessica; Rechberger, Gerald; Kollroser, Manfred; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2013-12-13

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as other eukaryotes, preserves fatty acids and sterols in a biologically inert form, as triacylglycerols and steryl esters. The major triacylglycerol lipases of the yeast S. cerevisiae identified so far are Tgl3p, Tgl4p, and Tgl5p (Athenstaedt, K., and Daum, G. (2003) YMR313c/TGL3 encodes a novel triacylglycerol lipase located in lipid particles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 23317-23323; Athenstaedt, K., and Daum, G. (2005) Tgl4p and Tgl5p, two triacylglycerol lipases of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are localized to lipid particles. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 37301-37309). We observed that upon cultivation on oleic acid, triacylglycerol mobilization did not come to a halt in a yeast strain deficient in all currently known triacylglycerol lipases, indicating the presence of additional not yet characterized lipases/esterases. Functional proteome analysis using lipase and esterase inhibitors revealed a subset of candidate genes for yet unknown hydrolytic enzymes on peroxisomes and lipid droplets. Based on the conserved GXSXG lipase motif, putative functions, and subcellular localizations, a selected number of candidates were characterized by enzyme assays in vitro, gene expression analysis, non-polar lipid analysis, and in vivo triacylglycerol mobilization assays. These investigations led to the identification of Ayr1p as a novel triacylglycerol lipase of yeast lipid droplets and confirmed the hydrolytic potential of the peroxisomal Lpx1p in vivo. Based on these results, we discuss a possible link between lipid storage, lipid mobilization, and peroxisomal utilization of fatty acids as a carbon source.

  15. The phagocytosis of crystalline silica particles by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gilberti, Renée M; Joshi, Gaurav N; Knecht, David A

    2008-11-01

    Silicosis is a chronic lung disease induced by the inhalation of crystalline silica. Exposure of cultured macrophages to crystalline silica leads to cell death; however, the mechanism of cell-particle interaction, the fate of particles, and the cause of death are unknown. Time-lapse imaging shows that mouse macrophages avidly bind particles that settle onto the cell surface and that cells also extend protrusions to capture distant particles. Using confocal optical sectioning, silica particles were shown to be present within the cytoplasmic volume of live cells. In addition, electron microscopy and elemental analysis showed silica in internal cellular sections. To further examine the phagocytosis process, the kinetics of particle uptake was quantified using an assay in which cells were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA)-coated particles, and an anti-OVA antibody was used to distinguish surface-bound from internalized particles. Fc receptor-mediated uptake of antibody-coated silica particles was nearly complete within 5 minutes. In contrast, no OVA-coated particles were internalized at this time. After 30 minutes, 30% of bound silica was internalized and uptake continued slowly thereafter. OVA-coated latex beads, regardless of surface charge, were internalized at a similarly slow rate. These results demonstrate that macrophages internalize silica and that nonopsonized phagocytosis occurs by a temporally, and possibly mechanistically, distinct pathway from Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Eighty percent of macrophages die within 12 hours of silica exposure. Neither OVA coating nor tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate labeling has any effect on cell death. Interestingly, antibody coating dramatically reduces silica toxicity. We hypothesize that the route of particle entry and subsequent phagosome trafficking affects the toxicity of internalized particles.

  16. The Phagocytosis of Crystalline Silica Particles by Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gilberti, Renée M.; Joshi, Gaurav N.; Knecht, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Silicosis is a chronic lung disease induced by the inhalation of crystalline silica. Exposure of cultured macrophages to crystalline silica leads to cell death; however, the mechanism of cell–particle interaction, the fate of particles, and the cause of death are unknown. Time-lapse imaging shows that mouse macrophages avidly bind particles that settle onto the cell surface and that cells also extend protrusions to capture distant particles. Using confocal optical sectioning, silica particles were shown to be present within the cytoplasmic volume of live cells. In addition, electron microscopy and elemental analysis showed silica in internal cellular sections. To further examine the phagocytosis process, the kinetics of particle uptake was quantified using an assay in which cells were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA)-coated particles, and an anti-OVA antibody was used to distinguish surface-bound from internalized particles. Fc receptor–mediated uptake of antibody-coated silica particles was nearly complete within 5 minutes. In contrast, no OVA-coated particles were internalized at this time. After 30 minutes, 30% of bound silica was internalized and uptake continued slowly thereafter. OVA-coated latex beads, regardless of surface charge, were internalized at a similarly slow rate. These results demonstrate that macrophages internalize silica and that nonopsonized phagocytosis occurs by a temporally, and possibly mechanistically, distinct pathway from Fc receptor–mediated phagocytosis. Eighty percent of macrophages die within 12 hours of silica exposure. Neither OVA coating nor tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate labeling has any effect on cell death. Interestingly, antibody coating dramatically reduces silica toxicity. We hypothesize that the route of particle entry and subsequent phagosome trafficking affects the toxicity of internalized particles. PMID:18556590

  17. Phospholipid turnover during phagocytosis in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes

    PubMed Central

    García Gil, Merche; Alonso, Fernando; Alvarez Chiva, Vicente; Sánchez Crespo, Mariano; Mato, José M.

    1982-01-01

    We have previously observed that the phagocytosis of zymosan particles coated with complement by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes is accompanied by a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by transmethylation [García Gil, Alonso, Sánchez Crespo & Mato (1981) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 101, 740–748]. The present studies show that phosphatidylcholine synthesis by a cholinephosphotransferase reaction is enhanced, up to 3-fold, during phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear cells. This effect was tested by both measuring the incorporation of radioactivity into phosphatidylcholine in cells labelled with [Me-14C]choline, and by assaying the activity of CDP-choline:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase. The time course of CDP-choline:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase activation by zymosan mirrors the inhibition of phospholipid methyltransferase activity previously reported. The extent of incorporation of radioactivity into phosphatidylcholine induced by various doses of zymosan correlates with the physiological response of the cells to this stimulus. This effect was specific for phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine turnover was not affected by zymosan. The purpose of this enhanced phosphatidylcholine synthesis is not to provide phospholipid molecules rich in arachidonic acid. The present studies show that about 80% of the arachidonic acid generated in response to zymosan derives from phosphatidylinositol. A transient accumulation of arachidonoyldiacylglycerol has also been observed, which indicates that a phospholipase C is responsible, at least in part, for the generation of arachidonic acid. Finally, isobutylmethylxanthine and quinacrine, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol turnover, inhibit both arachidonic acid generation and phagocytosis, indicating a function for this pathway during this process. PMID:6181780

  18. A novel opioid mechanism seems to modulate phagocytosis in Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Renaud, F L; Colon, I; Lebron, J; Ortiz, N; Rodriguez, F; Cadilla, C

    1995-01-01

    We have previously reported that a beta-endorphin-like substance inhibits phagocytosis in Tetrahymena perhaps by a mu-like opioid receptor. We now report a further characterization of the elements involved in the signal transduction mechanism of this opioid. Affinity chromatography followed by immunoblots of both intracellular extracts and extracellular medium reveal the presence of two main proteins of 64 and 75 kDa. These molecular weights are much higher than that of any known opioid peptide or precursor protein and suggest that we may be dealing with either a novel opioid or with proteins that by chance cross-react with anti-beta-endorphin antibody. Nevertheless, when the biological activity of these proteins was tested it was found that they had an effect similar to that of mammalian beta-endorphin, namely inhibition of phagocytosis by a naloxone-reversible mechanism. We have probed a size-selected Tetrahymena library with a pro-opiomelanocortin probe and have obtained several positive clones; the sequencing of their inserts should establish whether we are dealing with a bona fide member of the opioid family. Another aspect we have been studying is the G-proteins which appear to be involved in the modulation of phagocytosis. We have found, by means of Western blotting (using an antibody against the conserved GTP-binding region of the alpha-subunit), two bands of 51 and 59 kDa; no alpha-subunit of 59 kDa had been reported previously and may represent a novel G-protein. In spite of these differences, the opioid signal transduction mechanism appears to remarkably resemble that present in more complex organisms.

  19. Metabolism of palmitate in perfused rat liver. Isolation of subcellular fractions containing triacylglycerol.

    PubMed Central

    Kondrup, J

    1979-01-01

    1. The metabolism of [1-14C]palmitate in rat liver was studied in a single-pass perfusion system at concentrations of 0.2 or 1 mM. 2. After the perfusion the liver was homogenized and the floating fat was isolated. The incorporation of [1-14C]palmitate into triacylglycerol in this pool increased 9-fold when the palmitate concentration in the medium was increased from 0.2 to 1 mM. In time studies with 1 mM-[1-14C]palmitate 75% of the total accumulation of triacylglycerol occurred in this pool. Our results support the concept that the floating-fat fraction contains the storage pool of triacylglycerol, i.e. the cytoplasmic lipid droplets. 3. In a particulate preparation consisting mainly of mitochondria and microsomal fraction the incorporation of [1-14C]palmitate into triacylglycerol was proportional to the fatty acid concentration. Triacylglycerol in the perfusate medium and in the particulate fraction was in isotopic equilibrium, which indicates that the particulate fraction contained the precursor pool for secreted triacylglycerol, i.e. the pool in endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. 4. The oxidation to labelled water-soluble products and to CO2 was increased 14-fold by the 5-fold increase in palmitate concentration. PMID:534520

  20. Diffusion Barriers, Mechanical Forces, and the Biophysics of Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Philip P; Grinstein, Sergio; Freeman, Spencer A

    2016-07-25

    Phagocytes recognize and eliminate pathogens, alert other tissues of impending threats, and provide a link between innate and adaptive immunity. They also maintain tissue homeostasis, consuming dead cells without causing alarm. The receptor engagement, signal transduction, and cytoskeletal rearrangements underlying phagocytosis are paradigmatic of other immune responses and bear similarities to macropinocytosis and cell migration. We discuss how the glycocalyx restricts access to phagocytic receptors, the processes that enable receptor engagement and clustering, and the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton that controls the mobility of membrane proteins and lipids and provides the mechanical force propelling the phagocyte membrane toward and around the phagocytic prey. PMID:27459066

  1. Effect of chronic opioid treatment on phagocytosis in Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Salaman, A; Roman, M; Renaud, F L; Silva, W I

    1990-07-01

    Opioid inhibition of phagocytosis in the protozoan ciliate Tetrahymena is antagonized by naloxone and this antagonism can be surmounted by increasing agonist concentration, which suggests a receptor-mediated mechanism. Desensitization of the opioid effect is time dependent in addition to concentration dependent. Chronic exposure to opioids results in the development of tolerance to the inhibitory effect of the agonists, and withdrawal of the latter results in a decrease in phagocytic capacity, which suggests that a state akin to dependence has been developed in these cells. Naloxone appears to behave as a partial agonist in tolerant cells, and there seems to exist cross-tolerance to mu and delta agonists.

  2. Phagocytosis in Tetrahymena thermophila: naloxone-reversible inhibition by opiates.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, S; Renaud, F L

    1989-01-01

    1. Nanomolar concentrations of opiates inhibit phagocytosis in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. 2. Naloxone and naltrexone counteract the effect of the opiate agonists tested. 3. The dose-response curves are U-shaped, with no detectable effect at low or high concentrations. 4. An increase in extracellular calcium and dopamine counteract the inhibition caused by metenkephalin. 5. The recognition mechanism for opiates in Tetrahymena cannot be classified as belonging to any of the mammalian opiate receptor subtypes and is perhaps a primitive receptor.

  3. Controlled One-on-One Encounters between Immune Cells and Microbes Reveal Mechanisms of Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Volkmar

    2015-08-01

    Among many challenges facing the battle against infectious disease, one quandary stands out. On the one hand, it is often unclear how well animal models and cell lines mimic human immune behavior. On the other hand, many core methods of cell and molecular biology cannot be applied to human subjects. For example, the profound susceptibility of neutropenic patients to infection marks neutrophils (the most abundant white blood cells in humans) as vital immune defenders. Yet because these cells cannot be cultured or genetically manipulated, there are gaps in our understanding of the behavior of human neutrophils. Here, we discuss an alternative, interdisciplinary strategy to dissect fundamental mechanisms of immune-cell interactions with bacteria and fungi. We show how biophysical analyses of single-live-cell/single-target encounters are revealing universal principles of immune-cell phagocytosis, while also dispelling misconceptions about the minimum required mechanistic determinants of this process.

  4. Identification of a triacylglycerol lipase in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Barka, Frederik; Angstenberger, Max; Ahrendt, Tilman; Lorenzen, Wolfram; Bode, Helge B; Büchel, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Diatoms accumulate triacylglycerols (TAGs) as storage lipids, but the knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of lipid metabolism is still sparse. Starting from a partial sequence for a putative TAG-lipase of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum retrieved from the data bases, we have identified the full length coding sequence, tgl1. The gene encodes an 813 amino acid sequence that shows distinct motifs for so called "true" TAG-lipases [EC 3.1.1.3] that have been functionally characterized in model organisms like Arabidopsis thaliana and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These lipases mediate the first initial step of TAG breakdown from storage lipids. To test whether Tgl1 can act as a TAG-lipase, a His-tagged version was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the protein indeed showed esterase activity. To identify the TAG degrading function of Tgl1 in P. tricornutum, knock-down mutant strains were created using an antisense RNA approach. In the mutant cell lines the relative tgl1-mRNA-level was reduced up to 20% of that of the wild type, accompanied by a strong increase of TAG in the lipid extracts. In spite of the TAG accumulation, the polar lipid species pattern appeared to be unchanged, confirming the TAG-lipase function of Tgl1.

  5. Characterization of key triacylglycerol biosynthesis processes in rhodococci

    DOE PAGES

    Amara, Sawsan; Seghezzi, Nicolas; Otani, Hiroshi; Diaz-Salazar, Carlos; Liu, Jie; Eltis, Lindsay D.

    2016-04-29

    In this study, oleaginous microorganisms have considerable potential for biofuel and commodity chemical production. Under nitrogen-limitation, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 grown on benzoate, an analog of lignin depolymerization products, accumulated triacylglycerols (TAGs) to 55% of its dry weight during transition to stationary phase, with the predominant fatty acids being C16:0 and C17:0. Transcriptomic analyses of RHA1 grown under conditions of N-limitation and N-excess revealed 1,826 dysregulated genes. Genes whose transcripts were more abundant under N-limitation included those involved in ammonium assimilation, benzoate catabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis and the methylmalonyl-CoA pathway. Of the 16 atf genes potentially encoding diacylglycerol O-acyltransferases, atf8 transcriptsmore » were the most abundant during N-limitation (~50-fold more abundant than during N-excess). Consistent with Atf8 being a physiological determinant of TAG accumulation, a Δatf8 mutant accumulated 70% less TAG than wild-type RHA1 while atf8 overexpression increased TAG accumulation 20%. Genes encoding type-2 phosphatidic acid phosphatases were not significantly expressed. By contrast, three genes potentially encoding phosphatases of the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily and that cluster with, or are fused with other Kennedy pathway genes were dysregulated. Overall, these findings advance our understanding of TAG metabolism in mycolic acid-containing bacteria and provide a framework to engineer strains for increased TAG production.« less

  6. Characterization of key triacylglycerol biosynthesis processes in rhodococci

    PubMed Central

    Amara, Sawsan; Seghezzi, Nicolas; Otani, Hiroshi; Diaz-Salazar, Carlos; Liu, Jie; Eltis, Lindsay D.

    2016-01-01

    Oleaginous microorganisms have considerable potential for biofuel and commodity chemical production. Under nitrogen-limitation, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 grown on benzoate, an analog of lignin depolymerization products, accumulated triacylglycerols (TAGs) to 55% of its dry weight during transition to stationary phase, with the predominant fatty acids being C16:0 and C17:0. Transcriptomic analyses of RHA1 grown under conditions of N-limitation and N-excess revealed 1,826 dysregulated genes. Genes whose transcripts were more abundant under N-limitation included those involved in ammonium assimilation, benzoate catabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis and the methylmalonyl-CoA pathway. Of the 16 atf genes potentially encoding diacylglycerol O-acyltransferases, atf8 transcripts were the most abundant during N-limitation (~50-fold more abundant than during N-excess). Consistent with Atf8 being a physiological determinant of TAG accumulation, a Δatf8 mutant accumulated 70% less TAG than wild-type RHA1 while atf8 overexpression increased TAG accumulation 20%. Genes encoding type-2 phosphatidic acid phosphatases were not significantly expressed. By contrast, three genes potentially encoding phosphatases of the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily and that cluster with, or are fused with other Kennedy pathway genes were dysregulated. Overall, these findings advance our understanding of TAG metabolism in mycolic acid-containing bacteria and provide a framework to engineer strains for increased TAG production. PMID:27126051

  7. Intestinal triacylglycerol synthesis in fat absorption and systemic energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Nelson, David W; Yen, Mei-I

    2015-03-01

    The intestine plays a prominent role in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol (triglyceride; TAG). Digested dietary TAG is repackaged in the intestine to form the hydrophobic core of chylomicrons, which deliver metabolic fuels, essential fatty acids, and other lipid-soluble nutrients to the peripheral tissues. By controlling the flux of dietary fat into the circulation, intestinal TAG synthesis can greatly impact systemic metabolism. Genes encoding many of the enzymes involved in TAG synthesis have been identified. Among TAG synthesis enzymes, acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 and acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)1 are highly expressed in the intestine. Their physiological functions have been examined in the context of whole organisms using genetically engineered mice and, in the case of DGAT1, specific inhibitors. An emerging theme from recent findings is that limiting the rate of TAG synthesis in the intestine can modulate gut hormone secretion, lipid metabolism, and systemic energy balance. The underlying mechanisms and their implications for humans are yet to be explored. Pharmacological inhibition of TAG hydrolysis in the intestinal lumen has been employed to combat obesity and associated disorders with modest efficacy and unwanted side effects. The therapeutic potential of inhibiting specific enzymes involved in intestinal TAG synthesis warrants further investigation. PMID:25231105

  8. Identification of a triacylglycerol lipase in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Barka, Frederik; Angstenberger, Max; Ahrendt, Tilman; Lorenzen, Wolfram; Bode, Helge B; Büchel, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Diatoms accumulate triacylglycerols (TAGs) as storage lipids, but the knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of lipid metabolism is still sparse. Starting from a partial sequence for a putative TAG-lipase of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum retrieved from the data bases, we have identified the full length coding sequence, tgl1. The gene encodes an 813 amino acid sequence that shows distinct motifs for so called "true" TAG-lipases [EC 3.1.1.3] that have been functionally characterized in model organisms like Arabidopsis thaliana and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These lipases mediate the first initial step of TAG breakdown from storage lipids. To test whether Tgl1 can act as a TAG-lipase, a His-tagged version was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the protein indeed showed esterase activity. To identify the TAG degrading function of Tgl1 in P. tricornutum, knock-down mutant strains were created using an antisense RNA approach. In the mutant cell lines the relative tgl1-mRNA-level was reduced up to 20% of that of the wild type, accompanied by a strong increase of TAG in the lipid extracts. In spite of the TAG accumulation, the polar lipid species pattern appeared to be unchanged, confirming the TAG-lipase function of Tgl1. PMID:26747649

  9. Triacylglycerol Accumulation in Photosynthetic Cells in Plants and Algae.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhi-Yan; Benning, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Plant and algal oils are some of the most energy-dense renewable compounds provided by nature. Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major constituent of plant oils, which can be converted into fatty acid methyl esters commonly known as biodiesel. As one of the most efficient producers of TAGs, photosynthetic microalgae have attracted substantial interest for renewable fuel production. Currently, the big challenge of microalgae based TAGs for biofuels is their high cost compared to fossil fuels. A conundrum is that microalgae accumulate large amounts of TAGs only during stress conditions such as nutrient deprivation and temperature stress, which inevitably will inhibit growth. Thus, a better understanding of why and how microalgae induce TAG biosynthesis under stress conditions would allow the development of engineered microalgae with increased TAG production during conditions optimal for growth. Land plants also synthesize TAGs during stresses and we will compare new findings on environmental stress-induced TAG accumulation in plants and microalgae especially in the well-characterized model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and a biotechnologically relevant genus Nannochloropsis. PMID:27023236

  10. In vivo Reconstitution of Algal Triacylglycerol Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chun-Hsien; Kanehara, Kazue; Nakamura, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    The current fascination with algal biofuel production stems from a high lipid biosynthetic capacity and little conflict with land plant cultivation. However, the mechanisms which enable algae to accumulate massive oil remain elusive. An enzyme for triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CrDGTT2, can produce a large amount of TAG when expressed in yeast or higher plants, suggesting a unique ability of CrDGTT2 to enhance oil production in a heterologous system. Here, we performed metabolic engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by taking advantage of CrDGTT2. We suppressed membrane phospholipid biosynthesis at the log phase by mutating OPI3, enhanced TAG biosynthetic pathway at the stationary phase by overexpressing PAH1 and CrDGTT2, and suppressed TAG hydrolysis on growth resumption from the stationary phase by knocking out DGK1. The resulting engineered yeast cells accumulated about 70-fold of TAG compared with wild type cells. Moreover, TAG production was sustainable. Our results demonstrated the enhanced and sustainable TAG production in the yeast synthetic platform. PMID:26913021

  11. Triacylglycerol kinetics in endotoxic rats with suppressed lipoprotein lipase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, G.J.; Corll, C.B.; Martinez, R.R.

    1987-07-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia observed in animals after bacterial endotoxin administration and some forms of sepsis can result from increased hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) output or decreased TG clearance by extrahepatic tissues. To differentiate between these two possibilities, TG and free fatty acid (FFA) kinetics were determined in control and endotoxin-injected rats 18 h after treatment. Plasma TG and FFA kinetics were assessed by a constant intravenous infusion with (9,10-/sup 3/H)palmitate-labeled very low-density lipoprotein and (1-/sup 14/C)palmitate bound to albumin, respectively. In addition, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was determined in heart, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue as well as in postheparin plasma of functionally hepatectomized, adrenalectomized, and gonadectomized rats. Plasma FFA acid concentrations were slightly increased in endotoxin-treated rats but their turnover did not differ from control. Endotoxin-treated rats had a threefold increase in plasma TG concentrations and decreased heart, skeletal muscle, and post-heparin plasma LPL activity. Plasma TG turnover was decreased, indicating that hypertriglyceridemia was not due to an increased TG output by the liver. Instead, the endotoxin-induced increase in plasma TG concentration was consequence of the 80% reduction in TG metabolic clearance rate. Thus, suppression of LPL activity in endotoxic animals impairs TG clearance resulting in hypertriglyceridemia. Furthermore, endotoxin administration reduced the delivery of TG-FFA to extrahepatic tissues because hepatic synthesis and secretion of TG from plasma FFA was decreased and LPL activity was suppressed.

  12. Intestinal triacylglycerol synthesis in fat absorption and systemic energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Nelson, David W.; Yen, Mei-I

    2015-01-01

    The intestine plays a prominent role in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol (triglyceride; TAG). Digested dietary TAG is repackaged in the intestine to form the hydrophobic core of chylomicrons, which deliver metabolic fuels, essential fatty acids, and other lipid-soluble nutrients to the peripheral tissues. By controlling the flux of dietary fat into the circulation, intestinal TAG synthesis can greatly impact systemic metabolism. Genes encoding many of the enzymes involved in TAG synthesis have been identified. Among TAG synthesis enzymes, acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 and acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)1 are highly expressed in the intestine. Their physiological functions have been examined in the context of whole organisms using genetically engineered mice and, in the case of DGAT1, specific inhibitors. An emerging theme from recent findings is that limiting the rate of TAG synthesis in the intestine can modulate gut hormone secretion, lipid metabolism, and systemic energy balance. The underlying mechanisms and their implications for humans are yet to be explored. Pharmacological inhibition of TAG hydrolysis in the intestinal lumen has been employed to combat obesity and associated disorders with modest efficacy and unwanted side effects. The therapeutic potential of inhibiting specific enzymes involved in intestinal TAG synthesis warrants further investigation. PMID:25231105

  13. Relative oxidative stability of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol oils.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jin F; Wang, Xiang Y; Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, Young-Hwa; Jang, Young-Seok; Lee, Jeung Hee; Hong, Soon-Taek; Lee, Ki-Teak

    2015-03-01

    To compare the oxidative stability between diacylglycerol (DAG) oil and conventional triacylglycerol (TAG) oil (that is, soybean oil), the prepared stripped diacylglycerol oil (SDO) and soybean oil (SSBO) were stored at 60 °C in the dark for 144 h. During storage peroxide values (POVs), contents of aldehydes, unsaturated fatty acids were measured to evaluate the oxidative stabilities of the 2 oils. The results showed the content of C18:2, C18:3, and total unsaturated fatty acid decreased faster in DAG oil than in soybean oil, whereas the decreased rate of C18:1 was similar in 2 oils. Also, both rate constants (K1 and K2) obtained from POV (K1 ) and total aldehydes (K2 ) indicated that DAG oil (K1 = 3.22 mmol/mol FA h(-1) , K2 = 0.023 h(-1)) was oxidized more rapidly than soybean oil (K1 = 2.56 mmol/mol FA h(-1) , K2 = 0.021 h(-1)), which was mainly due to the difference of acylglycerol composition of the 2 oils along with higher C18:3 (9.6%) in SDO than SSBO (5.7%). It is concluded that DAG was more easily oxidized than soybean oil at 60 °C in the dark for 144 h.

  14. Intestinal triacylglycerol synthesis in fat absorption and systemic energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Nelson, David W; Yen, Mei-I

    2015-03-01

    The intestine plays a prominent role in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol (triglyceride; TAG). Digested dietary TAG is repackaged in the intestine to form the hydrophobic core of chylomicrons, which deliver metabolic fuels, essential fatty acids, and other lipid-soluble nutrients to the peripheral tissues. By controlling the flux of dietary fat into the circulation, intestinal TAG synthesis can greatly impact systemic metabolism. Genes encoding many of the enzymes involved in TAG synthesis have been identified. Among TAG synthesis enzymes, acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 and acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)1 are highly expressed in the intestine. Their physiological functions have been examined in the context of whole organisms using genetically engineered mice and, in the case of DGAT1, specific inhibitors. An emerging theme from recent findings is that limiting the rate of TAG synthesis in the intestine can modulate gut hormone secretion, lipid metabolism, and systemic energy balance. The underlying mechanisms and their implications for humans are yet to be explored. Pharmacological inhibition of TAG hydrolysis in the intestinal lumen has been employed to combat obesity and associated disorders with modest efficacy and unwanted side effects. The therapeutic potential of inhibiting specific enzymes involved in intestinal TAG synthesis warrants further investigation.

  15. Microalgal Triacylglycerols as Feedstocks for Biofuel Production: Perspectives and Advances

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q.; Sommerfeld, M.; Jarvis, E.; Ghirardi, M.; Posewitz, M; Seibert, M.; Darzins, A.

    2008-01-01

    Microalgae represent an exceptionally diverse but highly specialized group of micro-organisms adapted to various ecological habitats. Many microalgae have the ability to produce substantial amounts (e.g. 20-50% dry cell weight) of triacylglycerols (TAG) as a storage lipid under photo-oxidative stress or other adverse environmental conditions. Fatty acids, the building blocks for TAGs and all other cellular lipids, are synthesized in the chloroplast using a single set of enzymes, of which acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) is key in regulating fatty acid synthesis rates. However, the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis is poorly understood in microalgae. Synthesis and sequestration of TAG into cytosolic lipid bodies appear to be a protective mechanism by which algal cells cope with stress conditions, but little is known about regulation of TAG formation at the molecular and cellular level. While the concept of using microalgae as an alternative and renewable source of lipid-rich biomass feedstock for biofuels has been explored over the past few decades, a scalable, commercially viable system has yet to emerge. Today, the production of algal oil is primarily confined to high-value specialty oils with nutritional value, rather than commodity oils for biofuel. This review provides a brief summary of the current knowledge on oleaginous algae and their fatty acid and TAG biosynthesis, algal model systems and genomic approaches to a better understanding of TAG production, and a historical perspective and path forward for microalgae-based biofuel research and commercialization.

  16. Membrane sorting during phagocytosis: selective exclusion of major histocompatibility complex molecules but not complement receptor CR3 during conventional and coiling phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We have used immunocytochemical techniques and enzyme cytochemistry to examine the distribution of plasma membrane proteins during coiling phagocytosis of Legionella pneumophila and conventional phagocytosis of Escherichia coli. Whereas class I and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are relatively excluded from nascent phagosomes during conventional and coiling phagocytosis, the CR3 complement receptor persists in nascent phagosomes. The staining pattern for alkaline phosphatase activity resembles that of MHC molecules, with a marked exclusion of phosphatase activity from L. pneumophila coils and nascent phagosomes. The staining pattern for 5'-nucleotidase activity, on the other hand, resembles that of CR3 with intense staining in the inner layers of L. pneumophila coils. These results demonstrate that the cell has the ability to exclude selectively certain membrane proteins from the nascent phagosome during phagocytosis, thereby producing a phagosomal membrane markedly different from the plasma membrane from which it is derived. PMID:1569400

  17. Remodeling of Granulocyte Membrane Fatty Acids During Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Smolen, James E.; Shohet, Stephen B.

    1974-01-01

    During phagocytosis, new phospholipid is synthesized from triglyceride fatty acid and may be utilized to form the membranes of phagocytic vesicles. In addition, hydrogen peroxide, which can peroxidize unsaturated fatty acids, is generated. Since both of these processes could change membrane fatty acid composition during the conversion of cytoplasmic granules and plasma membranes to phagosomes, the lipid compositions of these structures were examined. Phagocytic vesicles were prepared by density gradient centrifugation of polystyrene latex particles after phagocytosis. Granule and plasma membrane fractions were isolated by density gradient and differential centrifugation. Phospholipids and fatty acids were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography. While whole cells, granules, plasma membranes, and phagosomes were all similar in phospholipid composition, phagosome fatty acids were significantly more saturated than those of the other fractions. This was primarily due to reduced oleic and arachidonic acids and increased palmitic acid in the phagocytic vesicle lipids. Plasma membrane was also more saturated in comparison to whole cells and granules. However, this difference was not sufficient to explain the marked comparative saturation of the phagosomes. The observed increase in fatty acid saturation in these lipids may have been induced by a combination of either peroxidative destruction of polyunsaturated fatty acids or phospholipase activity, coupled with reacylation mechanisms favoring saturated fatty acids. PMID:4812436

  18. Phagocytosis by glomerular endothelial cells in infection-related glomerulopathy.

    PubMed

    van Velthuysen, M L; Mayen, A E; Prins, F A; de Heer, E; Bruijn, J A; Fleuren, G J

    1994-01-01

    Glomerulonephritis in BALB/c mice following infection with Trypanosoma brucei is characterized by albuminuria and glomerular deposition of immunoglobulins. Electron-dense deposits are present in the mesangium, as well as subendothelially and subepithelially along the glomerular capillary wall. In this study the nature of intracytoplasmic, electron-dense, round structures observed in glomerular endothelial cells was investigated by immunoelectron-microscopy and enzyme histochemistry. The presence of these structures was related in time with the development of proteinuria. Mice from the C57BL10 strain, which upon infection develop glomerular immune complexes without proteinuria, were examined as well. The results demonstrated that the first endothelial changes, occurring 3-4 weeks after infection, were swelling of endothelial cells containing intracytoplasmic, electron-dense, round structures. These changes were seen prior to the onset of proteinuria, and were not present in glomeruli of mice that did not develop proteinuria. The endothelial granules were shown to contain immunoglobulins and typical lysosomal enzymes, providing evidence for phagocytosis by the glomerular endothelial cells. Liver endothelial cells did not show comparable changes. Thus, local phagocytosis by glomerular endothelial cells is shown to be a specific event in the development of glomerular disease. PMID:7800204

  19. Effects of endogenous antidiuretic hormone (ADH) on macrophage phagocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Repollet, E.; Opava-Stitzer, S.; Tiffany, S.; Schwartz, A.

    1983-07-01

    Although several studies have indicated that antidiuretic hormone (ADH) enhances the phagocytic function of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) in shock syndromes, it remains unknown what influence ADH exerts upon the individual phagocytic components of this system. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the effects of endogenous ADH on the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophage cells. As a phagocytic stimuli, fluorescent methacrylate microbeads were injected intraperitoneally into Brattleboro (ADH deficient) and normal Long Evans rats in the presence and absence of exogenous ADH. Peritoneal cells were harvested 19-22 hr after the administration of the microbeads and the percent phagocytosis was determined in macrophage cells using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS II). Our results indicate that the percentage of peritoneal macrophages ingesting the fluorescent methacrylate microbeads was significantly reduced in the absence of ADH (Brattleboro rats: 5.4 +/- 0.6% versus Long Evans rats: 16.8 +/- 2.3%; p less than 0.001). In addition, our data demonstrate that exogenous administration of ADH significantly enhanced macrophage phagocytosis in Brattleboro (14.7 +/- 2.2%) and normal Long Evans (49.6 +/- 4.5%) rats. These data suggest, for the first time, that endogenous ADH might play a modulatory role in the phagocytic activity of a specific component of the RES, namely, the macrophage cell.

  20. Involvement of Rab6 in the regulation of phagocytosis against virus infection in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ting; Tang, Wen; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2012-10-01

    Phagocytosis, which is of fundamental importance for innate and adaptive immunity in animals, is driven by organization of the actin cytoskeleton. To date, however, the molecular events involved in the regulation of phagocytosis through reorganization of actin by small G proteins remains to be elucidated. To address this issue, the molecular mechanism of Rab6 in phagocytosis against virus infection in invertebrates was characterized in this study. The results showed that the Rab6 obtained from shrimp could interact with actin to regulate shrimp hemocyte phagocytosis through induction of the rearrangement of actin to protect against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. The Rab6 protein in Drosophila melanogaster shared the same mechanism of action as that of Rab6 in shrimp, indicating that the function of Rab6 in phagocytosis was conserved in invertebrates. By comparison with the early marker (Rab5) and late marker (LAMP1) of phagosomes, Rab6 was critically involved in the regulation of actin organization throughout the entire phagocytosis process. The presence of the evolutionarily conserved amino acid sequences of Rab6 in invertebrates and vertebrates indicated a conserved mechanism of Rab6 function in phagocytosis of animals. Therefore, our findings presented novel molecular events in the regulation of phagocytosis by small G proteins.

  1. Nanoscale imaging and mechanical analysis of Fc receptor-mediated macrophage phagocytosis against cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; Liu, Lianqing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao; Xiao, Xiubin; Zhang, Weijing

    2014-02-18

    Fc receptor-mediated macrophage phagocytosis against cancer cells is an important mechanism in the immune therapy of cancers. Traditional research about macrophage phagocytosis was based on optical microscopy, which cannot reveal detailed information because of the 200-nm-resolution limit. Quantitatively investigating the macrophage phagocytosis at micro- and nanoscale levels is still scarce. The advent of atomic force microscopy (AFM) offers an excellent analytical instrument for quantitatively investigating the biological processes at single-cell and single-molecule levels under native conditions. In this work, we combined AFM and fluorescence microscopy to visualize and quantify the detailed changes in cell morphology and mechanical properties during the process of Fc receptor-mediated macrophage phagocytosis against cancer cells. Lymphoma cells were discernible by fluorescence staining. Then, the dynamic process of phagocytosis was observed by time-lapse optical microscopy. Next, AFM was applied to investigate the detailed cellular behaviors during macrophage phagocytosis under the guidance of fluorescence recognition. AFM imaging revealed the distinct features in cellular ultramicrostructures for the different steps of macrophage phagocytosis. AFM cell mechanical property measurements indicated that the binding of cancer cells to macrophages could make macrophages become stiffer. The experimental results provide novel insights in understanding the Fc-receptor-mediated macrophage phagocytosis.

  2. The effect of bacterial endotoxin of phagocytosis of Tetrahymena and serotonin induced imprinting.

    PubMed

    Kovács, G; Nagy, S U; Csaba, G

    1986-01-01

    Endotoxin inhibited the phagocytosis of Tetrahymena pyriformis after a short exposure and, to a lesser degree, after repeated treatments during one week (about 35 generations). Endotoxin also prevented the development of serotonin imprinting. Detoxified endotoxin (Tolerin) affected the phagocytosis of Tetrahymena much less, indicating that the lipid-A part of the molecule may account for the membrane-toxic effect.

  3. Coordinated response of photosynthesis, carbon assimilation, and triacylglycerol accumulation to nitrogen starvation in the marine microalgae Isochrysis zhangjiangensis (Haptophyta).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Tao; Meng, Ying-Ying; Cao, Xu-Peng; Ai, Jiang-Ning; Zhou, Jian-Nan; Xue, Song; Wang, Wei-liang

    2015-02-01

    The photosynthetic performance, carbon assimilation, and triacylglycerol accumulation of Isochrysis zhangjiangensis under nitrogen-deplete conditions were studied to understand the intrinsic correlations between them. The nitrogen-deplete period was divided into two stages based on the photosynthetic parameters. During the first stage, carbon assimilation was not reduced compared with that under favorable conditions. The marked increase in triacylglycerols and the variation in the fatty acid profile suggested that triacylglycerols were mainly derived from de novo synthesized acyl groups. In the second stage, the triacylglycerol content continued increasing while the carbohydrate content decreased from 44.0% to 26.3%. These results indicated that the intracellular conversion of carbohydrates to triacylglycerols occurred. Thus, we propose that sustainable carbon assimilation and incremental triacylglycerol production can be achieved by supplying appropriate amounts of nitrogen in medium to protect the photosynthetic process from severe damage using the photosynthetic parameters as indicators.

  4. Involvement of Ran in the regulation of phagocytosis against virus infection in S2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ting; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2013-12-01

    Phagocytosis plays important roles in innate and adaptive immunity in animals. Some small G proteins are found to be related to phagocytosis. However, the Ran GTPase has not been intensively characterized in immunity. In this paper, the sequence analysis showed that the Ran was highly conserved in animals, suggesting that its function was preserved during animal evolution. The results showed that Ran was upregulated in S2 cells in response to DCV infection. It was further revealed that the antiviral phagocytosis could be mediated by Ran in S2 cells. By comparison with the early marker and late marker of phagosomes, the results showed that the Ran protein played an essential role at the early stage of phagocytosis or throughout the entire phagocytic process. Therefore our findings enlarged our limited knowledge about the phagocytosis regulation by small G proteins concerning to the nucleus.

  5. In vitro phagocytosis of several Candida berkhout species by murine leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Fontenla de Petrino, S E; Bibas Bonet de Jorrat, M E; Sirena, A

    1985-03-01

    In vitro phagocytosis of thirteen Candida berkhout species by rat leukocytes was studied to assess a possible correlation between pathogenicity and phagocytosis Yeast-leukocyte suspensions were mixed up for 3 h and phagocytic index, germ-tube formation and leukocyte candidacidal activity were evaluated. Highest values for phagocytosis were reached in all cases at the end of the first hour. Leukocyte candidacidal activity was absent. Only C. albicans produced germ-tubes. The various phagocytosis indices were determined depending on the Candida species assayed. Under these conditions, the more pathogenic species presented the lower indices of phagocytosis. It is determined that the in vitro phagocytic index may bear a close relationship with the pathogenicity of the Candida berkhout.

  6. In vitro phagocytosis of several Candida berkhout species by murine leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Fontenla de Petrino, S E; Bibas Bonet de Jorrat, M E; Sirena, A

    1985-03-01

    In vitro phagocytosis of thirteen Candida berkhout species by rat leukocytes was studied to assess a possible correlation between pathogenicity and phagocytosis Yeast-leukocyte suspensions were mixed up for 3 h and phagocytic index, germ-tube formation and leukocyte candidacidal activity were evaluated. Highest values for phagocytosis were reached in all cases at the end of the first hour. Leukocyte candidacidal activity was absent. Only C. albicans produced germ-tubes. The various phagocytosis indices were determined depending on the Candida species assayed. Under these conditions, the more pathogenic species presented the lower indices of phagocytosis. It is determined that the in vitro phagocytic index may bear a close relationship with the pathogenicity of the Candida berkhout. PMID:3990766

  7. Understanding photoreceptor outer segment phagocytosis: use and utility of RPE cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Francesca; Safa, Hussein; Finnemann, Silvia C

    2014-09-01

    RPE cells are the most actively phagocytic cells in the human body. In the eye, RPE cells face rod and cone photoreceptor outer segments at all times but contribute to shedding and clearance phagocytosis of distal outer segment tips only once a day. Analysis of RPE phagocytosis in situ has succeeded in identifying key players of the RPE phagocytic mechanism. Phagocytic processes comprise three distinct phases, recognition/binding, internalization, and digestion, each of which is regulated separately by phagocytes. Studies of phagocytosis by RPE cells in culture allow specifically analyzing and manipulating these distinct phases to identify their molecular mechanisms. Here, we compare similarities and differences of primary, immortalized, and stem cell-derived RPE cells in culture to RPE cells in situ with respect to phagocytic function. We discuss in particular potential pitfalls of RPE cell culture phagocytosis assays. Finally, we point out considerations for phagocytosis assay development for future studies.

  8. Target of rapamycin (TOR) plays a critical role in triacylglycerol accumulation in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Sousuke; Kawase, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Ikki; Sone, Toshiyuki; Era, Atsuko; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kan

    2015-10-01

    Most microalgae produce triacylglycerol (TAG) under stress conditions such as nitrogen depletion, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we focused on the role of target of rapamycin (TOR) in TAG accumulation. TOR is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is highly conserved and plays pivotal roles in nitrogen and other signaling pathways in eukaryotes. We previously constructed a rapamycin-susceptible Cyanidioschyzon merolae, a unicellular red alga, by expressing yeast FKBP12 protein to evaluate the results of TOR inhibition (Imamura et al. in Biochem Biophys Res Commun 439:264-269, 2013). By using this strain, we here report that rapamycin-induced TOR inhibition results in accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets containing TAG. Transcripts for TAG synthesis-related genes, such as glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), were increased by rapamycin treatment. We also found that fatty acid synthase-dependent de novo fatty acid synthesis was required for the accumulation of lipid droplets. Induction of TAG and up-regulation of DGAT gene expression by rapamycin were similarly observed in the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. These results suggest the general involvement of TOR signaling in TAG accumulation in divergent microalgae. PMID:26350402

  9. Pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase in a hibernating mammal. II. Cold-adapted function and differential expression.

    PubMed

    Squire, Teresa L; Lowe, Mark E; Bauer, Vernon W; Andrews, Matthew T

    2003-12-16

    Thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) exploit the low-temperature activity of pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (PTL) during hibernation. Lipolytic activity at body temperatures associated with hibernation was examined using recombinant ground squirrel and human PTLs expressed in yeast. Both the human and ground squirrel enzymes displayed high activity at temperatures as low as 0 degrees C and showed Q10 values of 1.2-1.5 over a range of 37-7 degrees C. These studies indicate that low-temperature lipolysis is a general property of PTL and does not require protein modifications unique to mammalian cells and/or the hibernating state. Western blots show elevated levels of PTL protein during hibernation in both heart and white adipose tissue (WAT). Significant increases in PTL gene expression are seen in heart, WAT, and testes; but not in pancreas, where PTL mRNA levels are highest. Upregulation of PTL in testes is also accompanied by expression of the PTL-specific cofactor, colipase. The multi-tissue expression of PTL during hibernation supports its role as a key enzyme that shows high activity at low temperatures.

  10. Target of rapamycin (TOR) plays a critical role in triacylglycerol accumulation in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Sousuke; Kawase, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Ikki; Sone, Toshiyuki; Era, Atsuko; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kan

    2015-10-01

    Most microalgae produce triacylglycerol (TAG) under stress conditions such as nitrogen depletion, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we focused on the role of target of rapamycin (TOR) in TAG accumulation. TOR is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is highly conserved and plays pivotal roles in nitrogen and other signaling pathways in eukaryotes. We previously constructed a rapamycin-susceptible Cyanidioschyzon merolae, a unicellular red alga, by expressing yeast FKBP12 protein to evaluate the results of TOR inhibition (Imamura et al. in Biochem Biophys Res Commun 439:264-269, 2013). By using this strain, we here report that rapamycin-induced TOR inhibition results in accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets containing TAG. Transcripts for TAG synthesis-related genes, such as glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), were increased by rapamycin treatment. We also found that fatty acid synthase-dependent de novo fatty acid synthesis was required for the accumulation of lipid droplets. Induction of TAG and up-regulation of DGAT gene expression by rapamycin were similarly observed in the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. These results suggest the general involvement of TOR signaling in TAG accumulation in divergent microalgae.

  11. The SUGAR-DEPENDENT1 Lipase Limits Triacylglycerol Accumulation in Vegetative Tissues of Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Amélie A.; van Erp, Harrie; Quettier, Anne-Laure; Shaw, Eve; Menard, Guillaume; Kurup, Smita; Eastmond, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    There has been considerable interest recently in the prospect of engineering crops to produce triacylglycerol (TAG) in their vegetative tissues as a means to achieve a step change in oil yield. Here, we show that disruption of TAG hydrolysis in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lipase mutant sugar-dependent1 (sdp1) leads to a substantial accumulation of TAG in roots and stems but comparatively much lower TAG accumulation in leaves. TAG content in sdp1 roots increases with the age of the plant and can reach more than 1% of dry weight at maturity, a 50-fold increase over the wild type. TAG accumulation in sdp1 roots requires both ACYL-COENZYME A:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 (DGAT1) and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 and can also be strongly stimulated by the provision of exogenous sugar. In transgenic plants constitutively coexpressing WRINKLED1 and DGAT1, sdp1 also doubles the accumulation of TAG in roots, stems, and leaves, with levels ranging from 5% to 8% of dry weight. Finally, provision of 3% (w/v) exogenous Suc can further boost root TAG content in these transgenic plants to 17% of dry weight. This level of TAG is similar to seed tissues in many plant species and establishes the efficacy of an engineering strategy to produce oil in vegetative tissues that involves simultaneous manipulation of carbohydrate supply, fatty acid synthesis, TAG synthesis, and also TAG breakdown. PMID:23686420

  12. Corynebacterium accolens Releases Antipneumococcal Free Fatty Acids from Human Nostril and Skin Surface Triacylglycerols

    PubMed Central

    Bomar, Lindsey; Brugger, Silvio D.; Yost, Brian H.; Davies, Sean S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial interspecies interactions play clinically important roles in shaping microbial community composition. We observed that Corynebacterium spp. are overrepresented in children free of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), a common pediatric nasal colonizer and an important infectious agent. Corynebacterium accolens, a benign lipid-requiring species, inhibits pneumococcal growth during in vitro cocultivation on medium supplemented with human skin surface triacylglycerols (TAGs) that are likely present in the nostrils. This inhibition depends on LipS1, a TAG lipase necessary for C. accolens growth on TAGs such as triolein. We determined that C. accolens hydrolysis of triolein releases oleic acid, which inhibits pneumococcus, as do other free fatty acids (FFAs) that might be released by LipS1 from human skin surface TAGs. Our results support a model in which C. accolens hydrolyzes skin surface TAGS in vivo releasing antipneumococcal FFAs. These data indicate that C. accolens may play a beneficial role in sculpting the human microbiome. PMID:26733066

  13. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from intact triacylglycerols by genetically engineered Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Solaiman, D K; Ashby, R D; Foglia, T A

    2001-09-01

    Pseudomonas putida and P oleovorans have been extensively studied for their production of medium-chain-length (mcl)-polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). These bacteria are incapable of metabolizing triacylglycerols (TAGs). We have constructed recombinant P. putida and P. oleovorans that can utilize TAGs as substrates for growth and mcl-PHA synthesis. A recombinant plasmid, pCN51lip-1, carrying Pseudomonas lipase genes was used to electrotransform these organisms. The transformants expressed TAG-hydrolyzing activity as shown by a rhodamine B fluorescence plate assay. The genetically modified organisms grew in TAG-containing medium to a cell dry weight of 2-4 g/l. The recombinant P. putida produced mcl-PHA at a crude yield of 0.9-1.6 g/l with lard or coconut oil (Co) as substrate. While P. oleovorans transformant did not produce mcl-PHA, a mixed-culture fermentation approach with the wild-type and recombinant strains afforded polymer production from Co at a crude yield of 0.5 g/l. Compositional analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed that beta-hydroxyoctanoate (31-45 mol %) and beta-hydroxydecanoate (28-35 mol %) were the dominant repeat units of the TAG-based PHA. The number-average and weight-average molecular masses of the PHAs as determined by gel permeation chromatography were 82-170 x 10(3) g/mol and 464-693 x 10(3) g/mol, respectively. The recombinant approach can greatly increase the number of organisms that can be used to produce PHA from fat and oil substrates. PMID:11601611

  14. Triacylglycerol Storage in Lipid Droplets in Procyclic Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Allmann, Stefan; Mazet, Muriel; Ziebart, Nicole; Bouyssou, Guillaume; Fouillen, Laetitia; Dupuy, Jean-William; Bonneu, Marc; Moreau, Patrick; Bringaud, Frédéric; Boshart, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Carbon storage is likely to enable adaptation of trypanosomes to nutritional challenges or bottlenecks during their stage development and migration in the tsetse. Lipid droplets are candidates for this function. This report shows that feeding of T. brucei with oleate results in a 4–5 fold increase in the number of lipid droplets, as quantified by confocal fluorescence microscopy and by flow cytometry of BODIPY 493/503-stained cells. The triacylglycerol (TAG) content also increased 4–5 fold, and labeled oleate is incorporated into TAG. Fatty acid carbon can thus be stored as TAG in lipid droplets under physiological growth conditions in procyclic T. brucei. β-oxidation has been suggested as a possible catabolic pathway for lipids in T. brucei. A single candidate gene, TFEα1 with coding capacity for a subunit of the trifunctional enzyme complex was identified. TFEα1 is expressed in procyclic T. brucei and present in glycosomal proteomes, Unexpectedly, a TFEα1 gene knock-out mutant still expressed wild-type levels of previously reported NADP-dependent 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity, and therefore, another gene encodes this enzymatic activity. Homozygous Δtfeα1/Δtfeα1 null mutant cells show a normal growth rate and an unchanged glycosomal proteome in procyclic T. brucei. The decay kinetics of accumulated lipid droplets upon oleate withdrawal can be fully accounted for by the dilution effect of cell division in wild-type and Δtfeα1/Δtfeα1 cells. The absence of net catabolism of stored TAG in procyclic T. brucei, even under strictly glucose-free conditions, does not formally exclude a flux through TAG, in which biosynthesis equals catabolism. Also, the possibility remains that TAG catabolism is completely repressed by other carbon sources in culture media or developmentally activated in post-procyclic stages in the tsetse. PMID:25493940

  15. High-Intensity Interval Exercise and Postprandial Triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Burns, Stephen F; Miyashita, Masashi; Stensel, David J

    2015-07-01

    This review examined if high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) reduces postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) levels. Fifteen studies were identified, in which the effect of interval exercise conducted at an intensity of >65% of maximal oxygen uptake was evaluated on postprandial TAG levels. Analysis was divided between studies that included supramaximal exercise and those that included submaximal interval exercise. Ten studies examined the effect of a single session of low-volume HIIE including supramaximal sprints on postprandial TAG. Seven of these studies noted reductions in the postprandial total TAG area under the curve the morning after exercise of between ~10 and 21% compared with rest, but three investigations found no significant difference in TAG levels. Variations in the HIIE protocol used, inter-individual variation or insufficient time post-exercise for an increase in lipoprotein lipase activity are proposed reasons for the divergent results among studies. Five studies examined the effect of high-volume submaximal interval exercise on postprandial TAG. Four of these studies were characterised by high exercise energy expenditure and effectively attenuated total postprandial TAG levels by ~15-30%, but one study with a lower energy expenditure found no effect on TAG. The evidence suggests that supramaximal HIIE can induce large reductions in postprandial TAG levels but findings are inconsistent. Submaximal interval exercise offers no TAG metabolic or time advantage over continuous aerobic exercise but could be appealing in nature to some individuals. Future research should examine if submaximal interval exercise can reduce TAG levels in line with more realistic and achievable exercise durations of 30 min per day.

