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Sample records for pharmaceutical sector perceptions

  1. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers

    PubMed Central

    Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M

    2009-01-01

    Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries [1]. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals [2]. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of

  2. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers.

    PubMed

    Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M

    2009-10-29

    Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries 1. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals 2. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of interest guidelines which, if present and

  3. Pharmaceutical and Medicine Manufacturing Sector (NAICS 3254)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the pharmaceutical manufacturing sector, including essential uses of CFCs, NESHAP for pharmaceutical production, effluent guidelines for wastewater and management of hazardous waste.

  4. National transparency assessment of Kuwait's pharmaceutical sector.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Dalia A; Alkhamis, Yousif; Qaddoumi, Mohammad; Behbehani, Kazem

    2015-09-01

    Corruption is one of several factors that may hinder the access to pharmaceuticals. Since Kuwait has the highest per-capita spending on pharmaceuticals in the region, we wanted to evaluate the level of transparency in its pharmaceutical sector using an established assessment tool adapted by the World Health Organization. Standardized questionnaires were conducted via semi-structured interviews with key informants to measure the level of transparency in eight functions of the public pharmaceutical sector. The scores for the degree of vulnerability to corruption reflected marginal to moderate venerability to corruption for most pharmaceutical sectors. The perceived strengths included availability of appropriate laws, the presence of clear standard operating procedures, and the use of an efficient registration/distribution system. Weaknesses included lack of conflict of interest guidelines and written terms of reference, absence of pharmacoeconomic studies, and inconsistencies in law enforcement. Findings reveal that few functions of Kuwait pharmaceutical sector remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. However, the willingness of Kuwait Ministry of Health to adopt the assessment study and the acknowledgement of the weaknesses of current processes of the pharmaceutical sector may assist to achieve a transparent pharmaceutical system in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The pharmaceutical sector inquiry: 'Hamlet' in a nutshell.

    PubMed

    den Exter, André

    2010-03-01

    In July 2009, the European Commission (DG Competition) published a Communication on the pharmaceutical sector. This inquiry was launched because there were some indications that competition in the pharmaceutical market in the European Union might not be working well. The report examines the reasons for the observed delay. This article analyses the outcomes from a critical standpoint, arguing in favour of enhanced 'soft law' accountability mechanisms in the pharmaceutical sector, defending conditional patenting and the introduction of a Community patent.

  6. Nurse practitioners' perceptions and participation in pharmaceutical marketing.

    PubMed

    Crigger, Nancy; Barnes, Kristen; Junko, Autumn; Rahal, Sarah; Sheek, Casey

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports on a study conducted to describe family nurse practitioners' perceptions towards and participation in pharmaceutical marketing and to explore the relationships among related variables. The pharmaceutical industry's intense global marketing strategies have resulted in widespread concern in healthcare professionals and professional groups, sectors of the public in many countries, and in the World Health Organization. Research on healthcare providers' participation in pharmaceutical marketing indicates that these relationships are conflicts of interests and compromise healthcare providers' prescribing practices and trust. Nursing, as a discipline, appears to be slow to address the impact of pharmaceutical marketing on nursing practice. Questionnaires about perceptions and participation in pharmaceutical marketing were completed by a random sample of 84 licensed family nurse practitioners in the United States of America in 2007. Family nurse practitioners viewed pharmaceutical company marketing uncritically as educational and beneficial. They also perceived other providers but not themselves as influenced by pharmaceutical marketing. The findings supported those found in previous research with nurses and physicians. Lack of education, participation in marketing and psychological and social responses may impede family nurse practitioners' ability to respond critically and appropriately to marketing strategies and the conflict of interest it creates.

  7. Practicing Research Ethics: Private-Sector Physicians & Pharmaceutical Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on constructions of research ethics by primary care physicians in the USA as they engage in contract research for the pharmaceutical industry. Drawing first upon historical studies of physicians as investigators and then upon 12 months of qualitative fieldwork in the South Western US, this paper analyzes the shifting, contextualized ethics that shape physicians’ relationships with patients/subjects and pharmaceutical companies. Just as physicians followed professional codes of ethics prior to the codification of acceptable research conduct in the 1980s, physicians today continue to develop tacit systems of research ethics. This paper argues that private-sector physicians primarily conceptualize their ethical conduct in relation to the pharmaceutical companies hiring them, not to human subjects they enroll in clinical trials. This is not to say that these physicians do not follow the formal U.S. regulation to protect human subjects, but rather that their financial relationships with the pharmaceutical industry have a greater influence on their identities as researchers and on their constructions of their ethical responsibilities. PMID:18353515

  8. Corporate social responsibility in countries with mature and emerging pharmaceutical sectors.

    PubMed

    Volodina, Anna; Sax, Sylvia; Anderson, Stuart

    2009-10-01

    In recent decades the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been adopted by many business sectors, including the pharmaceutical industry. However, in this and other sectors its application remains variable, particularly between mature and developing economies. Its stakeholders include pharmacy and medical students, their attitude to the involvement of companies in socially responsible activities will be important determinants of public response to the industry. To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of senior medical and pharmacy students towards the CSR concept in the pharmaceutical sector in mature (Germany) and developing (Russia) markets. A questionnaire survey was carried out among senior pharmacy and medical students during the summer semester 2008 in two Russian and one German university. In each country 120 questionnaires were distributed. The response rate was 95% in Russia and 93% in Germany. Although the relevance of CSR was widely acknowledged by the students, very few were aware of CSR practices currently performed by companies. THE REPUTATION OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY WAS GENERALLY POOR: less than 15% of respondents gave credence to the information provided in advertisements and fully supported pricing strategies as well as policies towards the developing countries. When choosing an employer more than 90% of respondents consider the policies affecting an employee directly as pivotal. However, for a high proportion of students (59% in Russia and 64% in Germany) socially irresponsible behavior by companies has a significant negative impact. This paper identifies practices which students believe should be a part of the CSR programmes for the pharmaceutical industry, and also some that should be abandoned. It recommends that corporate communication on CSR should be expanded. Key differences are seen in perceptions of students in Germany and Russia towards the extent of irresponsible actions and the variation between them.

  9. Corporate social responsibility in countries with mature and emerging pharmaceutical sectors

    PubMed Central

    Volodina, Anna; Sax, Sylvia; Anderson, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been adopted by many business sectors, including the pharmaceutical industry. However, in this and other sectors its application remains variable, particularly between mature and developing economies. Its stakeholders include pharmacy and medical students, their attitude to the involvement of companies in socially responsible activities will be important determinants of public response to the industry. Objective: To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of senior medical and pharmacy students towards the CSR concept in the pharmaceutical sector in mature (Germany) and developing (Russia) markets. Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried out among senior pharmacy and medical students during the summer semester 2008 in two Russian and one German university. In each country 120 questionnaires were distributed. The response rate was 95% in Russia and 93% in Germany. Results: Although the relevance of CSR was widely acknowledged by the students, very few were aware of CSR practices currently performed by companies. The reputation of the pharmaceutical industry was generally poor: less than 15% of respondents gave credence to the information provided in advertisements and fully supported pricing strategies as well as policies towards the developing countries. When choosing an employer more than 90% of respondents consider the policies affecting an employee directly as pivotal. However, for a high proportion of students (59% in Russia and 64% in Germany) socially irresponsible behavior by companies has a significant negative impact. Conclusions: This paper identifies practices which students believe should be a part of the CSR programmes for the pharmaceutical industry, and also some that should be abandoned. It recommends that corporate communication on CSR should be expanded. Key differences are seen in perceptions of students in Germany and Russia towards the extent of

  10. [Regulation, innovation, and improvement of health care. The pharmaceutical sector].

    PubMed

    López-Casasnovas, Guillem

    2008-01-01

    The paper comments on present and future scenarios for the pharmaceutical sector in Spain, framed a highly regulated system. So far the drug industry has evolved under the short term public financial constraints for additional health care spending and the long term efforts to innovate. This has not proved to offer a stable setting for the relationship between the industry and Health Authorities. The author offers from the economic analysis and a subjective appraisal from his experience some recommendations for regulatory changes in order to better align the incentives of the parts for improving the health system as a whole. The basic point is that 'consumption levels' (quantities) and not (unit costs) are the main challenge to tackle today in our Public Health Care system, and for this the decentralisation of financial responsibility is not in itself 'the' problem but it may well be a part of the solution.

  11. Nurse prescribers' interactions with and perceptions of pharmaceutical sales representatives.

    PubMed

    Clauson, Kevin A; Khanfar, Nile M; Polen, Hyla H; Gibson, Florencetta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the perceptions of pharmaceutical sales representatives by nurse prescribers. Nurses with advanced training have earned prescriptive authority in North America, Europe and other parts of the world. These nurses are being increasingly targeted by pharmaceutical sales representatives. There is a paucity of data regarding nurses' perceptions of pharmaceutical sales representatives. Survey. A convenience sample of nurse prescribers was recruited to complete an Internet questionnaire about their interactions with and perceptions of sales representatives. The data were collected over one month ending in January 2007. There were 39 survey items ranging from perception-based items assessed by Likert-type scale to open-ended queries. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise the results. Ninety-two nurses completed this survey, which demonstrated good internal consistency yielding a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.83. Positive perceptions of pharmaceutical representatives included: explaining their products clearly (80.4%) and knowledge about their medications (88.0%). Negative aspects included: lack of consideration of nurses' time (50%) and failure to equally discuss medication strengths and weaknesses (21.8%). Perhaps the most alarming finding was that 35.9% of respondents indicated that sales representatives suggested paybacks for promoting their drugs. Nurses with prescriptive authority generally perceive interactions with pharmaceutical sales representatives as positive. However, they also have concerns about the nature and methods of some of their activities. Nations that have nurses with prescribing authority can benefit from observing both the mis-steps and the positive inroads that have already been made by the profession in the USA and other countries. Appropriate use of pharmaceutical sales representatives' services may enhance the ability of nurse prescribers to deliver optimal nursing care. Methods, such as counter

  12. The Pharmaceutical Sector of Kazakhstan's Economy: Trends and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurpeisov, Borankul G.; Nabiev, Erboz N.; Mukashev, Temirbay A.; Daribekov, Serik S.; Raimbekov, Bagdat Kh.; Asanova, Maral K.; Bazarbaeva, Leila M.

    2016-01-01

    This research is devoted to the investigation of the general trends in the development of the pharmaceutical industry in the current conditions of economical socialization. The determination of the economic specificity of the modern operation of the pharmaceutical industry is the purpose of the research. It was found that pharmacy is a profitable…

  13. Pharmaceutical Industry in Vietnam: Sluggish Sector in a Growing Market

    PubMed Central

    Angelino, Antonio; Khanh, Do Ta; An Ha, Nguyen; Pham, Tuan

    2017-01-01

    Vietnam is a fast growing economy in the Asian region with a significantly high population (over 92 million in 2015). Although still expanding (about 1.1% on average during 2000–2015), the Vietnamese population is considered to be entering the ageing stage at a very high rate. The rapid expansion of the middle-income urban class and the ageing people ratio have dramatically pushed up the demand for healthcare goods, particularly in terms of pharmaceutical products. Since the early 1990s the government has addressed the necessities of rising demand for healthcare products by formulating a series of policies aimed at promoting the development of the pharmaceutical industry. However, the implementation of such policies does not seem to have been completely efficient given that the country still needs to import up to 90% of its pharmaceutical consumption. This paper aims to explore the development of the pharmaceutical industry during the years 1990–2015 and to identify a series of weaknesses in the government promotion of the industry. Future developments will also be discussed on how the Vietnamese pharmaceutical industry could increase its participation in the regional supply chain, which is currently being dominated by big players like India and China. PMID:28850083

  14. Pharmaceutical Industry in Vietnam: Sluggish Sector in a Growing Market.

    PubMed

    Angelino, Antonio; Khanh, Do Ta; An Ha, Nguyen; Pham, Tuan

    2017-08-29

    Vietnam is a fast growing economy in the Asian region with a significantly high population (over 92 million in 2015). Although still expanding (about 1.1% on average during 2000-2015), the Vietnamese population is considered to be entering the ageing stage at a very high rate. The rapid expansion of the middle-income urban class and the ageing people ratio have dramatically pushed up the demand for healthcare goods, particularly in terms of pharmaceutical products. Since the early 1990s the government has addressed the necessities of rising demand for healthcare products by formulating a series of policies aimed at promoting the development of the pharmaceutical industry. However, the implementation of such policies does not seem to have been completely efficient given that the country still needs to import up to 90% of its pharmaceutical consumption. This paper aims to explore the development of the pharmaceutical industry during the years 1990-2015 and to identify a series of weaknesses in the government promotion of the industry. Future developments will also be discussed on how the Vietnamese pharmaceutical industry could increase its participation in the regional supply chain, which is currently being dominated by big players like India and China.

  15. Public perceptions of health care professionals' participation in pharmaceutical marketing.

    PubMed

    Crigger, Nancy J; Courter, Laura; Hayes, Kristen; Shepherd, K

    2009-09-01

    Trust in the nurse-patient relationship is maintained not by how professionals perceive their actions but rather by how the public perceives them. However, little is known about the public's view of nurses and other health care professionals who participate in pharmaceutical marketing. Our study describes public perceptions of health care providers' role in pharmaceutical marketing and compares their responses with those of a random sample of licensed family nurse practitioners. The family nurse practitioners perceived their participation in marketing activities as significantly more ethically appropriate than did the public responders. Further research is warranted before conclusions can be drawn, but these early findings suggest that nurse practitioners should consider a conservative approach to participating in pharmaceutical marketing.

  16. Marketing norm perception among medical representatives in Indian pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

    2012-03-01

    Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company's medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field.

  17. Pharmacy Students' Perceptions of Their Preparedness to Provide Pharmaceutical Care

    PubMed Central

    Friesner, Daniel L.; Miller, Donald R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess students' perceptions of their preparedness to perform advanced pharmacy practice competencies. Design The Preparedness to Provide Pharmaceutical Care (PREP) survey was modified and administered to each class at a Midwestern university from 2005-2008. Factor analysis and 1-way ANOVA with multiple comparisons were applied to assess the effectiveness of changes made in the pharmacy curriculum. Assessment Factor analysis yielded patterns similar to those reported in the literature. Students rated themselves highest on the psychological aspects and lowest on the administrative aspects of care. Perceived pharmaceutical care skills grew as students progressed through the curriculum, and changes in coursework were reflected in the competencies. Conclusion Students’ perceived competencies (ie, communication, psychological, technical, administrative) were similar to those at other institutions and perceptions of competencies increased in a manner consistent with actual program outcomes. PMID:20221359

  18. Public perceptions of physician - pharmaceutical industry interactions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Arkinson, Janine; Holbrook, Anne; Wiercioch, Wojciech

    2010-05-01

    Interactions between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry have led to concerns about conflict of interest (COI), resulting in COI guidelines that suggest a threshold beyond which interactions may be considered unacceptable. Guidelines have also outlined the importance of public opinion on the topic. Consequently, we conducted a systematic review to determine the Canadian public's opinions of physician-pharmaceutical industry interactions. A systematic review of the standard health sciences literature as well as grey literature was conducted and a number of experts were contacted. Pre-determined eligibility criteria were used to identify appropriate studies. Meta-analysis of the study findings was not possible owing to the variety of methods of reporting outcomes, the types of interactions studied and the diversity of populations studied. No studies on Canadian opinions were identified. Ten international studies (n=13,637), seven with patient groups and three with public citizens, were identified that examined opinions on aspects of awareness, acceptability, disclosure and perceived effects of physician-pharmaceutical industry interactions. Heterogeneity was observed in the awareness, acceptability and perceived effects of physician-pharmaceutical industry interactions; however, there appeared to be greater acceptability and fewer perceived effects with smaller, less costly interactions that directly benefit patients or a medical practice. Desire for disclosure of these interactions was consistent across studies. Research on the public's perception of physician-pharmaceutical industry interactions has been inadequate internationally and non-existent in Canada, and is urgently needed to help shape policies regarding potential conflict of interest.

  19. Restructuring the Production of Medicines: An Investigation on the Pharmaceutical Sector in China and the Role of Mergers and Acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Elisa; Huang, Manli; Pi, Shenglei; Tassinari, Mattia

    2017-10-05

    In places like China, an ageing population coupled with changes in living standards and increases in disposable income, imply a shift of the demand for health-related goods and services which is likely to affect the whole organization of the industries that supply such goods and services at the global level. One of the industries most likely to be affected is the pharmaceutical sector. In the early 2000s China was already the second largest global producer of pharmaceutical ingredients. The pharmaceutical sector has become one of the most important industries promoted by the Chinese government and Five-Year Plan of China's Strategic Emerging Sectors, mergers and acquisition (M&A) activity has been the key strategy to restructure the sector and increase its competitiveness. This paper firstly provides an updated picture of the evolution of M&As in the pharmaceutical sector, compared to other sectors, in China in the period 2005-2013. Secondly, we develop a composite indicator to measure the industrial performance of all Chinese industrial sectors over time, which allows us to assess the performance of the pharmaceutical industry compared to that of other sectors of the Chinese economy. Finally, we develop and estimate an empirical model that tests the relationship between the number of M&A in a sector and its performance, with a particular focus on the pharmaceutical case. The results offer some initial evidence of positive effects from the process of restructuring of the pharmaceutical sector in China.

  20. [Steps aimed at upgrading a pharmaceutical care sector: the case of surgery].

    PubMed

    Guérin, A; Thibault, M; Nguyen, C; Lebel, D; Bussières, J-F

    2014-07-01

    While the concept of clinical pharmacy was developed in the 1960s, clinical programs are characterized by their great variety and disparity when it comes to the presence of pharmacists in healthcare sectors. This article aims to describe a method in which pharmaceutical care sectors in healthcare facilities can be upgraded. This is a descriptive study supporting the upgrade of pharmaceutical care practiced in the surgery sector of a 500-bed mother-child university hospital center, the CHU Sainte-Justine. The pharmacy department employs more than 70 healthcare professionals. The study involved these proposed upgrading steps: firstly, a review of the literature; secondly, a description of the profile of the sector; thirdly, a description of the upgrading of pharmacist practice in surgery. A total of 137 articles were compiled, seven of which were selected to evaluate the impact and eight a description of the pharmacist's role in surgery. The authors did not identify any particular pharmaceutical activity based on very good quality data (A). However, there were five based on good quality data (B) and seven that lacked adequate proof (C, D) in relation to the practice of surgery. Nevertheless, a number of other authors described the development of the pharmacist's clinical role in surgery. There are few data on the impact of pharmacists in surgery. This descriptive study proposes a number of steps aimed at upgrading pharmaceutical care within a Quebec university hospital center. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. [Steps aimed at upgrading a pharmaceutical care sector: the case of neonatology].

    PubMed

    Bussières, J-F; Tollec, S; Martin, B; Malo, J; Tardif, L; Thibault, M

    2010-05-01

    While the concept of clinical pharmacy was developed in the 1960s, clinical outpatient and inpatient programs are characterized by their great variety and disparity when it comes to the presence of pharmacists in healthcare sectors. This article aims to describe a method in which pharmaceutical care sectors in healthcare facilities can be upgraded. This is a descriptive study supporting the upgrade of pharmaceutical care practiced in the neonatology sector of a 500-bed mother-child university hospital center, the centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine (CHUSJ). The CHUSJ's Pharmacy Department employs more than 70 healthcare professionals. The study involved the following upgrading steps: (1) a review of the literature, (2) a description of the profile of the sector and (3) a description of the upgrading of pharmacist practice in neonatology. A total of 121 articles were compiled, 16 of which were selected to evaluate the impact and 54 a description of the pharmacist's role in neonatology. The authors did not identify any particular pharmaceutical activity based on very good quality data (A). However, six of them were based on good quality data (B) and eight lacked adequate proof (C, D) in relation to the practice of neonatology. Nevertheless, a number of other authors described the development of the pharmacist's clinical role in neonatology. This study described the sector profile and upgrading of pharmaceutical practice that resulted from the literature review and a subsequent discussion among pharmacists. There are few data on the impact of pharmacists in neonatology. This descriptive study proposes a number of steps aimed at upgrading pharmaceutical care within a Quebec university hospital center. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Reconsidering Japan's underperformance in pharmaceuticals: evidence from Japan's anticancer drug sector.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Maki

    2010-01-01

    Unlike its automobile or electronics industries, Japan's pharmaceutical industry did not become a global leader. Japan remains a net importer of pharmaceuticals and has introduced few global blockbuster drugs. Alfred Chandler argued that Japan's pharmaceutical firms remained relatively weak because Western firms enjoyed an insurmountable first first-mover advantage. However, this case study of the anticancer drug sector illustrates that Chandler's explanation is incomplete. Japanese medical culture, government policy, and research environment also played a substantial role in shaping the industry. In the 1970s and 1980s, these factors encouraged firms to develop little few effective drugs with low side effects, and profit from Japan's domestic market. But, these drugs were unsuitable to foreign markets with more demanding efficacy standards. As a result, Japan not only lost more than a decade in developing ineffective drugs, but also neglected to create the infrastructure necessary to develop innovative drugs and build a stronger pharmaceutical industry.

  3. A need for the standardization of the pharmaceutical sector in Libya

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Asma Abubakr; Kowalski, Stefan Robert

    2010-01-01

    Medicines are health technologies that can translate into tangible benefits for numerous acute as well as chronic health conditions. A nation's pharmaceutical sector needs to be appropriately structured and managed in order to ensure a safe, effective and quality supply of medicines to society. The process of medicines management involves the sequential management of five critical activity areas; namely; registration, selection, procurement, distribution and use. Formalized and standardized management of all five critical activity areas positively influences the availability, quality and affordability of medicines and ultimately increases the reliability and quality of the national healthcare system. Aim The aim of this review is to examine the current structure and operation of medicines management (i.e. the pharmaceutical sector) in Libya. Conclusion In the Libyan healthcare system all five critical activity areas are compromised. Restructuring of the pharmaceutical sector in Libya is required in order to provide and sustain sound pharmaceutical services for Libyan society and improve the national public health outcomes. PMID:21483563

  4. United States private-sector physicians and pharmaceutical contract research: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jill A; Kalbaugh, Corey A

    2012-01-01

    There have been dramatic increases over the past 20 years in the number of nonacademic, private-sector physicians who serve as principal investigators on US clinical trials sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry. However, there has been little research on the implications of these investigators' role in clinical investigation. Our objective was to study private-sector clinics involved in US pharmaceutical clinical trials to understand the contract research arrangements supporting drug development, and specifically how private-sector physicians engaged in contract research describe their professional identities. We conducted a qualitative study in 2003-2004 combining observation at 25 private-sector research organizations in the southwestern United States and 63 semi-structured interviews with physicians, research staff, and research participants at those clinics. We used grounded theory to analyze and interpret our data. The 11 private-sector physicians who participated in our study reported becoming principal investigators on industry clinical trials primarily because contract research provides an additional revenue stream. The physicians reported that they saw themselves as trial practitioners and as businesspeople rather than as scientists or researchers. Our findings suggest that in addition to having financial motivation to participate in contract research, these US private-sector physicians have a professional identity aligned with an industry-based approach to research ethics. The generalizability of these findings and whether they have changed in the intervening years should be addressed in future studies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  5. United States Private-Sector Physicians and Pharmaceutical Contract Research: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jill A.; Kalbaugh, Corey A.

    2012-01-01

    Background There have been dramatic increases over the past 20 years in the number of nonacademic, private-sector physicians who serve as principal investigators on US clinical trials sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry. However, there has been little research on the implications of these investigators' role in clinical investigation. Our objective was to study private-sector clinics involved in US pharmaceutical clinical trials to understand the contract research arrangements supporting drug development, and specifically how private-sector physicians engaged in contract research describe their professional identities. Methods and Findings We conducted a qualitative study in 2003–2004 combining observation at 25 private-sector research organizations in the southwestern United States and 63 semi-structured interviews with physicians, research staff, and research participants at those clinics. We used grounded theory to analyze and interpret our data. The 11 private-sector physicians who participated in our study reported becoming principal investigators on industry clinical trials primarily because contract research provides an additional revenue stream. The physicians reported that they saw themselves as trial practitioners and as businesspeople rather than as scientists or researchers. Conclusions Our findings suggest that in addition to having financial motivation to participate in contract research, these US private-sector physicians have a professional identity aligned with an industry-based approach to research ethics. The generalizability of these findings and whether they have changed in the intervening years should be addressed in future studies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. PMID:22911055

  6. Marketing Norm Perception Among Medical Representatives in Indian Pharmaceutical Industry

    PubMed Central

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

    2012-01-01

    Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company’s medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field. PMID:24826035

  7. Consumer out-of-pocket spending for pharmaceuticals in Kazakhstan: implications for sectoral reform.

    PubMed

    Sari, N; Langenbrunner, J C

    2001-12-01

    What do consumers pay for pharmaceuticals in a transition economy, and who is hit hardest? Kazakhstan is in the midst of emerging from a Soviet Union state to a market economy. It has seen a significant dip in Gross Domestic Product and available revenues for health as a result. New sources of revenues, such as out-of-pocket payments, both formal and informal, have become widespread. In this paper we use the results of a 1996 Living Standards survey jointly sponsored by the World Bank and the Kazakhstan Government to examine patterns of prescribed pharmaceutical spending. We use a two-part regression model that is utilized to adjust for the skewness of non-spenders and heavy utilizers. Results suggest that upper-income groups spend more in absolute terms, but low-income groups pay a higher share of their income for pharmaceuticals. Pharmaceutical expenditure is positively related to poor health status, chronic illness and rural area residence. Our estimates suggest that on average people in rural areas spend 16% more than people in urban areas. The analysis shows that certain types of illnesses impose significant out-of-pocket burden for consumers - gynaecologic as well as intestinal and cardiac. The findings can be used for developing and designing a new 10-year World Bank-financed programme for restructuring the health sector. They also suggest the need for prioritizing rural care, as well as covering pharmaceuticals for specific types of care interventions and certain demographic groups.

  8. One-year assessment of joint procurement of pharmaceuticals in the public health sector in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Abbadi, Ibrahim; Qawwas, Abdelraouf; Jaafreh, Mahmoud; Abosamen, Taher; Saket, Maisa

    2009-06-01

    About 10% of the gross domestic product in Jordan is spent on health care, and almost one third of that is spent on pharmaceuticals. The public health sector in Jordan has 4 main governmental parties that purchase medicines independently through annual tenders (ie, the process of bidding, being awarded, ordering, paying for, and receiving drugs) issued in the generic (or scientific) name of the medicines or therapeutic groups. Double purchasing is a problem that leads to higher spending on drugs and poor availability of medicines throughout the year. To remedy this problem, a joint procurement process was established in Jordan in 2004 and went into practice in 2006. The aim of this research was to assess the first year of purchasing pharmaceuticals in the public health sector in Jordan through the joint procurement process for the 4 participating parties in comparison with purchasing pharmaceuticals independently before the institution of joint procurement. The first tender under the joint procurement process was issued in 2007 for antibiotics, anti-HIV medications, and antituberculosis agents, which represent 15% of the annual pharmaceutical public-sector purchases in Jordan. A research committee solicited lists of purchased quantities and final purchase prices of these pharmaceuticals obtained in 2006 by each participating group and in 2007 through the joint procurement process. The quantity-comparison method was used to compare the costs of drugs purchased in 2006 and 2007, and estimated cost savings were calculated for each product for each party for 2006 and 2007 under the assumption that the same quantities purchased by each participating party in 2006 would be purchased through joint procurement (prices of 2007). Purchasing through the joint procurement process achieved an estimated savings of 2.4%. This savings increased to 8.9% after excluding 1 item (a cephalosporin), the raw material price of which increased markedly in 2007 compared with 2006 because of

  9. Pharmaceutical sector in transition--a cross sectional study in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Falkenberg, T; Nguyen, T B; Larsson, M; Nguyen, T D; Tomson, G

    2000-09-01

    Increasing efforts are being made to improve pharmaceutical sector performance in low- and middle-income countries. An essential tool for such work is an objective and standard method of assessment which can be used to promote evidenced based National Drug Policy development and implementation. The average drug expenditure per capita has steadily increased in Vietnam and at the time of this study a National Drug Policy was being developed. This study assessed the Vietnamese pharmaceutical sector 1991-1994, focusing on the standard of the drug quality control system, availability of drugs and rational use of essential drugs in the private and public sectors by means of standardised indicators. The results from this study show that the quality control system is impaired and does not have capacity to quality control all drugs on the market. The availability of essential drugs is good whereas essential drugs are poorly prescribed, injections common and there is a high average number of drugs per prescription, both in the public and private sectors. Violations are common and enforcement of regulations weak. On top of this there is an active commercial advertising and marketing of drugs. These findings identify priorities for action to improve the present situation where the development and implementation of the Vietnamese National Drug Policy will be of major importance.

  10. A fair day's wage? Perceptions of public sector pay.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Stieger, Stefan; Haubner, Tanja; Voracek, Martin; Swami, Viren

    2009-12-01

    There is a scarcity of evidence pertaining to the general public's perception of public sector pay. Hence, in the present study, 161 women and 149 men were asked to estimate the wages 35 public sector professions should receive annually in the fictitious nation of Maldoria, based on a comparison value of an annual income of T10,000 for general practitioners. Analysis showed that only pilots were given a higher annual income than general practitioners; miners and local government workers were also provided with relatively high annual incomes. By contrast, newscasters were provided with the lowest annual income. Participants' sex did not affect these evaluations, and other demographic variables and public sector-related information of the participants were poor predictors of their evaluations. The implications of this research on public attitudes toward wage determination are discussed, and avenues for further research highlighted.

  11. [Pharmaceutical procurement by the public sector: the quality/cost relationship].

    PubMed

    Luiza, V L; Castro, C G; Nunes, J M

    1999-01-01

    The authors discuss procurement and provision of pharmaceutical products from the perspective of supply management in the public health sector, focusing on two main aspects: quality and cost. The article analyzes issues to be considered by buyers when evaluating drug quality, especially formulation stability, bioequivalence, and the role of generics. Also discussed are factors involving costs and cost management in relation to technological innovations and consumer demands. New alternatives and suggestions are examined and presented for procurement of high-quality, cost-effective drug products.

  12. The politics of health sector reform in developing countries: three cases of pharmaceutical policy.

    PubMed

    Reich, M R

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the political dynamics of health sector reform in poor countries, through a comparative study of pharmaceutical policy reform in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and the Philippines. The paper first reviews five reasons why policy reform is political. It then presents three political economic models of the policy reform process: the political will, political factions, and political survival models. Next, the paper describes the three cases of national pharmaceutical policy reform, and identifies common conditions that made these reforms politically feasible. The paper's analysis suggests that health sector reform is feasible at certain definable, and perhaps predictable, political moments, especially in the early periods of new regimes. The most important and manipulable political factors are: political timing, which provides opportunities for policy entrepreneurs to introduce their ideas into public debate, and political management of group competition, which allows leaders to control the political effects of distributional consequences and protect the regime's stability. A strong and narrow political coalition improves the capacity of political leaders to resist the pressures of concentrated economic costs (both inside and outside national boundaries). The paper argues that for reform to succeed, policy-makers need effective methods to analyze relevant political conditions and shape key political factors in favor of policy reform. The method of Political Mapping is briefly introduced as a technique that can help policy-makers in analyzing and managing the political dimensions of policy reform and in improving the political feasibility of reform.

  13. Pharmacists' perception of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacy: a questionnaire survey in Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yu; Yang, Shimin; Feng, Bianling; Ni, Yufei; Zhang, Kanghuai

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of community pharmacists towards the concept of pharmaceutical care, implementing frequencies of pharmaceutical care, and barriers to implementation of pharmaceutical care in China. A 38-item self-completion pre-tested questionnaire was administered to a quota sample of 130 pharmacists in community pharmacies in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, northwest China in April 2008. Main outcome measures included understanding of pharmaceutical care; perceived frequency of pharmaceutical care activities; attitude towards pharmaceutical care; barriers to implementation of pharmaceutical care. A response rate of 77.7% (101/130) was achieved. The data were analysed descriptively. Factor analysis was used to explore potential barriers to the provision of pharmaceutical care. Respondents' understanding of the definition of pharmaceutical care was not entirely satisfactory: it was widely but incorrectly seen as a medication counselling service and many pharmacists appeared to misunderstand their role in the process. Respondents spent most of their work time performing prescription checks and providing patients with directions for drug administration, dosage, and precautions, but they tended to ignore health promotion within and outside of pharmacy settings. Factor analysis suggested four factors influencing the implementation of pharmaceutical care in the surveyed community pharmacies: lack of external conditions for developing or providing pharmaceutical care, lack of time and skills, absence of information and economic incentive, and lack of full support from other health professionals, with a cumulative variance of 64.7%. Cronbach's alpha for the four factors was 0.71, 0.72, 0.69 and 0.74, respectively. Although the respondent pharmacists had a certain degree of understanding of the definition, aim, function and use of pharmaceutical care, and carried out some activities currently, a range of barriers need to be overcome before

  14. [Mechanism and implication of regulation of the pricing of essential medicines in the private pharmaceutical sector in Mali].

    PubMed

    Maïga, D; Maïga, S; Maïga, M D

    2010-04-01

    The healthcare and pharmaceutical professions in Mali were privatized in 1985. Privatization led to swift expansion of the private sector and upset the balance that had existed between the public and private sectors. A national pharmaceutical policy did not emerge until a decade later. Its purpose was to promote a system ensuring fair access to essential generic medicines for all. It was hoped that synergy between the two sectors would promote that objective. However, the policy calling for distribution of essential generic medicine through the private sector was not accompanied by an adequate system for pricing. This problem led the government to adopt a price regulation policy to realign market dynamics with public health goals. This experience shows that a sustained effort from public policy makers is necessary to prevail against the professional and business interests that can conflict with the public interest. Analysis of this experience also demonstrates the need to improve, restructure, and control the pharmaceutical industry. The government must continue to play its crucial role in the context of limited resources and inequality between consumers and pharmaceutical companies.

  15. Availability of pharmaceuticals in sub-Saharan Africa: roles of the public, private and church mission sectors.

    PubMed

    Vogel, R J; Stephens, B

    1989-01-01

    Although the availability of pharmaceuticals is critical for both curative and preventive health care, drugs are, at best, sporadically available in governmental facilities in sub-Saharan Africa. The religious missions and private sectors are more successful than the public sector in obtaining and distributing drugs. The public sector operates under a myriad of constraints inherent in a bureaucracy; the religious missions have the advantages of better management and access to foreign currency; the private sector is innately efficient. Donor assistance to increase the availability of drugs in the public sector has included support for revolving drug funds, national drug services, the improvement of management techniques, and the local production of pharmaceuticals. None of these interventions has been notably successful. In 1987, UNICEF presented The Bamako Initiative--a proposal to launch an internationally-financed fund for essential drugs for sub-Saharan Africa. However, the proposal is unrealistic in anticipating that the requisite resources and/or hard currency can be raised to support the proposal. As the private sector is a more efficient distributor, it is recommended that the private sector be given responsibility for the distribution of drugs. Nonetheless, some governmental controls will be necessary to ensure that essential drugs are available at the least cost to the consumer.