  16. Gut Microbial Fatty Acid Metabolites Reduce Triacylglycerol Levels in Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath; Furumoto, Hidehiro; Zheng, Jiawen; Kim, Young-Il; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo; Park, Si-Bum; Hirata, Akiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxy and oxo fatty acids were recently found to be produced as intermediates during gut microbial fatty acid metabolism. Lactobacillus plantarum produces these fatty acids from unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of these gut microbial fatty acid metabolites on the lipogenesis in liver cells. We screened their effect on sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) expression in HepG2 cells treated with a synthetic liver X receptor α (LXRα) agonist (T0901317). The results showed that 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (18:1) (HYA), 10-hydroxy-6(Z),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) (γHYA), 10-oxo-12(Z)-18:1 (KetoA), and 10-oxo-6(Z),12(Z)-18:2 (γKetoA) significantly decreased SREBP-1c mRNA expression induced by T0901317. These fatty acids also downregulated the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes by suppressing LXRα activity and inhibiting SREBP-1 maturation. Oral administration of KetoA, which effectively reduced triacylglycerol accumulation and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) expression in HepG2 cells, for 2 weeks significantly decreased Srebp-1c, Scd-1, and Acc2 expression in the liver of mice fed a high-sucrose diet. Our findings suggest that the hypolipidemic effect of the fatty acid metabolites produced by L. plantarum can be exploited in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases or dyslipidemia. PMID:26399511

  17. PKC-ε pseudosubstrate and catalytic activity are necessary for membrane delivery during IgG-mediated phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Tiffany R.; Chow, Rachel Y.; Hanes, Cheryl M.; Zhang, Xuexin; Kashiwagi, Kaori; Shirai, Yasuhito; Trebak, Mohamed; Loegering, Daniel J.; Saito, Naoaki; Lennartz, Michelle R.

    2013-01-01

    In RAW 264.7 cells [1], PKC-ε regulates FcγR-mediated phagocytosis. BMDM behave similarly; PKC-ε concentrates at phagosomes and internalization are reduced in PKC-ε−/− cells. Two questions were asked: what is the role of PKC-ε? and what domains are necessary for PKC-ε concentration? Function was studied using BMDM and frustrated phagocytosis. On IgG surfaces, PKC-ε−/− macrophages spread less than WT. Patch-clamping revealed that the spreading defect is a result of the failure of PKC-ε−/− macrophages to add membrane. The defect is specific for FcγR ligation and can be reversed by expression of full-length (but not the isolated RD) PKC-ε in PKC-ε−/− BMDM. Thus, PKC-ε function in phagocytosis requires translocation to phagosomes and the catalytic domain. The expression of chimeric PKC molecules in RAW cells identified the εPS as necessary for PKC-ε targeting. When placed into (nonlocalizing) PKC-δ, εPS was sufficient for concentration, albeit to a lesser degree than intact PKC-ε. In contrast, translocation of δ(εPSC1B) resembled that of WT PKC-ε. Thus, εPS and εC1B cooperate for optimal phagosome targeting. Finally, cells expressing εK437W were significantly less phagocytic than their PKC-ε-expressing counterparts, blocked at the pseudopod-extension phase. In summary, we have shown that εPS and εC1B are necessary and sufficient for targeting PKC-ε to phagosomes, where its catalytic activity is required for membrane delivery and pseudopod extension. PMID:23670290

  18. Deprivation and repletion of androgen in vivo modifies triacylglycerol synthesis by rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Elam, M B; Umstot, E S; Andersen, R N; Solomon, S S; Heimberg, M

    1987-10-17

    Given the same quantity of fatty acid, livers from male rats esterify less fatty acid and secrete less triacylglycerol in very-low-density lipoprotein than do livers from female animals. To elucidate the role of testosterone in maintenance of this male pattern, conversion of [1-14C]oleic acid into triacylglycerol was assessed in vitro by rat hepatocytes (male) following gonadectomy and replacement with testosterone. Following castration, incorporation of fatty acid into triacylglycerol was increased. In contrast, esterification of exogenous fatty acid into phospholipid, cholesteryl esters, and diacylglycerol was unchanged. Treatment with testosterone (75 micrograms/day) reduced incorporation of exogenous fatty acid into triacylglycerol. Higher doses of testosterone (200 or 100 micrograms/day) modified the effect, such that inhibition was observed only at low oleate (0.5 mM) concentrations. At higher substrate concentrations (1.0-2.0 mM) the inhibitory effect was no longer observed. Further, a similar dose-dependent effect of testosterone was observed following in vivo treatment of castrate females with testosterone. These data support the concept of a regulatory role of testosterone in hepatic triacylglycerol synthesis. These findings also demonstrate a biphasic effect of testosterone, an effect that is dependent not only upon the dose of testosterone administered, but also on the concentration of fatty acid to which the hepatocyte is exposed in vitro. PMID:3663694

  19. The biosynthesis of triacylglycerols in microsomal preparations of developing cotyledons of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Stymne, S; Stobart, A K

    1984-06-01

    The synthesis of triacylglycerols was investigated in microsomes (microsomal fractions) prepared from the developing cotyledons of sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Particular emphasis was placed on the mechanisms involved in controlling the C18- unsaturated-fatty-acid content of the oils. We have demonstrated that the microsomes were capable of: the transfer of oleate from acyl-CoA to position 2 of sn-phosphatidylcholine for its subsequent desaturation and the return of the polyunsaturated products to the acyl-CoA pool by further acyl exchange; the acylation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate with acyl-CoA to yield phosphatidic acid, which was further utilized in diacyl- and tri-acylglycerol synthesis; and (3) the equilibrium of a diacylglycerol pool with phosphatidylcholine. The acyl exchange between acyl-CoA and position 2 of sn-phosphatidylcholine coupled to the equilibration of diacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine brings about the continuous enrichment of the glycerol backbone with C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids for triacylglycerol production. Similar reactions were found to operate in another oilseed plant, safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). On the other hand, the microsomes of avocado (Persea americana) mesocarp, which synthesize triacylglycerol via the Kennedy [(1961) Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 20, 934-940] pathway, were deficient in acyl exchange and the diacylglycerol in equilibrium phosphatidylcholine interconversion. The results provide a working model that helps to explain the relationship between C18- unsaturated-fatty-acid synthesis and triacylglycerol production in oilseeds.

  20. Subcellullar localization, developmental expression and characterization of a liver triacylglycerol hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Lehner, R; Cui, Z; Vance, D E

    1999-03-15

    The mechanism and enzymic activities responsible for the lipolysis of stored cytosolic triacylglycerol in liver and its re-esterification remain obscure. A candidate enzyme for lipolysis, a microsomal triacylglycerol hydrolase (TGH), was recently purified to homogeneity from pig liver and its kinetic properties were determined [Lehner and Verger (1997) Biochemistry 36, 1861-1868]. We have characterized the enzyme with regard to its species distribution, subcellular localization, developmental expression and reaction with lipase inhibitors. The hydrolase co-sediments with endoplasmic reticulum elements and is associated with isolated liver fat droplets. Immunocytochemical studies localize TGH exclusively to liver cells surrounding capillaries. Both TGH mRNA and protein are expressed in rats during weaning. The enzyme covalently binds tetrahydrolipstatin, an inhibitor of lipases and of triacylglycerol hydrolysis. The enzyme is absent from liver-derived cell lines (HepG2 and McArdle RH7777) known to be impaired in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly and secretion. The localization and developmental expression of TGH are consistent with a proposed role in triacylglycerol hydrolysis and with the proposal that some of the resynthesized triacylglycerol is utilized for VLDL secretion.

  1. Physics of phagocytosis of foreign versus self-tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Richard; Rodriguez, Pia; Discher, Dennis

    2009-03-01

    The first cells to `attack' an implanted or injected foreign material or microbe are phagocytic cells of the innate immune system. These cells actively and rapidly phagocytose foreign cells, surfaces, or particles, but the process that is inefficient when faced with ``self'' cells. We have examined the biochemistry and some of the physics of this decision to eat or not eat. One particular protein on all animal cell membranes, called CD47, seems to engage phagocytic cell couter-receptors, and deactivate the force-generating myosin machinery that otherwise makes phagocytosis efficient. We will map the phagocytic synapse between phagocytes and particles or cells and describe the physicochemical dynamics that mediate this key decision in compatability.

  2. Mechanisms associated with phagocytosis of Arcobacter butzleri by Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed

    Medina, Gustavo; Flores-Martin, Sandra; Fonseca, Belchiolina; Otth, Carola; Fernandez, Heriberto

    2014-05-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii is a free-living amoeba widely found in environmental matrices such as soil and water. Arcobacter butzleri is an emerging potential zoonotic pathogen that can be isolated from environmental water sources, where they can establish endosymbiotic relationships with amoebas. The aim of this study was to describe the implication of mannose-binding proteins and membrane-associated receptors of glucose and galactose present in the amoebic membrane, during the attachment of Arcobacter butzleri by blocking with different saccharides. Another objective was to describe the signaling pathways involved in phagocytosis of these bacteria using specific inhibitors and analyze the implication of phagolysosome formation on the survival of Arcobacter butzleri inside the amoeba. We infer that the attachment of Arcobacter butzleri to the amoeba is a process which involves the participation of mannose-binding proteins and membrane-associated receptors of glucose and galactose present in the amoeba. We also demonstrated an active role of protozoan actin polymerization in the phagocytosis of Arcobacter butzleri and a critical involvement of PI3K and RhoA pathways. Further, we demonstrated that the tyrosine kinase-induced actin polymerization signal is essential in Acanthamoeba-mediated bacterial uptake. Through phagolysosomal formation analysis, we conclude that the survival of Arcobacter butzleri inside the amoeba could be related with the ability to remain inside vacuoles not fused with lysosomes, or with the ability to retard the fusion between these structures. All these results help the understanding of the bacterial uptake mechanisms used by Acanthamoeba castellanii and contribute to evidence of the survival mechanisms of Arcobacter butzleri.

  3. Leucocyte phagocytosis during the luteal phase in bitches.

    PubMed

    Holst, Bodil Ström; Gustavsson, Malin Hagberg; Lilliehöök, Inger; Morrison, David; Johannisson, Anders

    2013-05-15

    Pyometra is a disease that affects a large proportion of intact bitches, and typically is seen during the latter half of dioestrus. Several factors contribute to the development of pyometra, including genetic factors, an infectious component (most often Escherichia coli), and hormonal factors. Hormones may act directly on the endometrium, and also affect the immune system. In dogs, the phagocytic ability has been shown to decrease with age, and ovarian hormones have also been shown to affect immune resistance. The aim of the present study was to examine whether phagocytosis by canine leucocytes varies significantly during the luteal phase. Eight bitches were followed by repeated blood sampling. Samples were taken at the calculated optimal day for mating (Day 1), and thereafter on days 8, 15 and 22 (early luteal phase) and 29, 43, 57 and 71 (late luteal phase). Blood was collected from the cephalic vein into EDTA tubes for leucocyte counts and heparinised tubes for testing of phagocytosis and oxidative burst using commercial kits and flow cytometry. The cell activity of the phagocyting leucocytes, expressed as mean fluorescence activity, MFI, was significantly lower during late luteal phase than during early luteal phase. The proportion of leucocytes that was induced to phagocyte did not differ significantly. The percentage of cells stimulated by E. coli to oxidative burst was significantly lower during late luteal phase. Their activity did not differ between the two periods. The number of cells stimulated to oxidative burst by a low stimulus was too low to evaluate, and leucocytes stimulated with the high stimulus did not vary in oxidative burst between the two periods. The changes in phagocytic activity and in the number of leucocytes that showed oxidative burst were not associated with any change in the proportion of different leucocytes. The decreased phagocytic capacity possibly contributes to the higher incidence of diseases such as pyometra during the latter

  4. Immunogenic versus tolerogenic phagocytosis during anticancer therapy: mechanisms and clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Garg, A D; Romano, E; Rufo, N; Agostinis, P

    2016-06-01

    Phagocytosis of dying cells is a major homeostatic process that represents the final stage of cell death in a tissue context. Under basal conditions, in a diseased tissue (such as cancer) or after treatment with cytotoxic therapies (such as anticancer therapies), phagocytosis has a major role in avoiding toxic accumulation of cellular corpses. Recognition and phagocytosis of dying cancer cells dictate the eventual immunological consequences (i.e., tolerogenic, inflammatory or immunogenic) depending on a series of factors, including the type of 'eat me' signals. Homeostatic clearance of dying cancer cells (i.e., tolerogenic phagocytosis) tends to facilitate pro-tumorigenic processes and actively suppress antitumour immunity. Conversely, cancer cells killed by immunogenic anticancer therapies may stimulate non-homeostatic clearance by antigen-presenting cells and drive cancer antigen-directed immunity. On the other hand, (a general) inflammatory clearance of dying cancer cells could have pro-tumorigenic or antitumorigenic consequences depending on the context. Interestingly, the immunosuppressive consequences that accompany tolerogenic phagocytosis can be reversed through immune-checkpoint therapies. In the present review, we discuss the pivotal role of phagocytosis in regulating responses to anticancer therapy. We give particular attention to the role of phagocytosis following treatment with immunogenic or immune-checkpoint therapies, the clinical prognostic and predictive significance of phagocytic signals for cancer patients and the therapeutic strategies that can be employed for direct targeting of phagocytic determinants.

  5. The involvement of MiR-1-clathrin pathway in the regulation of phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuilian; Wang, Jiajia; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Phagocytosis, one of the most powerful immune responses, is a complicated process regulated by many factors. However the regulation of phagocytosis mediated by microRNAs has not been extensively investigated. To address this issue, the regulation of phagocytosis by miR-1 was characterized in this study. The results showed that miR-1 played an important role in the phagocytosis regulation in shrimp in vivo. The sequence analysis indicated that miR-1 was highly conserved from invertebrates to mammals, suggesting that miR-1 might share the similar or same functions in phagocytosis of shrimp hemocytes and mammalian macrophages. The data presented that miR-1 was significantly downregulated in cancerous macrophage RAW264.7 cells compared with those in the isolated murine macrophage and in the immortalized macrophage ANA-1. The findings showed that miR-1 had a great effect on the regulation of phagocytosis in cancerous macrophage by the inhibition of clathrin heavy chain 1 (CLTC1) gene. Therefore our study presented a novel miR-1-mediated regulation of phagocytosis both in invertebrate and in vertebrate.

  6. Activated microglia cause reversible apoptosis of pheochromocytoma cells, inducing their cell death by phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Hornik, Tamara C; Vilalta, Anna; Brown, Guy C

    2016-01-01

    Some apoptotic processes, such as phosphatidylserine exposure, are potentially reversible and do not necessarily lead to cell death. However, phosphatidylserine exposure can induce phagocytosis of a cell, resulting in cell death by phagocytosis: phagoptosis. Phagoptosis of neurons by microglia might contribute to neuropathology, whereas phagoptosis of tumour cells by macrophages might limit cancer. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which BV-2 microglia killed co-cultured pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells that were either undifferentiated or differentiated into neuronal cells. We found that microglia activated by lipopolysaccharide rapidly phagocytosed PC12 cells. Activated microglia caused reversible phosphatidylserine exposure on and reversible caspase activation in PC12 cells, and caspase inhibition prevented phosphatidylserine exposur and decreased subsequent phagocytosis. Nitric oxide was necessary and sufficient to induce the reversible phosphatidylserine exposure and phagocytosis. The PC12 cells were not dead at the time they were phagocytised, and inhibition of their phagocytosis left viable cells. Cell loss was inhibited by blocking phagocytosis mediated by phosphatidylserine, MFG-E8, vitronectin receptors or P2Y6 receptors. Thus, activated microglia can induce reversible apoptosis of target cells, which is insufficient to cause apoptotic cell death, but sufficient to induce their phagocytosis and therefore cell death by phagoptosis.

  7. Tubby and tubby-like protein 1 are new MerTK ligands for phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Caberoy, Nora B; Zhou, Yixiong; Li, Wei

    2010-12-01

    Tubby and tubby-like protein 1 (Tulp1) are newly identified phagocytosis ligands to facilitate retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and macrophage phagocytosis. Both proteins without classical signal peptide have been demonstrated with unconventional secretion. Here, we characterized them as novel MerTK ligands to facilitate phagocytosis. Tulp1 interacts with Tyro3, Axl and MerTK of the TAM receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily, whereas tubby binds only to MerTK. Excessive soluble MerTK extracellular domain blocked tubby- or Tulp1-mediated phagocytosis. Both ligands induced MerTK activation with receptor phosphorylation and signalling cascade, including non-muscle myosin II redistribution and co-localization with phagosomes. Tubby and Tulp1 are bridging molecules with their N-terminal region as MerTK-binding domain and C-terminal region as phagocytosis prey-binding domain (PPBD). Five minimal phagocytic determinants (MPDs) of K/R(X)(1-2)KKK in Tulp1 N-terminus were defined as essential motifs for MerTK binding, receptor phosphorylation and phagocytosis. PPBD was mapped to the highly conserved 54 amino acids at the C-terminal end of tubby and Tulp1. These data suggest that tubby and Tulp1 are novel bridging molecules to facilitate phagocytosis through MerTK.

  8. Janus-faced microglia: beneficial and detrimental consequences of microglial phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Amanda; Abiega, Oihane; Shahraz, Anahita; Neumann, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Microglia are the resident brain macrophages and they have been traditionally studied as orchestrators of the brain inflammatory response during infections and disease. In addition, microglia has a more benign, less explored role as the brain professional phagocytes. Phagocytosis is a term coined from the Greek to describe the receptor-mediated engulfment and degradation of dead cells and microbes. In addition, microglia phagocytoses brain-specific cargo, such as axonal and myelin debris in spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis, amyloid-β deposits in Alzheimer's disease, and supernumerary synapses in postnatal development. Common mechanisms of recognition, engulfment, and degradation of the different types of cargo are assumed, but very little is known about the shared and specific molecules involved in the phagocytosis of each target by microglia. More importantly, the functional consequences of microglial phagocytosis remain largely unexplored. Overall, phagocytosis is considered a beneficial phenomenon, since it eliminates dead cells and induces an anti-inflammatory response. However, phagocytosis can also activate the respiratory burst, which produces toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Phagocytosis has been traditionally studied in pathological conditions, leading to the assumption that microglia have to be activated in order to become efficient phagocytes. Recent data, however, has shown that unchallenged microglia phagocytose apoptotic cells during development and in adult neurogenic niches, suggesting an overlooked role in brain remodeling throughout the normal lifespan. The present review will summarize the current state of the literature regarding the role of microglial phagocytosis in maintaining tissue homeostasis in health as in disease. PMID:23386811

  9. Phagocytosis of gram-negative bacteria by a unique CD14-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Schiff, D E; Kline, L; Soldau, K; Lee, J D; Pugin, J; Tobias, P S; Ulevitch, R J

    1997-12-01

    THP-1-derived cell lines were stably transfected with constructs encoding glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored or transmembrane forms of human CD14. CD14 expression was associated with enhanced phagocytosis of serum (heat-inactivated)-opsonized Escherichia coli (opEc). Both the GPI-anchored and transmembrane forms of CD14 supported phagocytosis of opEc equally well. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) played a role in CD14-dependent phagocytosis as evidenced by inhibition of CD14-dependent phagocytosis of opEc with anti-LBP monoclonal antibody (mAb) and by enhanced phagocytosis of E. coli opsonized with purified LBP. CD14-dependent phagocytosis was inhibited by a phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase inhibitor (wortmannin) and a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor (tyrphostin 23) but not a protein kinase C inhibitor (bisindolyl-maleimide) or a divalent cation chelator (ethylenediaminetetraacetate). Anti-LBP mAb 18G4 and anti-CD14 mAb 18E12 were used to differentiate between the pathways involved in CD14-dependent phagocytosis and CD14-dependent cell activation. F(ab')2 fragments of 18G4, a mAb to LBP that does not block cell activation, inhibited ingestion of opEc by THP1-wtCD14 cells. 18E12 (an anti-CD14 mAb that does not block LPS binding to CD14 but does inhibit CD14-dependent cell activation) did not inhibit phagocytosis of LBP-opEc by THP1-wtCD14 cells. Furthermore, CD14-dependent phagocytosis was not inhibited by anti-CD18 (CR3 and CR4 beta-chain) or anti-Fcgamma receptor mAb. PMID:9400820

  10. Aging impairs peritoneal but not bone marrow-derived macrophage phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Linehan, Eimear; Dombrowski, Yvonne; Snoddy, Rachel; Fallon, Padraic G; Kissenpfennig, Adrien; Fitzgerald, Denise C

    2014-08-01

    Aging results in deterioration of the immune system, which is associated with increased susceptibility to infection and impaired wound healing in the elderly. Phagocytosis is an essential process in both wound healing and immune defence. As such, age-related impairments in phagocytosis impact on the health of the elderly population. Phagocytic efficiency in peritoneal macrophages, bone marrow-derived macrophages and bone marrow monocytes from young and old mice was investigated. Aging significantly impaired phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages, both in vitro and in vivo. However, bone marrow-derived macrophages and bone marrow monocytes did not exhibit age-related impairments in phagocytosis, suggesting no intrinsic defect in these cells. We sought to investigate underlying mechanisms in age-related impairments in phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages. We hypothesized that microenvironmental factors in the peritoneum of old mice impaired macrophage phagocytosis. Indeed, macrophages from young mice injected into the peritoneum of old mice exhibited impaired phagocytosis. Proportions of peritoneal immune cells were characterized, and striking increases in numbers of T cells, B1 and B2 cells were observed in the peritoneum of old mice compared with young mice. In addition, B cell-derived IL-10 was increased in resting and LPS-activated peritoneal cell cultures from old mice. These data demonstrate that aging impairs phagocytosis by tissue-resident peritoneal macrophages, but not by bone marrow-derived macrophages/monocytes, and suggest that age-related defects in macrophage phagocytosis may be due to extrinsic factors in the tissue microenvironment. As such, defects may be reversible and macrophages could be targeted therapeutically in order to boost immune function in the elderly.

  11. Symmetry, chirality and crystalline tendency: the polymorphism of triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Craven, R John; Lencki, Robert W

    2012-03-01

    The physical properties of foods containing fat are often dependent on the polymorphism of the constituent triacylglycerols (TAG). This is illustrated by the favourable physical and sensory properties associated with the β' form for margarine and butter and the β(V) form for chocolate. Recent investigations have revealed that the stereochemistry of TAG molecules has a profound influence on their polymorphism. For instance, a pure enantiomer of TAG (sn-10:0-10:0-16:0) was β'-tending while the corresponding racemic mixture (rac-10:0-10:0-16:0) was β-tending. In addition, the binary phase diagram for mixtures of the two enantiomers, sn-10:0-10:0-16:0 and sn-16:0-10:0-10:0, showed the formation of a eutectic (metastable β'-form conglomerate) and a molecular compound (stable β-form racemic compound). At heart, these differences in polymorph and crystalline tendency stem from differences in the stereochemistry of the unit cell -i.e. both enantiomers in the β unit cell, one enantiomer in the β' unit cell. Information on the relative stereochemical arrangement of molecules within the unit cell is also available from the crystallographic space group. This information (determined by X-ray diffraction) is available for a number of β- and β'-tending, chiral and achiral TAG systems. Like crystalline tendency (discussed previously), space group data indicates that the unit cell for TAG in the β' polymorph contains only one stereoisomer whereas the unit cell for TAG in the β polymorph contains both stereoisomers (conformers in achiral and enantiomers in chiral systems). Therefore, based on the current data, the stereochemical arrangement of TAG molecules in the unit cell is associated with the polymorphic form of the solid - both stereoisomers in the β form and one stereoisomer in the β' form. This perspective clearly explains the observed differences in polymorphic behavior for enantiopure and racemic TAG including the β'-stability of enantiopure systems. As a

  12. Triacylglycerols profiling as a chemical tool to identify mushrooms submitted to gamma or electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ângela; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2014-09-15

    In order to define irradiation treatment as a routine conservation methodology, it is imperative to develop chemometric indicators with the ability to distinguish irradiated from unirradiated foodstuffs. Electron spin resonance, photostimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence methods were employed to monitor radiation-induced markers, as well as different chemical compounds produced from the lipidic fraction of different foodstuffs. Apart from these methods, the specificity of triacylglycerol profiles has previously been detected in mushroom species, as has the effect of irradiation treatment in the triacylglycerol profiles of chestnut. Accordingly, the feasibility of using this as a chemometric indicator of irradiated mushrooms was evaluated. In line with the obtained results in literature, the effects of each type of irradiation were significantly different, as can be concluded from the correlations among discriminant functions and variables within each statistical test. Triacylglycerol profiling proved to be a useful tool to detect irradiated mushrooms, independently of the species or irradiation source, especially for doses above 1 kGy.

  13. Multigene Engineering of Triacylglycerol Metabolism Boosts Seed Oil Content in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    van Erp, Harrie; Kelly, Amélie A.; Menard, Guillaume; Eastmond, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing the yield of oilseed crops is an important objective for biotechnologists. A number of individual genes involved in triacylglycerol metabolism have previously been reported to enhance the oil content of seeds when their expression is altered. However, it has yet to be established whether specific combinations of these genes can be used to achieve an additive effect and whether this leads to enhanced yield. Using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as an experimental system, we show that seed-specific overexpression of WRINKLED1 (a transcriptional regulator of glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis) and DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 (a triacylglycerol biosynthetic enzyme) combined with suppression of the triacylglycerol lipase SUGAR-DEPENDENT1 results in a higher percentage seed oil content and greater seed mass than manipulation of each gene individually. Analysis of total seed yield per plant suggests that, despite a reduction in seed number, the total yield of oil is also increased. PMID:24696520

  14. EhVps32 Is a Vacuole-Associated Protein Involved in Pinocytosis and Phagocytosis of Entamoeaba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Avalos-Padilla, Yunuen; Betanzos, Abigail; Javier-Reyna, Rosario; García-Rivera, Guillermina; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Lagunes-Guillén, Anel; Ortega, Jaime; Orozco, Esther

    2015-07-01

    Here, we investigated the role of EhVps32 protein (a member of the endosomal-sorting complex required for transport) in endocytosis of Entamoeba histolytica, a professional phagocyte. Confocal microscopy, TEM and cell fractionation revealed EhVps32 in cytoplasmic vesicles and also located adjacent to the plasma membrane. Between 5 to 30 min of phagocytosis, EhVps32 was detected on some erythrocytes-containing phagosomes of acidic nature, and at 60 min it returned to cytoplasmic vesicles and also appeared adjacent to the plasma membrane. TEM images revealed it in membranous structures in the vicinity of ingested erythrocytes. EhVps32, EhADH (an ALIX family member), Gal/GalNac lectin and actin co-localized in the phagocytic cup and in some erythrocytes-containing phagosomes, but EhVps32 was scarcely detected in late phagosomes. During dextran uptake, EhVps32, EhADH and Gal/GalNac lectin, but not actin, co-localized in pinosomes. EhVps32 recombinant protein formed oligomers composed by rings and filaments. Antibodies against EhVps32 monomers stained cytoplasmic vesicles but not erythrocytes-containing phagosomes, suggesting that in vivo oligomers are formed on phagosome membranes. The involvement of EhVps32 in phagocytosis was further study in pNeoEhvps32-HA-transfected trophozoites, which augmented almost twice their rate of erythrophagocytosis as well as the membranous concentric arrays built by filaments, spirals and tunnel-like structures. Some of these structures apparently connected phagosomes with the phagocytic cup. In concordance, the EhVps32-silenced G3 trophozoites ingested 80% less erythrocytes than the G3 strain. Our results suggest that EhVps32 participates in E. histolytica phagocytosis and pinocytosis. It forms oligomers on erythrocytes-containing phagosomes, probably as a part of the scission machinery involved in membrane invagination and intraluminal vesicles formation.

  15. Development of a fluorescence-based in vivo phagocytosis assay to measure mononuclear phagocyte system function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tartaro, Karrie; VanVolkenburg, Maria; Wilkie, Dean; Coskran, Timothy M; Kreeger, John M; Kawabata, Thomas T; Casinghino, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) which provides protection against infection is made up of phagocytic cells that engulf and digest bacteria or other foreign substances. Suppression of the MPS may lead to decreased clearance of pathogenic microbes. Drug delivery systems and immunomodulatory therapeutics that target phagocytes have a potential to inhibit MPS function. Available methods to measure inhibition of MPS function use uptake of radioactively-labeled cells or labor-intensive semi-quantitative histologic techniques. The objective of this work was to develop a non-radioactive quantitative method to measure MPS function in vivo by administering heat-killed E. coli conjugated to a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye (Bioparticles(®)). Fluorescence of the Bioparticles(®) is increased at low pH when they are in phagocytic lysosomes. The amount of Bioparticles(®) phagocytosed by MPS organs in rats was determined by measuring fluorescence intensity in livers and spleens ex vivo using an IVIS(®) Spectrum Pre-clinical In Vivo Imaging System. Phagocytosis of the particles by peripheral blood neutrophils was measured by flow cytometry. To assess method sensitivity, compounds likely to suppress the MPS [clodronate-containing liposomes, carboxylate-modified latex particles, maleic vinyl ether (MVE) polymer] were administered to rats prior to injection of the Bioparticles(®). The E. coli particles consistently co-localized with macrophage markers in the liver but not in the spleen. All of the compounds tested decreased phagocytosis in the liver, but had no consistent effects on phagocytic activity in the spleen. In addition, administration of clodronate liposomes and MVE polymer increased the percentage of peripheral blood neutrophils that phagocytosed the Bioparticles(®). In conclusion, an in vivo rat model was developed that measures phagocytosis of E. coli particles in the liver and may be used to assess the impact of test compounds on MPS function. Still, the

  16. Characterization of triacylglycerols from overwintering prepupae of the alfalfa pollinator Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Buckner, James S; Kemp, William P; Bosch, Jordi

    2004-09-01

    Alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata (F.), overwinter as prepupae. The internal lipids were extracted from prepupae that had been wintered at 4 degrees C for 7 months. Megachile rotundata prepupae possessed copious quantities of internal lipids (20% of the fresh weight) that were extracted with CHCl3/methanol (2:1). Transmission electron microscopy revealed that lipids were stored within very large intracellular vacuoles. Separation by silica chromatography revealed that 88% of the internal lipids were triacylglycerols. Ester derivatives of fatty acids from triacylglycerol components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 15 fatty acid constituents were identified. The majority (76%) of the triacylglycerol fatty acids were unsaturated fatty acids. The major triacylglycerol fatty acid constituent (30%) was the C16 monounsaturated fatty acid, palmitoleic acid (16:1, hexadec-9-enoic acid), with substantial amounts of linolenic acid (18:3, octadec-9,12,15-trienoic acid, 15%), palmitic acid (16:0, hexadecanoic acid, 14%) and oleic acid (18:1, octadec-9-enoic acid, 13%). Palmitoleic acid as the major fatty acid of an insect is an unusual occurrence as well as the presence of the 16-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, 16:2 and 16:3. The major intact triacylglycerol components were separated and identified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A complex mixture of approximately 40 triacylglycerol components were identified and major components included palmitoyl palmitoleoyl oleoyl glycerol, palmitoyl palmitoleoyl palmitoleoyl glycerol, myristoyl palmitoleoyl palmitoleoyl glycerol, myristoleoyl palmitoyl palmitoleoyl glycerol, and palmitoyl palmitoleoyl linolenoyl glycerol. The function of these internal lipids and their relevance to winter survival and post-wintering development of M. rotundata is discussed. PMID:15352151

  17. Changes with starvation in the rat of the lipoprotein lipase activity and hydrolysis of triacylglycerols from triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in adipose tissue preparations.

    PubMed Central

    Lasunción, M A; Herrera, E

    1983-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase activity was higher in fat-pad pieces than in isolated adipocytes from the same fed rats, whereas hydrolysis of triacylglycerols from triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins was similar in the two preparations when incubated either in basal conditions or in the presence of heparin. In both preparations there was a similar release of lipoprotein lipase activity into the medium during basal incubation, enhanced by the presence of heparin. In fat-pad pieces, but not in isolated adipocytes, incubation with heparin produced a decrease in the lipoprotein lipase activity measured in the tissue preparation. In fat-pad pieces from 24 h-starved rats, lipoprotein lipase activity was the same as in isolated adipocytes from the same animals and incubation with heparin did not affect the appearance of lipoprotein lipase in the medium or the utilization of triacylglycerols from triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. These results support the following conclusions. (1) The effectiveness of lipoprotein lipase in adipose tissue preparations in vitro depends more on its availability to the substrate than on its total activity. (2) Heparin acts on adipose tissue preparations from fed animals both by enhancing the release of pre-existing extracellular enzyme (which is absent in isolated adipocytes) and by enhancing the transfer outside the cells of the intracellular (and mainly undetectable) enzyme that is activated in the secretion process. (3) In adipose tissue from starved animals there is not only a decrease in the active extracellular form of lipoprotein lipase activity but also a reduction in the intracellular (and mainly undetectable) pool of the enzyme. PMID:6870799

  18. Mutations of Francisella novicida that Alter the Mechanism of Its Phagocytosis by Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Xin-He; Shirley, Renee L.; Crosa, Lidia; Kanistanon, Duangjit; Tempel, Rebecca; Ernst, Robert K.; Gallagher, Larry A.; Manoil, Colin; Heffron, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Infection with the bacterial pathogen Francisella tularensis tularensis (F. tularensis) causes tularemia, a serious and debilitating disease. Francisella tularensis novicida strain U112 (abbreviated F. novicida), which is closely related to F. tularensis, is pathogenic for mice but not for man, making it an ideal model system for tularemia. Intracellular pathogens like Francisella inhibit the innate immune response, thereby avoiding immune recognition and death of the infected cell. Because activation of inflammatory pathways may lead to cell death, we reasoned that we could identify bacterial genes involved in inhibiting inflammation by isolating mutants that killed infected cells faster than the wild-type parent. We screened a comprehensive transposon library of F. novicida for mutant strains that increased the rate of cell death following infection in J774 macrophage-like cells, as compared to wild-type F. novicida. Mutations in 28 genes were identified as being hypercytotoxic to both J774 and primary macrophages of which 12 were less virulent in a mouse infection model. Surprisingly, we found that F. novicida with mutations in four genes (lpcC, manB, manC and kdtA) were taken up by and killed macrophages at a much higher rate than the parent strain, even upon treatment with cytochalasin D (cytD), a classic inhibitor of macrophage phagocytosis. At least 10-fold more mutant bacteria were internalized by macrophages as compared to the parent strain if the bacteria were first fixed with formaldehyde, suggesting a surface structure is required for the high phagocytosis rate. However, bacteria were required to be viable for macrophage toxicity. The four mutant strains do not make a complete LPS but instead have an exposed lipid A. Interestingly, other mutations that result in an exposed LPS core were not taken up at increased frequency nor did they kill host cells more than the parent. These results suggest an alternative, more efficient macrophage uptake mechanism

  19. A Recombinant Protein Based on Trypanosoma cruzi P21 Enhances Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Heline Hellen T.; Cruz, Mário C.; Brígido, Paula C.; dos Santos, Paulo C. F.; Martins, Flávia A.; Bahia, Diana; Maricato, Juliana T.; Janini, Luiz M. R.; Reboredo, Eduardo H.; Mortara, Renato A.; da Silva, Claudio V.

    2012-01-01

    Background P21 is a secreted protein expressed in all developmental stages of Trypanosoma cruzi. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the recombinant protein based on P21 (P21-His6) on inflammatory macrophages during phagocytosis. Findings Our results showed that P21-His6 acts as a phagocytosis inducer by binding to CXCR4 chemokine receptor and activating actin polymerization in a way dependent onthe PI3-kinase signaling pathway. Conclusions Thus, our results shed light on the notion that native P21 is a component related to T. cruzi evasion from the immune response and that CXCR4 may be involved in phagocytosis. P21-His6 represents an important experimental control tool to study phagocytosis signaling pathways of different intracellular parasites and particles. PMID:23251513

  20. Comparative analysis of hemocyte phagocytosis between six species of arthropods as measured by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jonathan D; Dusty Loy, J; Parikh, Grishma; Bartholomay, Lyric

    2011-10-01

    Phagocytosis of pathogens by hemocytes is a rapid-acting immune response and represents a primary means of limiting microbial infection in some species of arthropods. To survey the relative capacity of hemocyte phagocytosis as a function of the arthropod immune response, we examined the extent of phagocytosis among a wide taxonomic range of arthropod species including a decapod crustacean (Litopenaeus vannamei), three ixodid tick species (Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis), a mosquito species (Aedes aegypti), and a larval moth (Manduca sexta). Injected fluorescent beads were used as a model to elicit phagocytosis and were measured by flow cytometry, a technique provided in detail that may be adapted for use with any species of arthropod. The data indicated that smaller arthropods generally had a higher proportion of phagocytic cells than larger arthropods.

  1. Phagocytosis mediates specificity in the immune defence of an invertebrate, the woodlouse Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Roth, Olivia; Kurtz, Joachim

    2009-11-01

    Specificity and memory are the hallmarks of the adaptive immune system of vertebrates. However, phenomena of specificity upon priming of immunity have recently been demonstrated also in invertebrates, which rely exclusively on innate immune defence. It has been suggested that phagocytosis might represent a core candidate for such specificity in invertebrates. We here developed in vitro phagocytosis measurements for different bacteria in the woodlouse Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda). After immune priming with heat-killed bacteria, hemocytes showed increased phagocytosis of a previously encountered bacterial strain compared to other bacteria. These data support the role of phagocytosis in invertebrate immunological specificity and suggest a high degree of specificity that even enables to differentiate between strains of the same bacterial species.

  2. Free lung cell phagocytosis and the effect of cigarette smoke exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Fogelmark, B.; Rylander, R.; Sjoestrand, M.; Reininghaus, W.

    1980-06-01

    We report on a technique for studying phagocytosis in free lung cells with the use of fungal spores. Free lung cells were obtained from a bronchial lavage. They were incubated with fungal spores and the engulfment of these spores was studied at various time intervals and under different conditions. The phagocytosis process was found to occur from relatively stationary macrophages within the first hours after incubation. The number of engulfed spores was proportional to their number in the solution. Addition of serum or surfactant to the medium increased the phagocytosis rate. In hamsters and rats exposed to tobacco smoke under in vivo conditions, a dose-related increase in phagocytosis rate could be demonstrated.

  3. Quantitative analysis of positional isomers of triacylglycerols via electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry of sodiated adducts.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Lisandra Cubero; Potvin, Michael A; Melanson, Jeremy E

    2010-09-01

    Herein we report a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/MS/MS) method for the analysis of positional isomers of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in vegetable oils. The fragmentation behavior of [M + X](+) ions (X = NH(4), Li, Na or Ag) was studied on a quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer under low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) conditions. Mass spectra that were dependent on the X(+) ion and the nature and position of the acyl substituents were observed for four pairs of 'AAB/ABA'-type TAGs, namely PPO/POP, OOP/OPO, LLO/LOL and OOL/OLO (where P is 16:0, palmitic acid; O is 18:1, oleic acid; and L is 18:2, linoleic acid). For the majority of [M + X](+) adducts, the loss of the fatty acid in the outer positions (sn-1 or sn-3) was favored over the loss in the central position (sn-2), which enabled the determination of the fractional abundance of the isomers. Ratios of the intensity of fragment ions at various AAB/ABA compositions produced linear calibration curves with positive slopes, comparable to those obtained traditionally by ESI-MS/MS of [M + NH(4)](+) adducts. The only exceptions were the [M + Ag](+) adducts of the PPO/POP system, which produced calibration curves with negative slopes. Sodium adducts provided the most consistent level of isomeric discrimination for the TAGs studied and also offered the most convenience in that they required no additive to the mobile phase. Therefore, calibration curve data derived from [M + Na](+) adducts were applied to the quantification of TAG regioisomers in sunflower and olive oils. The regiospecific analysis showed that palmitic acid was typically located at positions sn-1 or sn-3, whereas unsaturated fatty acids, oleic and linoleic acids were mostly found at the sn-2 position. PMID:20814981

  4. Accumulation of extra-chloroplastic triacylglycerols in Arabidopsis seedlings during heat acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Stephanie P.; Krause, Daniel M.; Mueller, Martin J.; Fekete, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    Heat acclimation enables plants to tolerate and survive short-term heat stress on hot days. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a genetically programmed heat shock response can be rapidly triggered in the temperature range of 32–38°C through activation of heat shock transcription factors (HSF). The heat shock response leads to heat acclimation and confers short-term protection against temperatures above 40°C. However, little is known about metabolic adjustments during heat acclimation. Untargeted metabolite analyses of A. thaliana seedlings revealed that levels of polyunsaturated triacylglycerols (TG) rapidly and dramatically increase during heat acclimation. TG accumulation was found to be temperature dependent in a temperature range of 32–50°C (optimum at 42°C) and reversible after a return from 37°C to normal growth temperatures. Heat-induced TGs accumulated in extra-chloroplastic compartments and increased in both roots and shoots to a similar extent. Analysis of mutants deficient in all four HSFA1 master regulator genes or the HSFA2 gene revealed that TG accumulation was not dependent on HSFs. Moreover, the TG response was not limited to heat stress because drought and salt stress also triggered an accumulation of TGs, but not short-term osmotic, cold, and high light stress. Lipid analysis revealed that heat-induced accumulation of TGs was not due to massive de novo fatty acid synthesis. It is hypothesized that TGs serve as transient stores for fatty acids that may be required for membrane remodelling during heat acclimation. PMID:25977236

  5. Characterization of desnutrin functional domains: critical residues for triacylglycerol hydrolysis in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Robin E; Wang, Yuhui; Ahmadian, Maryam; Lu, Jennifer; Sarkadi-Nagy, Eszter; Sul, Hei Sook

    2010-02-01

    Murine desnutrin/human ATGL is a triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolase with a predicted catalytic dyad within an alpha-beta hydrolase fold in the N-terminal region. In humans, mutations resulting in C-terminal truncation cause neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy. To identify critical functional domains, we measured TAG breakdown in cultured cells by mutated or truncated desnutrin. In vitro, C-terminally truncated desnutrin displayed an even higher apparent V(max) than the full-length form without changes in K(m), which may be explained by our finding of an interaction between the C- and N-terminal domains. In live cells, however, C-terminally truncated adenoviral desnutrin had lower TAG hydrolase activity. We investigated a role for the phosphorylation of C-terminal S406 and S430 residues but found that these were not necessary for TAG breakdown or lipid droplet localization in cells. The predicted N-terminal active sites, S47 and D166, were both critical for TAG hydrolysis in live cells and in vitro. We also identified two overlapping N-terminal motifs that predict lipid substrate binding domains, a glycine-rich motif (underlined) and an amphipathic alpha-helix (bold) within amino acid residues 10-24 (ISFAGCGFLGVYHIG). G14, F17, L18, and V20, but not G16 and G19, were important for TAG hydrolysis, suggesting a potential role for the amphipathic alpha-helix in TAG binding. This study identifies for the first time critical sites in the N-terminal region of desnutrin and reveals the requirement of the C-terminal region for TAG hydrolysis in cultured cells.

  6. Analysis of storage lipid accumulation in Alcanivorax borkumensis: Evidence for alternative triacylglycerol biosynthesis routes in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Golyshin, Peter N; Sabirova, Julia S; Ferrer, Manuel; Timmis, Kenneth N; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2007-02-01

    Marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, like Alcanivorax borkumensis, play a globally important role in bioremediation of petroleum oil contamination in marine ecosystems. Accumulation of storage lipids, serving as endogenous carbon and energy sources during starvation periods, might be a potential adaptation mechanism for coping with nutrient limitation, which is a frequent stress factor challenging those bacteria in their natural marine habitats. Here we report on the analysis of storage lipid biosynthesis in A. borkumensis strain SK2. Triacylglycerols (TAGs) and wax esters (WEs), but not poly(hydroxyalkanoic acids), are the principal storage lipids present in this and other hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial species. Although so far assumed to be a characteristic restricted to gram-positive actinomycetes, substantial accumulation of TAGs corresponding to a fatty acid content of more than 23% of the cellular dry weight is the first characteristic of large-scale de novo TAG biosynthesis in a gram-negative bacterium. The acyltransferase AtfA1 (ABO_2742) exhibiting wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT) activity plays a key role in both TAG and WE biosynthesis, whereas AtfA2 (ABO_1804) was dispensable for storage lipid formation. However, reduced but still substantial residual TAG levels in atfA1 and atfA2 knockout mutants compellingly indicate the existence of a yet unknown WS/DGAT-independent alternative TAG biosynthesis route. Storage lipids of A. borkumensis were enriched in saturated fatty acids and accumulated as insoluble intracytoplasmic inclusions exhibiting great structural variety. Storage lipid accumulation provided only a slight growth advantage during short-term starvation periods but was not required for maintaining viability and long-term persistence during extended starvation phases. PMID:17122340

  7. Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis is regulated by mechanical properties of the target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beningo, Karen A.; Wang, Yu-li

    2002-01-01

    Phagocytosis is an actin-based process used by macrophages to clear particles greater than 0.5 microm in diameter. In addition to its role in immunological responses, phagocytosis is also necessary for tissue remodeling and repair. To prevent catastrophic autoimmune reactions, phagocytosis must be tightly regulated. It is commonly assumed that the recognition/selection of phagocytic targets is based solely upon receptor-ligand binding. Here we report an important new criterion, that mechanical parameters of the target can dramatically affect the efficiency of phagocytosis. When presented with particles of identical chemical properties but different rigidity, macrophages showed a strong preference to engulf rigid objects. Furthermore, phagocytosis of soft particles can be stimulated with the microinjection of constitutively active Rac1 but not RhoA, and with lysophosphatidic acid, an agent known to activate the small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family. These data suggest a Rac1-dependent mechanosensory mechanism for phagocytosis, which probably plays an important role in a number of physiological and pathological processes from embryonic development to autoimmune diseases.

  8. The Tyrosine Kinase Pyk2 Contributes to Complement-Mediated Phagocytosis in Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Paone, Christoph; Rodrigues, Natalie; Ittner, Ella; Santos, Carina; Buntru, Alexander; Hauck, Christof R

    2016-01-01

    Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) is a member of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) family and is mainly expressed in neuronal and hematopoietic cells. As FAK family members are involved in signaling connections downstream of integrins, we studied the role of Pyk2 in complement-receptor 3 (CR3, also known as Mac-1, integrin αMβ2, CD11b/CD18)-mediated phagocytosis, a key process in innate immunity. Using 3 independent approaches, we observed that Pyk2 contributes to CR3-dependent phagocytosis by RAW 264.7 macrophages, but is dispensable for Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated uptake. Reduction of Pyk2 expression levels via siRNA, the pharmacological inhibition of Pyk2 kinase activity as well as macrophage treatment with a cell permeable TAT fusion protein containing the C-terminus of Pyk2 (TAT-PRNK) significantly impaired CR3-mediated phagocytosis without affecting FcγR-mediated uptake. In addition, Pyk2 was strongly recruited to complement opsonized Escherichia coli and the pharmacological inhibition of Pyk2 significantly decreased uptake of the bacteria. Finally, CRISPR/Cas-mediated disruption of the pyk2 gene in RAW 264.7 macrophages confirmed the role of this protein tyrosine kinase in CR3-mediated phagocytosis. Together, our data demonstrate that Pyk2 selectively contributes to the coordination of phagocytosis-promoting signals downstream of CR3, but is dispensable for FcγR-mediated phagocytosis.

  9. Innate phagocytosis by peripheral blood monocytes is altered in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ben J; Huang, Xin; Ou, Amber; Rembach, Alan; Fowler, Christopher; Avula, Pavan K; Horton, Adam; Doecke, James D; Villemagne, Victor L; Macaulay, S Lance; Maruff, Paul; Fletcher, Erica L; Guymer, Robyn; Wiley, James S; Masters, Colin L

    2016-09-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterised by the deposition and accumulation of specific protein aggregates. Failure of clearance could underlie this process, and recent genetic association studies point towards involvement of the phagocytosis and autophagy pathways. We developed a real-time tri-color flow cytometry method to quantitate the phagocytic function of human peripheral blood monocyte subsets including non-classic CD14(dim)CD16(+), intermediate CD14(+)CD16(+) and classic CD14(+)CD16(-) monocytes. Using this method, we have measured the phagocytic ability of fresh monocytes in a study of preclinical, prodromal and clinical AD, matched with cognitively normal healthy control subjects. Basal levels of phagocytosis in all three subsets of monocytes were similar between healthy controls and AD patients, while a significant increase of basal phagocytosis was found in subjects with high Aβ-amyloid burden as assessed by PET scans. Pre-treating cells with Copaxone (CPX, to stimulate phagocytosis) or ATP (an inhibitor of P2X7-mediated phagocytosis) showed a differential response depending on clinical or Aβ-burden status, indicating a relative functional deficit. Overall the results are consistent with a perturbation of basal and stimulated innate phagocytosis in sporadic AD.

  10. Innate phagocytosis by peripheral blood monocytes is altered in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ben J; Huang, Xin; Ou, Amber; Rembach, Alan; Fowler, Christopher; Avula, Pavan K; Horton, Adam; Doecke, James D; Villemagne, Victor L; Macaulay, S Lance; Maruff, Paul; Fletcher, Erica L; Guymer, Robyn; Wiley, James S; Masters, Colin L

    2016-09-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterised by the deposition and accumulation of specific protein aggregates. Failure of clearance could underlie this process, and recent genetic association studies point towards involvement of the phagocytosis and autophagy pathways. We developed a real-time tri-color flow cytometry method to quantitate the phagocytic function of human peripheral blood monocyte subsets including non-classic CD14(dim)CD16(+), intermediate CD14(+)CD16(+) and classic CD14(+)CD16(-) monocytes. Using this method, we have measured the phagocytic ability of fresh monocytes in a study of preclinical, prodromal and clinical AD, matched with cognitively normal healthy control subjects. Basal levels of phagocytosis in all three subsets of monocytes were similar between healthy controls and AD patients, while a significant increase of basal phagocytosis was found in subjects with high Aβ-amyloid burden as assessed by PET scans. Pre-treating cells with Copaxone (CPX, to stimulate phagocytosis) or ATP (an inhibitor of P2X7-mediated phagocytosis) showed a differential response depending on clinical or Aβ-burden status, indicating a relative functional deficit. Overall the results are consistent with a perturbation of basal and stimulated innate phagocytosis in sporadic AD. PMID:27411339

  11. Response gene to complement 32 protein promotes macrophage phagocytosis via activation of protein kinase C pathway.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rui; Zhang, Gui; Chen, Shi-You

    2014-08-15

    Macrophage phagocytosis plays an important role in host defense. The molecular mechanism, especially factors regulating the phagocytosis, however, is not completely understood. In the present study, we found that response gene to complement 32 (RGC-32) is an important regulator of phagocytosis. Although RGC-32 is induced and abundantly expressed in macrophage during monocyte-macrophage differentiation, RGC-32 appears not to be important for this process because RGC-32-deficient bone marrow progenitor can normally differentiate to macrophage. However, both peritoneal macrophages and bone marrow-derived macrophages with RGC-32 deficiency exhibit significant defects in phagocytosis, whereas RGC-32-overexpressed macrophages show increased phagocytosis. Mechanistically, RGC-32 is recruited to macrophage membrane where it promotes F-actin assembly and the formation of phagocytic cups. RGC-32 knock-out impairs F-actin assembly. RGC-32 appears to interact with PKC to regulate PKC-induced phosphorylation of F-actin cross-linking protein myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that RGC-32 is a novel membrane regulator for macrophage phagocytosis.

  12. Dynamics of Cytoskeletal Proteins during Fcγ Receptor-mediated Phagocytosis in MacrophagesV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Diakonova, Maria; Bokoch, Gary; Swanson, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    Particle ingestion by phagocytosis results from sequential rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton and overlying membrane. To assemble a chronology of molecular events during phagosome formation and to examine the contributions of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) to these dynamics, a method was developed for synchronizing Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis by murine macrophages. Erythrocytes opsonized with complement component C3bi were bound to macrophages at 37°C, a condition that does not favor particle phagocytosis. Addition of soluble anti-erythrocyte IgG resulted in rapid opsonization of the bound erythrocytes, followed by their immediate internalization via phagocytosis. Cellular content of F-actin, as measured by binding of rhodamine-phalloidin, increased transiently during phagocytosis, and this increase was not diminished by inhibitors of PI 3-kinase. Immunofluorescence localization of myosins in macrophages fixed at various times during phagocytosis indicated that myosins II and IXb were concentrated in early phagosomes, myosin IC increased later, and myosin V appeared after phagosome closure. Other cytoskeletal proteins showed similar variations in the timing of their appearance in phagosomes. The PI 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin did not change the dynamics of PI 3-kinase or ezrin localization but prevented the loss of PAK1 from phagosomes. These results suggest that PI 3-kinase deactivates PAK1, and that this may be needed for phagosome closure. PMID:11854399

  13. Increased phagocytosis of platelets from patients with secondary dengue virus infection by human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Honda, Shoko; Saito, Mariko; Dimaano, Efren M; Morales, Philip A; Alonzo, Maria T G; Suarez, Lady-Anne C; Koike, Natsuki; Inoue, Shingo; Kumatori, Atsushi; Matias, Ronald R; Natividad, Filipinas F; Oishi, Kazunori

    2009-05-01

    The relationship between the percent phagocytosis of platelets by differentiated THP-1 cells was examined using flowcytometry and the peripheral platelet counts as well as platelet-associated IgG (PAIgG) in 36 patients with secondary dengue virus (DV) infections. The percent phagocytosis and the levels of PAIgG were significantly increased in these patients during the acute phase compared with the healthy volunteers. The increased percent phagocytosis and PAIgG found during the acute phase significantly decreased during the convalescent phase. An inverse correlation between platelet count and the percent phagocytosis (P = 0.011) and the levels of PAIgG (P = 0.041) was found among these patients during the acute phase. No correlation was found, however, between the percent phagocytosis and the levels of PAIgG. Our present data suggest that accelerated platelet phagocytosis occurs during the acute phase of secondary DV infections, and it is one of the mechanisms of thrombocytopenia in this disease.

  14. Mer receptor tyrosine kinase mediates both tethering and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Dransfield, I; Zagórska, A; Lew, E D; Michail, K; Lemke, G

    2015-01-01

    Billions of inflammatory leukocytes die and are phagocytically cleared each day. This regular renewal facilitates the normal termination of inflammatory responses, suppressing pro-inflammatory mediators and inducing their anti-inflammatory counterparts. Here we investigate the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Mer and its ligands Protein S and Gas6 in the initial recognition and capture of apoptotic cells (ACs) by macrophages. We demonstrate extremely rapid binding kinetics of both ligands to phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-displaying ACs, and show that ACs can be co-opsonized with multiple PtdSer opsonins. We further show that macrophage phagocytosis of ACs opsonized with Mer ligands can occur independently of a requirement for αV integrins. Finally, we demonstrate a novel role for Mer in the tethering of ACs to the macrophage surface, and show that Mer-mediated tethering and subsequent AC engulfment can be distinguished by their requirement for Mer kinase activity. Our results identify Mer as a receptor uniquely capable of both tethering ACs to the macrophage surface and driving their subsequent internalization. PMID:25695599

  15. Ratios of the molecular species of triacylglycerols in lesquerella (Physaria fendleri) oil estimated by mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ratios of regioisomers of 74 molecular species of triacylglycerols (TAG) in lesquerella oil were estimated using HPLC and the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of the lithium adducts of TAG in the HPLC fractions of lequerella oil. The ratios of relative abundances of the fragment ions fr...

  16. Ratios of the molecular species of triacylglycerols in lesquerella (Physaria fendleri) oil estimated by mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ratios of regioisomers of 72 molecular species of triacylglycerols (TAG) in lesquerella oil were estimated using the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of the lithium adducts of TAG in the HPLC fractions of lesquerella oil. The ratios of ion signal intensities (or relative abundances) of ...

  17. BIODEGRADATION KINETICS AND TOXICITY OF VEGETABLE OIL TRIACYLGLYCEROLS UNDER AEROBIC CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aerobic biodegradation of five triacylglycerols (TAGs), three liquids [triolein (OOO), trilinolein (LLL), and trilinolenin (LnLnLn)] and two solids [tripalmitin (PPP) and tristearin (SSS)] was studied in water. Respirometry tests were designed and conducted to determine the b...

  18. Sensing of triacylglycerol in the gut: different mechanisms for fatty acids and 2-monoacylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Kleberg, Karen; Jacobsen, Anne Katrine; Ferreira, Jozelia G; Windeløv, Johanne Agerlin; Rehfeld, Jens F; Holst, Jens Juul; de Araujo, Ivan E; Hansen, Harald S

    2015-01-01

    Sensing of dietary triacylglycerol in the proximal small intestine results in physiological, hormonal and behavioural responses. However, the exact physiological pathways linking intestinal fat sensing to food intake and the activation of brain circuits remain to be identified. In this study we examined the role of triacylglycerol digestion for intestinal fat sensing, and compared the effects of the triacylglycerol digestion products, fatty acids and 2-monoacylglycerol, on behavioural, hormonal and dopaminergic responses in behaving mice. Using an operant task in which mice are trained to self-administer lipid emulsions directly into the stomach, we show that inhibiting triacylglycerol digestion disrupts normal behaviour of self-administration in mice, indicating that fat sensing is conditional to digestion. When administered separately, both digestion products, 2-monoacylglycerol and fatty acids, were sensed by the mice, and self-administration patterns of fatty acids were affected by the fatty acid chain length. Peripheral plasma concentrations of the gut hormones GLP-1, GIP, PYY, CCK and insulin did not offer an explanation of the differing behavioural effects produced by 2-monoacylglycerol and fatty acids. However, combined with behavioural responses, striatal dopamine effluxes induced by gut infusions of oleic acid were significantly greater than those produced by equivalent infusions of 2-oleoylglycerol. Our data demonstrate recruitment of different signalling pathways by fatty acids and 2-monoacylglycerol, and suggest that the structural properties of fat rather than total caloric value determine intestinal sensing and the assignment of reward value to lipids. PMID:25639597

  19. Enhanced bioavailability of EPA from emulsified fish oil preparations versus capsular triacylglycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-emulsified fish oil supplements, an alternative to capsular triacylglycerol, may enhance the uptake of LCn3 fatty acids it contains. A randomized, Latin-square crossover design was used to compare the effects of four fish oil supplement preparations on phospholipid (PLFA) and chylomicron fatty ...

  20. Acamprosate involvement in triacylglycerol hydrolysis and transacylation with cholesterol in chronically ethanol-drinking rats.

    PubMed

    Piorunska-Mikolajczak, Anna; Piorunska-Stolzmann, Maria; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw; Okulicz-Kozaryn, Irena; Kaminska, Ewa

    2004-01-01

    Acamprosate (AC) is used as a drug for treating alcoholism. We evaluated the effect of AC on serum triacylglycerol hydrolysis (GEH, glycerol ester hydrolysis), triacylglycerol transacylation with cholesterol (GECAT, glycerol ester:cholesterol acyltransferase), and acylcholesterol hydrolysis (Cease, cholesterol ester hydrolysis) in an experimental model of alcoholism. Ethanol-preferring (PRF), non-preferring (NPF), and control (CR) male Wistar rats were treated with AC (500 mg/kg, p.o.) for 21 consecutive days. The beneficial effect of AC on lipid parameters of PRF rats included decreased triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol, and increased HDL-cholesterol levels. Acamprosate-compensated changes associated with ethanol consumption were observed. Acamprosate treatment decreased GECAT and increased Cease control rats, but increased GECAT and decreased CEase in PRF animals. In all groups of rats, AC treatment did not influence GEH. In conclusion, our results suggest that AC can influence triacylglycerol metabolism by its action on the balance between hydrolysis and transacylation in rats.

  1. Quadruple parallel mass Spectrometry for analysis of vitamin D and triacylglycerols in a dietary supplement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A ‘dilute-and-shoot’ method for vitamin D and triacylglycerols is demonstrated that employed four mass spectrometers, operating in different ionization modes, for a ‘quadruple parallel mass spectrometry’ analysis, plus three other detectors, for seven detectors overall. Sets of five samples of diet...

  2. 'Obesity' is healthy for cetaceans? Evidence from pervasive positive selection in genes related to triacylglycerol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengfei; Chen, Zhuo; Xu, Shixia; Ren, Wenhua; Zhou, Kaiya; Yang, Guang

    2015-09-18

    Cetaceans are a group of secondarily adapted marine mammals with an enigmatic history of transition from terrestrial to fully aquatic habitat and subsequent adaptive radiation in waters around the world. Numerous physiological and morphological cetacean characteristics have been acquired in response to this drastic habitat transition; for example, the thickened blubber is one of the most striking changes that increases their buoyancy, supports locomotion, and provides thermal insulation. However, the genetic basis underlying the blubber thickening in cetaceans remains poorly explored. Here, 88 candidate genes associated with triacylglycerol metabolism were investigated in representative cetaceans and other mammals to test whether the thickened blubber matched adaptive evolution of triacylglycerol metabolism-related genes. Positive selection was detected in 41 of the 88 candidate genes, and functional characterization of these genes indicated that these are involved mainly in triacylglycerol synthesis and lipolysis processes. In addition, some essential regulatory genes underwent significant positive selection in cetacean-specific lineages, whereas no selection signal was detected in the counterpart terrestrial mammals. The extensive occurrence of positive selection in triacylglycerol metabolism-related genes is suggestive of their essential role in secondary adaptation to an aquatic life, and further implying that 'obesity' might be an indicator of good health for cetaceans.

  3. Effect of repeated sprints on postprandial endothelial function and triacylglycerol concentrations in adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Sedgwick, Matthew J; Morris, John G; Nevill, Mary E; Barrett, Laura A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether repeated, very short duration sprints influenced endothelial function (indicated by flow-mediated dilation) and triacylglycerol concentrations following the ingestion of high-fat meals in adolescent boys. Nine adolescent boys completed two, 2-day main trials (control and exercise), in a counter-balanced, cross-over design. Participants were inactive on day 1 of the control trial but completed 40 × 6 s maximal cycle sprints on day 1 of the exercise trial. On day 2, capillary blood samples were collected and flow-mediated dilation measured prior to, and following, ingestion of a high-fat breakfast and lunch. Fasting flow-mediated dilation and plasma triacylglycerol concentration were similar in the control and exercise trial (P > 0.05). In the control trial, flow-mediated dilation was reduced by 20% and 27% following the high-fat breakfast and lunch; following exercise these reductions were negated (main effect trial, P < 0.05; interaction effect trial × time, P < 0.05). The total area under the plasma triacylglycerol concentration versus time curve was 13% lower on day 2 in the exercise trial compared to the control trial (8.65 (0.97) vs. 9.92 (1.16) mmol · l(-1) · 6.5 h, P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that repeated 6 s maximal cycle sprints can have beneficial effects on postprandial endothelial function and triacylglycerol concentrations in adolescent boys.

  4. Water-triacylglycerol interactions affect oil body structure and seed viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are investigating interactions between water and triacylglycerols (TAG) that appear to affect oil body stability and viability of seeds. Dried seeds are usually stored at freezer temperatures (-20oC) for long-term conservation of genetic resources. This globally accepted genebanking practice is...

  5. O-Glycosylation in Cell Wall Proteins in Scedosporium prolificans Is Critical for Phagocytosis and Inflammatory Cytokines Production by Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Xisto, Mariana I. D. S.; Bittencourt, Vera C. B.; Liporagi-Lopes, Livia Cristina; Haido, Rosa M. T.; Mendonça, Morena S. A.; Sassaki, Guilherme; Figueiredo, Rodrigo T.; Romanos, Maria Teresa V.; Barreto-Bergter, Eliana

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the importance of O-linked oligosaccharides present in peptidorhamnomannan (PRM) from the cell wall of the fungus Scedosporium prolificans for recognition and phagocytosis of conidia by macrophages. Adding PRM led to a dose-dependent inhibition of conidia phagocytosis, whereas de-O-glycosylated PRM did not show any effect. PRM induced the release of macrophage-derived antimicrobial compounds. However, O-linked oligosaccharides do not appear to be required for such induction. The effect of PRM on conidia-induced macrophage killing was examined using latex beads coated with PRM or de-O-glycosylated PRM. A decrease in macrophage viability similar to that caused by conidia was detected. However, macrophage killing was unaffected when beads coated with de-O-glycosylated PRM were used, indicating the toxic effect of O-linked oligosaccharides on macrophages. In addition, PRM triggered TNF-α release by macrophages. Chemical removal of O-linked oligosaccharides from PRM abolished cytokine induction, suggesting that the O-linked oligosaccharidic chains are important moieties involved in inflammatory responses through the induction of TNF-α secretion. In summary, we show that O-glycosylation plays a role in the recognition and uptake of S. prolificans by macrophages, killing of macrophages and production of pro- inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25875427

  6. Methods to monitor monocytes-mediated amyloid-beta uptake and phagocytosis in the context of adjuvanted immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Hallé, Maxime; Tribout-Jover, Pascale; Lanteigne, Anne-Marie; Boulais, Jonathan; St-Jean, Julien R; Jodoin, Rachel; Girouard, Marie-Pier; Constantin, Florin; Migneault, Annik; Renaud, Frédéric; Didierlaurent, Arnaud M; Mallett, Corey P; Burkhart, David; Pilorget, Anthony; Palmantier, Rémi; Larocque, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Antibody-mediated capture of amyloid-beta (Aβ) in peripheral blood was identified as an attractive strategy to eliminate cerebral toxic amyloid in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and murine models. Alternatively, defective capacity of peripheral monocytes to engulf Aβ was reported in individuals with AD. In this report, we developed different approaches to investigate cellular uptake and phagocytosis of Aβ, and to examine how two immunological devices--an immunostimulatory Adjuvant System and different amyloid specific antibodies--may affect these biological events. Between one and thirteen months of age, APPswe X PS1.M146V (TASTPM) AD model mice had decreasing concentrations of Aβ in their plasma. In contrast, the proportion of blood monocytes containing Aβ tended to increase with age. Importantly, the TLR-agonist containing Adjuvant System AS01B primed monocytes to promote de novo Aβ uptake capacity, particularly in the presence of anti-Aβ antibodies. Biochemical experiments demonstrated that cells achieved Aβ uptake and internalization followed by Aβ degradation via mechanisms that required effective actin polymerization and proteolytic enzymes such as insulin-degrading enzyme. We further demonstrated that both Aβ-specific monoclonal antibodies and plasma from Aβ-immunized mice enhanced the phagocytosis of 1 μm Aβ-coated particles. Together, our data highlight a new biomarker testing to follow amyloid clearance within the blood and a mechanism of Aβ uptake by peripheral monocytes in the context of active or passive immunization, and emphasize on novel approaches to investigate this phenomenon.

  7. Evaluation of neutrophilic function (chemotaxis, phagocytosis and microbicidal activity) in healthy dogs and in dogs suffering from recurrent deep pyoderma.

    PubMed

    Chammas, P P; Hagiwara, M K

    1998-07-01

    The modified Boyden's technique of chemotaxis ('leading front' method) and the bacterial killing test with Staphylococcus sp. stained with acridine orange were performed with suspensions of granulocytes from 50 healthy dogs. Lipopolisacharide of Escherichia coli, in normal dog serum was used as the chemotactic factor. The mean value for the chemotactic differential found was 30.41 +/- 12.14 mu. The optimal concentration of bacteria and opsonins (normal dog serum) was 4 and 15%, respectively, and the ideal incubation period was 30 min. The mean values obtained for phagocytosis percentage, number of bacteria per PMN, phagocytosis index and percentage of dead bacteria, were 97.01 +/- 3.22%, 22.20 +/- 4.6, 21.53 +/- 4.50 and 45.30 +/- 9.18%, respectively. Granulocyte functions in 18 dogs with recurrent, chronic, deep pyoderma were assessed by the same methods. No significant difference between the two groups, for any of the evaluated parameters, was found. For elucidation of the pathogenesis of recurrent pyoderma, further studies involving humoral and cellular immunity and the complement system are required. PMID:9661262

  8. Dietary triacylglycerol structure and saturated fat alter plasma and tissue fatty acids in piglets.

    PubMed

    Innis, S M; Dyer, R; Quinlan, P T; Diersen-Schade, D

    1996-05-01

    Human and pig milk triacylglycerols contain a large proportion of palmitic acid (16:0) which is predominately esterified in the 2-position. Other dietary fats contain variable amounts of 16:0, with unsaturated fatty acids predominantly esterified in the 2-position. These studies determined if the amount or position of 16:0 in dietary fat influences the composition or distribution of liver, adipose tissue, lung, or plasma fatty acids in developing piglets. Piglets were fed to 18 d with sow milk or formula with saturated fat from medium-chain triglyceride (MCT), coconut or palm oil, or synthesized triacylglycerols (synthesized to specifically direct 16:0 to the 2-position) with, in total fatty acids, 30.7, 4.3, 6.5, 27.0, and 29.6% 16:0, and in 2-position fatty acids, 55.3, 0.4, 1.3, 4.4, and 69.9% 16:0, respectively. The percentage of 16:0 in the 2-position of adipose fat from piglets fed sow milk, palm oil, and synthesized triacylglycerols were similar and higher than in piglets fed MCT or coconut oil. Thus, the amount, not the position, of dietary 16:0 determines piglet adipose tissue 16:0 content. The effects of the diets on the plasma and liver triacylglycerols were similar, with significantly lower 16:0 in total and 2-position fatty acids of the MCT and coconut oil groups, and significantly higher 16:0 in the plasma and liver triacylglycerol 2-position of piglets fed the synthesized triacylglycerols rather than sow milk or palm oil. The lung phospholipid total and 2-position 16:0 was significantly lower in the MCT, coconut, and palm oil groups, but similar in the synthesized triacylglycerol group and sow milk group. The lung phospholipid total and 2-position percentage of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) was significantly lower in all of the formula-fed piglets than in milk-fed piglets. The physiological significance of this is not known. PMID:8727642

  9. KIM-1-mediated phagocytosis reduces acute injury to the kidney.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Brooks, Craig R; Xiao, Sheng; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Yeung, Melissa Y; Hsiao, Li-Li; Ichimura, Takaharu; Kuchroo, Vijay; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2015-04-01

    Kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1, also known as TIM-1) is markedly upregulated in the proximal tubule after injury and is maladaptive when chronically expressed. Here, we determined that early in the injury process, however, KIM-1 expression is antiinflammatory due to its mediation of phagocytic processes in tubule cells. Using various models of acute kidney injury (AKI) and mice expressing mutant forms of KIM-1, we demonstrated a mucin domain-dependent protective effect of epithelial KIM-1 expression that involves downregulation of innate immunity. Deletion of the mucin domain markedly impaired KIM-1-mediated phagocytic function, resulting in increased proinflammatory cytokine production, decreased antiinflammatory growth factor secretion by proximal epithelial cells, and a subsequent increase in tissue macrophages. Mice expressing KIM-1Δmucin had greater functional impairment, inflammatory responses, and mortality in response to ischemia- and cisplatin-induced AKI. Compared with primary renal proximal tubule cells isolated from KIM-1Δmucin mice, those from WT mice had reduced proinflammatory cytokine secretion and impaired macrophage activation. The antiinflammatory effect of KIM-1 expression was due to the interaction of KIM-1 with p85 and subsequent PI3K-dependent downmodulation of NF-κB. Hence, KIM-1-mediated epithelial cell phagocytosis of apoptotic cells protects the kidney after acute injury by downregulating innate immunity and inflammation.

  10. Aggregation of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes during phagocytosis of bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Henricks, P A; van der Tol, M E; Verhoef, J

    1984-01-01

    The process of aggregation of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) during the uptake of bacteria was studied. Radiolabelled S. aureus were opsonized in different sera, washed, resuspended in buffer and added to the PMN. Uptake of the bacteria and aggregation of the PMN were measured simultaneously. Maximal aggregation occurred within 6 min, when 5 X 10(6) PMN had phagocytosed 2.5 X 10(8) S. aureus. Also the effects of serum concentrations and different sera for opsonization of the bacteria on PMN aggregation were studied. Despite normal uptake, aggregation of PMN was low when bacteria were opsonized in complement-deficient sera. Furthermore when PMN were treated with pronase to inactivate complement receptors on the cell surface of the PMN, and bacteria preopsonized in immune serum were added, no change in uptake occurred, although the degree of aggregation halved compared to control PMN. So, interaction between the bacteria and the complement receptor of the PMN cell membrane is needed for triggering the process of aggregation. By using dansylcadaverin and diphenylamine to modulate lysosomal enzyme release, azide or PMN from a chronic granulomatous disease patient to study the effect of the formation of oxygen species, and theophylline, DB-cAMP or 8 Br-cAMP to increase cAMP levels, it was concluded that aggregation of PMN during phagocytosis was not dependent on oxygen metabolism, degranulation or cAMP levels of PMN. PMID:6086503

  11. Mast cells aggravate sepsis by inhibiting peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Dahdah, Albert; Gautier, Gregory; Attout, Tarik; Fiore, Frédéric; Lebourdais, Emeline; Msallam, Rasha; Daëron, Marc; Monteiro, Renato C.; Benhamou, Marc; Charles, Nicolas; Davoust, Jean; Blank, Ulrich; Malissen, Bernard; Launay, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the overwhelming inflammatory reaction associated with polymicrobial sepsis remains a prevalent clinical challenge with few treatment options. In septic peritonitis, blood neutrophils and monocytes are rapidly recruited into the peritoneal cavity to control infection, but the role of resident sentinel cells during the early phase of infection is less clear. In particular, the influence of mast cells on other tissue-resident cells remains poorly understood. Here, we developed a mouse model that allows both visualization and conditional ablation of mast cells and basophils to investigate the role of mast cells in severe septic peritonitis. Specific depletion of mast cells led to increased survival rates in mice with acute sepsis. Furthermore, we determined that mast cells impair the phagocytic action of resident macrophages, thereby allowing local and systemic bacterial proliferation. Mast cells did not influence local recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes or the release of inflammatory cytokines. Phagocytosis inhibition by mast cells involved their ability to release prestored IL-4 within 15 minutes after bacterial encounter, and treatment with an IL-4–neutralizing antibody prevented this inhibitory effect and improved survival of septic mice. Our study uncovers a local crosstalk between mast cells and macrophages during the early phase of sepsis development that aggravates the outcome of severe bacterial infection. PMID:25180604

  12. Characterization of alveolar macrophage receptors involved in opsonin independent phagocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Godleski, J.J.; Parod, R.J.; Katler, M.; Brain, J.D.

    1986-03-05

    Hamster alveolar macrophages (AM) avidly ingest particles in the absence of serum. This process is calcium dependent and can be blocked by HAMM, a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for hamster AM's. The purpose of this study was to identify the membrane receptors involved. AM membranes were labeled with /sup 125/I, lysed with RIPA-PMSF, and then reacted with uncoated latex beads or with beads coated with BSA, gelatin, or poly-L-lysine. Lysed membranes were also reacted with zymosan particles. All of these reactions were done in the presence and absence of calcium and magnesium ions. After reaction, the particles were boiled in SDS to remove attached membrane constituents which were then separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Only one AM membrane protein (37 kilodaltons (kd)) bound to BSA and gelatin coated latex, uncoated latex, and zymosan particles in the presence of Ca/sup + +/ and Mg/sup + +/. Proteins of 45 and 19 kd attached to all particles even in the absence of divalent cations. In contrast, HAMM reacted with a membrane constituent of 102 kd. The authors conclude that the Ca/sup + +/ dependent receptor for opsonin independent phagocytosis has a molecular weight of 37 kd and is different from the antigen identified by HAMM.

  13. MiR-146a activates WAVE2 expression and enhances phagocytosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhongwei; Yao, Qunyan; Zhang, Shuncai

    2015-01-01

    MiR-146a has been shown to play a critical role in cell immunity and phagocytosis, processes that require rearrangement of the cytoskeleton. However, the detailed mechanism by which miR-146a regulates these events remains elusive. Here, we used luciferase reporter and protein assays to show that the cytoskeleton-regulatingprotein verprolin-homologous protein 2 (WAVE2), is a direct target of miR-146a. MiR-146a overexpression resulted in a decrease in WAVE2 protein expression under endotoxin-free culture conditions. Unexpectedly, however, miR-146a activated rather than repressed the expression of WAVE2 in macrophage RAW264.7 cells when cultured continuously in the presence of endotoxin. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-146a induced WAVE2 expression and enhanced phagocytosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Our study suggests that lipopolysaccharide- induced miR146a indirectly activates WAVE2 expression; thus, facilitating cytoskeletal reorganization and phagocytosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. PMID:26396677

  14. The Contribution of Melanoregulin to Microtubule-Associated Protein 1 Light Chain 3 (LC3) Associated Phagocytosis in Retinal Pigment Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Frost, Laura S; Lopes, Vanda S; Bragin, Alvina; Reyes-Reveles, Juan; Brancato, Jennifer; Cohen, Art; Mitchell, Claire H; Williams, David S; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen

    2015-12-01

    A main requisite in the phagocytosis of ingested material is a coordinated series of maturation steps which lead to the degradation of ingested cargo. Photoreceptor outer segment (POS) renewal involves phagocytosis of the distal disk membranes by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Previously, we identified melanoregulin (MREG) as an intracellular cargo-sorting protein required for the degradation of POS disks. Here, we provide evidence that MREG-dependent processing links both autophagic and phagocytic processes in LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). Ingested POS phagosomes are associated with endogenous LC3 and MREG. The LC3 association with POSs exhibited properties of LAP; it was independent of rapamycin pretreatment, but dependent on Atg5. Loss of MREG resulted in a decrease in the extent of LC3-POS association. Studies using DQ-BSA suggest that loss of MREG does not compromise the association and fusion of LC3-positive phagosomes with lysosomes. Furthermore, the mechanism of MREG action is likely through a protein complex that includes LC3, as determined by colocalization and immunoprecipitation in both RPE cells and macrophages. We posit that MREG participates in coordinating the association of phagosomes with LC3 for content degradation with the loss of MREG leading to phagosome accumulation.

  15. Knockdown of Five Genes Encoding Uncharacterized Proteins Inhibits Entamoeba histolytica Phagocytosis of Dead Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Sateriale, Adam; Miller, Peter; Huston, Christopher D

    2016-04-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite that causes invasive amebiasis, which is endemic to many developing countries and characterized by dysentery and liver abscesses. The virulence of E. histolytica correlates with the degree of host cell engulfment, or phagocytosis, and E. histolytica phagocytosis alters amebic gene expression in a feed-forward manner that results in an increased phagocytic ability. Here, we used a streamlined RNA interference screen to silence the expression of 15 genes whose expression was upregulated in phagocytic E. histolytica trophozoites to determine whether these genes actually function in the phagocytic process. When five of these genes were silenced, amebic strains with significant decreases in the ability to phagocytose apoptotic host cells were produced. Phagocytosis of live host cells, however, was largely unchanged, and the defects were surprisingly specific for phagocytosis. Two of the five encoded proteins, which we named E. histolytica ILWEQ (EhILWEQ) and E. histolytica BAR (EhBAR), were chosen for localization via SNAP tag labeling and localized to the site of partially formed phagosomes. Therefore, both EhILWEQ and EhBAR appear to contribute to E. histolytica virulence through their function in phagocytosis, and the large proportion (5/15 [33%]) of gene-silenced strains with a reduced ability to phagocytose host cells validates the previously published microarray data set demonstrating feed-forward control of E. histolytica phagocytosis. Finally, although only limited conclusions can be drawn from studies using the virulence-deficient G3 Entamoeba strain, the relative specificity of the defects induced for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells but not healthy cells suggests that cell killing may play a rate-limiting role in the process of Entamoeba histolytica host cell engulfment. PMID:26810036

  16. Knockdown of Five Genes Encoding Uncharacterized Proteins Inhibits Entamoeba histolytica Phagocytosis of Dead Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sateriale, Adam; Miller, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite that causes invasive amebiasis, which is endemic to many developing countries and characterized by dysentery and liver abscesses. The virulence of E. histolytica correlates with the degree of host cell engulfment, or phagocytosis, and E. histolytica phagocytosis alters amebic gene expression in a feed-forward manner that results in an increased phagocytic ability. Here, we used a streamlined RNA interference screen to silence the expression of 15 genes whose expression was upregulated in phagocytic E. histolytica trophozoites to determine whether these genes actually function in the phagocytic process. When five of these genes were silenced, amebic strains with significant decreases in the ability to phagocytose apoptotic host cells were produced. Phagocytosis of live host cells, however, was largely unchanged, and the defects were surprisingly specific for phagocytosis. Two of the five encoded proteins, which we named E. histolytica ILWEQ (EhILWEQ) and E. histolytica BAR (EhBAR), were chosen for localization via SNAP tag labeling and localized to the site of partially formed phagosomes. Therefore, both EhILWEQ and EhBAR appear to contribute to E. histolytica virulence through their function in phagocytosis, and the large proportion (5/15 [33%]) of gene-silenced strains with a reduced ability to phagocytose host cells validates the previously published microarray data set demonstrating feed-forward control of E. histolytica phagocytosis. Finally, although only limited conclusions can be drawn from studies using the virulence-deficient G3 Entamoeba strain, the relative specificity of the defects induced for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells but not healthy cells suggests that cell killing may play a rate-limiting role in the process of Entamoeba histolytica host cell engulfment. PMID:26810036

  17. Knockdown of Five Genes Encoding Uncharacterized Proteins Inhibits Entamoeba histolytica Phagocytosis of Dead Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Sateriale, Adam; Miller, Peter; Huston, Christopher D

    2016-04-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite that causes invasive amebiasis, which is endemic to many developing countries and characterized by dysentery and liver abscesses. The virulence of E. histolytica correlates with the degree of host cell engulfment, or phagocytosis, and E. histolytica phagocytosis alters amebic gene expression in a feed-forward manner that results in an increased phagocytic ability. Here, we used a streamlined RNA interference screen to silence the expression of 15 genes whose expression was upregulated in phagocytic E. histolytica trophozoites to determine whether these genes actually function in the phagocytic process. When five of these genes were silenced, amebic strains with significant decreases in the ability to phagocytose apoptotic host cells were produced. Phagocytosis of live host cells, however, was largely unchanged, and the defects were surprisingly specific for phagocytosis. Two of the five encoded proteins, which we named E. histolytica ILWEQ (EhILWEQ) and E. histolytica BAR (EhBAR), were chosen for localization via SNAP tag labeling and localized to the site of partially formed phagosomes. Therefore, both EhILWEQ and EhBAR appear to contribute to E. histolytica virulence through their function in phagocytosis, and the large proportion (5/15 [33%]) of gene-silenced strains with a reduced ability to phagocytose host cells validates the previously published microarray data set demonstrating feed-forward control of E. histolytica phagocytosis. Finally, although only limited conclusions can be drawn from studies using the virulence-deficient G3 Entamoeba strain, the relative specificity of the defects induced for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells but not healthy cells suggests that cell killing may play a rate-limiting role in the process of Entamoeba histolytica host cell engulfment.

  18. Role of lipid rafts in innate immunity and phagocytosis of polystyrene latex microspheres.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Goshi; Ishii, Kazuo; Hirota, Keiji; Makino, Kimiko; Terada, Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    Understanding of the association of phagocytosis of polymers with signaling of innate immunity of macrophages is the major purpose of this study. Polymer conjugates have been utilized for clinical therapy of cancer and infections, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as effective vectors of drug-delivery systems. They are incorporated through phagocytosis into macrophages and activate innate immunity signaling, which plays a crucial role in its therapeutic and side effects. Macrophage phagocytosis of polystyrene latex microspheres was examined and assayed by treatment of macrophages with the cholesterol depletor methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) or the sphingolipid depletor n-octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (OGP). Expressions of various mRNAs during phagocytosis were quantified by real-time PCR. Phagocytosis of polystyrene latex microspheres by various macrophages, such as murine monocyte-derived macrophage J774, rat alveolar macrophage NR8383, and murine Kupffer cell KC13-2, was suppressed by treatment with MβCD or OGP in a concentration-dependent manner. The expression of mRNAs of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6 and CXCL10 genes induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was not suppressed by treatment with MβCD in J774 cells. Moreover, genes that were induced by LPS were up-regulated even in the absence of LPS by the phagocytosis of polymer conjugates, but such up-regulations were not suppressed by the treatment with MβCD. It was shown that lipid rafts play a significant role in incorporation of polymer conjugates through phagocytosis of macrophages, but their association with signal transduction in innate immunity is very limited.

  19. Aspergillus Cell Wall Melanin Blocks LC3-Associated Phagocytosis to Promote Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Akoumianaki, Tonia; Kyrmizi, Irene; Valsecchi, Isabel; Gresnigt, Mark S; Samonis, George; Drakos, Elias; Boumpas, Dimitrios; Muszkieta, Laetitia; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Netea, Mihai G; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Brakhage, Axel A; El-Benna, Jamel; Beauvais, Anne; Latge, Jean-Paul; Chamilos, Georgios

    2016-01-13

    Concealing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) is a principal strategy used by fungi to avoid immune recognition. Surface exposure of PAMPs during germination can leave the pathogen vulnerable. Accordingly, β-glucan surface exposure during Aspergillus fumigatus germination activates an Atg5-dependent autophagy pathway termed LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), which promotes fungal killing. We found that LAP activation also requires the genetic, biochemical or biological (germination) removal of A. fumigatus cell wall melanin. The attenuated virulence of melanin-deficient A. fumigatus is restored in Atg5-deficient macrophages and in mice upon conditional inactivation of Atg5 in hematopoietic cells. Mechanistically, Aspergillus melanin inhibits NADPH oxidase-dependent activation of LAP by excluding the p22phox subunit from the phagosome. Thus, two events that occur concomitantly during germination of airborne fungi, surface exposure of PAMPs and melanin removal, are necessary for LAP activation and fungal killing. LAP blockade is a general property of melanin pigments, a finding with broad physiological implications.

  20. Recurrent phagocytosis-induced apoptosis in the cyclical generation change of the compound ascidian Botryllus schlosseri.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Nicola; Ballin, Francesca; Manni, Lucia; Schiavon, Filippo; Basso, Giuseppe; Ballarin, Loriano

    2016-09-01

    Colonies of the marine, filter-feeding ascidian Botryllus schlosseri undergo cyclical generation changes or takeovers. These events are characterised by the progressive resorption of adult zooids and their replacement by their buds that grow to adult size, open their siphons and start filtering. During the take-over, tissues of adult zooids undergo extensive apoptosis; circulating, spreading phagocytes enter the effete tissues, ingest dying cells acquiring a giant size and a round morphology. Then, phagocytes re-enter the circulation where they represent a considerable fraction (more than 20%) of circulating haemocytes. In this study, we evidence that most of these circulating phagocytes show morphological and biochemical signs of apoptosis. Accordingly, these phagocytes express transcripts of orthologues of the apoptosis-related genes Bax, AIF1 and PARP1. Electron microscopy shows that giant phagocytes contain apoptotic phagocytes inside their own phagocytic vacuole. The transcript of the orthologues of the anti-apoptotic gene IAP7 was detected only in spreading phagocytes, mostly abundant in phases far from the take-over. Therefore, the presented data suggest that, at take-over, phagocytes undergo phagocytosis-induced apoptosis (PIA). In mammals, PIA is assumed to be a process assuring the killing and the complete elimination of microbes, by promoting the disposal of terminally differentiated phagocytes and the resolution of infection. In B. schlosseri, PIA assumes a so far undescribed role, being required for the control of asexual development and colony homeostasis.

  1. Regulation of microglial migration, phagocytosis, and neurite outgrowth by HO-1/CO signaling.

    PubMed

    Scheiblich, Hannah; Bicker, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    Clearance of infected and apoptotic neuronal corpses during inflammatory conditions is a fundamental process to create a favorable environment for neuronal recovery. Microglia are the resident immune cells and the predominant phagocytic cells of the CNS, showing a multitude of cellular responses upon activation. Here, we investigated in functional assays how the CO generating enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) influences BV-2 microglial migration, clearance of debris, and neurite outgrowth of human NT2 neurons. Stimulation of HO-1 activity attenuated microglial migration in a scratch wound assay, and phagocytosis in a cell culture model of acute inflammation comprising lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia and apoptosis-induced neurons. Application of a CO donor prevented the production of NO during LPS stimulation, and reduced microglial migration and engulfment of neuronal debris. LPS-activated microglia inhibited neurite elongation of human neurons without requiring direct cell-cell surface contact. The inhibition of neurite outgrowth was totally reversed by application of exogenous CO or increased internal CO production through supply of the substrate hemin to HO. Our results point towards a vital cytoprotective role of HO-1/CO signaling after microglial activation. In addition, they support a therapeutic potential of CO releasing chemical agents in the treatment of excessive inflammatory conditions in the CNS.

  2. The role of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in phagocytosis-associated oxidative metabolic reactions.

    PubMed Central

    Baehner, R L; Murrmann, S K; Davis, J; Johnston, R B

    1975-01-01

    The contribution of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and one of its unstable intermediates, superoxide anion (O2), to the oxidative reactions that occur in phagocytizing leukocytes was explored by depleting these cells of O2. This was accomplished by allowing them to phagocytize latex particles coated with superoxide dismutase (SOD), which catalyzes the generation of H2O2 from O2. Although the rate and extent of phagocytosis of latex coated with bovine serum albumin was similar to latex coated with SOD, the rate of oxygen consumption, [14C]formate oxidation, [1-14C]glucose oxidation, and iodination of zymosan particles was significantly enhanced by SOD. In contrast, the rate and extent of reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) was diminished by 60%. These studies indicate that the majority of NBT reduction by leukocytes is due to O2, whereas stimulation of the hexose monophosphate shunt and iodination of ingested particles requires H2O2 generated from the increased reduction of oxygen by phagocytizing leukocytes. PMID:169293

  3. Red palm oil-supplemented and biofortified cassava gari increase the carotenoid and retinyl palmitate concentrations of triacylglycerol-rich plasma in women.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chenghao; Cai, Yimeng; Gertz, Erik R; La Frano, Michael R; Burnett, Dustin J; Burri, Betty J

    2015-11-01

    Boiled biofortified cassava containing β-carotene can increase retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma. Thus, it might alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Cassava requires extensive preparation to decrease its level of cyanogenic glucosides, which can be fatal. Garification is a popular method of preparing cassava that removes cyanogen glucosides. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of biofortified gari to gari prepared with red palm oil. The study was a randomized crossover trial in 8 American women. Three gari preparations separated by 2-week washout periods were consumed. Treatments (containing 200-225.9 g gari) were as follows: biofortified gari (containing 1 mg β-carotene), red palm oil-fortified gari (1 mg β-carotene), and unfortified gari with a 0.3-mg retinyl palmitate reference dose. Blood was collected 6 times from -0.5 to 9.5 hours after ingestion. Triacylglycerol-rich plasma was separated by ultracentrifugation and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection. Area under the curve for β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate increased after the fortified meals were fed (P < .05), although the retinyl palmitate increase induced by the red palm oil treatment was greater than that induced by the biofortified treatment (P < .05). Vitamin A conversion was 2.4 ± 0.3 and 4.2 ± 1.5 μg pro-vitamin A carotenoid/1 μg retinol (means ± SEM) for red palm oil and biofortified gari, respectively. These results show that both treatments increased β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma concentrations in healthy well-nourished adult women, supporting our hypothesis that both interventions could support efforts to alleviate vitamin A deficiency.

  4. Red palm oil-supplemented and biofortified cassava gari increase the carotenoid and retinyl palmitate concentrations of triacylglycerol-rich plasma in women.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chenghao; Cai, Yimeng; Gertz, Erik R; La Frano, Michael R; Burnett, Dustin J; Burri, Betty J

    2015-11-01

    Boiled biofortified cassava containing β-carotene can increase retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma. Thus, it might alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Cassava requires extensive preparation to decrease its level of cyanogenic glucosides, which can be fatal. Garification is a popular method of preparing cassava that removes cyanogen glucosides. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of biofortified gari to gari prepared with red palm oil. The study was a randomized crossover trial in 8 American women. Three gari preparations separated by 2-week washout periods were consumed. Treatments (containing 200-225.9 g gari) were as follows: biofortified gari (containing 1 mg β-carotene), red palm oil-fortified gari (1 mg β-carotene), and unfortified gari with a 0.3-mg retinyl palmitate reference dose. Blood was collected 6 times from -0.5 to 9.5 hours after ingestion. Triacylglycerol-rich plasma was separated by ultracentrifugation and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection. Area under the curve for β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate increased after the fortified meals were fed (P < .05), although the retinyl palmitate increase induced by the red palm oil treatment was greater than that induced by the biofortified treatment (P < .05). Vitamin A conversion was 2.4 ± 0.3 and 4.2 ± 1.5 μg pro-vitamin A carotenoid/1 μg retinol (means ± SEM) for red palm oil and biofortified gari, respectively. These results show that both treatments increased β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma concentrations in healthy well-nourished adult women, supporting our hypothesis that both interventions could support efforts to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. PMID:26319612

  5. Red palm oil-supplemented and biofortified cassava gari increase the carotenoid and retinyl palmitate concentrations of triacylglycerol-rich plasma in women

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chenghao; Cai, Yimeng; Gertz, Erik R.; La Frano, Michael R.; Burnett, Dustin J.; Burri, Betty J.

    2016-01-01

    Boiled biofortified cassava containing β-carotene can increase retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma. Thus, it might alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Cassava requires extensive preparation to decrease its level of cyanogenic glucosides, which can be fatal. Garification is a popular method of preparing cassava that removes cyanogen glucosides. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of biofortified gari to gari prepared with red palm oil. The study was a randomized cross-over trial in 8 American women. Three gari preparations separated by 2 wk washout periods were consumed. Treatments (containing 200 – 225.9 g gari) were: biofortified gari (containing 1 mg β-carotene); red palm oil-fortified gari (1 mg β-carotene), and unfortified gari with a 0.3 mg retinyl palmitate reference dose. Blood was collected six times from −0.5 – 9.5 h post-ingestion. Triacylglycerol-rich plasma was separated by ultracentrifugation and analyzed by HPLC with diode array detection. Area under the curve for β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate increased after the fortified meals were fed (P < 0.05), though the retinyl palmitate increase induced by the red palm oil treatment was greater than that induced by the biofortified treatment (p<0.05). Vitamin A conversion was 2.4 ± 0.3 and 4.2 ± 1.5 μg pro-vitamin A carotenoid:1 μg retinol (means ± SEM) for red palm oil and biofortified gari, respectively. These results show that both treatments increased β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma concentrations in healthy well- nourished adult women, supporting our hypothesis that both interventions could support efforts to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. PMID:26319612

  6. H2O2 Release from Human Granulocytes during Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Root, Richard K.; Metcalf, Julia A.

    1977-01-01

    Normal and cytochalasin B-treated human granulocytes have been studied to determine some of the interrelationships between phagocytosis-induced respiration and superoxide and hydrogen peroxide formation and release into the extracellular medium by intact cells. By using the scopoletin fluorescent assay to continuously monitor extracellular hydrogen peroxide concentrations during contact of cells with opsonized staphylococci, it was demonstrated that the superoxide scavengers ferricytochrome c and nitroblue tetrazolium significantly reduced the amount of H2O2 released with time from normal cells but did not abolish it. This inhibitory effect was reversed by the simultaneous addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD), whereas the addition of SOD alone increased the amount of detectable H2O2 in the medium. The addition of sodium azide markedly inhibited myeloperoxidase-H2O2-dependent protein iodination and more than doubled H2O2 release, including the residual amount remaining after exposure of the cells to ferricytochrome c, suggesting its origin from an intracellular pool shared by several pathways for H2O2 catabolism. When cells were pretreated with cytochalasin B and opsonized bacteria added, reduced oxygen consumption was observed, but this was in parallel to a reduction in specific binding of organisms to the cells when compared to normal. Under the influence of inhibited phagosome formation by cytochalasin B, the cells released an increased amount of superoxide and peroxide into the extracellular medium relative to oxygen consumption, and all detectable peroxide release could be inhibited by the addition of ferricytochrome c. Decreased H2O2 production in the presence of this compound could not be ascribed to diminished bacterial binding, decreased oxidase activity, or increased H2O2 catabolism and was reversed by the simultaneous addition of SOD. Furthermore, SOD and ferricytochrome c had similar effects on another H2O2-dependent reaction, protein iodination, in

  7. Glycine modulates membrane potential, cell volume, and phagocytosis in murine microglia.

    PubMed

    Komm, Barbara; Beyreis, Marlena; Kittl, Michael; Jakab, Martin; Ritter, Markus; Kerschbaum, Hubert H

    2014-08-01

    Phagocytes form engulfment pseudopodia at the contact area with their target particle by a process resembling cell volume (CV) regulatory mechanisms. We evaluated whether the osmoregulatory active neutral amino acid glycine, which contributes to CV regulation via activation of sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporters (SNATs) improves phagocytosis in isotonic and hypertonic conditions in the murine microglial cell line BV-2 and primary microglial cells (pMG). In BV-2 cells and pMG, RT-PCR analysis revealed expression of SNATs (Slc38a1, Slc38a2), but not of GlyRs (Glra1-4). In BV-2 cells, glycine (5 mM) led to a rapid Na(+)-dependent depolarization of membrane potential (V mem). Furthermore, glycine increased CV by about 9%. Visualizing of phagocytosis of polystyrene microspheres by scanning electron microscopy revealed that glycine (1 mM) increased the number of BV-2 cells containing at least one microsphere by about 13%. Glycine-dependent increase in phagocytosis was suppressed by the SNAT inhibitor α-(methylamino)isobutyric acid (MeAIB), by replacing extracellular Na(+) with choline, and under hypertonic conditions, but not by the GlyR antagonist strychnine or the GlyR agonist taurine. Interestingly, hypertonicity-induced suppression of phagocytosis was rescued by glycine. These findings demonstrate that glycine increases phagocytosis in iso- and hypertonic conditions by activation of SNATs.

  8. Analysis of the dynamic energy flow associated with phagocytosis of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Okpala, Paul; Omenyi, Sam; Ozoegwu, Godwin; Achebe, Chinonso

    2015-09-01

    This paper treats the phenomenon of phagocytosis from the flow of energy point of view. Considerable efforts have been made towards elucidating the subject of phagocytosis in other fields of learning, but little has been said about the mechanical work that is done during phagocytosis. Phagocytosis without doubt is an interaction that involves the flow of energy. Energy equation model of phagocytosis is then presented in this paper to analyze the mechanical energy that is involved in the build-up of the engulfment of bacteria by the phagocytes. Data of the E Coli bacteria from published work was then applied to the solution of the energy equation. A borderline contact angle [Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text] between the phagocyte and the bacteria at [Formula: see text] was deduced in this work. It was shown that when [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], engulfment is favoured and when [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], engulfment is not favoured for E-coli. This condition is conceptually in line with ΔFNET approach reported in the literature. Data of four different bacterial species were also used to plot the graphs of the engulfment parameter [Formula: see text] against contact angle [Formula: see text] which revealed that the more hydrophobic bacteria are easily phagocytized than the more hydrophilic ones. PMID:27441215

  9. Regulation of macrophage Fc receptor expression and phagocytosis by histidine-rich glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, N S; Leu, R W; Rummage, J A; Anderson, J K; Mole, J E

    1992-01-01

    Regulation of macrophage Fc receptor (Fc gamma R)-mediated phagocytic function by histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) was investigated. Pretreatment of oil-elicited inflammatory mouse peritoneal macrophages with HRG for 1-3 hr increased their Fc gamma R-mediated binding and phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized sheep erythrocyte conjugates (EA). A significant reduction of Fc gamma R-dependent EA binding and phagocytosis occurred after pretreatment of macrophages with HRG for more than 8 hr. These results indicate that HRG is capable of modulating Fc gamma R expression in a biphasic fashion, which directly affects the overall efficiency of phagocytosis. HRG differentially regulated the functions of Fc gamma R subclasses. For example, HRG reduced the efficiency of Fc gamma RII (Fc gamma 2b/gamma 1R)-dependent phagocytosis of erythrocytes conjugated with monoclonal IgG2b or IgG1 by macrophages pretreated with HRG for 24 hr. However, when similar studies were performed using erythrocytes coated with monoclonal IgG2a, HRG was less effective in inhibiting Fc gamma RI (Fc gamma 2aR)-dependent phagocytosis. As an HRG-binding glycosaminoglycan, heparin failed to block the regulatory function of HRG on macrophages. Similarly, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was not capable of blocking the functional activity of HRG. These studies suggest that HRG regulates macrophage function via a novel pathway different from that of heparin or IFN-gamma. PMID:1493926

  10. CD44, α4 integrin, and fucoidin receptor-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jacob D.; Hess, Krista L.; Cook-Mills, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Various types of phagocytes mediate the clearance of apoptotic cells. We previously reported that human and murine high endothelial venule (HEV) cells ingest apoptotic cells. In this report, we examined endothelial cell fucoidin receptor-mediated phagocytosis using a murine endothelial cell model mHEV. mHEV cell recognition of apoptotic leukocytes was blocked by fucoidin but not by other phagocytic receptor inhibitors such as mannose, fucose, N-acetylglucosamine, phosphatidylserine (PS), or blocking anti-PS receptor antibodies. Thus, the mHEV cells used fucoidin receptors for recognition and phagocytosis of apoptotic leukocytes. The fucoidin receptor-mediated endothelial cell phagocytosis was specific for apoptotic leukocytes, as necrotic cells were not ingested. This is in contrast to macrophages, which ingest apoptotic and necrotic cells. Endothelial cell phagocytosis of apoptotic cells did not alter viable lymphocyte migration across these endothelial cells. Antibody blocking of CD44 and α4 integrin on the apoptotic leukocyte inhibited this endothelial cell phagocytosis, suggesting a novel function for these adhesion molecules in the removal of apoptotic targets. The removal of apoptotic leukocytes by endothelial cells may protect the microvasculature, thus ensuring that viable lymphocytes can successfully migrate into tissues. PMID:12960273

  11. Neuroendocrine mediators in the modulation of phagocytosis by exercise: physiological implications.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Neuroendocrine mediation of the effects of exercise on macrophage and neutrophil phagocytosis, the organism's first line of defense against external aggression, is reviewed. Exercise modulates the immune system via the actions of "stress hormones". Although stress had long been regarded as generally immunosuppressive, it is now accepted that this is not always true. Indeed exercise-induced stress stimulates the "phagocytic process" of phagocytes. One of the new physiological interpretations emerging from recent studies is that the general stimulation of phagocytosis and other innate mechanisms during strenuous physical activity may counterbalance the decreased lymphoid activity, preventing the entry and survival of microorganisms in situations where the specific responses are depressed. In some cases this behaviour is also medicated by "stress hormones", unlike in lymphocytes in which glucocorticoids and catecholamines both are immunosuppressive. The mediatory role of glucocorticoids in macrophages may also differ between the non-specific functions, like chemotaxis and phagocytosis, and the more specific ones, like antigen-presentation. Neutrophils and monocytes may be stimulated by catecholamines or sympathetic signals, and variations in phagocytosis and catecholamines have been proposed as a good "neuroimmuno-endocrinological marker" in athletes. Other hormones (prolactin, GH, endorphins, thyroid hormones) in general also contribute to the effects of exercise-stress on phagocytosis. This review focuses on a physiological interpretation of the immune response to exercise which differs markedly from the classical immunosuppression-centered view. More studies on in vivo variations of stress hormones during exercise are needed. PMID:14686096

  12. MAP1S Protein Regulates the Phagocytosis of Bacteria and Toll-like Receptor (TLR) Signaling.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ming; Zhang, Yifan; Liu, Leyuan; Zhang, Tingting; Han, Fang; Cleveland, Joseph; Wang, Fen; McKeehan, Wallace L; Li, Yu; Zhang, Dekai

    2016-01-15

    Phagocytosis is a critical cellular process for innate immune defense against microbial infection. The regulation of phagocytosis process is complex and has not been well defined. An intracellular molecule might regulate cell surface-initiated phagocytosis, but the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood (1). In this study, we found that microtubule-associated protein 1S (MAP1S), a protein identified recently that is involved in autophagy (2), is expressed primarily in macrophages. MAP1S-deficient macrophages are impaired in the phagocytosis of bacteria. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MAP1S interacts directly with MyD88, a key adaptor of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), upon TLR activation and affects the TLR signaling pathway. Intriguingly, we also observe that, upon TLR activation, MyD88 participates in autophagy processing in a MAP1S-dependent manner by co-localizing with MAP1 light chain 3 (MAP1-LC3 or LC3). Therefore, we reveal that an intracellular autophagy-related molecule of MAP1S controls bacterial phagocytosis through TLR signaling.

  13. 76 FR 55264 - Lipase, Triacylglycerol; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... increase the rate of chemical reactions and is produced by all living cells. The acute toxicity studies of... February 25, 2011 (76 FR 1058) (FRL- 8863-4), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section 408 of FFDCA, 21 U.S... tolerance (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that...