  16. Participants’ perception of pharmaceutical clinical research: a cross-sectional controlled study

    PubMed Central

    González-Saldivar, Gerardo; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Viramontes-Madrid, José Luis; Salcido-Montenegro, Alejandro; Carlos-Reyna, Kevin Erick Gabriel; Treviño-Alvarez, Andrés Marcelo; Álvarez-Villalobos, Neri Alejandro; González-González, José Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Background There is scarce scientific information assessing participants’ perception of pharmaceutical research in developed and developing countries concerning the risks, safety, and purpose of clinical trials. Methods To assess the perception that 604 trial participants (cases) and 604 nonparticipants (controls) of pharmaceutical clinical trials have about pharmaceutical clinical research, we surveyed participants with one of four chronic diseases from 12 research sites throughout Mexico. Results Participation in clinical trials positively influences the perception of pharmaceutical clinical research. More cases (65.4%) than controls (50.7%) perceived that the main purpose of pharmaceutical research is to cure more diseases and to do so more effectively. In addition, more cases considered that there are significant benefits when participating in a research study, such as excellent medical care and extra free services, with this being the most important motivation to participate for both groups (cases 52%, controls 54.5%). We also found a sense of trust in their physicians to deal with adverse events, and the perception that clinical research is a benefit to their health, rather than a risk. More controls believed that clinical trial participants’ health is put at risk (57% vs 33.3%). More cases (99.2%) than controls (77.5%) would recommend participating in a clinical trial, and 90% of cases would enroll in a clinical trial again. Conclusion Participation in clinical trials positively influences the perception that participants have about pharmaceutical clinical research when compared to nonparticipants. This information needs to be conveyed to clinicians, public health authorities, and general population to overcome misconceptions. PMID:27199549

  17. Aspects of research and development contract terms in the bio/pharmaceutical sector.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Tannista

    2012-01-01

    The cost of new drug development is increasing every year. Pharmaceutical companies use R&D joint ventures, mergers, and outsource different stages of pharmaceutical R&D activities for a faster and cost minimizing method of innovation. Pharmaceutical companies outsource R&D activities to independent small biotech or pharmaceutical companies that specialize in different stages of pharmaceutical R&D. This chapter examines the determinants of the payment structure of research contracts between large bio/pharmaceutical companies and specialized research firms. Determinants of R&D contracts are analyzed using detailed R&D contract data between bio/pharmaceutical companies and independent research firms for 10 years. A multinomial logit model is used in order to understand the determinants of three different types of contracts; royalty contracts, fixed payment contracts, and the mixed contracts. Under uncertainty, the likelihood of a royalty contract rises for the early stages of the research and with the patent stock of the research firm. It is more likely to observe both royalty and fixed payment if the pharmaceutical client has past contracts with the same research firm. The results also suggest that if Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is more stringent in any disease area in reviewing the new drug application, then the likelihood of signing pure royalty contract decreases. Understanding the nature of R&D contracts and the effects of FDA's behavior on the pharmaceutical R&D contract is important because these contracts not only affect the cost of new drug invention but also the quality and the rate of invention. VALUE: Results are useful for both the pharmaceutical companies and the economic/business researchers.

  18. Public perceptions of the pharmaceutical industry and drug safety: implications for the pharmacovigilance professional and the culture of safety.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Axel K; Whalen, Matthew D

    2009-01-01

    A survey of the US public titled 'Consumer Perceptions on Drug Safety' was conducted in October 2006. The survey was undertaken at that time because of the heightened public awareness of drug safety concerns over rofecoxib (Vioxx(R)) and pediatric antidepressant use. The survey was designed with questions related to public perception of the pharmaceutical industry, the US FDA, Congress and whether the US public perceived there to be a safety crisis. The survey consisted of 1726 US men and women aged 18 years and over. The survey results showed that the FDA, Congress and US pharmaceutical companies are perceived as having a notable amount of responsibility to ensure safety (by 75%, 41% and 70% of respondents, respectively). Additionally, 96% of the survey respondents indicated that they had some level of concern about adverse reactions to prescription drugs that are taken as directed. Seventy-six percent of the respondents were 'fairly' to 'extremely' concerned about adverse reactions, while approximately 42% of the survey respondents' opinions ranged from 'somewhat distrusting' to 'strongly distrusting' of the pharmaceutical companies that develop drugs. These findings are comparable to those in surveys conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation in 2005 and PriceWaterhouseCoopers in 2007. These surveys suggest that about half the respondents believe there is both the need and desire for reform in drug safety by the pharmaceutical industry and the FDA. In reports from 2006 and 2007, the Institute of Medicine challenges the healthcare system and the FDA to adopt the principles of the culture of safety. While there have been steps taken to address the recommendations of the reports, as exemplified by the FDA Amendment Act of 2007 and the Pharmacoepidemiological Research on Outcomes of Therapeutics by a European Consortium, true reform across the life sciences sector will only come through broad adoption of these principles. Thus, it is particularly important for

  19. Potential commercial use of the International Space Station by the biotechnology/pharmaceutical/biomedical sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Stodieck, Louis

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the linch-pin of NASA's future space plans. It emphasizes scientific research by providing a world-class scientific laboratory in which to perform long-term basic science experiments in the space environment of microgravity, radiation, vacuum, vantage-point, etc. It will serve as a test-bed for determining human system response to long-term space flight and for developing the life support equipment necessary for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. The ISS will also provide facilities (up to 30% of the U.S. module) for testing material, agricultural, cellular, human, aquatic, and plant/animal systems to reveal phenomena heretofore shrouded by the veil of 1-g. These insights will improve life on Earth and will provide a commercial basis for new products and services. In fact, some products, e.g., rare metal-alloys, semiconductor chips, or protein crystals that cannot now be produced on Earth may be found to be sufficiently valuable to be manufactured on-orbit. Biotechnology, pharmaceutical and biomedical experiments have been regularly flown on 10-16 day Space Shuttle flights and on three-month Mir flights for basic science knowledge and for life support system and commercial product development. Since 1985, NASA has created several Commercial Space Centers (CSCs) for the express purpose of bringing university, government and industrial researchers together to utilize space flight and space technology to develop new industrial products and processes. BioServe Space Technologies at the University of Colorado at Boulder and Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, is such a NASA sponsored CSC that has worked with over 65 companies and institutions in the Biotech Sector in the past 11 years and has successfully discovered and transferred new product and process information to its industry partners. While tests in the space environment have been limited to about two weeks on Shuttle or a few

  20. The impact of the cox-2 inhibitor issue on perceptions of the pharmaceutical industry: content analysis and communication implications.

    PubMed

    Lofstedt, Ragnar E

    2007-01-01

    The field of risk communication has its roots in the environmental, chemical, space, and nuclear arenas. As a number of these sectors have now vastly improved their communication strategies, attention is being placed on sectors that have been more problematic as of late. Examples of such sectors, include the food industries and the pharmaceutical/health sector. This article focuses on how large, multinational pharmaceutical companies can better communicate risks by analysis of one specific case, namely, that of the Cox-2 controversy.(1) For purposes of this article, risk communication is best described as "the flow of information and risk evaluations back and forth between academic experts, regulatory practitioners, interest groups and the general public," and "big pharma" refers to the more traditional R & D-based, innovative pharmaceutical companies.

  1. Exploring Perceptions of Early-Career Psychiatrists About Their Relationships With the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    PubMed

    Stark, Thomas Johann; Brownell, Alvin Keith; Brager, Nancy Patricia; Berg, Amanda; Balderston, Rhea; Lockyer, Jocelyn Margot

    2016-04-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has engaged physicians through medical education, patient care, and medical research. New conflict of interest policy has highlighted the challenges to these relationships. The objective of this study was to explore the perceptions that early career psychiatrists (e.g. those within 5 years of entering practice) have regarding their relationship with the pharmaceutical industry. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and were analysed using a grounded theory methodology. Interviews were conducted and analyzed in an iterative way using a constant comparison approach in which data were collected and open coded for themes and subthemes. As new interviews were conducted, the themes were applied to data along with emergent themes and previous interviews recoded until additional interviews failed to provide new themes and thematic saturation was achieved. Through axial coding, a process of relating codes (categories and concepts) to each other, the theory was generated to explain the core variable mediating perceptions participants had about the relationship with industry. The participants described increasing frequency of experiences with industry throughout training into practice. Their perceptions developed through training, physician culture, industry promotion, and their own practices. In managing the relationship with industry, participants would either avoid interactions or engage in behaviors aimed to reduce the risk of influence. Maintaining one's professional integrity was the underlying driver used to manage the relationship with industry. Psychiatrists develop perceptions about industry through experience and observation leading them to develop their own strategies to manage these relationships while maintaining their professional integrity.

  2. Nurses' perceptions about health sector privatization in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Harmanci Seren, A K; Yildirim, A

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the perceptions of the nurses about the privatization implementation, as it pertains to privatization, health services privatization and the impact of privatization on nursing in Turkey. Turkey is taking important steps in health services privatization but the related choices made in political arena are not shared with the employees of the health institutions where the privatization implementations are to take place. The study was conducted among nurses who are working for the state health institutions and the members of professional organizations of healthcare workers, which are operating in Istanbul in Turkey. Data were collected via Nurses' Privatization Perception Scale in 2009 and were analysed using mean calculations, analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U-test, t-test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Cronbach's alpha analyses. Nurses' perceptions of privatization in general, health services privatization and the impact of privatization on nursing were found to be negative in all of the three sub-domains of the scale, as well as their perceptions of privatization implementations measured throughout the scale. The conducted comparisons showed that nurses' perceptions of the privatization implementations varied in accordance with independent variables. The privatization implementations put in place in health services are perceived negatively by nurses. Policy makers in relevant fields are recommended to take the findings of this study into consideration. © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  3. How might the Trans-Pacific Partnership impact on the pharmaceutical sector in Vietnam?

    PubMed

    Binh, Nguyen Hoa; Anh, Pham Ngoc Kieu; Phuong, Nguyen Minh

    2016-07-01

    Ratification of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) will attract a large number of foreign drug companies in the coming years to Vietnam. It is anticipated to bring investment to Vietnam's pharmaceutical industries, lead to increased infrastructure and enable the use of more sophisticated technologies for the discovery, development and manufacture of drugs. However, with respect to pharmaceutical companies, which are producing generic drugs primarily, the availability of biologic will be reduced. Thus, the consequence is, an increase in drug cost resulting in difficulties for patients wishing to procure these drugs. This will be particularly detrimental for developing countries, such as Vietnam and Malaysia.

  4. Organizational Perceptions of Telecommuting in the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galusha, Repps J.

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has provided more organizations the opportunity to adopt telecommuting as a means to recruit and retain employees, boost productivity, and trim facility costs. This study expands on the work of a previous study by Hoang, Nickerson, Beckman, and Eng, in 2008 which found that private organizations, due to perceptions of organizational…

  5. Organizational Perceptions of Telecommuting in the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galusha, Repps J.

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has provided more organizations the opportunity to adopt telecommuting as a means to recruit and retain employees, boost productivity, and trim facility costs. This study expands on the work of a previous study by Hoang, Nickerson, Beckman, and Eng, in 2008 which found that private organizations, due to perceptions of organizational…

  6. Public Perceptions of Physician – Pharmaceutical Industry Interactions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Arkinson, Janine; Holbrook, Anne; Wiercioch, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    Background: Interactions between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry have led to concerns about conflict of interest (COI), resulting in COI guidelines that suggest a threshold beyond which interactions may be considered unacceptable. Guidelines have also outlined the importance of public opinion on the topic. Consequently, we conducted a systematic review to determine the Canadian public's opinions of physician–pharmaceutical industry interactions. Methods: A systematic review of the standard health sciences literature as well as grey literature was conducted and a number of experts were contacted. Pre-determined eligibility criteria were used to identify appropriate studies. Meta-analysis of the study findings was not possible owing to the variety of methods of reporting outcomes, the types of interactions studied and the diversity of populations studied. Results: No studies on Canadian opinions were identified. Ten international studies (n=13,637), seven with patient groups and three with public citizens, were identified that examined opinions on aspects of awareness, acceptability, disclosure and perceived effects of physician–pharmaceutical industry interactions. Heterogeneity was observed in the awareness, acceptability and perceived effects of physician–pharmaceutical industry interactions; however, there appeared to be greater acceptability and fewer perceived effects with smaller, less costly interactions that directly benefit patients or a medical practice. Desire for disclosure of these interactions was consistent across studies. Interpretation: Research on the public's perception of physician–pharmaceutical industry interactions has been inadequate internationally and non-existent in Canada, and is urgently needed to help shape policies regarding potential conflict of interest. PMID:21532771

  7. Do perceptions of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising vary based on urban versus rural living?

    PubMed

    Spake, Deborah F; Joseph, Mathew; Megehee, Carol M

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the connection between perceptions of direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising based on where people live and shop. Urban consumers were found to be more skeptical of DTC advertising, but more likely to believe that physicians select pharmaceuticals based on the efficacy of the product. Those living in rural areas were more motivated to visit a doctor and more likely to feel an equal doctor-patient relationship after exposure to DTC advertising. Interaction effects among gender, income, and education were detected, as well as an interaction effects between location and income on views of DTC advertising.

  8. Perceptions and Attitudes of Egyptian Health Professionals and Policy-Makers towards Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives and Other Promotional Activities

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Susan; Holmberg, Christine; Russell, Jean; Bochenek, Tomasz; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Fischer, Christiane; Tinnemann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical promotion activities in low and middle-income countries are often neither regulated nor monitored. While Egypt has the highest population and per capita use of medicines in the Arab world, we know very little about pharmaceutical companies promotional activities in the country. Aim To explore and analyze the perceptions of physicians towards promotional and marketing activities of pharmaceutical companies among physicians and pharmacists in Egypt. Methodology Perspectives of different healthcare system stakeholders were explored through semi-structured, in-depth interviews conducted in 2014 in Cairo, Egypt. Interviewees were chosen via purposive sampling and snowball technique. Each interview was recorded and transcribed. Then qualitative, thematic analysis was conducted with the help of NVIVO software. Findings The majority of physicians and pharmacists acknowledged exposure to pharmaceutical promotion. It was commonly believed that interaction with the pharmaceutical industry is necessary and both associated risks and benefits were acknowledged. The interviewed physicians considered themselves competent enough to minimize risks and maximize benefits to their prescribing habits. Views diverged on the extent and magnitude of the risks and benefits of pharmaceutical promotion, especially in regard to the influence on patients’ health. Conclusions Pharmaceutical promotion in Egypt is intensely directed at prescribers and dispensers. Physicians, pharmacists and policymakers expressed little skepticism to the influence of promotion towards their individual prescribing. Raising awareness of the pitfalls of pharmaceutical promotion is necessary, especially among the less experienced physicians. PMID:26473484

  9. Perceptions and Attitudes of Egyptian Health Professionals and Policy-Makers towards Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives and Other Promotional Activities.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Susan; Holmberg, Christine; Russell, Jean; Bochenek, Tomasz; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Fischer, Christiane; Tinnemann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical promotion activities in low and middle-income countries are often neither regulated nor monitored. While Egypt has the highest population and per capita use of medicines in the Arab world, we know very little about pharmaceutical companies promotional activities in the country. To explore and analyze the perceptions of physicians towards promotional and marketing activities of pharmaceutical companies among physicians and pharmacists in Egypt. Perspectives of different healthcare system stakeholders were explored through semi-structured, in-depth interviews conducted in 2014 in Cairo, Egypt. Interviewees were chosen via purposive sampling and snowball technique. Each interview was recorded and transcribed. Then qualitative, thematic analysis was conducted with the help of NVIVO software. The majority of physicians and pharmacists acknowledged exposure to pharmaceutical promotion. It was commonly believed that interaction with the pharmaceutical industry is necessary and both associated risks and benefits were acknowledged. The interviewed physicians considered themselves competent enough to minimize risks and maximize benefits to their prescribing habits. Views diverged on the extent and magnitude of the risks and benefits of pharmaceutical promotion, especially in regard to the influence on patients' health. Pharmaceutical promotion in Egypt is intensely directed at prescribers and dispensers. Physicians, pharmacists and policymakers expressed little skepticism to the influence of promotion towards their individual prescribing. Raising awareness of the pitfalls of pharmaceutical promotion is necessary, especially among the less experienced physicians.

  10. The power of r - pharmaceutical sales decomposition in Cyprus public healthcare sector and determinants of drug expenditure evolution: any lessons learned?

    PubMed

    Petrou, Panagiotis

    2014-04-01

    The pharmaceutical sector has been established as the primary cost driver in health. The scope of this paper is to explore the drivers of pharmaceutical expenditure in Cyprus by decomposing sales and assessing impact of prices, volumes and substitution effect. We used a statistical approach to decompose the growth of public pharmaceutical expenditure during 2005-2011 into three elements: 1) substitution effect; 2) price effect; and 3) increase of consumption. We further decomposed consumption into: 1) prescription/visits; 2) visits/beneficiaries; and 3) beneficiaries. Pharmaceutical expenditure grew by 31.4 % and volume of medicines dispensed increased by 55%. Prices declined by 11% and product-mix residual was -5.5%, indicating that Cyprus experienced a switch to cheaper medicines (generics) without compromising access of patients to innovative medicines. This was enhanced by guidelines, monitoring of prescribing behavior, generic substitution and efficient tendering. The increasing number of products per prescriptions should be monitored with caution.

  11. Assessing Climate Change Perceptions, Management Strategies, and Information Needs for Indiana Agricultural and Forestry Sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkauer, K. A.; Chin, N.

    2016-12-01

    The agricultural and forestry sectors in the state of Indiana are highly dependent on climate and, subsequently, highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Higher temperatures, shifts in precipitation patterns, more widespread prevalence of pests and pathogens, and increased frequency and severity of extreme weather events could all have negative effects on these two sectors in the future. Agricultural and forest producers are already modifying their management strategies in response to perceptions of changes in climate risk, but such responses have been primarily reactive in nature and, in many cases, demonstrate a disconnect between scientific findings and stakeholder perceptions of the greatest climate risks. This research has been conducted to help improve understanding of climate change risks to agriculture and forestry in Indiana; stakeholder perceptions of climate risks and their current management strategies; and the effectiveness of these management strategies for dealing with current and future climate risk. Sector-specific focus groups, expert panel assessments and surveys have all been utilized in this work, which will also contribute to the new Indiana Climate Change Impacts Assessment report.

  12. [Perception of body weight by pharmacists and pharmaceutical laboratory assistants in Slovakia I].

    PubMed

    Kolář, Jozef; Zabolyová, Stefánia

    2013-10-01

    The paper presents the results of a questionnaire poll carried out in the workers in pharmacies in the Slovak Republic in the year 2012. Altogether 1,884 questionnaires were distributed, of which 492 (26.1%) were returned. The poll aimed to find the perception of and attitudes to overweight and obesity in pharmacists and pharmaceutical laboratory assistants. The average BMI values in pharmacists were 25.08, in pharmaceutical laboratory assistants 24.86. Overweight and/or obesity were recorded in 36.6% of respondents, BMI 25 was found in 5.2 % men and 33.7% women. An absence of a chronic disease was reported in 61.8% of respondents, and 38.8% of respondents reported medication - most frequently administration of antihistamines, hormones of the thyroid gland, and antihypertensive drugs. In 220 (44.7%) of respondents, overweight/obesity existed in the family. Physical exercise carried out more than 3 times a week was reported by 9.6% of respondents. Drinking regime was evaluated as good in 52.1% of respondents, and 14.6% of participants compensated stress with food.

  13. Contact between doctors and the pharmaceutical industry, their perceptions, and the effects on prescribing habits.

    PubMed

    Lieb, Klaus; Scheurich, Armin

    2014-01-01

    The prescribing behaviour of doctors is influenced by the pharmaceutical industry. This study investigated the extent to which contacts with pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSR) and the perception of these contacts influence prescribing habits. An online questionnaire regarding contact with PSRs and perceptions of this contact was sent to 1,388 doctors, 11.5% (n = 160) of whom completed the survey. Individual prescribing data over a year (number of prescriptions, expenditure, and daily doses) for all on-patent branded, off-patent branded, and generic drugs were obtained from the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians. 84% of the doctors saw PSR at least once a week, and 14% daily. 69% accepted drug samples, 39% accepted stationery and 37% took part in sponsored continuing medical education (CME) frequently. 5 physicians (3%) accepted no benefits at all. 43% of doctors believed that they received adequate and accurate information from PSRs frequently or always and 42% believed that their prescribing habits were influenced by PSR visits occasionally or frequently. Practices that saw PSRs frequently had significantly higher total prescriptions and total daily doses (but not expenditure) than practices that were less frequently visited. Doctors who believed that they received accurate information from PSRs showed higher expenditures on off-patent branded drugs (thus available as generics) and a lower proportion of generics. The eschewal of sponsored CME was associated with a lower proportion of on patent-branded drug prescriptions, lower expenditure on off-patent branded drug prescriptions and a higher proportion of generics. Acceptance of office stationery was associated with higher daily doses. Avoidance of industry-sponsored CME is associated with more rational prescribing habits. Furthermore, gift acceptance and the belief that one is receiving adequate information from a PSR are associated with changed prescribing habits. Further

  14. Pharmacists’ Perceptions of the Influence of Interactions with the Pharmaceutical Industry on Clinical Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Tejani, Aaron M; Loewen, Peter; Bachand, Richard; Harder, Curtis K

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of literature examining the perceptions of Canadian pharmacists toward drug promotion by the pharmaceutical industry and pharmacist–industry interactions. Objectives: To determine whether hospital pharmacists perceive their interactions with the pharmaceutical industry as influencing their clinical decision-making or that of their colleagues and whether hospital pharmacists perceive that interactions with the pharmaceutical industry create a conflict of interest. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of the complete sample of hospital pharmacists practising in 3 large health authorities in a single Canadian province was conducted from February to April 2010. Results: A total of 224 responses were received from the approximately 480 pharmacists in the target health authorities (response rate approximately 47%). Fifty-eight percent of respondents (127/218) did not believe that information received at industry-sponsored events influenced their clinical decision-making. Most (142/163 [87%]) disagreed that small gifts influenced their clinical decision-making, whereas responses were divided for large gifts. Respondents were also divided on the issue of whether their interactions created conflicts of interest, with most of those who had received gifts agreeing that large gifts would create a conflict of interest (134/163 [82%]) whereas small gifts would not (100/163 [61%]). There were positive correlations between respondents’ beliefs about their own susceptibility to influence from sponsored events or receipt of small or large gifts and the susceptibility of others, but 22% of respondents (28/127) expressed a different perception about sponsored events, all believing themselves to be less influenced than their colleagues. Only 6% (4/64) of those who received large gifts and 4% (5/142) of those who received small gifts and felt they were not influenced by these gifts reported that it was likely others would be influenced by the receipt of

  15. Pharmacists' Perceptions of the Influence of Interactions with the Pharmaceutical Industry on Clinical Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Tejani, Aaron M; Loewen, Peter; Bachand, Richard; Harder, Curtis K

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature examining the perceptions of Canadian pharmacists toward drug promotion by the pharmaceutical industry and pharmacist-industry interactions. To determine whether hospital pharmacists perceive their interactions with the pharmaceutical industry as influencing their clinical decision-making or that of their colleagues and whether hospital pharmacists perceive that interactions with the pharmaceutical industry create a conflict of interest. A cross-sectional survey of the complete sample of hospital pharmacists practising in 3 large health authorities in a single Canadian province was conducted from February to April 2010. A total of 224 responses were received from the approximately 480 pharmacists in the target health authorities (response rate approximately 47%). Fifty-eight percent of respondents (127/218) did not believe that information received at industry-sponsored events influenced their clinical decision-making. Most (142/163 [87%]) disagreed that small gifts influenced their clinical decision-making, whereas responses were divided for large gifts. Respondents were also divided on the issue of whether their interactions created conflicts of interest, with most of those who had received gifts agreeing that large gifts would create a conflict of interest (134/163 [82%]) whereas small gifts would not (100/163 [61%]). There were positive correlations between respondents' beliefs about their own susceptibility to influence from sponsored events or receipt of small or large gifts and the susceptibility of others, but 22% of respondents (28/127) expressed a different perception about sponsored events, all believing themselves to be less influenced than their colleagues. Only 6% (4/64) of those who received large gifts and 4% (5/142) of those who received small gifts and felt they were not influenced by these gifts reported that it was likely others would be influenced by the receipt of such gifts. Most hospital pharmacists who

  16. Public perceptions of non-pharmaceutical interventions for reducing transmission of respiratory infection: systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-pharmaceutical public health interventions may provide simple, low-cost, effective ways of minimising the transmission and impact of acute respiratory infections in pandemic and non-pandemic contexts. Understanding what influences the uptake of non-pharmaceutical interventions such as hand and respiratory hygiene, mask wearing and social distancing could help to inform the development of effective public health advice messages. The aim of this synthesis was to explore public perceptions of non-pharmaceutical interventions that aim to reduce the transmission of acute respiratory infections. Methods Five online databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE and Web of Science) were systematically searched. Reference lists of articles were also examined. We selected papers that used a qualitative research design to explore perceptions and beliefs about non-pharmaceutical interventions to reduce transmission of acute respiratory infections. We excluded papers that only explored how health professionals or children viewed non-pharmaceutical respiratory infection control. Three authors performed data extraction and assessment of study quality. Thematic analysis and components of meta-ethnography were adopted to synthesise findings. Results Seventeen articles from 16 studies in 9 countries were identified and reviewed. Seven key themes were identified: perceived benefits of non-pharmaceutical interventions, perceived disadvantages of non-pharmaceutical interventions, personal and cultural beliefs about infection transmission, diagnostic uncertainty in emerging respiratory infections, perceived vulnerability to infection, anxiety about emerging respiratory infections and communications about emerging respiratory infections. The synthesis showed that some aspects of non-pharmaceutical respiratory infection control (particularly hand and respiratory hygiene) were viewed as familiar and socially responsible actions to take. There was ambivalence about adopting

  17. Community awareness and perceptions of health sector preparedness and response to Cyclone Nargis.

    PubMed

    Myint, N W; Kaewkungwal, J; Singhasivanon, P; Chaisiri, K; Ponpet, P; Siriwan, P; Mallik, A K; Thet, K W

    2011-07-01

    Community awareness, preparedness and response to public health emergencies are essential for a successful response to public health emergencies. This study was carried out to determine community awareness and perceptions regarding health sector preparedness and response to Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar. Six focus group discussions were carried out in 3 villages severely affected by Cyclone Nargis. Thematic content analysis was carried out to determine community perceptions. Focus group participants, consisting of community members, community leaders and government personnel, were aware of the cyclone, but were unaware of its intensity and where it would make landfall. There was inadequate knowledge on how to prepare for a cyclone. There was some training on cyclone preparation but coverage was not wide enough. Participants received service and relief from health sector; they had a positive attitude toward health services provided to them. However, 5 out of 6 focus groups stated most villagers were not interested in health education. Only a few participants had some knowledge on how to prepare for a cyclone. Based on these results, there are evident weaknesses on how to prepare for cyclones. Community preparedness is essential to prevent disasters with cyclones, such as with Cyclone Nargis.

  18. Conceptualizations of water security in the agricultural sector: Perceptions, practices, and paradigms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekian, Atefe; Hayati, Dariush; Aarts, Noelle

    2017-01-01

    Conceptions of agricultural water security are conditioned by larger understandings of being and reality. It is still unclear what such understandings mean for perspectives on water security in general and on causes and solutions related to perceived water security risks and problems in agricultural sector in particular. Based on a systematic literature review, three conceptualizations of water security, related to different paradigms, are presented. Also the consequences of such conceptualizations for determining research objectives, research activities, and research outcomes on agricultural water security are discussed. The results showed that agricultural water security from a positivist paradigm referred to tangible and measurable water-related hazards and threats, such as floods and droughts, pollution, and so forth. A constructivist approach to agricultural water security, constituted by a process of interaction and negotiation, pointed at perceptions of water security of farmers and other stakeholders involved in agricultural sector. A critical approach to agricultural water security focused on the processes of securing vulnerable farmers and others from wider political, social, and natural impediments to sufficient water supplies. The conclusions of the study suggest that paradigms, underlying approaches should be expressed, clarified, and related to one another in order to find optimal and complementary ways to study water security issues in agricultural sector.

  19. [The pharmaceutical industry and specialised medical training: Residents' perceptions in Madrid, Spain].

    PubMed

    González-Rubio, Raquel; Escortell-Mayor, Esperanza; Del Cura González, Isabel

    2017-10-06

    To assess the frequency of exposure and attitudes to the pharmaceutical industry (PI) of residents in the Region of Madrid (RM), Spain, and to analyse the association with specialty, professional environment and training. Cross-sectional electronic survey in May and June 2015 of all medical residents in RM. We collected sociodemographic variables and those of interaction with the PI in four blocks: frequency of interactions, attitudes and perceptions, environment and regulatory framework, and skills; with the first two blocks we created a Synthetic PI Interaction Index (SPIII). Bivariate and multivariate analysis of logistic regression. 350 resident's responses (28% family and community medicine [FCM], 57% hospital, 15% others). Ninety-eight percent reported interacting with the PI. Twenty percent believed their prescribing was influenced by the PI and 48% believed it was influenced by other doctors. Sixty-five precent considered more training necessary. Ninety-six percent had received no information from their college of physicians, 80% did not know the regulations in their medical society and 50% were unaware of those of their institution. Hospital specialty residents showed more likelihood of SPIII ≥ percentile 75 than those of FCM (odds ratio [OR]: 3.96; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.88-8.35). Training in informal settings was associated with SPIII ≤ percentile 25 (OR: 2.83; 95%CI: 1.32-6.07). The medical residents in RM had a high level of interaction with the PI and believed its influence low. Hospital specialty residents showed more interaction with the PI. Regulations were not well known by residents and they consideredmore training necessary. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Case studies on heat stress related perceptions in different industrial sectors in southern India

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ramalingam, Ayyappan; Dasu, Venkatesan; Stephen, Jeremiah Chinnadurai; Sivaperumal, Mohan Raj; Kumarasamy, Deepan; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Santu; Sambandam, Sankar

    2010-01-01

    Linkages between thermal loads and its physiological consequences have been widely studied in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries like India, despite the widespread recognition of the problem, limited attempts have been made to estimate health impacts related to occupational heat stress and fewer yet to link heat stress with potential productivity losses. This is reflected in the ubiquity of workplaces with limited or no controls to reduce exposures. As a prelude to understanding the feasibility of alternative interventions in different industrial sectors, we present case studies from 10 different industrial units in Tamil Nadu, Chennai, which describe perceptions of occupational heat stress among the workers and supervisors/management. Units were selected from among those who had previously requested an assessment of workplace heat stress exposure at select locations as part of routine industrial hygiene services provided by the investigators. Since the earlier measurements were performed in response to a management request, all units were revisited to generate a simple job and process profile using checklists in order to understand the overall heat exposure situation in the concerned unit. This was followed by a simple questionnaire administration to a small subsample of employees to evaluate the perceptions of workers and supervisors/management. Finally, we retrieved available quantitative data from previous measurements of heat stress at these units to correlate prevalence of exposures with respective perceptions. Results indicate that the existing level of controls may not be sufficient for managing work-related heat stress in any of the sectors studied, with wide variations in perceived risks. There was a noticeable disconnect between worker's perceptions and their ability to secure workplace improvements related to heat stress from the management. Wider availability of engineering and administrative controls in the

  1. Impact of regulatory requirements on medicine registration in African countries - perceptions and experiences of pharmaceutical companies in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Narsai, Kirti; Williams, Abeda; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje Kaija

    2012-07-01

    Access to medicines has long been and remains a challenge in African countries. The impact of medicines registration policies in these countries poses a challenge for pharmaceutical companies wanting to register medicines in these countries. The recent AMRHI (African Medicines Registration Harmonisation Initiative) has increased the focus on the need for harmonisation. Medicines registration regulations differ across African countries. Anecdotal evidence, based on the experience of pharmaceutical companies on progress towards harmonisation is somewhat different, i.e. that country specific requirements were a barrier to the registration of medicines. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nature and extent of regulatory hurdles experienced by pharmaceutical companies who wish to register and supply medicines to African countries. This cross-sectional descriptive pilot study was conducted across pharmaceutical companies, both local and multinational. These companies were based in South Africa and were also members of Pharmaceutical Industry Association of South Africa (PIASA). The pharmaceutical companies supply both the private and public sectors. An online survey was developed using Survey Monkey. Survey questions focused on the following strands: nature and level of current supply of medicines to African countries by companies, general regulatory requirements, region specific questions and country specific questions across four regional economic communities in Africa, namely; Southern African Development Community (SADC), East African Community (EAC), Economic Community of the West African States (ECOWAS) and Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS). A total of 33 responses were received to the questionnaire of which 26 respondents were from the PIASA Regulatory working group and 7 were from the PIASA Export working group.It was noted that since most of the regulatory authorities in Africa are resource-constrained, harmonisation of

  2. Impact of regulatory requirements on medicine registration in African countries – perceptions and experiences of pharmaceutical companies in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Narsai, Kirti; Williams, Abeda; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje Kaija

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Access to medicines has long been and remains a challenge in African countries. The impact of medicines registration policies in these countries poses a challenge for pharmaceutical companies wanting to register medicines in these countries. The recent AMRHI (African Medicines Registration Harmonisation Initiative) has increased the focus on the need for harmonisation. Medicines registration regulations differ across African countries. Anecdotal evidence, based on the experience of pharmaceutical companies on progress towards harmonisation is somewhat different, i.e. that country specific requirements were a barrier to the registration of medicines. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nature and extent of regulatory hurdles experienced by pharmaceutical companies who wish to register and supply medicines to African countries. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive pilot study was conducted across pharmaceutical companies, both local and multinational. These companies were based in South Africa and were also members of Pharmaceutical Industry Association of South Africa (PIASA). The pharmaceutical companies supply both the private and public sectors. An online survey was developed using Survey Monkey. Survey questions focused on the following strands: nature and level of current supply of medicines to African countries by companies, general regulatory requirements, region specific questions and country specific questions across four regional economic communities in Africa, namely; Southern African Development Community (SADC), East African Community (EAC), Economic Community of the West African States (ECOWAS) and Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS). Results: A total of 33 responses were received to the questionnaire of which 26 respondents were from the PIASA Regulatory working group and 7 were from the PIASA Export working group.It was noted that since most of the regulatory authorities in Africa are resource

  3. Incorporating online teaching in an introductory pharmaceutical practice course: a study of student perceptions within an Australian University

    PubMed Central

    Benino, Diana; Girardi, Antonia; Czarniak, Petra

    Objective To examine student perceptions regarding online lectures and quizzes undertaken during a pharmaceutical practice course for first year undergraduate students enrolled in the Bachelor of Pharmacy course at an Australian University. Methods The University uses a standard instrument to collect feedback from students regarding unit satisfaction. Data were collected for three different teaching modalities: traditional face-to-face, online and partially online. Results Descriptive statistics support that, from a student's perspective, partial online delivery is the preferred teaching methodology for an introductory pharmaceutical practice unit. Conclusions This study has served to highlight that while there are a few points of significant difference between traditional and online teaching and learning, a combination of the two provides a reasonable avenue for teaching exploration. This result has implications for teaching practice generally, and within the pharmacy discipline, specifically. PMID:24198864

  4. Incorporating online teaching in an introductory pharmaceutical practice course: a study of student perceptions within an Australian University.

    PubMed

    Benino, Diana; Girardi, Antonia; Czarniak, Petra

    2011-10-01

    To examine student perceptions regarding online lectures and quizzes undertaken during a pharmaceutical practice course for first year undergraduate students enrolled in the Bachelor of Pharmacy course at an Australian University. The University uses a standard instrument to collect feedback from students regarding unit satisfaction. Data were collected for three different teaching modalities: traditional face-to-face, online and partially online. Descriptive statistics support that, from a student's perspective, partial online delivery is the preferred teaching methodology for an introductory pharmaceutical practice unit. This study has served to highlight that while there are a few points of significant difference between traditional and online teaching and learning, a combination of the two provides a reasonable avenue for teaching exploration. This result has implications for teaching practice generally, and within the pharmacy discipline, specifically.

  5. The Impact of Sexuality in Contemporary Culture: An Interpretive Study of Perceptions and Choices in Private Sector Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Doug; Godfrey, Heidi; Simmons, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    The ways in which seven private sector dance professionals in the United States perceive the impact of sexuality in contemporary culture and the choices that they make for their own schools of dance because of these perceptions are explored. This study was conducted through in-depth interviews and a survey instrument. The participants' narratives…

  6. Squaring Their Roots: Leadership Perceptions and Practices of Some U.S.-Trained African Professionals in the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dant, William Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study looks at the leadership perceptions and practices of career professionals in the public sector across three countries of sub-Saharan Africa (Ethiopia, Ghana and Madagascar). All participants were alumni of the Humphrey Fellowship program, a year-long mid-career fellowship in the United States for professional development and…

  7. Squaring Their Roots: Leadership Perceptions and Practices of Some U.S.-Trained African Professionals in the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dant, William Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study looks at the leadership perceptions and practices of career professionals in the public sector across three countries of sub-Saharan Africa (Ethiopia, Ghana and Madagascar). All participants were alumni of the Humphrey Fellowship program, a year-long mid-career fellowship in the United States for professional development and…

  8. The Impact of Sexuality in Contemporary Culture: An Interpretive Study of Perceptions and Choices in Private Sector Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Doug; Godfrey, Heidi; Simmons, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    The ways in which seven private sector dance professionals in the United States perceive the impact of sexuality in contemporary culture and the choices that they make for their own schools of dance because of these perceptions are explored. This study was conducted through in-depth interviews and a survey instrument. The participants' narratives…

  9. Economic Evaluation in Ethiopian Healthcare Sector Decision Making: Perception, Practice and Barriers.

    PubMed

    Zegeye, Elias Asfaw; Mbonigaba, Josue; Kaye, Sylvia Blanche; Wilkinson, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Globally, economic evaluation (EE) is increasingly being considered as a critical tool for allocating scarce healthcare resources. However, such considerations are less documented in low-income countries, such as in Ethiopia. In particular, to date there has been no assessment conducted to evaluate the perception and practice of and barriers to health EE. This paper assesses the use and perceptions of EE in healthcare decision-making processes in Ethiopia. In-depth interview sessions with decision makers/healthcare managers and program coordinators across six regional health bureaus were conducted. A qualitative analysis approach was conducted on three thematic areas. A total of 57 decision makers/healthcare managers were interviewed from all tiers of the health sector in Ethiopia, ranging from the Federal Ministry of Health down to the lower levels of the health facility pyramid. At the high-level healthcare decision-making tier, only 56 % of those interviewed showed a good understanding of EE when explaining in terms of cost and consequences of alternative courses of action and value for money. From the specific program perspective, 50 % of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS program coordinators indicated the relevance of EE to program planning and decision making. These respondents reported a limited application of costing studies on the HIV/AIDS prevention and control program, which were most commonly used during annual planning and budgeting. The study uncovered three important barriers to growth of EE in Ethiopia: a lack of awareness, a lack of expertise and skill, and the traditional decision-making culture.

  10. Perceptions and factors affecting pharmaceutical market access: results from a literature review and survey of stakeholders in different settings

    PubMed Central

    Sendyona, Semukaya; Odeyemi, Isaac; Maman, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Background A change in the pharmaceutical environment has occurred from previously only needing to convince regulators of a product's safety and efficacy to obtain marketing authorisation to now needing to satisfy the value perceptions of other stakeholders, including payers, to attain market access for products. There is thus the need to understand the concept of market access that may be defined as ‘the process that ensures the development and commercial availability of pharmaceutical products with appropriate value propositions, leading to their prescribing and to successful uptake decisions by payers and patients, with the ultimate goal of achieving profitability and best patient outcomes’. The aim of this research therefore was to explore the understanding of market access among various stakeholders and how their understanding of this concept could improve patient access to pharmaceutical products. Methods A literature review was conducted on MEDLINE by using the term ‘market access’ to find articles with explicit definitions of market access for pharmaceutical products; non-peer–reviewed and other grey literature sources were also examined. A paper-based interview survey was also conducted in three different settings. The respondents were asked about what factors they think contribute to the successful development of pharmaceutical products, as well as their definition of market access for these medicines. Results The peer-reviewed literature review did not reveal appropriate comprehensive definitions for market access, although several definitions were proposed from the non-peer–reviewed literature. These definitions ranged from basic to detailed. The survey of 110 respondents revealed differing levels of understanding of market access. Factors considered to influence successful market access, as described by the respondents, included unmet need/burden of disease (68.2%), clinical efficacy (47.3%), comparator choice (36.4%), safety profile (36

  11. Perceptions and factors affecting pharmaceutical market access: results from a literature review and survey of stakeholders in different settings.

    PubMed

    Sendyona, Semukaya; Odeyemi, Isaac; Maman, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    A change in the pharmaceutical environment has occurred from previously only needing to convince regulators of a product's safety and efficacy to obtain marketing authorisation to now needing to satisfy the value perceptions of other stakeholders, including payers, to attain market access for products. There is thus the need to understand the concept of market access that may be defined as 'the process that ensures the development and commercial availability of pharmaceutical products with appropriate value propositions, leading to their prescribing and to successful uptake decisions by payers and patients, with the ultimate goal of achieving profitability and best patient outcomes'. The aim of this research therefore was to explore the understanding of market access among various stakeholders and how their understanding of this concept could improve patient access to pharmaceutical products. A literature review was conducted on MEDLINE by using the term 'market access' to find articles with explicit definitions of market access for pharmaceutical products; non-peer-reviewed and other grey literature sources were also examined. A paper-based interview survey was also conducted in three different settings. The respondents were asked about what factors they think contribute to the successful development of pharmaceutical products, as well as their definition of market access for these medicines. The peer-reviewed literature review did not reveal appropriate comprehensive definitions for market access, although several definitions were proposed from the non-peer-reviewed literature. These definitions ranged from basic to detailed. The survey of 110 respondents revealed differing levels of understanding of market access. Factors considered to influence successful market access, as described by the respondents, included unmet need/burden of disease (68.2%), clinical efficacy (47.3%), comparator choice (36.4%), safety profile (36.4%), and price (35.5%). The concept of

  12. Development of an Instrument To Assess Student Perceptions of the Quality of Pharmaceutical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdford, David; Reinders, Thomas P.

    2001-01-01

    Developed a 41-item instrument to assess educational service quality in pharmacy schools, defined as student perceptions of school service performance. The instrument assessed both perceptions of educational process (functional quality) and outcome (technical quality). Fourth-year pharmacy students completed the instrument, and its validity and…

  13. Perceptions of per diems in the health sector: evidence and implications

    PubMed Central

    Vian, Taryn; Miller, Candace; Themba, Zione; Bukuluki, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Per diems are used to pay work-related expenses and motivate employees, yet they also can distort incentives and may be abused. This study was designed to explore perceptions of per diems among 41 high-, mid- and low-level government officers and non-governmental organization (NGO) officials in Malawi and Uganda. Interviews explored attitudes about per diems, benefits and problems for organizations and individuals, and risks and patterns of abuse. The study found that per diems provide benefits such as encouraging training, increasing staff motivation and supplementing salary. Despite these advantages, respondents voiced many discontents about per diems, stating that they create conflict, contribute to a negative organizational culture where people expect to be paid for all activities, and lead to negative changes in work time allocation. Work practices are also manipulated in order to maximize financial gain by slowing work, scheduling unnecessary trainings, or exaggerating time needed for tasks. Officials may appropriate per diems meant for others or engage in various forms of fraud for personal financial gain. Abuse seemed more common in the government sector due to low pay and weaker controls. A striking finding was the distrust that lower-level workers felt toward their superiors: allowances were perceived to provide unfair financial advantages to already better-off and well-connected staff. To curb abuse of per diems, initiatives must reduce pressures and incentives to abuse, while controlling discretion and increasing transparency in policy implementation. Donors can play a role in reform by supporting development of policy analysis tools, design of control mechanisms and evaluation of reform strategies. PMID:22684639

  14. Perceptions of per diems in the health sector: evidence and implications.

    PubMed

    Vian, Taryn; Miller, Candace; Themba, Zione; Bukuluki, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Per diems are used to pay work-related expenses and motivate employees, yet they also can distort incentives and may be abused. This study was designed to explore perceptions of per diems among 41 high-, mid- and low-level government officers and non-governmental organization (NGO) officials in Malawi and Uganda. Interviews explored attitudes about per diems, benefits and problems for organizations and individuals, and risks and patterns of abuse. The study found that per diems provide benefits such as encouraging training, increasing staff motivation and supplementing salary. Despite these advantages, respondents voiced many discontents about per diems, stating that they create conflict, contribute to a negative organizational culture where people expect to be paid for all activities, and lead to negative changes in work time allocation. Work practices are also manipulated in order to maximize financial gain by slowing work, scheduling unnecessary trainings, or exaggerating time needed for tasks. Officials may appropriate per diems meant for others or engage in various forms of fraud for personal financial gain. Abuse seemed more common in the government sector due to low pay and weaker controls. A striking finding was the distrust that lower-level workers felt toward their superiors: allowances were perceived to provide unfair financial advantages to already better-off and well-connected staff. To curb abuse of per diems, initiatives must reduce pressures and incentives to abuse, while controlling discretion and increasing transparency in policy implementation. Donors can play a role in reform by supporting development of policy analysis tools, design of control mechanisms and evaluation of reform strategies.

  15. General public knowledge, perceptions and practice towards pharmaceutical drug advertisements in the Western region of KSA.

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, Mahmoud S; Hamam, Fayez; Al-Shakhshir, Sami M

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to examine general public knowledge and behavior toward pharmaceutical advertisements in the Western part of KSA. A cross sectional convenience sampling technique was used in this study. A total of 1445 valid questionnaires were received and analyzed using SPSS version 16 at alpha value of 0.05. Majority of respondents were aware of different types of drugs to be advertised and drug advertisements should seek approval from the health authorities. Television and Internet showed the highest effect on consumers. Almost half of the participants preferred an advertised drug over non-advertised one. Most of the respondents indicated that the quality of frequently advertised drugs is not better than those prescribed by the doctors. Majority of participants had positive beliefs toward advertised drugs concerning their role in education and spreading of awareness among the public. Pharmaceutical advertisements harm the doctor-patient relationship as evidenced by one-third of the investigated sample. Moreover, majority of the participants mentioned that they would consult another doctor or even change the current doctor if he/she refused to prescribe an advertised medication. Results of this study could be used to develop awareness programs for the general public and try to enforce the regulations and policies to protect the general public and patients from the business oriented pharmaceutical companies and drug suppliers.

  16. General public knowledge, perceptions and practice towards pharmaceutical drug advertisements in the Western region of KSA

    PubMed Central

    Al-Haddad, Mahmoud S.; Hamam, Fayez; AL-Shakhshir, Sami M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine general public knowledge and behavior toward pharmaceutical advertisements in the Western part of KSA. A cross sectional convenience sampling technique was used in this study. A total of 1445 valid questionnaires were received and analyzed using SPSS version 16 at alpha value of 0.05. Majority of respondents were aware of different types of drugs to be advertised and drug advertisements should seek approval from the health authorities. Television and Internet showed the highest effect on consumers. Almost half of the participants preferred an advertised drug over non-advertised one. Most of the respondents indicated that the quality of frequently advertised drugs is not better than those prescribed by the doctors. Majority of participants had positive beliefs toward advertised drugs concerning their role in education and spreading of awareness among the public. Pharmaceutical advertisements harm the doctor–patient relationship as evidenced by one-third of the investigated sample. Moreover, majority of the participants mentioned that they would consult another doctor or even change the current doctor if he/she refused to prescribe an advertised medication. Results of this study could be used to develop awareness programs for the general public and try to enforce the regulations and policies to protect the general public and patients from the business oriented pharmaceutical companies and drug suppliers. PMID:24648823

  17. Workplace violence: differences in perceptions of nursing work between those exposed and those not exposed: a cross-sector analysis.

    PubMed

    Hegney, Desley; Tuckett, Anthony; Parker, Deborah; Eley, Robert M

    2010-04-01

    Nurses are at high risk of incurring workplace violence during their working life. This paper reports the findings on a cross-sectional, descriptive, self-report, postal survey in 2007. A stratified random sample of 3000 of the 29 789 members of the Queensland Nurses Union employed in the public, private and aged care sectors resulted in 1192 responses (39.7%). This paper reports the differences: between those nurses who experienced workplace violence and those who did not; across employment sectors. The incidence of workplace violence is highest in public sector nursing. Patients/clients/residents were the major perpetrators of workplace violence and the existence of a workplace policy did not decrease levels of workplace violence. Nurses providing clinical care in the private and aged care sectors experienced more workplace violence than more senior nurses. Although workplace violence was associated with high work stress, teamwork and a supportive workplace mitigated workplace violence. The perception of workplace safety was inversely related to workplace violence. With the exception of public sector nursing, nurses reported an inverse relationship with workplace violence and morale.

  18. Clients’ perceptions of the quality of care in Mexico City’s public-sector legal abortion program

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Davida; Díaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Juárez, Clara; García, Sandra G.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Harper, Cynthia C.

    2014-01-01

    Context In 2007 the Mexico City legislature made the groundbreaking decision to legalize first trimester abortion. Limited research has been conducted to understand clients’ perceptions of the abortion services available in public sector facilities. Methods We measured clients’ perceptions of quality of care at three public sector sites in Mexico City in 2009 (n=402). We assessed six domains of quality of care (client-staff interaction, information provision, technical competence, post-abortion contraceptive services, accessibility, and the facility environment), and conducted ordinal logistic regression analysis to identify which domains were important to women for their overall evaluation of care. We measured the association of overall service evaluation with socio-demographic factors and abortion-visit characteristics, in addition to specific quality of care domains. Results Clients reported a high quality of care for abortion services with an overall mean rating of 8.8 out of 10. Multivariable analysis showed that important domains for high evaluation included client perception of doctor as technically skilled (p<0.05), comfort with doctor (p<0.001), perception of confidentiality (p<.01), perception that receptionist was respectful (p<.05) and counseling on self-care at home following the abortion and post-abortion emotions (p<0.05 and p<0.01). Other relevant domains for high evaluation were convenient site hours (p<0.01), waiting time (p<0.001) and clean facility (p<0.05). Nulliparous women rated their care less favorably than parous women (p<0.05). Conclusions Our findings highlight important domains of service quality to women’s overall evaluations of abortion care in Mexico City. Strategies to improve clients’ service experiences should focus on improving counseling, service accessibility and waiting time. PMID:22227626

  19. International Students' Perceptions of Service Quality in the UK Banking Sector: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Christopher; Hsu, Marc Ting-Chun

    2011-01-01

    This study reviews and evaluates international students' perceptions of UK banks. The specific research objectives were to identify international students' expectations and perceptions of service quality from UK banks and to assess the quality GAP or dissonance between these. A total of 297 international students studying in the UK responded to…

  20. Stepping into Higher Education from the Vocational Education Sector in Australia: Student Perceptions and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Sarah; Lysaght, Pauline; Tanner, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    It is not unusual to hear study in the vocational education sector referred to as a "stepping stone" into further studies in the higher education environment. What this pathway entails for those who choose it is not immediately clear however. This article reports on research conducted with a small cohort of students who arrived at an…

  1. Perceptions of Craftsmen and Apprentices Regarding Self-Employment Skill Acquisition in the Kenyan Informal Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Robert E.; K'Aol, George O.

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with 52 craft workers and 52 apprentices in Kenya found that apprentices had more formal education and 76.9% of craft workers acquired technical skills informally. Both groups felt self-employment skills were not well taught in the informal sector, despite the need for business planning, bookkeeping, marketing, and other skills. (SK)

  2. “I’m not afraid of those ones just 'cause they’ve been prescribed”: Perceptions of risk among illicit users of pharmaceutical opioids

    PubMed Central

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Falck, Russel; Carlson, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been a rise in the illicit use of pharmaceutical opioids (”pain pills”) in the United States. Conducted with young adult non-medical users of pharmaceutical opioids, this study uses qualitative methods and cultural consensus analysis to describe risk perceptions associated with pharmaceutical opioids and to determine patterns of cultural sharing and intra-cultural variation of these views. Methods The qualitative sub-sample (n=47) was selected from a larger sample of 396 young adults (18–23 years old), who were participating in a natural history study of illicit pharmaceutical opioid use. Qualitative life history interviews, drug ranking task, and cultural consensus analysis were used to elicit participant views about risks and harms associated with pain pills and other drugs, as well as alcohol and tobacco. Results Cultural consensus analysis revealed that the participants shared a single cultural model of drug risks, but the level of agreement decreased with the increasing range of drugs ever used. Further, those with more extensive drug use histories differed from less “experienced” users in their views about OxyContin and some other drugs. Overall, pain pills were viewed as addicting and potentially deadly substances, but these properties were linked to the patterns and methods of use, as well as characteristics of an individual user. Further, risks associated with pharmaceutical opioids were further curtailed because they “came from the doctor,” and thus had a legitimate aspect to their use. Conclusions This study highlights potential problems with universal approaches to substance use prevention and intervention among young people since such approaches ignore the fact that substance use education messages may be experienced differently depending on an individual’s drug use history and his/her perceptions of drug risks. Findings reported here may be useful in the development of prevention and intervention programs aimed at

  3. "I'm not afraid of those ones just 'cause they've been prescribed": perceptions of risk among illicit users of pharmaceutical opioids.

    PubMed

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Falck, Russel; Carlson, Robert G

    2012-09-01

    There has been a rise in the illicit use of pharmaceutical opioids ("pain pills") in the United States. Conducted with young adult non-medical users of pharmaceutical opioids, this study uses qualitative methods and cultural consensus analysis to describe risk perceptions associated with pharmaceutical opioids and to determine patterns of cultural sharing and intra-cultural variation of these views. The qualitative sub-sample (n=47) was selected from a larger sample of 396 young adults (18-23 years old), who were participating in a natural history study of illicit pharmaceutical opioid use. Qualitative life history interviews, drug ranking task, and cultural consensus analysis were used to elicit participant views about risks and harms associated with pain pills and other drugs, as well as alcohol and tobacco. Cultural consensus analysis revealed that the participants shared a single cultural model of drug risks, but the level of agreement decreased with the increasing range of drugs ever used. Further, those with more extensive drug use histories differed from less "experienced" users in their views about OxyContin and some other drugs. Overall, pain pills were viewed as addicting and potentially deadly substances, but these properties were linked to the patterns and methods of use, as well as characteristics of an individual user. Further, risks associated with pharmaceutical opioids were further curtailed because they "came from the doctor," and thus had a legitimate aspect to their use. This study highlights potential problems with universal approaches to substance use prevention and intervention among young people since such approaches ignore the fact that substance use education messages may be experienced differently depending on an individual's drug use history and his/her perceptions of drug risks. Findings reported here may be useful in the development of prevention and intervention programs aimed at reducing the harm associated with illicit use of pain

  4. Consumer perception of meat quality and implications for product development in the meat sector-a review.

    PubMed

    Grunert, Klaus G; Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen

    2004-02-01

    In the first part of the paper, the Total Food Quality Model is used as a frame of reference for analysing the way in which consumers perceive meat quality, drawing mainly on European studies involving beef and pork. The way in which consumers form expectations about quality at the point of purchase, based on their own experience and informational cues available in the shopping environment, is described, as well as the way in which quality is experienced in the home during and after meal preparation. The relationship between quality expectations and quality experience and its implications for consumer satisfaction and repeat purchase intent is addressed. In the second part of the paper, and building on the insights obtained on subjective quality perception, possibilities for consumer-oriented product development in the meat sector are addressed. Issues dealt with here are branding, differentiation by taste, healthiness and convenience, and by process characteristics like organic production and animal welfare.

  5. Community pharmacists' perceptions about pharmaceutical service of over-the-counter traditional Chinese medicine: a survey study in Harbin of China.

    PubMed

    Song, Menghuan; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Lee, Vivian Wing-Yan; Hu, Yuanjia; Zhao, Jing; Li, Peng; Hu, Hao

    2017-01-05

    This study aims to investigate community pharmacist's perception on the provision of over-the-counter (OTC) traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pharmaceutical services; focusing on the areas of their attitude, general practice, perceived barriers and suggested improvements. Questionnaire survey targeting community pharmacists in Harbin of China was applied in this study. Questionnaires were distributed and collected at community pharmacies. Data was analyzed by combining descriptive analysis and Chi-test. 280 valid questionnaires were collected, giving a response rate of 78%. Respondents generally showed positive attitude towards OTC TCM pharmaceutical services. However, they were uncertain about whether such pharmaceutical services should be considered as their primary responsibility. Respondents indicated that they acted proactively to find out all the medicines taken by their patients and to remind consumers of possible OTC TCM adverse reactions. However, they were less keen on recommending or re-directing consumers to suitable OTC TCM. The three main barriers hindering the provision of OTC TCM pharmaceutical service identified in this study were "insufficient professional knowledge" (54.6%), "ambiguity of the professional role of pharmacists" (54.6%) and "lack of scientific evidence of OTC TCM" (45.4%). The three main actions considered most relevant to improving pharmaceutical service of OTC TCM were "formulating or refining legislation to clarify the legal and professional role of pharmacists with respect to TCM" (60.7%), "strengthening training of pharmacists with respect to TCM" (57.9%), and "promoting public awareness of the pharmacist's role" (53.6%). According to the results of Chi-test, respondents' perceptions about the attitude, practice, perceived barriers, and improvement suggestions were significantly different depending on the education levels, certificate types and workloads of western medicine. The community pharmacists in Harbin, China were

  6. Does labour epidural slow the progress of labour and lead to complications? Obstetricians’ perception working in private and public sector teaching hospitals in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Ismail, Samina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Obstetricians play a major role in the decision making for provision of analgesia for the woman in labour. As epidural analgesia (EA) is the most preferred technique, it is important to know obstetricians' perception regarding its effect on progress of labour and associated complications. Methods: The 6 months cross-sectional study included 114 obstetricians from teaching hospitals. After informed consent, obstetricians were asked to fill a predesigned questionnaire containing 13 close ended questions regarding their perception on the effect of EA on progress of labour, EA complications and whether they would recommend EA to their patients or not. Other variables included age, gender, training in EA, practice type and hospital settings (private or public sector). Results: Majority of the obstetricians had the perception of EA prolonging the first stage (89.5%) and second stage (98.2%) of labour, increasing the rate of caesarean section (87.7%), instrumental delivery (58.8%) and increasing the incidence of backache (85.5%). None of the obstetricians received any formal training in EA. Majority (84.2%) were not sure if they would recommend EA to their patients. When these responses were compared between public and private sector, a statistically higher percentage (P < 0.001) of public sector obstetricians had negative perception of EA. Conclusion: Perception of obstetrician regarding EA is contrary to the current evidence. There is a need to introduce formal curriculum on EA in obstetric training program and conduct regular refresher courses. PMID:26903670

  7. Domestic waste disposal practice and perceptions of private sector waste management in urban Accra

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Waste poses a threat to public health and the environment if it is not stored, collected, and disposed of properly. The perception of waste as an unwanted material with no intrinsic value has dominated attitudes towards disposal. This study investigates the domestic waste practices, waste disposal, and perceptions about waste and health in an urban community. Methods The study utilised a mixed-method approach. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire and in-depth interview were used to collect data. A total of 364 household heads were interviewed in the survey and six key informants were interviewed with the in-depth interviews. Results The results of the study revealed that 93.1% of households disposed of food debris as waste and 77.8% disposed of plastic materials as waste. The study also showed that 61.0% of the households disposed of their waste at community bins or had waste picked up at their homes by private contractors. The remaining 39.0% disposed of their waste in gutters, streets, holes and nearby bushes. Of those who paid for the services of private contractors, 62.9% were not satisfied with the services because of their cost and irregular collection. About 83% of the respondents were aware that improper waste management contributes to disease causation; most of the respondents thought that improper waste management could lead to malaria and diarrhoea. There was a general perception that children should be responsible for transporting waste from the households to dumping sites. Conclusion Proper education of the public, the provision of more communal trash bins, and the collection of waste by private contractors could help prevent exposing the public in municipalities to diseases. PMID:25005728

  8. [Perceptions of female immigrant domestic workers on the effects of the sector regulation in Spain].

    PubMed

    Briones Vozmediano, Erica; Agudelo Suárez, Andrés A; López Jacob, María José; Vives Cases, Carmen; Ballester Laguna, Fernando; Ronda Pérez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    To examine the perceptions of female immigrant domestic workers of the effect of Royal Decree 1620/2011, which regulates the relationship of domestic workers in the family home and their employment conditions in Spain. An exploratory study was performed using qualitative content analysis of three focus group discussions with immigrant women from Colombia, Ecuador and Morocco. Immigrant women positively assessed the theoretical benefits of the new regulation, but identified legal and economic barriers to obtaining a contract and being registered in the social security system by their employers, and to employers accepting the cost of these measures, especially for workers hired by the hour. These difficulties affected their possibilities of legalizing their status. The economic crisis posed a serious challenge to compliance with the new regulation. Although the new regime encourages job creation with stronger working rights for these workers, immigrant women perceived that its implementation has been hampered by the current financial crisis and has not, therefore, improved their employment conditions. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. FDA pharmaceutical quality oversight.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lawrence X; Woodcock, Janet

    2015-08-01

    The launch of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) Office of Pharmaceutical Quality (OPQ) is a milestone in FDA's efforts to assure that quality medicines are available to the American public. As a new super-office within CDER, OPQ is strategically organized to streamline regulatory processes, advance regulatory standards, align areas of expertise, and originate surveillance of drug quality. Supporting these objectives will be an innovative and systematic approach to product quality knowledge management and informatics. Concerted strategies will bring parity to the oversight of innovator and generic drugs as well as domestic and international facilities. OPQ will promote and encourage the adoption of emerging pharmaceutical technology to enhance pharmaceutical quality and potentially reinvigorate the pharmaceutical manufacturing sector in the United States. With a motto of "One Quality Voice," OPQ embodies the closer integration of review, inspection, surveillance, policy, and research for the purpose of strengthening pharmaceutical quality on a global scale.

  10. The extended pharmaceutical enterprise.

    PubMed

    Cavalla, David

    2003-03-15

    The availability of widespread contractual services led to the birth of the virtual company in the 1990s. As the concept has matured, and the biotechnology sector diversified, interchange of intellectual property in the form of collaborative and license arrangements opens up still further the opportunities for outsourced forms of pharmaceutical R&D.

  11. Exploring Typical and Atypical Safety Climate Perceptions of Practitioners in the Repair, Maintenance, Minor Alteration and Addition (RMAA) Sector in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Hon, Carol K H; Liu, Yulin

    2016-09-22

    The safety of repair, maintenance, minor alteration and addition (RMAA) work is an under-explored area. This study explored the typical and atypical safety climate perceptions of practitioners in the RMAA sector in Hong Kong, based on a self-administered questionnaire survey of 662 local practitioners in the industry. Profile analysis, via multidimensional scaling of the respondents' scores of three safety climate scales, identified one typical perception: high in management commitment to occupational health and safety (OHS) and employee involvement, low in applicability for safety rules and regulations, and low in responsibility for OHS. The respondents were clustered into typical and atypical perception groups according to their safety climate scores' match to the typical perception. A comparison of demographics between the two groups with logistic regression found that work level and direct employer significantly affect their classification. A multivariate analysis of variance of safety performance measures between the two groups indicated that the typical group had a significantly higher level of safety compliance than the atypical group, with no significant difference in safety participation or injury. The significance of this study lies in revealing the typical safety climate perception profile pattern of RMAA works and offering a new perspective of safety climate research.

  12. Exploring Typical and Atypical Safety Climate Perceptions of Practitioners in the Repair, Maintenance, Minor Alteration and Addition (RMAA) Sector in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Hon, Carol K.H.; Liu, Yulin

    2016-01-01

    The safety of repair, maintenance, minor alteration and addition (RMAA) work is an under-explored area. This study explored the typical and atypical safety climate perceptions of practitioners in the RMAA sector in Hong Kong, based on a self-administered questionnaire survey of 662 local practitioners in the industry. Profile analysis, via multidimensional scaling of the respondents’ scores of three safety climate scales, identified one typical perception: high in management commitment to occupational health and safety (OHS) and employee involvement, low in applicability for safety rules and regulations, and low in responsibility for OHS. The respondents were clustered into typical and atypical perception groups according to their safety climate scores’ match to the typical perception. A comparison of demographics between the two groups with logistic regression found that work level and direct employer significantly affect their classification. A multivariate analysis of variance of safety performance measures between the two groups indicated that the typical group had a significantly higher level of safety compliance than the atypical group, with no significant difference in safety participation or injury. The significance of this study lies in revealing the typical safety climate perception profile pattern of RMAA works and offering a new perspective of safety climate research. PMID:27669269

  13. Cross-sector user and provider perceptions on experiences of shared-care clozapine: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sowerby, Camilla; Taylor, Denise

    2017-09-28

    (1) To explore individual perceptions on experiences of people receiving and/or delivering a shared-care clozapine serviceand (2) to gain an understanding of effectiveness and acceptability of shared-care clozapine. Interpretative phenomenological analysis guided the delivery and analysis of a semistructured interview and focus group study designed to explore participant experience of shared-care clozapine. Ethical approval 13/EM/0286 was gained in July 2013 from East Midlands-Nottingham 1 REC. Eight stakeholder groups from Adult and Forensic Mental Health involved in shared-care clozapine provision delivered in primary care were identified for recruitment from one mental health trust in England (six different groups of healthcare professionals (HCPs), clozapine service users (CSUs) and their carers). To be eligible for recruitment, all potential participants had to be either providing, receiving or the carer of a person receiving clozapine by shared care. 32 HCPs and 6 CSUs were recruited and 14 interviews and 6 participant homogenous focus groups were run. Four shared superordinate themes were identified: Clozapine Process, The Sharing of Care, The Provision of Care and Multi-professional Relationships. Differences between Adult and Forensic engagement in shared care were noted and both HCP and CSU relationships were mapped to the Wish conceptual framework of relationships to provide insight into how shared-care clozapine can provide a mechanism for provision of person-centred care, which was present in the Forensic HCP-CSU but not General Adult HCP-CSU relationship. The Forensic HCP/CSU relationship demonstrated how cross-sector working through shared-care clozapine can provide a mechanism for provision of person-centred care by enabling a person-centred focus to care delivery which supported CSUs to live as independently as possible. Person-centred care demonstrably improves patient care outcomes and wider implementation of shared-care clozapine could provide

  14. Pharmaceutical risk-sharing agreements.

    PubMed

    Cook, Joseph P; Vernon, John A; Manning, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Increased spending on pharmaceuticals continues to foster debate over healthcare policy. The increasing costs of bringing products to the market, as well as increased utilization of pharmaceuticals contribute to increased pharmaceutical expenditure; however, appropriate pharmaceutical use can, in certain cases, reduce overall healthcare costs. Nevertheless, the perception of high drug prices still puts pressure on pharmaceutical companies to build confidence in the proposition that their products are worth the additional expense. One potential approach to building this confidence, and maintaining investment incentives, is for the pharmaceutical company to share the risk of a situation in which there is uncertainty about whether the product is effective for the consumer and payer. Such risk-sharing arrangements for pharmaceuticals, like warranties, can be used to signal high quality when product quality is not fully observable. While there may be difficulties in devising such schemes for every product, such risk-sharing plans may become a staple feature of the market in the future.

  15. Nurses' Perceptions of Spirituality and Spiritual Care Giving: A Comparison Study Among All Health Care Sectors in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Melhem, Ghaith Ahmad Bani; Zeilani, Ruqayya S; Zaqqout, Ossama Abed; Aljwad, Ashraf Ismail; Shawagfeh, Mohammed Qasim; Al-Rahim, Maysoon Abd

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe nurses' perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care in Jordan, and to investigate the relationship between their perceptions and their demographic variables. The study used a cross-sectional descriptive design and recruited a convenience sample of 408 Jordanian registered nurses to complete the spiritual care giving scale. The findings of the study demonstrated that most of the participating nurses had a high level of spirituality and spiritual care perception. Significant differences were found between male and female nurses' perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care (P < 0.05); previous attendance of courses on spiritual care also made a significant difference to perceptions (P < 0.05). The research findings suggest that, Jordanian nurses' gender made a difference in their perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care. They had satisfactory levels of perception of spirituality and spiritual care. Moreover, spiritual care courses appeared to have a positive impact on their perception of spirituality and spiritual care. Enhancing nursing care by integrating standardized spiritual care into the current nursing care, training, and education should also be emphasized.

  16. Nurses’ Perceptions of Spirituality and Spiritual Care Giving: A Comparison Study Among All Health Care Sectors in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Melhem, Ghaith Ahmad Bani; Zeilani, Ruqayya S; Zaqqout, Ossama Abed.; Aljwad, Ashraf Ismail; Shawagfeh, Mohammed Qasim; Al- Rahim, Maysoon Abd

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to describe nurses’ perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care in Jordan, and to investigate the relationship between their perceptions and their demographic variables. Methods: The study used a cross-sectional descriptive design and recruited a convenience sample of 408 Jordanian registered nurses to complete the spiritual care giving scale. Results: The findings of the study demonstrated that most of the participating nurses had a high level of spirituality and spiritual care perception. Significant differences were found between male and female nurses’ perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care (P < 0.05); previous attendance of courses on spiritual care also made a significant difference to perceptions (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The research findings suggest that, Jordanian nurses’ gender made a difference in their perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care. They had satisfactory levels of perception of spirituality and spiritual care. Moreover, spiritual care courses appeared to have a positive impact on their perception of spirituality and spiritual care. Enhancing nursing care by integrating standardized spiritual care into the current nursing care, training, and education should also be emphasized. PMID:26962280

  17. 21 CFR 26.17 - Role and composition of the Joint Sectoral Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE... EUROPEAN COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.17 Role...

  18. 21 CFR 26.17 - Role and composition of the Joint Sectoral Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE... EUROPEAN COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.17 Role...

  19. 21 CFR 26.17 - Role and composition of the Joint Sectoral Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE... EUROPEAN COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.17 Role...

  20. 21 CFR 26.17 - Role and composition of the Joint Sectoral Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE... EUROPEAN COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.17 Role...

  1. 21 CFR 26.17 - Role and composition of the Joint Sectoral Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE... EUROPEAN COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.17 Role...

  2. Staff Involvement in Leadership Decision Making in the UK Further Education Sector: Perceptions of Quality and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maringe, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the quality of leadership decision making at various leadership levels in the further education (FE) sector. Using Hoffberg and Korver's model for integrated decision making, the paper aims to examine how staff in five UK FE colleges perceive the quality of their involvement in decision-making teams…

  3. Staff Involvement in Leadership Decision Making in the UK Further Education Sector: Perceptions of Quality and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maringe, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the quality of leadership decision making at various leadership levels in the further education (FE) sector. Using Hoffberg and Korver's model for integrated decision making, the paper aims to examine how staff in five UK FE colleges perceive the quality of their involvement in decision-making teams…

  4. Cross-sector surveys assessing perceptions of key stakeholders towards barriers, concerns and facilitators to the appropriate use of adaptive designs in confirmatory trials.

    PubMed

    Dimairo, Munyaradzi; Julious, Steven A; Todd, Susan; Nicholl, Jonathan P; Boote, Jonathan

    2015-12-23

    Appropriately conducted adaptive designs (ADs) offer many potential advantages over conventional trials. They make better use of accruing data, potentially saving time, trial participants, and limited resources compared to conventional, fixed sample size designs. However, one can argue that ADs are not implemented as often as they should be, particularly in publicly funded confirmatory trials. This study explored barriers, concerns, and potential facilitators to the appropriate use of ADs in confirmatory trials among key stakeholders. We conducted three cross-sectional, online parallel surveys between November 2014 and January 2015. The surveys were based upon findings drawn from in-depth interviews of key research stakeholders, predominantly in the UK, and targeted Clinical Trials Units (CTUs), public funders, and private sector organisations. Response rates were as follows: 30(55 %) UK CTUs, 17(68 %) private sector, and 86(41 %) public funders. A Rating Scale Model was used to rank barriers and concerns in order of perceived importance for prioritisation. Top-ranked barriers included the lack of bridge funding accessible to UK CTUs to support the design of ADs, limited practical implementation knowledge, preference for traditional mainstream designs, difficulties in marketing ADs to key stakeholders, time constraints to support ADs relative to competing priorities, lack of applied training, and insufficient access to case studies of undertaken ADs to facilitate practical learning and successful implementation. Associated practical complexities and inadequate data management infrastructure to support ADs were reported as more pronounced in the private sector. For funders of public research, the inadequate description of the rationale, scope, and decision-making criteria to guide the planned AD in grant proposals by researchers were all viewed as major obstacles. There are still persistent and important perceptions of individual and organisational obstacles

  5. Percept

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-26

    The Percept software package is a collection of libraries and executables that provide tools for verifying computer simulations of engineering components and systems. Percept is useful for simulations using the finite element or finite volume methods on unstructured meshes. Percept includes API's for adaptive mesh refinement, geometry representation, the method of manufactured solutions, analysis of convergence including the convergence of vibrational eigenmodes, and metrics for analyzing the difference between fields represented on two different overlapping unstructured grids.