  14. Crucial enzymes in the hydroxylated triacylglycerol-ricinoleate biosynthesis pathway of castor bean.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yujie; Liu, Lili; Tian, Xun; Di, Jianjun; Su, Yalatu; Huang, Fenglan; Chen, Yongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is an important oilseed crop for the rich hydroxylated triacylglycerol (TAG)-ricinoleate which is a raw material with wide applications in industry. Hydroxylated TAG synthesis occurs through complicated pathways among multiple subcellular organelles. Some crucial enzymes have been identified in previous studies. After analyzing the available castor tissue-specific transcriptome sequencing data and comparing the classic pathways in other plants, a possible de novo biosynthesis pathway for the hydroxylated TAG has been revealed. In this study, some other crucial enzymes were ascertained and their expression levels were characterized and pinpointed into the pathways in castor. Several key enzymes were analyzed in terms of structure, biofunction prediction and similarity of expression pattern mechanisms, aiming to give an insight on the better understandings of the molecular knowledge for this oil-rich plant and the crucial enzyme performances in the hydroxylated triacylglycerol-ricinoleate biosynthesis pathways.

  15. Use of a fluorescent radiolabeled triacylglycerol as a substrate for lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triglyceride lipase

    SciTech Connect

    Dousset, N.; Negre, A.; Salvayre, R.; Rogalle, P.; Dang, Q.Q.; Douste-Blazy, L.

    1988-06-01

    A fluorescent radiolabeled triacylglycerol has been synthesized by using a fluorescent fatty acid (pyrene decanoic acid) and a radiolabeled oleic acid. This analog of the natural substrate, 1(3)pyrene decanoic-2,3 (1,2)-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol, has been tested as substrate for determining lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triacylglycerol lipase activities in post-heparin plasma. Optimal conditions for the determination of the two post-heparin plasma lipases were similar to those using radiolabeled triolein. Using this substrate, both post-heparin lipases exhibited their characteristic properties (pH optimum and effect of inhibitors) and attacked external ester bonds (1 or 3) containing pyrene decanoic and oleic acids at a similar rate.

  16. Earthworm coelomocyte phagocytosis: An in vitro assay for terrestrial toxicity identification evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, S.W.; Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Venables, B.J.; Callahan, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    An in vitro assay has been developed for rapid (48 h) evaluation of cytotoxic effects of exposure (24 h) of earthworm coelomocytes. The assay, inhibition of phagocytosis (24 h) of stained yeast cells and cell viability, links a traditional soil bioassay organism (Lumbricus terrestris) with a laboratory protocol for use in evaluating physical/chemical fractions resulting from terrestrial TIE manipulations. The assay was developed using copper sulfate as a reference toxicant. Copper exposures as low as 2--4 pg/ml. resulted in 20--60% inhibition of phagocytosis without significant decrease in cell viability. Exposures above 10 pg/ml resulted in reduced cell viability and inhibition of phagocytosis. The assay was successfully applied to terrestrial TIE fractions derived from extractions of soil from a PCP contaminated wood treatment site.

  17. A quantitative method for measuring innate phagocytosis by human monocytes using real-time flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ben J; Sun, Chun; Fuller, Stephen; Skarratt, Kristen K; Petrou, Steven; Wiley, James S

    2014-04-01

    Phagocytosis is central to immunity however a rapid and standardized method is much needed for quantitative assessment of the phagocytic process. We describe a real-time flow cytometric method to quantitate the phagocytosis of fluorescent latex beads by human monocytes in serum-free conditions. Effects of buffer composition, temperature, pH, and bead surface on phagocytic rate are described. The innate phagocytic ability of human monocytes from single subjects measured by this method was relatively stable over many months although phagocytosis rate varied as much as two-fold between individuals. Comparable results were obtained with a simplified method using several mL of whole blood which is suitable for routine clinical application. This method also allows two-color flow cytometric measurement of cytosolic calcium levels during the phagocytic uptake of fluorescent beads.

  18. Enhanced phagocytosis of group A streptococci M type 6 by oleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Speert, D.P.; Quie, P.G.; Wannamaker, L.W.

    1981-04-01

    M protein, located on the surface fimbriae of group A streptococci, is antiphagocytic by unknown means. It is known that oleic acid kills group A streptococci and distorts the fimbriae. The effect of oleic acid on phagocytosis of group A streptococci was examined. Phagocytosis of a strain possessing M protein (M+) and its M- variant was assessed by uptake of radiolabeled bacteria and by chemiluminescence. The M- but not the M+ streptococci were well phagocytized and induced chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed and heat-killed streptococci (both M+ and M-) were readily phagocytized and induced sustained chemiluminescence. M+ streptococci killed by ultraviolet irradiation were inefficiently phagocytized and did not induce chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed M+ streptococci absorbed type-specific antibody. An extract of M protein reduced the bactericidal capacity of oleic acid. It is proposed that oleic acid may bind to and alter the M protein of group A streptococci and thereby enhance phagocytosis.

  19. Study of histamine effects on phagocytosis and enzyme secretion of Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    PubMed

    Darvas, Z; Madarász, B; László, V

    1999-01-01

    1. The biogenic amine histamine develops effects not only in mammalian cells and tissues but in ciliated unicellular Tetrahymena as well. In addition to binding and internalization of labelled histamine, low concentrations can stimulate the phagocytosis of cells in inorganic salt solution. 2. In inorganic solution Tetrahymena cells secrete acid hydrolases to the medium. High concentration of histamine (10 mM) decreases the secretion of three investigated acid hydrolases in a different manner. We think that in this process the primary determinant is the alkaline character of histamine. 3. The effect of histamine on phagocytosis differs from the effect on secretion since the low, physiological concentration of histamine stimulates phagocytosis, the higher concentrations inhibit it. In the background of these effects possibly the hormone character is dominant. It is supported by the fact that histamine antagonists influence the process differently.

  20. Measuring Granulocyte and Monocyte Phagocytosis and Oxidative Burst Activity in Human Blood.

    PubMed

    Meaney, Mary Pat; Nieman, David C; Henson, Dru A; Jiang, Qi; Wang, Fu-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst (OB) activity assay can be used to study the innate immune system. This manuscript provides the necessary methodology to add this assay to an exercise immunology arsenal. The first step in this assay is to prepare two aliquots ("H" and "F") of whole blood (heparin). Then, dihydroethidium is added to the H aliquot, and both aliquots are incubated in a warm water bath followed by a cold water bath. Next, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is added to the H aliquot and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled S. aureus is added to the F aliquot (bacteria:phagocyte = 8:1), and both aliquots are incubated in a warm water bath followed by a cold water bath. Then, trypan blue is added to each aliquot to quench extracellular fluorescence, and the cells are washed with phosphate-buffered saline. Next, the red blood cells are lysed, and the white blood cells are fixed. Finally, a flow cytometer and appropriate analysis software are used to measure granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis and OB activity. This assay has been used for over 20 years. After heavy and prolonged exertion, athletes experience a significant but transient increase in phagocytosis and an extended decrease in OB activity. The post-exercise increase in phagocytosis is correlated with inflammation. In contrast to normal weight individuals, granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis is chronically elevated in overweight and obese participants, and is modestly correlated with C-reactive protein. In summary, this flow cytometry-based assay measures the phagocytosis and OB activity of phagocytes and can be used as an additional measure of exercise- and obesity-induced inflammation. PMID:27684595

  1. Diclofenac enhances proinflammatory cytokine-induced phagocytosis of cultured microglia via nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Kakita, Hiroki; Aoyama, Mineyoshi; Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Asai, Hayato; Hussein, Mohamed Hamed; Suzuki, Mieko; Kato, Shin; Saitoh, Shinji; Asai, Kiyofumi

    2013-04-15

    Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is a central nervous system complication with a high mortality rate, which is increased significantly by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (DCF). In the present study, we investigated the effects of DCF on brain immune cells (i.e. microglia) stimulated with three proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interferon-γ. Similar to previous findings in astrocytes, all three cytokines induced the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), as well as NO production, in microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system augmented iNOS expression and NO production. Immunocytochemical analysis and the phagocytosis assay revealed that cytokine treatment induced morphological changes to and phagocytosis by the microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system enhanced microglial activation, as well as the phagocytic activity of cytokine-stimulated microglia. Inhibitors of nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibited iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated microglia with or without DCF, suggesting that the NF-κB pathway is one of the main signaling pathways involved. The iNOS inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA) reduced both cytokine-induced phagocytosis and phagocytosis induced by the combination of cytokines plus DCF. Furthermore, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside induced phagocytosis, indicating that NO production is a key regulator of microglial phagocytosis. In conclusion, DCF acts synergistically with proinflammatory cytokines to increase the production of NO in microglia, leading to phagocytic activity of the activated microglia. These findings, together with previous observations regarding astrocytes, may explain the significant increase in mortality of IAE patients treated with DCF.

  2. A novel alpha kinase EhAK1 phosphorylates actin and regulates phagocytosis in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Mansuri, M Shahid; Bhattacharya, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Alok

    2014-10-01

    Phagocytosis plays a key role in nutrient uptake and virulence of the protist parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Phagosomes have been characterized by proteomics, and their maturation in the cells has been studied. However, there is so far not much understanding about initiation of phagocytosis and formation of phagosomes at the molecular level. Our group has been studying initiation of phagocytosis and formation of phagosomes in E. histolytica, and have described some of the molecules that play key roles in the process. Here we show the involvement of EhAK1, an alpha kinase and a SH3 domain containing protein in the pathway that leads to formation of phagosomes using red blood cell as ligand particle. A number of approaches, such as proteomics, biochemical, confocal imaging using specific antibodies or GFP tagged molecules, expression down regulation by antisense RNA, over expression of wild type and mutant proteins, were used to understand the role of EhAK1 in phagocytosis. EhAK1 was found in the phagocytic cups during the progression of cups, until closure of phagosomes, but not in the phagosomes themselves. It is recruited to the phagosomes through interaction with the calcium binding protein EhCaBP1. A reduction in phagocytosis was observed when EhAK1 was down regulated by antisense RNA, or by over expression of the kinase dead mutant. G-actin was identified as one of the major substrates of EhAK1. Phosphorylated actin preferentially accumulated at the phagocytic cups and over expression of a phosphorylation defective actin led to defects in phagocytosis. In conclusion, we describe an important component of the pathway that is initiated on attachment of red blood cells to E. histolytica cells. The main function of EhAK1 is to couple signalling events initiated after accumulation of EhC2PK to actin dynamics.

  3. Quantification and Characterization of Phagocytosis in the Soil Amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Avery, S. V.; Harwood, J. L.; Lloyd, D.

    1995-01-01

    Phagocytosis in the common grazing soil amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii was characterized by flow cytometry. Uptake of fluorescently labelled latex microbeads by cells was quantified by appropriate setting of thresholds on light scatter channels and, subsequently, on fluorescence histograms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to verify the effectiveness of sodium azide as a control for distinguishing between cell surface binding and internalization of beads. It was found that binding of beads at the cell surface was complete within 5 min and 80% of cells had beads associated with them after 10 min. However, the total number of phagocytosed beads continued to rise up to 2 h. The prolonged increase in numbers of beads phagocytosed was due to cell populations containing increasing numbers of beads peaking at increasing time intervals from the onset of phagocytosis. Fine adjustment of thresholds on light scatter channels was used to fractionate cells according to cell volume (cell cycle stage). Phagocytotic activity was approximately threefold higher in the largest (oldest) than in the smallest (newly divided) cells of A. castellanii and showed some evidence of periodicity. At no stage in the cell cycle did phagocytosis cease. Binding and phagocytosis of beads were also markedly influenced by culture age and rate of rotary agitation of cell suspensions. Saturation of phagocytosis (per cell) at increasing bead or decreasing cell concentrations occurred at bead/cell ratios exceeding 10:1. This was probably a result of a limitation of the vacuolar uptake system of A. castellanii, as no saturation of bead binding was evident. The advantages of flow cytometry for characterization of phagocytosis at the single-cell level in heterogeneous protozoal populations and the significance of the present results are discussed. PMID:16534962

  4. A Novel Alpha Kinase EhAK1 Phosphorylates Actin and Regulates Phagocytosis in Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, M. Shahid; Bhattacharya, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Alok

    2014-01-01

    Phagocytosis plays a key role in nutrient uptake and virulence of the protist parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Phagosomes have been characterized by proteomics, and their maturation in the cells has been studied. However, there is so far not much understanding about initiation of phagocytosis and formation of phagosomes at the molecular level. Our group has been studying initiation of phagocytosis and formation of phagosomes in E. histolytica, and have described some of the molecules that play key roles in the process. Here we show the involvement of EhAK1, an alpha kinase and a SH3 domain containing protein in the pathway that leads to formation of phagosomes using red blood cell as ligand particle. A number of approaches, such as proteomics, biochemical, confocal imaging using specific antibodies or GFP tagged molecules, expression down regulation by antisense RNA, over expression of wild type and mutant proteins, were used to understand the role of EhAK1 in phagocytosis. EhAK1 was found in the phagocytic cups during the progression of cups, until closure of phagosomes, but not in the phagosomes themselves. It is recruited to the phagosomes through interaction with the calcium binding protein EhCaBP1. A reduction in phagocytosis was observed when EhAK1 was down regulated by antisense RNA, or by over expression of the kinase dead mutant. G-actin was identified as one of the major substrates of EhAK1. Phosphorylated actin preferentially accumulated at the phagocytic cups and over expression of a phosphorylation defective actin led to defects in phagocytosis. In conclusion, we describe an important component of the pathway that is initiated on attachment of red blood cells to E. histolytica cells. The main function of EhAK1 is to couple signalling events initiated after accumulation of EhC2PK to actin dynamics. PMID:25299184

  5. Impact of resolvin E1 on murine neutrophil phagocytosis in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Bruno S; Hasturk, Hatice; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Freire, Marcelo O; Nguyen, Olivia; Kansal, Shevali; Van Dyke, Thomas E

    2015-02-01

    Diabetic complications involve inflammation-mediated microvascular and macrovascular damage, disruption of lipid metabolism, glycosylation of proteins, and abnormalities of neutrophil-mediated events. Resolution of inflamed tissues to health and homeostasis is an active process mediated by endogenous lipid agonists, including lipoxins and resolvins. This proresolution system appears to be compromised in type 2 diabetes (T2D). The goal of this study was to investigate unresolved inflammation in T2D. Wild-type (WT) and genetically engineered mice, including T2D mice (db/db), transgenic mice overexpressing the human resolvin E1 (RvE1) receptor (ERV1), and a newly bred strain of db/ERV1 mice, were used to determine the impact of RvE1 on the phagocytosis of Porphyromonas gingivalis in T2D. Neutrophils were isolated and incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled P. gingivalis, and phagocytosis was measured in a fluorochrome-based assay by flow cytometry. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (p42 and p44) and Akt (Thr308 and Ser473) phosphorylation was analyzed by Western blotting. The mouse dorsal air pouch model was used to evaluate the in vivo impact of RvE1. Results revealed that RvE1 increased the neutrophil phagocytosis of P. gingivalis in WT animals but had no impact in db/db animals. In ERV1-transgenic and ERV1-transgenic diabetic mice, phagocytosis was significantly increased. RvE1 decreased Akt and MAPK phosphorylation in the transgenic animals. In vivo dorsal air pouch studies revealed that RvE1 decreases neutrophil influx into the pouch and increases neutrophil phagocytosis of P. gingivalis in the transgenic animals; cutaneous fat deposition was reduced, as was macrophage infiltration. The results suggest that RvE1 rescues impaired neutrophil phagocytosis in obese T2D mice overexpressing ERV1.

  6. Triacylglycerol analysis of potential margarine base stocks by high-performance liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Byrdwell, W C; Neff, W E; List, G R

    2001-01-01

    Several margarine base stock candidates have previously been prepared for the purpose of finding better, more oxidatively stable food components: high-saturate vegetable oils, randomized vegetable oils, vegetable oil-hard stock blends, and interesterified vegetable oil-hard stock blends. Here are reported the triacylglycerol compositions of these products, determined using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a flame ionization detector or a quadrupole mass spectrometer with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source. Triacylglycerol percent composition results for samples of known composition (randomized and interesterified samples) exhibited less average error by HPLC coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source, after application of response factors, than the results by HPLC coupled with a flame ionization detector. The fatty acid compositions calculated from the mass spectrometric data exhibited less average error than the fatty acid compositions resulting from the flame ionization detector data. The average error of the fatty acid compositions by the mass spectrometer was lowest for interesterified blend samples, next lowest for randomized samples, then followed by high-saturated fatty acid oils, normal oils, and blends. Analysis of the vegetable oil-hard stock blends by mass spectrometer required special treatment for calculation of response factors.

  7. Phagocytosis of cells in the gastric surface epithelium of the rat.

    PubMed

    Morris, G P; Harding, R K

    1979-02-28

    Gastric surface epithelial cells (SEC) from fed rats, from rats fasted for 16 h and from mucosae exposed in an ex-vivo chamber to 16 mM aspirin for 5 min were examined by transmission electron microscopy. SEC have the capability to phagocytose adjacent epithelial cells and parietal cells. Phagocytosis is rare in mucosae from fasted animals but common in fed animals or after brief exposure to aspirin. Phagocytic capabilities are not restricted to the progenitor zone but exist throughout the surface epithelium. Phagocytosis may provide a mechanism for the removal of damaged or senescent cells from the surface epithelium.

  8. Beta-adrenergic stimulation of phagocytosis in the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium aurelia.

    PubMed

    Wyroba, E

    1989-08-01

    Bete-adrenergic agonists isoproterenol and norepinephrine enhanced phagocytosis in Paramecium. Stimulation was stereospecific, dose-dependent and inhibited by the beta-agonists propranolol and alprenolol. Phorbol ester and forskolin potentiated the stimulatory effect of catecholamines on Paramecium phagocytosis. The dansyl analogue of propranolol (DAPN) was used for fluorescent visualization of the beta-adrenergic receptor sites in Paramecium which have been found to be localized at the cell membrane and within the membrane of the nascent digestive vacuoles. The appearance of the characteristic fluorescent pattern has been blocked by 1-propranolol.

  9. Methods: implementation of in vitro and ex vivo phagocytosis and respiratory burst function assessments in safety testing.

    PubMed

    Freebern, Wendy J; Bigwarfe, Tammy J; Price, Karen D; Haggerty, Helen G

    2013-01-01

    Functional innate immune assessments, including phagocytosis and respiratory burst, are at the forefront of immunotoxicology evaluation in pre-clinical animal species. Although in the clinic and in academic science, phagocytosis, and respiratory burst assessments have been reported for over two decades, the implementation of phagocytosis and respiratory burst analyses in toxicology safety programs is just recently gaining publicity. Discussed herein are general methods, both microtiter plate-based and flow cytometric-based, for assessing phagocytosis and respiratory burst in pre-clinical species including mouse, rat, dog, and monkey. This methods-centric discussion includes a review of technologies and descriptions of method applications, with examples of results from analyses testing reported inhibitors (rottlerin, wortmannin, and SB203580) of phagocytosis and respiratory burst. Justification of implementation, strategic experimental design planning, and feasibility aspects of evaluating test article effects on phagocytosis and respiratory burst function are described within the context of a case study. The case study involves investigation of the effects of a small molecule p38 kinase inhibitor, BMS-582949, on phagocytosis and respiratory burst functions in rat and monkey neutrophils and monocytes in vitro, as well as ex vivo in these innate immune cells from monkeys administered BMS-582949 during a 1-week repeat dose investigative study. The results of the in vitro and ex vivo assessments demonstrated that BMS-582949 inhibited phagocytosis and respiratory burst. These findings correlated with incidences of opportunistic infections observed in rat and monkey toxicity studies.

  10. Dietary triacylglycerols with palmitic acid (16:0) in the 2-position increase 16:0 in the 2-position of plasma and chylomicron triacylglycerols, but reduce phospholipid arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids, and alter cholesteryl ester metabolism in formula-Fed piglets.

    PubMed

    Innis, S M; Dyer, R

    1997-07-01

    Milk triacylglycerols have an unusual fatty acid distribution, with palmitic acid (16:0) esterified predominately at the center (sn-2) position. Other dietary triacylglycerols contain 16:0 predominantly at the sn-1,3 positions. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of formula triacylglycerol fatty acid distribution on the composition and distribution of plasma lipoprotein fatty acids in piglets fed formula containing synthesized triacylglycerols or palm olein oil with about 32 or 4.2% 16:0, respectively, in fatty acids at the sn-2 position, with comparison to piglets fed sow's milk. Feeding formula with 16:0 at the triglyceride sn-2 position or sow's milk resulted in higher chylomicron triacylglycerol sn-2 16:0 than when palm olein was fed. This suggests that dietary triacylglycerol sn-2 position fatty acids are conserved during digestion, absorption and reassembly to chylomicron triacylglycerols. The increased chylomicron triacylglycerol sn-2 position 16:0 in piglets fed synthesized triacylglycerols was accompanied by lower chylomicron triacylglycerol arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid than in piglets fed formula with palm olein, suggesting an interaction between dietary triacylglycerol saturated fatty acid distribution and (n-6) and (n-3) fatty acid transport.

  11. Dissimilar and similar functional properties of complement receptor-3 in microglia and macrophages in combating yeast pathogens by phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Hadas, Smadar; Reichert, Fanny; Rotshenker, Shlomo

    2010-05-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) microglia (MG) and peripheral tissue macrophages (MO) remove pathogens by phagocytosis. Zymosan, a model yeast pathogen, is a beta-glucan rich particle that readily activates the complement system and then becomes C3bi-opsonized (op). Complement receptor-3 (CR3) has initially been implicated in mediating the phagocytosis of both C3bi-op and non-opsonized (nop) zymosan by MO through C3bi and beta-glucan binding sites, respectively. Later, the role of CR3 as a phagocytic beta-glucan receptor has been questioned and the supremacy of beta-glucan receptor Dectin-1 advocated. We compare here between primary mouse CNS MG and peripheral tissue MO with respect to CR3 and Dectin-1 mediated phagocytosis of C3bi-op and nop zymosan. We report that MG and MO display similar as well as dissimilar functional properties in this respect. Although CR3 and Dectin-1 function both as beta-glucan/non-opsonic receptors in MG during nop zymosan phagocytosis, Dectin-1, but not CR3, does so in MO. CR3 functions also as a C3bi/opsonic receptor in MG and MO during C3bi-op zymosan phagocytosis, leading to phagocytosis which is more efficient than that of nop zymosan. Dectin-1 contributes, albeit less than CR3, to phagocytosis of C3bi-op zymosan in MG and further less in MO, suggesting that C3bi-opsonization does not block all beta-glucan sites on zymosan from binding Dectin-1 on phagocytes. Thus, altogether CR3 and Dectin-1 contribute both to phagocytosis of nop and C3bi-op zymosan in MG, whereas MO switch from CR3-independent/Dectin-1-dependent phagocytosis of nop zymosan to phagocytosis of C3bi-op zymosan where CR3 dominates over Dectin-1.

  12. IgM-Dependent Phagocytosis in Microglia Is Mediated by Complement Receptor 3, Not Fcα/μ Receptor.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Jonathan R; Quan, Yi; Hanson, Josiah F; Colonna, Lucrezia; Iorga, Michael; Honda, Shin-ichiro; Shibuya, Kazuko; Shibuya, Akira; Elkon, Keith B; Möller, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Microglia play an important role in receptor-mediated phagocytosis in the CNS. In brain abscess and other CNS infections, invading bacteria undergo opsonization with Igs or complement. Microglia recognize these opsonized pathogens by Fc or complement receptors triggering phagocytosis. In this study, we investigated the role of Fcα/μR, the less-studied receptor for IgM and IgA, in microglial phagocytosis. We showed that primary microglia, as well as N9 microglial cells, express Fcα/μR. We also showed that anti-Staphylococcus aureus IgM markedly increased the rate of microglial S. aureus phagocytosis. To unequivocally test the role of Fcα/μR in IgM-mediated phagocytosis, we performed experiments in microglia from Fcα/μR(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, we found that IgM-dependent phagocytosis of S. aureus was similar in microglia derived from wild-type or Fcα/μR(-/-) mice. We hypothesized that IgM-dependent activation of complement receptors might contribute to the IgM-mediated increase in phagocytosis. To test this, we used immunologic and genetic inactivation of complement receptor 3 components (CD11b and CD18) as well as C3. IgM-, but not IgG-mediated phagocytosis of S. aureus was reduced in wild-type microglia and macrophages following preincubation with an anti-CD11b blocking Ab. IgM-dependent phagocytosis of S. aureus was also reduced in microglia derived from CD18(-/-) and C3(-/-) mice. Taken together, our findings implicate complement receptor 3 and C3, but not Fcα/μR, in IgM-mediated phagocytosis of S. aureus by microglia.

  13. Elevated CO2 selectively inhibits interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor expression and decreases phagocytosis in the macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Naizhen; Gates, Khalilah L.; Trejo, Humberto; Favoreto, Silvio; Schleimer, Robert P.; Sznajder, Jacob I.; Beitel, Greg J.; Sporn, Peter H. S.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated blood and tissue CO2, or hypercapnia, is common in severe lung disease. Patients with hypercapnia often develop lung infections and have an increased risk of death following pneumonia. To explore whether hypercapnia interferes with host defense, we studied the effects of elevated PCO2 on macrophage innate immune responses. In differentiated human THP-1 macrophages and human and mouse alveolar macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and other Toll-like receptor ligands, hypercapnia inhibited expression of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin (IL)-6, nuclear factor (NF)-κB-dependent cytokines critical for antimicrobial host defense. Inhibition of IL-6 expression by hypercapnia was concentration dependent, rapid, reversible, and independent of extracellular and intracellular acidosis. In contrast, hypercapnia did not down-regulate IL-10 or interferon-β, which do not require NF-κB. Notably, hypercapnia did not affect LPS-induced degradation of IκBα, nuclear translocation of RelA/p65, or activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, but it did block IL-6 promoter-driven luciferase activity in mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages. Elevated PCO2 also decreased phagocytosis of opsonized polystyrene beads and heat-killed bacteria in THP-1 and human alveolar macrophages. By interfering with essential innate immune functions in the macrophage, hypercapnia may cause a previously unrecognized defect in resistance to pulmonary infection in patients with advanced lung disease.—Wang, N., Gates, K. L., Trejo, H., Favoreto, Jr., S., Schleimer, R. P., Sznajder, J. I., Beitel, G. J., Sporn, P. H. S. Elevated CO2 selectively inhibits interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor expression and decreases phagocytosis in the macrophage. PMID:20181940

  14. Direct Analysis of Triacylglycerols from Crude Lipid Mixtures by Gold Nanoparticle-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Jeongjin; Lee, Gwangbin; Cha, Sangwon

    2014-05-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs), essential energy storage lipids, are easily detected by conventional MALDI MS when occurring on their own. However, their signals are easily overwhelmed by other lipids, mainly phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and, therefore, require purification. In order to profile TAGs from crude lipid mixtures without prefractionation, we investigated alternative matrixes that can suppress phospholipid ion signals and enhance cationization of TAGs. We found that an aqueous solution of citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with a diameter of 12 nm is a superior matrix for the laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI MS) of TAGs in crude lipid mixtures. The AuNP matrix effectively suppressed other lipid signals such as phospholipids and also provided 100 times lower detection limit for TAGs than 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), the best conventional MALDI matrix for TAGs. The AuNP-assisted LDI MS enabled us to obtain detailed TAG profiles including minor species directly from crude beef lipid extracts without phospholipid interference. In addition, we could detect TAGs at a trace level from a total brain lipid extract.

  15. A Simple Microscopy Assay to Teach the Processes of Phagocytosis and Exocytosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Ross; Gray, Andrew; Fite, Jessica L.; Jordan, Renee; Stark, Sarah; Naylor, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Phagocytosis and exocytosis are two cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. While it is easy to understand the purpose of these processes, it can be extremely difficult for students to comprehend the actual mechanisms. As membrane dynamics play a significant role in many cellular processes ranging from cell signaling to cell division to…

  16. A bacterial regulatory RNA attenuates virulence, spread and human host cell phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Le Pabic, Hélène; Germain-Amiot, Noëlla; Bordeau, Valérie; Felden, Brice

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis is directed by regulatory proteins and RNAs. We report the case of an RNA attenuating virulence and host uptake, possibly to sustain commensalism. A S. aureus sRNA, SprC (srn_3610), reduced virulence and bacterial loads in a mouse infection model. S. aureus deleted for sprC became more virulent and increased bacterial dissemination in colonized animals. Conversely, inducing SprC expression lowered virulence and the bacterial load. Without sprC, S. aureus phagocytosis by monocytes and macrophages was higher, whereas bacteria were internalized at lower yields when SprC expression was stimulated. Without sprC, higher internalization led to a greater number of extracellular bacteria, facilitating colonization. SprC expression decreased after phagocytosis, concurring with the facilitated growth of bacteria lacking the sRNA in the presence of an oxidant. The major staphylococcal autolysin facilitates S. aureus uptake by human phagocytes. ATL proved to be negatively regulated by SprC. The SprC domains involved in pairing with atl mRNA were analyzed. The addition of ATL reduced phagocytosis of bacteria lacking sprC with no effects on wild-type bacterial uptake, implying that SprC influences phagocytosis, at least in part, by controlling ATL. Since the control of SprC on ATL was modest, other factors must contribute to atl regulation. PMID:26240382

  17. SNX3 recruits to phagosomes and negatively regulates phagocytosis in dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Chua, Rong Yuan Ray; Wong, Siew Heng

    2013-05-01

    Phagocytes such as dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages employ phagocytosis to take up pathogenic bacteria into phagosomes, digest the bacteria and present the bacteria-derived peptide antigens to the adaptive immunity. Hence, efficient antigen presentation depends greatly on a well-regulated phagocytosis process. Lipids, particularly phosphoinositides, are critical components of the phagosomes. Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3 ] is formed at the phagocytic cup, and as the phagosome seals off from the plasma membrane, rapid disappearance of PI(3,4,5)P3 is accompanied by high levels of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) formation. The sorting nexin (SNX) family consists of a diverse group of Phox-homology (PX) domain-containing cytoplasmic and membrane-associated proteins that are potential effectors of phosphoinositides. We hypothesized that SNX3, a small sorting nexin that contains a single PI3P lipid-binding PX domain as its only protein domain, localizes to phagosomes and regulates phagocytosis in DC. Our results show that SNX3 recruits to nascent phagosomes and silencing of SNX3 enhances phagocytic uptake of bacteria by DC. Furthermore, SNX3 competes with PI3P lipid-binding protein, early endosome antigen-1 (EEA1) recruiting to membranes. Our results indicate that SNX3 negatively regulates phagocytosis in DC possibly by modulating recruitment of essential PI3P lipid-binding proteins of the phagocytic pathways, such as EEA1, to phagosomal membranes.

  18. Leishmania major Promastigotes Evade LC3-Associated Phagocytosis through the Action of GP63.

    PubMed

    Matte, Christine; Casgrain, Pierre-André; Séguin, Olivier; Moradin, Neda; Hong, Wan Jin; Descoteaux, Albert

    2016-06-01

    The protozoan Leishmania parasitizes macrophages and evades the microbicidal consequences of phagocytosis through the inhibition of phagolysosome biogenesis. In this study, we investigated the impact of this parasite on LC3-associated phagocytosis, a non-canonical autophagic process that enhances phagosome maturation and functions. We show that whereas internalization of L. major promastigotes by macrophages promoted LC3 lipidation, recruitment of LC3 to phagosomes was inhibited through the action of the parasite surface metalloprotease GP63. Reactive oxygen species generated by the NOX2 NADPH oxidase are necessary for LC3-associated phagocytosis. We found that L. major promastigotes prevented, in a GP63-dependent manner, the recruitment of NOX2 to phagosomes through a mechanism that does not involve NOX2 cleavage. Moreover, we found that the SNARE protein VAMP8, which regulates phagosomal assembly of the NADPH oxidase NOX2, was down-modulated by GP63. In the absence of VAMP8, recruitment of LC3 to phagosomes containing GP63-deficient parasites was inhibited, indicating that VAMP8 is involved in the phagosomal recruitment of LC3. These findings reveal a role for VAMP8 in LC3-associated phagocytosis and highlight a novel mechanism exploited by L. major promastigotes to interfere with the host antimicrobial machinery.

  19. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO A THYROID DISRUPTING CHEMICAL STIMULATES PHAGOCYTOSIS IN JUVENILE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental Exposure to a Thyroid Disrupting Chemical Stimulates Phagocytosis in Juvenile Sprague-Dawley Rats.
    AA Rooney1, R Matulka2, and R Luebke3. 1NCSU/US EPA CVM, Department of Anatomy, Physiological Sciences and Radiology, Raleigh, NC;2UNC Department of Toxicology, Cha...

  20. Leishmania major Promastigotes Evade LC3-Associated Phagocytosis through the Action of GP63

    PubMed Central

    Matte, Christine; Casgrain, Pierre-André; Séguin, Olivier; Moradin, Neda; Hong, Wan Jin; Descoteaux, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The protozoan Leishmania parasitizes macrophages and evades the microbicidal consequences of phagocytosis through the inhibition of phagolysosome biogenesis. In this study, we investigated the impact of this parasite on LC3-associated phagocytosis, a non-canonical autophagic process that enhances phagosome maturation and functions. We show that whereas internalization of L. major promastigotes by macrophages promoted LC3 lipidation, recruitment of LC3 to phagosomes was inhibited through the action of the parasite surface metalloprotease GP63. Reactive oxygen species generated by the NOX2 NADPH oxidase are necessary for LC3-associated phagocytosis. We found that L. major promastigotes prevented, in a GP63-dependent manner, the recruitment of NOX2 to phagosomes through a mechanism that does not involve NOX2 cleavage. Moreover, we found that the SNARE protein VAMP8, which regulates phagosomal assembly of the NADPH oxidase NOX2, was down-modulated by GP63. In the absence of VAMP8, recruitment of LC3 to phagosomes containing GP63-deficient parasites was inhibited, indicating that VAMP8 is involved in the phagosomal recruitment of LC3. These findings reveal a role for VAMP8 in LC3-associated phagocytosis and highlight a novel mechanism exploited by L. major promastigotes to interfere with the host antimicrobial machinery. PMID:27280768

  1. Rediae of echinostomatid and heterophyid trematodes suppress phagocytosis of haemocytes in Littorina littorea (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia).

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, Nadya V; Shaposhnikova, Tania G; Gorbushin, Alexander M

    2006-05-01

    A modulation of the phagocytic activity of hemocytes from the common periwinkle Littorina littorea by secretory-excretory products (SEP) released by trematode rediae during axenic in vitro cultivation was studied. The SEP released by the parasites Himasthla elongata (Echinostomatidae) and Cryptocotyle lingua (Heterophyidae) were found to inhibit the phagocytosis of zymozan particles by periwinkle hemocytes. The specificity of SEP effects was assessed: SEP of Himasthla militaris and Cryptocotyle concavum, two trematodes belonging to the same genera but infecting another closely related prosobranch snail Hydrobia ulvae, were also shown to be able to suppress L. littorea hemocytes phagocytic activity. However, no decrease in phagocytosis rate was observed when SEP of H. elongata and C. lingua were applied to monolayers of hemocytes from the bivalve mollusc Mytilus edulis. SEP from H. elongata was fractionated; only those fractions containing proteins of molecular weight more than 50 kDa were shown to possess inhibitory activity. Different H. elongata SEP concentrations were tested in for their ability to suppress phagocytosis by L. littorea hemocytes. Even very low SEP concentrations were shown to retain their ability to decrease phagocytosis rate, the inhibitory effect being dose-dependent. Hemocytes derived from snails naturally infected with H. elongata were also found to have lower phagocytic ability as compared to healthy individuals. PMID:16438967

  2. Effects of cyclic strain on the morphology and phagocytosis of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, H; Hayashi, K

    2001-01-01

    Morphology and phagocytosis of macrophages were studied after cultured under cyclic strain. Peritoneal macrophages obtained from 6-week old female C57BL/6J mice were attached to silicone rubber sheets, preincubated for 2 hours, and then cultured for 24 and 48 hours under cyclic strain of 5% amplitude and 1 Hz frequency (strained group) or no strain (non-strained group). Control data were obtained from 0-hour cultured cells (control group). Cell morphology was observed with optical and scanning electron microscopes, and shape index (SI) of each cell was determined from the perimeter and adhesion area. Phagocytotic activity was evaluated from the uptake of latex particles 1.5 microm in diameter. The morphology and phagocytosis of macrophages were affected by cyclic strain, although the percentage of differentiated cells was not the case. SI in the strained group was smaller than that in the non-strained group, and had a tendency of decreasing with time. Cyclic strain suppressed the phagocytosis of macrophages for latex particles, and there was a significant difference in the phagocytosis between the strained and the non-strained groups after 24-hour culture. PMID:11790862

  3. Involvement of lipoprotein PpiA of Streptococcus gordonii in evasion of phagocytosis by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cho, K; Arimoto, T; Igarashi, T; Yamamoto, M

    2013-10-01

    Streptococcus gordonii is a commensal gram-positive bacterium that resides in the human oral cavity, and is one of the most common causes of infective endocarditis (IE). Bacterial surface molecules play an important role in establishing IE, and several S. gordonii proteins have been implicated in binding to host cells during the establishment of IE. In this study, we identified a putative lipoprotein, peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PpiA), and clarified its role in evasion of phagocytosis by macrophages. Attenuation of the gene encoding prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase (Lgt) altered the localization of PpiA from the cell surface to the culture supernatant, indicating that PpiA is lipid-anchored in the cell membrane by Lgt. Both human and murine macrophages showed higher phagocytic activity towards ppiA and lgt mutants than the wild-type, indicating that the presence of PpiA suppresses phagocytosis of S. gordonii. Human macrophages treated with dextran sulfate had significantly impaired phagocytosis of S. gordonii, suggesting that class A scavenger receptors in human macrophages are involved in the phagocytosis of S. gordonii. These results provide evidence that S. gordonii lipoprotein PpiA plays an important role in inhibiting phagocytic engulfment and in evasion of the host immune response. PMID:23734737

  4. High Fc Density Particles Result in Binary Complement Activation but Tunable Macrophage Phagocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulchek, Todd; Pacheco, Patricia; White, David

    2014-03-01

    Macrophage phagocytosis and complement system activation represent two key components of the immune system and both can be activated through the presentation of multiple Fc domains of IgG antibodies. We have created functionalized micro- and nanoparticles with various densities of Fc domains to understand the modulation of the immune system for eventual use as a novel immunomodulation platform. Phagocytosis assays were carried out by adding functionalized particles to macrophage cells and quantitatively determined using fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. Complement system activation by the functionalized particles in human serum was quantified with an enzyme immunoassay. Our phagocytosis assay revealed a strong dependence on particle size and Fc density. For small particles, as the Fc density increased, the number of particles phagocytosed also increased. Large particles were phagocytosed at significantly lower levels and showed no dependency on Fc density. Complement was successfully activated at levels comparable to positive controls for small particles at high Fc densities. However at low Fc densities, there is a significant decrease in complement activation. This result suggests a binary response for complement system activation with a threshold density for successful activation. Therefore, varying the Fc density on micro/nanoparticles resulted in a tunable response in macrophage phagocytosis while a more binary response for complement activation.

  5. A bacterial regulatory RNA attenuates virulence, spread and human host cell phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Hélène; Germain-Amiot, Noëlla; Bordeau, Valérie; Felden, Brice

    2015-10-30

    Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis is directed by regulatory proteins and RNAs. We report the case of an RNA attenuating virulence and host uptake, possibly to sustain commensalism. A S. aureus sRNA, SprC (srn_3610), reduced virulence and bacterial loads in a mouse infection model. S. aureus deleted for sprC became more virulent and increased bacterial dissemination in colonized animals. Conversely, inducing SprC expression lowered virulence and the bacterial load. Without sprC, S. aureus phagocytosis by monocytes and macrophages was higher, whereas bacteria were internalized at lower yields when SprC expression was stimulated. Without sprC, higher internalization led to a greater number of extracellular bacteria, facilitating colonization. SprC expression decreased after phagocytosis, concurring with the facilitated growth of bacteria lacking the sRNA in the presence of an oxidant. The major staphylococcal autolysin facilitates S. aureus uptake by human phagocytes. ATL proved to be negatively regulated by SprC. The SprC domains involved in pairing with atl mRNA were analyzed. The addition of ATL reduced phagocytosis of bacteria lacking sprC with no effects on wild-type bacterial uptake, implying that SprC influences phagocytosis, at least in part, by controlling ATL. Since the control of SprC on ATL was modest, other factors must contribute to atl regulation.

  6. Scavenger receptor B protects shrimp from bacteria by enhancing phagocytosis and regulating expression of antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wen-Jie; Li, Dian-Xiang; Xu, Yi-Hui; Xu, Sen; Li, Jing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2015-07-01

    Scavenger receptors (SRs) are involved in innate immunity through recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and in pathogenesis of diseases through interactions with damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). The roles of SRs in invertebrate innate immunity still need to be elucidated. Here we identify a class B scavenger receptor from kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus, designated MjSR-B1. The recombinant MjSR-B1 agglutinated bacteria in a calcium dependent manner and bound lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid. After knockdown of MjSR-B1, both the bacterial clearance and phagocytotic ability of M. japonicus against V. anguillarum and S. aureus were impaired, and several phagocytosis related genes were downregulated. The expression levels of antimicrobial peptides were also downregulated. Overexpression of MjSR-B1 led to enhanced bacterial clearance, phagocytosis rate and upregulation of phagocytosis-related and antimicrobial peptide genes. However, overexpression of mutant MjSR-B1ΔC, which lacks the carboxyl tail of MjSR-B1, had none of these effects. Our results indicate that MjSR-B1 can protect shrimp from bacteria by promoting phagocytosis and by enhancing the expression of antimicrobial peptides.

  7. Optical tracking of phagocytosis with an activatable profluorophore metabolically incorporated into bacterial peptidoglycan.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yunpeng; Yu, Mingzu; Li, Zhu; Han, Jiahuai; Yang, Liu; Han, Shoufa

    2015-08-18

    Phagocytosis is critical for immunity against pathogens. Prior imaging using dye-labeled synthetic beads or green fluorescent protein-expressing bacteria is limited by "always-on" signals which compromise discerning phagocytosed particles from adherent particles. Targeting cellular internalization of pathogens into acidic phagolysosomes, we herein report "turn-on" fluorescence imaging of phagocytosis with viable bacteria featuring peptidoglycans covalently modified with rhodamine-lactam responsive to acidic pH. Culturing of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with d-lysine conjugated rhodamine-lactam and fluorescein isocyanate (FITC) leads to efficient metabolic incorporation of FITC and rhodamine-lactam into bacterial peptidoglycan. E. coli and S. aureus become red-emissive upon phagocytosis into Raw 264.7 macrophages. With FITC as the reference signal, the mono- and dual-color emission allow efficient in situ distinction of ingested bacteria from extracellular bacteria. Given the ease of optical peptidoglycan labeling, the prevalence of microbial peptidoglycan and preservation of microbial surface landscape, this approach would be of use for investigation on microbial pathogenesis and high-throughput screening of immunomodulators of phagocytosis.

  8. Nuclear receptors license phagocytosis by trem2+ myeloid cells in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Savage, Julie C; Jay, Taylor; Goduni, Elanda; Quigley, Caitlin; Mariani, Monica M; Malm, Tarja; Ransohoff, Richard M; Lamb, Bruce T; Landreth, Gary E

    2015-04-22

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a robust inflammatory response elicited by the accumulation and subsequent deposition of amyloid (Aβ) within the brain. The brain's immune cells migrate to and invest their processes within Aβ plaques but are unable to efficiently phagocytose and clear plaques from the brain. Previous studies have shown that treatment of myeloid cells with nuclear receptor agonists increases expression of phagocytosis-related genes. In this study, we elucidate a novel mechanism by which nuclear receptors act to enhance phagocytosis in the AD brain. Treatment of murine models of AD with agonists of the nuclear receptors PPARγ, PPARδ, LXR, and RXR stimulated microglial phagocytosis in vitro and rapidly induced the expression of the phagocytic receptors Axl and MerTK. In murine models of AD, we found that plaque-associated macrophages expressed Axl and MerTK and treatment of the cells with an RXR agonist further induced their expression, coincident with the rapid reduction in plaque burden. Further characterization of MerTK(+)/Axl(+) macrophages revealed that they also expressed the phagocytic receptor TREM2 and high levels of CD45, consistent with a peripheral origin of these cells. Importantly, in an ex vivo slice assay, nuclear receptor agonist treatment reversed the AD-related suppression of phagocytosis through a MerTK-dependent mechanism. Thus, nuclear receptor agonists increase MerTK and Axl expression on plaque-associated immune cells, consequently licensing their phagocytic activity and promoting plaque clearance.

  9. A simple microscopy assay to teach the processes of phagocytosis and exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Gray, Ross; Gray, Andrew; Fite, Jessica L; Jordan, Renée; Stark, Sarah; Naylor, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Phagocytosis and exocytosis are two cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. While it is easy to understand the purpose of these processes, it can be extremely difficult for students to comprehend the actual mechanisms. As membrane dynamics play a significant role in many cellular processes ranging from cell signaling to cell division to organelle renewal and maintenance, we felt that we needed to do a better job of teaching these types of processes. Thus, we developed a classroom-based protocol to simultaneously study phagocytosis and exocytosis in Tetrahymena pyriformis. In this paper, we present our results demonstrating that our undergraduate classroom experiment delivers results comparable with those acquired in a professional research laboratory. In addition, students performing the experiment do learn the mechanisms of phagocytosis and exocytosis. Finally, we demonstrate a mathematical exercise to help the students apply their data to the cell. Ultimately, this assay sets the stage for future inquiry-based experiments, in which the students develop their own experimental questions and delve deeper into the mechanisms of phagocytosis and exocytosis.

  10. The Mannose Receptor Is Involved in the Phagocytosis of Mycobacteria-Induced Apoptotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Upon Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, macrophages may undergo apoptosis, which has been considered an innate immune response. The pathways underlying the removal of dead cells in homeostatic apoptosis have been extensively studied, but little is known regarding how cells that undergo apoptotic death during mycobacterial infection are removed. This study shows that macrophages induced to undergo apoptosis with mycobacteria cell wall proteins are engulfed by J-774A.1 monocytic cells through the mannose receptor. This demonstration was achieved through assays in which phagocytosis was inhibited with a blocking anti-mannose receptor antibody and with mannose receptor competitor sugars. Moreover, elimination of the mannose receptor by a specific siRNA significantly diminished the expression of the mannose receptor and the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. As shown by immunofluorescence, engulfed apoptotic bodies are initially located in Rab5-positive phagosomes, which mature to express the phagolysosome marker LAMP1. The phagocytosis of dead cells triggered an anti-inflammatory response with the production of TGF-β and IL-10 but not of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-12 and TNF-α. This study documents the previously unreported participation of the mannose receptor in the removal of apoptotic cells in the setting of tuberculosis (TB) infection. The results challenge the idea that apoptotic cell phagocytosis in TB has an immunogenic effect. PMID:27413759

  11. Cryptococcus neoformans is internalized by receptor-mediated or 'triggered' phagocytosis, dependent on actin recruitment.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Caroline Rezende; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcosis by the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans affects mostly immunocompromised individuals and is a frequent neurological complication in AIDS patients. Recent studies support the idea that intracellular survival of Cryptococcus yeast cells is important for the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis. However, the initial steps of Cryptococcus internalization by host cells remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the mechanism of Cryptococcus neoformans phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages using confocal and electron microscopy techniques, as well as flow cytometry quantification, evaluating the importance of fungal capsule production and of host cell cytoskeletal elements for fungal phagocytosis. Electron microscopy analyses revealed that capsular and acapsular strains of C. neoformans are internalized by macrophages via both 'zipper' (receptor-mediated) and 'trigger' (membrane ruffle-dependent) phagocytosis mechanisms. Actin filaments surrounded phagosomes of capsular and acapsular yeasts, and the actin depolymerizing drugs cytochalasin D and latrunculin B inhibited yeast internalization and actin recruitment to the phagosome area. In contrast, nocodazole and paclitaxel, inhibitors of microtubule dynamics decreased internalization but did not prevent actin recruitment to the site of phagocytosis. Our results show that different uptake mechanisms, dependent on both actin and tubulin dynamics occur during yeast internalization by macrophages, and that capsule production does not affect the mode of Cryptococcus uptake by host cells. PMID:24586631

  12. Molecular characterization of LC3-associated phagocytosis reveals distinct roles for Rubicon, NOX2 and autophagy proteins.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jennifer; Malireddi, R K Subbarao; Lu, Qun; Cunha, Larissa Dias; Pelletier, Stephane; Gingras, Sebastien; Orchard, Robert; Guan, Jun-Lin; Tan, Haiyan; Peng, Junmin; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; Virgin, Herbert W; Green, Douglas R

    2015-07-01

    LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) is a process wherein elements of autophagy conjugate LC3 to phagosomal membranes. We characterize the molecular requirements for LAP, and identify Rubicon as being required for LAP but not autophagy. Rubicon is recruited to LAPosomes and is required for the activity of a Class III PI(3)K complex containing UVRAG but lacking ATG14 and Ambra1. This allows for the sustained localization of PtdIns(3)P, which is critical for recruitment of downstream autophagic proteins and stabilization of the NOX2 complex to produce reactive oxygen species. Both PtdIns(3)P and reactive oxygen species are required for conjugation of LC3 to LAPosomes and subsequent association with LAMP1(+) lysosomes. LAP is induced by engulfment of Aspergillus fumigatus, a fungal pathogen that commonly afflicts immunocompromised hosts, and is required for its optimal clearance in vivo. Therefore, we have identified molecules that distinguish LAP from canonical autophagy, thereby elucidating the importance of LAP in response to A. fumigatus infection.

  13. Control of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in plants. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-31

    Seeds of most species of the Umbelliferae (Apiaciae), Araliaceae, and Garryaceae families are characterized by their high content of the unusual C{sub 18} monounsaturated fatty acid petroselinic acid (18:l{Delta}{sup 6cis}). Prior to a recent report of this lab, little was known of the biosynthetic origin of the cis{Delta}{sup 6} double bond of petroselinic acid. Such knowledge may be of both biochemical and biotechnological significance. Because petroselinic acid is potentially the product of a novel desaturase, information regarding its synthesis may contribute to an understanding of fatty acid desaturation mechanisms in plants. Through chemical cleavage at its double bond, petroselinic acid can be used as a precursor of lauric acid (12:0), a component of detergents and surfactants, and adipic acid (6:0 dicarboxylic), the monomeric component of nylon 6,6. Therefore, the development of an agronomic source of an oil rich in petroselinic acid is of biotechnological interest. As such, studies of petroselinic acid biosynthesis may provide basic information required for any attempt to genetically engineer the production and accumulation of this fatty acid in an existing oilseed.

  14. Overload training inhibits phagocytosis and ROS generation of peritoneal macrophages: role of IGF-1 and MGF.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Weihua; Chen, Peijie; Wang, Ru; Dong, Jingmei

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that overload training inhibits the phagocytosis and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of peritoneal macrophages (Mϕs), and that insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) and mechano-growth factor (MGF) produced by macrophages may contribute to this process. Rats were randomized to two groups, sedentary control group (n = 10) and overload training group (n = 10). The rats of overload training group were subjected to 11 weeks of experimental training protocol. Blood sample was used to determine the content of hemoglobin, testosterone, and corticosterone. The phagocytosis and the ROS generation of Mϕs were measured by the uptake of neutral red and the flow cytometry, respectively. IGF-1 and MGF mRNA levels in Mϕs were determined by real-time PCR. In addition, we evaluated the effects of IGF-1 and MGF peptide on phagocytosis and ROS generation of Mϕs in vitro. The data showed that overload training significantly decreased the body weight (19.3 %, P < 0.01), the hemoglobin (13.5 %, P < 0.01), the testosterone (55.3 %, P < 0.01) and the corticosterone (40.6 %, P < 0.01) in blood. Moreover, overload training significantly decreased the phagocytosis (27 %, P < 0.05) and the ROS generation (35 %, P < 0.01) of Mϕs. IGF-1 and MGF mRNA levels in Mϕs from overload training group increased significantly compared with the control group (21-fold and 92-fold, respectively; P < 0.01). In vitro experiments showed that IGF-1 had no significant effect on the phagocytosis and the ROS generation of Mϕs. Unlike IGF-1, MGF peptide impaired the phagocytosis of Mϕs in dose-independent manner. In addition, MGF peptide of some concentrations (i.e., 1, 10, 50, 100 ng/ml) significantly inhibited the ROS generation of Mϕs. These results suggest that overload training inhibits the phagocytosis and the ROS generation of peritoneal macrophages, and that MGF produced by macrophages may play a key role in this process. This may represent a novel mechanism of

  15. Diclofenac enhances proinflammatory cytokine-induced phagocytosis of cultured microglia via nitric oxide production

    SciTech Connect

    Kakita, Hiroki; Aoyama, Mineyoshi; Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Asai, Hayato; Hussein, Mohamed Hamed; Suzuki, Mieko; Kato, Shin; Saitoh, Shinji; Asai, Kiyofumi

    2013-04-15

    Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is a central nervous system complication with a high mortality rate, which is increased significantly by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (DCF). In the present study, we investigated the effects of DCF on brain immune cells (i.e. microglia) stimulated with three proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interferon-γ. Similar to previous findings in astrocytes, all three cytokines induced the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), as well as NO production, in microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system augmented iNOS expression and NO production. Immunocytochemical analysis and the phagocytosis assay revealed that cytokine treatment induced morphological changes to and phagocytosis by the microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system enhanced microglial activation, as well as the phagocytic activity of cytokine-stimulated microglia. Inhibitors of nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibited iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated microglia with or without DCF, suggesting that the NF-κB pathway is one of the main signaling pathways involved. The iNOS inhibitor N{sup G}-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) reduced both cytokine-induced phagocytosis and phagocytosis induced by the combination of cytokines plus DCF. Furthermore, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside induced phagocytosis, indicating that NO production is a key regulator of microglial phagocytosis. In conclusion, DCF acts synergistically with proinflammatory cytokines to increase the production of NO in microglia, leading to phagocytic activity of the activated microglia. These findings, together with previous observations regarding astrocytes, may explain the significant increase in mortality of IAE patients treated with DCF. - Highlights: ► Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is associated with a high mortality rate. ► Hyperimmunization in the brain is believed to be responsible for

  16. The Drosophila CD36 Homologue croquemort Is Required to Maintain Immune and Gut Homeostasis during Development and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Guillou, Aurélien; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Phagocytosis is an ancient mechanism central to both tissue homeostasis and immune defense. Both the identity of the receptors that mediate bacterial phagocytosis and the nature of the interactions between phagocytosis and other defense mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that Croquemort (Crq), a Drosophila member of the CD36 family of scavenger receptors, is required for microbial phagocytosis and efficient bacterial clearance. Flies mutant for crq are susceptible to environmental microbes during development and succumb to a variety of microbial infections as adults. Crq acts parallel to the Toll and Imd pathways to eliminate bacteria via phagocytosis. crq mutant flies exhibit enhanced and prolonged immune and cytokine induction accompanied by premature gut dysplasia and decreased lifespan. The chronic state of immune activation in crq mutant flies is further regulated by negative regulators of the Imd pathway. Altogether, our data demonstrate that Crq plays a key role in maintaining immune and organismal homeostasis. PMID:27780230

  17. Protection of Insects against Viral Infection by Apoptosis-Dependent Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nainu, Firzan; Tanaka, Yumiko; Shiratsuchi, Akiko; Nakanishi, Yoshinobu

    2015-12-15

    We investigated whether phagocytosis participates in the protection of insects from viral infection using the natural host-virus interaction between Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila C virus (DCV). Drosophila S2 cells were induced to undergo apoptotic cell death upon DCV infection. However, UV-inactivated virus was unable to cause apoptosis, indicating the need for productive infection for apoptosis induction. S2 cells became susceptible to phagocytosis by hemocyte-derived l(2)mbn cells after viral infection, and the presence of phagocytes in S2 cell cultures reduced viral proliferation. Phagocytosis depended, in part, on caspase activity in S2 cells, as well as the engulfment receptors Draper and integrin βν in phagocytes. To validate the in vivo situation, adult flies were abdominally infected with DCV, followed by the analysis of fly death and viral growth. DCV infection killed flies in a dose-responding manner, and the activation of effector caspases was evident, as revealed by the cleavage of a target protein ectopically expressed in flies. Furthermore, hemocytes isolated from infected flies contained DCV-infected cells, and preinjection of latex beads to inhibit the phagocytic activity of hemocytes accelerated fly death after viral infection. Likewise, viral virulence was exaggerated in flies lacking the engulfment receptors, and was accompanied by the augmented proliferation of virus. Finally, phagocytosis of DCV-infected cells in vitro was inhibited by phosphatidylserine-containing liposome, and virus-infected flies died early when a phosphatidylserine-binding protein was ectopically expressed. Collectively, our study demonstrates that the apoptosis-dependent, phosphatidylserine-mediated phagocytosis of virus-infected cells plays an important role in innate immune responses against viral infection in Drosophila.

  18. The influence of substrate elastic modulus on retinal pigment epithelial cell phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Boochoon, Kieran S; Manarang, Joseph C; Davis, Joshua T; McDermott, Alison M; Foster, William J

    2014-09-22

    To better understand if a complex process such as phagocytosis is influenced by substrate stiffness, we investigated the influence of substrate elastic modulus on phagocytosis in the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line ARPE-19. RPE cells lie on Bruch's membrane, directly under the retina, and phagocytose the shed photoreceptor outer segments. Bruch's membrane is known to increase in stiffness by an order of magnitude with age and thus, this study has potential relevance in explaining retinal changes in age-related macular degeneration. ARPE-19 cells were plated on laminin-coated polyacrylamide substrates of varying elastic modulus. After 14 days in culture, a solution of latex fluorescent beads suspended in PBS was placed in each well. After an incubation time of 4h, flow cytometry was performed to determine the number of cells that phagocytosed a bead. The number of ARPE-19 cells that phagocytosed a bead decreased continuously as a function of increasing substrate elastic modulus (p=0.0135), and this was found to be a linear relationship (slope=-0.03305 ± 0.01104, R2=0.4726 per 10,000 cells). Our results suggest that RPE cells display decreased phagocytosis when grown on firmer substrates, and thus, RPE cells in older eyes, in which Bruch's membrane is stiffer, may demonstrate decreased phagocytosis. Impaired phagocytosis by RPE cells may contribute to impaired metabolism of photoreceptor outer segments and to development of macular degeneration. Material stiffness may be a critical parameter in the development of neural therapies, including retinal prosthetics and stem cell therapies.

  19. Protection of Insects against Viral Infection by Apoptosis-Dependent Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nainu, Firzan; Tanaka, Yumiko; Shiratsuchi, Akiko; Nakanishi, Yoshinobu

    2015-12-15

    We investigated whether phagocytosis participates in the protection of insects from viral infection using the natural host-virus interaction between Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila C virus (DCV). Drosophila S2 cells were induced to undergo apoptotic cell death upon DCV infection. However, UV-inactivated virus was unable to cause apoptosis, indicating the need for productive infection for apoptosis induction. S2 cells became susceptible to phagocytosis by hemocyte-derived l(2)mbn cells after viral infection, and the presence of phagocytes in S2 cell cultures reduced viral proliferation. Phagocytosis depended, in part, on caspase activity in S2 cells, as well as the engulfment receptors Draper and integrin βν in phagocytes. To validate the in vivo situation, adult flies were abdominally infected with DCV, followed by the analysis of fly death and viral growth. DCV infection killed flies in a dose-responding manner, and the activation of effector caspases was evident, as revealed by the cleavage of a target protein ectopically expressed in flies. Furthermore, hemocytes isolated from infected flies contained DCV-infected cells, and preinjection of latex beads to inhibit the phagocytic activity of hemocytes accelerated fly death after viral infection. Likewise, viral virulence was exaggerated in flies lacking the engulfment receptors, and was accompanied by the augmented proliferation of virus. Finally, phagocytosis of DCV-infected cells in vitro was inhibited by phosphatidylserine-containing liposome, and virus-infected flies died early when a phosphatidylserine-binding protein was ectopically expressed. Collectively, our study demonstrates that the apoptosis-dependent, phosphatidylserine-mediated phagocytosis of virus-infected cells plays an important role in innate immune responses against viral infection in Drosophila. PMID:26546607

  20. The Influence of Substrate Elastic Modulus on Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Boochoon, Kieran S.; Manarang, Joseph C.; Davis, Joshua T.; McDermott, Alison M.; Foster, William J.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand if a complex process such as phagocytosis is influenced by substrate stiffness, we investigated the influence of substrate elastic modulus on phagocytosis in the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line ARPE-19. RPE cells lie on Bruch’s membrane, directly under the retina, and phagocytose the shed photoreceptor outer segments. Bruch’s membrane is known to increase in stiffness by an order of magnitude with age and thus, this study has potential relevance in explaining retinal changes in age-related macular degeneration. ARPE-19 cells were plated on laminin-coated polyacrylamide substrates of varying elastic modulus. After 14 days in culture, a solution of latex fluorescent beads suspended in PBS was placed in each well. After an incubation time of 4 hours, flow cytometry was performed to determine the number of cells that phagocytosed a bead. The number of ARPE-19 cells that phagocytosed a bead decreased continuously as a function of increasing substrate elastic modulus (p=0.0135), and this was found to be a linear relationship (slope=−0.03305 ± 0.01104, R2 =0.4726 per 10,000 cells). Our results suggest that RPE cells display decreased phagocytosis when grown on firmer substrates, and thus, RPE cells in older eyes, in which Bruch’s membrane is stiffer, may demonstrate decreased phagocytosis. Impaired phagocytosis by RPE cells may contribute to impaired metabolism of photoreceptor outer segments and to development of macular degeneration. Material stiffness may be a critical parameter in the development of neural therapies, including retinal prosthetics and stem cell therapies. PMID:25016484

  1. The IL-12 Response of Primary Human Dendritic Cells and Monocytes to Toxoplasma gondii Is Stimulated by Phagocytosis of Live Parasites Rather Than Host Cell Invasion.

    PubMed

    Tosh, Kevin W; Mittereder, Lara; Bonne-Annee, Sandra; Hieny, Sara; Nutman, Thomas B; Singer, Steven M; Sher, Alan; Jankovic, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    As a major natural host for Toxoplasma gondii, the mouse is widely used for the study of the immune response to this medically important protozoan parasite. However, murine innate recognition of toxoplasma depends on the interaction of parasite profilin with TLR11 and TLR12, two receptors that are functionally absent in humans. This raises the question of how human cells detect and respond to T. gondii. In this study, we show that primary monocytes and dendritic cells from peripheral blood of healthy donors produce IL-12 and other proinflammatory cytokines when exposed to toxoplasma tachyzoites. Cell fractionation studies determined that IL-12 and TNF-α secretion is limited to CD16(+) monocytes and the CD1c(+) subset of dendritic cells. In direct contrast to their murine counterparts, human myeloid cells fail to respond to soluble tachyzoite extracts and instead require contact with live parasites. Importantly, we found that tachyzoite phagocytosis, but not host cell invasion, is required for cytokine induction. Together these findings identify CD16(+) monocytes and CD1c(+) dendritic cells as the major myeloid subsets in human blood-producing innate cytokines in response to T. gondii and demonstrate an unappreciated requirement for phagocytosis of live parasites in that process. This form of pathogen sensing is distinct from that used by mice, possibly reflecting a direct involvement of rodents and not humans in the parasite life cycle.

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum-resident Rab8A GTPase is involved in phagocytosis in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Hanadate, Yuki; Saito-Nakano, Yumiko; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2016-10-01

    Phagocytosis is indispensable for the pathogenesis of the intestinal protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Here, we showed that in E. histolytica Rab8A, which is generally involved in trafficking from the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane in other organisms but was previously identified in phagosomes of the amoeba in the proteomic analysis, primarily resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and participates in phagocytosis. We demonstrated that down-regulation of EhRab8A by small antisense RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing remarkably reduced adherence and phagocytosis of erythrocytes, bacteria and carboxylated latex beads. Surface biotinylation followed by SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the surface expression of several proteins presumably involved in target recognition was reduced in the EhRab8A gene-silenced strain. Further, overexpression of wild-type EhRab8A augmented phagocytosis, whereas expression of the dominant-negative form of EhRab8A resulted in reduced phagocytosis. These results indicated that EhRab8A regulates transport of surface receptor(s) for the prey from the ER to the plasma membrane. To our knowledge, this is the first report that the ER-resident Rab GTPase is involved in phagocytosis through the regulation of trafficking of a surface receptor, supporting a premise of direct involvement of the ER in phagocytosis. PMID:26807810

  3. TLR2 mediates phagocytosis and autophagy through JNK signaling pathway in Staphylococcus aureus-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lei; Wu, Hui-Mei; Ding, Pei-Shan; Liu, Rong-Yu

    2014-04-01

    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is involved in phagocytosis and autophagy to enhance host innate immune response to bacterial infection. TLR2 has been reported to participate in the recognition of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). However, the role of TLR2 in phagocytosis and autophagy in S. aureus-stimulated macrophages and the underlying mechanisms as yet remain unclear. In the present study, stimulation of mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 with S. aureus activated multiple signaling pathways including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Rac1 and triggered autophagy process. Knockdown of TLR2 by siRNA significantly reduced phagocytosis and autophagy of macrophages upon S. aureus infection. Interestingly, TLR2 siRNA markedly attenuated S. aureus-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) but not p38 or extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) in macrophages. Similarly, SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, also down-regulated phagocytosis and autophagy in S. aureus-stimulated macrophages. Furthermore, TLR2 siRNA and SP600125 simultaneous treatment showed similar phagocytosis and autophagy compared to that in TLR2 siRNA treatment alone. Collectively, our results indicate that TLR2 may be critical for phagocytosis and autophagy through JNK signaling pathway, and provide an underlying mechanistic link between innate immune receptor and induction of phagocytosis and autophagy in S. aureus-stimulated macrophages.

  4. Endoplasmic reticulum-resident Rab8A GTPase is involved in phagocytosis in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Hanadate, Yuki; Saito-Nakano, Yumiko; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2016-10-01

    Phagocytosis is indispensable for the pathogenesis of the intestinal protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Here, we showed that in E. histolytica Rab8A, which is generally involved in trafficking from the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane in other organisms but was previously identified in phagosomes of the amoeba in the proteomic analysis, primarily resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and participates in phagocytosis. We demonstrated that down-regulation of EhRab8A by small antisense RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing remarkably reduced adherence and phagocytosis of erythrocytes, bacteria and carboxylated latex beads. Surface biotinylation followed by SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the surface expression of several proteins presumably involved in target recognition was reduced in the EhRab8A gene-silenced strain. Further, overexpression of wild-type EhRab8A augmented phagocytosis, whereas expression of the dominant-negative form of EhRab8A resulted in reduced phagocytosis. These results indicated that EhRab8A regulates transport of surface receptor(s) for the prey from the ER to the plasma membrane. To our knowledge, this is the first report that the ER-resident Rab GTPase is involved in phagocytosis through the regulation of trafficking of a surface receptor, supporting a premise of direct involvement of the ER in phagocytosis.

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum‐resident Rab8A GTPase is involved in phagocytosis in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Hanadate, Yuki; Saito‐Nakano, Yumiko; Nakada‐Tsukui, Kumiko

    2016-01-01

    Summary Phagocytosis is indispensable for the pathogenesis of the intestinal protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Here, we showed that in E. histolytica Rab8A, which is generally involved in trafficking from the trans‐Golgi network to the plasma membrane in other organisms but was previously identified in phagosomes of the amoeba in the proteomic analysis, primarily resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and participates in phagocytosis. We demonstrated that down‐regulation of EhRab8A by small antisense RNA‐mediated transcriptional gene silencing remarkably reduced adherence and phagocytosis of erythrocytes, bacteria and carboxylated latex beads. Surface biotinylation followed by SDS‐PAGE analysis revealed that the surface expression of several proteins presumably involved in target recognition was reduced in the EhRab8A gene‐silenced strain. Further, overexpression of wild‐type EhRab8A augmented phagocytosis, whereas expression of the dominant‐negative form of EhRab8A resulted in reduced phagocytosis. These results indicated that EhRab8A regulates transport of surface receptor(s) for the prey from the ER to the plasma membrane. To our knowledge, this is the first report that the ER‐resident Rab GTPase is involved in phagocytosis through the regulation of trafficking of a surface receptor, supporting a premise of direct involvement of the ER in phagocytosis. PMID:26807810

  6. Type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases of Brassica napus preferentially incorporate oleic acid into triacylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose; Denolf, Peter; Van Audenhove, Katrien; De Bodt, Stefanie; Engelen, Steven; Fahy, Deirdre; Wallis, James G.; Browse, John

    2015-01-01

    DGAT1 enzymes (acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, EC 2.3.1.20) catalyse the formation of triacylglycerols (TAGs), the most abundant lipids in vegetable oils. Thorough understanding of the enzymology of oil accumulation is critical to the goal of modifying oilseeds for improved vegetable oil production. Four isoforms of BnDGAT1, the final and rate-limiting step in triacylglycerol synthesis, were characterized from Brassica napus, one of the world’s most important oilseed crops. Transcriptional profiling of developing B. napus seeds indicated two genes, BnDGAT1-1 and BnDGAT1-2, with high expression and two, BnDGAT1-3 and BnDGAT1-4, with low expression. The activities of each BnDGAT1 isozyme were characterized following expression in a strain of yeast deficient in TAG synthesis. TAG from B. napus seeds contain only 10% palmitic acid (16:0) at the sn-3 position, so it was surprising that all four BnDGAT1 isozymes exhibited strong (4- to 7-fold) specificity for 16:0 over oleic acid (18:1) as the acyl-CoA substrate. However, the ratio of 18:1-CoA to 16:0-CoA in B. napus seeds during the peak period of TAG synthesis is 3:1. When substrate selectivity assays were conducted with 18:1-CoA and 16:0-CoA in a 3:1 ratio, the four isozymes incorporated 18:1 in amounts 2- to 5-fold higher than 16:0. This strong sensitivity of the BnDGAT1 isozymes to the relative concentrations of acyl-CoA substrates substantially explains the observed fatty acid composition of B. napus seed oil. Understanding these enzymes that are critical for triacylglycerol synthesis will facilitate genetic and biotechnological manipulations to improve this oilseed crop. PMID:26195728

  7. Type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases of Brassica napus preferentially incorporate oleic acid into triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose; Denolf, Peter; Van Audenhove, Katrien; De Bodt, Stefanie; Engelen, Steven; Fahy, Deirdre; Wallis, James G; Browse, John

    2015-10-01

    DGAT1 enzymes (acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, EC 2.3.1.20) catalyse the formation of triacylglycerols (TAGs), the most abundant lipids in vegetable oils. Thorough understanding of the enzymology of oil accumulation is critical to the goal of modifying oilseeds for improved vegetable oil production. Four isoforms of BnDGAT1, the final and rate-limiting step in triacylglycerol synthesis, were characterized from Brassica napus, one of the world's most important oilseed crops. Transcriptional profiling of developing B. napus seeds indicated two genes, BnDGAT1-1 and BnDGAT1-2, with high expression and two, BnDGAT1-3 and BnDGAT1-4, with low expression. The activities of each BnDGAT1 isozyme were characterized following expression in a strain of yeast deficient in TAG synthesis. TAG from B. napus seeds contain only 10% palmitic acid (16:0) at the sn-3 position, so it was surprising that all four BnDGAT1 isozymes exhibited strong (4- to 7-fold) specificity for 16:0 over oleic acid (18:1) as the acyl-CoA substrate. However, the ratio of 18:1-CoA to 16:0-CoA in B. napus seeds during the peak period of TAG synthesis is 3:1. When substrate selectivity assays were conducted with 18:1-CoA and 16:0-CoA in a 3:1 ratio, the four isozymes incorporated 18:1 in amounts 2- to 5-fold higher than 16:0. This strong sensitivity of the BnDGAT1 isozymes to the relative concentrations of acyl-CoA substrates substantially explains the observed fatty acid composition of B. napus seed oil. Understanding these enzymes that are critical for triacylglycerol synthesis will facilitate genetic and biotechnological manipulations to improve this oilseed crop.

  8. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and Resolvin D1 Retune the Balance between Amyloid-β Phagocytosis and Inflammation in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mizwicki, Mathew T.; Liu, Guanghao; Fiala, Milan; Magpantay, Larry; Sayre, James; Siani, Avi; Mahanian, Michelle; Weitzman, Rachel; Hayden, Eric; Rosenthal, Mark J.; Nemere, Ilka; Ringman, John; Teplow, David B.

    2014-01-01

    As immune defects in amyloid-β (Aβ) phagocytosis and degradation underlie Aβ deposition and inflammation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain, better understanding of the relation between Aβ phagocytosis and inflammation could lead to promising preventive strategies. We tested two immune modulators in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of AD patients and controls: 1α,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 (1,25D3) and resolvin D1 (RvD1). Both 1,25D3 and RvD1 improved phagocytosis of FAM-Aβ by AD macrophages and inhibited fibrillar Aβ-induced apoptosis. The action of 1,25D3 depended on the nuclear vitamin D and the protein disulfide isomerase A3 receptors, whereas RvD1 required the chemokine receptor, GPR32. The activities of 1,25D3 and RvD1 commonly required intracellular calcium, MEK1/2, PKA, and PI3K signaling; however, the effect of RvD1 was more sensitive to pertussis toxin. In this case study, the AD patients: a) showed significant transcriptional up regulation of IL1RN, ITGB2, and NFκB; and b) revealed two distinct groups when compared to controls: group 1 decreased and group 2 increased transcription of TLRs, IL-1, IL1R1 and chemokines. In the PBMCs/macrophages of both groups, soluble Aβ (sAβ) increased the transcription/secretion of cytokines (e.g., IL1 and IL6) and chemokines (e.g., CCLs and CXCLs) and 1,25D3/RvD1 reversed most of the sAβ effects. However, they both further increased the expression of IL1 in the group 1, sβ-treated cells. We conclude that in vitro, 1,25D3 and RvD1 rebalance inflammation to promote Aβ phagocytosis, and suggest that low vitamin D3 and docosahexaenoic acid intake and/or poor anabolic production of 1,25D3/RvD1 in PBMCs could contribute to AD onset/pathology. PMID:23186989

  9. Investigations of phagocytosis concerning the immunological defence mechanism of Mytilus edulis using a sublethal luminescent bacterial assay (Photobacterium phosphoreum).

    PubMed

    Hansen, P D; Bock, R; Brauer, F

    1991-01-01

    1. A simple method for the determination of phagocytosis activity using mussel hemocytes by measuring the bioluminescence is presented. 2. The immunological defence activity based on phagocytosis is measured and quantified by a luminescent bacterial assay with Photobacterium phosphoreum. 3. The measuring system allows us to establish the stress of the immunological defence mechanism of organisms exposed to chemicals and polluted rivers or sewage. Results with reference substances and the phagocytosis indices of exposed mussels from Norwegian aquaculture plants compared to those of mussels from the German Wadden Sea are given as examples.

  10. Metabolic regulation of triacylglycerol accumulation in the green algae: identification of potential targets for engineering to improve oil yield.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Elton C; Wilkie, Ann C; Kirst, Matias; Rathinasabapathi, Bala

    2016-08-01

    The great need for more sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels has increased our research interests in algal biofuels. Microalgal cells, characterized by high photosynthetic efficiency and rapid cell division, are an excellent source of neutral lipids as potential fuel stocks. Various stress factors, especially nutrient-starvation conditions, induce an increased formation of lipid bodies filled with triacylglycerol in these cells. Here we review our knowledge base on glycerolipid synthesis in the green algae with an emphasis on recent studies on carbon flux, redistribution of lipids under nutrient-limiting conditions and its regulation. We discuss the contributions and limitations of classical and novel approaches used to elucidate the algal triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway and its regulatory network in green algae. Also discussed are gaps in knowledge and suggestions for much needed research both on the biology of triacylglycerol accumulation and possible avenues to engineer improved algal strains. PMID:26801206

  11. A computational search for lipases that can preferentially hydrolyze long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Md Zahid; Barrow, Colin J; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2015-04-15

    Consumption of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids is known to decrease the risk of major cardiovascular events. Lipases, a class of triacylglycerol hydrolases, have been extensively tested to concentrate omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils, under mild enzymatic conditions. However, no lipases with preference for omega-3 fatty acids selectivity have yet been discovered or developed. In this study we performed an exhaustive computational study of substrate-lipase interactions by docking, both covalent and non-covalent, for 38 lipases with a large number of structured triacylglycerols containing omega-3 fatty acids. We identified some lipases that have potential to preferentially hydrolyze omega-3 fatty acids from structured triacylglycerols. However omega-3 fatty acid preferences were found to be modest. Our study provides an explanation for absence of reports of lipases with omega-3 fatty acid hydrolyzing ability and suggests methods for developing these selective lipases.

  12. Metabolic regulation of triacylglycerol accumulation in the green algae: identification of potential targets for engineering to improve oil yield.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Elton C; Wilkie, Ann C; Kirst, Matias; Rathinasabapathi, Bala

    2016-08-01

    The great need for more sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels has increased our research interests in algal biofuels. Microalgal cells, characterized by high photosynthetic efficiency and rapid cell division, are an excellent source of neutral lipids as potential fuel stocks. Various stress factors, especially nutrient-starvation conditions, induce an increased formation of lipid bodies filled with triacylglycerol in these cells. Here we review our knowledge base on glycerolipid synthesis in the green algae with an emphasis on recent studies on carbon flux, redistribution of lipids under nutrient-limiting conditions and its regulation. We discuss the contributions and limitations of classical and novel approaches used to elucidate the algal triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway and its regulatory network in green algae. Also discussed are gaps in knowledge and suggestions for much needed research both on the biology of triacylglycerol accumulation and possible avenues to engineer improved algal strains.

  13. Parabolic relationship between plasma triacylglycerols and LDL-cholesterol in familial combined hyperlipidaemia: the multiple-type hyperlipidaemia explained?

    PubMed

    Brouwers, Martijn C G J; de Graaf, Jacqueline; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M J; Georgieva, Anna M; van der Kallen, Carla J H; Ter Avest, Ewoud; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Stalenhoef, Anton F; de Bruin, Tjerk W A

    2008-03-01

    FCHL (familial combined hyperlipidaemia) is a highly prevalent genetic lipid disorder that accounts for a substantial number of premature cardiovascular events. To date, FCHL has been complicated by the different lipid phenotypes that are present within one family and one individual patient over time. In the present study, we hypothesized that a parabolic relationship between plasma triacylglycerols (triglycerides) and LDL (low-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol can explain this so-called 'multiple-type hyperlipidaemia' in FCHL. Our hypothesis was tested in two well-documented FCHL cohorts [Maastricht (n=145) and Nijmegen (n=299)] that were followed over a 5-year interval. Three groups were constructed depending on plasma triacylglycerols: group A (individuals with both measurements below 1.5 mmol/l), group B (one measurement below and one measurement above 1.5 mmol/l) and group C (both measurement above 1.5 mmol/l). In both male, but not female, cohorts, a significant positive relationship between plasma triacylglycerols and LDL-cholesterol was observed in group A (P=0.02 for Maastricht cohort and P=0.001 for the Nijmegen cohort), a significant negative relationship in group C (P=0.01 for Maastricht cohort and P=0.02 for the Nijmegen cohort), and a relationship intermediate to group A and C in group B. In contrast, both apoB (apolipoprotein B) levels and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease were related with plasma triacylglycerols in a more linear fashion. In conclusion, a parabolic relationship between plasma triacylglycerols and LDL-cholesterol explains the 'multiple-type hyperlipidaemia' in FCHL. In addition, the linear relationship between triacylglycerols and both apoB levels and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease substantiate the use of apoB instead of LDL-cholesterol in the diagnosis of FCHL and the prediction of cardiovascular disease.

  14. Mammary epithelial cell phagocytosis downstream of TGF-β3 is characterized by adherens junction reorganization

    PubMed Central

    Fornetti, J; Flanders, K C; Henson, P M; Tan, A-C; Borges, V F; Schedin, P

    2016-01-01

    After weaning, during mammary gland involution, milk-producing mammary epithelial cells undergo apoptosis. Effective clearance of these dying cells is essential, as persistent apoptotic cells have a negative impact on gland homeostasis, future lactation and cancer susceptibility. In mice, apoptotic cells are cleared by the neighboring epithelium, yet little is known about how mammary epithelial cells become phagocytic or whether this function is conserved between species. Here we use a rat model of weaning-induced involution and involuting breast tissue from women, to demonstrate apoptotic cells within luminal epithelial cells and epithelial expression of the scavenger mannose receptor, suggesting conservation of phagocytosis by epithelial cells. In the rat, epithelial transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is increased during involution, a pathway known to promote phagocytic capability. To test whether TGF-β enhances the phagocytic ability of mammary epithelial cells, non-transformed murine mammary epithelial EpH4 cells were cultured to achieve tight junction impermeability, such as occurs during lactation. TGF-β3 treatment promoted loss of tight junction impermeability, reorganization and cleavage of the adherens junction protein E-cadherin (E-cad), and phagocytosis. Phagocytosis correlated with junction disruption, suggesting junction reorganization is necessary for phagocytosis by epithelial cells. Supporting this hypothesis, epithelial cell E-cad reorganization and cleavage were observed in rat and human involuting mammary glands. Further, in the rat, E-cad cleavage correlated with increased γ-secretase activity and β-catenin nuclear localization. In vitro, pharmacologic inhibitors of γ-secretase or β-catenin reduced the effect of TGF-β3 on phagocytosis to near baseline levels. However, β-catenin signaling through LiCl treatment did not enhance phagocytic capacity, suggesting a model in which both reorganization of cell junctions and

  15. Long-term ritonavir exposure increases fatty acid and glycerol recycling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes as compensatory mechanisms for increased triacylglycerol hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Adler-Wailes, Diane C; Guiney, Evan L; Wolins, Nathan E; Yanovski, Jack A

    2010-05-01

    Lipodystrophy with high nonesterified fatty acid (FA) efflux is reported in humans receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to treat HIV infection. Ritonavir, a common component of HAART, alters adipocyte FA efflux, but the mechanism for this effect is not established. To investigate ritonavir-induced changes in FA flux and recycling through acylglycerols, we exposed differentiated murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes to ritonavir for 14 d. FA efflux, uptake, and incorporation into acylglycerols were measured. To identify a mediator of FA efflux, we measured adipocyte triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL) transcript and protein. To determine whether ritonavir-treated adipocytes increased glycerol backbone synthesis for FA reesterification, we measured labeled glycerol and pyruvate incorporation into triacylglycerol (TAG). Ritonavir-treated cells had increased FA efflux, uptake, and incorporation into TAG (all P < 0.01). Ritonavir increased FA efflux without consistently increasing glycerol release or changing TAG mass, suggesting increased partial TAG hydrolysis. Ritonavir-treated adipocytes expressed significantly more ATGL mRNA (P < 0.05) and protein (P < 0.05). Ritonavir increased glycerol (P < 0.01) but not pyruvate (P = 0.41), utilization for TAG backbone synthesis. Consistent with this substrate utilization, glycerol kinase transcript (required for glycerol incorporation into TAG backbone) was up-regulated (P < 0.01), whereas phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase transcript (required for pyruvate utilization) was down-regulated (P < 0.001). In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, long-term ritonavir exposure perturbs FA metabolism by increasing ATGL-mediated partial TAG hydrolysis, thus increasing FA efflux, and leads to compensatory increases in FA reesterification with glycerol and acylglycerols. These changes in FA metabolism may, in part, explain the increased FA efflux observed in ritonavir-associated lipodystrophy.

  16. Kinetics of the two-step hydrolysis of triacylglycerol by pancreatic lipases.

    PubMed

    Lykidis, A; Mougios, V; Arzoglou, P

    1995-06-15

    Pancreatic lipases catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol in a sequential manner. First, triacylglycerol is hydrolyzed to 1,2-diacylglycerol, which is subsequently converted to 2-monoacylglycerol. We studied the kinetics of trioleoylglycerol hydrolysis by rabbit and human pancreatic lipases. The products (acylglycerols and fatty acid) were analyzed by extraction from the reaction mixture, separation by thin-layer chromatography, and quantification by capillary gas chromatography. The first-order rate constants of trioleoylglycerol and dioleoylglycerol hydrolysis were calculated showing that both enzymes hydrolyze dioleoylglycerol faster than trioleoylglycerol. Using rabbit pancreatic lipase, we found that deoxycholate enhanced dioleoylglycerol hydrolysis to a higher degree than trioleoylglycerol hydrolysis. Colipase increased both rate constants similarly at high deoxycholate concentrations (35 mM), while at low concentrations (5 mM) a selectivity toward trioleoylglycerol was observed. From the variation of the rate constants with respect to temperature, we calculated the apparent activation energies of trioleoylglycerol and dioleoylglycerol hydrolysis to be 59.8 kJ.mol-1 and 53.5 kJ.mol-1, respectively. Upon storage, both rabbit and human pancreatic lipases showed a greater loss of activity toward dioleoylglycerol as compared to trioleoylglycerol, suggesting that different conformational elements of the enzyme molecule are responsible for the interaction with each substrate.

  17. Seasonal accumulation of acetylated triacylglycerols by a freeze-tolerant insect.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Katie E; Thomas, Raymond H; Roxin, Aron; Chen, Eric K Y; Brown, Jason C L; Gillies, Elizabeth R; Sinclair, Brent J

    2014-05-01

    Most animals store energy as long-chain triacylglycerols (lcTAGs). Trace amounts of acetylated triacylglycerols (acTAGs) have been reported in animals, but are not accumulated, likely because they have lower energy density than lcTAGs. Here we report that acTAGs comprise 36% of the neutral lipid pool of overwintering prepupae of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis, while only 17% of the neutral lipid pool is made up of typical lcTAGs. These high concentrations of acTAGs, present only during winter, appear to be synthesized by E. solidaginis and are not found in other freeze-tolerant insects, nor in the plant host. The mixture of acTAGs found in E. solidaginis has a significantly lower melting point than equivalent lcTAGs, and thus remains liquid at temperatures at which E. solidaginis is frozen in the field, and depresses the melting point of aqueous solutions in a manner unusual for neutral lipids. We note that accumulation of acTAGs coincides with preparation for overwintering and the seasonal acquisition of freeze tolerance. This is the first observation of accumulation of acTAGs by an animal, and the first evidence of dynamic interconversion between acTAGs and lcTAGs during development and in response to stress.

  18. Heterogeneous interesterification of triacylglycerols catalyzed by using potassium-doped alumina as a solid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenlei; Chen, Jing

    2014-10-29

    Heterogeneous interesterification of vegetable oils offers an environmentally more attractive option for the modification of edible oils to meet the specifications for certain food applications. In this work, potassium-doped alumina (KNO3/Al2O3) was prepared using an impregnation method, followed by calcinations at a temperature of 700 °C, and was then employed as heterogeneous catalysts for the interesterification of triacylglycerols. The solid catalyst was characterized by means of Hammett titration method, power X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption techniques. It was determined that the catalyst with KNO3 loading of 35% on alumina support and calcined at 700 °C exhibited the best catalytic activities toward the interesterification between soybean oil and methyl stearate under solvent-free conditions. Also, the solid base catalyst was successfully applied to the interesterification of soybean oil and lard blends in a heterogeneous manner. The physicochemical properties of the interesterified products were investigated using gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. It was found that the slip melting point and crystal morphology had a significant variation after the interesterification reaction as a result of the modification in the TAG profile. With the solid base catalyst, an environmentally friendly approach for the interesterification of triacylglycerols in a heterogeneous manner was developed.

  19. Examination of Triacylglycerol Biosynthetic Pathways via De Novo Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses in an Unsequenced Microalga

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Michael T.; Nag, Ambarish; Smolinski, Sharon L.; Darzins, Al; Seibert, Michael; Pienkos, Philip T.

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels derived from algal lipids represent an opportunity to dramatically impact the global energy demand for transportation fuels. Systems biology analyses of oleaginous algae could greatly accelerate the commercialization of algal-derived biofuels by elucidating the key components involved in lipid productivity and leading to the initiation of hypothesis-driven strain-improvement strategies. However, higher-level systems biology analyses, such as transcriptomics and proteomics, are highly dependent upon available genomic sequence data, and the lack of these data has hindered the pursuit of such analyses for many oleaginous microalgae. In order to examine the triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway in the unsequenced oleaginous microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, we have established a strategy with which to bypass the necessity for genomic sequence information by using the transcriptome as a guide. Our results indicate an upregulation of both fatty acid and triacylglycerol biosynthetic machinery under oil-accumulating conditions, and demonstrate the utility of a de novo assembled transcriptome as a search model for proteomic analysis of an unsequenced microalga. PMID:22043295

  20. Hepatic triacylglycerol hydrolysis regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Sapiro, Jessica M; Mashek, Mara T; Greenberg, Andrew S; Mashek, Douglas G

    2009-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that fatty acids generated from intracellular triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolysis may have important roles in intracellular signaling. This study was conducted to determine if fatty acids liberated from TAG hydrolysis regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). Primary rat hepatocyte cultures were treated with adenoviruses overexpressing adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) or adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL) or treated with short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted against ADRP. Subsequent effects on TAG metabolism and PPARalpha activity and target gene expression were determined. Overexpressing ADRP attenuated TAG hydrolysis, whereas siRNA-mediated knockdown of ADRP or ATGL overexpression resulted in enhanced TAG hydrolysis. Results from PPARalpha reporter activity assays demonstrated that decreasing TAG hydrolysis by ADRP overexpression resulted in a 35-60% reduction in reporter activity under basal conditions or in the presence of fatty acids. As expected, PPARalpha target genes were also decreased in response to ADRP overexpression. However, the PPARalpha ligand, WY-14643, was able to restore PPARalpha activity following ADRP overexpression. Despite its effects on PPARalpha, overexpressing ADRP did not affect PPARgamma activity. Enhancing TAG hydrolysis through ADRP knockdown or ATGL overexpression increased PPARalpha activity. These results indicate that TAG hydrolysis and the consequential release of fatty acids regulate PPARalpha activity.

  1. Seasonal accumulation of acetylated triacylglycerols by a freeze-tolerant insect.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Katie E; Thomas, Raymond H; Roxin, Aron; Chen, Eric K Y; Brown, Jason C L; Gillies, Elizabeth R; Sinclair, Brent J

    2014-05-01

    Most animals store energy as long-chain triacylglycerols (lcTAGs). Trace amounts of acetylated triacylglycerols (acTAGs) have been reported in animals, but are not accumulated, likely because they have lower energy density than lcTAGs. Here we report that acTAGs comprise 36% of the neutral lipid pool of overwintering prepupae of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis, while only 17% of the neutral lipid pool is made up of typical lcTAGs. These high concentrations of acTAGs, present only during winter, appear to be synthesized by E. solidaginis and are not found in other freeze-tolerant insects, nor in the plant host. The mixture of acTAGs found in E. solidaginis has a significantly lower melting point than equivalent lcTAGs, and thus remains liquid at temperatures at which E. solidaginis is frozen in the field, and depresses the melting point of aqueous solutions in a manner unusual for neutral lipids. We note that accumulation of acTAGs coincides with preparation for overwintering and the seasonal acquisition of freeze tolerance. This is the first observation of accumulation of acTAGs by an animal, and the first evidence of dynamic interconversion between acTAGs and lcTAGs during development and in response to stress. PMID:24790101

  2. Hyperosmosis and its combination with nutrient-limitation are novel environmental stressors for induction of triacylglycerol accumulation in cells of Chlorella kessleri

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Kazuho; Hayashi, Taihei; Hasegawa, Yuri; Sato, Atsushi; Tsuzuki, Mikio; Sato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Triacylglycerols of oleaginous algae are promising for production of food oils and biodiesel fuel. Air-drying of cells induces triacylglycerol accumulation in a freshwater green alga, Chlorella kessleri, therefore, it seems that dehydration, i.e., intracellular hyperosmosis, and/or nutrient-limitation are key stressors. We explored this possibility in liquid-culturing C. kessleri cells. Strong hyperosmosis with 0.9 M sorbitol or 0.45 M NaCl for two days caused cells to increase the triacylglycerol content in total lipids from 1.5 to 48.5 and 75.3 mol%, respectively, on a fatty acid basis, whereas nutrient-limitation caused its accumulation to 41.4 mol%. Even weak hyperosmosis with 0.3 M sorbitol or 0.15 M NaCl, when nutrient-limitation was simultaneously imposed, induced triacylglycerol accumulation to 61.9 and 65.7 mol%, respectively. Furthermore, culturing in three-fold diluted seawater, the chemical composition of which resembled that of the medium for the combinatory stress, enabled the cells to accumulate triacylglycerol up to 24.7 weight% of dry cells in only three days. Consequently, it was found that hyperosmosis is a novel stressor for triacylglycerol accumulation, and that weak hyperosmosis, together with nutrient-limitation, exerts a strong stimulating effect on triacylglycerol accumulation. A similar combinatory stress would contribute to the triacylglycerol accumulation in air-dried C. kessleri cells. PMID:27184595

  3. Hyperosmosis and its combination with nutrient-limitation are novel environmental stressors for induction of triacylglycerol accumulation in cells of Chlorella kessleri.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Kazuho; Hayashi, Taihei; Hasegawa, Yuri; Sato, Atsushi; Tsuzuki, Mikio; Sato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Triacylglycerols of oleaginous algae are promising for production of food oils and biodiesel fuel. Air-drying of cells induces triacylglycerol accumulation in a freshwater green alga, Chlorella kessleri, therefore, it seems that dehydration, i.e., intracellular hyperosmosis, and/or nutrient-limitation are key stressors. We explored this possibility in liquid-culturing C. kessleri cells. Strong hyperosmosis with 0.9 M sorbitol or 0.45 M NaCl for two days caused cells to increase the triacylglycerol content in total lipids from 1.5 to 48.5 and 75.3 mol%, respectively, on a fatty acid basis, whereas nutrient-limitation caused its accumulation to 41.4 mol%. Even weak hyperosmosis with 0.3 M sorbitol or 0.15 M NaCl, when nutrient-limitation was simultaneously imposed, induced triacylglycerol accumulation to 61.9 and 65.7 mol%, respectively. Furthermore, culturing in three-fold diluted seawater, the chemical composition of which resembled that of the medium for the combinatory stress, enabled the cells to accumulate triacylglycerol up to 24.7 weight% of dry cells in only three days. Consequently, it was found that hyperosmosis is a novel stressor for triacylglycerol accumulation, and that weak hyperosmosis, together with nutrient-limitation, exerts a strong stimulating effect on triacylglycerol accumulation. A similar combinatory stress would contribute to the triacylglycerol accumulation in air-dried C. kessleri cells. PMID:27184595

  4. Differential effects of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial products on morphine induced inhibition of phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Ninkovic; Vidhu, Anand; Raini, Dutta; Zhang, Li; Saluja, Anuj; Meng, Jingjing; Lisa, Koodie; Santanu, Banerjee; Sabita, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Opioid drug abusers have a greater susceptibility to gram positive (Gram (+)) bacterial infections. However, the mechanism underlying opioid modulation of Gram (+) versus Gram (−) bacterial clearance has not been investigated. In this study, we show that opioid treatment resulted in reduced phagocytosis of Gram (+), when compared to Gram (−) bacteria. We further established that LPS priming of chronic morphine treated macrophages leads to potentiated phagocytosis and killing of both Gram (+) and Gram (−) bacteria in a P-38 MAP kinase dependent signaling pathway. In contrast, LTA priming lead to inhibition of both phagocytosis and bacterial killing. This study demonstrates for the first time the differential effects of TLR4 and TLR2 agonists on morphine induced inhibition of phagocytosis. Our results suggest that the incidence and severity of secondary infections with Gram (+) bacteria would be higher in opioid abusers. PMID:26891899

  5. Uncoupling complement C1s activation from C1q binding in apoptotic cell phagocytosis and immunosuppressive capacity.

    PubMed

    Colonna, Lucrezia; Parry, Graham C; Panicker, Sandip; Elkon, Keith B

    2016-02-01

    Complement activation contributes to inflammation in many diseases, yet it also supports physiologic apoptotic cells (AC) clearance and its downstream immunosuppressive effects. The roles of individual complement components in AC phagocytosis have been difficult to dissect with artificially depleted sera. Using human in vitro systems and the novel antibody complement C1s inhibitor TNT003, we uncoupled the role of the enzymatic activation of the classical pathway from the opsonizing role of C1q in mediating a) the phagocytosis of early and late AC, and b) the immunosuppressive capacity of early AC. We found that C1s inhibition had a small impact on the physiologic clearance of early AC, leaving their immunosuppressive properties entirely unaffected, while mainly inhibiting the phagocytosis of late apoptotic/secondary necrotic cells. Our data suggest that C1s inhibition may represent a valuable therapeutic strategy to control classical pathway activation without causing significant AC accumulation in diseases without defects in AC phagocytosis.

  6. Differential effects of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial products on morphine induced inhibition of phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Ninkovic, Jana; Jana, Ninkovic; Anand, Vidhu; Vidhu, Anand; Dutta, Raini; Raini, Dutta; Zhang, Li; Saluja, Anuj; Meng, Jingjing; Koodie, Lisa; Lisa, Koodie; Banerjee, Santanu; Santanu, Banerjee; Roy, Sabita; Sabita, Roy

    2016-02-19

    Opioid drug abusers have a greater susceptibility to gram positive (Gram (+)) bacterial infections. However, the mechanism underlying opioid modulation of Gram (+) versus Gram (-) bacterial clearance has not been investigated. In this study, we show that opioid treatment resulted in reduced phagocytosis of Gram (+), when compared to Gram (-) bacteria. We further established that LPS priming of chronic morphine treated macrophages leads to potentiated phagocytosis and killing of both Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria in a P-38 MAP kinase dependent signaling pathway. In contrast, LTA priming lead to inhibition of both phagocytosis and bacterial killing. This study demonstrates for the first time the differential effects of TLR4 and TLR2 agonists on morphine induced inhibition of phagocytosis. Our results suggest that the incidence and severity of secondary infections with Gram (+) bacteria would be higher in opioid abusers.

  7. Phagocytosis of sperm by follicle cells of the carnivorous sponge Asbestopluma occidentalis (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Riesgo, Ana

    2010-06-01

    During spermatogenesis of the carnivorous sponge Asbestopluma occidentalis, follicle cells that lined the spermatocysts phagocytosed unreleased mature sperm. Such follicle cells are part of the complex envelope that limits spermatocysts of A. occidentalis, which is also comprised of a collagen layer, a thick layer of intertwined cells, and spicules. Follicle cells showed vesicles containing single phagocytosed spermatozoa within their cytoplasm. Additionally, lipids and other inclusions were observed within the cytoplasm of follicle cells. It is likely that follicle cells recapture nutrients by phagocytosing spermatozoa and use them to form lipids and other inclusions. Such sperm phagocytosis is usually performed in higher invertebrates and vertebrates by Sertoli cells that are located in the testis wall. While Sertoli cells develop a wide range of functions such as creating a blood-testis barrier, providing crucial factors to ensure correct progression of spermatogenesis, and phagocytosis of aberrant, degenerating, and unreleased sperm cells, sponge follicle cells may only display phagocytotic activity on spermatogenic cells.

  8. Bacterial phagocytosis by macrophages from lipopolysaccharide responder and nonresponder mouse strains.

    PubMed Central

    Cuffini, A; Carlone, N A; Forni, G

    1980-01-01

    The phagocytic capacity of macrophages from C3H/H3J mice was assessed against lipopolysaccharide-producing (Escherichia coli) and -nonproducing (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Despite their gene-coded unresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide endotoxin and lymphokines and their defective tumoricidal activity, proteose peptone-induced C3H/HeJ macrophages did not display a defective phagocytic capacity, but rather displayed an enhanced phagocytosis of both bacterial strains compared with macrophages from closely related C3H/HeN mice. Unstimulated peritoneal resident C3H/HeJ macrophages, on the other hand, displayed a normal phagocytic activity toward E. coli and enhanced phagocytosis toward S. aureus. PMID:6995321

  9. Phagocytosis and Killing of Carbapenem-Resistant ST258 Klebsiella pneumoniae by Human Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Scott D; Porter, Adeline R; Dorward, David W; Brinkworth, Amanda J; Chen, Liang; Kreiswirth, Barry N; DeLeo, Frank R

    2016-05-15

    Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains classified as multilocus sequence type 258 (ST258) are among the most widespread multidrug-resistant hospital-acquired pathogens. Treatment of infections caused by these organisms is difficult, and mortality is high. The basis for the success of ST258, outside of antibiotic resistance, remains incompletely determined. Here we tested the hypothesis that ST258K. pneumoniae has enhanced capacity to circumvent killing by human neutrophils, the primary cellular defense against bacterial infections. There was limited binding and uptake of ST258 by human neutrophils, and correspondingly, there was limited killing of bacteria. On the other hand, transmission electron microscopy revealed that any ingested organisms were degraded readily within neutrophil phagosomes, thus indicating that survival in the neutrophil assays is due to limited phagocytosis, rather than to microbicide resistance after uptake. Our findings suggest that enhancing neutrophil phagocytosis is a potential therapeutic approach for treatment of infection caused by carbapenem-resistant ST258K. pneumoniae.

  10. Phagoptosis - Cell Death By Phagocytosis - Plays Central Roles in Physiology, Host Defense and Pathology.

    PubMed

    Brown, G C; Vilalta, A; Fricker, M

    2015-01-01

    Cell death by phagocytosis - termed 'phagoptosis' for short - is a form of cell death caused by the cell being phagocytosed i.e. recognised, engulfed and digested by another cell. Phagocytes eat cells that: i) expose 'eat-me' signals, ii) lose 'don't-eat-me' signals, and/or iii) bind opsonins. Live cells may express such signals as a result of cell stress, damage, activation or senescence, which can result in phagoptosis. Phagoptosis may be the most abundant form of cell death physiologically as it mediates erythrocyte turnover. It also regulates: reproduction by phagocytosis of sperm, development by removal stem cells and excess cells, and immunity by removal of activated neutrophils and T cells. Phagoptosis mediates the recognition of non-self and host defence against pathogens and cancer cells. However, in inflammatory conditions, excessive phagoptosis may kill our cells, leading to conditions such as hemophagy and neuronal loss.

  11. N-truncation and pyroglutaminylation enhances the opsonizing capacity of Aβ-peptides and facilitates phagocytosis by macrophages and microglia.

    PubMed

    Condic, Mateja; Oberstein, Timo Jan; Herrmann, Martin; Reimann, Mareike Carola; Kornhuber, Johannes; Maler, Juan Manuel; Spitzer, Philipp

    2014-10-01

    Abnormal accumulations of amyloid-β (Aβ)-peptides are one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The precursor of the Aβ-peptides, the amyloid precursor protein (APP), is also found in peripheral blood cells, but its function in these cells remains elusive. We previously observed that mononuclear phagocytes release Aβ-peptides during activation and phagocytosis, suggesting a physiologic role in inflammatory processes. Here, we show that supplementing the media with soluble N-terminally truncated Aβ(2-40) and Aβ(2-42) as well as Aβ(1-42) induced the phagocytosis of polystyrene particles (PSPs) by primary human monocytes. If the PSPs were pre-incubated with Aβ-peptides, phagocytosis was induced by all tested Aβ-peptide species. N-terminally truncated Aβ(x-42) induced the phagocytosis of PSPs significantly more effectively than did Aβ(x-40). Similarly, the phagocytosis of Escherichia coli by GM-CSF- and M-CSF-elicited macrophages as well as microglia was particularly facilitated by pre-incubation with N-terminally truncated Aβ(x-42). The proinflammatory polarization of monocytes was indicated by the reduced MSRI expression and IL-10 secretion after phagocytosis of PSPs coated with Aβ(1-42), Aβ(2-42) and Aβ(3p-42). Polarization of the macrophages by GM-CSF reduced the phagocytic activity, but it did not affect the capabilities of Aβ-peptides to opsonize prey. Taken together, Aβ-peptides support phagocytosis as soluble factors and act as opsonins. Differential effects among the Aβ-peptide variants point to distinct mechanisms of interaction among monocytes/macrophages, prey and Aβ-peptides. A proinflammatory polarization induced by the phagocytosis of Aβ-peptide coated particles may provide a model for the chronic inflammatory reaction and sustained plaque deposition in AD.