  6. Pandemic preparedness: perceptions of vulnerable migrants in Thailand towards WHO-recommended non-pharmaceutical interventions: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) constituted the principal public health response to the previous influenza A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic and are one key area of ongoing preparation for future pandemics. Thailand is an important point of focus in terms of global pandemic preparedness and response due to its role as the major transportation hub for Southeast Asia, the endemic presence of multiple types of influenza, and its role as a major receiving country for migrants. Our aim was to collect information about vulnerable migrants’ perceptions of and ability to implement NPIs proposed by the WHO. We hope that this information will help us to gauge the capacity of this population to engage in pandemic preparedness and response efforts, and to identify potential barriers to NPI effectiveness. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed. The study was conducted during the influenza H1N1 2009 pandemic and included 801 migrant participants living in border areas thought to be high risk by the Thailand Ministry of Public Health. Data were collected by Migrant Community Health Workers using a 201-item interviewer-assisted questionnaire. Univariate descriptive analyses were conducted. Results With the exception of border measures, to which nearly all participants reported they would be adherent, attitudes towards recommended NPIs were generally negative or uncertain. Other potential barriers to NPI implementation include limited experience applying these interventions (e.g., using a thermometer, wearing a face mask) and inadequate hand washing and household disinfection practices. Conclusions Negative or ambivalent attitudes towards NPIs combined with other barriers identified suggest that vulnerable migrants in Thailand have a limited capacity to participate in pandemic preparedness efforts. This limited capacity likely puts migrants at risk of propagating the spread of a pandemic virus. Coordinated risk communication and public education are potential

  7. Pharmaceutical Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolinsky, Donna

    1979-01-01

    Defines areas that could comprise pharmaceutical psychology. The discussion includes a review of literature, outline of areas in pharmacy in which psychologists could become involved, description of a project involving the application of psychology to pharmacy, and analysis of the concept of pharmaceutical psychology. A 99-item bibliography is…

  8. Execution of a participatory supportive return to work program within the Dutch social security sector: a qualitative evaluation of stakeholders' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Lammerts, Lieke; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; van Mechelen, Willem; Anema, Johannes R

    2016-04-14

    A process evaluation of a participatory supportive return to work program, aimed at workers without a (permanent) employment contract who are sick-listed due to a common mental disorder, revealed that this program was executed less successfully than similar programs evaluated in earlier studies. The program consisted of a participatory approach, integrated care and direct placement in competitive employment. Aim of this study was to get a better understanding of the execution of the program by evaluating stakeholders' perceptions. In the absence of an employer, the program was applied by the Dutch Social Security Agency, in collaboration with vocational rehabilitation agencies. Together with the sick-listed workers, these were the main stakeholders. Our research questions involved stakeholders' perceptions of the function(s) of the program, and their perceptions of barriers and facilitators for a successful execution of the program within the Dutch social security sector. Semi-structured interviews were held with five sick-listed workers, eight professionals of the Social Security Agency, and two case managers of vocational rehabilitation agencies. Interview topics were related to experiences with different components of the program. Selection of respondents was based on purposive sampling and continued until data saturation was reached. Content analysis was applied to identify patterns in the data. Two researchers developed a coding system, based on predefined topics and themes emerging from the data. Although perceived functions of some components of the program were as intended, all stakeholders stressed that the program often had not resulted in return to work. Perceived barriers for a successful execution were related to a poor collaboration between the Dutch Social Security Agency, vocational rehabilitation agencies and healthcare providers, the type of experienced (health) problems, time constraints, and limited job opportunities. For future implementation

  9. [Are tick medications pesticides? Implications for health and risk perception for workers in the dairy cattle sector].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Tatiana Pastorello Pereira; Moreira, Josino Costa; Peres, Frederico

    2012-02-01

    This article seeks to characterize the risks related to the use of pesticides in dairy production, in terms of legislation, health and perception of risk for workers involved in this activity. It is based on methodological articulation that included: a) systematic review of the reference literature on the research topic; b) analysis of related legislation (veterinary products and pesticides); c) risk identification regarding the use of veterinary products formulated using active ingredients listed as pesticides; d) and risk perception analysis of a group of dairy production workers. Results indicate a situation of particular interest to Public Health. Regarding dairy production workers, the invisibility of risks associated with handling pesticides for veterinary use, increases their exposure and is related to several health problems, especially for women. This same invisibility leads to a neglect of the prohibition period between pesticide use and consumption of other products. Part of the problem may be associated with the non-classification of pesticides for veterinary use as 'pesticides' (they are classified as veterinary products), which highlights the importance and the urgency of discussion of the theme.

  10. [Questions about pharmaceutical expertise].

    PubMed

    Sauer, Fernand

    2012-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, many areas of expertise have developed in the pharmaceutical industry, from research and production to delivery to the patient. Strict European regulations and international best practice guidelines have shaped the expertise of pharmaceutical firms. Governments have set up health agencies to strengthen the supervision of private operators by recruiting in-house scientific experts and expert committees. The private and public sectors compete to recruit the best experts, and conflicts of interest must be addressed. The recent 'Mediator' (Benfluorex) case in France raises many questions about the potential failures of the health security system. Beyond the primary responsibility of the company, the main concern is off-label use. An effort to strengthen the legal framework and the tools used to collect, analyze and publicize pharmacovigilance data is currently underway at a national and European level. The competent authorities must restore public confidence through a more diligent and transparent handling of sensitive issues related to high-risk medicine. In a country where drug consumption is particularly high, doctors and pharmaceutical experts have been accused of becoming accustomed to risk and of loosing sight of the benefit to the patient. Health professionals in the private and public sectors must regain the appropriate health security reflexes to promote a more rational use of drugs.

  11. Signs of change in Turkey's working class: workers' age-related perceptions in the modern manufacturing sector.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Theo

    2003-12-01

    This paper explores the possible effects of the increasing exposure to modernity on younger workers in some sectors of developing countries with special reference to those employed in advanced manufacturing in Turkey. In recent decades Turkey has undergone considerable urbanization, improvements in literacy and rising levels of formal education. The paper systematically examines differences in the work-related attitudes and expectations, commitment and aspirations of younger and older workers, who have been exposed to these processes to different degrees. It is broadly confirmed that younger workers have higher expectations and aspirations that make them relatively less satisfied with a number of aspects of their work and which are likely to make for a less committed more critical workforce.

  12. Bovine dermatophilosis: Awareness, perceptions and attitudes in the small-holder sector of north-west Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Ndhlovu, Daud N; Masika, Patrick J

    2016-03-09

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess cattle owners' awareness, perceptions, attitudes and drug-usage practices with regard to bovine dermatophilosis. Knowledge of these farmers' attributes is important for animal health policy makers in their endeavours to provide optimum disease control strategies that are acceptable to the communities. Data on cattle owner awareness of bovine dermatophilosis, causes, treatment practices, perceptions about its importance and potential dangers to humans were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 185 stockowners and cattle herds were involved in the study, with bovine dermatophilosis determined clinically by veterinarians. The results showed that 45.4% of the herds were clinically positive for dermatophilosis, and most farmers (79.5%) were generally aware that dermatophilosis was a cattle disease. In the event of a dermatophilosis outbreak in a herd, 74.1% of the farmers treated their cattle using antibiotics; the proportion of farmers treating cattle did not differ (p > 0.05) across the diptanks. Fifty-two farmers (52/63) indicated that drugs had to be administered four to seven times before an animal recovered from infection. Tetracyclines were the antibiotics used by most farmers (79.3%) to treat dermatophilosis, with 19.1% using penicillins. Concerns were raised by farmers about the effectiveness of these drugs against bovine dermatophilosis. Across the study sites, 48.6% and 27.6% of the farmers perceived bovine dermatophilosis to be an important disease at the herd and area level, respectively. A small proportion (12.4%) of the farmers regarded bovine dermatophilosis as a potentially zoonotic disease. The high level of stockowners' general awareness, with regards to bovine dermatophilosis, sets ideal conditions for the mobilisation of farmers by animal health authorities in the control of the disease. However, further research needs to be undertaken to investigate effective antibiotic

  13. Pharmaceutical laws and regulations in Iran: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Zaboli, Pardis; Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Varmaghani, Mehdi; Gholami, Hadi; Vazirian, Iman; Zekri, Hedieh-Sadat; Eslamitabar, Shahriar; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The pharmaceutical legal framework is a very important infrastructure in achieving predefined goals in pharmaceutical sector: Accessibility, quality, and rational use of medicine. This study aims to review the current pharmaceutical sector-related legal provisions in Iran where the Food and Drug Organization (FDO) is in charge of regulating all issues related to the pharmaceutical sector. The main laws and regulations enacted by parliament and cabinet and even internal regulations enacted by the Ministry of Health or Iran FDO are reviewed. Different laws and regulations are categorized according to the main goals of Iran national drug policy. PMID:27512704

  14. The Impact of a Microfinance Program on Client Perceptions of the Quality of Care Provided by Private Sector Midwives in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Agha, Sohail; Balal, Asma; Ogojo-Okello, Francis

    2004-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of a microfinance program that provided business skills training and revolving loans to private sector midwives on perceived quality of services and client loyalty. Study Design A quasi-experimental study with a pretest, posttest design was used to evaluate the impact of the intervention. Exit interviews were conducted at 15 clinics that received the intervention and 7 clinics that did not. Baseline exit interviews were conducted between November and December 2000. Five days of business skills training were provided to midwives, and loans (averaging $454) were given during January and February 2001. A follow-up clinic visit was made to assess whether midwives were implementing what was emphasized during the training. The loans were to be repaid with interest within 6 to 12 months, at an interest rate that is standard within the local commercial market. For those who repaid the first set of loans (11 clinics), a second set of loans (averaging $742) was provided after June 2001. Follow-up exit interviews were conducted at the same clinics between February and March 2002. We assessed the effect of the intervention at both clinic and client levels. T-tests, the analysis of variance, and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted. Principal Findings These findings should be interpreted cautiously since secular trends were observed during the study period. The intervention was associated with improvement in clients' perceptions of the quality of care received at intervention clinics. The intervention was also associated with a higher level of client loyalty. Conclusions The enthusiastic response of midwives and the high loan repayment rate indicate that midwives were very receptive to the microfinance program. Overall, these findings suggest that microfinance may have an important role in strengthening private sector health services by increasing private providers' business skills and clients' satisfaction with services. PMID

  15. The impact of a microfinance program on client perceptions of the quality of care provided by private sector midwives in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Agha, Sohail; Balal, Asma; Ogojo-Okello, Francis

    2004-12-01

    To assess the impact of a microfinance program that provided business skills training and revolving loans to private sector midwives on perceived quality of services and client loyalty. A quasi-experimental study with a pretest, posttest design was used to evaluate the impact of the intervention. Exit interviews were conducted at 15 clinics that received the intervention and 7 clinics that did not. Baseline exit interviews were conducted between November and December 2000. Five days of business skills training were provided to midwives, and loans (averaging $454) were given during January and February 2001. A follow-up clinic visit was made to assess whether midwives were implementing what was emphasized during the training. The loans were to be repaid with interest within 6 to 12 months, at an interest rate that is standard within the local commercial market. For those who repaid the first set of loans (11 clinics), a second set of loans (averaging $742) was provided after June 2001. Follow-up exit interviews were conducted at the same clinics between February and March 2002. We assessed the effect of the intervention at both clinic and client levels. T-tests, the analysis of variance, and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted. These findings should be interpreted cautiously since secular trends were observed during the study period. The intervention was associated with improvement in clients' perceptions of the quality of care received at intervention clinics. The intervention was also associated with a higher level of client loyalty. The enthusiastic response of midwives and the high loan repayment rate indicate that midwives were very receptive to the microfinance program. Overall, these findings suggest that microfinance may have an important role in strengthening private sector health services by increasing private providers' business skills and clients' satisfaction with services.

  16. Patients' Perception of Clinicians Use of ICT During Patient Consultation in the Different Sectors of Danish Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Lone Stub; Bertelsen, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark ICT is a central part of almost all healthcare professionals' daily practices, and patients are increasingly encouraged to take and active interest in own health data. Therefore, ICT is an important part of what happens at consultations between the patients and the healthcare professionals. We explore the impact of ICT based on a survey of citizens'/patients' experience of interaction with healthcare professionals. How often and for what ICT was used in communication with the patients in different sectors of the Danish healthcare. The results show that ICT is used in communication with citizens and during interaction with patient, however the use of ICT is mostly for the healthcare professionals own benefit and only about 15%-39% of the reported instances ICT was used to communication and interact with the patient. Through the concept of boundary objects we proposes a model that split the object of the technology mediated information into three setting for communication between patients and healthcare professionals. We propose further studies into how ICT can be used to explore the possibilities for more interactive and involving care processes as a key element in further development of eHealth.

  17. Ineffective Healthcare Technology Management in Benin’s Public Health Sector: The Perceptions of Key Actors and Their Ability to Address the Main Problems

    PubMed Central

    Houngbo, P. Thierry; De Cock Buning, Tjard; Bunders, Joske; Coleman, Harry L. S.; Medenou, Daton; Dakpanon, Laurent; Zweekhorst, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    Background: Low-income countries face many contextual challenges to manage healthcare technologies effectively, as the majority are imported and resources are constrained to a greater extent. Previous healthcare technology management (HTM) policies in Benin have failed to produce better quality of care for the population and costeffectiveness for the government. This study aims to identify and assess the main problems facing HTM in Benin’s public health sector, as well as the ability of key actors within the sector to address these problems. Methods: We conducted 2 surveys in 117 selected health facilities. The first survey was based on 377 questionnaires and 259 interviews, and the second involved observation and group interviews at health facilities. The Temple-Bird Healthcare Technology Package System (TBHTPS), tailored to the context of Benin’s health system, was used as a conceptual framework. Results: The findings of the first survey show that 85% of key actors in Benin’s HTM sector characterized the system as failing in components of the TBHTPS framework. Biomedical, clinical, healthcare technology engineers and technicians perceived problems most severely, followed by users of equipment, managers and hospital directors, international organization officers, local and foreign suppliers, and finally policy-makers, planners and administrators at the Ministry of Health (MoH). The 5 most important challenges to be addressed are policy, strategic management and planning, and technology needs assessment and selection – categorized as major enabling inputs (MEI) in HTM by the TBHTPS framework – and installation and commissioning, training and skill development and procurement, which are import and use activities (IUA). The ability of each key actor to address these problems (the degree of political or administrative power they possess) was inversely proportional to their perception of the severity of the problems. Observational data gathered during site

  18. Assessing stakeholder opinion on relations between cancer patient groups and pharmaceutical companies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Leto di Priolo, Susanna; Fehervary, Andras; Riggins, Phil; Redmond, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between the pharmaceutical industry and cancer patient groups has been the subject of much scrutiny and skepticism, and some high-profile negative media coverage has focused attention on some of the problematic aspects of the relationship. Both the pharmaceutical industry and cancer patient groups have made an effort in recent years to improve the transparency and openness of their relations, specifically with regard to the financial support offered by pharmaceutical companies to patient groups. The objectives of this survey were to benchmark perceptions held by different stakeholder groups about current relationships between cancer patient groups and pharmaceutical companies in Europe, and to explore opinions about ways in which partnerships between patient groups and pharmaceutical companies could evolve to the benefit of cancer patients. The survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire that contained a combination of matrix, scaled, and open-ended questions. The questionnaire was developed based on a literature search and the findings from ten in-depth interviews conducted with policy makers and advocates working at an EU level. Telephone interviews were carried out using a structured questionnaire with a convenience sample of 161 policy makers, cancer healthcare group representatives, and cancer patient group leaders from France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, and the UK. The interviews took place in the relevant language of the country. The current relationship between the pharmaceutical industry and cancer patient groups in Europe is generally viewed as positive, but it is also viewed as being unequal, not transparent enough, and not sufficiently patient-centric. There is broad agreement that cancer patient groups can help companies identify unmet needs and contribute to the development of innovative medicines; however, there is some concern about cancer patients

  19. Patients’ perception of pharmaceutical services available in a community pharmacy among patients living in a rural area of the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Patients’ opinion about prevalence of pharmaceutical services available in a community pharmacy among patients living in a rural area of the United Kingdom. The secondary objective was to identify appropriate action(s) to enhance patients’ awareness of pharmaceutical services in rural areas. Methods: A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to patients visiting a community pharmacy in Eye, Suffolk, United Kingdom between July and August, 2015. The main inclusion criterion was living in a rural area. Comparisons were performed using chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results: The study included 103 respondents: 70 women (69.0%) and 33 men (32.0%), aged 16–85 years. Most respondents declared the primary tasks of a community pharmacy were dispensing medicines (86.4% of respondents) and repeat dispensing (72.8% of respondents). Additionally, 23.3% of respondents treated minor ailments at the pharmacy, including bacterial/viral infections, minor injuries, stomach problems, and allergies. The Medicines Use Review service was the only advanced service used in this pharmacy (12.6% of respondents), primarily by men. Younger patients were more familiar with the term of pharmaceutical care (p<0.05; OR=0.33). Conclusions: Only a few pharmaceutical services are utilized by people living in rural areas in the UK, namely prescription dispensing, repeat dispensing, and sale of medications that support self-care for minor ailments. We found an overall poor awareness of the expanded variety of pharmaceutical services encouraged by the community pharmacy contract introduced in the UK in 2005. Therefore, politicians, pharmacists, and pharmacy experts should actively promote these advanced pharmaceutical services in rural areas. PMID:27785163

  20. China: current trends in pharmaceutical drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ying

    2008-04-01

    Pharmaceutical discovery and development is expensive and highly risky, even for multinational corporations. As a developing country with limited financial resources, China has been seeking the most cost-effective means to reach the same level of innovation and productivity as Western countries in the pharmaceutical industry sector. After more than 50 years of building up talent and experience, the time for China to become a powerhouse in pharmaceutical innovation is finally approaching. Returnee scientists to China are one of the reasons for the wave of new discovery and commercialization occurring within the country. The consolidation of local Chinese pharmaceutical companies and foreign investment is also providing an agreeable environment for the evolution of a new generation of biotechnology. The opportunity for pharmaceutical innovation is also being expedited by the entry of multinational companies into the Chinese pharmaceutical market, and by the outsourcing of research from these companies to China.

  1. The quality of outpatient primary care in public and private sectors in Sri Lanka--how well do patient perceptions match reality and what are the implications?

    PubMed

    Rannan-Eliya, Ravindra P; Wijemanne, Nilmini; Liyanage, Isuru K; Jayanthan, Janaki; Dalpatadu, Shanti; Amarasinghe, Sarasi; Anuranga, Chamara

    2015-03-01

    To compare the quality of clinical care and patient satisfaction in public and private outpatient primary care services in Sri Lanka. A prospective, cross-sectional comparison was done by direct observation of patient encounters and exit interviews of outpatients in 10 public hospital general outpatient clinics and 66 private practitioner clinics in three districts of Sri Lanka. A total of 1027 public sector patients and 944 private sector patients were surveyed. Data were collected for 39 quality indicators covering diarrhoea, cough, hypertension, diabetes, asthma, upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and five other conditions, along with prescribing indicators. The exit interviews collected data for 10 patient satisfaction indicators. The public sector performed better for some conditions (diarrhoea, cough and asthma) and the private sector performed better for others (hypertension, diabetes, URTI and tonsillitis). Overall quality was similar between the sectors in the domains of history taking, examination and investigations and management, but the private sector performed much better on patient education (57 vs 12%). Overall patient satisfaction was high in both sectors (98%), although the private sector performed much better in interpersonal satisfaction (94 vs 84%) and system-related indicators (95 vs 84%). Comparisons with studies from other countries suggest that both sectors perform considerably better than India, and similarly in many indicators to high-income countries. Quality of outpatient primary care in Sri Lanka is generally high for a lower-middle income developing country. The public and private sectors perform similarly, except that private sector patients have longer consultations, are more likely to receive education and advice, and obtain better interpersonal satisfaction. The public system, with its limited funding, is able to deliver care in diagnosis and management that is similar to the private sector, while private sector patients

  2. The pharmaceutical industry in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Tancer, R S

    1995-01-01

    Cuba has developed a relatively sophisticated pharmaceutical sector, originally to provide medicinal products for her own population and, more recently, to earn hard currency through exports. Cuba has achieved both of these goals despite the US trade embargo, which isolates Cuba from commercial relations with US firms. Cuba is opening its economy to firms from other countries through the use of joint ventures and other forms of cooperation. US firms are unable to avail themselves of these opportunities, and the opportunities are thus being lost. In the case of pharmaceuticals, the Cubans recognize that they need assistance, particularly in the areas of marketing and packaging. Allowing the participation of US firms in the Cuban pharmaceutical industry could enhance the possibility of improving worldwide health care.

  3. Pharmaceutical virtue.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emily

    2006-06-01

    In the early history of psychopharmacology, the prospect of developing technologically sophisticated drugs to alleviate human ills was surrounded with a fervor that could be described as religious. This paper explores the subsequent history of the development of psychopharmacological agents, focusing on the ambivalent position of both the industry and its employees. Based on interviews with retired pharmaceutical employees who were active in the industry in the 1950s and 1960s when the major breakthroughs were made in the development of MAOIs and SSRIs, the paper explores the initial development of educational materials for use in sales campaigns. In addition, based on interviews with current employees in pharmaceutical sales and marketing, the paper describes the complex perspective of contemporary pharmaceutical employees who must live surrounded by the growing public vilification of the industry as rapacious and profit hungry and yet find ways to make their jobs meaningful and dignified. The paper will contribute to the understudied problem of how individuals function in positions that require them to be part of processes that on one description constitute a social evil, but on another, constitute a social good.

  4. Essential drugs and registration of pharmaceuticals: the Sri Lankan experience.

    PubMed Central

    Weerasuriya, K.

    1993-01-01

    Many factors influence the regulation of pharmaceuticals in a country. The essential drugs concept, formulated by the World Health Organization to assist developing countries in selecting appropriate drugs, also provides a basis for regulation. Sri Lanka has long regulated pharmaceuticals as part of its health policy. Over 70% of 3436 pharmaceutical product registrations were found to be drugs (or alternatives) named in the country's essential drugs list. This is despite the fact that product registrations are mainly for the private health care sector, and the list is for the state sector. The essential drugs concept therefore appears to have influenced the pharmaceuticals registered in Sri Lanka. PMID:8490987

  5. Agriculture Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  6. Community Pharmacists' Perceptions about Pharmaceutical Care of Traditional Medicine Products: A Questionnaire-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Hu, Hao; Liu, Xiaodan; Zhao, Jing; Hu, Yuanjia; Li, Peng; Yang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate community pharmacists' perceived responsibility, practice behaviors, knowledge, perceived barriers, and improvement measures towards provision of pharmaceutical care in relation to traditional medicine (TM) products in Guangzhou, China. A self-completion questionnaire was used to survey licensed pharmacists working at community pharmacies. This study found that the community pharmacists in Guangzhou, China, were involved in the provision of TM products during their daily practice but only provided pharmaceutical care in this area with a passive attitude. Extrinsic barriers such as lack of scientific evidence for the safety and efficacy of TM products and unclear definition of their roles and responsibilities were highlighted while intrinsic factors such as insufficient TM knowledge were identified. PMID:27066101

  7. Current perceptions of the term Clinical Pharmacy and its relationship to Pharmaceutical Care: a survey of members of the European Society of Clinical Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Dreischulte, Tobias; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2016-12-01

    Background The definitions that are being used for the terms 'clinical pharmacy' and 'pharmaceutical care' seem to have a certain overlap. Responsibility for therapy outcomes seems to be especially linked to the latter term. Both terms need clarification before a proper definition of clinical pharmacy can be drafted. Objective To identify current disagreements regarding the term 'Clinical Pharmacy' and its relationship to 'Pharmaceutical Care' and to assess to which extent pharmacists with an interest in Clinical Pharmacy are willing to accept responsibility for drug therapy outcomes. Setting The membership of the European Society of Clinical Pharmacy. Methods A total of 1,285 individuals affiliated with the European Society of Clinical Pharmacy were invited by email to participate in an online survey asking participants to state whether certain professional activities, providers, settings, aims and general descriptors constituted (a) 'Clinical Pharmacy only', (b) 'Pharmaceutical Care only', (c) 'both' or (d) 'neither'. Further questions examined pharmacists' willingness to accept ethical or legal responsibility for drug therapy outcomes, under current and ideal working conditions. Main outcome measures Level of agreement with a number of statements. Results There was disagreement (<80% agreement among all participants) regarding 'Clinical Pharmacy' activities, whether non-pharmacists could provide 'Clinical Pharmacy' services, and whether such services could be provided in non-hospital settings. There was disagreement (<80% agreement among those linking items to Clinical Pharmacy) as to whether Pharmaceutical care also encompassed certain professional activities, constituted a scientific discipline and targeted cost effectiveness. The proportions of participants willing to accept legal responsibility under current/ideal working conditions were: safety (32.7%/64.3%), effectiveness (17.9%/49.2%), patient-centeredness (17.1%/46.2%), cost-effectiveness (20

  8. Pharmacy residents' attitudes toward pharmaceutical industry promotion.

    PubMed

    Ashker, Sumer; Burkiewicz, Jill S

    2007-08-15

    The attitudes of pharmacy residents toward pharmaceutical industry promotion and the perceived effects of such promotion on the knowledge and professional practice of the residents were studied. A questionnaire study of current postgraduate year 1 and postgraduate year 2 pharmacy residents was conducted. Questions were adapted from instruments used in studies of medical student or physician attitudes regarding the pharmaceutical industry. The questionnaire requested demographic information about the resident, information regarding the resident's exposure to specific types of pharmaceutical company-related activities, and the resident's perception of whether the residency program or department had policies or guidelines regarding interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. Questions investigated the attitudes toward pharmaceutical industry promotion and the perceived influence of pharmaceutical industry promotion on the professional knowledge and behavior of the residents. Responses were received from 496 pharmacy residents. Nearly all (89%) residents agreed that pharmaceutical company-sponsored educational events enhance knowledge. Almost half (43%) of the respondents reported that information from educational events influences therapeutic recommendations. One quarter (26%) of the pharmacy residents indicated prior training regarding pharmacist-industry interactions, and most (60%) residents indicated that their institution's residencies or departments have policies regarding interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. Most surveyed pharmacy residents believed that educational events sponsored by pharmaceutical companies enhance knowledge. Respondents whose institutions had policies or who had received training about such events were less likely than other respondents to perceive an influence of the events on their knowledge and behavior.

  9. Pharmaceutical Analysis as a Branch of Pharmaceutics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Kenneth A.

    1977-01-01

    Pharmaceutical analysis is incorporated into the pharmaceutics component of the undergraduate curriculum at the University of Wisconsin. Many collaborative demonstrations, lectures, and laboratory experiments can illustrate the close relationship between analysis and modern pharmacy practice. (Author/LBH)

  10. Bioremediation of industrial pharmaceutical drugs.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Hedi Ben; Mosrati, Ridha; Barillier, Daniel; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2012-07-01

    Recently, attention has been drawn toward the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment. In recent years, many reports have been made on the occurrence of the large, differentiated group of pharmaceuticals in wastewater (PW), surface water, ground water, and in soil. The pharmaceutical sector is currently expanding in Tunisia, with more than 34 industries. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 to treat PW. P. putida was very efficient in reducing chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), and turbidity of solution (85.5, 89.1, and 81.5%, respectively). Genotoxicity of effluent, before and after biodegradation, was evaluated in vivo in mouse bone marrow by assessing the percentage of cells bearing different chromosome aberrations. Results indicated that PW showed a significant ability to induce DNA damage. In addition, PW induced a remarkable lipid peroxidation (LPO) effect, however, activities of both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were unchanged when treated with PW, compared to nontreated PW. This toxicity was imputed to the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater. However, chromosome aberration, as well as LPO of PW, were significantly reduced after bioremediation. Thus, the use of this strain for testing on the industrial scale seems possible and advantageous.

  11. Metals Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory information about the metals sector (NAICS 331 & 332), including NESHAPs for metal coatings, effluent guidelines for metal products, combustion compliance assistance, and information about foundry sand recycling.

  12. When Government Is No Longer Employer of Choice: What May the Sector Perceptions of Public Managers Be Like after the Economy Recovers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Craig; Ponomariov, Branco

    2012-01-01

    In today's economic climate, government is now considered by many to be the "employer of choice." However, employers at all levels of government may eventually lose their recent gains in the war for talent, as the economy improves. Accordingly, it is important to explain how public sector managers viewed the relative advantages and…

  13. [Pharmaceutical distribution and retail pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Meneu, Ricard

    2006-03-01

    In this chapter, the main characteristics of pharmaceutical distribution and retail pharmacy are described. The author analyses the structure of this sector, the agents operating in it -wholesalers, hospital pharmacy services and chemists- and the very few modifications introduced in it in the recent years, focusing on the incentives of its current structure and their consistency with health aims. On the basis of this analysis, the author outlines some possible ways to redefine the sector, which should focus on the promotion of desirable health objectives rather than on the survival of the inefficacies that hinder its evolution. The author pays special attention to the need to modify the inadequate existing retribution system and to substitute it for a different one, which focuses on the professionalism of the service provided, rather than on the profit margin or the sales.

  14. Pharmaceutical marketing research and the prescribing physician.

    PubMed

    Greene, Jeremy A

    2007-05-15

    Surveillance of physicians' prescribing patterns and the accumulation and sale of these data for pharmaceutical marketing are currently the subjects of legislation in several states and action by state and national medical associations. Contrary to common perception, the growth of the health care information organization industry has not been limited to the past decade but has been building slowly over the past 50 years, beginning in the 1940s when growth in the prescription drug market fueled industry interest in understanding and influencing prescribing patterns. The development of this surveillance system was not simply imposed on the medical profession by the pharmaceutical industry but was developed through the interactions of pharmaceutical salesmen, pharmaceutical marketers, academic researchers, individual physicians, and physician organizations. Examination of the role of physicians and physician organizations in the development of prescriber profiling is directly relevant to the contemporary policy debate surrounding this issue.

  15. Basic Education in the Workplace Exploratory Project. Canadian Manufacturers' Association. Perceptions of Workplace Literacy Skills in Manitoba's Manufacturing Sector. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeag, Janis

    A project assessed perceptions of manufacturing employers regarding the workplace literacy skills of occupational groups in their industry in Manitoba. A mailed survey was sent to 125 members of the Canadian Manufacturers' Association; 41 completed it. The first part of the survey obtained information about the occupations in manufacturing and…

  16. Regulating Information or Allowing Deception? Pharmaceutical Sales Visits in Canada, France, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Roojin; Guénette, Line; Lexchin, Joel; Reynolds, Ellen; Wiktorowicz, Mary; Mintzes, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Diverse legal and regulatory measures are used internationally to control the information provided during pharmaceutical sales visits. Little is known about the comparative effectiveness of these measures however. We analyzed the perceptions of regulators, pharmaceutical industry officials, health professionals, and consumer respondents concerning these approaches in Canada, France, and the United States using an empirical realist interests-based approach. Interviews focused on the aims and effectiveness of regulation, barriers and enablers to regulation and suggestions for improvement. An alignment was found in North America regulator and industry respondents' satisfaction with the status quo and their view that further intervention is unfeasible and unnecessary. Health professionals generally expressed a lack of confidence in the impact of regulations on sales visit information while consumer advocates voiced their disappointment in both regulators and health professionals for their failure to counteract the influence of pharmaceutical marketing. Regulator and industry respondents in France differed from their North American counterparts in their willingness to increase and diversify the scope of regulatory interventions. As the first international comparison of regulatory experiences in this sector, the findings highlight the universal need for more focused and inclusive discussions among groups about how to tailor regulations to achieve public health goals.

  17. Supercritical fluid technology: concepts and pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Praful Balavant; Kumar, G Aravind; Kumar, Averineni Ranjith; Shavi, Gopal Venkatesh; Karthik, Arumugam; Reddy, Meka Sreenivasa; Udupa, Nayanabhirama

    2011-01-01

    In light of environmental apprehension, supercritical fluid technology (SFT) exhibits excellent opportunities to accomplish key objectives in the drug delivery sector. Supercritical fluid extraction using carbon dioxide (CO(2)) has been recognized as a green technology. It is a clean and versatile solvent with gas-like diffusivity and liquid-like density in the supercritical phase, which has provided an excellent alternative to the use of chemical solvents. The present commentary provides an overview of different techniques using supercritical fluids and their future opportunity for the drug delivery industry. Some of the emerging applications of SFT in pharmaceuticals, such as particle design, drug solubilization, inclusion complex, polymer impregnation, polymorphism, drug extraction process, and analysis, are also covered in this review. The data collection methods are based on the recent literature related to drug delivery systems using SFT platforms. SFT has become a much more versatile and environmentally attractive technology that can handle a variety of complicated problems in pharmaceuticals. This cutting-edge technology is growing predominantly to surrogate conventional unit operations in relevance to the pharmaceutical production process. Supercritical fluid technology has recently drawn attention in the field of pharmaceuticals. It is a distinct conception that utilizes the solvent properties of supercritical fluids above their critical temperature and pressure, where they exhibit both liquid-like and gas-like properties, which can enable many pharmaceutical applications. For example, the liquid-like properties provide benefits in extraction processes of organic solvents or impurities, drug solubilization, and polymer plasticization, and the gas-like features facilitate mass transfer processes. It has become a much more versatile and environmentally attractive technology that can handle a variety of complicated problems in pharmaceuticals. This review is

  18. Long shadow of fear in an epidemic: fearonomic effects of Ebola on the private sector in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bali, Sulzhan; Stewart, Kearsley A; Pate, Muhammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    The already significant impact of the Ebola epidemic on Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, was worsened by a fear of contagion that aggravated the health crisis. However, in contrast to other Ebola-affected countries, Nigeria fared significantly better due to its swift containment of the disease. The objective of our study was to describe the impact of Ebola on the Nigerian private sector. This paper introduces and defines the term fearonomic effect as the direct and indirect economic effects of both misinformation as well as fear-induced aversion behaviour, exhibited by individuals, organisations or countries during an outbreak or an epidemic. This study was designed as a cross-sectional mixed-methods study that used semistructured in-depth interviews and a supporting survey to capture the impact of Ebola on the Nigerian private sector after the outbreak. Themes were generated from the interviews on the direct and indirect impact of Ebola on the private sector; the impact of misinformation and fear-based aversion behaviour in the private sector. Our findings reveal that the fearonomic effects of Ebola included health service outages and reduced healthcare usage as a result of misinformation and aversion behaviour by both patients and providers. Although certain sectors (eg, health sector, aviation sector, hospitality sector) in Nigeria were affected more than others, no business was immune to Ebola's fearonomic effects. We describe how sectors expected to prosper during the outbreak (eg, pharmaceuticals), actually suffered due to the changes in consumption patterns and demand shocks. In a high-stressor epidemic-like setting, altered consumption behaviour due to distorted disease perception, misinformation and fear can trigger short-term economic cascades that can disproportionately affect businesses and lead to financial insecurity of the poorest and the most vulnerable in a society.

  19. Long shadow of fear in an epidemic: fearonomic effects of Ebola on the private sector in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Sulzhan; Stewart, Kearsley A

    2016-01-01

    Background The already significant impact of the Ebola epidemic on Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, was worsened by a fear of contagion that aggravated the health crisis. However, in contrast to other Ebola-affected countries, Nigeria fared significantly better due to its swift containment of the disease. The objective of our study was to describe the impact of Ebola on the Nigerian private sector. This paper introduces and defines the term fearonomic effect as the direct and indirect economic effects of both misinformation as well as fear-induced aversion behaviour, exhibited by individuals, organisations or countries during an outbreak or an epidemic. Methods This study was designed as a cross-sectional mixed-methods study that used semistructured in-depth interviews and a supporting survey to capture the impact of Ebola on the Nigerian private sector after the outbreak. Themes were generated from the interviews on the direct and indirect impact of Ebola on the private sector; the impact of misinformation and fear-based aversion behaviour in the private sector. Results Our findings reveal that the fearonomic effects of Ebola included health service outages and reduced healthcare usage as a result of misinformation and aversion behaviour by both patients and providers. Although certain sectors (eg, health sector, aviation sector, hospitality sector) in Nigeria were affected more than others, no business was immune to Ebola's fearonomic effects. We describe how sectors expected to prosper during the outbreak (eg, pharmaceuticals), actually suffered due to the changes in consumption patterns and demand shocks. Conclusion In a high-stressor epidemic-like setting, altered consumption behaviour due to distorted disease perception, misinformation and fear can trigger short-term economic cascades that can disproportionately affect businesses and lead to financial insecurity of the poorest and the most vulnerable in a society. PMID:28588965

  20. Nurse perceptions of organizational culture and its association with the culture of error reporting: a case of public sector hospitals in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jafree, Sara Rizvi; Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Fischer, Florian

    2016-01-05

    There is an absence of formal error tracking systems in public sector hospitals of Pakistan and also a lack of literature concerning error reporting culture in the health care sector. Nurse practitioners have front-line knowledge and rich exposure about both the organizational culture and error sharing in hospital settings. The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between organizational culture and the culture of error reporting, as perceived by nurses. The authors used the "Practice Environment Scale-Nurse Work Index Revised" to measure the six dimensions of organizational culture. Seven questions were used from the "Survey to Solicit Information about the Culture of Reporting" to measure error reporting culture in the region. Overall, 309 nurses participated in the survey, including female nurses from all designations such as supervisors, instructors, ward-heads, staff nurses and student nurses. We used SPSS 17.0 to perform a factor analysis. Furthermore, descriptive statistics, mean scores and multivariable logistic regression were used for the analysis. Three areas were ranked unfavorably by nurse respondents, including: (i) the error reporting culture, (ii) staffing and resource adequacy, and (iii) nurse foundations for quality of care. Multivariable regression results revealed that all six categories of organizational culture, including: (1) nurse manager ability, leadership and support, (2) nurse participation in hospital affairs, (3) nurse participation in governance, (4) nurse foundations of quality care, (5) nurse-coworkers relations, and (6) nurse staffing and resource adequacy, were positively associated with higher odds of error reporting culture. In addition, it was found that married nurses and nurses on permanent contract were more likely to report errors at the workplace. Public healthcare services of Pakistan can be improved through the promotion of an error reporting culture, reducing staffing and resource shortages and the

  1. Do cost-sharing and entry deregulation curb pharmaceutical innovation?

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Volker

    2013-09-01

    This paper examines the role of both cost-sharing schemes in health insurance systems and the regulation of entry into the pharmaceutical sector for pharmaceutical R&D expenditure and drug prices. The analysis suggests that both an increase in the coinsurance rate and stricter price regulations adversely affect R&D spending in the pharmaceutical sector. In contrast, entry deregulation may lead to higher R&D spending of pharmaceutical companies. The relationship between R&D spending per firm and the number of firms may be hump-shaped. In this case, the number of rivals which maximizes R&D expenditure per firm is decreasing in the coinsurance rate and increasing in labor productivity.