  12. CD44 Antibody Inhibition of Macrophage Phagocytosis Targets Fcγ Receptor- and Complement Receptor 3-Dependent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Amash, Alaa; Wang, Lin; Wang, Yawen; Bhakta, Varsha; Fairn, Gregory D; Hou, Ming; Peng, Jun; Sheffield, William P; Lazarus, Alan H

    2016-04-15

    Targeting CD44, a major leukocyte adhesion molecule, using specific Abs has been shown beneficial in several models of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The mechanisms contributing to the anti-inflammatory effects of CD44 Abs, however, remain poorly understood. Phagocytosis is a key component of immune system function and can play a pivotal role in autoimmune states where CD44 Abs have shown to be effective. In this study, we show that the well-known anti-inflammatory CD44 Ab IM7 can inhibit murine macrophage phagocytosis of RBCs. We assessed three selected macrophage phagocytic receptor systems: Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), complement receptor 3 (CR3), and dectin-1. Treatment of macrophages with IM7 resulted in significant inhibition of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized RBCs. The inhibition of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis was at an early stage in the phagocytic process involving both inhibition of the binding of the target RBC to the macrophages and postbinding events. This CD44 Ab also inhibited CR3-mediated phagocytosis of C3bi-opsonized RBCs, but it did not affect the phagocytosis of zymosan particles, known to be mediated by the C-type lectin dectin-1. Other CD44 Abs known to have less broad anti-inflammatory activity, including KM114, KM81, and KM201, did not inhibit FcγR-mediated phagocytosis of RBCs. Taken together, these findings demonstrate selective inhibition of FcγR and CR3-mediated phagocytosis by IM7 and suggest that this broadly anti-inflammatory CD44 Ab inhibits these selected macrophage phagocytic pathways. The understanding of the immune-regulatory effects of CD44 Abs is important in the development and optimization of therapeutic strategies for the potential treatment of autoimmune conditions.

  13. CD44 Antibody Inhibition of Macrophage Phagocytosis Targets Fcγ Receptor- and Complement Receptor 3-Dependent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Amash, Alaa; Wang, Lin; Wang, Yawen; Bhakta, Varsha; Fairn, Gregory D; Hou, Ming; Peng, Jun; Sheffield, William P; Lazarus, Alan H

    2016-04-15

    Targeting CD44, a major leukocyte adhesion molecule, using specific Abs has been shown beneficial in several models of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The mechanisms contributing to the anti-inflammatory effects of CD44 Abs, however, remain poorly understood. Phagocytosis is a key component of immune system function and can play a pivotal role in autoimmune states where CD44 Abs have shown to be effective. In this study, we show that the well-known anti-inflammatory CD44 Ab IM7 can inhibit murine macrophage phagocytosis of RBCs. We assessed three selected macrophage phagocytic receptor systems: Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), complement receptor 3 (CR3), and dectin-1. Treatment of macrophages with IM7 resulted in significant inhibition of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized RBCs. The inhibition of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis was at an early stage in the phagocytic process involving both inhibition of the binding of the target RBC to the macrophages and postbinding events. This CD44 Ab also inhibited CR3-mediated phagocytosis of C3bi-opsonized RBCs, but it did not affect the phagocytosis of zymosan particles, known to be mediated by the C-type lectin dectin-1. Other CD44 Abs known to have less broad anti-inflammatory activity, including KM114, KM81, and KM201, did not inhibit FcγR-mediated phagocytosis of RBCs. Taken together, these findings demonstrate selective inhibition of FcγR and CR3-mediated phagocytosis by IM7 and suggest that this broadly anti-inflammatory CD44 Ab inhibits these selected macrophage phagocytic pathways. The understanding of the immune-regulatory effects of CD44 Abs is important in the development and optimization of therapeutic strategies for the potential treatment of autoimmune conditions. PMID:26944929

  14. Ticagrelor potentiates adenosine-induced stimulation of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Alsharif, Khalaf F; Thomas, Mark R; Judge, Heather M; Khan, Haroon; Prince, Lynne R; Sabroe, Ian; Ridger, Victoria C; Storey, Robert F

    2015-08-01

    In the PLATO study, ticagrelor was associated with fewer pulmonary infections and subsequent deaths than clopidogrel. Neutrophils are a first-line defence against bacterial lung infection; ticagrelor inhibits cellular uptake of adenosine, a known regulator of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. We assessed whether the inhibition of adenosine uptake by ticagrelor influences neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Neutrophils and erythrocytes were isolated from healthy volunteers. Concentration-dependent effects of adenosine on IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis were investigated and the involved receptors identified using adenosine receptor antagonists. The modulatory effects of ticagrelor on adenosine-mediated changes in neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae were determined in the presence of erythrocytes to replicate physiological conditions of cellular adenosine uptake. Low-concentration adenosine (10(-8)M) significantly increased IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis (% neutrophil chemotaxis: adenosine 28.7%±4.4 vs. control 22.6%±2.4; p<0.01) by acting on the high-affinity A1 receptor. Erythrocytes attenuated the effect of adenosine, although this was preserved by ticagrelor and dipyridamole (another inhibitor of adenosine uptake) but not by control or by cangrelor. Similarly, in the presence of erythrocytes, a low concentration of adenosine (10(-8)M) significantly increased neutrophil phagocytic index compared to control when ticagrelor was present (37.6±6.6 vs. 28.0±6.6; p=0.028) but had no effect in the absence of ticagrelor. We therefore conclude that the inhibition of cellular adenosine reuptake by ticagrelor potentiates the effects of a nanomolar concentration of adenosine on neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. This represents a potential mechanism by which ticagrelor could influence host defence against bacterial lung infection.

  15. MerTK Is a Functional Regulator of Myelin Phagocytosis by Human Myeloid Cells.

    PubMed

    Healy, Luke M; Perron, Gabrielle; Won, So-Yoon; Michell-Robinson, Mackenzie A; Rezk, Ayman; Ludwin, Samuel K; Moore, Craig S; Hall, Jeffery A; Bar-Or, Amit; Antel, Jack P

    2016-04-15

    Multifocal inflammatory lesions featuring destruction of lipid-rich myelin are pathologic hallmarks of multiple sclerosis. Lesion activity is assessed by the extent and composition of myelin uptake by myeloid cells present in such lesions. In the inflamed CNS, myeloid cells are comprised of brain-resident microglia, an endogenous cell population, and monocyte-derived macrophages, which infiltrate from the systemic compartment. Using microglia isolated from the adult human brain, we demonstrate that myelin phagocytosis is dependent on the polarization state of the cells. Myelin ingestion is significantly enhanced in cells exposed to TGF-β compared with resting basal conditions and markedly reduced in classically activated polarized cells. Transcriptional analysis indicated that TGF-β-treated microglia closely resembled M0 cells. The tyrosine kinase phagocytic receptor MerTK was one of the most upregulated among a select number of differentially expressed genes in TGF-β-treated microglia. In contrast, MerTK and its known ligands, growth arrest-specific 6 and Protein S, were downregulated in classically activated cells. MerTK expression and myelin phagocytosis were higher in CNS-derived microglia than observed in monocyte-derived macrophages, both basally and under all tested polarization conditions. Specific MerTK inhibitors reduced myelin phagocytosis and the resultant anti-inflammatory biased cytokine responses for both cell types. Defining and modulating the mechanisms that regulate myelin phagocytosis has the potential to impact lesion and disease evolution in multiple sclerosis. Relevant effects would include enhancing myelin clearance, increasing anti-inflammatory molecule production by myeloid cells, and thereby permitting subsequent tissue repair. PMID:26962228

  16. Phagocytosis of neuronal debris by microglia is associated with neuronal damage in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Huizinga, Ruth; van der Star, Baukje J; Kipp, Markus; Jong, Rosa; Gerritsen, Wouter; Clarner, Tim; Puentes, Fabiola; Dijkstra, Christine D; van der Valk, Paul; Amor, Sandra

    2012-03-01

    Neuroaxonal degeneration is a pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) contributing to irreversible neurological disability. Pathological mechanisms leading to axonal damage include autoimmunity to neuronal antigens. In actively demyelinating lesions, myelin is phagocytosed by microglia and blood-borne macrophages, whereas the fate of degenerating or damaged axons is unclear. Phagocytosis is essential for clearing neuronal debris to allow repair and regeneration. However, phagocytosis may lead to antigen presentation and autoimmunity, as has been described for neuroaxonal antigens. Despite this notion, it is unknown whether phagocytosis of neuronal antigens occurs in MS. Here, we show using novel, well-characterized antibodies to axonal antigens, that axonal damage is associated with HLA-DR expressing microglia/macrophages engulfing axonal bulbs, indicative of axonal damage. Neuronal proteins were frequently observed inside HLA-DR(+) cells in areas of axonal damage. In vitro, phagocytosis of neurofilament light (NF-L), present in white and gray matter, was observed in human microglia. The number of NF-L or myelin basic protein (MBP) positive cells was quantified using the mouse macrophage cell line J774.2. Intracellular colocalization of NF-L with the lysosomal membrane protein LAMP1 was observed using confocal microscopy confirming that NF-L is taken up and degraded by the cell. In vivo, NF-L and MBP was observed in cerebrospinal fluid cells from patients with MS, suggesting neuronal debris is drained by this route after axonal damage. In summary, neuroaxonal debris is engulfed, phagocytosed, and degraded by HLA-DR(+) cells. Although uptake is essential for clearing neuronal debris, phagocytic cells could also play a role in augmenting autoimmunity to neuronal antigens.

  17. Ticagrelor potentiates adenosine-induced stimulation of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Alsharif, Khalaf F.; Thomas, Mark R.; Judge, Heather M.; Khan, Haroon; Prince, Lynne R.; Sabroe, Ian; Ridger, Victoria C.; Storey, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    In the PLATO study, ticagrelor was associated with fewer pulmonary infections and subsequent deaths than clopidogrel. Neutrophils are a first-line defence against bacterial lung infection; ticagrelor inhibits cellular uptake of adenosine, a known regulator of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. We assessed whether the inhibition of adenosine uptake by ticagrelor influences neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Neutrophils and erythrocytes were isolated from healthy volunteers. Concentration-dependent effects of adenosine on IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis were investigated and the involved receptors identified using adenosine receptor antagonists. The modulatory effects of ticagrelor on adenosine-mediated changes in neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae were determined in the presence of erythrocytes to replicate physiological conditions of cellular adenosine uptake. Low-concentration adenosine (10− 8 M) significantly increased IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis (% neutrophil chemotaxis: adenosine 28.7% ± 4.4 vs. control 22.6% ± 2.4; p < 0.01) by acting on the high-affinity A1 receptor. Erythrocytes attenuated the effect of adenosine, although this was preserved by ticagrelor and dipyridamole (another inhibitor of adenosine uptake) but not by control or by cangrelor. Similarly, in the presence of erythrocytes, a low concentration of adenosine (10− 8 M) significantly increased neutrophil phagocytic index compared to control when ticagrelor was present (37.6 ± 6.6 vs. 28.0 ± 6.6; p = 0.028) but had no effect in the absence of ticagrelor. We therefore conclude that the inhibition of cellular adenosine reuptake by ticagrelor potentiates the effects of a nanomolar concentration of adenosine on neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. This represents a potential mechanism by which ticagrelor could influence host defence against bacterial lung infection. PMID:25869515

  18. Viral Inhibition of Bacterial Phagocytosis by Human Macrophages: Redundant Role of CD36

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Grace E.; Pounce, Zoe C.; Wallington, Joshua C.; Bastidas-Legarda, Leidy Y.; Nicholas, Ben; Chidomere, Chiamaka; Robinson, Emily C.; Martin, Kirstin; Tocheva, Anna S.; Christodoulides, Myron; Djukanovic, Ratko; Wilkinson, Tom M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are essential to maintaining lung homoeostasis and recent work has demonstrated that influenza-infected lung macrophages downregulate their expression of the scavenger receptor CD36. This receptor has also been shown to be involved in phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae, a primary agent associated with pneumonia secondary to viral infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of CD36 in the effects of viral infection on macrophage phagocytic function. Human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were exposed to H3N2 X31 influenza virus, M37 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or UV-irradiated virus. No infection of MDM was seen upon exposure to UV-irradiated virus but incubation with live X31 or M37 resulted in significant levels of viral detection by flow cytometry or RT-PCR respectively. Infection resulted in significantly diminished uptake of S. pneumoniae by MDM and significantly decreased expression of CD36 at both the cell surface and mRNA level. Concurrently, there was a significant increase in IFNβ gene expression in response to infection and we observed a significant decrease in bacterial phagocytosis (p = 0.031) and CD36 gene expression (p = 0.031) by MDM cultured for 24 h in 50IU/ml IFNβ. Knockdown of CD36 by siRNA resulted in decreased phagocytosis, but this was mimicked by transfection reagent alone. When MDM were incubated with CD36 blocking antibodies no effect on phagocytic ability was observed. These data indicate that autologous IFNβ production by virally-infected cells can inhibit bacterial phagocytosis, but that decreased CD36 expression by these cells does not play a major role in this functional deficiency. PMID:27701435

  19. Phagocytosis of neuronal debris by microglia is associated with neuronal damage in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Huizinga, Ruth; van der Star, Baukje J; Kipp, Markus; Jong, Rosa; Gerritsen, Wouter; Clarner, Tim; Puentes, Fabiola; Dijkstra, Christine D; van der Valk, Paul; Amor, Sandra

    2012-03-01

    Neuroaxonal degeneration is a pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) contributing to irreversible neurological disability. Pathological mechanisms leading to axonal damage include autoimmunity to neuronal antigens. In actively demyelinating lesions, myelin is phagocytosed by microglia and blood-borne macrophages, whereas the fate of degenerating or damaged axons is unclear. Phagocytosis is essential for clearing neuronal debris to allow repair and regeneration. However, phagocytosis may lead to antigen presentation and autoimmunity, as has been described for neuroaxonal antigens. Despite this notion, it is unknown whether phagocytosis of neuronal antigens occurs in MS. Here, we show using novel, well-characterized antibodies to axonal antigens, that axonal damage is associated with HLA-DR expressing microglia/macrophages engulfing axonal bulbs, indicative of axonal damage. Neuronal proteins were frequently observed inside HLA-DR(+) cells in areas of axonal damage. In vitro, phagocytosis of neurofilament light (NF-L), present in white and gray matter, was observed in human microglia. The number of NF-L or myelin basic protein (MBP) positive cells was quantified using the mouse macrophage cell line J774.2. Intracellular colocalization of NF-L with the lysosomal membrane protein LAMP1 was observed using confocal microscopy confirming that NF-L is taken up and degraded by the cell. In vivo, NF-L and MBP was observed in cerebrospinal fluid cells from patients with MS, suggesting neuronal debris is drained by this route after axonal damage. In summary, neuroaxonal debris is engulfed, phagocytosed, and degraded by HLA-DR(+) cells. Although uptake is essential for clearing neuronal debris, phagocytic cells could also play a role in augmenting autoimmunity to neuronal antigens. PMID:22161990

  20. Toll-like receptor 4 deficiency impairs microglial phagocytosis of degenerating axons.

    PubMed

    Rajbhandari, Labchan; Tegenge, Million Adane; Shrestha, Shiva; Ganesh Kumar, Nishant; Malik, Adeel; Mithal, Aditya; Hosmane, Suneil; Venkatesan, Arun

    2014-12-01

    Microglia are rapidly activated in the central nervous system (CNS) in response to a variety of injuries, including inflammation, trauma, and stroke. In addition to modulation of the innate immune response, a key function of microglia is the phagocytosis of dying cells and cellular debris, which can facilitate recovery. Despite emerging evidence that axonal debris can pose a barrier to regeneration of new axons in the CNS, little is known of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie clearance of degenerating CNS axons. We utilize a custom micropatterned microfluidic system that enables robust microglial-axon co-culture to explore the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in microglial phagocytosis of degenerating axons. We find that pharmacologic and genetic disruption of TLR4 blocks induction of the Type-1 interferon response and inhibits phagocytosis of axon debris in vitro. Moreover, TLR4-dependent microglial clearance of unmyelinated axon debris facilitates axon outgrowth. In vivo, microglial phagocytosis of CNS axons undergoing Wallerian degeneration in a dorsal root axotomy model is impaired in adult mice in which TLR4 has been deleted. Since purinergic receptors can influence TLR4-mediated signaling, we also explored a role for the microglia P2 receptors and found that the P2X7R contributes to microglial clearance of degenerating axons. Overall, we identify TLR4 as a key player in axonal debris clearance by microglia, thus creating a more permissive environment for axonal outgrowth. Our findings have significant implications for the development of protective and regenerative strategies for the many inflammatory, traumatic, and neurodegenerative conditions characterized by CNS axon degeneration.

  1. MerTK Is a Functional Regulator of Myelin Phagocytosis by Human Myeloid Cells.

    PubMed

    Healy, Luke M; Perron, Gabrielle; Won, So-Yoon; Michell-Robinson, Mackenzie A; Rezk, Ayman; Ludwin, Samuel K; Moore, Craig S; Hall, Jeffery A; Bar-Or, Amit; Antel, Jack P

    2016-04-15

    Multifocal inflammatory lesions featuring destruction of lipid-rich myelin are pathologic hallmarks of multiple sclerosis. Lesion activity is assessed by the extent and composition of myelin uptake by myeloid cells present in such lesions. In the inflamed CNS, myeloid cells are comprised of brain-resident microglia, an endogenous cell population, and monocyte-derived macrophages, which infiltrate from the systemic compartment. Using microglia isolated from the adult human brain, we demonstrate that myelin phagocytosis is dependent on the polarization state of the cells. Myelin ingestion is significantly enhanced in cells exposed to TGF-β compared with resting basal conditions and markedly reduced in classically activated polarized cells. Transcriptional analysis indicated that TGF-β-treated microglia closely resembled M0 cells. The tyrosine kinase phagocytic receptor MerTK was one of the most upregulated among a select number of differentially expressed genes in TGF-β-treated microglia. In contrast, MerTK and its known ligands, growth arrest-specific 6 and Protein S, were downregulated in classically activated cells. MerTK expression and myelin phagocytosis were higher in CNS-derived microglia than observed in monocyte-derived macrophages, both basally and under all tested polarization conditions. Specific MerTK inhibitors reduced myelin phagocytosis and the resultant anti-inflammatory biased cytokine responses for both cell types. Defining and modulating the mechanisms that regulate myelin phagocytosis has the potential to impact lesion and disease evolution in multiple sclerosis. Relevant effects would include enhancing myelin clearance, increasing anti-inflammatory molecule production by myeloid cells, and thereby permitting subsequent tissue repair.

  2. Haemophilus ducreyi Inhibits Phagocytosis by U-937 Cells, a Human Macrophage-Like Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Gwendolyn E.; Dutro, Susan M.; Totten, Patricia A.

    2001-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi is a gram-negative obligate human pathogen that causes the genital ulcer disease chancroid. Chancroid lesions are deep necrotic ulcers with an immune cell infiltrate that includes macrophages. Despite the presence of these phagocytic cells, chancroid ulcers can persist for months and live H. ducreyi can be isolated from these lesions. To analyze the interaction of H. ducreyi with macrophages, we investigated the ability of H. ducreyi strain 35000 to adhere to, invade, and survive within U-937 cells, a human macrophage-like cell line. We found that although H. ducreyi strain 35000 adhered efficiently to U-937 cells, few bacteria were internalized, suggesting that H. ducreyi avoids phagocytosis by human macrophages. The few bacteria that were phagocytosed in these experiments were rapidly killed. We also found that H. ducreyi inhibits the phagocytosis of a secondary target (opsonized sheep red blood cells). Antiphagocytic activity was found in logarithmic, stationary-phase, and plate-grown cultures and was associated with whole, live bacteria but not with heat-killed cultures, sonicates, or culture supernatants. Phagocytosis was significantly inhibited after a 15-min exposure to H. ducreyi, and a multiplicity of infection of approximately 1 CFU per macrophage was sufficient to cause a significant reduction in phagocytosis by U-937 cells. Finally, all of nine H. ducreyi strains tested were antiphagocytic, suggesting that this is a common virulence mechanism for this organism. This finding suggests a mechanism by which H. ducreyi avoids killing and clearance by macrophages in chancroid lesions and inguinal lymph nodes. PMID:11447144

  3. Induction of mycobacterial proteins during phagocytosis and heat shock: a time interval analysis.

    PubMed

    Alavi, M R; Affronti, L F

    1994-05-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis survives macrophage bactericidal activities by mechanisms that may include induction of stress proteins. We sought to determine whether the synthesis of any mycobacterial proteins is increased during phagocytosis and whether any of these proteins are also up-regulated during heat shock. Protein synthesis by M. tuberculosis H37Ra during phagocytosis by the mouse macrophage cell line IC-21, and during heat shock at 45 and 48 degrees C, was monitored at various time intervals using 35S-labeled methionine/cysteine and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Our data suggest the existence of certain common elements in the stress response of mycobacteria to the three stress stimuli. This apparent similarity was best characterized by the up-regulation of a 25-kDa protein after exposure to each of the stress conditions. Furthermore, this 25-kDa protein and a 37-kDa protein that was also synthesized during phagocytosis appeared to be extracellular because they were preferentially solubilized when infected macrophages were lysed with 0.5% NP-40. PMID:8182341

  4. Rheb1-mTORC1 maintains macrophage differentiation and phagocytosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomin; Li, Minghao; Gao, Yanan; Gao, Juan; Yang, Wanzhu; Liang, Haoyue; Ji, Qing; Li, Yanxin; Liu, Hanzhi; Huang, Jian; Cheng, Tao; Yuan, Weiping

    2016-06-10

    Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb1) is a small GTPase and is known to be a direct activator of mTORC1. Dysregulation of Rheb1 has been shown to impair the cellular-energetic state and cell homeostasis. However, the role of Rheb1 in monocytes/macrophages differentiation and maturation is not clear. Here, we investigate the role of Rheb1 in mouse myelopoiesis using a Rheb1 conditional deletion murine model. We found that the absolute number of macrophages decreased in the bone marrow (BM) of Rheb1-deficient mice. Loss of Rheb1 inhibited the monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation process. Additionally, Rheb1 deletion reduced phagocytosis ability of macrophages by inhibiting the mTORC1 signaling pathway. Furthermore, 3BDO (an activator of mTORC1) rescued the phagocytosis ability of Rheb1-deficient macrophages. Thus, Rheb1 is critical for macrophage production and phagocytosis and executes these activities possibly via mTORC1-dependent pathway.

  5. High-fluoride promoted phagocytosis-induced apoptosis in a matured ameloblast-like cell line.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Zhang, Yanli; Zheng, Dongdong; Hao, Ying; Snead, Malcolm L; Duan, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis and phagocytosis are important physiologic activities occurring during ameloblast differentiation. We have previously found that excess fluoride inhibited ameloblasts endocytotic functions. Here, we hypothesized that increasing amounts of fluoride may affect ameloblast phagocytotic function during their differentiation. Using cell culture, we first induced maturation of the mouse ameloblast-like LS8 cells by treatment with exogenous retinoic acid (RA) and dexamethasone (DEX). We measured their phagocytotic activity by fluorescent microscopy using a live cell visualization station. We found that ameloblast-like LS8 cells matured with RA/DEX treatment and the increasing amounts of fluoride demonstrated the up-regulated expression of the phagocytotic marker proteins, LAMP1 and CD68. A connection between phagocytosis and apoptosis was confirmed by the increased number of phagocytotic vacuole-like structures and the heterochromatin margination phenomenon observed in the RA/DEX with NaF treatment group. The increase in albumin uptake by ameloblasts was confirmed using whole organ culture of incisor tooth germs. Here, in fluoride treated tooth germs, mature canonical ameloblasts showed greater amounts of albumin uptake, which was accompanied by decreased expression of the anti-apoptosis marker, Bcl-2 along with up-regulated expression of CD68. From these observations, we inferred that high doses of fluoride may cause apoptosis by increasing the phagocytosis of protein particles in mature-stage ameloblasts and loss of Bcl-2 signals might be involved in this process.

  6. Effect of dialysate fluids on phagocytosis and killing by normal neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, D M; Sheppard, K J; Morgan, A G; Fletcher, J

    1987-01-01

    Inadequate host defenses may partly explain the problem of recurrent peritonitis in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. It has been suggested that these defenses may be adversely affected by the fluids used for dialysis, and so we examined the effects of unused, effluent, and infected peritoneal dialysis fluids on phagocytosis and killing by normal neutrophils. We used a clinical isolate of Staphylococcus epidermidis as the test organism, as this organism is the most commonly cultured in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis peritonitis; we also used a fungal species, Candida guilliermondii. There was no phagocytosis of either organism in unused dialysate because of lack of opsonins and low pH. Phagocytosis in effluent dialysate did not occur because of inadequate opsonin levels and was variable in infected effluents, depending on quantities of immunoglobulins present. Intracellular killing of both test organisms was normal in unused dialysate in the presence of 5% normal serum, but was reduced in effluent and infected dialysates because of factors inhibiting killing by neutrophils. These factors adversely affected the killing of S. epidermidis more than that of C. guilliermondii. These results may explain why peritonitis recurs, particularly peritonitis due to S. epidermidis, because organisms could be sequestered within the neutrophils and thus be protected from antibiotic action. Reinfection of the peritoneal cavity would then take place following neutrophil breakdown, causing a clinical relapse. PMID:3624441

  7. MFG-E8 mediates primary phagocytosis of viable neurons during neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Fricker, Michael; Neher, Jonas J; Zhao, Jing-Wei; Théry, Clotilde; Tolkovsky, Aviva M; Brown, Guy C

    2012-02-22

    Milk-fat globule EGF factor-8 (MFG-E8, SED1, lactadherin) is known to mediate the phagocytic removal of apoptotic cells by bridging phosphatidylserine (PS)-exposing cells and the vitronectin receptor (VR) on phagocytes. However, we show here that MFG-E8 can mediate phagocytosis of viable neurons during neuroinflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), thereby causing neuronal death. In vitro, inflammatory neuronal loss is independent of apoptotic pathways, and is inhibited by blocking the PS/MFG-E8/VR pathway (by adding PS blocking antibodies, annexin V, mutant MFG-E8 unable to bind VR, or VR antagonist). Neuronal loss is absent in Mfge8 knock-out cultures, but restored by adding recombinant MFG-E8, without affecting inflammation. In vivo, LPS-induced neuronal loss is reduced in the striatum of Mfge8 knock-out mice or by coinjection of an MFG-E8 receptor (VR) inhibitor into the rat striatum. Our data show that blocking MFG-E8-dependent phagocytosis preserves live neurons, implying that phagocytosis actively contributes to neuronal death during brain inflammation.

  8. Role of SpdA in Cell Spreading and Phagocytosis in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Marco; Brochetta, Cristiana; Marchetti, Anna; Bodinier, Romain; Brückert, Franz; Cosson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum is a widely used model to study molecular mechanisms controlling cell adhesion, cell spreading on a surface, and phagocytosis. In this study we isolated and characterize a new mutant created by insertion of a mutagenic vector in the heretofore uncharacterized spdA gene. SpdA-ins mutant cells produce an altered, slightly shortened version of the SpdA protein. They spread more efficiently than WT cells when allowed to adhere to a glass substrate, and phagocytose particles more efficiently. On the contrary, a functional spdA knockout mutant where a large segment of the gene was deleted phagocytosed less efficiently and spread less efficiently on a substrate. These phenotypes were highly dependent on the cellular density, and were most visible at high cell densities, where secreted quorum-sensing factors inhibiting cell motility, spreading and phagocytosis are most active. These results identify the involvement of SpdA in the control of cell spreading and phagocytosis. The underlying molecular mechanisms, as well as the exact link between SpdA and cell spreading, remain to be established. PMID:27512991

  9. STUDIES OF PHAGOCYTOSIS OF GROUP A STREPTOCOCCI BY POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUCOCYTES IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, James G.; Church, Alice B.

    1960-01-01

    Studies have been made on phagocytosis and killing of Group A streptococci during mixing with suspensions of leucocytes in vitro. Under appropriate test conditions an anti-phagocytic effect can be demonstrated for the streptococcal hyaluronic acid capsule as well as for its M protein. The results obtained suggest an explanation for the suitability of human, but not rabbit, blood for opsonophagocytic tests designed to measure type-specific streptococcal antibodies. Human sera contain a factor which counteracts the anti-phagocytic effects of streptococcal hyaluronic acid capsules, and hence human blood serves well for detection of antibodies which combine with the only other phagocytosis-resisting component of this microorganism, namely M protein. In contrast, rabbit sera contain none of this factor, and addition of antibody to M protein to phagocytic test systems employing rabbit serum does not necessarily render the streptococci susceptible to engulfment by white cells, since the hyaluronic acid capsule may continue to interfere with phagocytosis. The nature of the human serum factor which opsonizes encapsulated streptococci is unknown. It does not appear to be an antibody or an enzyme capable of depolymerizing hyaluronic acid. PMID:13714578

  10. Target shape dependence in a simple model of receptor-mediated endocytosis and phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Richards, David M.; Endres, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Phagocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis are vitally important particle uptake mechanisms in many cell types, ranging from single-cell organisms to immune cells. In both processes, engulfment by the cell depends critically on both particle shape and orientation. However, most previous theoretical work has focused only on spherical particles and hence disregards the wide-ranging particle shapes occurring in nature, such as those of bacteria. Here, by implementing a simple model in one and two dimensions, we compare and contrast receptor-mediated endocytosis and phagocytosis for a range of biologically relevant shapes, including spheres, ellipsoids, capped cylinders, and hourglasses. We find a whole range of different engulfment behaviors with some ellipsoids engulfing faster than spheres, and that phagocytosis is able to engulf a greater range of target shapes than other types of endocytosis. Further, the 2D model can explain why some nonspherical particles engulf fastest (not at all) when presented to the membrane tip-first (lying flat). Our work reveals how some bacteria may avoid being internalized simply because of their shape, and suggests shapes for optimal drug delivery. PMID:27185939

  11. Morphological evidence of neutrophil-tumor cell phagocytosis (cannibalism) in human gastric adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Caruso, R A; Muda, A O; Bersiga, A; Rigoli, L; Inferrera, C

    2002-01-01

    The phenomenon of neutrophil-tumor cell emperipolesis or phagocytosis has been documented by light microscopy in various human carcinomas, but little is known about the cellular pathological processes and the morphological changes involved. In an attempt to clarify the nature of this phenomenon, the authors' ultrastructural studies on the relationships among neutrophils and tumor cells in human gastric carcinomas are reviewed and analyzed. At the electron microscopy level, apoptotic neutrophils were found within vacuoles of adenocarcinoma cells in 2 cases. They showed either early apoptotic morphology with perinuclear chromatin aggregation but cytoplasm integrity or late apoptotic morphology with uniform, collapsed nucleus and tightly packed cytoplasmic granules. A light microscopy review of 200 cases of resected gastric carcinomas identified 22 cases (11%) that were characterized by neutrophil-tumor cell phagocytosis (cannibalism). TUNEL staining confirmed the presence of apoptotic neutrophils within the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. This study provides light and electron microscopic evidence of apoptotic neutrophils phagocytosed by gastric adenocarcinoma cells. The morphological features of neutrophil-tumor cell phagocytosis (cannibalism) would suggest a particular mechanism of tumor-immune escape in human gastric carcinoma. PMID:12396242

  12. Active phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Ra) by T lymphocytes (Jurkat cells).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Zhu, Qi; Shi, Ming; Liu, Yang; Ma, Lei; Yang, Yining; Feng, Dongyun; Dai, Wen; Zhang, Lin; Kang, Tao; Chen, Ping; He, Ying; Liu, Tingting; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Wenjing; Zhi, Jin; Feng, Guodong; Zhao, Gang

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to co-culture Jurkat T lymphocytes with inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb H37Ra), explore whether T lymphocytes could phagocytose H37Ra cells, and determine the underlying mechanism. Jurkat T lymphocytes were co-cultured with H37Ra cells, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, electron microscopy, and flow cytometry techniques were used to identify phagocytosis and elucidate its mechanism. After Jurkat T lymphocytes phagocytosed H37Ra cells, the cell body became larger, with abundant cytoplasm, the portion of the nucleus closest to the bacterium deformed, long and short pseudopodia were extended, and the folds of the cell membrane formed depressions that created phagocytic vesicles surrounding the bacterium. The macropinocytosis inhibitor amiloride and the cytoskeletal inhibitor cytochalasin D were found to inhibit phagocytic efficacy; serum complements might enhance phagocytosis through opsonization. Jurkat T lymphocytes could actively phagocytose inactivated Mtb via the macropinocytotic mechanism. Actin remodeling played an important role in the macropinocytotic process. Serum complements may regulate phagocytosis.

  13. Fc-receptor induced cell spreading during frustrated phagocytosis in J774A.1 macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovari, Daniel; Curtis, Jennifer; Wei, Wenbin

    2014-03-01

    Phagocytosis is the process where by cells engulf foreign particles. It is the primary mechanism through which macrophages and neutrophils (white blood cells) eliminate pathogens and debris from the body. The behavior is the result of a cascade of chemical and mechanical cues, which result in the actin-driven expansion of the cell's membrane around its target. For macrophages undergoing Fc-mediated phagocytosis, we show that above a minimum threshold the spreading rate and maximum cell-target contact area are independent of the target's opsonin density. Qualitatively, macrophage phagocytic spreading is similar to the spreading of other cell types (e.g. fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and Dict.d.). Early spreading is most likely the result of ``passive'' alignment of the cell to the target surface. This is followed by an active expansion period driven by actin. Finally upon reaching a maximum contact area, typically 2-3 times the size of ``non-activated'' cells, macrophages often undergo a period of rapid contraction not reported in other cell types. We hypothesize that this, as yet unexplained, transition may be specific to the chemical and mechanical machinery associated with phagocytosis. This work was funded by NSF grant PHYS 0848797 and NSF grant DMR 0820382.

  14. Phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity in lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) leucocytes analysed by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Haugland, Gyri T; Jakobsen, Ragnhild Aakre; Vestvik, Nils; Ulven, Kristian; Stokka, Lene; Wergeland, Heidrun I

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we have isolated leucocytes from peripheral blood, head kidney and spleen from lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus L.), and performed functional studies like phagocytosis and respiratory burst, as well as morphological and cytochemical analyses. Different leucocytes were identified, such as lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages and polymorphonuclear cells with bean shaped or bilobed nuclei. In addition, cells with similar morphology as described for dendritic cells in trout were abundant among the isolated leucocytes. Flow cytometry was successfully used for measuring phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity. The phagocytic capacity and ability were very high, and cells with different morphology in all three leucocyte preparations phagocytised beads rapidly. Due to lack of available cell markers, the identity of the phagocytic cells could not be determined. The potent non-specific phagocytosis was in accordance with a high number of cells positive for myeloperoxidase, an enzyme involved in oxygen-dependent killing mechanism present in phagocytic cells. Further, high respiratory burst activity was present in the leucocytes samples, verifying a potent oxygen- dependent degradation. At present, the specific antibody immune response could not be measured, as immunoglobulin or B-cells have not yet been isolated. Therefore, analyses of the specific immune response in this fish species await further clarification. The present study presents the first analyses of lumpsucker immunity and also the first within the order Scopaeniformes.

  15. Junctate boosts phagocytosis by recruiting endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores near phagosomes.

    PubMed

    Guido, Daniele; Demaurex, Nicolas; Nunes, Paula

    2015-11-15

    Local intracellular Ca(2+) elevations increase the efficiency of phagocytosis, a process that is essential for innate and adaptive immunity. These local Ca(2+) elevations are generated in part by the store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) sensor STIM1, which recruits endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cisternae to phagosomes and opens phagosomal Ca(2+) channels at ER-phagosome junctions. However, residual ER-phagosome contacts and periphagosomal Ca(2+) hotspots remain in Stim1(-/-) cells. Here, we tested whether junctate (also called ASPH isoform 8), a molecule that targets STIM1 to ER-plasma-membrane contacts upon Ca(2+)-store depletion, cooperates with STIM1 at phagosome junctions. Junctate expression in Stim1(-/-) and Stim1(-/-); Stim2(-/-) phagocytic fibroblasts increased phagocytosis and periphagosomal Ca(2+) elevations, yet with only a minimal impact on global SOCE. These Ca(2+) hotspots were only marginally reduced by the SOCE channel blocker lanthanum chloride (La(3+)) but were abrogated by inositol trisphosphate receptor inhibitors 2-APB and xestospongin-C, revealing that unlike STIM1-mediated hotspots, junctate-mediated Ca(2+) originates predominantly from periphagosomal Ca(2+) stores. Accordingly, junctate accumulates near phagosomes and elongates ER-phagosome junctions in Stim1(-/-) cells. Thus, junctate mediates an alternative mechanism for generating localized Ca(2+) elevations within cells, promoting Ca(2+) release from internal stores recruited to phagosomes, thereby boosting phagocytosis.

  16. FcγRIIB mediates the inhibitory effect of aggregated α-synuclein on microglial phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yu Ree; Kang, Seo-Jun; Kim, Jin-Mo; Lee, Seung-Jae; Jou, Ilo; Joe, Eun-Hye; Park, Sang Myun

    2015-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease. Although the etiology of PD has not yet been fully understood, accumulating evidence indicates that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the progression of PD. α-Synuclein (α-Syn) has been considered to be a key player of the pathogenesis of PD, and recent reports that prion-like propagation of misfolded α-syn released from neurons may play an important role in the progression of PD have led to increased attention to the studies elucidating the roles of extracellular α-syn in the CNS. Extracellular α-syn has also been reported to regulate microglial inflammatory response. In this study, we demonstrated that aggregated α-syn inhibited microglial phagocytosis by activating SHP-1. SHP-1 activation was also observed in A53T α-syn transgenic mice. In addition, aggregated α-syn bound to FcγRIIB on microglia, inducing SHP-1 activation, further inhibiting microglial phagocytosis. Aggregated α-syn upregulated FcγRIIB expression in microglia and upregulated FcγRIIB was also observed in A53T α-syn transgenic mice. These data suggest that aggregated α-syn released from neurons dysregulates microglial immune response through inhibiting microglial phagocytosis, further causing neurodegeneration observed in PD. The interaction of aggregated α-syn and FcγRIIB and further SHP-1 activation can be a new therapeutic target against PD.

  17. Alginate-Derived Oligosaccharide Inhibits Neuroinflammation and Promotes Microglial Phagocytosis of β-Amyloid.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Shi, Xu-Yang; Bi, De-Cheng; Fang, Wei-Shan; Wei, Gao-Bin; Xu, Xu

    2015-09-16

    Alginate from marine brown algae has been widely applied in biotechnology. In this work, the effects of alginate-derived oligosaccharide (AdO) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced neuroinflammation and microglial phagocytosis of Aβ were studied. We found that pretreatment of BV2 microglia with AdO prior to LPS/Aβ stimulation led to a significant inhibition of production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. We further demonstrated that AdO remarkably attenuated the LPS-activated overexpression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB in BV2 cells. In addition to the impressive inhibitory effect on neuroinflammation, we also found that AdO promoted the phagocytosis of Aβ through its interaction with TLR4 in microglia. Our results suggested that AdO exerted the inhibitory effect on neuroinflammation and the promotion effect on microglial phagocytosis, indicating its potential as a nutraceutical or therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD).

  18. Effects of pentachlorophenol on survival of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) and phagocytosis by their immunoactive coelomocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J.; Venables, B.J.

    1998-12-01

    Earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, exposed for 96 h to filter paper saturated with five nominal concentrations of pentachlorophenol, exhibited a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of 25.0 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} and corresponding whole worm body burden-based 50% lethal dose (LD50) of 877.7 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass. Linear regression modeling showed that worms increased body concentrations (BC = {micro}g PCP/g dry tissue mass) with increasing exposure concentrations (EC) according to BC = 113.5 + 29.5EC. Phagocytosis of yeast cells by immunoactive coelomocytes was suppressed only at body concentrations (863.3 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass) that approximated the calculated LD50 and overlapped those demonstrating lethality, indicating a sharp transition between sublethal and lethal toxicity. An exposure concentration of 15 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} produced significant suppression of phagocytosis of yeast cells by immunoactive coelomocytes. However, the average measured body burden from this group approximated the estimated LD50, indicating a sharp toxic response slope. Exposure to 10 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} with a corresponding body concentration of 501.3 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass did not affect phagocytosis. The importance of body burden data is emphasized.

  19. Phagocytosis in earthworms: An environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess immunotoxic potential of contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J.; Venables, B.J.; Callahan, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Phagocytosis, a host-defense mechanism phylogenetically conserved throughout the animal kingdom, by earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) coelomocytes has potential as a surrogate for vertebrates to be used as an environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess sublethal immunotoxic risks of contaminated soils to environmental (eg. higher wildlife) and public health. Coelomocytes can be exposed in vivo to complex contaminated parent soils by placing earthworms in situ at hazardous waste sites (HWS) or into soil samples and their dilutions with artificial soil (AS) in the laboratory, or in vitro to soil extracts and their fractionations. Here the authors report on phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils from a wood treatment HWS, PCP-spiked AS and PCP treated filter paper (FP). HWS soil was diluted to 25% with AS to a sublethal concentration (ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) and earthworms exposed for 14d at 10 C under light conditions. AS was spiked at ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1} PCP and earthworms were similarly exposed. Controls for both consisted of earthworms exposed to 100% AS. Earthworms were exposed to FP treated with a sublethal PCP concentration (15 {micro}g cm{sup {minus}2}) at 10 C under dark conditions for 96H. Controls were similarly exposed without PCP. Phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to HWS soil, spiked AS and treated FP was suppressed 37, 41 and 29%, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of PCP body burdens and exposure protocols.

  20. Resistance to Malaria by Enhanced Phagocytosis of Erythrocytes in LMP7-deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xuefeng; Imai, Takashi; Chou, Bin; Tu, Liping; Himeno, Kunisuke; Suzue, Kazutomo; Hirai, Makoto; Taniguchi, Tomoyo; Okada, Hiroko; Shimokawa, Chikako; Hisaeda, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    General cellular functions of proteasomes occur through protein degradation, whereas the specific function of immunoproteasomes is the optimization of antigen processing associated with MHC class I. We and others previously reported that deficiency in subunits of immunoproteasomes impaired the activation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, resulting in higher susceptibility to tumor and infections. We demonstrated that CD8+ T cells contributed to protection against malaria parasites. In this study, we evaluated the role of immunoproteasomes in the course of infection with rodent malaria parasites. Unexpectedly, Plasmodium yoelii infection of mice deficient in LMP7, a catalytic subunit of immunoproteasomes, showed lower parasite growth in the early phase of infection and lower lethality compared with control mice. The protective characteristics of LMP7-deficient mice were not associated with enhanced immune responses, as the mutant mice showed comparable or diminished activation of innate and acquired immunity. The remarkable difference was observed in erythrocytes instead of immune responses. Parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs) purified from LMP7-deficient mice were more susceptible to phagocytosis by macrophages compared with those from wild-type mice. The susceptibility of pRBC to phagocytosis appeared to correlate with deformity of the membrane structures that were only observed after infection. Our results suggest that RBCs of LMP7-deficient mice were more likely to deform in response to infection with malaria parasites, presumably resulting in higher susceptibility to phagocytosis and in the partial resistance to malaria. PMID:23527234

  1. Nucleosomes inhibit phagocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes by peritoneal macrophages from MRL+/+ lupus-prone mice.

    PubMed

    Laderach, D; Bach, J F; Koutouzov, S

    1998-12-01

    The nucleosome, the basic structure of chromatin and normal product of cell apoptosis, plays a pivotal role both in the induction and the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Nucleosomes have been found to circulate at high levels in patients with SLE and apoptosis of lymphoid cells is increased during human and murine lupus. In this study, we examined the presence of possible defects in clearance mechanisms of apoptotic cells in murine lupus, and questioned further whether nucleosomes could compromise this phagocytic process. There did not appear to be any intrinsic functional defect of macrophages from young MRL+/+ lupus-prone mice to recognize and phagocytose apoptotic thymocytes. Nucleosomes, as a mimic of increased cell apoptotsis in vivo, induced a strong, dose-dependent, inhibition of phagocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes by young, pre-autoimmune, macrophages of MRL+/+ mice, whereas macrophages of non-autoimmune C3H mice only exhibited a trend to inhibition. The nucleosome-elicited inhibitory effect persisted during the development of the autoimmune response and appeared to be specific for the molecular mechanisms involved in macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Our data suggest that nucleosome elicited inhibition of phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by MRL+/+ macrophages before the onset of the autoimmune response contribute, in a positive loop, to sustain and/or augment the levels of circulating (and potentially immunogenic) nucleosomes in lupus.

  2. In vitro phagocytosis of exogenous collagen by fibroblasts from the periodontal ligament: an electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, E L; Brunette, D M; Melcher, A H

    1979-01-01

    There have been numerous electron microscopic reports of apparent phagocytosis of collagen by fibroblasts and other cells in vivo. We have developed an in vitro system which, to the best of our knowledge, will permit for the first time the study of regulatory mechanisms governing phagocytosis and digestion of collagen fibres. Cells were cultured from explants of monkey periodontal ligament, subcultured, and grown to confluence in alpha-MEM plus 15% fetal calf serum plus antibiotics. The confluent cells were then cultured together with minced rat tail tendon collagen in alpha-MEM lacking proline, lysine, glycine and fetal calf serum for up to 7 days, after which they were processed for electron microscopy. Intracellular collagen profiles could be seen in cultured cells that were associated with exogenous collagen fibrils as early as 24 hours after addition of the collagen. Through electron microscopic examination of serial sections of the culture, we have demonstrated: (1) that fibroblasts can phagocytose collagen; (2) that the observed intracellular collagen is not the result of aggregation of endogenous synthesized collagen; (3) that it is not possible to base a decision as to whether a collagen fibril has been phagocytosed in whole or in part by the type of vesicle with which it is associated; (4) that cleavage of collagen into small pieces may not be a necessary prelude to its phagocytosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 (cont.) Fig. 4 Fig. 6 (cont.) Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:108237

  3. ‘Obesity’ is healthy for cetaceans? Evidence from pervasive positive selection in genes related to triacylglycerol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengfei; Chen, Zhuo; Xu, Shixia; Ren, Wenhua; Zhou, Kaiya; Yang, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Cetaceans are a group of secondarily adapted marine mammals with an enigmatic history of transition from terrestrial to fully aquatic habitat and subsequent adaptive radiation in waters around the world. Numerous physiological and morphological cetacean characteristics have been acquired in response to this drastic habitat transition; for example, the thickened blubber is one of the most striking changes that increases their buoyancy, supports locomotion, and provides thermal insulation. However, the genetic basis underlying the blubber thickening in cetaceans remains poorly explored. Here, 88 candidate genes associated with triacylglycerol metabolism were investigated in representative cetaceans and other mammals to test whether the thickened blubber matched adaptive evolution of triacylglycerol metabolism-related genes. Positive selection was detected in 41 of the 88 candidate genes, and functional characterization of these genes indicated that these are involved mainly in triacylglycerol synthesis and lipolysis processes. In addition, some essential regulatory genes underwent significant positive selection in cetacean-specific lineages, whereas no selection signal was detected in the counterpart terrestrial mammals. The extensive occurrence of positive selection in triacylglycerol metabolism-related genes is suggestive of their essential role in secondary adaptation to an aquatic life, and further implying that ‘obesity’ might be an indicator of good health for cetaceans. PMID:26381091

  4. Lowering effect of firefly squid powder on triacylglycerol content and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Morita, Ritsuko; Shirai, Yoko; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Terashima, Teruya; Ushikubo, Shun; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Effects of dietary firefly squid on serum and liver lipid levels were investigated. Male Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 5% freeze-dried firefly squid or Japanese flying squid for 2 weeks. There was no significant difference in the liver triacylglycerol level between the control and Japanese flying squid groups, but the rats fed the firefly squid diet had a significantly lower liver triacylglycerol content than those fed the control diet. No significant difference was observed in serum triacylglycerol levels between the control and firefly squid groups. The rats fed the firefly squid had a significantly lower activity of liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase compared to the rats fed the control diet. There was no significant difference in liver fatty acid synthetase activity among the three groups. Hepatic gene expression and lipogenic enzyme activity were investigated; a DNA microarray showed that the significantly enriched gene ontology category of down-regulated genes in the firefly squid group was "lipid metabolic process". The firefly squid group had lower mRNA level of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase compared to the controls. These results suggest that an intake of firefly squid decreases hepatic triacylglycerol in rats, and the reduction of mRNA level and enzyme activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase might be related to the mechanisms.

  5. FRYING STABILITY OF PURIFIED MID-OLEIC SUNFLOWER OIL TRIACYLGLYCEROLS WITH ADDED PURE TOCOPHEROLS AND TOCOPHEROL MIXTURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the effects of the addition of pure tocopherols to triacylglycerols, alpha, gamma, and delta tocopherols were added singly and in various combinations to stripped mid-oleic sunflower oil (SMOSUN). Tortilla chips were fried in the treated oils and then aged at ambient temperature to det...

  6. Influence of specific fatty acids on the asymmetric distribution of saturated fatty acids in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Force, Enrique; Ruiz-López, Noemi; Garcés, Rafael

    2009-02-25

    The 1,3-random-2-random theory was proposed several years ago to explain the fatty acid distribution in vegetable oil triacylglycerols. However, by demonstrating an asymmetry between positions sn-1 and sn-3 in olive oil, cocoa butter, sunflower oil, etc., a number of studies have shown that this theory does not hold true for some oils and fatty acids. Accordingly, the distribution of fatty acids in sunflower triacylglycerols has been studied, calculating the alpha coefficient of asymmetry in several combinations of standard linoleic, high-oleic, and high-stearic sunflower oils. The results obtained from the oils of these lines and from single seed oil samples indicate that the asymmetry for saturated fatty acids is greater in high-oleic than in standard linoleic backgrounds. Hence, the distribution of the fatty acids within the triacylglycerol molecule appears to depend not only on the fatty acid under study but also on the other fatty acids in the oil. Thus, it is demonstrated for the first time that certain fatty acids can influence the distribution of other fatty acids within triacylglycerols.

  7. Quantification of the molecular species of diacylglycerols,triacylglycerols and tetraacylglycerols in lesquerella (Physaria fendleri) oil by HPLC and MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten diacylglycerols (DAG), 74 triacylglycerols (TAG) and 13 tetraacylglycerols in the seed oil of Physaria fendleri were recently identified by HPLC and MS. These acylglycerols (AG) were quantified by HPLC with evaporative light scattering detector and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of th...

  8. Second-Hand Cigarette Smoke Impairs Bacterial Phagocytosis in Macrophages by Modulating CFTR Dependent Lipid-Rafts

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Inzer; Ji, Changhoon; Vij, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Introduction First/Second-hand cigarette-smoke (FHS/SHS) exposure weakens immune defenses inducing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Hence, we evaluated if SHS induced changes in membrane/lipid-raft (m-/r)-CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) expression/activity is a potential mechanism for impaired bacterial phagocytosis in COPD. Methods RAW264.7 murine macrophages were exposed to freshly prepared CS-extract (CSE) containing culture media and/or Pseudomonas-aeruginosa-PA01-GFP for phagocytosis (fluorescence-microscopy), bacterial survival (colony-forming-units-CFU), and immunoblotting assays. The CFTR-expression/activity and lipid-rafts were modulated by transient-transfection or inhibitors/inducers. Next, mice were exposed to acute/sub-chronic-SHS or room-air (5-days/3-weeks) and infected with PA01-GFP, followed by quantification of bacterial survival by CFU-assay. Results We investigated the effect of CSE treatment on RAW264.7 cells infected by PA01-GFP and observed that CSE treatment significantly (p<0.01) inhibits PA01-GFP phagocytosis as compared to the controls. We also verified this in murine model, exposed to acute/sub-chronic-SHS and found significant (p<0.05, p<0.02) increase in bacterial survival in the SHS-exposed lungs as compared to the room-air controls. Next, we examined the effect of impaired CFTR ion-channel-activity on PA01-GFP infection of RAW264.7 cells using CFTR172-inhibitor and found no significant change in phagocytosis. We also similarly evaluated the effect of a CFTR corrector-potentiator compound, VRT-532, and observed no significant rescue of CSE impaired PA01-GFP phagocytosis although it significantly (p<0.05) decreases CSE induced bacterial survival. Moreover, induction of CFTR expression in macrophages significantly (p<0.03) improves CSE impaired PA01-GFP phagocytosis as compared to the control. Next, we verified the link between m

  9. [Effect of cigarette smoke extract on phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus by macrophages].