  2. Obstacles and opportunities in Chinese pharmaceutical innovation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jingyun; Zhao, Junrui; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Hu, Yuanjia; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yitao

    2017-03-24

    Global healthcare innovation networks nowadays have expanded beyond developed countries with many developing countries joining the force and becoming important players. China, in particular, has seen a significant increase in the number of innovative firms and research organizations stepping up to the global network in recent years. Nevertheless, the intense Research and Development input has not brought about the expectable output. While China is ascending at a great speed to a leading position worldwide in terms of Research and Development investment, scientific publications and patents, the innovation capabilities in the pharmaceutical sector remain weak. This study discusses the challenges and opportunities for pharmaceutical innovation in China. One hand, academic, industrial, institutional and financial constraints were found to be the major and inevitable barriers hindering the development of drug innovation. On the other hand, unique advantages had been observed which included growing pharmaceutical market, Research and Development funding, distinctive source, and international cooperation. The most important thing for China's pharmaceutical sector to leap forward is to break though innovation barriers and integrate own advantages into global value-chain of healthcare product development.

  3. Medical students' perception of the progress test as a quality-controlled assessment tool for improving learning and teaching, at a public sector medical college in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Kamran; Ahmad, Tauseef; Khalil, Mahmoud Salah; Soliman, Mona Mohamed; Punnamperuma, Gominda Giatry; Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Progress test's distinguishing characteristics make it pertinent worldwide. We explored medical students' perceptions and opinions about Progress Test (PT) with a view to identifying areas concomitant with it's execution. This cross-sectional study took place at College of Medicine, Saudi Arabia, during the academic year 2015-16. A questionnaire (14 items) was administered. Reason for majority n=96 (89.7%) of the total participants to take the PT was their keenness to compare their academic standing with their peers from other participating medical colleges. The majority of students were highly satisfied with PT implementation; i.e. its orientation (58.9%) and allocated time (90.7%). Students (76.6%) considered PT to offer academic support as future physicians. Students (75.7%) also agreed to participate in the future PT. Students being highly satisfied with the organization of PT. They found it to be a tool helping them to focus on improving the knowledge domain.

  4. [The pharmaceutical market in Mexico: size, value, and concentration].

    PubMed

    Torres Guerra, Sandra; Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo

    2009-07-01

    To describe the pharmaceutical drug market in Mexico in terms of its size, structure, business' market power, and consumer negotiating power. A descriptive study based on data from the 2004 Economics Census and the reports of IMS Health, Inc. (Norwalk, Connecticut, United States of America). Sales amounts and volumes of Mexico's pharmaceutical companies from 2002-2005 were obtained and the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) and its inverse were calculated as indicators of the market's degree of concentration; also, price elasticity was determined by a product index. The total value of the products manufactured by the pharmaceutical sector was 115 billion in 2006 Mexican pesos, of which 99% pertained to companies categorized as large. This amount constituted 1.2% of the national gross domestic product that year (20.0% of the health sector's portion, estimated to be 6.0%) and 3.9% of the total value of manufactured goods. The HHI of Mexico's pharmaceutical market during the study period was about 0.04, albeit with a steady decline, and its inverse decreased from 23 to 26. The price elasticity of pharmaceutical products was minimal (0.007, 0.003, and -0.002). This study constitutes a preliminary description of Mexico's pharmaceutical market, one of the country's most dynamic economic sectors. It confirmed that the market is a rigid oligopoly, and thus supports enactment of firmer regulatory tools to reduce the power of the manufacturers in favor of that of the consumers.

  5. Pharmaceutical cocrystals: an overview.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Ning; Li, Mingzhong; Schlindwein, Walkiria; Malek, Nazneen; Davies, Angela; Trappitt, Gary

    2011-10-31

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals are emerging as a new class of solid drugs with improved physicochemical properties, which has attracted increased interests from both industrial and academic researchers. In this paper a brief and systematic overview of pharmaceutical cocrystals is provided, with particular focus on cocrystal design strategies, formation methods, physicochemical property studies, characterisation techniques, and recent theoretical developments in cocrystal screening and mechanisms of cocrystal formations. Examples of pharmaceutical cocrystals are also summarised in this paper.

  6. Does brand differentiate pharmaceuticals?

    PubMed

    Bednarik, Josef

    2005-12-01

    Role of marketing in pharmaceutical industry is increasing and inspiration by successful brands known from consumer goods market influenced pharmaceutical companies enough to switch their attention to branding initiatives. Still there is little evidence that pharmaceutical brands represent anything more than product only. This study aims to explore the area of branding in pharmaceutical industry. Central hypothesis of the research has been that brand and its emotional content differentiate pharmaceuticals as well as rational data derived from clinical studies. It has been tested by extensive review of available literature as well as by primary research focused on drivers of physicians' attitudes towards products and their influence on prescribing behavior. The research has been conducted in the sample of psychiatrists in the Czech Republic. No evidence about pharmaceutical brand exceeding value of product has been found in reviewed literature. Nevertheless, the primary research conducted in the sample of Czech psychiatrists indicates that emotional brand in pharmaceutical industry exists and enables author to draw a model of Customer/product life cycle that describes likely impact of functional, emotional and self-expressive benefits throughout pharmaceutical product's market presence. Pharmaceutical brand is likely to develop differently than the same of consumer goods products--it seems to be built predominantly on long-term positive experience. Marketing role in this process should lie in finding relevant product position and building brand identity compliant with real product capabilities.

  7. Biological and Pharmaceutical Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This first comprehensive yet concise overview of all important classes of biological and pharmaceutical nanomaterials presents in one volume the different kinds of natural biological compounds that form nanomaterials or that may be used to purposefully create them. This unique single source of information brings together the many articles published in specialized journals, which often remain unseen by members of other, related disciplines. Covering pharmaceutical, nucleic acid, peptide and DNA-Chitosan nanoparticles, the book focuses on those innovative materials and technologies needed for the continued growth of medicine, healthcare, pharmaceuticals and human wellness. For chemists, biochemists, cell biologists, materials scientists, biologists, and those working in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  8. Globalization of the pharmaceutical industry and the growing dependency of developing countries: the case of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Semin, Semih; Güldal, Dilek

    2008-01-01

    In developing countries, the effect of globalization on the pharmaceutical sector has resulted in a decrease in exportation and domestic production, accompanied by an increase in importation of pharmaceuticals and a rise in prices and expenditures. As an example of a developing country, Turkey has been facing the long-standing and increasing pressure of global regulations placed on its pharmaceutical sector. This has led to an increasing dependency on multinational companies and a gradual deterioration of an already weakened domestic pharmaceutical sector. This case study of Turkey offers points to consider in the world of increasing globalization, as it offers lessons on ways of examining the effects of globalization on the pharmaceutical industry of developing countries.

  9. Pharmaceutical Education in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyegbile, F. Rachel

    1988-01-01

    Nigeria has six pharmacy schools, most offering graduate programs. The undergraduate program is being expanded from four to five years. Although behavioral and clinical sciences are offered, emphasis is on the pharmaceutical sciences. Overall, pharmaceutical education is oriented toward hospice practice. (Author/MSE)

  10. Pharmaceutical research and development.

    PubMed

    McKercher, P L

    1992-01-01

    Some aspects of pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) are reviewed. The viability of major pharmaceutical manufacturers depends on their research and thus they commit substantial resources to R&D programs. Major pharmaceutical manufacturers in the United States employ about 40,000 R&D personnel, and worldwide pharmaceutical R&D expenditures reached $24 billion in 1990. The pharmaceutical industry is one of the most profitable; however, increasing prices of their products are often associated with increasing R&D costs, ignoring the many positive attributes of R&D. The Council on Competitiveness has recently proposed reforms in the approval process for new drugs, including accelerated approval, external review, and international cooperation. These reforms would help to preserve an R&D capability and a relatively unregulated pharmaceutical industry. Pharmaceutical R&D has made many important contributions, including increased life expectancy, the internationally competitive position of the US industry, and a positive balance of trade. However, a misunderstanding of the role of R&D could encourage development of policies and legislation detrimental to pharmaceutical R&D.

  11. Pharmaceutical Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furmanowa, Miroslawa; Borke, Mitchell L.

    1978-01-01

    The content and organization of Poland's system of pharmaceutical education is described. Tables are presented of the subjects of the basic studies curriculum and the following areas of specialization: applied pharmacy, pharmaceutical analysis, clinical analysis, drug technology, herbal pharmacy, and bioanalysis and environmental studies. (SW)

  12. Radiation treatment of pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dám, A. M.; Gazsó, L. G.; Kaewpila, S.; Maschek, I.

    1996-03-01

    Product specific doses were calculated for pharmaceuticals to be radiation treated. Radio-pasteurization dose were determined for some heat sensitive pharmaceutical basic materials (pancreaton, neopancreatin, neopancreatin USP, duodenum extract). Using the new recommendation (ISO standards, Method 1) dose calculations were performed and radiation sterilization doses were determined for aprotinine and heparine Na.

  13. Pharmaceutical Education in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyegbile, F. Rachel

    1988-01-01

    Nigeria has six pharmacy schools, most offering graduate programs. The undergraduate program is being expanded from four to five years. Although behavioral and clinical sciences are offered, emphasis is on the pharmaceutical sciences. Overall, pharmaceutical education is oriented toward hospice practice. (Author/MSE)

  14. Global risk of pharmaceutical contamination from highly populated developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Muhammad Saif Ur; Rashid, Naim; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Saif, Ameena; Ahmad, Nasir; Han, Jong-In

    2015-11-01

    Global pharmaceutical industry has relocated from the west to Asian countries to ensure competitive advantage. This industrial relocation has posed serious threats to the environment. The present study was carried out to assess the possible pharmaceutical contamination in the environment of emerging pharmaceutical manufacturing countries (Bangladesh, China, India and Pakistan). Although these countries have made tremendous progress in the pharmaceutical sector but most of their industrial units discharge wastewater into domestic sewage network without any treatment. The application of untreated wastewater (industrial and domestic) and biosolids (sewage sludge and manure) in agriculture causes the contamination of surface water, soil, groundwater, and the entire food web with pharmaceutical compounds (PCs), their metabolites and transformed products (TPs), and multidrug resistant microbes. This pharmaceutical contamination in Asian countries poses global risks via product export and international traveling. Several prospective research hypotheses including the development of new analytical methods to monitor these PCs/TPs and their metabolites, highly resistant microbial strains, and mixture toxicity as a consequence of pharmaceutical contamination in these emerging pharmaceutical exporters have also been proposed based on the available literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pharmaceutical policy in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiang; Santoro, Michael A; Meng, Qingyue; Liu, Caitlin; Eggleston, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Contradictory goals plague China's pharmaceutical policy. The government wants to develop the domestic pharmaceutical industry and has used drug pricing to cross-subsidize public hospitals. Yet the government also aims to control drug spending through price caps and profit-margin regulations to guarantee access even for poor patients. The resulting system has distorted market incentives, increased consumers' costs, and financially rewarded inappropriate prescribing, thus undermining public health. Pharmaceuticals account for about half of total health spending in China, representing 43 percent of spending per inpatient episode and 51 percent of spending per outpatient visit. Yet some essential medicines are unavailable or of questionable quality.

  16. Inkjet printing for pharmaceutics - A review of research and manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ronan; Harrington, Tomás S; Martin, Graham D; Hutchings, Ian M

    2015-10-30

    Global regulatory, manufacturing and consumer trends are driving a need for change in current pharmaceutical sector business models, with a specific focus on the inherently expensive research costs, high-risk capital-intensive scale-up and the traditional centralised batch manufacturing paradigm. New technologies, such as inkjet printing, are being explored to radically transform pharmaceutical production processing and the end-to-end supply chain. This review provides a brief summary of inkjet printing technologies and their current applications in manufacturing before examining the business context driving the exploration of inkjet printing in the pharmaceutical sector. We then examine the trends reported in the literature for pharmaceutical printing, followed by the scientific considerations and challenges facing the adoption of this technology. We demonstrate that research activities are highly diverse, targeting a broad range of pharmaceutical types and printing systems. To mitigate this complexity we show that by categorising findings in terms of targeted business models and Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) chemistry we have a more coherent approach to comparing research findings and can drive efficient translation of a chosen drug to inkjet manufacturing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Amorphous pharmaceutical solids.

    PubMed

    Vranić, Edina

    2004-07-01

    Amorphous forms are, by definition, non-crystalline materials which possess no long-range order. Their structure can be thought of as being similar to that of a frozen liquid with the thermal fluctuations present in a liquid frozen out, leaving only "static" structural disorder. The amorphous solids have always been an essential part of pharmaceutical research, but the current interest has been raised by two developments: a growing attention to pharmaceutical solids in general, especially polymorphs and solvates and a revived interest in the science of glasses and the glass transition. Amorphous substances may be formed both intentionally and unintentionally during normal pharmaceutical manufacturing operations. The properties of amorphous materials can be exploited to improve the performance of pharmaceutical dosage forms, but these properties can also give rise to unwanted effects that need to be understood and managed in order for the systems to perform as required.

  18. Regulatory Information By Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory, compliance, & enforcement information for various business, industry and government sectors, listed by NAICS code. Sectors include agriculture, automotive, petroleum manufacturing, oil & gas extraction & other manufacturing

  19. Ecotoxicology of human pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Fent, Karl; Weston, Anna A; Caminada, Daniel

    2006-02-10

    Low levels of human medicines (pharmaceuticals) have been detected in many countries in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents, surface waters, seawaters, groundwater and some drinking waters. For some pharmaceuticals effects on aquatic organisms have been investigated in acute toxicity assays. The chronic toxicity and potential subtle effects are only marginally known, however. Here, we critically review the current knowledge about human pharmaceuticals in the environment and address several key questions. What kind of pharmaceuticals and what concentrations occur in the aquatic environment? What is the fate in surface water and in STP? What are the modes of action of these compounds in humans and are there similar targets in lower animals? What acute and chronic ecotoxicological effects may be elicited by pharmaceuticals and by mixtures? What are the effect concentrations and how do they relate to environmental levels? Our review shows that only very little is known about long-term effects of pharmaceuticals to aquatic organisms, in particular with respect to biological targets. For most human medicines analyzed, acute effects to aquatic organisms are unlikely, except for spills. For investigated pharmaceuticals chronic lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC) in standard laboratory organisms are about two orders of magnitude higher than maximal concentrations in STP effluents. For diclofenac, the LOEC for fish toxicity was in the range of wastewater concentrations, whereas the LOEC of propranolol and fluoxetine for zooplankton and benthic organisms were near to maximal measured STP effluent concentrations. In surface water, concentrations are lower and so are the environmental risks. However, targeted ecotoxicological studies are lacking almost entirely and such investigations are needed focusing on subtle environmental effects. This will allow better and comprehensive risk assessments of pharmaceuticals in the future.

  20. Quality Control of Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Leo; Walker, George C.; Pugsley, L. I.

    1964-01-01

    Quality control is an essential operation of the pharmaceutical industry. Drugs must be marketed as safe and therapeutically active formulations whose performance is consistent and predictable. New and better medicinal agents are being produced at an accelerated rate. At the same time more exacting and sophisticated analytical methods are being developed for their evaluation. Requirements governing the quality control of pharmaceuticals in accordance with the Canadian Food and Drugs Act are cited and discussed. PMID:14199105

  1. Pharmaceutical care education in Kuwait: pharmacy students’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Katoue, Maram G.; Awad, Abdelmoneim I.; Schwinghammer, Terry L.; Kombian, Samuel B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical care is defined as the responsible provision of medication therapy to achieve definite outcomes that improve patients’ quality of life. Pharmacy education should equip students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to practise pharmaceutical care competently. Objective To investigate pharmacy students’ attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to perform pharmaceutical care competencies, opinions about the importance of the various pharmaceutical care activities, and the barriers to its implementation in Kuwait. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of pharmacy students (n=126) was conducted at Faculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait University. Data were collected via a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics including percentages, medians and means Likert scale rating (SD) were calculated and compared using SPSS, version 19. Statistical significance was accepted at a p value of 0.05 or lower. Results The response rate was 99.2%. Pharmacy students expressed overall positive attitudes towards pharmaceutical care. They felt prepared to implement the various aspects of pharmaceutical care, with the least preparedness in the administrative/management aspects. Perceived pharmaceutical care competencies grew as students progressed through the curriculum. The students also appreciated the importance of the various pharmaceutical care competencies. They agreed/strongly agreed that the major barriers to the integration of pharmaceutical care into practice were lack of private counseling areas or inappropriate pharmacy layout (95.2%), lack of pharmacist time (83.3%), organizational obstacles (82.6%), and pharmacists’ physical separation from patient care areas (82.6%). Conclusion Pharmacy students’ attitudes and perceived preparedness can serve as needs assessment tools to guide curricular change and improvement. Student pharmacists at Kuwait University understand and

  2. Impacts of international sanctions on Iranian pharmaceutical market.

    PubMed

    Cheraghali, Abdol Majid

    2013-07-31

    Iran in recent decade faced several regional and international sanctions in foreign trade, financial and banking services. Iran national pharmaceutical industry has always played a major role in providing medicines to the Iranian patients. However, following the sanctions it has faced profound difficulties for importing of both finished products and pharmaceutical raw materials. Although medicines are exempted from sanctions, due to restriction on money transaction and proper insurance Iranian pharmaceutical companies have to pay cash in advance for imports of medicines and raw materials or to secure offshore funds at very high risks. Current situation in Iran pharmaceutical market confirms that the sanctions against Iran are affecting ordinary citizens and national health sector which resulted to reduction of availability of lifesaving medicines in the local market and has caused increasing pain and suffering for Iranian patients.

  3. Impacts of international sanctions on Iranian pharmaceutical market

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Iran in recent decade faced several regional and international sanctions in foreign trade, financial and banking services. Iran national pharmaceutical industry has always played a major role in providing medicines to the Iranian patients. However, following the sanctions it has faced profound difficulties for importing of both finished products and pharmaceutical raw materials. Although medicines are exempted from sanctions, due to restriction on money transaction and proper insurance Iranian pharmaceutical companies have to pay cash in advance for imports of medicines and raw materials or to secure offshore funds at very high risks. Current situation in Iran pharmaceutical market confirms that the sanctions against Iran are affecting ordinary citizens and national health sector which resulted to reduction of availability of lifesaving medicines in the local market and has caused increasing pain and suffering for Iranian patients. PMID:23902642

  4. Pharmaceutical innovation: impact on expenditure and outcomes and subsequent challenges for pharmaceutical policy, with a special reference to Greece.

    PubMed

    Karampli, E; Souliotis, K; Polyzos, N; Kyriopoulos, J; Chatzaki, E

    2014-04-01

    Over the recent decades, advances in healthcare technology have led to significant improvements in the quality of healthcare and in population health. At the same time, technological change in healthcare, rising national income and expansion of insurance coverage have been acknowledged as the main determinants of the historical growth in health spending in industrialized countries. The pharmaceutical sector is of particular interest as it constitutes a market characterized by rapid technological change and high expenditure growth rates. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of research findings on the impact of pharmaceutical innovation on pharmaceutical expenditure growth, total health expenditure and population health outcomes and to bring forward the challenges that arise for pharmaceutical policy in Greece.

  5. Pharmaceutical innovation: impact on expenditure and outcomes and subsequent challenges for pharmaceutical policy, with a special reference to Greece

    PubMed Central

    Karampli, E; Souliotis, K; Polyzos, N; Kyriopoulos, J; Chatzaki, E

    2014-01-01

    Over the recent decades, advances in healthcare technology have led to significant improvements in the quality of healthcare and in population health. At the same time, technological change in healthcare, rising national income and expansion of insurance coverage have been acknowledged as the main determinants of the historical growth in health spending in industrialized countries. The pharmaceutical sector is of particular interest as it constitutes a market characterized by rapid technological change and high expenditure growth rates. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of research findings on the impact of pharmaceutical innovation on pharmaceutical expenditure growth, total health expenditure and population health outcomes and to bring forward the challenges that arise for pharmaceutical policy in Greece. PMID:25336869

  6. Paradigms in Pharmaceutical Education: Views of a Paradigm Shifter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadda, Amy Marie

    1992-01-01

    The pharmacist as a provider of "pharmaceutical care" is examined both as a notion and as a new example for training practitioners. It is concluded that the example will require more from the pharmacist of the future and a reordering of perceptions about the nature of the pharmacy profession. (MSE)

  7. [Fourcroy and pharmaceutical journals].

    PubMed

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2011-04-01

    Cadet de Gassicourt wrote a brief Eloge of Fourcroy in January 1810 as he died in December of 1809. Fourcroy had a major role concerning the new ideas on the place of pharmacy at the beginning of the 19th century. Fourcroy has had a key influence for the start of several pharmaceutical journals that wanted to emphasize the link between the new chemistry and pharmacy. None of these journals created with him will survive and one has to wait for 1909 to see the creation, without Fourcroy, of a new pharmaceutical journal, the "Journal de Pharmacie" that will become "Journal de Pharmacie et des Sciences accessoires", then "Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie", before taking the name of"Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises", the present official journal of the French Academy of Pharmacy. In spite of the essential role of Fourcroy at the start of pharmaceutical journals, Cadet did not even mention it in his Eloge of 1810.

  8. PHARMACEUTICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: OVERVIEW ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) comprise large, diverse arrays of chemicals that can occur in the environment as unregulated pollutants. They originate largely from the combined activities and actions of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary and agricultural use; the wide spectrum of sources and origins of PPCPs. Concerted research that began in Europe about two decades ago, and in the U.S. in the late 1990s, has been rapidly expanding in the last few years, as reflected by an escalation in publications. Investigations that were originally limited to studying the sources, origins, and occurrence of PPCPs (mainly in waters) were led primarily by analytical chemists. The scope of this research has expanded, now accommodating more dimensions of the risk assessment paradigm. The scope has widened to encompass not just occurrence over a wider spectrum of environmental matrices but also to address the complexities involved with assessing the range of unanticipated and subtle effects that might occur from chronic, low-dose exposure of non-target organisms (Daughton 2003a; Daughton and Ternes 1999). Risk management options designed around the principles of pollution prevention and environmental stewardship are also under discussion in the many sectors of the healthcare community and by various state and local legislatures The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet

  9. Pharmaceutical Education in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charupatanapong, Nawarut; Rascati, Karen L.

    1991-01-01

    The pharmaceutical education system in Thailand is described and compared to that of Great Britain. The program in Thailand is a five-year curriculum with a two-year prepharmacy natural sciences program. Students start internships after the fourth year. Neither country emphasizes undergraduate preclinical experience nor requires licensing…

  10. Reflections on Pharmaceutical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    A discussion of the implications of adopting a new example for pharmaceutical education focuses on the need to develop a new pharmacy college culture and on the faculty's role in addressing stated educational goals. Anticipated changes in staffing and faculty development and difficulties in reorganizing curricula are examined. (MSE)

  11. Free trade in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Outterson, M Kevin

    2004-09-06

    Provisions in the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) may threaten the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), the "gold standard" of such programs worldwide. If Australia postpones passing of the US Free Trade Agreement Implementation Bill in the Senate, there will be opportunity for broader interests in both the United States and Australia to carefully study the agreement. The provisions of AUSFTA relating to the PBS are supposed to promote transparency, but the pharmaceutical manufacturers themselves (who are demanding transparency) do not reveal the content of their submissions to the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee, or disclose all their financial relationships with researchers and policymakers. In AUSFTA, the "public health" language of affordable prescription drugs is missing and is replaced by language supporting "pharmaceutical innovation". Debate as to whether AUSFTA will force significant changes to the PBS, including higher drug prices, is currently under way in Australia. Perhaps the appropriate target of reforms should be the excessive US drug prices, and not the economically efficient Australian drug prices.

  12. 76 FR 41266 - Critical Path Manufacturing Sector Research Initiative (U01)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Critical Path Manufacturing Sector Research Initiative (U01... Critical Path Manufacturing Sector Initiative has focused attention on the continuing need for this kind of research in a way that can improve reliability of pharmaceutical product manufacturing and quality...

  13. PHARMACEUTICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: OVERVIEW ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation briefly summarizes some of what is known and not known about the occurrence of drugs in the environment, the potential for chronic effects on wildlife (and some instances of acute effects), the relevance of drug residues in drinking water to consumer risk perception, and actions that can be taken to reduce environmental exposure. Efforts are underway at U.S. federal agencies such as the USGS, FDA, USDA, NOAA, NIEHS, and the CDC, as well as the EPA. This work is beginning to be coordinated under an Interagency Task Force (PiE: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment), which was chartered under a subcommittee of OSTP's (National Science and Technology Council) Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (http://www.ostp.gov/NSTC/html/committee/cenr.html). The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analy

  14. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation briefly summarizes some of what is known and not known about the occurrence of drugs in the environment, the potential for chronic effects on wildlife (and some instances of acute effects), the relevance of drug residues in drinking water to consumer risk perception, and actions that can be taken to reduce environmental exposure. Efforts are underway at U.S. federal agencies such as the USGS, FDA, USDA, NOAA, NIEHS, and the CDC, as well as the EPA. This work is beginning to be coordinated under an Interagency Task Group (PiE: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment), which was chartered under a subcommittee of OSTP's (National Science and Technology Council) Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (http://www.ostp.gov/NSTC/html/committee/cenr. html). The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of an

  15. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation briefly summarizes some of what is known and not known about the occurrence of drugs in the environment, the potential for chronic effects on wildlife (and some instances of acute effects), the relevance of drug residues in drinking water to consumer risk perception, and actions that can be taken to reduce environmental exposure. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs.

  16. PHARMACEUTICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: OVERVIEW ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation briefly summarizes some of what is known and not known about the occurrence of drugs in the environment, the potential for chronic effects on wildlife (and some instances of acute effects), the relevance of drug residues in drinking water to consumer risk perception, and actions that can be taken to reduce environmental exposure. Efforts are underway at U.S. federal agencies such as the USGS, FDA, USDA, NOAA, NIEHS, and the CDC, as well as the EPA. This work is beginning to be coordinated under an Interagency Task Force (PiE: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment), which was chartered under a subcommittee of OSTP's (National Science and Technology Council) Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (http://www.ostp.gov/NSTC/html/committee/cenr.html). The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of ana

  17. PHARMACEUTICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation briefly summarizes some of what is known, and not known about the occurrence of drugs in the environment, the potential for effects on wildlife, the relevance of drug residues in drinking water to consumer risk perception, and actions that can be taken to reduce environmental exposure. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited t

  18. Pharmaceutical industry and trade liberalization using computable general equilibrium model.

    PubMed

    Barouni, M; Ghaderi, H; Banouei, Aa

    2012-01-01

    Computable general equilibrium models are known as a powerful instrument in economic analyses and widely have been used in order to evaluate trade liberalization effects. The purpose of this study was to provide the impacts of trade openness on pharmaceutical industry using CGE model. Using a computable general equilibrium model in this study, the effects of decrease in tariffs as a symbol of trade liberalization on key variables of Iranian pharmaceutical products were studied. Simulation was performed via two scenarios in this study. The first scenario was the effect of decrease in tariffs of pharmaceutical products as 10, 30, 50, and 100 on key drug variables, and the second was the effect of decrease in other sectors except pharmaceutical products on vital and economic variables of pharmaceutical products. The required data were obtained and the model parameters were calibrated according to the social accounting matrix of Iran in 2006. The results associated with simulation demonstrated that the first scenario has increased import, export, drug supply to markets and household consumption, while import, export, supply of product to market, and household consumption of pharmaceutical products would averagely decrease in the second scenario. Ultimately, society welfare would improve in all scenarios. We presents and synthesizes the CGE model which could be used to analyze trade liberalization policy issue in developing countries (like Iran), and thus provides information that policymakers can use to improve the pharmacy economics.

  19. Pharmaceutical Industry and Trade Liberalization Using Computable General Equilibrium Model

    PubMed Central

    Barouni, M; Ghaderi, H; Banouei, AA

    2012-01-01

    Background Computable general equilibrium models are known as a powerful instrument in economic analyses and widely have been used in order to evaluate trade liberalization effects. The purpose of this study was to provide the impacts of trade openness on pharmaceutical industry using CGE model. Methods: Using a computable general equilibrium model in this study, the effects of decrease in tariffs as a symbol of trade liberalization on key variables of Iranian pharmaceutical products were studied. Simulation was performed via two scenarios in this study. The first scenario was the effect of decrease in tariffs of pharmaceutical products as 10, 30, 50, and 100 on key drug variables, and the second was the effect of decrease in other sectors except pharmaceutical products on vital and economic variables of pharmaceutical products. The required data were obtained and the model parameters were calibrated according to the social accounting matrix of Iran in 2006. Results: The results associated with simulation demonstrated that the first scenario has increased import, export, drug supply to markets and household consumption, while import, export, supply of product to market, and household consumption of pharmaceutical products would averagely decrease in the second scenario. Ultimately, society welfare would improve in all scenarios. Conclusion: We presents and synthesizes the CGE model which could be used to analyze trade liberalization policy issue in developing countries (like Iran), and thus provides information that policymakers can use to improve the pharmacy economics. PMID:23641393

  20. Pharmaceutical companies as a source of health information: a pilot study of the effects of source, web site interactivity, and involvement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojin

    2011-01-01

    While pharmaceutical companies provide abundant health and medical information on their Web sites, little is known about consumers' perceptions of pharmaceutical companies as a health information source and the impact of pharmaceutical Web sites on health-related attitudes and behaviors. Findings from this study suggest that a pharmaceutical company can be perceived to be just as credible as a government health agency, and that Web site interactivity and consumer involvement with online health information affect the persuasive effects of the pharmaceutical company's message. Implications for future research and for the role of pharmaceutical companies in health communication are discussed.

  1. Global pharmaceutical regulation: the challenge of integration for developing states.

    PubMed

    Pezzola, Anthony; Sweet, Cassandra M

    2016-12-20

    This paper has set out to map the state of pharmaceutical regulation in the developing world through the construction of cross-national indices drawing from World Health Organization data. The last two decades have been characterized by deep changes for the pharmaceutical sector, including the complete transformation of intellectual property systems at the behest of the World Trade Organization and the consolidation of global active ingredient suppliers in China and India. Although the rules for ownership of medicine have been set and globally implemented, we know surprisingly little about how the standards for market entrance and regulation of pharmaceutical products have changed at the national level. How standardized are national pharmaceutical market systems? Do we find homogeneity or variation across the developing world? Are their patterns for understanding why some countries have moved closer to one global norm for pharmaceutical regulation and others have developed hybrid models for oversight of this sector? Access to medicine is a core tool in public health. This paper gauges the levels of standards in public and private generics markets for developing countries building on national-level pharmaceutical market surveys for 78 countries to offer three indicators of market oversight: State Regulatory Infrastructure, Monitoring the Private Market and Public Quality Control. Identifying the different variables that affect a state's institutional capacity and current standard level offers new insights to the state of pharmaceuticals in the developing world. It is notable that there are very few (none at the time of this paper) studies that map out the new global terrain for pharmaceutical regulation in the post-TRIPS context. This paper uses item response theory to develop original indicators of pharmaceutical regulation. We find remarkable resistance to the implementation of global pharmaceutical norms for quality standards in developing states and in

  2. EU pharmaceutical expenditure forecast

    PubMed Central

    Urbinati, Duccio; Rémuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, forecasting has become critically important. Some countries have, for instance, developed pharmaceutical horizon scanning units. The objective of this project was to build a model to assess the net effect of the entrance of new patented medicinal products versus medicinal products going off-patent, with a defined forecast horizon, on selected European Union (EU) Member States’ pharmaceutical budgets. This model took into account population ageing, as well as current and future country-specific pricing, reimbursement, and market access policies (the project was performed for the European Commission; see http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). Method In order to have a representative heterogeneity of EU Member States, the following countries were selected for the analysis: France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. A forecasting period of 5 years (2012–2016) was chosen to assess the net pharmaceutical budget impact. A model for generics and biosimilars was developed for each country. The model estimated a separate and combined effect of the direct and indirect impacts of the patent cliff. A second model, estimating the sales development and the risk of development failure, was developed for new drugs. New drugs were reviewed individually to assess their clinical potential and translate it into commercial potential. The forecast was carried out according to three perspectives (healthcare public payer, society, and manufacturer), and several types of distribution chains (retail, hospital, and combined retail and hospital). Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were carried out. Results According to the model, all countries experienced drug budget reductions except Poland (+€41 million). Savings were expected to be the highest in the United Kingdom (−€9,367 million), France

  3. Tackling corruption in the pharmaceutical systems worldwide with courage and conviction.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J C; Mrazek, M; Hawkins, L

    2007-03-01

    Poor drug access continues to be one of the main global health problems. Global inequalities in access to pharmaceuticals are caused by a number of variables including poverty, high drug prices, poor health infrastructure, and fraud and corruption--the latter being the subject of this article. There is growing recognition among policy makers that corruption in the pharmaceutical system can waste valuable resources allocated to pharmaceutical products and services. This, in turn, denies those most in need from life-saving or life-enhancing medicines. As a result, international organizations, including the World Health Organization and the World Bank are beginning to address the issue of corruption in the health sector broadly and the pharmaceutical system specifically. This is encouraging news for improving drug access for the global poor who are most harmed by corruption as they tend to purchase less expensive drugs from unqualified or illegal drug sellers selling counterfeit or sub-standard drugs. In our paper, we illuminate what are the core issues that relate to corruption in the pharmaceutical sector. We argue that corruption in the pharmaceutical system can be detrimental to a country's ability to improve the health of its population. Moreover, unless policy makers deal with the issue of corruption, funding allocated to the pharmaceutical system to treat health conditions may simply be wasted and the inequality between rich and poor in access to health and pharmaceutical products will be aggravated.

  4. Pharmaceutical and industrial protein engineering: where we are?

    PubMed

    Amara, Amro Abd-Al-Fattah

    2013-01-01

    The huge amount of information, the big number of scientists and their efforts, labs, man/hrs, fund, companies all and others factors build the success of the amazing new branch of genetic engineering the 'protein engineering' (PE). It concerns with the modification of protein structure/function(s) or building protein from scratch. The engineered proteins usually have new criteria(s). Engineering proteins can be mediated on the level of genes or proteins. PE fined its way in different important sectors including industrial, pharmaceutical and medicinal ones. Aspects about PE and its applications will be discussed with this review. The concept, tools, and the industrial applications of the protein, engineered proteins and PE will be under focus. In order to get up to date knowledge about the applications of PE in basic protein and molecular biology, several examples are discussed. PE can play a significant role in different industrial and pharmaceutical sectors if used wisely and selectively.

  5. Gray marketing of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, P E; Walsh, M G

    1995-01-01

    Pharmaceutical marketers in the European Union are constrained by regulated prices, opening up opportunities for gray marketers. The authors investigate the legal framework that regulates gray markets by summarizing and analyzing relevant European Court of Justice decisions that favor gray marketers and actually foster parallel trade. Before marketing managers can develop effective strategies in this marketplace, they must first understand the precedents of the legal system in which they will be operating.