    PubMed

    Ak, Sibel; Gürses, Serdar Abidin; Eser, Bekir Engin

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogen that causes community acquired and nosocomial infections worldwide. Phagocytosis by macrophages plays an important role in the first line defense against infections caused by S.aureus. On the other hand, the conducted studies have indicated that cigarette smoke has negative effects on both innate and acquired immune responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cigarette smoke on macrophage viability and their capacity of S.aureus phagocytosis. For this purpose THP-1 cell lines (human leukemic monocyte cell culture) were used and after the differentiation of the cells with PMA (phorbol myristate acetate) treatment, the macrophages were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 2- and 4-hours at concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%. Afterwards, the cells were stained with propidium iodide and the viability of the cells was analyzed by a flow cytometer. Two different methods were used to investigate the effect of CSE on the phagocytosis of S.aureus. The first one was the classical bacteriological method, in which macrophages were exposed to CSE for 2 hours in five different concentrations and were infected with 100 MOI (multiplicity of infection) S.aureus. After 1 hour of incubation, macrophages were lysed with PBS-0.1% Triton X-100 and plated on Luria-Bertani (LB) agar following serial dilutions. Newly formed colonies were counted and the number of bacteria phagocytosed were evaluated as colony forming units (CFU). The second method for the detection of phagocytosis was flow cytometric analysis in which SYBR(®) Green-labeled bacteria were used. To confirm that the macrophages were infected, bacteria were stained with SYBR(®) Green and macrophages were analyzed following infection via flow cytometry. Macrophages were exposed to 10% and 50% CSE and infected with bacteria stained with SYBR(®) Green. The level of phagocytosis was analyzed by flow cytometry in terms of median

  10. [Effect of cigarette smoke extract on phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus by macrophages].

    PubMed

    Ak, Sibel; Gürses, Serdar Abidin; Eser, Bekir Engin

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogen that causes community acquired and nosocomial infections worldwide. Phagocytosis by macrophages plays an important role in the first line defense against infections caused by S.aureus. On the other hand, the conducted studies have indicated that cigarette smoke has negative effects on both innate and acquired immune responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cigarette smoke on macrophage viability and their capacity of S.aureus phagocytosis. For this purpose THP-1 cell lines (human leukemic monocyte cell culture) were used and after the differentiation of the cells with PMA (phorbol myristate acetate) treatment, the macrophages were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 2- and 4-hours at concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%. Afterwards, the cells were stained with propidium iodide and the viability of the cells was analyzed by a flow cytometer. Two different methods were used to investigate the effect of CSE on the phagocytosis of S.aureus. The first one was the classical bacteriological method, in which macrophages were exposed to CSE for 2 hours in five different concentrations and were infected with 100 MOI (multiplicity of infection) S.aureus. After 1 hour of incubation, macrophages were lysed with PBS-0.1% Triton X-100 and plated on Luria-Bertani (LB) agar following serial dilutions. Newly formed colonies were counted and the number of bacteria phagocytosed were evaluated as colony forming units (CFU). The second method for the detection of phagocytosis was flow cytometric analysis in which SYBR(®) Green-labeled bacteria were used. To confirm that the macrophages were infected, bacteria were stained with SYBR(®) Green and macrophages were analyzed following infection via flow cytometry. Macrophages were exposed to 10% and 50% CSE and infected with bacteria stained with SYBR(®) Green. The level of phagocytosis was analyzed by flow cytometry in terms of median

  11. An Energy-Independent Pro-longevity Function of Triacylglycerol in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kevin W.; Deng, Xiexiong; Li, Pan; Benning, Christoph; Williams, Barry L.; Kuo, Min-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular triacylglycerol (TAG) is a ubiquitous energy storage lipid also involved in lipid homeostasis and signaling. Comparatively, little is known about TAG’s role in other cellular functions. Here we show a pro-longevity function of TAG in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In yeast strains derived from natural and laboratory environments a correlation between high levels of TAG and longer chronological lifespan was observed. Increased TAG abundance through the deletion of TAG lipases prolonged chronological lifespan of laboratory strains, while diminishing TAG biosynthesis shortened lifespan without apparently affecting vegetative growth. TAG-mediated lifespan extension was independent of several other known stress response factors involved in chronological aging. Because both lifespan regulation and TAG metabolism are conserved, this cellular pro-longevity function of TAG may extend to other organisms. PMID:26907989

  12. Effects of CO2 plant extracts on triacylglycerol oxidation in Atlantic salmon during cooking and storage.

    PubMed

    Tarvainen, Marko; Nuora, Anu; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2015-04-15

    Increasing concern of consumers on the safety of synthetic food additives has created high interest in natural preservatives in food industry. Plant extracts produced by supercritical CO2 technology from rosemary (R), oregano (O) and an antimicrobial blend (AB) consisting of seven different plants were studied for their effects on lipid oxidation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fish pieces were marinated with rapeseed oil containing 0, 1, 2 or 4 g of plant extracts/kg of fish. After cooking the pieces were stored in refrigerator for 26 days. Peroxide values (PVs) were determined and oxidised triacylglycerols (TAGs) measured by UHPLC-ESI/MS at 0, 7, 14 and 26 days of storage. During the first two weeks of storage, AB delayed oxidation by at least one week compared to control samples as shown by PVs (<10 meq. O2) and by the oxidised TAGs. Oregano and rosemary showed also some antioxidative potential.

  13. Effects of CO2 plant extracts on triacylglycerol oxidation in Atlantic salmon during cooking and storage.

    PubMed

    Tarvainen, Marko; Nuora, Anu; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2015-04-15

    Increasing concern of consumers on the safety of synthetic food additives has created high interest in natural preservatives in food industry. Plant extracts produced by supercritical CO2 technology from rosemary (R), oregano (O) and an antimicrobial blend (AB) consisting of seven different plants were studied for their effects on lipid oxidation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fish pieces were marinated with rapeseed oil containing 0, 1, 2 or 4 g of plant extracts/kg of fish. After cooking the pieces were stored in refrigerator for 26 days. Peroxide values (PVs) were determined and oxidised triacylglycerols (TAGs) measured by UHPLC-ESI/MS at 0, 7, 14 and 26 days of storage. During the first two weeks of storage, AB delayed oxidation by at least one week compared to control samples as shown by PVs (<10 meq. O2) and by the oxidised TAGs. Oregano and rosemary showed also some antioxidative potential. PMID:25466119

  14. Enantioselective chromatography in analysis of triacylglycerols common in edible fats and oils.

    PubMed

    Kalpio, Marika; Nylund, Matts; Linderborg, Kaisa M; Yang, Baoru; Kristinsson, Björn; Haraldsson, Gudmundur G; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    Enantiomers of racemic triacylglycerol (TAG) mixtures were separated using two chiral HPLC columns with a sample recycling system and a UV detector. A closed system without sample derivatisation enabled separation and identification by using enantiopure reference compounds of eleven racemic TAGs with C12-C22 fatty acids with 0-2 double bonds. The prolonged separation time was compensated for by fewer pretreatment steps. Presence of one saturated and one unsaturated fatty acid in the asymmetric TAG favoured the separation. Enantiomeric resolution, at the same time with stronger retention of TAGs, increased with increasing fatty acid chain length in the sn-1(3) position. Triunsaturated TAGs containing oleic, linoleic or palmitoleic acids did not separate. The elution order of enantiomers was determined by chemoenzymatically synthesised enantiopure TAGs with a co-injection method. The method is applicable to many natural fats and oils of low unsaturation level assisting advanced investigation of lipid synthesis and metabolism.

  15. A chloroplast pathway for the de novo biosynthesis of triacylglycerol in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, J.; Xu, C.; Andre, C.

    2011-06-23

    Neutral lipid metabolism has been extensively studied in yeast, plants and mammals. In contrast, little information is available regarding the biochemical pathway, enzymes and regulatory factors involved in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG) in microalgae. In the conventional TAG biosynthetic pathway widely accepted for yeast, plants and mammals, TAG is assembled in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from its immediate precursor diacylglycerol (DAG) made by ER-specific acyltransferases, and is deposited exclusively in lipid droplets in the cytosol. Here, we demonstrated that the unicellular microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii employs a distinct pathway that uses DAG derived almost exclusively from the chloroplast to produce TAG. This unique TAG biosynthesis pathway is largely dependent on de novo fatty acid synthesis, and the TAG formed in this pathway is stored in lipid droplets in both the chloroplast and the cytosol. These findings have wide implications for understanding TAG biosynthesis and storage and other areas of lipid metabolism in microalgae and other organisms.

  16. An Energy-Independent Pro-longevity Function of Triacylglycerol in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Handee, Witawas; Li, Xiaobo; Hall, Kevin W; Deng, Xiexiong; Li, Pan; Benning, Christoph; Williams, Barry L; Kuo, Min-Hao

    2016-02-01

    Intracellular triacylglycerol (TAG) is a ubiquitous energy storage lipid also involved in lipid homeostasis and signaling. Comparatively, little is known about TAG's role in other cellular functions. Here we show a pro-longevity function of TAG in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In yeast strains derived from natural and laboratory environments a correlation between high levels of TAG and longer chronological lifespan was observed. Increased TAG abundance through the deletion of TAG lipases prolonged chronological lifespan of laboratory strains, while diminishing TAG biosynthesis shortened lifespan without apparently affecting vegetative growth. TAG-mediated lifespan extension was independent of several other known stress response factors involved in chronological aging. Because both lifespan regulation and TAG metabolism are conserved, this cellular pro-longevity function of TAG may extend to other organisms. PMID:26907989

  17. TOR (target of rapamycin) is a key regulator of triacylglycerol accumulation in microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Sousuke; Kawase, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Ikki; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most microalgae abundantly accumulate lipid droplets (LDs) containing triacylglycerols (TAGs) under several stress conditions, but the underlying molecular mechanism of this accumulation remains unclear. In a recent study, we found that inhibition of TOR (target of rapamycin), a highly conserved protein kinase of eukaryotes, by rapamycin resulted in TAG accumulation in microalgae, indicating that TOR negatively regulates TAG accumulation. Here, we show that formation of intracellular LDs and TAG accumulation were also induced in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii after exposure to Torin1 or AZD8055, which are novel TOR inhibitors that inhibit TOR activity in a manner different from rapamycin. These results supported quite well our previous conclusion that TOR is a central regulator of TAG accumulation in microalgae. PMID:26855321

  18. Impact of triacylglycerol composition on shear-induced textural changes in highly saturated fats.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Sandra B; Andersen, Morten D; Hammershøj, Marianne; Wiking, Lars

    2017-01-15

    This study demonstrates a strong interaction between triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and effects of shear rate on the microstructure and texture of fats. Cocoa butter alternatives with similar saturated fat content, but different major TAGs (PPO-, PSO-, SSO-, POP- and SOS-rich blends) were evaluated. Results show how shear can create a harder texture in fat blends based on symmetric monounsaturated TAGs (up to ∼200%), primarily due to reduction in crystal size, whereas shear has little effect on hardness of asymmetric monounsaturated TAGs. Such differences could not be ascribed to differences in the degree of supercooling, but was found to be a consequence of differences in the crystallisation behaviour of different TAGs. The fractal dimension was evaluated by dimensional detrended fluctuation analysis and Fourier transformation of microscopy images. However, the concept of fractal patterns was found to be insufficient to describe microstructural changes of fat blends with high solid fat content.

  19. Eutectic interactions in binary systems containing cholesterol, cholesteryl esters and triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Dorset, D L

    1990-11-12

    Binary phase behavior of saturated cholesterol esters with trilaurin or cholesterol, and cholesterol with trilaurin, is studied. The existence of specific molecular interactions is detected by comparing the liquidus curve of the eutectic with ideal theory of freezing point depression and correcting the theoretical curve with the Bragg-Williams model when necessary. X-ray data indicate that all eutectic solids are nearly totally fractionated. The phase diagrams are sometimes well-explained by ideal solution theory indicating that polar interactions (e.g., the hydrogen bonding of cholesterol) are much less important than van der Waals interactions between neighboring molecules. However, the hydrogen bonding networks of cholesterol can lead to nonideal solution behavior with other lipids, a phenomenon consistent with previous observations on simpler molecular binaries. An observed nonideal solution behavior of triacylglycerol with cholesterol esters, on the other hand, is unexpected since significant polar interactions are expected to be 'buried' in the predominant nonpolar volume of the molecules involved.

  20. Determination of the quantitative stereoselectivity fingerprint of lipases during hydrolysis of a prochiral triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, David Alexander; Rodriguez, Jorge A; Carrière, Frederic; Krieger, Nadia

    2008-06-01

    We propose a method for characterizing quantitatively the stereoselectivity of lipases during hydrolysis of triacylglycerols. Although it is of general applicability, we demonstrate it specifically for sn-1,3-regiospecific lipases. In this case the method generates a "stereoselectivity fingerprint" that consists of ratios of the specificity constants for the various reactions that produce and consume the 1,2-sn- and 2,3-sn-diacylglycerols. We use the method to determine the stereoselectivity fingerprint of several lipases during the hydrolysis of the prochiral substrate triolein. Our method opens up the possibility of correlating quantitative fingerprints with structural information, in the quest to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the stereoselectivity of lipases.

  1. TOR (target of rapamycin) is a key regulator of triacylglycerol accumulation in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Sousuke; Kawase, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Ikki; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Most microalgae abundantly accumulate lipid droplets (LDs) containing triacylglycerols (TAGs) under several stress conditions, but the underlying molecular mechanism of this accumulation remains unclear. In a recent study, we found that inhibition of TOR (target of rapamycin), a highly conserved protein kinase of eukaryotes, by rapamycin resulted in TAG accumulation in microalgae, indicating that TOR negatively regulates TAG accumulation. Here, we show that formation of intracellular LDs and TAG accumulation were also induced in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii after exposure to Torin1 or AZD8055, which are novel TOR inhibitors that inhibit TOR activity in a manner different from rapamycin. These results supported quite well our previous conclusion that TOR is a central regulator of TAG accumulation in microalgae.

  2. Impact of triacylglycerol composition on shear-induced textural changes in highly saturated fats.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Sandra B; Andersen, Morten D; Hammershøj, Marianne; Wiking, Lars

    2017-01-15

    This study demonstrates a strong interaction between triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and effects of shear rate on the microstructure and texture of fats. Cocoa butter alternatives with similar saturated fat content, but different major TAGs (PPO-, PSO-, SSO-, POP- and SOS-rich blends) were evaluated. Results show how shear can create a harder texture in fat blends based on symmetric monounsaturated TAGs (up to ∼200%), primarily due to reduction in crystal size, whereas shear has little effect on hardness of asymmetric monounsaturated TAGs. Such differences could not be ascribed to differences in the degree of supercooling, but was found to be a consequence of differences in the crystallisation behaviour of different TAGs. The fractal dimension was evaluated by dimensional detrended fluctuation analysis and Fourier transformation of microscopy images. However, the concept of fractal patterns was found to be insufficient to describe microstructural changes of fat blends with high solid fat content. PMID:27542496

  3. Fat in the heart: The enzymatic machinery regulating cardiac triacylglycerol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Heier, Christoph; Haemmerle, Guenter

    2016-10-01

    The heart predominantly utilizes fatty acids (FAs) as energy substrate. FAs that enter cardiomyocytes can be activated and directly oxidized within mitochondria (and peroxisomes) or they can be esterified and intracellularly deposited as triacylglycerol (TAG) often simply referred to as fat. An increase in cardiac TAG can be a signature of the diseased heart and may implicate a minor role of TAG synthesis and breakdown in normal cardiac energy metabolism. Often overlooked, the heart has an extremely high TAG turnover and the transient deposition of FAs within the cardiac TAG pool critically determines the availability of FAs as energy substrate and signaling molecules. We herein review the recent literature regarding the enzymes and co-regulators involved in cardiomyocyte TAG synthesis and catabolism and discuss the interconnection of these metabolic pathways in the normal and diseased heart. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart Lipid Metabolism edited by G.D. Lopaschuk.

  4. Triacylglycerol biosynthesis in developing Ribes nigrum and Ribes rubrum seeds from gene expression to oil composition.

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Anssi L; Kalpio, Marika; Linderborg, Kaisa M; Hoppula, Kati B; Karhu, Saila T; Yang, Baoru; Kallio, Heikki P

    2016-04-01

    Oils with sufficient contents of fatty acids, which can be metabolized into precursors of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, have potential health effects. Ribes sp. seed oil is rich in α-linolenic, γ-linolenic and stearidonic acids belonging to this fatty acid group. Only a few previous studies exist on Ribes sp. gene expression. We followed the seed oil biosynthesis of four Ribes nigrum and two Ribes rubrum cultivars at different developmental stages over 2 years in Southern and Northern Finland with a 686 km latitudinal difference. The species and the developmental stage were the most important factors causing differences in gene expression levels and oil composition. Differences between cultivars were detected in some cases, but year and location had only small effects. However, expression of the gene encoding Δ(9)-desaturase in R. nigrum was affected by location. Triacylglycerol biosynthesis in Ribes sp. was distinctly buffered and typically followed a certain path, regardless of growth environment. PMID:26593580

  5. Mild pressure induces rapid accumulation of neutral lipid (triacylglycerol) in Chlorella spp.

    PubMed

    Praveenkumar, Ramasamy; Kim, Bohwa; Lee, Jiye; Vijayan, Durairaj; Lee, Kyubock; Nam, Bora; Jeon, Sang Goo; Kim, Dong-Myung; Oh, You-Kwan

    2016-11-01

    Effective enhancement of neutral lipid (especially triacylglycerol, TAG) content in microalgae is an important issue for commercialization of microalgal biorefineries. Pressure is a key physical factor affecting the morphological, physiological, and biochemical behaviors of organisms. In this paper, we report a new stress-based method for induction of TAG accumulation in microalgae (specifically, Chlorella sp. KR-1 and Ch. sp. AG20150) by very-short-duration application of mild pressure. Pressure treatments of 10-15bar for 2h resulted in a considerable, ∼55% improvement of the 10-100g/Lcells' TAG contents compared with the untreated control. The post-pressure-treatment increase of cytoplasmic TAG granules was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Notwithstanding the increased TAG content, the total lipid content was not changed by pressurization, implying that pressure stress possibly induces rapid remodeling/transformation of algal lipids rather than de novo biosynthesis of TAG. PMID:27634024

  6. No effects of Korean pine nut triacylglycerol on satiety and energy intake

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Triacylglycerols (TAG) have been shown to have potential appetite suppressing effects. This study examined the effects of 3 g and 6 g Korean pine nut triacylglycerols (PinnoThin) on appetite and energy intake. Methods 130 g Isoenergetic yogurt containing either placebo (milk fat) or PinnoThin TAG was consumed as a breakfast, after an overnight fast, in a double blind randomized crossover design. Appetite profile ratings were determined by visual analogue scale at regular intervals for a period of 4 h after the breakfast. In phase I, 6 g PinnoThin TAG and placebo was tested in thirty-three healthy women (mean ± SD, BMI 26.4 ± 3.8 kg/m2; age 28 ± 10 y) to determine the appetite suppressing effect in time. In phase II, an additional dose of 3 g PinnoThin TAG, as well as 6 g PinnoThin TAG and placebo, was tested in thirty-four women (BMI 25.8 ± 2.9 kg/m2; age 25 ± 9 y) to determine energy intake from an ad libitum lunch offered at 210 min after the breakfast, at which maximal differences in appetite profile ratings were present in phase I. Results Area under the curve of appetite profile ratings was not significantly different between the conditions. Energy intake was 9.5% lower after 6 g PinnoThin TAG compared with 3 g PinnoThin TAG, but there was no significant difference with the placebo. Conclusion A dosage of 6 g PinnoThin TAG is not sufficient to suppress appetite and energy intake. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT01034605 PMID:22074178

  7. Effect of silica and gold nanoparticles on macrophage proliferation, activation markers, cytokine production, and phagocytosis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bancos, Simona; Stevens, David L; Tyner, Katherine M

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of durable nanoparticles (NPs) in macrophages following systemic administration is well described. The ultimate biological impact of this accumulation on macrophage function, however, is not fully understood. In this study, nontoxic doses of two durable NPs, SiO2 and Au, at particle sizes of ~10 nm and 300 nm were used to evaluate the effect of bioaccumulation on macrophage function in vitro using RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage-like cells as a model system. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, cytokine production, surface marker activation, and phagocytosis responses were evaluated through a panel of assays using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The most dramatic change in RAW 264.7 cell function was a reduction in phagocytosis as monitored by the uptake of Escherichia coli. Cells exposed to both 10 nm Au NPs and 10 nm SiO2 NPs showed ~50% decrease in phagocytosis, while the larger NPs caused a less dramatic reduction. In addition to modifying phagocytosis profiles, 10 nm SiO2 NPs caused changes in proliferation, cell cycle, and cell morphology. Au NPs had no effect on cell cycle, cytokine production, or surface markers and caused interference in phagocytosis in the form of quenching when the assay was performed via flow cytometry. Confocal microscopy analysis was used to minimize this interference and demonstrated that both sizes of Au NPs decreased the phagocytosis of E. coli. Overall, our results demonstrate that Au and SiO2 NP uptake by macrophages can influence macrophage phagocytosis in vitro without altering surface markers and cytokine production in vitro. While the biological impact of these findings remains unclear, our results indicate that bioaccumulation of durable NPs within the macrophages may lead to a suppression of bacterial uptake and possibly impair bactericidal activity. PMID:25565813

  8. Ca(2+)-independent F-actin assembly and disassembly during Fc receptor- mediated phagocytosis in mouse macrophages

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Phagocytosis of IgG-coated particles by macrophages is presumed to involve the actin-based cytoskeleton since F-actin accumulates beneath forming phagosomes, and particle engulfment is blocked by cytochalasins, drugs that inhibit actin filament assembly. However, it is unknown whether Fc receptor ligation affects the rate or extent of F- actin assembly during phagocytosis of IgG-coated particles. To examine this question we have used a quantitative spectrofluorometric method to examine F-actin dynamics during a synchronous wave of phagocytosis of IgG-coated red blood cells by inflammatory mouse macrophages. We observed a biphasic rise in macrophage F-actin content during particle engulfment, with maxima at 1 and 5 min after the initiation of phagocytosis. F-actin declined to resting levels by 30 min, by which time particle engulfment was completed. These quantitative increases in macrophage F-actin were reflected in localized changes in F-actin distribution. Previous work showed that the number of IgG-coated particles engulfed by macrophages is unaffected by buffering extracellular calcium or by clamping cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) to very low levels (Di Virgilio, F., B. C. Meyer, S. Greenberg, and S. C. Silverstein. 1988. J. Cell Biol. 106: 657-666). To determine whether clamping [Ca2+]i in macrophages affects the rate of particle engulfment, or the assembly or disassembly of F- actin during phagocytosis, we examined these parameters in macrophages whose [Ca2+]i had been clamped to approximately less than 3 nM with fura 2/AM and acetoxymethyl ester of EGTA. We found that the initial rate of phagocytosis, and the quantities of F-actin assembled and disassembled were similar in Ca(2+)-replete and Ca(2+)-depleted macrophages. We conclude that Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis in mouse macrophages is accompanied by an ordered sequence of assembly and disassembly of F-actin that is insensitive to [Ca2+]i. PMID:2026648

  9. Cofilin contributes to phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized particles but not non-opsonized particles in RAW264 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanmeng; Cao, Lei; Egami, Youhei; Kawai, Katsuhisa; Araki, Nobukazu

    2016-06-01

    Cofilin is an actin-binding protein that severs actin filaments. It plays a key role in regulating actin cytoskeletal remodeling, thereby contributing to diverse cellular functions. However, the involvement of cofilin in phagocytosis remains to be elucidated. We examined the spatiotemporal localization of cofilin during phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized erythrocytes, IgG-opsonized latex beads and non-opsonized latex beads. Live-cell imaging showed that GFP-cofilin accumulates in the sites of IgG-opsonized particle binding and in phagocytic cups. Moreover, immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that endogenous cofilin localizes to phagocytic cups engulfing IgG-opsonized particles, but not non-opsonized latex beads. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated a notable difference in morphology between phagocytic structures in IgG-dependent and IgG-independent phagocytosis. In phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized particles, sheet-like pseudopodia extended along the surface of IgG-opsonized particles to form phagocytic cups. In contrast, in opsonin-independent phagocytosis, long finger-like filopodia captured non-opsonized latex beads. Importantly, non-opsonized beads sank into the cells without extending phagocytic cups. Our analysis of cofilin mutant expression demonstrates that phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized particles is enhanced in cells expressing wild-type cofilin or active mutant cofilin-S3A, whereas the uptake of non-opsonized latex beads is not. These data suggest that cofilin promotes actin cytoskeletal remodeling to form phagocytic cups by accelerating actin turnover and thereby facilitating phagosome formation. In contrast, cofilin is not involved in opsonin-independent phagocytosis of latex beads. PMID:26754560

  10. Effect of silica and gold nanoparticles on macrophage proliferation, activation markers, cytokine production, and phagocytosis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bancos, Simona; Stevens, David L; Tyner, Katherine M

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of durable nanoparticles (NPs) in macrophages following systemic administration is well described. The ultimate biological impact of this accumulation on macrophage function, however, is not fully understood. In this study, nontoxic doses of two durable NPs, SiO2 and Au, at particle sizes of ~10 nm and 300 nm were used to evaluate the effect of bioaccumulation on macrophage function in vitro using RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage-like cells as a model system. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, cytokine production, surface marker activation, and phagocytosis responses were evaluated through a panel of assays using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The most dramatic change in RAW 264.7 cell function was a reduction in phagocytosis as monitored by the uptake of Escherichia coli. Cells exposed to both 10 nm Au NPs and 10 nm SiO2 NPs showed ~50% decrease in phagocytosis, while the larger NPs caused a less dramatic reduction. In addition to modifying phagocytosis profiles, 10 nm SiO2 NPs caused changes in proliferation, cell cycle, and cell morphology. Au NPs had no effect on cell cycle, cytokine production, or surface markers and caused interference in phagocytosis in the form of quenching when the assay was performed via flow cytometry. Confocal microscopy analysis was used to minimize this interference and demonstrated that both sizes of Au NPs decreased the phagocytosis of E. coli. Overall, our results demonstrate that Au and SiO2 NP uptake by macrophages can influence macrophage phagocytosis in vitro without altering surface markers and cytokine production in vitro. While the biological impact of these findings remains unclear, our results indicate that bioaccumulation of durable NPs within the macrophages may lead to a suppression of bacterial uptake and possibly impair bactericidal activity.

  11. Human B cells have an active phagocytic capability and undergo immune activation upon phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qi; Zhang, Min; Shi, Ming; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Wenjing; Zhang, Guangyun; Yang, Longxiu; Zhi, Jin; Zhang, Lin; Hu, Gengyao; Chen, Pin; Yang, Yining; Dai, Wen; Liu, Tingting; He, Ying; Feng, Guodong; Zhao, Gang

    2016-04-01

    The paradigm that B cells are nonphagocytic was taken for granted for a long time until phagocytic B cells were found in early vertebrate animals. Thereafter, limited evidence has shown that human B cells may also internalize bacteria. However, whether human B cells can actively phagocytose bacteria has been less extensively investigated; in particular, the mechanisms and significance of the phagocytosis require clarification. Here, we show that the human Raji B cell line can phagocytose both live and dead Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), and the phagocytosed Mtb in turn affects the immune functions of the B cells. After incubation of Raji cells with Mtb, our confocal microscopy, electron microscopy and flow cytometry data showed that Raji cells effectively engulfed Mtb as well as latex beads. The phagocytic rate was proportional to the incubation time and the amount of Mtb or beads added. Additionally, we found that normal human serum could enhance the ability of Raji cells to phagocytose Mtb, while heat-inactivated serum reversed this promoting effect. The phagocytic process of B cells could partially be inhibited by cytochalasin B, an actin inhibitor. Importantly, the phagocytosed Mtb could regulate B cell immune functions, such as stimulating IgM production and upregulating the expression of the antigen-presenting costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86. Therefore, our results provide the first evidence that human B cells can phagocytose Mtb in an active manner that is independent of bacterial viability, and phagocytosed Mtb can in turn regulate the immune activation of B cells.

  12. ADF/cofilin is not essential but is critically important for actin activities during phagocytosis in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Shiozaki, Nanami; Nakano, Kentaro; Kushida, Yasuharu; Noguchi, Taro Q P; Uyeda, Taro Q P; Wloga, Dorota; Dave, Drashti; Vasudevan, Krishna Kumar; Gaertig, Jacek; Numata, Osamu

    2013-08-01

    ADF/cofilin is a highly conserved actin-modulating protein. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in vivo through severing and depolymerizing of F-actin by this protein is essential for various cellular events, such as endocytosis, phagocytosis, cytokinesis, and cell migration. We show that in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, the ADF/cofilin homologue Adf73p associates with actin on nascent food vacuoles. Overexpression of Adf73p disrupted the proper localization of actin and inhibited the formation of food vacuoles. In vitro, recombinant Adf73p promoted the depolymerization of filaments made of T. thermophila actin (Act1p). Knockout cells lacking the ADF73 gene are viable but grow extremely slowly and have a severely decreased rate of food vacuole formation. Knockout cells have abnormal aggregates of actin in the cytoplasm. Surprisingly, unlike the case in animals and yeasts, in Tetrahymena, ADF/cofilin is not required for cytokinesis. Thus, the Tetrahymena model shows promise for future studies of the role of ADF/cofilin in vivo.

  13. The in vitro biocompatibility and macrophage phagocytosis of Mg17Al12 phase in Mg-Al-Zn alloys.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; He, Peng; Wan, Peng; Li, Mei; Wang, Kehong; Tan, Lili; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Ke

    2015-07-01

    Mg alloys are gaining interest for applications as biodegradable medical implant, including Mg-Al-Zn series alloys with good combination of mechanical properties and reasonable corrosion resistance. However, whether the existence of second phase particles in the alloys exerts influence on the biocompatibility is still not clear. A deeper understanding of how the particles regulate specific biological responses is becoming a crucial requirement for their subsequent biomedical application. In this work, the in vitro biocompatibility of Mg17Al12 as a common second phase in biodegradable Mg-Al-Zn alloys was investigated via hemolysis, cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, and cell adhesion tests. Moreover, osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by the extracellular matrix mineralization assay. The Mg17Al12 particles were also prepared to simulate the real situation of second phase in the in vivo environment in order to estimate the cellular response in macrophages to the Mg17Al12 particles. The experimental results indicated that no hemolysis was found and an excellent cytocompatibility was also proved for the Mg17Al12 second phase when co-cultured with L929 cells, MC3T3-E1 cells and BMSCs. Macrophage phagocytosis co-culture test revealed that Mg17Al12 particles exerted no harmful effect on RAW264.7 macrophages and could be phagocytized by the RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, the possible inflammatory reaction and metabolic way for Mg17Al12 phase were also discussed in detail.

  14. Quantitation of triacylglycerols in edible oils by off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using a single column.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang; Hu, Na; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xu-Yan; Chen, Hong

    2015-07-24

    In this investigation, off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using a single column has been applied for the identification and quantification of triacylglycerols in edible oils. A novel mixed-mode phenyl-hexyl chromatographic column was employed in this off-line two-dimensional separation system. The phenyl-hexyl column combined the features of traditional C18 and silver-ion columns, which could provide hydrophobic interactions with triacylglycerols under acetonitrile conditions and can offer π-π interactions with triacylglycerols under methanol conditions. When compared with traditional off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography employing two different chromatographic columns (C18 and silver-ion column) and using elution solvents comprised of two phases (reversed-phase/normal-phase) for triacylglycerols separation, the novel off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography using a single column can be achieved by simply altering the mobile phase between acetonitrile and methanol, which exhibited a much higher selectivity for the separation of triacylglycerols with great efficiency and rapid speed. In addition, an approach based on the use of response factor with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry has been developed for triacylglycerols quantification. Due to the differences between saturated and unsaturated acyl chains, the use of response factors significantly improves the quantitation of triacylglycerols. This two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system was successfully applied for the profiling of triacylglycerols in soybean oils, peanut oils and lord oils. A total of 68 triacylglycerols including 40 triacylglycerols in soybean oils, 50 triacylglycerols in peanut oils and 44 triacylglycerols in lord oils have been identified and quantified. The liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data were analyzed

  15. Effect of decaglycerol monooleate on phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of human neutrophils: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Suzuki, K; Kudo, S; Yamada, M; Kowatari, K; Umeda, T; Nakaji, S; Sugawara, K

    2000-05-01

    Decaglycerol monooleate (DGMO), a type of polyglycerol esters of fatty acids (PGEF), was evaluated for its in vitro effect on phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of isolated human neutrophils using flow cytometric assay. Opsonized zymosan particles labelled with FITC (FITC-OZ) were employed as an indicator of phagocytosis. Fluorescence of FITC-OZ attached on to the surface of neutrophils was quenched by addition of trypan blue solution. After 10 minutes of incubation with DGMO up to a concentration of 10 mg/ml, neutrophil phagocytosis was not affected markedly. At the same time, the DGMO emulsion left little influence on complement receptor type three (CR3) that is associated with phagocytosis. On the other hand, oxidation of hydroethidine, which was used as an indicator of intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (mainly for superoxide anion), was significantly inhibited by DGMO over 1 mg/ml. However, this phenomenon was not seen in DGMO-treated neutrophils when DGMO was removed after incubation. The present data suggest that DGMO does not affect phagocytosis of human neutrophils but down-regulates respiratory burst activity.

  16. Virulent strain of Lichtheimia corymbifera shows increased phagocytosis by macrophages as revealed by automated microscopy image analysis.

    PubMed

    Kraibooj, Kaswara; Park, Hea-Reung; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Skerka, Christine; Voigt, Kerstin; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2014-12-01

    Lichtheimia corymbifera is a ubiquitous soilborne zygomycete fungus, which is an opportunistic human pathogen in immunocompromised patients. The fungus can cause life-threatening diseases by attacking the lung during early stages of invasion and by disseminating during later phases causing systemic infection. Since infections have drastically increased during the last decades, it is a major goal to investigate the mechanisms underlying pathogenicity of L. corymbifera. One of the first barriers, which the fungus needs to cope with in the lung tissue, is phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. Here, we report on phagocytosis assays for murine alveolar macrophages co-incubated with resting, swollen and opsonised spores of a virulent and an attenuated L. corymbifera strain. A major finding of this study is the significantly increased phagocytosis ratio of the virulent strain if compared to the attenuated strain. We quantify the phagocytosis by performing automated analysis of fluorescence microscopy images and by computing ratios for (i) fungal phagocytosis, (ii) fungal adhesion to phagocytes and (iii) fungal aggregation and spore cluster distribution in space. Automation of the image analysis yields objective results that overcome the disadvantages of manual analyses being time consuming, error-prone and subjective. Therefore, it can be expected that automated image analysis of confrontation assays will play a crucial role in future investigations of host-pathogen interactions.

  17. The phosphatidylserine receptor TIM4 utilizes integrins as coreceptors to effect phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Flannagan, Ronald S; Canton, Johnathan; Furuya, Wendy; Glogauer, Michael; Grinstein, Sergio

    2014-05-01

    T-cell immunoglobulin mucin protein 4 (TIM4), a phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-binding receptor, mediates the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. How TIM4 exerts its function is unclear, and conflicting data have emerged. To define the mode of action of TIM4, we used two distinct but complementary approaches: 1) we compared bone marrow-derived macrophages from wild-type and TIM4(-/-) mice, and 2) we heterologously expressed TIM4 in epithelioid AD293 cells, which rendered them competent for engulfment of PtdSer-bearing targets. Using these systems, we demonstrate that rather than serving merely as a tether, as proposed earlier by others, TIM4 is an active participant in the phagocytic process. Furthermore, we find that TIM4 operates independently of lactadherin, which had been proposed to act as a bridging molecule. Of interest, TIM4-driven phagocytosis depends on the activation of integrins and involves stimulation of Src-family kinases and focal adhesion kinase, as well as the localized accumulation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. These mediators promote recruitment of the nucleotide-exchange factor Vav3, which in turn activates small Rho-family GTPases. Gene silencing or ablation experiments demonstrated that RhoA, Rac1, and Rac2 act synergistically to drive the remodeling of actin that underlies phagocytosis. Single-particle detection experiments demonstrated that TIM4 and β1 integrins associate upon receptor clustering. These findings support a model in which TIM4 engages integrins as coreceptors to evoke the signal transduction needed to internalize PtdSer-bearing targets such as apoptotic cells.

  18. Electron microscopic identification of hydrogen peroxide detected in fixed human polymorphonuclear leukocytes during phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Keiichi; Ohno, Norikazu

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) engaged in phagocytosis produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as those that occur in an activated NADPH oxidase reaction, to eliminate ingested microorganisms. The translocation of NADPH oxidase components to produce antimicrobial free radicals from the vesicles to the phagosomes may be important. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) derived from O2- has been observed by electron microscopy using a cerium method. However, 2'-7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate can also detect H2O2 through fluorescence. The main objective of the present study was to measure the H2O2-dependent fluorescence of PMNs after opsonized zymosan A (OPZ) phagocytosis using a microplate reader under different fixation conditions, including 0.5, 1, and 10% glutaraldehyde (GA) individually for 1, 5, 10, or 30 min. An additional objective was to visualize, through the use of electron microscopic cytochemistry, the process of H2O2 generation in OPZ phagocytic fixed PMNs. The fixed PMNs showed that the largest fluorescent value was produced by a concentration of 0.5% GA for all fixation times. This suggested that the fixation of PMNs with a high concentration of GA inhibited phagocytosis and produced ROS. In the fixed PMNs, electron microscopic results showed that after 1 min of mixing, some PMNs attached to particles and exhibited mild deposits in their secretory vesicles. When PMNs engulfed particles, free radical-producing vesicles had enhanced reaction deposits 10 min later and fused to the phagosomal membrane, releasing numerous free radicals into the lumen. Time-dependent H2O2 production was enhanced in the secretory vesicles, some of which were fused exactly to the phagosome membranes.

  19. High throughput fluorometric technique for assessment of macrophage phagocytosis and actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Ninković, Jana; Roy, Sabita

    2014-01-01

    The goal of fluorometric analysis is to serve as an efficient, cost effective, high throughput method of analyzing phagocytosis and other cellular processes. This technique can be used on a variety of cell types, both adherent and non-adherent, to examine a variety of cellular properties. When studying phagocytosis, fluorometric technique utilizes phagocytic cell types such as macrophages, and fluorescently labeled opsonized particles whose fluorescence can be extinguished in the presence of trypan blue. Following plating of adherent macrophages in 96-well plates, fluorescent particles (green or red) are administered and cells are allowed to phagocytose for varied amounts of time. Following internalization of fluorescent particles, cells are washed with trypan blue, which facilitates extinction of fluorescent signal from bacteria which are not internalized, or are merely adhering to the cell surface. Following the trypan wash, cells are washed with PBS, fixed, and stained with DAPI (nuclear blue fluorescent label), which serves to label nuclei of cells. By a simple fluorometric quantification through plate reading of nuclear (blue) or particle (red/green) fluorescence we can examine the ratio of relative fluorescence units of green:blue and determine a phagocytic index indicative of amount of fluorescent bacteria internalized per cell. The duration of assay using a 96-well method and multichannel pipettes for washing, from end of phagocytosis to end of data acquisition, is less than 45 min. Flow cytometry could be used in a similar manner but the advantage of fluorometry is its high throughput, rapid method of assessment with minimal manipulation of samples and quick quantification of fluorescent intensity per cell. Similar strategies can be applied to non adherent cells, live labeled bacteria, actin polymerization, and essentially any process utilizing fluorescence. Therefore, fluorometry is a promising method for its low cost, high throughput capabilities in the

  20. Endothelin-1 downregulates sperm phagocytosis by neutrophils in vitro: A physiological implication in bovine oviduct immunity

    PubMed Central

    MAREY, Mohamed Ali; YOUSEF, Mohamed Samy; LIU, Jinghui; MORITA, Kazuhiro; SASAKI, Motoki; HAYAKAWA, Hiroyuki; SHIMIZU, Takashi; ELSHAHAWY, Ibrahim I.; MIYAMOTO, Akio

    2016-01-01

    The oviduct is an active contractile tube that provides the proper environment for sperm transport, capacitation and survival. Oviductal contractions are regulated by autocrine/paracrine secretion of several factors, such as prostaglandins (PGs) and endothelin-1 (EDN-1). We have previously shown that during the preovulatory stage, sperm are exposed to polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the bovine oviduct, and the bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOECs) secrete molecules including PGE2 that suppress sperm phagocytosis by PMNs in vitro. In this study, we investigated the possible effects of EDN-1 on the phagocytic activity of PMNs toward sperm. The local concentrations of EDN-1 in oviduct fluid and BOEC culture medium ranged from 10–10 to 10–11 M as determined by EIA. Phagocytosis and superoxide production were assayed by co-incubation of sperm pretreated to induce capacitation with PMNs exposed to EDN-1 (0, 10–11, 10–10, 10–9, and 10–8 M) for 2 h. EDN-1 suppressed dose dependently (10–11 to 10–8 M) the phagocytic activity for sperm and superoxide production of PMNs in response to capacitated sperm. Moreover, this suppression was eliminated by an ETB receptor antagonist (BQ-788). EDN-1 suppressed mRNA expression of EDN-1 and ETB but not ETA receptors in PMNs, suggesting the ETB receptor-mediated pathway. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that incubation of PMNs with EDN-1 (10–9 M) completely suppressed the formation of DNA-based neutrophil extracellular traps for sperm entanglement. The results provide evidence indicating that EDN-1 may be involved in the protection of sperm from phagocytosis by PMNs in the bovine oviduct, supporting sperm survival until fertilization. PMID:26781611

  1. Extracellular vesicles modulate host-microbe responses by altering TLR2 activity and phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    van Bergenhenegouwen, Jeroen; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Rutten, Lieke; Kettelarij, Nienke; Garssen, Johan; Vos, Arjan P

    2014-01-01

    Oral delivery of Gram positive bacteria, often derived from the genera Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium, can modulate immune function. Although the exact mechanisms remain unclear, immunomodulatory effects may be elicited through the direct interaction of these bacteria with the intestinal epithelium or resident dendritic cell (DC) populations. We analyzed the immune activation properties of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium species and made the surprising observation that cellular responses in vitro were differentially influenced by the presence of serum, specifically the extracellular vesicle (EV) fraction. In contrast to the tested Lactobacilli species, tested Bifidobacterium species induce TLR2/6 activity which is inhibited by the presence of EVs. Using specific TLR ligands, EVs were found to enhance cellular TLR2/1 and TLR4 responses while TLR2/6 responses were suppressed. No effect could be observed on cellular TLR5 responses. We determined that EVs play a role in bacterial aggregation, suggesting that EVs interact with bacterial surfaces. EVs were found to slightly enhance DC phagocytosis of Bifidobacterium breve whereas phagocytosis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus was virtually absent upon serum EV depletion. DC uptake of a non-microbial substance (dextran) was not affected by the different serum fractions suggesting that EVs do not interfere with DC phagocytic capacity but rather modify the DC-microbe interaction. Depending on the microbe, combined effects of EVs on TLR activity and phagocytosis result in a differential proinflammatory DC cytokine release. Overall, these data suggest that EVs play a yet unrecognized role in host-microbe responses, not by interfering in recipient cellular responses but via attachment to, or scavenging of, microbe-associated molecular patterns. EVs can be found in any tissue or bodily fluid, therefore insights into EV-microbe interactions are important in understanding the mechanism of action of potential probiotics and gut immune

  2. Candida glabrata susceptibility to antifungals and phagocytosis is modulated by acetate.

    PubMed

    Mota, Sandra; Alves, Rosana; Carneiro, Catarina; Silva, Sónia; Brown, Alistair J; Istel, Fabian; Kuchler, Karl; Sampaio, Paula; Casal, Margarida; Henriques, Mariana; Paiva, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Candida glabrata is considered a major opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans. The capacity of this yeast species to cause infections is dependent on the ability to grow within the human host environment and to assimilate the carbon sources available. Previous studies have suggested that C. albicans can encounter glucose-poor microenvironments during infection and that the ability to use alternative non-fermentable carbon sources, such as carboxylic acids, contributes to the virulence of this fungus. Transcriptional studies on C. glabrata cells identified a similar response, upon nutrient deprivation. In this work, we aimed at analyzing biofilm formation, antifungal drug resistance, and phagocytosis of C. glabrata cells grown in the presence of acetic acid as an alternative carbon source. C. glabrata planktonic cells grown in media containing acetic acid were more susceptible to fluconazole and were better phagocytosed and killed by macrophages than when compared to media lacking acetic acid. Growth in acetic acid also affected the ability of C. glabrata to form biofilms. The genes ADY2a, ADY2b, FPS1, FPS2, and ATO3, encoding putative carboxylate transporters, were upregulated in C. glabrata planktonic and biofilm cells in the presence of acetic acid. Phagocytosis assays with fps1 and ady2a mutant strains suggested a potential role of FPS1 and ADY2a in the phagocytosis process. These results highlight how acidic pH niches, associated with the presence of acetic acid, can impact in the treatment of C. glabrata infections, in particular in vaginal candidiasis. PMID:26388859

  3. A NPxY-independent {beta}5 integrin activation signal regulates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sukhwinder; D'mello, Veera; Henegouwen, Paul van Bergen en; Birge, Raymond B.

    2007-12-21

    Integrin receptors are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors with critical functions in cell adhesion and migration, cell cycle progression, differentiation, apoptosis, and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Integrins are activated by intracellular signaling that alter the binding affinity for extracellular ligands, so-called inside to outside signaling. A common element for integrin activation involves binding of the cytoskeletal protein talin, via its FERM domain, to a highly conserved NPxY motif in the {beta} chain cytoplasmic tails, which is involved in long-range conformation changes to the extracellular domain that impinges on ligand affinity. When the human beta-5 ({beta}5) integrin cDNA was expressed in {alpha}v positive, {beta}5 and {beta}3 negative hamster CS-1 cells, it promoted NPxY-dependent adhesion to VTN-coated surfaces, phosphorylation of FAK, and concomitantly, {beta}5 integrin-EGFP protein was recruited into talin and paxillin-containing focal adhesions. Expression of a NPxY destabilizing {beta}5 mutant (Y750A) abrogated adhesion and {beta}5-Y750A-EGFP was excluded from focal adhesions at the tips of stress fibers. Surprisingly, expression of {beta}5 Y750A integrin had a potent gain-of-function effect on apoptotic cell phagocytosis, and further, a {beta}5-Y750A-EGFP fusion integrin readily bound MFG-E8-coated 10 {mu}m diameter microspheres developed as apoptotic cell mimetics. The critical sequences in {beta}5 integrin were mapped to a YEMAS motif just proximal to the NPxY motif. Our studies suggest that the phagocytic function of {beta}5 integrin is regulated by an unconventional NPxY-talin-independent activation signal and argue for the existence of molecular switches in the {beta}5 cytoplasmic tail for adhesion and phagocytosis.

  4. Complement and immunoglobulins stimulate superoxide production by human leukocytes independently of phagocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, I M; Roos, D; Kaplan, H B; Weissmann, G

    1975-01-01

    Human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, when exposed to appropriate stimuli, generate significant amounts of superoxide anion (O-.2), a highly reactive molecule which is possibly involved in bacterial killing. Since the subcellular localization and mechanism of activation of O-.2 generating systems are unknown, we have investigated superoxide dismutase-inhibitable cytochrome c reduction (attributable to O-.2) by, and lysosomal enzyme release from, normal polymorphonuclear leukocytes and cells rendered incapable of ingesting particles by treatment with cytochalasin B. Neither phagocytosis nor lysosomal degranulation were prerequisites for enhanced O-.2 generation. Cytochalasin B-treated cells exposed to (a) serum-treated zymosan, a C3b receptor stimulus; (b) heat aggregated human IgG, an Fc receptor stimulus; and (c) the complement component, C5a, generated enhanced amounts of O-.2 in a time and concentration-dependent fashion. These cells also responded by releasing lysosomal enzymes, but there was no correlation between the ability of any immune reactant to provoke enzyme release and its ability to stimulate O-.2 generation. The three stimuli also enhanced O-.2 generation by normal (untreated) polymorphonuclear leukocytes, but only serum-treated zymosan and aggregated IgG were capable of provoking lysosomal enzyme release from normal cells. Untreated zymosan and native IgG neither stimulated O-.2 production nor provoked lysomal enzyme release. Since enhanced O-.2 production was stimulated by immune reactants in the absence of phagocytosis, the O-.2 generating system is very likely associated with the external plasma membrane of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte. Leukocyte membrane receptors for complement and immunoglobulins may therefore not only serve in particle recognition but also may initiate biochemical events which accompany phagocytosis and killing. PMID:171281

  5. High Throughput Fluorometric Technique for Assessment of Macrophage Phagocytosis and Actin Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Ninković, Jana; Roy, Sabita

    2014-01-01

    The goal of fluorometric analysis is to serve as an efficient, cost effective, high throughput method of analyzing phagocytosis and other cellular processes. This technique can be used on a variety of cell types, both adherent and non-adherent, to examine a variety of cellular properties. When studying phagocytosis, fluorometric technique utilizes phagocytic cell types such as macrophages, and fluorescently labeled opsonized particles whose fluorescence can be extinguished in the presence of trypan blue. Following plating of adherent macrophages in 96-well plates, fluorescent particles (green or red) are administered and cells are allowed to phagocytose for varied amounts of time. Following internalization of fluorescent particles, cells are washed with trypan blue, which facilitates extinction of fluorescent signal from bacteria which are not internalized, or are merely adhering to the cell surface. Following the trypan wash, cells are washed with PBS, fixed, and stained with DAPI (nuclear blue fluorescent label), which serves to label nuclei of cells. By a simple fluorometric quantification through plate reading of nuclear (blue) or particle (red/green) fluorescence we can examine the ratio of relative fluorescence units of green:blue and determine a phagocytic index indicative of amount of fluorescent bacteria internalized per cell. The duration of assay using a 96-well method and multichannel pipettes for washing, from end of phagocytosis to end of data acquisition, is less than 45 min. Flow cytometry could be used in a similar manner but the advantage of fluorometry is its high throughput, rapid method of assessment with minimal manipulation of samples and quick quantification of fluorescent intensity per cell. Similar strategies can be applied to non adherent cells, live labeled bacteria, actin polymerization, and essentially any process utilizing fluorescence. Therefore, fluorometry is a promising method for its low cost, high throughput capabilities in the

  6. Calreticulin mutation does not contribute to disease progression in essential thrombocythemia by inhibiting phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Daitoku, Shinya; Takenaka, Katsuto; Yamauchi, Takuji; Yurino, Ayano; Jinnouchi, Fumiaki; Nunomura, Takuya; Eto, Tetsuya; Kamimura, Tomohiko; Higuchi, Masakazu; Harada, Naoki; Saito, Noriyuki; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Iwasaki, Hiromi; Akashi, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    Somatic mutations of calreticulin (CALR) have been observed in many cases of essential thrombocythemia (ET) or primary myelofibrosis that harbor non-mutated Janus kinase 2 (JAK2). CALR mainly localizes within the endoplasmic reticulum lumen, but a small fraction of the total CALR pool is distributed over the cell surface. Cell surface CALR is known to transduce prophagocytic "eat me" signals to macrophages and acts as one of the important regulators for macrophage engulfment. In this study, we attempted to clarify whether mutant CALR may affect the threshold for macrophage engulfment and play an integral role in the pathogenesis of CALR-mutated ET. First, we compared the surface expression levels of CALR on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and mature blood cells in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and found that the surface expression of mutant CALR did not change. Next, we compared the threshold for macrophage phagocytosis of each HSPC fraction and mature blood cells and found no significant change in the efficiency of macrophage engulfment. Our data suggest that CALR mutation does not affect sensitivity to phagocytosis by macrophages. Finally, we analyzed the phosphorylation statuses of molecules downstream of JAK2 at each HSPC level in patients with ET and found that CALR mutations activated the JAK-STAT pathway in a manner similar to that associated with JAK2 mutations. These results indicate that mutant CALR causes myeloproliferation because of the activation of JAK-STAT pathway and not by the inhibition of phagocytosis, which is similar to the myeloproliferation caused by JAK2 V617F mutation. PMID:27185380

  7. Interferon-γ promotes phagocytosis of Cryptococcus neoformans but not Cryptococcus gattii by murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ikeda-Dantsuji, Yurika; Ohno, Hideaki; Tanabe, Koichi; Umeyama, Takashi; Ueno, Keigo; Nagi, Minoru; Yamagoe, Satoshi; Kinjo, Yuki; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu

    2015-12-01

    Among invasive fungal infections, cryptococcosis caused by inhalation of Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii is particularly dangerous because it can disseminate to the central nervous system and cause life-threatening meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Previous reports described significant differences in the histopathological features of C. neoformans and C. gattii infection, such as greater pathogen proliferation and a limited macrophage response in mouse lung infected by C. gattii. To elucidate the difference in pathogenicity of these two Cryptococcus species, we investigated the interaction of C. neoformans and C. gattii with murine macrophages, the first line of host defense, by confocal laser microscopy. Only thin-capsulated, and not thick-capsulated C. neoformans and C. gattii were phagocytosed by macrophages. Preactivation with interferon-γ increased the phagocytic rate of thin-capsulated C. neoformans up to two-fold, but did not promote phagocytosis of thin-capsulated C. gattii. Lipopolysaccharide preactivation or Aspergillus fumigatus conidia co-incubation had no effect on internalization of thin-capsulated C. neoformans or C. gattii by macrophages. Phagocytosis of live thin-capsulated C. neoformans, but not that of live thin-capsulated C. gattii, induced interleukin-12 release from macrophages. However, phagocytosis of heat-killed or paraformaldehyde-fixed thin-capsulated C. neoformans did not increase IL-12 release, showing that the internalization of live yeast is important for initiating the immune response during C. neoformans-macrophage interactions. Our data suggest that macrophage response to C. gattii is limited compared with that to C. neoformans and that these results may partially explain the limited immune response and the greater pathogenicity of C. gattii.