  6. Wastage of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Hart, R J; Marshall, F S

    1976-12-04

    Wastage of pharmaceuticals was studied for three months at a 520-bed hospital in Suffolk. Drugs worth 1104 pounds were brought to the pharmacy for destruction. Only 40 pounds worth could be put back into stock. It is suggested that the use of blister-packing together with conservative prescribing, supply, and suitable storage of medicines could lead to important savings of drugs discarded each year in English hospitals, which from this study were estimated to cost in excess of 1 million pounds.

  7. Exposing nursing students to the marketing methods of pharmaceutical companies.

    PubMed

    Civaner, Murat; Sarikaya, Ozlem; Alici, Sevim Ulupinar; Bozkurt, Gulcin

    2008-05-01

    There is a strong association between reliance on the promotional activities of pharmaceutical companies and a generally less appropriate use of prescription drugs. Pharmaceutical companies direct some of their promotion towards health workers who do not have the authority to prescribe medicines, such as nurses in certain countries. The aim of this study was to determine the impact that exposure to the marketing methods of pharmaceutical companies has on judgments made by nursing students about health worker-pharmaceutical company relationships. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 442 nursing students in Istanbul, Turkey. The exposure of students to the marketing methods of pharmaceutical companies, whether it be indirectly through observation or directly by first-hand experience, increases the probability that students will adopt rationales that underlie affirmative judgments of health worker-pharmaceutical company relationships. Based on the pervasiveness and ability of drug promotion to influence the perceptions of students, it is imperative that attempts be made to reduce its negative impact.

  8. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus.

  9. Private sector risk-sharing agreements in the United States: trends, barriers, and prospects.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Louis P; Carlson, Josh J; Bajaj, Preeti S; Towse, Adrian; Neumann, Peter J; Sullivan, Sean D; Westrich, Kimberly; Dubois, Robert W

    2015-09-01

    Risk-sharing agreements (RSAs) between drug manufacturers and payers link coverage and reimbursement to real-world performance or utilization of medical products. These arrangements have garnered considerable attention in recent years. However, greater use outside the United States raises questions as to why their use has been limited in the US private sector, and whether their use might increase in the evolving US healthcare system. To understand current trends, success factors, and challenges in the use of RSAs, we conducted a review of RSAs, interviews, and a survey to understand key stakeholders' experiences and expectations for RSAs in the US private sector. Trends in the numbers of RSAs were assessed using a database of RSAs. We also conducted in-depth interviews with stakeholders from pharmaceutical companies, payer organizations, and industry experts in the United States and European Union. In addition, we administered an online survey with a broader audience to identify perceptions of the future of RSAs in the United States. Most manufacturers and payers expressed interest in RSAs and see potential value in their use. Due to numerous barriers associated with outcomes-based agreements, stakeholders were more optimistic about financial-based RSAs. In the US private sector, however, there remains considerable interest--improved data systems and shifting incentives (via health reform and accountable care organizations) may generate more action. In the US commercial payer markets, there is continued interest among some manufacturers and payers in outcomes-based RSAs. Despite continued discussion and activity, the number of new agreements is still small.

  10. Bolaamphiphiles: A Pharmaceutical Review

    PubMed Central

    Fariya, Mayur; Jain, Ankitkumar; Dhawan, Vivek; Shah, Sanket; Nagarsenker, Mangal S.

    2014-01-01

    The field of drug discovery is ever growing and excipients play a major role in it. A novel class of amphiphiles has been discussed in the review. The review focuses on natural as well as synthetic bolaamphiphiles, their chemical structures and importantly, their ability to self assemble rendering them of great use to pharmaceutical industry. Recent reports on their ability to be used in fabrication of suitable nanosized carriers for drug as well as genes to target site, has been discussed substantially to understand the potential of bolaamphiphiles in field of drug delivery. PMID:25671179

  11. Mineral Processing Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the nonmetallic mineral processing sector (NAICS 327), including NESHAPs for asbestos and hazardous waste, and wastewater permit information.

  12. Mitigating pharmaceutical waste exposures: policy and program considerations.

    PubMed

    Amster, Eric D

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical disposal and the environmental fate of medication metabolites directly impacts the public's health in two significant ways: accidental medication ingestion of pharmaceuticals that were not disposed of properly results in inadvertent toxicity; and environmental health consequences of pharmaceuticals that were inappropriately disposed and which contaminate municipal water supply. In reviewing the effectiveness of medication disposal policy globally, it is crucial to not only determine which policies are effective but also to assess why they are effective. By assessing the root causes for a specific policy's effectiveness it can be determined if those successes could be translated to another country with a different health care system, unique culture and divergent policy ecosystem. Any intervention regarding pharmaceutical disposal would require a multifaceted approach beyond raising awareness and coordinating pharmaceutical disposal on a national level. While consumer participation is important, effective primary prevention would also include research on drug development that is designed to biodegrade in the environment as opposed to medications that persist and accumulate in the natural environment even when properly disposed. Countries that lack a nationalized disposal policy should leverage the resources and infrastructure already in place in the national health care system to implement a unified policy to address medication disposal in the short-term. In tandem, efforts should be made to recruit the biotechnology sector in high-tech and academia to develop new technologies in medication design and water filtration to decrease exposures in the long-term.

  13. Is the United States Still Dominant in the Global Pharmaceutical Innovation Network?

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuanjia; Scherngell, Thomas; Man, Si Nga; Wang, Yitao

    2013-01-01

    The dramatic growth of research and development activities in the pharmaceutical sector in emerging economies raises the question of whether the United States still keeps its dominant role in the global pharmaceutical innovation landscape. This paper focuses on investigating the role of the United States in global pharmaceutical innovation, and differs from previous studies by shifting attention to a network analytic perspective to track the global distribution of pharmaceutical inventions. Our sample is composed of key patents covering all new drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration between 1996 and 2010. The results show that the United States still dominates in the global pharmaceutical innovation network, especially when it comes to essential core inventions. However, the United States shows a slightly decreasing prominence in the networks of either total new drugs or New Molecular Entity (NME) drugs in the time period 2006–2010 as compared to previous time periods, revealed by subtle traces of network centralities. PMID:24223710

  14. Is the United States still dominant in the global pharmaceutical innovation network?

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuanjia; Scherngell, Thomas; Man, Si Nga; Wang, Yitao

    2013-01-01

    The dramatic growth of research and development activities in the pharmaceutical sector in emerging economies raises the question of whether the United States still keeps its dominant role in the global pharmaceutical innovation landscape. This paper focuses on investigating the role of the United States in global pharmaceutical innovation, and differs from previous studies by shifting attention to a network analytic perspective to track the global distribution of pharmaceutical inventions. Our sample is composed of key patents covering all new drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration between 1996 and 2010. The results show that the United States still dominates in the global pharmaceutical innovation network, especially when it comes to essential core inventions. However, the United States shows a slightly decreasing prominence in the networks of either total new drugs or New Molecular Entity (NME) drugs in the time period 2006-2010 as compared to previous time periods, revealed by subtle traces of network centralities.

  15. The Pharmaceutical Commons

    PubMed Central

    Lezaun, Javier

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the organization of pharmaceutical research on neglected tropical diseases has undergone transformative change. In a context of perceived “market failure,” the development of new medicines is increasingly handled by public-private partnerships. This shift toward hybrid organizational models depends on a particular form of exchange: the sharing of proprietary assets in general and of intellectual property rights in particular. This article explores the paradoxical role of private property in this new configuration of global health research and development. Rather than a tool to block potential competitors, proprietary assets function as a lever to attract others into risky collaborative ventures; instead of demarcating public and private domains, the sharing of property rights is used to increase the porosity of that boundary. This reimagination of the value of property is connected to the peculiar timescape of global health drug development, a promissory orientation to the future that takes its clearest form in the centrality of “virtual” business models and the proliferation of strategies of deferral. Drawing on the anthropological literature on inalienable possessions, we reconsider property’s traditional exclusionary role and discuss the possibility that the new pharmaceutical “commons” proclaimed by contemporary global health partnerships might be the precursor of future enclosures. PMID:25866425

  16. Deliquescence of pharmaceutical systems.

    PubMed

    Mauer, Lisa J; Taylor, Lynne S

    2010-12-01

    Deliquescence is a first order phase transition from solid to solution that occurs at a relative humidity (RH) that is characteristic to the crystalline compound. Such dissolution of active pharmaceutical ingredients and excipients can lead to detrimental physical and chemical instabilities. Furthermore, in systems containing more than one deliquescent component, the RH of the solid-solution transition will be lowered, leading to some level of dissolution at unexpectedly low RH conditions. Deliquescence lowering is independent of the ratio of the deliquescent components and therefore is of concern for any formulation containing two or more deliquescent compounds. Because chemical reactions occur much more readily in solution, deliquescence will enhance the degradation of labile APIs. RH fluctuations will lead to cycles of deliquescence and efflorescence (crystallization), which will contribute to particle agglomeration and caking. This review will address the phenomenon of deliquescence, the significance of deliquescence to pharmaceutical systems, measurement techniques, the kinetics and thermodynamics of deliquescence, the behavior of mixtures of deliquescent compounds (including phase diagrams and thermodynamics of binary systems), and consequences of deliquescence on chemical and physical stability.

  17. Pharmaceutical Education and the Translation of Pharmaceutical Care into Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Gail D.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic approach to reform of pharmaceutical education is seen as necessary to link intended outcomes of reform to a progressive and generally accepted mission of professional practice. Cooperation between pharmaceutical education, professional organizations, and regulatory agencies is viewed as necessary and refinement of professional…

  18. Pharmaceutical Education and the Translation of Pharmaceutical Care into Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Gail D.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic approach to reform of pharmaceutical education is seen as necessary to link intended outcomes of reform to a progressive and generally accepted mission of professional practice. Cooperation between pharmaceutical education, professional organizations, and regulatory agencies is viewed as necessary and refinement of professional…

  19. Pharmaceutical advertising as a consumer empowerment device.

    PubMed

    Rubin, P H

    2001-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies have greatly increased their level of "direct-to-consumer" (DTC) advertising in recent years. For 1998, estimates are that over $1.1 billion was spent on this form of advertising, increased from $850 million in 1997 and $600 million in 1996. In 1998, 84 separate drugs were advertised to consumers. The impetus was a decision in August of 1997 by the Food and Drug Administration to reduce the restrictions on DTC advertising on television. As a result, such ads have become very common on TV, and 32 products were advertised on TV in 1998. Pharmaceutical companies advertise because they think that advertising will make money for them. But how will this make money? It will make money by providing consumers with the information they need to make proper decisions about medication. That is, DTC advertising is profitable exactly because it empowers consumers and enables them to purchase useful drugs. The goals of advertising companies and consumers are both for consumers to have information about the most beneficial drug for particular conditions, and so advertising is beneficial both to manufacturers and to consumers. This article describes emerging trends in DTC within the context of the life sciences sector.

  20. The Future of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Sciences

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The entire pharmaceutical sector is in an urgent need of both innovative technological solutions and fundamental scientific work, enabling the production of highly engineered drug products. Commercial‐scale manufacturing of complex drug delivery systems (DDSs) using the existing technologies is challenging. This review covers important elements of manufacturing sciences, beginning with risk management strategies and design of experiments (DoE) techniques. Experimental techniques should, where possible, be supported by computational approaches. With that regard, state‐of‐art mechanistic process modeling techniques are described in detail. Implementation of materials science tools paves the way to molecular‐based processing of future DDSs. A snapshot of some of the existing tools is presented. Additionally, general engineering principles are discussed covering process measurement and process control solutions. Last part of the review addresses future manufacturing solutions, covering continuous processing and, specifically, hot‐melt processing and printing‐based technologies. Finally, challenges related to implementing these technologies as a part of future health care systems are discussed. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3612–3638, 2015 PMID:26280993

  1. Why Lunch Matters: Assessing Physicians' Perceptions about Industry Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugh-Berman; Adriane J.; Scialli, Anthony R.; Bell, Alicia M.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have shown that pharmaceutical marketing affects prescribing choices. Studies that have assessed the effects of educational interventions on perceptions of pharmaceutical promotion have found mixed results. This study assesses the short-term effects of an educational intervention about marketing tactics on the attitudes and fund of…

  2. Why Lunch Matters: Assessing Physicians' Perceptions about Industry Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugh-Berman; Adriane J.; Scialli, Anthony R.; Bell, Alicia M.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have shown that pharmaceutical marketing affects prescribing choices. Studies that have assessed the effects of educational interventions on perceptions of pharmaceutical promotion have found mixed results. This study assesses the short-term effects of an educational intervention about marketing tactics on the attitudes and fund of…

  3. Effects of Information on College Students' Perceptions of Antidepressant Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberger, Kristi A.; Frankenberger, William R.; Peden, Blaine F.; Hunt, Heather L.; Raschick, Christopher M.; Steller, Emily G.; Peterson, Jaclyn A.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the impact of pharmaceutical companies' advertisements on college students' perceptions of depression and concomitant treatment with antidepressants among 13 male and 31 female undergraduates from a midwestern university. The students were randomly assigned to groups that read either pharmaceutical company advertisements or…

  4. Effects of Information on College Students' Perceptions of Antidepressant Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberger, Kristi A.; Frankenberger, William R.; Peden, Blaine F.; Hunt, Heather L.; Raschick, Christopher M.; Steller, Emily G.; Peterson, Jaclyn A.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the impact of pharmaceutical companies' advertisements on college students' perceptions of depression and concomitant treatment with antidepressants among 13 male and 31 female undergraduates from a midwestern university. The students were randomly assigned to groups that read either pharmaceutical company advertisements or…

  5. Designing a Pharmaceutical Care Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrier, Donald G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Guidelines for developing a pharmacy school curriculum based on the principle of pharmaceutical care and professional responsibility are offered, beginning with mission statements for profession, practice, and pharmaceutical education in general. The University of Toronto experience in designing such a curriculum is chronicled as an illustration…

  6. Pharmaceutical study of Yashadabhasma.

    PubMed

    Bhojashettar, Santhosh; Jadar, P G; Rao, V Nageswara

    2012-01-01

    Rasashastra is a branch which deals with the pharmaceutics of Rasaoushadhis. Bhasmas are one among such Rasaoushadhis which are known for their low doses and fast action. A verse from Rasaratnasamuchchaya says that the bhasma prepared by using Mercury as media is of best quality. Following this principle, Yashadabhasma (Zinc calx) was prepared by subjecting it to Samanya shodhana (general purification method for all metals), Vishesha shodhana (specific putification method for Zinc), Jarana (roasting) and Marana (incineration) with Parada(Mercury) as a media under Gajaputa (classical heating system with 1000 cowdung cakes). Yellow colored Yashadabhasma which passed all the classical bhasmaparikshas (tests for properly prepared calx) was obtained after two putas. The bhasma did not pass Nishchandratva(free from shining particles) test after 1(st)puta but was passed after giving it 2(nd)puta.

  7. General view of Sector One Substation with Sector One transmitter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Sector One Substation with Sector One transmitter array to right - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Moscow Radar Site Transmit Sector One Substation, At the end of Steam Road, Moscow, Somerset County, ME

  8. Naming, labeling, and packaging of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Kenagy, J W; Stein, G C

    2001-11-01

    The problem of medical errors associated with the naming, labeling, and packaging of pharmaceuticals is discussed. Sound-alike and look-alike drug names and packages can lead pharmacists and nurses to unintended interchanges of drugs that can result in patient injury or death. The existing medication-use system is flawed because its safety depends on human perfection. Simplicity, standardization, differentiation, lack of duplication, and unambiguous communication are human factors concepts that are relevant to the medication-use process. These principles have often been ignored in drug naming, labeling, and packaging. Instead, current methods are based on long-standing commercial considerations and bureaucratic procedures. The process for naming a marketable drug is lengthy and complex and involves submission of a new chemical entity and patent application, generic naming, brand naming, FDA review, and final approval. Drug companies seek the fastest possible approval and may believe that the incremental benefit of human factors evaluation is small. "Trade dress" is the concept that underlies labeling and packaging issues for the drug industry. Drug companies are resistant to changing trade dress and brand names. Although a variety of private-sector organizations have called for reforms in drug naming, labeling, and packaging standards have been proposed, the problem remains. Drug names, labels, and packages are not selected and designed in accordance with human factors principles. FDA standards do not require application of these principles, the drug industry has struggled with change, and private-sector initiatives have had only limited success.

  9. [Pharmaceutical logistic in turnover of pharmaceutical products of Azerbaijan].

    PubMed

    Dzhalilova, K I

    2009-11-01

    Development of pharmaceutical logistic system model promotes optimal strategy for pharmaceutical functioning. The goal of such systems is organization of pharmaceutical product's turnover in required quantity and assortment, at preset time and place, at a highest possible degree of consumption readiness with minimal expenses and qualitative service. Organization of the optimal turnover chain in the region is offered to start from approximate classification of medicaments by logistic characteristics. Supplier selection was performed by evaluation of timeliness of delivery, quality of delivered products (according to the minimum acceptable level of quality) and time-keeping of time spending for orders delivery.

  10. Three Dimensional Sector Design with Optimal Number of Sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min

    2010-01-01

    In the national airspace system, sectors get overloaded due to high traffic demand and inefficient airspace designs. Overloads can be eliminated in some cases by redesigning sector boundaries. This paper extends the Voronoi-based sector design method by automatically selecting the number of sectors, allowing three-dimensional partitions, and enforcing traffic pattern conformance. The method was used to design sectors at Fort-Worth and Indianapolis centers for current traffic scenarios. Results show that new designs can eliminate overloaded sectors, although not in all cases, reduce the number of necessary sectors, and conform to major traffic patterns. Overall, the new methodology produces enhanced and efficient sector designs.

  11. Cost containment through pharmaceutical procurement: a Caribbean case study.

    PubMed

    Huff-Rousselle, M; Burnett, F

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the potential for health sector cost containment in developing countries through improved pharmaceutical procurement. By describing the specific example of the Eastern Caribbean Drug Service (ECDS), which provides a pooled procurement service to nine ministries of health in the small island nations of the Caribbean, it examines the elements of the procurement operation that allowed ECDS to reduce unit costs for pharmaceuticals by over 50 per cent during its first procurement cycle. The analysis of ECDS considers: (1) political will, institutional alliances, and the creation of a public sector monopsony; (2) pooling demand; (3) restricted international tendering and the pharmaceutical industry; (4) estimating demand and supplier guarantees; (5) reducing variety and increasing volume through standardizing pack sizes, dosage forms and strengths; (6) generic bidding and therapeutic alternative bidding; (7) mode of transport from foreign suppliers; (8) financing mechanisms, including choice of currency, foreign exchange, and terms of payment; (9) market conditions and crafting and enforcing supplier contracts; and, (10) the adjudication process, including consideration of suppliers' past performance, precision requirements in the manufacturing process, number of products awarded to suppliers, and issues of judgment. The authors consider the relevance of this agency's experience to other developing countries by providing a blueprint that can be adopted or modified to suit other situations.

  12. [Pharmaceuticals: a strategic national industry].

    PubMed

    Hollender, Louis

    2004-01-01

    Asked by Mme Nicole Fontaine, Delegate Minister of Industry, to help the government with its ongoing reflections on pharmaceutical industrial strategy, and the necessary autonomy of our country in the face of major commercial threats, a working group of the French National Academy of Medicine consulted representatives of five French and two foreign major drug companies. Their statements can be classified in four categories:--the first concerns new medications, which must be approved successively by three commissions, whose opinions are often delayed and influenced by economic considerations;--second, public and private research are both insufficient and are sometimes hindered by procedural restrictions,--third, the pharmaceutical industry is unable to deal with frequent and unforseeable political upheavals,--France does not adequately recognize the strategic importance of the pharmaceutical industry in the national economy. The Academy makes several recommendations: the French pharmaceutical industry should be considered as a national priority, the strategic importance of national pharmaceutical companies should be recognized, a multi-annual contract should be signed with manufacturers, clinical trials should be facilitated in France, relationships between the national pharmaceutical industry and public research structures should be reinforced, and an inter-ministerial Council on Pharmaceuticals should be created. This study was supplemented by a survey of veterinary medications, the results and conclusions of which are very similar to those outlined above for human medicines.

  13. Elemental Impurities in Pharmaceutical Excipients.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Schoneker, Dave; Ulman, Katherine L; Sturm, Jason J; Thackery, Lisa M; Kauffman, John F

    2015-12-01

    Control of elemental impurities in pharmaceutical materials is currently undergoing a transition from control based on concentrations in components of drug products to control based on permitted daily exposures in drug products. Within the pharmaceutical community, there is uncertainty regarding the impact of these changes on manufactures of drug products. This uncertainty is fueled in part by a lack of publically available information on elemental impurity levels in common pharmaceutical excipients. This paper summarizes a recent survey of elemental impurity levels in common pharmaceutical excipients as well as some drug substances. A widely applicable analytical procedure was developed and was shown to be suitable for analysis of elements that are subject to United States Pharmacopoeia Chapter <232> and International Conference on Harmonization's Q3D Guideline on Elemental Impurities. The procedure utilizes microwave-assisted digestion of pharmaceutical materials and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of these elements. The procedure was applied to 190 samples from 31 different excipients and 15 samples from eight drug substances provided through the International Pharmaceutical Excipient Council of the Americas. The results of the survey indicate that, for the materials included in the study, relatively low levels of elemental impurities are present. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  14. Buildings Sector Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, Donna J.; Nicholls, Andrew K.; McDonald, Sean C.; Hollomon, Jonathan B.

    2005-08-01

    A joint NREL, ORNL, and PNNL team conducted market analysis to help inform DOE/EERE's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program planning and management decisions. This chapter presents the results of the market analysis for the Buildings sector.

  15. Construction Sector (NAICS 23)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory information for the construction sector, including the construction of buildings or engineering projects. This includes RCRA information for hazardous waste, refrigeration compliance, asbestos, effluent guidelines & lead laws

  16. Pharmaceutical health care and Inuit language communications in Nunavut, Canada.

    PubMed

    Romain, Sandra J

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical communication is an essential component of pharmaceutical health care, optimally ensuring patients understand the proper administration and side effects of their medications. Communication can often be complicated by language and culture, but with pharmaceuticals, misunderstandings can prove particularly harmful. In Nunavut, to ensure the preservation and revitalization of Inuit languages, the Inuit Language Protection Act and Official Languages Act were passed requiring that all public and private sector essential services offer verbal and written communication in Inuit languages (Inuktitut and Inuinnaqtun) by 2012. While the legislation mandates compliance, policy implementation for pharmaceutical services is problematic. Not a single pharmacist in Nunavut is fluent in either of the Inuit languages. Pharmacists have indicated challenges in formally translating written documentation into Inuit languages based on concerns for patient safety. These challenges of negotiating the joint requirements of language legislation and patient safety have resulted in pharmacies using verbal on-site translation as a tenuous solution regardless of its many limitations. The complex issues of pharmaceutical health care and communication among the Inuit of Nunavut are best examined through multimethod research to encompass a wide range of perspectives. This methodology combines the richness of ethnographic data, the targeted depth of interviews with key informants and the breadth of cross-Canada policy and financial analyses. The analysis of this information would provide valuable insights into the current relationships between health care providers, pharmacists and Inuit patients and suggest future directions for policy that will improve the efficacy of pharmaceuticals and health care spending for the Inuit in Canada.

  17. Pharmaceutical health care and Inuit language communications in Nunavut, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Romain, Sandra J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical communication is an essential component of pharmaceutical health care, optimally ensuring patients understand the proper administration and side effects of their medications. Communication can often be complicated by language and culture, but with pharmaceuticals, misunderstandings can prove particularly harmful. In Nunavut, to ensure the preservation and revitalization of Inuit languages, the Inuit Language Protection Act and Official Languages Act were passed requiring that all public and private sector essential services offer verbal and written communication in Inuit languages (Inuktitut and Inuinnaqtun) by 2012. Methods While the legislation mandates compliance, policy implementation for pharmaceutical services is problematic. Not a single pharmacist in Nunavut is fluent in either of the Inuit languages. Pharmacists have indicated challenges in formally translating written documentation into Inuit languages based on concerns for patient safety. These challenges of negotiating the joint requirements of language legislation and patient safety have resulted in pharmacies using verbal on-site translation as a tenuous solution regardless of its many limitations. Results The complex issues of pharmaceutical health care and communication among the Inuit of Nunavut are best examined through multimethod research to encompass a wide range of perspectives. This methodology combines the richness of ethnographic data, the targeted depth of interviews with key informants and the breadth of cross-Canada policy and financial analyses. Conclusions The analysis of this information would provide valuable insights into the current relationships between health care providers, pharmacists and Inuit patients and suggest future directions for policy that will improve the efficacy of pharmaceuticals and health care spending for the Inuit in Canada. PMID:23984309

  18. Skills for a Competitive Future: A Survey for the Pharmaceutical Industry National Training Organisation. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagger, Nick; Aston, Jane

    This report focuses on a study that examined skills, recruitment, and training issues covering the whole pharmaceutical industry. It presents mailed survey material complemented and enhanced by a series of telephone interviews and focus groups. Chapter 1 is an introduction. Chapter 2 deals with the structure of the sector and reports background…

  19. GMK (Progenics Pharmaceuticals).

    PubMed

    Knutson, Keith L

    2002-01-01

    Progenics Pharmaceuticals is developing GMK vaccine (a ganglioside conjugate vaccine coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin and formulated with the adjuvant QS-21), licensed from the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, for the potential treatment of melanoma and other cancers [194258], [325284]. It was previously under co-development with Bristol-Myers Squibb, but in May 2001, all rights to the GMK vaccine were returned to Progenics [409168]. It was the first of a new class of ganglioside conjugate vaccine evaluated by Progenics [194258]. GMK vaccination induces antibodies against GM2 ganglioside capable of specifically killing melanoma cells. Melanoma patients with antibodies against GM2 ganglioside have significantly improved disease-free and overall survival compared to antibody-negative subjects. The vaccine is undergoing two phase III trials, the first comparing GMK to high-dose IFNalpha in melanoma patients with more serious disease and at a high risk of relapse, and the second, in collaboration with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, comparing GMK (14 doses of GMK over three years) to no treatment other than close monitoring of malignant melanoma patients at immediate risk of relapse [409168]. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers predicted that the vaccine had a 50% probability of reaching market, with an estimated first launch date in 2002. The analysts predicted potential peak sales in 2008 of $150 million in the US and $100 million in the rest of the world at that time [319225]. In January 2000, Lehman Brothers expected that an NDA filing would take place in 2002, with possible launch of the vaccine in 2003. In addition, Lehman Brothers estimated potential peak sales at $500 million [357788]. In August 2000, Punk, Ziegel & Company predicted that Progenics Pharmaceuticals will become sustainably profitable in 2003 following the launch of GMK and PRO-542 in 2002 [390063]. In July 2001, Ladenburg Thalmann predicted a $257 million

  20. Problematizing ‘drugs’: A cultural assessment of recreational pharmaceutical use among young adults in the US

    PubMed Central

    QUINTERO, GILBERT

    2013-01-01

    Recent trends in the recreational use of pharmaceuticals among young adults in the United States highlight a number of issues regarding the problematization of drugs. Two constructions of recreational pharmaceutical use are analyzed. On the one hand, categorical frameworks based upon epidemiological data are created by institutions and media and depict recreational pharmaceutical use as illicit in unqualified, absolute terms. This is done through discourses that equate nonmedical pharmaceutical use with culturally established forms of illicit drug use. On the other hand, users’ multi-dimensional constructions of recreational pharmaceutical use emphasise social context, personal experience, and individual risk perceptions. The problematization of recreational pharmaceutical use points to intergenerational conflicts, as well as to struggles over definitions of “drug abuse” and “hard drugs”, and highlights the impact of pharmaceuticalization on recreational drug use among young people. PMID:24431478

  1. Ownership of knowledge--the role of patents in pharmaceutical R&D.

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Carlos María

    2004-01-01

    Both the public and the private sectors contribute to research and development (R&D) in pharmaceuticals. The public sector originates many of the discoveries of new drugs. The private sector, which focuses on development, is heavily reliant on patents. Though patents are presumed to reward genuine inventions, lax rules on patentability and shortcomings in procedures permit protection to be obtained on a myriad of minor developments. These patents, though weak and possibly invalid in many cases, are used to restrain competition and delay the entry of generic competition. Developing countries should design and implement their patent laws so as to prevent strategic patenting and promote competition and access to medicines. PMID:15643801

  2. Measuring the efficiency of large pharmaceutical companies: an industry analysis.

    PubMed

    Gascón, Fernando; Lozano, Jesús; Ponte, Borja; de la Fuente, David

    2017-06-01

    This paper evaluates the relative efficiency of a sample of 37 large pharmaceutical laboratories in the period 2008-2013 using a data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. We describe in detail the procedure followed to select and construct relevant inputs and outputs that characterize the production and innovation activity of these pharmaceutical firms. Models are estimated with financial information from Datastream, including R&D investment, and the number of new drugs authorized by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considering the time effect. The relative performances of these firms-taking into consideration the strategic importance of R&D-suggest that the pharmaceutical industry is a highly competitive sector given that there are many laboratories at the efficient frontier and many inefficient laboratories close to this border. Additionally, we use data from S&P Capital IQ to analyze 2071 financial transactions announced by our sample of laboratories as an alternative way to gain access to new drugs, and we link these transactions with R&D investment and DEA efficiency. We find that efficient laboratories make on average more financial transactions, and the relative size of each transaction is larger. However, pharmaceutical companies that simultaneously are more efficient and invest more internally in R&D announce smaller transactions relative to total assets.

  3. Higher Priced Older Pharmaceuticals: How Should We Respond?

    PubMed

    Irwin, Richard S; Manaker, Scott; Metersky, Mark L; Baughman, Robert P; Otulana, Tunde; Weinberger, Steven E; Sussman, Andrew J; McGrath, Norine A

    2017-10-07

    We and our patients have been aware of the high cost of medications in the United States for decades. However, we are recently witnessing a relatively new phenomenon: exponential price increases for some older pharmaceuticals that have been available for years. To assist practitioners in how to respond to the issue of higher priced pharmaceuticals, an interprofessional session was developed and held at CHEST 2016 in Los Angeles. The session proceedings and a few updates are presented here to summarize what pulmonologists, a sarcoidosis expert, a retired executive of a medical society, pharmaceutical company, pharmacy, and an ethicist advise that we do about the problem. Because the comments presented at the session and in this manuscript represent the opinions of each of the authors, this commentary in essence is an compilation of 9 editorials. It does not represent a comprehensive discussion of the field of pricing of drugs. In reflecting upon the answers to the questions posed, and regardless of their sector of healthcare, all participants stated that they focused on the patient. However, actually providing patient-focused care (i.e., the care defined from the patient's perspective) is another matter. In order to significantly improve patient satisfaction and health care outcomes, patient-focused care needs to embody the 3 Cs of 1) communication, 2) continuity of care, and 3) concordance of expectations (i.e., finding the common ground). Therefore, we discuss how the 3 Cs apply to responses to higher priced pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP OF PHARMACEUTICALS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  5. OSI-774 OSI Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Norman, P

    2001-02-01

    OSI-774 (formerly CP-358774), a quinazoline derivative, is an orally active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor which was originally under joint development by Pfizer and OSI Pharmaceuticals (formerly Oncogene Science) for the potential treatment of cancer (eg, ovarian, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and head and neck). It is being evaluated in phase II trials [304305], [372201]. On 8 January 2001, OSI announced that it had signed an agreement with Roche and Genentech for the global co-development and marketing of OSI-774. The agreement with Genentech covers the United States, that with Roche the rest of the world [395371], [395526]. In June 2000, OSI gained all development and marketing rights for OSI-774 following Pfizer's merger with Warner-Lambert [371439]. In September 2000, Pfizer transferred the IND dossierfor OSI-774 to OSI ahead of the timeline agreed in the June 2000 development and marketing rights agreement [383786]. The phase II trials will assess OSI-774 both as a single agent and in combination with existing chemotherapy regimens [347783]. Phase III trials are expected to be initiated in 2001 [347783]. In October 2000, Lehman Brothers predicted that OSI-774 would move into pivotal trials in thefirst half of 2001 and that the drug would be launched in 2003. The analysts also estimated worldwide sales of US $66 million, $285 million and $461 million in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively, and peak sales in excess of US $500 million [395189].

  6. PHARMACEUTICALS AS ENVIRONMENTAL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  7. Biricodar. Vertex Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Dey, Saibal

    2002-05-01

    Vertex is developing biricodar as a chemosensitizing agent designed to restore the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents in tumor multidrug resistance. By November 1998, phase II trials had commenced for biricodar, in combination with chemotherapy, for five common cancer indications: breast, ovarian, soft-tissue sarcomas, small cell lung cancer and prostate cancer. Phase II trials were ongoing in January 2002. By March 2000, Vertex was the sole developer of biricodar, as an agreement made in 1996 with BioChem Pharma (now Shire Pharmaceuticals), for the development and marketing of biricodar in Canada was terminated. Biricodar is the free base compound, which also has a citrate salt analog known as VX-710-3. Vertex has published three patents, WO-09615101, WO-09636630 and WO-09736869, disclosing derivatives of biricodar that are claimed for the treatment of multidrug resistant protein and P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistant tumors. In January 2002, a Banc of America analyst report forecast that biricodar had a 30% chance of reaching the market with a launch date in the second half of 2005, with peak sales estimated at $250 million.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP OF PHARMACEUTICALS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of conceited attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the documented or potential hazards associated with trace exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive and perpetually present in many aquatic locales. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/m

  9. PHARMACEUTICALS AS UBIQUITOUS POLLUTANTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Those chemical pollutants that are regulated under various international, federal, and state programs represent but a small fraction of the universe of chemicals that occur in the environment as a result of both natural processes and human influence. Although this galaxy of targeted chemicals might be minuscule compared with the universe of both known and yet-to-be identified chemicals, an implicit assumption is that these selective lists of chemicals are responsible for the most significant share of risk with respect to environmental or economic impairment or to human health. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) comprise a particularly large and diverse array of unregulated pollutants that occur in the environment from the combined activities and actions of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary and agricultural use. Although the concentration of any individual PPCP rarely ever exceeds the sub-ppm level (if present in drinking water, concentrations of individual PPCPs are generally less than the ppt-ppb level), evidence is accumulating that these trace-Ievel pollutants are ubiquitous, they can have a continuous presence regardless of environmental half-lives ( e.g., where sanitary wastewaters enter the environment), and the numbers of distinct and varied chemical entities could be extremely large (given that thousands are in commercial use). The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-ar

  10. Recognizing misleading pharmaceutical marketing online.

    PubMed

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2014-01-01

    In light of decision-making psychology, this article details how drug marketing operates across established and novel web domains and identifies some common misleading trends and influences on prescribing and patient-initiated medication requests. The Internet has allowed pharmaceutical marketing to become more salient than ever before. Although the Internet's growth has improved the dissemination of pharmaceutical information, it has also led to the increased influence of misleading pharmaceutical marketing. Such mismarketing is of concern, especially in psychiatry, since psychotropics generate considerable revenue for drug companies. In a climate of resource-limited drug regulation and time-strapped physicians, we recommend improving both independent monitoring and consumer awareness of Internet-enabled, potentially misleading, pharmaceutical marketing influences. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  11. Prioritizing pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oral presentation at SETAC North America 32nd annual meeting, describing our prioritization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), based on estimates of risks posed by API residues originating from municipal wastewater. Goals of this project include prioritization of APIs f...

  12. Prioritizing pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oral presentation at SETAC North America 32nd annual meeting, describing our prioritization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), based on estimates of risks posed by API residues originating from municipal wastewater. Goals of this project include prioritization of APIs f...

  13. [PICS: pharmaceutical inspection cooperation scheme].

    PubMed

    Morénas, J

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical inspection cooperation scheme (PICS) is a structure containing 34 participating authorities located worldwide (October 2008). It has been created in 1995 on the basis of the pharmaceutical inspection convention (PIC) settled by the European free trade association (EFTA) in1970. This scheme has different goals as to be an international recognised body in the field of good manufacturing practices (GMP), for training inspectors (by the way of an annual seminar and experts circles related notably to active pharmaceutical ingredients [API], quality risk management, computerized systems, useful for the writing of inspection's aide-memoires). PICS is also leading to high standards for GMP inspectorates (through regular crossed audits) and being a room for exchanges on technical matters between inspectors but also between inspectors and pharmaceutical industry.