  8. An integrin from oyster Crassostrea gigas mediates the phagocytosis toward Vibrio splendidus through LPS binding activity.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhihao; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Shuai; Wang, Mengqiang; Cheng, Qi; Sun, Mingzhe; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2015-11-01

    Integrins are a family of cell adhesion molecules which play important roles in the regulation of cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, apoptosis and phagocytosis. In the present study, the immune function of an integrin from the oyster Crassostrea gigas (designated CgIntegrin) was characterized to understand the regulatory mechanism of hemocyte phagocytosis toward different microbes. The full-length cDNA of CgIntegrin was 2571 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2397 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 799 amino acids. The mRNA transcripts of CgIntegrin were predominantly detected in hemocytes, gonad and adductor muscle, while lowly in hepatopancreas, mantle and gill. The mRNA expression level was up-regulated at 6 h post lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation (p < 0.01), while no significant change was observed after peptidoglycan (PGN) stimulation. The oyster hemocytes with relative high CgIntegrin expression level exhibited different phagocytic abilities towards different microorganism and particles, such as Gram-positive bacteria Vibrio splendidus, Gram-negative bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and latex beads. Moreover, the phagocytic rate towards V. splendidus was significantly decreased after the blockade of CgIntegrin using the polyclonal antibody. The recombinant CgIntegrin (rCgIntegrin) displayed agglutinating activity towards V. splendidus but not S. aureus and Y. lipolytica. It also exhibited a higher binding affinity towards LPS (compared to rTrx group) in a dose-dependent manner with the apparent dissociation constant (Kd) of 5.53 × 10(-6) M. The results indicated that CgIntegrin served as a pattern recognition receptor with LPS binding activity, which could directly bind to V. splendidus and enhance the phagocytosis of oyster hemocytes.

  9. Calmodulin and Ca2+/calmodulin-binding proteins are involved in Tetrahymena thermophila phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Gonda, K; Komatsu, M; Numata, O

    2000-08-01

    The ciliated protist, Tetrahymena thermophila, possesses one oral apparatus for phagocytosis, one of the most important cell functions, in the anterior cell cortex. The apparatus comprises four membrane structures which consist of ciliated and unciliated basal bodies, a cytostome where food is collected by oral ciliary motility, and a cytopharynx where food vacuoles are formed. The food vacuole is thought to be transported into the cytoplasm by a deep fiber which connects with the oral apparatus. Although a large number of studies have been done on the structure of the oral apparatus, the molecular mechanisms of phagocytosis in Tetrahymena thermophila are not well understood. In this study, using indirect immunofluorescence, we demonstrated that the deep fiber consisted of actin, CaM, and Ca2+/CaM-binding proteins, p85 and EF-1alpha, which are closely involved in cytokinesis. Moreover, we showed that CaM, p85, and EF-1alpha are colocalized in the cytostome and the cytopharynx of the oral apparatus. Next, we examined whether Ca2+/CaM signal regulates Tetrahymena thermophila phagocytosis, using Ca2+/CaM inhibitors chlorpromazine, trifluoperazine, N-(6-aminohexyl)-1-naphthalenesulfonamide, and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide HCI. In Tetrahymena, it is known that Ca2+/CaM signal is closely involved in ciliary motility and cytokinesis. The results showed that one of the inhibitors, N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide HCl, inhibited the food vacuole formation rather than the ciliary motility, while the other three inhibitors effectively prevented the ciliary motility. Considering the colocalization of CaM, p85, and EF-1alpha to the cytopharynx, these results suggest that the Ca2+/CaM signal plays a pivotal role in Tetrahymena thermophila food vacuole formation.

  10. Phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus: effects of stress and depression in children.

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, J A; Demetrikopoulos, M K; Schleifer, S J; Keller, S E

    1997-01-01

    While a large body of literature depicting relationships between depression or stress and immunity exists, few such studies have dealt with children, and none investigated myeloid cell-derived immunity. We investigated both phagocytosis and bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus in children with major depressive disorder (MDD). We found that both MDD and stress influence the bactericidal but not the phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The data support the existence of psychobiologic effects in children and suggest possible mechanisms by which depression and stress may affect health. PMID:9144378

  11. Blockade of MerTK Activation by AMPK Inhibits RPE Cell Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Suofu

    2016-01-01

    Timely removal of shed photoreceptor outer segments by retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) plays a key role in biological renewal of these highly peroxidizable structures and in maintenance of retina health. How environmental stress cause RPE cell dysfunction is undefined however. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a heterotrimer of a catalytic α subunit and regulatory β and γ subunits, maintains energy homeostasis by limiting energy utilization and/or promoting energy production when energy supply is compromised. Intriguingly, AMPK has been shown to be important in functions of RPE cells. In this mini-review, the role and mechanisms of AMPK in controlling RPE cell phagocytosis are discussed.

  12. Cyclic AMP and its functional relationship in Tetrahymena: a comparison between phagocytosis and glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Csaba, G; Nagy, S U; Lantos, T

    1978-01-01

    In Tetrahymena, an increase in the level of cAMP is accompanied by an increased phagocytotic rate, whereas increased sugar uptake is parallelled by a decreased cAMP level. The increase in cAMP level seems to be decisive with respect to phagocytosis as a basic phenomenon of life. In the action of epinephrine, however, some mechanism other than cAMP mediation may be involved. Depending on concentration, one hormone may provoke either an increase or a decrease in cAMP level, and this in turn triggers the corresponding function.

  13. Investigations of receptor-mediated phagocytosis by hormone-induced (imprinted) Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    PubMed

    Kovács, P; Sundermann, C A; Csaba, G

    1996-08-15

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis by Tetrahvmena pyriformis was studied using tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate-labeled concanavalin A (TRITC-Con A) with fluorescence and confocal microscopy. In the presence of insulin, or 24 h after insulin pretreatment (hormonal imprinting), the binding and uptake of TRITC-Con A increased when compared to controls, owing to the binding of TRITC-Con A to sugar oligomers of insulin receptors. Mannose inhibited the binding of Con A, thus demonstrating the specificity of binding. Histamine, a phagocytosis-promoting factor in mammals and Tetrahymena, and galactose, did not influence the uptake of TRITC-Con A.

  14. The effect of ZIMET 3164 and ZIMET 3393 on phagocytosis in Tetrahymena pyriformis GL.

    PubMed

    Brutkowska, M; Fritsch, R S; Wollweber, L

    1982-08-01

    Tetrahymena pyriformis GL is a suitable model to study the influence on phagocytotic activity of two membrane-stabilizing benzimidazole nitrogen mustard derivative, ZIMET 3164 and ZIMET 3393 (cytostasan). Treatment by both compounds causes a gradual inhibition of food vacuole formation dependent on the concentrations used. Complete cessation of phagocytosis is observed by 5 micrograms/ml ZIMET 3164 and 50 micrograms/ml ZIMET 3393. Additionally, disturbances of ciliary movement including immobilization and changes of cell shape are induced. The cells resume food vacuole formation and ciliary movement after being rinsed with control solution. The results correspond well with those described recently in mammalian mononuclear phagocytes.

  15. Interleukin-10 Expression in Macrophages during Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Cells Is Mediated by the TALE homeoproteins Pbx-1 and Prep-1

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Elaine Y.; Liu, Jianguo; Homma, Yoichiro; Zhang, Yunhua; Brendolan, Andrea; Saggese, Matilde; Han, Jihong; Silverstein, Roy; Selleri, Licia; Ma, Xiaojing

    2007-01-01

    Production of IL-10, a major immunoregulatory cytokine, by phagocytes during clearance of apoptotic cells is critical to ensuring cellular homeostasis and suppression of autoimmunity. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms in this fundamental process. We report that IL-10 production stimulated by apoptotic cells is regulated at the level of transcription in a manner dependent on the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, partially on the scavenger receptor CD36, and requires cell-cell contact but not phagocytosis. Using a reporter assay, we mapped the Apoptotic Cell Response Element (ACRE) in the human IL-10 promoter, and provide biochemical and physiological evidence that ACRE mediates the transcriptional activation of IL-10 by pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor-1b and another Hox cofactor Pbx-regulating protein 1 in response to apoptotic cells. PMID:18093541

  16. Increase in cellular triacylglycerol content and emergence of large ER-associated lipid droplets in the absence of CDP-DG synthase function.

    PubMed

    He, Yue; Yam, Candice; Pomraning, Kyle; Chin, Jacqueline S R; Yew, Joanne Y; Freitag, Michael; Oliferenko, Snezhana

    2014-12-15

    Excess fatty acids and sterols are stored as triacylglycerols and sterol esters in specialized cellular organelles, called lipid droplets. Understanding what determines the cellular amount of neutral lipids and their packaging into lipid droplets is of fundamental and applied interest. Using two species of fission yeast, we show that cycling cells deficient in the function of the ER-resident CDP-DG synthase Cds1 exhibit markedly increased triacylglycerol content and assemble large lipid droplets closely associated with the ER membranes. We demonstrate that these unusual structures recruit the triacylglycerol synthesis machinery and grow by expansion rather than by fusion. Our results suggest that interfering with the CDP-DG route of phosphatidic acid utilization rewires cellular metabolism to adopt a triacylglycerol-rich lifestyle reliant on the Kennedy pathway. PMID:25318672

  17. Circulating hemocytes from larvae of Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini): cell types and their role in phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Isabel Marques Rodrigues; Moreira Neto, João Felipe; Pereira, Gustavo Borges; Franco, Mariani Borges; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Infection in insects stimulates a complex defensive response. Recognition of pathogens may be accomplished by plasma or hemocyte proteins that bind specifically to bacterial or fungal polysaccharides. Several morphologically distinct hemocyte cell types cooperate in the immune response. Hemocytes attach to invading organisms and then isolate them by phagocytosis, by trapping them in hemocyte aggregates called nodules, or by forming an organized multicellular capsule around large parasites. In the current investigation the cellular in the hemolymph third instar larvae of M. scutellaris has been characterized by means of light microscopy analysis and phagocytosis assays were performed in vivo by injection of 0.5 microm fluorescence beads in order to identify the hemocyte types involved in phagocytosis. Four morphotypes of circulating hemocytes were found in 3rd instar larvae: prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes and oenocytoids. The results presented plasmatocytes and granulocytes involved in phagocytic response of foreign particles in 3rd instar larvae of M. scutellaris. PMID:19914078

  18. Zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol reduce the inhibitory effects of photodynamic stress on phagocytosis by ARPE-19 cells.

    PubMed

    Olchawa, Magdalena M; Herrnreiter, Anja M; Pilat, Anna K; Skumatz, Christine M B; Niziolek-Kierecka, Magdalena; Burke, Janice M; Sarna, Tadeusz J

    2015-12-01

    Zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol have been previously shown to efficiently protect liposomal membrane lipids against photosensitized peroxidation, and to protect cultured RPE cells against photodynamic killing. Here the protective action of combined zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol was analyzed in ARPE-19 cells subjected to photodynamic (PD) stress mediated by rose Bengal (RB) or merocyanine-540 (MC-540) at sub-lethal levels. Stress-induced cytotoxicity was analyzed by the MTT assay. The peroxidation of membrane lipids was determined by HPLC-EC (Hg) measurements of cholesterol hydroperoxides using cholesterol as a mechanistic reporter molecule. The specific phagocytosis of FITC-labeled photoreceptor outer segments (POS) isolated from bovine retinas was measured by flow cytometry, and the levels of phagocytosis receptor proteins αv integrin subunit, β5 integrin subunit and MerTK were quantified by Western blot analysis. Cytotoxicity measures confirmed that PD stress levels used for phagocytosis analysis were sub-lethal and that antioxidant supplementation protected against higher, lethal PD doses. Sub-lethal PD stress mediated by both photosensitizers induced the accumulation of 5α-OOH and 7α/β-OOH cholesterol hydroperoxides and the addition of the antioxidants substantially inhibited their accumulation. Antioxidant delivery prior to PD stress also reduced the inhibitory effect of stress on POS phagocytosis and partially reduced the stress-induced diminution of phagocytosis receptor proteins. The use of a novel model system where oxidative stress was induced at sub-lethal levels enable observations that would not be detectable using lethal stress models. Moreover, novel observations about the protective effects of zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol on photodynamic damage to ARPE-19 cell membranes and against reductions in the abundance of receptor proteins involved in POS phagocytosis, a process essential for photoreceptor survival, supports the importance of the

  19. A mannose-receptor is possibly involved in the phagocytosis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by seabream (Sparus aurata L.) leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Esteban, M A; Meseguer, J

    2003-05-01

    In this paper the possible involvement of the mannose-receptor on the non-specific recognition and phagocytosis of heat killed yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) by gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) head-kidney leucocytes was established by studying the ability of different sugars to inhibit the uptake of the yeast cells by leucocytes. Leucocytes were preincubated for 30min with different concentrations of sugar (alpha-mannan, d-mannose, d-fucose, l-fucose, d-glucose, d-glucosamine and n-acetyl-glucosamine, all of them described as specific ligands of the vertebrate mannose-receptor) and afterwards incubated with FITC-labelled yeast cells for phagocytosis assays. The phagocytic ability (percentage of cells with one or more ingested yeast cells within the total cell population) and capacity (number of ingested yeast cells per cell) of leucocytes was analysed by flow cytometry. The results demonstrate the potential existence of a specific receptor-sugar or receptor-yeast cell binding process, which was saturable, specific and dose-dependent. More specifically, when leucocytes were preincubated with appropriate doses of d-mannose, d- or l-fucose, d-glucose or n-acetyl-glucosamine the phagocytosis of yeast cells by head-kidney leucocytes was partially blocked. Seabream leucocytes were also preincubated with chloroquine, a lysosomotropic drug which downregulates (in a nonspecific manner) the expression of mannose-receptors in mammals, before phagocytosis assays were performed. The results demonstrated that the phagocytosis of yeast was completely blocked by this substance. The overall results seem to corroborate the presence of the mannose-receptor in seabream phagocytes, which is involved in the non-specific binding and phagocytosis of yeast cells by head-kidney leucocytes. PMID:12711272

  20. Hydrogen peroxide signals E. coli phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear cells; up-stream and down-stream pathway.

    PubMed

    Petropoulos, Michalis; Karamolegkou, Georgia; Rosmaraki, Eleftheria; Tsakas, Sotiris

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (Η2Ο2) is produced during a variety of cellular procedures. In this paper, the regulatory role of Η2Ο2, in Escherichia coli phagocytosis by the human polymorphonuclears, was investigated. White blood cells were incubated with dihydrorhodamine (DHR) in order to study H2O2 synthesis and E. coli-FITC to study phagocytosis. Flow cytometry revealed increased synthesis of H2O2 in polymorphonuclears which incorporated E. coli-FITC. The blocking of H2O2 synthesis by specific inhibitors, N-ethylmaleimide (ΝΕΜ) for NADPH oxidase and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) for superoxide dismutase (SOD), decreased E. coli phagocytosis, as well. Immunoblot analysis of white blood cell protein extracts revealed that the blocking of NADPH oxidase and SOD decreased ERK-1/2 phosphorylation, while it had no effect on JNK and p38. Confocal microscopy showed that phosphorylation of MAPKs and phagocytosis solely occur in the polymorphonuclear and not in mononuclear cells. The use of specific MAPKs inhibitors showed that all of them are necessary for phagocytosis, but only phospho-p38 affects H2O2 synthesis. The blocking of JNK phosphorylation, in the presence of E. coli, evoked a further decrease of cytoplasmic p47 thus increasing its translocation onto the plasma membrane for the assembly of NADPH oxidase. It appears that newly synthesised H2O2 invigorates the phosphorylation and action of ERK-1/2 in E. coli phagocytosis, while phospho-JNK and phospho-p38 appear to regulate H2O2 production.

  1. Zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol reduce the inhibitory effects of photodynamic stress on phagocytosis by ARPE-19 cells

    PubMed Central

    Olchawa, Magdalena M.; Herrnreiter, Anja M.; Pilat, Anna K.; Skumatz, Christine M. B.; Niziolek-Kierecka, Magdalena; Burke, Janice M.; Sarna, Tadeusz J.

    2016-01-01

    Zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol have been previously shown to efficiently protect liposomal membrane lipids against photosensitized peroxidation, and to protect cultured RPE cells against photodynamic killing. Here the protective action of combined zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol was analyzed in ARPE-19 cells subjected to photodynamic (PD) stress mediated by rose Bengal (RB) or merocyanine-540 (MC-540) at sub-lethal levels. Stress-induced cytotoxicity was analyzed by the MTT assay. The peroxidation of membrane lipids was determined by HPLC-EC(Hg) measurements of cholesterol hydroperoxides using cholesterol as a mechanistic reporter molecule. The specific phagocytosis of FITC-labeled photoreceptor outer segments (POS) isolated from bovine retinas was measured by flow cytometry, and the levels of phagocytosis receptor proteins αv integrin subunit, β5 integrin subunit and MerTK were quantified by Western blot analysis. Cytotoxicity measures confirmed that PD stress levels used for phagocytosis analysis were sub-lethal and that antioxidant supplementation protected against higher, lethal PD doses. Sub-lethal PD stress mediated by both photosensitizers induced the accumulation of 5α-OOH and 7α/β-OOH cholesterol hydroperoxides and the addition of the antioxidants substantially inhibited their accumulation. Antioxidant delivery prior to PD stress also reduced the inhibitory effect of stress on POS phagocytosis and partially reduced the stress-induced diminution of phagocytosis receptor proteins. The use of a novel model system where oxidative stress was induced at sub-lethal levels enable observations that would not be detectable using lethal stress models. Moreover, novel observations about the protective effects of zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol on photodynamic damage to ARPE-19 cell membranes and against reductions in the abundance of receptor proteins involved in POS phagocytosis, a process essential for photoreceptor survival, supports the importance of the antioxidants

  2. Monitoring TriAcylGlycerols Accumulation by Atomic Force Microscopy Based Infrared Spectroscopy in Streptomyces Species for Biodiesel Applications.

    PubMed

    Deniset-Besseau, Ariane; Prater, Craig B; Virolle, Marie-Joëlle; Dazzi, Alexandre

    2014-02-20

    An atomic force microscope coupled with a tunable infrared laser source (AFM-IR) was used to measure the size and map the distribution of oil inclusions inside of microorganism without staining or other special sample preparation. The microorganism under study is Streptomyces, a soil bacterium that possesses the capability, under some specific nutritional conditions, to store its carbon source into TriAcylGlycerols, a potential direct source of biodiesel. PMID:26270832

  3. CLA supplementation and aerobic exercise lower blood triacylglycerol, but have no effect on peak oxygen uptake or cardiorespiratory fatigue thresholds.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Buckner, Samuel L; Cochrane, Kristen C; Bergstrom, Haley C; Goldsmith, Jacob A; Weir, Joseph P; Housh, Terry J; Cramer, Joel T

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effects of 6 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation and moderate aerobic exercise on peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), the gas exchange threshold (GET), the respiratory compensation point (RCP), and serum concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and glucose in humans. Thirty-four untrained to moderately trained men (mean ± SD; age = 21.5 ± 2.8 years; mass = 77.2 ± 9.5 kg) completed this double-blind, placebo controlled study and were randomly assigned to either a CLA (Clarinol A-80; n = 18) or placebo (PLA; sunflower oil; n = 16) group. Prior to and following 6 weeks of aerobic training (50% VO2 peak for 30 min, twice per week) and supplementation (5.63 g of total CLA isomers [of which 2.67 g was c9, t11 and 2.67 g was t10, c12] or 7.35 g high oleic sunflower oil per day), each participant completed an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion to determine their [Formula: see text] peak, GET, and RCP and fasted blood draws were performed to measure serum concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and glucose. Serum triacylglycerol concentrations were lower (p < 0.05) in the CLA than the PLA group. For VO2 peak and glucose, there were group × time interactions (p < 0.05), however, post hoc statistical tests did not reveal any differences (p > 0.05) between the CLA and PLA groups. GET and RCP increased (p < 0.05) from pre- to post-training for both the CLA and PLA groups. Overall, these data suggested that CLA and aerobic exercise may have synergistic, blood triacylglycerol lowering effects, although CLA may be ineffective for enhancing aerobic exercise performance in conjunction with a 6-week aerobic exercise training program in college-age men.

  4. Histamine H3 receptor in primary mouse microglia inhibits chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tomomitsu; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Matsuzawa, Takuro; Naganuma, Fumito; Nakamura, Tadaho; Miura, Yamato; Mohsen, Attayeb S; Harada, Ryuichi; Iwata, Ren; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2015-07-01

    Histamine is a physiological amine which initiates a multitude of physiological responses by binding to four known G-protein coupled histamine receptor subtypes as follows: histamine H1 receptor (H1 R), H2 R, H3 R, and H4 R. Brain histamine elicits neuronal excitation and regulates a variety of physiological processes such as learning and memory, sleep-awake cycle and appetite regulation. Microglia, the resident macrophages in the brain, express histamine receptors; however, the effects of histamine on critical microglial functions such as chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion have not been examined in primary cells. We demonstrated that mouse primary microglia express H2 R, H3 R, histidine decarboxylase, a histamine synthase, and histamine N-methyltransferase, a histamine metabolizing enzyme. Both forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation and ATP-induced intracellular Ca(2+) transients were reduced by the H3 R agonist imetit but not the H2 R agonist amthamine. H3 R activation on two ubiquitous second messenger signalling pathways suggests that H3 R can regulate various microglial functions. In fact, histamine and imetit dose-dependently inhibited microglial chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production. Furthermore, we confirmed that microglia produced histamine in the presence of LPS, suggesting that H3 R activation regulate microglial function by autocrine and/or paracrine signalling. In conclusion, we demonstrate the involvement of histamine in primary microglial functions, providing the novel insight into physiological roles of brain histamine.

  5. Dichotomous roles for externalized cardiolipin in extracellular signaling: Promotion of phagocytosis and attenuation of innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Krishnakumar; Maeda, Akihiro; Lee, Janet S; Mohammadyani, Dariush; Dar, Haider Hussain; Jiang, Jian Fei; St Croix, Claudette M; Watkins, Simon; Tyurin, Vladimir A; Tyurina, Yulia Y; Klöditz, Katharina; Polimova, Anastassia; Kapralova, Valentyna I; Xiong, Zeyu; Ray, Prabir; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Mallampalli, Rama K; Bayir, Hülya; Fadeel, Bengt; Kagan, Valerian E

    2015-09-22

    Among the distinct molecular signatures present in the mitochondrion is the tetra-acylated anionic phospholipid cardiolipin, a lipid also present in primordial, single-cell bacterial ancestors of mitochondria and multiple bacterial species today. Cardiolipin is normally localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane; however, when cardiolipin becomes externalized to the surface of dysregulated mitochondria, it promotes inflammasome activation and stimulates the elimination of damaged or nonfunctional mitochondria by mitophagy. Given the immunogenicity of mitochondrial and bacterial membranes that are released during sterile and pathogen-induced trauma, we hypothesized that cardiolipins might function as "eat me" signals for professional phagocytes. In experiments with macrophage cell lines and primary macrophages, we found that membranes with mitochondrial or bacterial cardiolipins on their surface were engulfed through phagocytosis, which depended on the scavenger receptor CD36. Distinct from this process, the copresentation of cardiolipin with the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist lipopolysaccharide dampened TLR4-stimulated production of cytokines. These data suggest that externalized, extracellular cardiolipins play a dual role in host-host and host-pathogen interactions by promoting phagocytosis and attenuating inflammatory immune responses.

  6. Dynamic process of phagocytosis and forms of macrophage cell death induced by ingestion of apoptotic neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiong; Huang, WeiLin; Wang, Cheng; Liu, RongYu

    2014-10-01

    Clearance of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages is important for both the successful resolution of acute inflammation and homeostasis. However, the dynamic process of phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages and the fate of macrophages after the ingestion of apoptotic neutrophils has not been well documented. In the present study, we staged the recognition and tethering, internalization, digestion and exocytosis steps of phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils. Furthermore, we found that after the ingestion of apoptotic cells, a subset of macrophages underwent cell death by autophagy, apoptosis or oncosis as revealed by transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy combined with specific dyes. The percentage of autophagic, apoptotic and oncotic macrophages were 8.00%±2.00%, 12.33%±2.08%, and 3.66%±1.50%, respectively. These results indicated that after ingestion of apoptotic neutrophils, a subset of macrophages undergoes autophagy and apoptosis. We propose that autophagy of macrophages after the ingestion of apoptotic cells may be a new mechanism present in the resolution of inflammation.

  7. Redirecting soluble antigen for MHC class I cross-presentation during phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Hari, Aswin; Ganguly, Anutosh; Mu, Libing; Davis, Shevaun P; Stenner, Melanie D; Lam, Raymond; Munro, Fay; Namet, Inana; Alghamdi, Enaam; Fürstenhaupt, Tobias; Dong, Wei; Detampel, Pascal; Shen, Lian Jun; Amrein, Matthias W; Yates, Robin M; Shi, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Peptides presented by MHC class I molecules are mostly derived from proteins synthesized by the antigen-presenting cell itself, while peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are predominantly from materials acquired by endocytosis. External antigens can also be presented by MHC class I molecules in a process referred to as cross-presentation. Here, we report that mouse dendritic cell (DC) engagement to a phagocytic target alters endocytic processing and inhibits the proteolytic activities. During phagocytosis, endosome maturation is delayed, shows less progression toward the lysosome, and the endocytosed soluble antigen is targeted for MHC class I cross-presentation. The antigen processing in these arrested endosomes is under the control of NAPDH oxidase associated ROS. We also show that cathepsin S is responsible for the generation of the MHC class I epitope. Taken together, our results suggest that in addition to solid structure uptake, DC phagocytosis simultaneously modifies the kinetics of endosomal trafficking and maturation. As a consequence, external soluble antigens are targeted into the MHC class I cross-presentation pathway.

  8. Dichotomous roles for externalized cardiolipin in extracellular signaling: Promotion of phagocytosis and attenuation of innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Krishnakumar; Maeda, Akihiro; Lee, Janet S.; Mohammadyani, Dariush; Dar, Haider Hussain; Jiang, Jian Fei; St. Croix, Claudette M.; Watkins, Simon; Tyurin, Vladimir A.; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Klöditz, Katharina; Polimova, Anastassia; Kapralova, Valentyna I.; Xiong, Zeyu; Ray, Prabir; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Mallampalli, Rama K.; Bayir, Hülya; Fadeel, Bengt; Kagan, Valerian E.

    2016-01-01

    Among the distinct molecular signatures present in the mitochondrion is the tetra-acylated anionic phospholipid cardiolipin, a lipid also present in primordial, single-cell bacterial ancestors of mitochondria and multiple bacterial species today. Cardiolipin is normally localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane; however, when cardiolipin becomes externalized to the surface of dysregulated mitochondria, it promotes inflammasome activation and stimulates the elimination of damaged or nonfunctional mitochondria by mitophagy. Given the immunogenicity of mitochondrial and bacterial membranes that are released during sterile and pathogen-induced trauma, we hypothesized that cardiolipins might function as “eat me” signals for professional phagocytes. In experiments with macrophage cell lines and primary macrophages, we found that membranes with mitochondrial or bacterial cardiolipins on their surface were engulfed through phagocytosis, which depended on the scavenger receptor CD36. Distinct from this process, the copresentation of cardiolipin with the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist lipopolysaccharide dampened TLR4-stimulated production of cytokines. These data suggest that externalized, extracellular cardiolipins play a dual role in host-host and host-pathogen interactions by promoting phagocytosis and attenuating inflammatory immune responses. PMID:26396268

  9. Augmentation of human monocyte opsonin-independent phagocytosis by fragments of human plasma fibronectin.

    PubMed Central

    Czop, J K; Kadish, J L; Austen, K F

    1981-01-01

    Human plasma fibronectin isolated by gelatin-affinity chromatography increases in a dose-dependent fashion the number of human monocytes that ingest particulate activators of the human alternative complement pathway in a fully synthetic medium. The fibronectin effect is selective for these particulate activators, does not extend to particles whose ingestion is dependent upon opsonization with IgG, and is not observed with pretreatment of the monocytes. Affinity chromatography with monoclonal antibody to plasma fibronectin of 440,000 daltons reveals that only 12-53% of the protein in a phagocytically active gelatin-affinity-purified fibronectin preparations is bound to the antibody. The protein eluted after affinity chromatography with monoclonal antibody of active preparations, which represented 10-43% of the protein applied, exhibits a 2- to 10-fold increment of activity per microgram of protein above the starting gelatin-affinity-purified material. Thus, the activity that augments the percent of human monocytes ingesting particulate activators of the alternative pathway is antigenically defined as plasma fibronectin. Preparations containing only intact 440,000-dalton fibronectin are also bound to and eluted from the monoclonal antibody, but they fail to augment phagocytosis. When inactive 440,000-dalton plasma fibronectin is subjected to limited trypsin cleavage, phagocytosis-enhancing activity develops that is bound to and elutes from the affinity column prepared with monoclonal antibody, thereby indicating that the enhancing activity of plasma fibronectin resides in cleavage fragments. PMID:6943567

  10. Calreticulin is a microbial-binding molecule with phagocytosis-enhancing capacity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuemei; Xu, Na; Zhang, Shicui

    2013-09-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a highly conserved calcium-binding protein mainly involved in directing proper conformation of proteins and controlling calcium level. Accumulating data also show that CRT is emerging as an immune-relevant molecule. In this study, we demonstrated that the CRT gene from the amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum, named Bjcrt, consisted of a signal peptide, three domains (N-, P-, C-domains) and an ER retrieval signal sequence (KDEL), which appears to be the ancient form of vertebrate CRTs, and Bjcrt was expressed in a tissue-specific manner, with the most abundant expression in the notochord. We also demonstrated for the first time that the recombinant BjCRT (rBjCRT) was able to bind the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, both BjCRT as well as human recombinant calreticulin were able to promote the phagocytosis of E. coli and S. aureus by sea bass macrophages. These results indicate that CRT is a microbial-binding molecule and possesses an ability to enhance phagocytosis, a novel function assigned to CRT, reenforcing the notion that CRT is an immune-relevant molecule associated with host immune responses.

  11. WAVE1 mediates suppression of phagocytosis by phospholipid-derived DAMPs

    PubMed Central

    Matt, Ulrich; Sharif, Omar; Martins, Rui; Furtner, Tanja; Langeberg, Lorene; Gawish, Riem; Elbau, Immanuel; Zivkovic, Ana; Lakovits, Karin; Oskolkova, Olga; Doninger, Bianca; Vychytil, Andreas; Perkmann, Thomas; Schabbauer, Gernot; Binder, Christoph J.; Bochkov, Valery N.; Scott, John D.; Knapp, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Clearance of invading pathogens is essential to preventing overwhelming inflammation and sepsis that are symptomatic of bacterial peritonitis. Macrophages participate in this innate immune response by engulfing and digesting pathogens, a process called phagocytosis. Oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) are danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) generated in response to infection that can prevent the phagocytic clearance of bacteria. We investigated the mechanism underlying OxPL action in macrophages. Exposure to OxPL induced alterations in actin polymerization, resulting in spreading of peritoneal macrophages and diminished uptake of E. coli. Pharmacological and cell-based studies showed that an anchored pool of PKA mediates the effects of OxPL. Gene silencing approaches identified the A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) WAVE1 as an effector of OxPL action in vitro. Chimeric Wave1–/– mice survived significantly longer after infection with E. coli and OxPL treatment in vivo. Moreover, we found that endogenously generated OxPL in human peritoneal dialysis fluid from end-stage renal failure patients inhibited phagocytosis via WAVE1. Collectively, these data uncover an unanticipated role for WAVE1 as a critical modulator of the innate immune response to severe bacterial infections. PMID:23934128

  12. WAVE1 mediates suppression of phagocytosis by phospholipid-derived DAMPs.

    PubMed

    Matt, Ulrich; Sharif, Omar; Martins, Rui; Furtner, Tanja; Langeberg, Lorene; Gawish, Riem; Elbau, Immanuel; Zivkovic, Ana; Lakovits, Karin; Oskolkova, Olga; Doninger, Bianca; Vychytil, Andreas; Perkmann, Thomas; Schabbauer, Gernot; Binder, Christoph J; Bochkov, Valery N; Scott, John D; Knapp, Sylvia

    2013-07-01

    Clearance of invading pathogens is essential to preventing overwhelming inflammation and sepsis that are symptomatic of bacterial peritonitis. Macrophages participate in this innate immune response by engulfing and digesting pathogens, a process called phagocytosis. Oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) are danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) generated in response to infection that can prevent the phagocytic clearance of bacteria. We investigated the mechanism underlying OxPL action in macrophages. Exposure to OxPL induced alterations in actin polymerization, resulting in spreading of peritoneal macrophages and diminished uptake of E. coli. Pharmacological and cell-based studies showed that an anchored pool of PKA mediates the effects of OxPL. Gene silencing approaches identified the A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) WAVE1 as an effector of OxPL action in vitro. Chimeric Wave1(-/-) mice survived significantly longer after infection with E. coli and OxPL treatment in vivo. Moreover, we found that endogenously generated OxPL in human peritoneal dialysis fluid from end-stage renal failure patients inhibited phagocytosis via WAVE1. Collectively, these data uncover an unanticipated role for WAVE1 as a critical modulator of the innate immune response to severe bacterial infections.

  13. Macrophage phagocytosis alters the MRI signal of ferumoxytol-labeled mesenchymal stromal cells in cartilage defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejadnik, Hossein; Lenkov, Olga; Gassert, Florian; Fretwell, Deborah; Lam, Isaac; Daldrup-Link, Heike E.

    2016-05-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are a promising tool for cartilage regeneration in arthritic joints. hMSC labeling with iron oxide nanoparticles enables non-invasive in vivo monitoring of transplanted cells in cartilage defects with MR imaging. Since graft failure leads to macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo whether nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs show distinct MR signal characteristics before and after phagocytosis by macrophages. We found that apoptotic nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs were phagocytosed by macrophages while viable nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs were not. Serial MRI scans of hMSC transplants in arthritic joints of recipient rats showed that the iron signal of apoptotic, nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs engulfed by macrophages disappeared faster compared to viable hMSCs. This corresponded to poor cartilage repair outcomes of the apoptotic hMSC transplants. Therefore, rapid decline of iron MRI signal at the transplant site can indicate cell death and predict incomplete defect repair weeks later. Currently, hMSC graft failure can be only diagnosed by lack of cartilage defect repair several months after cell transplantation. The described imaging signs can diagnose hMSC transplant failure more readily, which could enable timely re-interventions and avoid unnecessary follow up studies of lost transplants.

  14. Autophagy and phagocytosis-like cell cannibalism exert opposing effects on cellular survival during metabolic stress

    PubMed Central

    Poels, J; Spasić, M R; Gistelinck, M; Mutert, J; Schellens, A; Callaerts, P; Norga, K K

    2012-01-01

    Understanding mechanisms controlling neuronal cell death and survival under conditions of altered energy supply (e.g., during stroke) is fundamentally important for the development of therapeutic strategies. The function of autophagy herein is unclear, as both its beneficial and detrimental roles have been described. We previously demonstrated that loss of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an evolutionarily conserved enzyme that maintains cellular energy balance, leads to activity-dependent degeneration in neuronal tissue. Here, we show that energy depletion in Drosophila AMPK mutants results in increased autophagy that convincingly promotes, rather than rescues, neurodegeneration. The generated excessive autophagic response is accompanied by increased TOR and S6K activity in the absence of an AMPK-mediated negative regulatory feedback loop. Moreover, energy-depleted neurons use a phagocytic-like process as a means to cellular survival at the expense of surrounding cells. Consequently, phagocytosis stimulation by expression of the scavenger receptor Croquemort significantly delays neurodegeneration. This study thus reveals a potentially novel strategy for cellular survival during conditions of extreme energy depletion, resembling xeno-cannibalistic events seen in metastatic tumors. We provide new insights into the roles of autophagy and phagocytosis in the neuronal metabolic stress response and open new avenues into understanding of human disease and development of therapeutic strategies. PMID:22498699

  15. Human cytomegalovirus and Epstein–Barr virus inhibit oral bacteria-induced macrophage activation and phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Y.-L.; Li, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal disease is an inflammatory condition caused by periodontal microorganisms. Viruses such as human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) are associated with certain types of periodontal disease, but their roles in promoting the disease are unclear. Because both viruses infect human macrophages, cells which play key roles in the clearance of pathogenic bacteria, it is likely that the viruses alter the functional capacity of macrophages by inhibiting their defense mechanisms against invading pathogens. Methods Macrophages preinfected with HCMV or EBV were evaluated following stimulation by selected oral bacteria. Bacteria-induced macrophage activation was assayed by measuring the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) produced in the media, and phagocytic activity was analysed by a phagocytosis assay with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bacteria. The virus-infected macrophages were also subjected to semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction to measure the expression of toll-like receptor 9, which is involved in the activation of phagocytosis-related pathways. Results Both HCMV and EBV significantly diminished the TNF-α production typically induced by oral bacteria, inhibited the phagocytic activity of macrophages, and downregulated the expression of toll-like receptor 9. Conclusion Infection by HCMV or EBV inhibits the functional ability of macrophages to respond to bacterial challenge, thereby suggesting their pathogenic role in the development of periodontal disease. PMID:19416455

  16. Vitamin d deficiency reduces the immune response, phagocytosis rate, and intracellular killing rate of microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Marija; Onken, Marie Luise; Schütze, Sandra; Redlich, Sandra; Götz, Alexander; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Bertsch, Thomas; Ribes, Sandra; Hanenberg, Andrea; Schneider, Simon; Bollheimer, Cornelius; Sieber, Cornel; Nau, Roland

    2014-06-01

    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Escherichia coli are associated with high rates of mortality and neurological sequelae. A high prevalence of neurological disorders has been observed in geriatric populations at risk of hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D has potent effects on human immunity, including induction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and suppression of T-cell proliferation, but its influence on microglial cells is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of vitamin D deficiency on the phagocytosis rate, intracellular killing, and immune response of murine microglial cultures after stimulation with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists tripalmitoyl-S-glyceryl-cysteine (TLR1/2), poly(I·C) (TLR3), lipopolysaccharide (TLR4), and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (TLR9). Upon stimulation with high concentrations of TLR agonists, the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) was decreased in vitamin D-deficient compared to that in vitamin D-sufficient microglial cultures. Phagocytosis of E. coli K1 after stimulation of microglial cells with high concentrations of TLR3, -4, and -9 agonists and intracellular killing of E. coli K1 after stimulation with high concentrations of all TLR agonists were lower in vitamin D-deficient microglial cells than in the respective control cells. Our observations suggest that vitamin D deficiency may impair the resistance of the brain against bacterial infections. PMID:24686054

  17. Vitamin D Deficiency Reduces the Immune Response, Phagocytosis Rate, and Intracellular Killing Rate of Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Onken, Marie Luise; Schütze, Sandra; Redlich, Sandra; Götz, Alexander; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Bertsch, Thomas; Ribes, Sandra; Hanenberg, Andrea; Schneider, Simon; Bollheimer, Cornelius; Sieber, Cornel; Nau, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Escherichia coli are associated with high rates of mortality and neurological sequelae. A high prevalence of neurological disorders has been observed in geriatric populations at risk of hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D has potent effects on human immunity, including induction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and suppression of T-cell proliferation, but its influence on microglial cells is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of vitamin D deficiency on the phagocytosis rate, intracellular killing, and immune response of murine microglial cultures after stimulation with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists tripalmitoyl-S-glyceryl-cysteine (TLR1/2), poly(I·C) (TLR3), lipopolysaccharide (TLR4), and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (TLR9). Upon stimulation with high concentrations of TLR agonists, the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) was decreased in vitamin D-deficient compared to that in vitamin D-sufficient microglial cultures. Phagocytosis of E. coli K1 after stimulation of microglial cells with high concentrations of TLR3, -4, and -9 agonists and intracellular killing of E. coli K1 after stimulation with high concentrations of all TLR agonists were lower in vitamin D-deficient microglial cells than in the respective control cells. Our observations suggest that vitamin D deficiency may impair the resistance of the brain against bacterial infections. PMID:24686054

  18. Phagocytosis stimulates alternative glycosylation of macrosialin (mouse CD68), a macrophage-specific endosomal protein.

    PubMed

    da Silva, R P; Gordon, S

    1999-03-15

    Macrosialin (mouse CD68), a macrophage-specific member of the lysosomal-associated membrane protein family, displays N-linked glycosylation and a heavily sialylated, mucin-like domain. We show that phagocytosis of zymosan by inflammatory peritoneal macrophages potently alters glycan processing of macrosialin in vitro. The phagocytic glycoform is not induced by other forms of endocytosis and depends on particle internalization. Zymosan uptake does not influence macrosialin protein synthesis, but increases the specific incorporation of D-[2-3H]mannose, D-[6-3H]galactose, N-acetyl-D-[1-3H]glucosamine and L-[5,6-3H]fucose by 2-15-fold. The phagocytic glycoform displays increased binding of agglutinins from peanut, Amaranthus caudatus and Galanthus nivalis, whereas binding of the sialic-acid-specific Maakia amurensis agglutinin is slightly reduced. Digestion by N-Glycanase abolishes the incorporation of [3H]mannose label and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin binding activity, but preserves the incorporation of galactose and N-acetylglucosamine and specific lectin binding. We also show that phagocytosis increases the complexity and length of O-linked chains. The data presented highlight the importance of differential glycosylation in the biology of macrosialin, phagosomes and macrophages in general.

  19. Mannose receptor contribution to Candida albicans phagocytosis by murine E-clone J774 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Porcaro, Isabelle; Vidal, Michel; Jouvert, Sylvie; Stahl, Philip D; Giaimis, Jean

    2003-08-01

    Mannoproteins, as the main constituents of the outer layer of yeast cell walls, are able to interact with phagocytic cells in an opsonin-independent manner through the mannose receptor (MR) and to induce yeast ingestion by the professional phagocytes. Moreover, the MR also mediates endocytosis of soluble ligands through clathrin-coated pits. Here, we studied some aspects of the interaction between the MR and Candida albicans using murine E-clone macrophages and the consequences on MR trafficking. Using a pull-down assay involving mixture E-clone macrophage detergent lysate with mannosylated Sepharose beads and glutaraldehyde-fixed, heat-killed (HK) C. albicans, we found that binding of solubilized MR to mannosylated particles occurred with characteristics similar to the receptor's cell-surface mannose-binding activity. We then demonstrated that MR expressed on E-clone macrophages contributed to phagocytosis of unopsonized, HK C. albicans and that yeast phagocytosis induced a decrease in MR endocytic activity without concomitant degradation of the receptor in the time lapse studied. PMID:12885937

  20. Macrophage phagocytosis alters the MRI signal of ferumoxytol-labeled mesenchymal stromal cells in cartilage defects

    PubMed Central

    Nejadnik, Hossein; Lenkov, Olga; Gassert, Florian; Fretwell, Deborah; Lam, Isaac; Daldrup-Link, Heike E.

    2016-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are a promising tool for cartilage regeneration in arthritic joints. hMSC labeling with iron oxide nanoparticles enables non-invasive in vivo monitoring of transplanted cells in cartilage defects with MR imaging. Since graft failure leads to macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo whether nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs show distinct MR signal characteristics before and after phagocytosis by macrophages. We found that apoptotic nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs were phagocytosed by macrophages while viable nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs were not. Serial MRI scans of hMSC transplants in arthritic joints of recipient rats showed that the iron signal of apoptotic, nanoparticle-labeled hMSCs engulfed by macrophages disappeared faster compared to viable hMSCs. This corresponded to poor cartilage repair outcomes of the apoptotic hMSC transplants. Therefore, rapid decline of iron MRI signal at the transplant site can indicate cell death and predict incomplete defect repair weeks later. Currently, hMSC graft failure can be only diagnosed by lack of cartilage defect repair several months after cell transplantation. The described imaging signs can diagnose hMSC transplant failure more readily, which could enable timely re-interventions and avoid unnecessary follow up studies of lost transplants. PMID:27174199

  1. Phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of haemocytes from the ivory snail, Babylonia areolata.

    PubMed

    Di, Guilan; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Ke, Caihuan

    2013-08-01

    Haemocytes from the ivory snail, Babylonia areolata phagocytized Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus after 30 min. Haemocytes phagocytized V. parahaemolyticus at a greater rate than they phagocytized S. cerevisiae. The phagocytic rate (PP) of V. parahaemolyticus by granulocytes to was a little higher than that of S. cerevisiae. The phagocytic index (PI) of V. parahaemolyticus by granulocytes was significantly higher than that of S. cerevisiae. The same was true of hyalinocytes. The PP of granulocytes was significantly higher than that of hyalinocytes for each pathogen. No difference in PI was observed in granulocytes and hyalinocytes. Two defense mechanisms of B. areolata were quantified using flow cytometry. Haemocyte phagocytosis was quantified using fluorescent microbeads and respiratory burst activity was measured using H2O2 increases detected by 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. Both phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of the haemocytes increased over time. After 90 min the phagocytic rate no longer increased. In the case of respiratory burst, the greatest increase in fluorescence occurred between 30 and 120 min, no further increase was seen after 120 min. These results showed unequivocally that a native (unstimulated) haemocyte oxidative burst was active in B. areolata. The aim of this study was to further the knowledge of immunology in gastropods.

  2. Alterations in the protein pattern of subcellular fractions isolated from Paramecium cells suppressed in phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Surmacz, L; Wiejak, J; Wyroba, E

    2001-01-01

    SDS-PAGE and quantitative densitometric analysis revealed alterations in the protein pattern of subcellular fractions (100,000 x g) isolated from Paramecium aurelia (299s axenic) cells suppressed in phagocytosis as compared with the control. Two different agents were used to block phagocytosis: the beta-adrenergic antagonist-1-propranolol (200 microM) and inhibitor of calmodulin-dependent processes--trifluoperazine (20 microM). More than 40 polypeptides were identified in the cytosolic (soluble) fractions S1 and S2. A considerable decrease in band intensity was found for three polypeptides: by 60% for 87 kDa band, 52% for 75 kDa and 37% for 42 kDa in comparison to the control, when S2 fractions from propranolol-treated cells of equal load were quantified. TFP treatment evoked only a small decrease in the intensity of the same bands: 9%, 10% and 6%, respectively. The 42 kDa band was identified by Western blot analysis and chemiluminiscent detection to be actin. This result suggests that actin may be a primary target of pharmacological agents used in this study to inhibit Paramecium phagocytic activity.

  3. Immunomodulatory Effects of Streptococcus suis Capsule Type on Human Dendritic Cell Responses, Phagocytosis and Intracellular Survival

    PubMed Central

    Meijerink, Marjolein; Ferrando, Maria Laura; Lammers, Geraldine; Taverne, Nico; Smith, Hilde E.; Wells, Jerry M.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a major porcine pathogen of significant commercial importance worldwide and an emerging zoonotic pathogen of humans. Given the important sentinel role of mucosal dendritic cells and their importance in induction of T cell responses we investigated the effect of different S. suis serotype strains and an isogenic capsule mutant of serotype 2 on the maturation, activation and expression of IL-10, IL-12p70 and TNF-α in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Additionally, we compared phagocytosis levels and bacterial survival after internalization. The capsule of serotype 2, the most common serotype associated with infection in humans and pigs, was highly anti-phagocytic and modulated the IL-10/IL-12 and IL-10/TNF-α cytokine production in favor of a more anti-inflammatory profile compared to other serotypes. This may have consequences for the induction of effective immunity to S. suis serotype 2 in humans. A shielding effect of the capsule on innate Toll-like receptor signaling was also demonstrated. Furthermore, we showed that 24 h after phagocytosis, significant numbers of viable intracellular S. suis were still present intracellularly. This may contribute to the dissemination of S. suis in the body. PMID:22558240

  4. Attempted caveolae-mediated phagocytosis of surface-fixed micro-pillars by human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Moerke, Caroline; Mueller, Petra; Nebe, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Cells are sensitive to their underlying micro- and nano-topography, but the complex interplay is not completely understood especially if sharp edges and ridges of stochastically modified surfaces interfere with an attached cell body. Micro-topography offers cues that evoke a large range of cell responses e.g. altered adhesion behavior and integrin expression resulting in disturbed cell functions. In this study, we analyzed why osteoblastic cells mimic the underlying geometrical micro-pillar structure (5 × 5 × 5 μm, spacing of 5 μm) with their actin cytoskeleton. Interestingly, we discovered an attempted caveolae-mediated phagocytosis of each micro-pillar beneath the cells, which was accompanied by increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and reduced intracellular ATP levels. This energy consuming process hampered the cells in their function as osteoblasts at the interface. The raft-dependent/caveolae-mediated phagocytic pathway is regulated by diverse cellular components including caveolin-1 (Cav-1), cholesterol, actin cytoskeleton as well as actin-binding proteins like annexin A2 (AnxA2). Our results show a new aspect of osteoblast-material interaction and give insight into how cells behave on extraordinary micro-structures. We conclude that stochastically structured implants used in orthopedic surgery should avoid any topographical heights which induce phagocytosis to prevent their successful ingrowth.

  5. Phagocytosis of aggregated lipoprotein by macrophages: Low density lipoprotein receptor-dependent foam-cell formation

    SciTech Connect

    Suits, A.G.; Chait, A.; Aviram, M.; Heinecke, J.W. )

    1989-04-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) modified by incubation with phospholipase C (PLC-LDL) aggregates in solution and is rapidly taken up and degraded by human and mouse macrophages, producing foam cells in vitro. Human, mouse, and rabbit macrophages degraded {sup 125}I-labeled PLC-LDL ({sup 125}I-PLC-LDL) more rapidly than native {sup 125}I-labeled LDL ({sup 125}I-LDL), while nonphagocytic cells such as human fibroblasts and bovine aortic endothelial cells degraded {sup 125}I-PLC-LDL more slowly than {sup 125}I-LDL. This suggested the mechanism for internalization of PLC-LDL was phagocytosis. When examined by electron microscopy, mouse peritoneal macrophages appeared to be phagocy