  14. The Infernal Alternatives of Corporate Pharmaceutical Research: Abandoning Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Dumit, Joseph

    2017-07-31

    What happens when health research is measured by market size? How does this change the dynamics of medical research, and how is its growth envisioned and managed? In this article, I build on my arguments in Drugs for Life: How Pharmaceutical Companies Define our Health, which focused primarily on the development and marketing of mass medications for heart disease and I examine the market dynamics that are used to drive research into and out of psychiatric and other neuromedicines, such as the closing of mental health research at most major pharmaceutical companies. Industry compares entire sectors of medical research to evaluate their relative chances of profits and growth; it is willing to sacrifice a whole region of effective and profitable medicine if it can grow profits more in other regions. Baudrillard, Pignarre, and Stengers are used to consider whether this situation can best be described as one of infernal alternatives, and how to analyze the responses of psychiatric leaders.

  15. Challenges constraining access to insulin in the private-sector market of Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhishek; Kaplan, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    India's majority of patients-including those living with diabetes-seek healthcare in the private sector through out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. We studied access to insulin in the private-sector market of Delhi state, India. A modified World Health Organization/Health Action International (WHO/HAI) standard survey to assess insulin availability and prices, and qualitative interviews with insulin retailers (pharmacists) and wholesalers to understand insulin market dynamics. In 40 pharmacy outlets analysed, mean availability of the human and analogue insulins on the 2013 Delhi essential medicine list was 44.4% and 13.1%, respectively. 82% of pharmacies had domestically manufactured human insulin phials, primarily was made in India under licence to overseas pharmaceutical companies. Analogue insulin was only in cartridge and pen forms that were 4.42 and 5.81 times, respectively, the price of human insulin phials. Domestically manufactured human phial and cartridge insulin (produced for foreign and Indian companies) was less expensive than their imported counterparts. The lowest paid unskilled government worker in Delhi would work about 1.5 and 8.6 days, respectively, to be able to pay OOP for a monthly supply of human phial and analogue cartridge insulin. Interviews suggest that the Delhi insulin market is dominated by a few multinational companies that import and/or license in-country production. Several factors influence insulin uptake by patients, including doctor's prescribing preference. Wholesalers have negative perceptions about domestic insulin manufacturing. The Delhi insulin market is an oligopoly with limited market competition. Increasing competition from Indian companies is going to require some additional policies, not presently in place. As more Indian companies produce biosimilars, brand substitution policies are needed to be able to benefit from market competition.

  16. Challenges constraining access to insulin in the private-sector market of Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    Objective India's majority of patients—including those living with diabetes—seek healthcare in the private sector through out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. We studied access to insulin in the private-sector market of Delhi state, India. Methods A modified World Health Organization/Health Action International (WHO/HAI) standard survey to assess insulin availability and prices, and qualitative interviews with insulin retailers (pharmacists) and wholesalers to understand insulin market dynamics. Results In 40 pharmacy outlets analysed, mean availability of the human and analogue insulins on the 2013 Delhi essential medicine list was 44.4% and 13.1%, respectively. 82% of pharmacies had domestically manufactured human insulin phials, primarily was made in India under licence to overseas pharmaceutical companies. Analogue insulin was only in cartridge and pen forms that were 4.42 and 5.81 times, respectively, the price of human insulin phials. Domestically manufactured human phial and cartridge insulin (produced for foreign and Indian companies) was less expensive than their imported counterparts. The lowest paid unskilled government worker in Delhi would work about 1.5 and 8.6 days, respectively, to be able to pay OOP for a monthly supply of human phial and analogue cartridge insulin. Interviews suggest that the Delhi insulin market is dominated by a few multinational companies that import and/or license in-country production. Several factors influence insulin uptake by patients, including doctor's prescribing preference. Wholesalers have negative perceptions about domestic insulin manufacturing. Conclusions The Delhi insulin market is an oligopoly with limited market competition. Increasing competition from Indian companies is going to require some additional policies, not presently in place. As more Indian companies produce biosimilars, brand substitution policies are needed to be able to benefit from market competition. PMID:28588966

  17. Aripiprazole (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co).

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Vural; Fourie, Jeanne; Ozdener, Fatih

    2002-01-01

    Otsuka Pharmaceuticals in collaboration with Bristol-Myers Squibb is developing aripiprazole, a dual dopamine autoreceptor agonist and postsynaptic D2 receptor antagonist, for the potential treatment of psychoses including schizophrenia [281327], [340364]. A regulatory filing for schizophrenia in the US was submitted at the end of 2001 [340364]. The compound entered phase III trials in Japan in 1995 [192966]. Although presynaptic dopamine autoreceptor agonists may be efficacious in the treatment of schizophrenia, they may also potentially increase the risk for exacerbation of psychosis through stimulation of postsynaptic dopaminergic receptors [245791], [350478], [350479]. However, earlier neuropharmacology studies have shown that aripiprazole can act as a presynaptic D2 agonist while displaying an antagonistic effect at the postsynaptic D2 receptors [281327], [337126], [350479], [424587], [424588]. In animal models, aripiprazole inhibits the apomorphine-induced stereotypy, without causing catalepsy [281327], [337126]. Moreover, in contrast to classical antipsychotics that produce disabling movement disorders, aripiprazole does not cause an upregulation of D2 receptors or an increase in expression of the c-fos mRNA in the striatum, in agreement with the low risk for extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) during aripiprazole treatment [245781], [262096], [350481], [350483]. Collectively, aripiprazole is an important atypical antipsychotic candidate with a favorable safety profile. Moreover, the mechanism of action of aripiprazole differentiates it from both typical and atypical antipsychotics and hence, may provide important leads for pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. In January 2000, Lehman Brothers predicted peak sales of aripiprazole could reach US $500 million [357788]. In February 2001, Credit Suisse First Boston predicted sales of US $403 million in 2005 [399484].

  18. The political contradictions of incremental innovation: lessons from pharmaceutical patent examination in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Shadlen, Kenneth C

    2011-01-01

    Neodevelopmental patent regimes aim to facilitate local actors’ access to knowledge and also encourage incremental innovations. The case of pharmaceutical patent examination in Brazil illustrates political contradictions between these objectives. Brazil’s patent law includes the Ministry of Health in the examination of pharmaceutical patent applications. Though widely celebrated as a health-oriented policy, the Brazilian experience has become fraught with tensions and subject to decreasing levels of both stability and enforcement. I show how one pillar of the neodevelopmental regime, the array of initiatives to encourage incremental innovations, has fostered the acquisition of innovative capabilities in the Brazilian pharmaceutical sector, and how these new capabilities have altered actors’ policy preferences and thus contributed to the erosion of the coalition in support of the other pillar of the neodevelopmental regime, the health-oriented approach to examining pharmaceutical patents. The analysis of capability-derived preference formation points to an endogenous process of coalitional change.

  19. Actor modelling and its contribution to the development of integrative strategies for management of pharmaceuticals in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Titz, Alexandra; Döll, Petra

    2009-02-01

    Widespread presence of human pharmaceuticals in water resources across the globe is documented. While some, but certainly not enough, research on the occurrence, fate and effect of pharmaceuticals in water resources has been carried out, a holistic risk management strategy is missing. The transdisciplinary research project "start" aimed to develop an integrative strategy by the participation of experts representing key actors in the problem field "pharmaceuticals in drinking water". In this paper, we describe a novel modelling method, actor modelling with the semi-quantitative software DANA (Dynamic Actor Network Analysis), and its application in support of identifying an integrative risk management strategy. Based on the individual perceptions of different actors, the approach allows the identification of optimal strategies. Actors' perceptions were elicited by participatory model building and interviews, and were then modelled in perception graphs. Actor modelling indicated that an integrative strategy that targets environmentally-responsible prescription, therapy, and disposal of pharmaceuticals on one hand, and the development of environmentally-friendly pharmaceuticals on the other hand, will likely be most effective for reducing the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in drinking water (at least in Germany where the study was performed). However, unlike most other actors, the pharmaceutical industry itself does not perceive that the production of environmentally-friendly pharmaceuticals is an action that helps to achieve its goals, but contends that continued development of highly active pharmaceutical ingredients will help to reduce the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the water cycle. Investment in advanced waste or drinking water treatment is opposed by both the wastewater treatment company and the drinking water supplier, and is not mentioned as appropriate by the other actors. According to our experience, actor modelling is a useful method to suggest effective

  20. Human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies in relation to access to medicines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hunt, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Although access to medicines is a vital feature of the right to the highest attainable standard of health ("right to health"), almost two billion people lack access to essential medicines, leading to immense avoidable suffering. While the human rights responsibility to provide access to medicines lies mainly with States, pharmaceutical companies also have human rights responsibilities in relation to access to medicines. This article provides an introduction to these responsibilities. It briefly outlines the new UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and places the human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies in this context. The authors draw from the work of the first UN Special Rapporteur on the right to the highest attainable standard of health, in particular the Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in Relation to Access to Medicines that he presented to the UN General Assembly in 2008, and his UN report on GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). While the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights are general human rights standards applicable to all business entities, the Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies consider the specific human rights responsibilities of one sector (pharmaceutical companies) in relation to one area of activity (access to medicines). The article signals the human rights responsibilities of all pharmaceutical companies, with particular attention to patent-holding pharmaceutical companies. Adopting a right-to-health "lens," the article discusses GSK and accountability. The authors argue that human rights should shape pharmaceutical companies' policies, and provide standards in relation to which pharmaceutical companies could, and should, be held accountable. They conclude that it is now crucial to devise independent, accessible, transparent, and effective mechanisms to monitor pharmaceutical companies and hold them publicly accountable for their human rights responsibilities.

  1. Sector-scanning echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, W. L.; Griffith, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanical sector scanner is described in detail, and its clinical application is discussed. Cross sectional images of the heart are obtained in real time using this system. The sector scanner has three major components: (a) hand held scanner, (b) video display, and (c) video recorder. The system provides diagnostic information in a wide spectrum of cardiac diseases, and it quantitates the severity of mitral stenosis by measurement of the mitral valve orifice area in diagnosing infants, children and adults with cyanotic congenital heart disease.

  2. Sector-scanning echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, W. L.; Griffith, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanical sector scanner is described in detail, and its clinical application is discussed. Cross sectional images of the heart are obtained in real time using this system. The sector scanner has three major components: (a) hand held scanner, (b) video display, and (c) video recorder. The system provides diagnostic information in a wide spectrum of cardiac diseases, and it quantitates the severity of mitral stenosis by measurement of the mitral valve orifice area in diagnosing infants, children and adults with cyanotic congenital heart disease.

  3. Code of ethics for the national pharmaceutical system: Codifying and compilation

    PubMed Central

    Salari, Pooneh; Namazi, Hamidreza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Khansari, Fatemeh; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Larijani, Bagher; Araminia, Behin

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacists as one of health-care providers face ethical issues in terms of pharmaceutical care, relationship with patients and cooperation with the health-care team. Other than pharmacy, there are pharmaceutical companies in various fields of manufacturing, importing or distributing that have their own ethical issues. Therefore, pharmacy practice is vulnerable to ethical challenges and needs special code of conducts. On feeling the need, based on a shared project between experts of the ethics from relevant research centers, all the needs were fully recognized and then specified code of conduct for each was written. The code of conduct was subject to comments of all experts involved in the pharmaceutical sector and thus criticized in several meetings. The prepared code of conduct is comprised of professional code of ethics for pharmacists, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical manufacturers, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical importers, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical distributors, and ethics guideline for policy makers. The document was compiled based on the principles of bioethics and professionalism. The compiling the code of ethics for the national pharmaceutical system is the first step in implementing ethics in pharmacy practice and further attempts into teaching the professionalism and the ethical code as the necessary and complementary effort are highly recommended. PMID:24174954

  4. Code of ethics for the national pharmaceutical system: Codifying and compilation.

    PubMed

    Salari, Pooneh; Namazi, Hamidreza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Khansari, Fatemeh; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Larijani, Bagher; Araminia, Behin

    2013-05-01

    Pharmacists as one of health-care providers face ethical issues in terms of pharmaceutical care, relationship with patients and cooperation with the health-care team. Other than pharmacy, there are pharmaceutical companies in various fields of manufacturing, importing or distributing that have their own ethical issues. Therefore, pharmacy practice is vulnerable to ethical challenges and needs special code of conducts. On feeling the need, based on a shared project between experts of the ethics from relevant research centers, all the needs were fully recognized and then specified code of conduct for each was written. The code of conduct was subject to comments of all experts involved in the pharmaceutical sector and thus criticized in several meetings. The prepared code of conduct is comprised of professional code of ethics for pharmacists, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical manufacturers, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical importers, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical distributors, and ethics guideline for policy makers. The document was compiled based on the principles of bioethics and professionalism. The compiling the code of ethics for the national pharmaceutical system is the first step in implementing ethics in pharmacy practice and further attempts into teaching the professionalism and the ethical code as the necessary and complementary effort are highly recommended.

  5. Marketing the use of the space environment for the processing of biological and pharmaceutical materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The perceptions of U.S. biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies concerning the potential use of the space environment for the processing of biological substances was examined. Physical phenomena that may be important in space-base processing of biological materials are identified and discussed in the context of past and current experiment programs. The capabilities of NASA to support future research and development, and to engage in cooperative risk sharing programs with industry are discussed. Meetings were held with several biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies to provide data for an analysis of the attitudes and perceptions of these industries toward the use of the space environment. Recommendations are made for actions that might be taken by NASA to facilitate the marketing of the use of the space environment, and in particular the Space Shuttle, to the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries.

  6. Availability and Perceived Value of Masters of Business Administration Degree Programs in Pharmaceutical Marketing and Management

    PubMed Central

    Clauson, Kevin A.; Latif, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To examine pharmacist-targeted master of business administration (MBA) degree programs and investigate pharmacists’ perceptions regarding them. Methods. Specialized MBA programs in pharmaceutical marketing and management offered at US colleges and schools of pharmacy were identified in the literature and compared. Pharmacists’ perceptions of MBA programs were evaluated through a survey of clinical preceptors affiliated with a school of pharmacy. Results. Seven US universities that offer an MBA program in pharmaceutical marketing and management were identified. Thirty-three percent of the 57 pharmacist preceptors who responded to the survey reported plans to pursue an MBA degree program. Respondents preferred MBA programs related to healthcare or pharmacy (66%) over general MBA programs (33%). Conclusion. An MBA in pharmaceutical marketing and management could provide pharmacists with advanced knowledge of the operational and strategic business aspects of pharmacy practice and give pharmacy graduates an advantage in an increasingly competitive job market. PMID:22611273

  7. Availability and perceived value of masters of business administration degree programs in pharmaceutical marketing and management.

    PubMed

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Clauson, Kevin A; Latif, David A

    2012-05-10

    To examine pharmacist-targeted master of business administration (MBA) degree programs and investigate pharmacists' perceptions regarding them. Specialized MBA programs in pharmaceutical marketing and management offered at US colleges and schools of pharmacy were identified in the literature and compared. Pharmacists' perceptions of MBA programs were evaluated through a survey of clinical preceptors affiliated with a school of pharmacy. Seven US universities that offer an MBA program in pharmaceutical marketing and management were identified. Thirty-three percent of the 57 pharmacist preceptors who responded to the survey reported plans to pursue an MBA degree program. Respondents preferred MBA programs related to healthcare or pharmacy (66%) over general MBA programs (33%). An MBA in pharmaceutical marketing and management could provide pharmacists with advanced knowledge of the operational and strategic business aspects of pharmacy practice and give pharmacy graduates an advantage in an increasingly competitive job market.

  8. Virtual pharmaceutical companies: collaborating flexibly in pharmaceutical development.

    PubMed

    Forster, Simon P; Stegmaier, Julia; Spycher, Rene; Seeger, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Research and development (R&D) collaborations represent one approach chosen by the pharmaceutical industry to tackle current challenges posed by declining internal R&D success rates and fading of the blockbuster model. In recent years, a flexible concept to collaborate in R&D has emerged: virtual pharmaceutical companies (VPCs). These differ from other R&D companies, such as biotech start-ups, collaborating with big pharmaceutical companies, because they solely comprise experienced teams of managers. VPCs have only been described anecdotally in literature. Thus, we present here the characteristics of a VPC and suggest how big pharma can leverage the concept of VPCs by introducing five possible modes of collaboration. We find that one mode, investing, is particularly promising for big pharma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pharmaceutical policies in European countries.

    PubMed

    Barros, Pedro Pita

    2010-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditures have an important role in Europe. The attempts to control expenditure have used a wide range of policy measures. We reviewed the main measures adopted by the European Union countries, especially in countries where governments are the largest third-party payers. To complement a literature review on the topic, data was gathered from national reviews of health systems and direct inquiries to several government bodies. Almost all countries regulate prices of pharmaceutical products. Popular policy measures include international referencing to set prices (using as benchmark countries that have set lower prices), internal reference pricing systems to promote price competition in domestic markets, and positive lists for reimbursement to promote consumption of generics (including in some cases substitution by pharmacists of drugs prescribed by physicians). Despite the wide range of policy measures, it is not possible to identify a "silver bullet" to control pharmaceutical expenditures. We also identified two main policy challenges: policy coordination among countries within the European Union to maintain incentives for R&D at the global level, and the development of new relationships with the pharmaceutical industry; namely, the so-called risk-sharing agreements between the pharmaceutical industry and governments/regulators (or large third-party payers).

  10. [Bioequivalence studies of pharmaceutical preparations].

    PubMed

    Vetchý, D; Frýbortová, K; Rabisková, M; Danecková, H

    2007-01-01

    Bioequivalence studies are very important for the development of a pharmaceutical preparation in the pharmaceutical industry. Their rationale is the monitoring of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters after the administration of tested drugs. The target of such study is to evaluate the therapeutic compatibility of tested drugs (pharmaceutical equivalents or pharmaceutical alternatives). The importance of bioequivalence studies is increasing also due to the large growth of the production and consumption of generic products. Generic products represent approximately 50 % of the whole consumption in many European countries and USA. The search output of bioequivalence study is together with the pharmaceutical quality data of medical product one of the main part of the registration file submitted to a national regulatory authorities. The registration of generic products does not demand complicated and expensive clinical study contrary to original product. The comparison of the original and the generic product via bioequivalence study is suggested as sufficient. The aim of this article is to provide to a medical public a summary about the types of bioequivalence studies, their range, rules of their practise and let them gain their own attitude to this question.

  11. [Coordination between pharmaceutical services for integrated pharmacotherapy: the case of Catalonia].

    PubMed

    Costa, Karen Sarmento; Goldbaum, Moisés; Guayta-Escolies, Rafel; Modamio, Pilar; Mariño, Eduardo Luis; Tolsá, José Luis Segú

    2017-08-01

    Pharmaceutical policies have been considered strategies to contribute to the guarantee of care coordination and clinical integration. This study sought to describe the pharmaceutical services developed at different levels of care in the health network in Catalonia, as well as to identify and analyze the mechanisms and instruments that act as facilitators and/or barriers to the coordination of pharmacotherapy. This is a descriptive study of 12 cases of hospital pharmacy services, primary care and community pharmacies. Advances related to the perception, formalization and clinical and assistance coordination of the pharmaceutical services were identified. However, weaknesses and potential improvements in coordination were observed. The conclusion drawn was that the different tools and instruments implemented appear to facilitate a greater possibility of integration between pharmaceutical services and the latter with the health services network to contribute to integrated pharmacotherapy.

  12. Planning and coordinating pharmaceutical purchasing.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, E C

    1984-09-01

    The planning and coordination of the pharmaceutical purchasing process are discussed. Planning for pharmaceutical purchasing should begin with decisions regarding why a purchasing policy is needed, what the institution's purchasing policy will be, and what departments will be involved in purchasing. General goals of purchasing and procedures for revising purchasing functions are presented, and the role of the pharmacy department, materials management, and other hospital departments in purchasing is discussed. Coordinating input on purchasing decisions from medical staff, administration, and clinical and technical pharmacy personnel to achieve purchasing goals and objectives is discussed. A well-designed pharmaceutical purchasing system provides for planned and scheduled purchases, competitive bidding, product standardization, group purchasing, information sharing, internal accountability, and quality assurance.

  13. Macro trends in pharmaceutical innovation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Fredric J

    2005-04-01

    Extract: A lately recycled criticism of the pharmaceutical industry is that it is failing in its mission to innovate. In particular, critics question the industry's incentives to innovate, and they deride those innovations the industry makes as imitative. Industry advocates contend the opposite. The truth is that there are no generally accepted measures of innovation that would conclusively prove either side's point. However, I have found trends in several measures that support both sides of the innovation debate. Overall, the bulk of evidence suggests that the pharmaceutical industry continues to regard pioneering innovations as important (evidenced by the motivation, effort and ability of the industry to create such innovations). However, like other mature manufacturing industries, the pharmaceutical industry relies heavily on incremental innovations (what critics call "me-too" drugs) to sustain its profits. To a large extent, these incremental innovations are themselves medically beneficial and should be encouraged rather than dismissed as merely imitative.

  14. Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindexter, Graham S.; Pendri, Yadagiri; Snyder, Lawrence B.; Yevich, Joseph P.; Deshpande, Milind

    This chapter will discuss the role of chemistry within the pharmaceutical industry. Although the focus will be upon the industry within the United States, much of the discussion is equally relevant to pharmaceutical companies based in other first world nations such as Japan and those in Europe. The major objective of the pharmaceutical industry is the discovery, development, and marketing of efficacious and safe drugs for the treatment of human disease. Of course drug companies do not exist as altruistic, charitable organizations but like other share-holder owned corporations within our capitalistic society must achieve profits in order to remain viable and competitive. Thus, there exists a conundrum between the dual goals of enhancing the quality and duration of human life and that of increasing stock-holder equity. Much has been written and spoken in the lay media about the high prices of prescription drugs and the hardships this places upon the elderly and others of limited income.

  15. 21 CFR 26.47 - Role and composition of the Joint Sectoral Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Role and composition of the Joint Sectoral Committee. 26.47 Section 26.47 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE...

  16. 21 CFR 26.47 - Role and composition of the Joint Sectoral Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Role and composition of the Joint Sectoral Committee. 26.47 Section 26.47 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE...

  17. 21 CFR 26.47 - Role and composition of the Joint Sectoral Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Role and composition of the Joint Sectoral Committee. 26.47 Section 26.47 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE...

  18. Practices of pharmaceutical waste generation and discarding in households across Portugal.

    PubMed

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Valente, Susana; Vaz, João

    2016-10-01

    This work is the first nationwide study in Portugal on pharmaceutical waste generated at households, exploring people's attitudes and risk perception. The waste audit was carried out from September to November 2014, targeting pharmaceutical products kept by a sample of families (n = 244). This campaign was an assignment of VALORMED, the non-profit association that manages waste and packaging from expired and unused pharmaceutical products collected by the pharmacies. On average, each household kept at home 1097 g of pharmaceutical products, of which 20% were in use, 72% were not in use, and 8% were mostly expired products ready to discard. Face-to-face interviews with householders showed that 69% of the respondents claimed returning pharmaceutical waste to the local pharmacy. However, this figure is overrated, probably owing to a possible 'good answer' effect. The barriers identified to proper disposal were mainly established routines and lack of close disposal points. This study also provides an insight into the Portuguese awareness and daily practices concerning pharmaceutical waste, which is the cornerstone of any future strategy to reduce the release of active pharmaceutical ingredients into ecosystems. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. The future of pharmaceutical quality and the path to get there.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lawrence X; Kopcha, Michael

    2017-08-07

    While six sigma quality has long been achieved in other industries, it is rarely seen in the pharmaceutical sector. However, consumers and patients deserve six sigma quality pharmaceuticals with minimal risks of shortages or recalls. We propose that the future of pharmaceutical quality is six sigma, meaning that no more than 3.4 defects occur per million opportunities. We discuss the path to get there, including economic drivers, performance-based regulation, Quality by Design, advanced manufacturing technologies, and continuous improvement and operational excellence. This article outlines an ambitious goal and is intended to be thought-provoking in spite of the challenging path to get there. This goal is envisioned because it is in the best interest of patients and consumers and is realizable with continued advances and investments in science and technology. The fundamental destination of pharmaceutical quality has been long envisioned: a maximally efficient, agile, flexible pharmaceutical manufacturing sector that reliably produces high quality drugs without extensive regulatory oversight. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Improving health sector travel.

    PubMed

    Hurdle, David; Davis, Adrian

    2004-10-01

    Preventing ill health and obesity and building more physical activity into our daily lives have never been so high on the agenda, and the way we travel can help. Many workplaces and schools are drawing up travel plans, with the aims usually to minimise car use and encourage healthier and more environmentally friendly travel. The Transport White Paper of 1998 advocated travel plans and singled out hospitals for action. Travel plans continue to be a focus within the latest Transport White Paper, launched in July 2004. This article covers various prompts to the health sector to implement travel plans. It addresses issues and concerns facing NHS Trusts, the practical things Trusts can do, and the increasing amount of good practice available. Finally, it demonstrates that travel plans can work, and are working, in the health sector.

  1. Methods of Rapid Microbiological Assay and Their Application to Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Fabrication.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Hideharu

    2016-01-01

     There are several rapid microbiological methods becoming available that have useful applications in pharmaceutical and medical devices. They are ATP bioluminescence, fluorescent labeling, electrical resistance, and nucleic acid probes. In choosing to employ rapid methods, the microbiologist should examine their prospective performances against the specific requirements for that sector. Some methods may require expensive equipment and offer full automation, and others represent only a small investment. The regulatory view of these methods is changing and they still officially have not been approved in medical and pharmaceutical area, but it will still be up to the microbiologist to demonstrate that the method chosen is fit for the purpose intended.

  2. Coming Soon to a Physician Near You: Medical Neoliberalism and Pharmaceutical Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jill A

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to expand standard conceptions of current ethical issues by discussing pharmaceutical clinical trials in terms of the broader political economy. Specifically, it explores one important characteristic of the political economy in the United States: the trend towards the neoliberalization of health care. First, it provides an overview of neoliberalism and its manifestations in the health care sector. Then, it applies this perspective to pharmaceutical drug development. The paper argues that federal regulation must attend to the context of clinical research to protect human subjects more fully.

  3. Awareness of occupational skin disease in the service sector.

    PubMed

    Holness, D L; Kudla, I; Brown, J; Miller, S

    2017-06-01

    Occupational skin disease (OSD) is a common occupational disease. Although primary prevention strategies are known, OSDs remain prevalent in a variety of work environments including the service sector (restaurant/food services, retail/wholesale, tourism/hospitality and vehicle sales and service). To obtain information about awareness and prevention of OSD in the service sector. Focus groups and a survey were conducted with two groups. The first consisted of staff of the provincial health and safety association for the service sector and the second group comprised representatives from sector employers. Focus groups highlighted key issues to inform the survey that obtained information about perceptions of awareness and prevention of OSD and barriers to awareness and prevention. Both provincial health and safety association staff and sector employer representatives highlighted low awareness and a low level of knowledge of OSD in the sector. Barriers to awareness and prevention included a low reported incidence of OSD, low priority, lack of training materials, lack of time and cost of training, lack of management support and workplace culture. A starting point for improving prevention of OSD in the service sector is increased awareness. Identification of the barriers to awareness and prevention will help to shape an awareness campaign and prevention strategies. Building on existing experience in Europe will be important.

  4. Sector Study Guideline

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    LIMITS . . . . . . . . 8 5.1 Market Groups . ................ 8 5.2 Market Group A and the Level of Effort (LOE) Assessment...9 5.3 Market Groups B and Level of Effort (LOE) Assessment . . . . . . . . . 10 5.4 Market Group C and the Level of Effort Assessment 11 5.5... Market Groups Al, B1, C1 versus A2, B2, C2 (LOE) 11 6.0 AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7.0 OVERVIEW OF THE PROPOSED SECTOR

  5. Basics of Compounding: Clinical Pharmaceutics, Part 2.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V

    2016-01-01

    This article represents part 2 of a 2-part article on the topic of clinical pharmaceutics. Pharmaceutics is relevant far beyond the pharmaceutical industry, compounding, and the laboratory. Pharmaceutics can be used to solve many clinical problems in medication therapy. A pharmacists' knowledge of the physicochemical aspects of drugs and drug products should help the patient, physician, and healthcare professionals resolve issues in the increasingly complex world of modern medicine. Part 1 of this series of articles discussed incompatibilities which can directly affect a clinical outcome and utilized pharmaceutics case examples of the application and importance of clinical pharmaceutics covering different characteristics. Part 2 continues to illustrate the scientific principles and clinical effects involved in clinical pharmaceutics. Also covered in this article are many of the scientific principles in typical to patient care. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  6. Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... The New Era of Medicine SHARE THIS The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, PhRMA, represents the ... PhRMA Privacy Policy Terms of Service Site Map Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America® 950 F Street, ...

  7. Endocrine-Active Pharmaceuticals: An Environmental Concern?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, there has been growing interest in pharmaceuticals that are specifically designed to have endocrine activity, such as the estrogens used in birth control pills, exerting unintended effects on fish and other aquatic organisms. These pharmaceuticals may not be persistent...

  8. Endocrine-Active Pharmaceuticals: An Environmental Concern?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, there has been growing interest in pharmaceuticals that are specifically designed to have endocrine activity, such as the estrogens used in birth control pills, exerting unintended effects on fish and other aquatic organisms. These pharmaceuticals may not be persistent...

  9. Pharmaceutical care in smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Marín Armero, Alicia; Calleja Hernandez, Miguel A; Perez-Vicente, Sabina; Martinez-Martinez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    As a determining factor in various diseases and the leading known cause of preventable mortality and morbidity, tobacco use is the number one public health problem in developed countries. Facing this health problem requires authorities and health professionals to promote, via specific programs, health campaigns that improve patients’ access to smoking cessation services. Pharmaceutical care has a number of specific characteristics that enable the pharmacist, as a health professional, to play an active role in dealing with smoking and deliver positive smoking cessation interventions. The objectives of the study were to assess the efficacy of a smoking cessation campaign carried out at a pharmaceutical care center and to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on patients who decide to try to stop smoking. The methodology was an open, analytical, pre–post intervention, quasi-experimental clinical study performed with one patient cohort. The results of the study were that the promotional campaign for the smoking cessation program increased the number of patients from one to 22, and after 12 months into the study, 43.48% of the total number of patients achieved total smoking cessation. We can conclude that advertising of a smoking cessation program in a pharmacy increases the number of patients who use the pharmacy’s smoking cessation services, and pharmaceutical care is an effective means of achieving smoking cessation. PMID:25678779

  10. Immunotoxicology in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed Central

    Norbury, K C

    1982-01-01

    Development of an immunotoxicology program within the pharmaceutical industry is described. With few guidelines in the area and a multitude of factors to consider, a basic screen for evaluating immune competence in species routinely used in toxicologic studies has been proposed. The future of immunotoxicology depends upon the ability of the selected immune function tests to be predictive of human risk. PMID:7037389

  11. Financing pharmaceuticals in transition economies.

    PubMed

    Kanavos, P

    1999-06-01

    This paper (a) provides a methodological taxonomy of pricing, financing, reimbursement, and cost containment methodologies for pharmaceuticals; (b) analyzes complex agency relationships and the health versus industrial policy tradeoff; (c) pinpoints financing measures to balance safety and effectiveness of medicines and their affordability by publicly funded systems in transition; and (d) highlights viable options for policy-makers for the financing of pharmaceuticals in transition. Three categories of measures and their implications for pharmaceutical policy cost containing are analyzed: supply-side measures, targeting manufacturers, proxy demand-side measures, targeting physicians and pharmacists, and demand-side measures, targeting patients. In pursuing supply side measures, we explore free pricing for pharmaceuticals, direct price controls, cost-plus and cost pricing, average pricing and international price comparisons, profit control, reference pricing, the introduction of a fourth hurdle, positive and negative lists, and other price control measures. The analysis of proxy-demand measures includes budgets for physicians, generic policies, practice guidelines, monitoring the authorizing behavior of physicians, and disease management schemes. Demand-side measures explore the effectiveness of patient co-payments, the impact of allowing products over-the-counter and health promotion programs. Global policies should operate simultaneously on the supply, the proxy demand, and the demand-side. Policy-making needs to have a continuous long-term planning. The importation of policies into transition economy may require extensive and expensive adaptation, and/or lead to sub-optimal policy outcomes.

  12. Modeling picking on pharmaceutical tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Shrikant

    Tablets are the most popular solid dosage form in the pharmaceutical industry because they are cheap to manufacture, chemically and mechanically stable and easy to transport and fairly easy to control dosage. Pharmaceutical tableting operations have been around for decades however the process is still not well understood. One of the common problems faced during the production of pharmaceutical tablets by powder compaction is sticking of powder to the punch face, This is known as 'sticking'. A more specialized case of sticking is picking when the powder is pulled away form the compact in the vicinity of debossed features. In the pharmaceutical industry, picking is solved by trial and error which is an expensive, labor intensive and time consuming affair. The objective of this work was to develop, validate, and implement a modeling framework for predicting picking in powder compacts. The model was developed in Abaqus a commercially available finite element package. The resulting model was used to investigate the influence of debossed feature geometry viz. the stroke angle and degree of pre-pick, and, influence of lubricant on picking. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  13. Patrick Couvreur: inspiring pharmaceutical innovation.

    PubMed

    Stanwix, Hannah

    2014-05-01

    Patrick Couvreur speaks to Hannah Stanwix, Managing Comissioning Editor: Professor Patrick Couvreur received his pharmacy degree from the Université Catholique de Louvain (Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium) in 1972. He holds a PhD in pharmaceutical technology from the same university and completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (Zürich, Switzerland). Since 1984, Professor Couvreur has been Full Professor of Pharmacy at the Paris-Sud University (Paris, France) and was holder of the Chair of Innovation Technologique at the prestigious Collège de France (Paris, France). He has published more than 450 peer-reviewed articles and has an H-index of 73, with over 19,000 citations. Professor Coureur has been recognized by numerous national and international awards, including the 2004 Pharmaceutical Sciences World Congress Award, the prestigious Host Madsen Medal, the Prix Galien, the European Pharmaceutical Scientist Award 2011 from the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Sciences, the Médaille de l'Innovation from the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, and recently the European Inventor Award 2013 from the European Patent Office.

  14. Misperceptions of peer pill-popping: the prevalence, correlates, and effects of inaccurate assumptions about peer pharmaceutical misuse.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Amber; Stogner, John; Seibert, Jonathan; Miller, Bryan Lee

    2014-06-01

    Peer behaviors may significantly influence personal behavior yet individuals may not accurately estimate their peers' actions. Overestimations of peer substance use may encourage initiation or exacerbate extant problems. The present study examines misperceptions of peer pharmaceutical misuse and explores the relationship between reported misuse and perceptions of misuse for four categories of prescription drugs. Data collected from 2,349 college students in the Southeastern United States were analyzed and results indicated that overall perceptions of misuse were significantly higher than actual misuse. These findings suggest that intervention efforts may benefit from addressing misperceptions of pharmaceutical misuse. Study limitations and implications are addressed.

  15. Social Work-Business Sector Collaboration in Pursuit of Economic Justice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonhyung

    2016-07-01

    This article examines social workers' perceptions, experiences, and prospects regarding working in the business sector after participating in an MSW field practicum with a local microlending program. Social workers' insights suggest that cross-sector collaboration leads to vast opportunities not only for the populations served by the collaborative efforts, but also for social work as a profession. However, several challenges are evealed, including social workers' unfamiliarity with business operations, the business sector's narrow understanding of social workers' roles, and divisions between participants in interprofessional collaboration. This article calls for enhancing the role of social work to maximize its impact on economic development through further research and tangible cross-sector projects.

  16. Pharmaceuticals: pharmaceutical cost controls--2005. End of Year Issue Brief.

    PubMed

    Seay, Melicia; Varma, Priya

    2005-12-31

    The enactment of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 (OBRA '90) gave states the option of offering pharmaceutical benefits within their Medicaid programs. But the law placed restrictions on states' flexibility to control what prescriptions they would cover and required the states to reimburse outpatient prescription drugs from manufacturers that signed rebate agreements with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Forty-nine states--Arizona is excluded, based on its program structure--and the District of Columbia currently offer prescription drug coverage under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. During the past four years, states all over the country have been plagued with revenue shortfalls in their state Medicaid budgets. While the fiscal situation improved for most states in the 2004 legislative session, many states still face budget pressures in 2005. Compounding existing budget pressures are threats from the Bush Administration to shift increased costs of the Medicaid program on to the states. All things considered, the economic pressure of funding Medicaid is at the top of legislative agendas in 2005. As in previous years, states are attempting to reduce costs to their Medicaid programs by seeking savings in their pharmaceutical programs. Prescription drug costs are highly attributed as a contributing factor to the fiscal climate of state Medicaid programs. Currently, prescription drug spending outpaces that of every other category of health care and drug prices are rising faster than inflation. In response, states are instituting a variety of pharmaceutical cost control measures such as creating preferred drug lists (PDLs), negotiating supplemental rebates, forming bulk purchasing pools, promoting generic drug substitution and implementing price controls. As prescription drug cost containment tools have gained acceptance and momentum, they continue to be controversial. This issue brief explores the debate, history, methodology, utilization

  17. Basics of Compounding: Clinical Pharmaceutics, Part 1.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutics is relevant far beyond the pharmaceutical industry, compounding, and the laboratory. Pharmaceutics can be used to solve many clinical problems in medication therapy. A pharmacists' knowledge of the physicochemical aspects of drugs and drug products should help the patient, physician, and healthcare professionals resolve issues in the increasingly complex world of modern medicine. Pharmacy is unique as it contains a knowledge base significantly different from that of physicians, nurses, and other health-related practitioners. The separation of the science and the practice of pharmacy have prevented the complete utilization of pharmaceutical sciences in the clinical environment far too long. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  18. The effect of active learning methodologies on the teaching of pharmaceutical care in a Brazilian pharmacy faculty.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Alessandra R; Souza, Werlissandra M; Boaventura, Thays C; Barros, Izadora M C; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Silva, Wellington B; Lyra Júnior, Divaldo P

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, pharmacists have been involved in expanded patient care responsibilities, for example patient counseling in self-medication, medication review and pharmaceutical care, which require graduates to develop the necessary competences. Consequently, reorientation of pharmacy education has become necessary. As such, active learning strategies have been introduced into classrooms to increase problem-solving and critical thinking skills of students. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and perceptions of competency of students in a new pharmaceutical care course that uses active learning methodologies. This pharmaceutical care course was conducted in the first semester of 2014, in the Federal University of Sergipe. In the pharmaceutical care course, active learning methods were used, consisting of dialogic classroom expository, simulation and case studies. Student learning was evaluated using classroom tests and instruments that evaluated the perception of competency in pharmaceutical care practice. Furthermore, students' satisfaction with the course was evaluated. Thirty-three students completed the four evaluations used in the course (i.e., a discursive written exam, seminars, OSCE, and virtual patient); 25 were female (75.75%), and the median age was 23.43 (SD 2.82) years. The overall mean of student scores, in all evaluation methods was 7.97 (SD 0.59) on a scale of 0 to 10 points, and student performance on the virtual patient method was statistically superior to other methods. With respect to the perception of competency in pharmaceutical care practice, a comparison of pre- and post-test scores revealed statistically significant improvement for all evaluated competences. At the end of the semester, the students presented positive opinions of the pharmaceutical care course. The results suggest that an active learning course can enhance the learning of pharmaceutical care competences. In future studies it will be necessary to

  19. The Effect of Active Learning Methodologies on the Teaching of Pharmaceutical Care in a Brazilian Pharmacy Faculty

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background In recent years, pharmacists have been involved in expanded patient care responsibilities, for example patient counseling in self-medication, medication review and pharmaceutical care, which require graduates to develop the necessary competences. Consequently, reorientation of pharmacy education has become necessary. As such, active learning strategies have been introduced into classrooms to increase problem-solving and critical thinking skills of students. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and perceptions of competency of students in a new pharmaceutical care course that uses active learning methodologies. Methods This pharmaceutical care course was conducted in the first semester of 2014, in the Federal University of Sergipe. In the pharmaceutical care course, active learning methods were used, consisting of dialogic classroom expository, simulation and case studies. Student learning was evaluated using classroom tests and instruments that evaluated the perception of competency in pharmaceutical care practice. Furthermore, students' satisfaction with the course was evaluated. Results Thirty-three students completed the four evaluations used in the course (i.e., a discursive written exam, seminars, OSCE, and virtual patient); 25 were female (75.75%), and the median age was 23.43 (SD 2.82) years. The overall mean of student scores, in all evaluation methods was 7.97 (SD 0.59) on a scale of 0 to 10 points, and student performance on the virtual patient method was statistically superior to other methods. With respect to the perception of competency in pharmaceutical care practice, a comparison of pre- and post-test scores revealed statistically significant improvement for all evaluated competences. At the end of the semester, the students presented positive opinions of the pharmaceutical care course. Conclusions The results suggest that an active learning course can enhance the learning of pharmaceutical care competences. In

  20. Nanotechnology and its applications in the food sector.

    PubMed

    Sozer, Nesli; Kokini, Jozef L

    2009-02-01

    Nanoscience and nanotechnology are new frontiers of this century. Their applications to the agriculture and food sector are relatively recent compared with their use in drug delivery and pharmaceuticals. Smart delivery of nutrients, bioseparation of proteins, rapid sampling of biological and chemical contaminants and nanoencapsulation of nutraceuticals are some of the emerging topics of nanotechnology for food and agriculture. Advances in technologies, such as DNA microarrays, microelectromechanical systems and microfluidics, will enable the realization of the potential of nanotechnology for food applications. In this review, we intended to summarize the applications of nanotechnology relevant to food and nutraceuticals together with identifying the outstanding challenges.

  1. Biosafe nanoscale pharmaceutical adjuvant materials.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shubin; Li, Shengliang; Wang, Chongxi; Liu, Juan; Yang, Xiaolong; Wang, Paul C; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2014-09-01

    Thanks to developments in the field of nanotechnology over the past decades, more and more biosafe nanoscale materials have become available for use as pharmaceutical adjuvants in medical research. Nanomaterials possess unique properties which could be employed to develop drug carriers with longer circulation time, higher loading capacity, better stability in physiological conditions, controlled drug release, and targeted drug delivery. In this review article, we will review recent progress in the application of representative organic, inorganic and hybrid biosafe nanoscale materials in pharmaceutical research, especially focusing on nanomaterial-based novel drug delivery systems. In addition, we briefly discuss the advantages and notable functions that make these nanomaterials suitable for the design of new medicines; the biosafety of each material discussed in this article is also highlighted to provide a comprehensive understanding of their adjuvant attributes.

  2. Ethics and the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Green, Stephen

    2008-06-01

    Relationships between the pharmaceutical industry and the medical profession enhance the potential for physicians to become involved in conflicts of interest. Whether or not these rise to a level that violates standards of medical ethics depends on the degree to which they detract from the quality of health care and its cost, the objectivity of research, and the profession's integrity. This paper explores those issues from two perspectives--the micro-level of the medical profession and the macro-level of society. Practices and policies that affect varied aspects of the interaction between the pharmaceutical industry and the medical profession--such as education, research and marketing--are discussed. The reader is asked to reflect on the ethics of issues raised; the author offers suggestions for mitigating conflicts of interest and, in turn, the potential for unethical medical care.

  3. Biosafe Nanoscale Pharmaceutical Adjuvant Materials

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shubin; Li, Shengliang; Wang, Chongxi; Liu, Juan; Yang, Xiaolong; Wang, Paul C.; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to developments in the field of nanotechnology over the past decades, more and more biosafe nanoscale materials have become available for use as pharmaceutical adjuvants in medical research. Nanomaterials possess unique properties which could be employed to develop drug carriers with longer circulation time, higher loading capacity, better stability in physiological conditions, controlled drug release, and targeted drug delivery. In this review article, we will review recent progress in the application of representative organic, inorganic and hybrid biosafe nanoscale materials in pharmaceutical research, especially focusing on nanomaterial-based novel drug delivery systems. In addition, we briefly discuss the advantages and notable functions that make these nanomaterials suitable for the design of new medicines; the biosafety of each material discussed in this article is also highlighted to provide a comprehensive understanding of their adjuvant attributes. PMID:25429253

  4. Public policy and pharmaceutical innovation.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, H G

    1982-09-01

    Historically, new drug introductions have played a central role in medical progress and the availability of cost-effective therapies. Nevertheless, public policy toward pharmaceuticals has been characterized in recent times by increasingly stringent regulatory controls, shorter effective patent terms, and increased encouragement of generic product usage. This has had an adverse effect on the incentives and capabilities of firms to undertake new drug research and development activity. The industry has experienced sharply rising research and development costs, declining annual new drug introductions, and fewer independent sources of drug development. This paper considers the effects of government regulatory policies on the pharmaceutical innovation process from several related perspectives. It also examines the merits of current public policy proposals designed to stimulate drug innovation including patent restoration and various regulatory reform measures.

  5. Public Policy and Pharmaceutical Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, Henry G.

    1982-01-01

    Historically, new drug introductions have played a central role in medical progress and the availability of cost-effective therapies. Nevertheless, public policy toward pharmaceuticals has been characterized in recent times by increasingly stringent regulatory controls, shorter effective patent terms, and increased encouragement of generic product usage. This has had an adverse effect on the incentives and capabilities of firms to undertake new drug research and development activity. The industry has experienced sharply rising research and development costs, declining annual new drug introductions, and fewer independent sources of drug development. This paper considers the effects of government regulatory policies on the pharmaceutical innovation process from several related perspectives. It also examines the merits of current public policy proposals designed to stimulate drug innovation including patent restoration and various regulatory reform measures. PMID:10309721

  6. Chiral Dark Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Co, Raymond T.; Harigaya, Keisuke; Nomura, Yasunori

    2017-03-01

    We present a simple and natural dark sector model in which dark matter particles arise as composite states of hidden strong dynamics and their stability is ensured by accidental symmetries. The model has only a few free parameters. In particular, the gauge symmetry of the model forbids the masses of dark quarks, and the confinement scale of the dynamics provides the unique mass scale of the model. The gauge group contains an Abelian symmetry U (1 )D , which couples the dark and standard model sectors through kinetic mixing. This model, despite its simple structure, has rich and distinctive phenomenology. In the case where the dark pion becomes massive due to U (1 )D quantum corrections, direct and indirect detection experiments can probe thermal relic dark matter which is generically a mixture of the dark pion and the dark baryon, and the Large Hadron Collider can discover the U (1 )D gauge boson. Alternatively, if the dark pion stays light due to a specific U (1 )D charge assignment of the dark quarks, then the dark pion constitutes dark radiation. The signal of this radiation is highly correlated with that of dark baryons in dark matter direct detection.

  7. Relevance of variation in use of terminology to define generic pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Elize Massard da

    2015-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) promotes the use of generic drug policies to foster competition in the pharmaceutical sector, reduce drug prices, and increase access to therapeutic drugs. However, little is known about how countries implement these policies. This article describes different terminology adopted by national regulatory authorities to define generic versus proprietary drug products in developing countries, including those in Latin America, and challenges that arise in their application of WHO guidelines, such as labeling issues. The author concludes that variation in generics terminology in these countries is a result of institutional context (i.e., the public sector setting as well as the body of laws and regulations that exists in the country) and policy legacies, such as intellectual property regimes, and highlights the need for further analysis of pharmaceutical regulations to improve understanding of the barriers and political implications of generic drug policies.

  8. Economic analysis and pharmaceutical policy.

    PubMed

    Rovira, J

    1995-10-01

    Economic evaluation, a comparative analysis of alternative actions in terms of costs and consequences, allows rational decisions to be made concerning the deployment of resources (people, time, equipment, facilities and knowledge). Pharmaceutical policy reflects the various objectives of the many social groups, some of which are conflicting. While new methodologies for evaluation of health care programmes still need to gain wider acceptance, resource limitations for both care providers and decision makers make economic analysis an increasingly important tool.

  9. Consumer-perceived risks and choices about pharmaceuticals in the environment: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is increasing concern that pollution from pharmaceuticals used in human medicine and agriculture can be a threat to the environment. Little is known, however, if people are aware that pharmaceuticals may have a detrimental influence on the environment. The present study examines people’s risk perception and choices in regard to environmental risks of pharmaceuticals used in human medicine and for agricultural purposes. Methods A representative sample of the U.S. population (N = 640) was surveyed. Respondents completed a hypothetical choice task that involved tradeoffs between human and environmental health. In addition, it was examined how much people would support an environment policy related to drug regulation. Results For agricultural pharmaceuticals, respondents reported a high level of satisfaction for a policy requiring farms to limit their use of antibiotics. In the domain of pharmaceuticals used in human medicine, we found that people were willing to consider environmental consequences when choosing a drug, but only when choices were made about treatment options for a rather harmless disease. In contrast, when decisions were made about treatment options for a severe disease, the drug’s effectiveness was the most important criterion. Conclusions It can be concluded that the environmental impact of a drug will be hardly considered in decisions about pharmaceuticals for severe diseases like cancer, and this may be due to the fact that these decisions are predominantly affective in nature. However, for less severe health risks, people are willing to balance health and environmental considerations. PMID:23734758

  10. Consumers’ perceptions on the contribution of community pharmacists in the dispensing process at Dawadmi

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Hamoud Saud; Abdelkarim, Malik Abdelhalim

    2014-01-01

    Background Community pharmacies are widely distributed and developments in this sector will greatly improve pharmaceutical health care delivery. Objectives To provide consumer’s perceptions towards the contribution of community pharmacists in the dispensing process. Method The study was performed from mid-October to mid-November 2013 in Dawadmi, KSA. Data were carried out using a structured face-to-face questionnaire with randomly selected 100 consumers at different community pharmacies. The questionnaire composed of nine closed questions about consumer’s perceptions towards the pharmacist’s role, counselling quality and dispensing errors in community pharmacies. Results Consumers perceive that pharmacists are not committed to dispense medications with prescription (72%), it is embarrassing to ask questions to the pharmacist in the current pharmacy premises (48%), pharmacists do not give enough counselling about their medications (48%) and they previously encountered a dispensing error (26%). Conclusion The professional performance of community pharmacists in dispensing is below expectation. Majority of consumers perceive that community pharmacists are violating pharmacy law and giving them insufficient medicine information while dispensing. Authorities should stimulate both pharmacist’s and consumer’s awareness by educational campaign, improve standards for the profession and penalise violators. It is a necessity for community pharmacies to develop consultation areas to assure privacy, improve counselling quality, and reduce dispensing errors. PMID:26106270

  11. [E-commerce of pharmaceuticals].

    PubMed

    Shani, Segev

    2003-05-01

    The emergence of the Internet as a new communications and information technology caused major social and cultural changes. The dramatic increase in accessibility and availability of information empowered the consumer by closing the information gap between the consumer and different suppliers. The objective of this article is to review many new internet-supported applications related to the pharmaceutical market. E-commerce is divided into two major components: Business to Consumer (B to C), and Business to Business (B to B). The main applications in B to C are dissemination of medical and drug information, and the sale of drugs through the Internet. Medical information on the Internet is vast and very helpful for patients, however, its reliability is not guaranteed. Online pharmacies increase the accessibility and availability of drugs. Nevertheless, several obstacles such as security of the data provided (both financial and clinical) prevent the widespread use of online pharmacies. Another risk is the health authorities' inability to regulate Internet sites effectively. Therefore, unregulated sale of prescription drugs, fake or substandard, often occurs on the Internet. B to B relates to physicians, clinics, hospitals, HMO's and pharmaceutical companies. There is a vast number of applications ranging from clinical research, marketing and sales promotion, to drug distribution and logistics. In conclusion, the Internet is dynamic and has contributed to the development of numerous new applications in the field of pharmaceuticals. Regulatory authorities should be active in developing new policies that will deal with those new Internet-based applications.

  12. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    While the point-source emissions of pollutants from manufacturing waste streams have long been monitored and subject to controls, the environmental impact of the public's (i.e., the individual's) activities regarding the use of chemicals is more difficult to assess. Of particular question is the widespread release to sewage and surface/ground waters of pharmaceuticals and personal care products after their ingestion, external application, or disposal. Certain pharmaceutically active compounds (e.g., caffeine, nicotine, and aspirin) have been known for over 20 years to enter the environment by a variety of routes - primarily via treated and untreated sewage effluent. A larger picture, however, has emerged only more recently, where it is evident that numerous personal care products (such as fragrances and sunscreens) and drugs from a wide spectrum of therapeutic classes can occur in the environment and drinking water (albeit at very low concentrations), especially in natural waters receiving sewage. Nearly all ecological monitoring studies for pharmaceuticals and personal care products (informally referred to as

  13. Examining pharmaceuticals using terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulovská, Kateřina; Křesálek, Vojtěch

    2015-10-01

    Pharmaceutical trafficking is common issue in countries where they are under stricter dispensing regime with monitoring of users. Most commonly smuggled pharmaceuticals include trade names Paralen Plus, Modafen, Clarinase repetabs, Aspirin complex, etc. These are transported mainly from Eastern Europe (e.g. Poland, Ukraine, Russia) to countries like Czech Republic, which is said to have one of the highest number of methamphetamine producers in Europe. The aim of this paper is to describe the possibility of terahertz spectroscopy utilization as an examining tool to distinguish between pharmaceuticals containing pseudoephedrine compounds and those without it. Selected medicaments for experimental part contain as an active ingredient pseudoephedrine hydrochloride or pseudoephedrine sulphate. Results show a possibility to find a pseudoephedrine compound spectra in samples according to previously computed and experimentally found ones, and point out that spectra of same brand names pills may vary according to their expiration date, batch, and amount of absorbed water vapours from ambience. Mislead spectrum also occurs during experimental work in a sample without chosen active ingredient, which shows persistent minor inconveniences of terahertz spectroscopy. All measurement were done on the TPS Spectra 3000 instrument.

  14. Stability of Pharmaceuticals in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Y-Uyen

    2009-01-01

    Stability testing is a tool used to access shelf life and effects of storage conditions for pharmaceutical formulations. Early research from the International Space Station (ISS) revealed that some medications may have degraded while in space. This potential loss of medication efficacy would be very dangerous to Crew health. The aim of this research project, Stability of Pharmacotherapeutic Compounds, is to study how the stability of pharmaceutical compounds is affected by environmental conditions in space. Four identical pharmaceutical payload kits containing medications in different dosage forms (liquid for injection, tablet, capsule, ointment and suppository) were transported to the ISS aboard a Space Shuttle. One of the four kits was stored on that Shuttle and the other three were stored on the ISS for return to Earth at various time intervals aboard a pre-designated Shuttle flight. The Pharmacotherapeutics laboratory used stability test as defined by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), to access the degree of degradation to the Payload kit medications that may have occurred during space flight. Once these medications returned, the results of stability test performed on them were compared to those from the matching ground controls stored on Earth. Analyses of the results obtained from physical and chemical stability assessments on these payload medications will provide researchers additional tools to promote safe and efficacious medications for space exploration.

  15. Health risks of counterfeit pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    ten Ham, Martijn

    2003-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products are not exempt from the practice of counterfeiting. In recent years, many reports have become available demonstrating the presence of fake medicines on the market. Several studies have demonstrated that they are quite often of bad quality. It is estimated that 5% of all world trade in branded goods is counterfeit, leading to huge financial losses for the pharmaceutical industry. But much more important, from a public health point of view, is that history has shown that such products may lead to a great health risk. The essence of counterfeit products and the reason they are so dangerous is the complete absence of quality control, since they are often indistinguishable from the genuine product. The existence of counterfeit drugs has long been ignored both by the pharmaceutical industry and by drug regulatory authorities. At present initiatives are being taken, nationally and internationally, to curb counterfeiting. It is now realised that a strong regulatory agency is essential, but the initiatives can only be successful if all parties concerned actively co-operate.

  16. Stability of Pharmaceuticals in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Y-Uyen

    2009-01-01

    Stability testing is a tool used to access shelf life and effects of storage conditions for pharmaceutical formulations. Early research from the International Space Station (ISS) revealed that some medications may have degraded while in space. This potential loss of medication efficacy would be very dangerous to Crew health. The aim of this research project, Stability of Pharmacotherapeutic Compounds, is to study how the stability of pharmaceutical compounds is affected by environmental conditions in space. Four identical pharmaceutical payload kits containing medications in different dosage forms (liquid for injection, tablet, capsule, ointment and suppository) were transported to the ISS aboard a Space Shuttle. One of the four kits was stored on that Shuttle and the other three were stored on the ISS for return to Earth at various time intervals aboard a pre-designated Shuttle flight. The Pharmacotherapeutics laboratory used stability test as defined by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), to access the degree of degradation to the Payload kit medications that may have occurred during space flight. Once these medications returned, the results of stability test performed on them were compared to those from the matching ground controls stored on Earth. Analyses of the results obtained from physical and chemical stability assessments on these payload medications will provide researchers additional tools to promote safe and efficacious medications for space exploration.

  17. Pharmaceutical study of Lauha Bhasma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neetu; Reddy, K R C

    2010-07-01

    In the present research paper, the work done on pharmaceutical study of Lauha Bhasma conducted in the Department of Rasa Shastra under the postgraduate research programme is being presented. The pharmaceutical processing of Lauha Bhasma was performed by following samanya shodhana, vishesha shodhana and marana of Lauha. Under the process of marana, three specific pharmaceutical techniques were followed, viz. bhanupaka, sthalipaka and putapaka. During the putapaka process, an electric muffle furnace (EMF) was used. The temperature of puta was studied in two batches, viz. in Batch I, a temperature of 800°C was maintained whereas in Batch II, a temperature of 600°C was maintained. The purpose behind selecting two temperatures was to validate the process of marana of Lauha and to determine an ideal temperature for the preparation of Lauha Bhasma in EMF. It is found that after 20 puta at a temperature of 600°C, the Lauha Bhasma was prepared properly. The entire characteristic of Lauha Bhasma, like "pakwa jambu phala varna," varitar, etc. was attained at 600°. At a temperature of 800°C, the process could not be carried out smoothly. The pellets turned very hard and brassy yellow in color. The desired color was attained only after decreasing the temperature in further puta.

  18. Understanding pharmaceutical quality by design.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lawrence X; Amidon, Gregory; Khan, Mansoor A; Hoag, Stephen W; Polli, James; Raju, G K; Woodcock, Janet

    2014-07-01

    This review further clarifies the concept of pharmaceutical quality by design (QbD) and describes its objectives. QbD elements include the following: (1) a quality target product profile (QTPP) that identifies the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the drug product; (2) product design and understanding including identification of critical material attributes (CMAs); (3) process design and understanding including identification of critical process parameters (CPPs), linking CMAs and CPPs to CQAs; (4) a control strategy that includes specifications for the drug substance(s), excipient(s), and drug product as well as controls for each step of the manufacturing process; and (5) process capability and continual improvement. QbD tools and studies include prior knowledge, risk assessment, mechanistic models, design of experiments (DoE) and data analysis, and process analytical technology (PAT). As the pharmaceutical industry moves toward the implementation of pharmaceutical QbD, a common terminology, understanding of concepts and expectations are necessary. This understanding will facilitate better communication between those involved in risk-based drug development and drug application review.

  19. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Modern sanitary practices result in large volumes of human waste, as well as domestic and industrial sewage, being collected and treated at common collection points, wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). In recognition of the growing use of sewage sludges as a fertilizers and as soilamendments, and the scarcity of current data regarding the chemical constituents in sewage sludges, the United States National Research Council (NRC) in 2002 produced a report on sewage sludges. Among the NRC's recommendations was the need for investigating the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in sewage sludges. PPCPsare a diverse array of non-regulated contaminants that had not been studied in previous sewage sludges surveys but which are likely to be present. The focus of this paper will be to review the current analytical methodologies available for investigating whether pharmaceuticals are present in WWTP-produced sewage sludges, to summarize current regulatory practices regarding sewage sludges, and to report on the presence of pharmaceuticals in sewage sludges. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subta

  20. Pharmacist, the pharmaceutical industry and pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia: A questionnaire-based study.

    PubMed

    Bin Saleh, Ghada; Rezk, Naser L; Laika, Laila; Ali, Anna; El-Metwally, Ashraf

    2015-10-01

    In Saudi Arabia there is an estimated need of more than 100,000 pharmacy graduates to cover all present sectors. The shortage of pharmacists has affected many of these sectors especially the pharmaceutical industry. The contribution of Saudi pharmacists to local pharmaceuticals industry would be extremely beneficial and important for shaping the future of the drug industry within the Kingdom. It is not clear whether future Saudi pharmacists are willing to contribute to local pharmaco-industrial fields. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted on all final-year pharmacy students in King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Out of a total of 130 students registered in the final-year of the pharmacy program in KSU, 122 (93.8%) were able to complete the questionnaire. The results showed that the majority (83%) of Saudi pharmacy students indicated that they had not received practical training in the pharmaceutical companies, while only 17.2% of the students felt that they had the knowledge and the skills to work in the pharmaceutical industry after graduation. The majority of the students (66.7%) chose clinical pharmacy as their future career field while only 10.9% indicated willingness to work in a pharmaceutical industry career. Only 8.2% selected working in the pharmaceutical industry. The significant predictor of possibly choosing a career in the local drug industry is a student with a bachelor's degree (compared to Pharm D degree) in pharmacy (OR = 2.7 [95% CI 1.1-6.3]). Pharmacy students who are enrolled in the capital city of Riyadh are not properly trained to play an influential role in local drug companies. As a result, their level of willingness to have a career in such important business is not promising (more among Pharm D program). Future research in other pharmacy colleges within Saudi Arabia is needed to confirm such results.

  1. Transitioning to a national health system in Cyprus: a stakeholder analysis of pharmaceutical policy reform

    PubMed Central

    Kanavos, Panos G

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the pharmaceutical sector in Cyprus in terms of the availability and affordability of medicines and to explore pharmaceutical policy options for the national health system finance reform expected to be introduced in 2016. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews in April 2014 with senior representatives from seven key national organizations involved in pharmaceutical care. The captured data were coded and analysed using the predetermined themes of pricing, reimbursement, prescribing, dispensing and cost sharing. We also examined secondary data provided by the Cypriot Ministry of Health; these data included the prices and volumes of prescription medicines in 2013. Findings We identified several key issues, including high medicine prices, underuse of generic medicines and high out-of-pocket drug spending. Most stakeholders recommended that the national government review existing pricing policies to ensure medicines within the forthcoming national health system are affordable and available, introduce a national reimbursement system and incentivize the prescribing and dispensing of generic medicines. There were disagreements over how to (i) allocate responsibilities to governmental agencies in the national health system, (ii) reconcile differences in opinion between stakeholders and (iii) raise awareness among patients, physicians and pharmacists about the benefits of greater generic drug use. Conclusion In Cyprus, if the national health system is going to provide universal health coverage in a sustainable fashion, then the national government must address the current issues in the pharmaceutical sector. Importantly, the country will need to increase the market share of generic medicines to contain drug spending. PMID:26478624

  2. The sun's magnetic sector structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svalgaard, L.; Wilcox, J. M.; Scherrer, P. H.; Howard, R.

    1975-01-01

    The synoptic appearance of solar magnetic sectors is studied using 454 sector boundaries observed at earth during 1959-1973. The sectors are clearly visible in the photospheric magnetic field. Sector boundaries can be clearly identified as north-south running demarcation lines between regions of persistent magnetic polarity imbalances. These regions extend up to about 35 deg of latitude on both sides of the equator. They generally do not extend into the polar caps. The polar cap boundary can be identified as an east-west demarcation line marking the poleward limit of the sectors. The typical flux imbalance for a magnetic sector is about 4 x 10 to the 21st power Maxwells.

  3. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  4. Exploring Oman's Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saqlawi, Juman; Madani, Kaveh; Mac Dowell, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Located in a region where over 40% of the world's oil and gas reserves lie and in a trend similar to that of its neighbors, Oman's economy has been reliant on crude oil export since the 1970's. Being aware of the dangers of this reliance along with the discovery of Natural Gas since the 1980s, the Omani government's policy of diversifying its economy has shifted its reliance on Oil to another fossil fuel, namely Natural Gas. Given that energy is the lifeline of Oman's economy, effective and efficient forward planning and policy development is essential for the country's current and future economic development. This presentation explores the current status of the energy sector in Oman from home production and import to eventual final uses. The presentation highlights the major issues with Oman's current energy policies and suggests various strategies that could be adopted by Oman for a more efficient and sustainable future.

  5. Physician perceptions about generic drugs.

    PubMed

    Shrank, William H; Liberman, Joshua N; Fischer, Michael A; Girdish, Charmaine; Brennan, Troyen A; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2011-01-01

    With constrained health-care resources, there is a need to understand barriers to cost-effective medication use. To study physician perceptions about generic medications. Physicians used 5-point Likert scales to report perceptions about cost-related medication nonadherence, the efficacy and quality of generic medications, preferences for generic use, and the implications of dispensing medication samples. Descriptive statistics were used to assess physician perceptions and logistic regression models were used to evaluate predictors of physician perceptions. Among the invited sample, 839 (30.4%) responded and 506 (18.3%) were eligible and included in the final study population. Over 23% of physicians surveyed expressed negative perceptions about efficacy of generic drugs, almost 50% reported negative perceptions about quality of generic medications, and more than one quarter do not prefer to use generics as first-line medications for themselves or for their family. Physicians over the age of 55 years were 3.3 times more likely to report negative perceptions about generic quality, 5.8 times more likely to report that they would not use generics themselves, and 7.5 times more likely to state that they would not recommend generics for family members (p < 0.05 for all). Physicians reported that pharmaceutical company representatives are the most common (75%) source of information about market entry of a generic medication. Almost half of the respondents expressed concern that free samples may adversely affect subsequent affordability, yet two thirds of respondents provide free samples. A meaningful proportion of physicians expressed negative perceptions about generic medications, representing a potential barrier to generic use. Payors and policymakers trying to encourage generic use may consider educational campaigns targeting older physicians.

  6. Uncertainty bounds using sector theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Schmidt, David K.

    1989-01-01

    An approach based on sector-stability theory can furnish a description of the uncertainty associated with the frequency response of a model, given sector-bounds on the individual parameters of the model. The application of the sector-based approach to the formulation of useful uncertainty descriptions for linear, time-invariant multivariable systems is presently explored, and the approach is applied to two generic forms of parameter uncertainty in order to investigate its advantages and limitations. The results obtained show that sector-uncertainty bounds can be used to evaluate the impact of parameter uncertainties on the frequency response of the design model.

  7. A course in constructing effective displays of data for pharmaceutical research personnel.

    PubMed

    Bradstreet, Thomas E; Nessly, Michael L; Short, Thomas H

    2013-01-01

    Interpreting data and communicating effectively through graphs and tables are requisite skills for statisticians and non-statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry. However, the quality of visual displays of data in the medical and pharmaceutical literature and at scientific conferences is severely lacking. We describe an interactive, workshop-driven, 2-day short course that we constructed for pharmaceutical research personnel to learn these skills. The examples in the course and the workshop datasets source from our professional experiences, the scientific literature, and the mass media. During the course, the participants are exposed to and gain hands-on experience with the principles of visual and graphical perception, design, and construction of both graphic and tabular displays of quantitative and qualitative information. After completing the course, with a critical eye, the participants are able to construct, revise, critique, and interpret graphic and tabular displays according to an extensive set of guidelines.

  8. Introduction: Institutional corruption and the pharmaceutical policy.

    PubMed

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Today, the goals of pharmaceutical policy and medical practice are often undermined due to institutional corruption - that is, widespread or systemic practices, usually legal, that undermine an institution's objectives or integrity. In this symposium, 16 articles investigate the corruption of pharmaceutical policy, each taking a different look at the sources of corruption, how it occurs, and what is corrupted. We will see that the pharmaceutical industry's own purposes are often undermined. Furthermore, pharmaceutical industry funding of election campaigns and lobbying skews the legislative process that sets pharmaceutical policy. Moreover, certain practices have corrupted medical research, the production of medical knowledge, the practice of medicine, drug safety, the Food and Drug Administration's oversight of the pharmaceutical market, and the trustworthiness of patient advocacy organizations.

  9. Obesity Epidemic: Pharmaceutical Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Curry, Stephanie A

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease universally defined as an excess of adipose tissue resulting in body mass index (BMI) > 30.0 kg/m2. Over the past few years, the concept of prevention has gained increased awareness, thus leading to the development of additional pharmaceutical options for the treatment of obesity since 2012. Treating obesity revolves around an individualized, multi-disciplinary approach with additional focus on a healthy and supportive lifestyle to maintain the weight loss. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-03.asp].

  10. Kaolinite in pharmaceutics and biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Awad, Mahmoud E; López-Galindo, Alberto; Setti, Massimo; El-Rahmany, Mahmoud M; Iborra, César Viseras

    2017-09-22

    Kaolinite Al2Si2O5(OH)4 is an abundant and inexpensive geomaterial regarded as one of the most common clay minerals in the earth's crust and the most widespread phase among the other kaolin polymorphs (halloysite, dickite and nacrite). Structurally, it is a hydrous aluminum phyllosilicate member belonging to the dioctahedral 1:1 kaolin mineral group. The particle size of the pseudohexagonal kaolinite platelets is normally <2μm (if compared to a human red blood cell of a typical diameter 6.2-8.2μm or to a virus particle of about 50nm diameter). The kaolinite platelets, either stacked together with a common booklet-like shape in a highly ordered structure (well crystallized) or disordered structure (poorly crystallized), consist of layers considered as a strong dipole of hydrophobic siloxane surface dominated by negative charges, and the other hydrophilic aluminol surface carries positive charges. Kaolinite has been used in many pharmaceutical applications as excipient or active ingredient, because it exhibits excellent physical, chemical and surface physicochemical properties. In addition to their classical pharmaceutical uses, kaolinite and its derivatives have been recently considered as a promising material in many biomedical innovation areas such as drug, protein and gene delivery based on the high interaction capacities with organic and biochemical molecules, bioadhesion and cellular uptake. Pharmaceutical kaolin grades are considerably demanded for usage as excipient in formulations of solid and semi-solid dosage forms. The most important functionalities of kaolin used as excipient are reported as diluent, binder, disintegrant, pelletizing and granulating, amorphizing, particle film coating, emulsifying and suspending agent. Because of its uninjured bioactivity, kaolinite has been also used as active agent for treatment of some common diseases. It can be topically administered as hemostatic agent, dermatological protector, anti-inflammatory agent and in

  11. Evaluation of P-Listed Pharmaceutical Residues in Empty Pharmaceutical Containers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), some pharmaceuticals are considered acute hazardous wastes because their sole active pharmaceutical ingredients are P-listed commercial chemical products (40 CFR 261.33). Hospitals and other healthcare facilities have stru...

  12. Evaluation of P-Listed Pharmaceutical Residues in Empty Pharmaceutical Containers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), some pharmaceuticals are considered acute hazardous wastes because their sole active pharmaceutical ingredients are P-listed commercial chemical products (40 CFR 261.33). Hospitals and other healthcare facilities have stru...

  13. The structure of the pharmaceutical market in Iran using concentration indices

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni, Mohammad; Gorji, Hasan Abolghasem; Ahadinezhad, Bahman; Khosravizadeh, Omid; Keykaleh, Meysam Safi; Moosavi, Ahmad; Mohtashamzadeh, Bahareh

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective The efficiency and function of the pharmaceutical sector, as a vital portion of the health system, have a significant effect on intermediate and final indices of health. In this research, the structure of the pharmaceutical market in Iran was examined through the calculation of concentration indices in 2011. Methods In this cross-sectional study, the needed data was gathered from the Food and Drug Administration in the year 2011. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20 and Microsoft Office Excel software. Finally, two common measures of market concentration, the Concentration Ratio and the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, were calculated. Results The largest and the smallest shares of the industry were 5.57% and 0.01%, respectively. The average industry share was 1.09%. The share range was calculated to be 5.56%. The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index was 248.5, which indicates a very low concentration of the pharmaceutical market in Iran. Also, based on the Concentration Ratio of 4 companies (18.39%), the concentration of the pharmaceutical market has been too low. Conclusion The pharmaceutical market in Iran has a very low concentration and it does not have an exclusive mode in terms of market structure. Therefore, it can be attributed to the competitive model. The policy makers in this area can use this characteristic as a leverage to improve efficiency, fairness, revenue and health indices. PMID:28607663

  14. The structure of the pharmaceutical market in Iran using concentration indices.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Mohammad; Gorji, Hasan Abolghasem; Ahadinezhad, Bahman; Khosravizadeh, Omid; Keykaleh, Meysam Safi; Moosavi, Ahmad; Mohtashamzadeh, Bahareh

    2017-04-01

    The efficiency and function of the pharmaceutical sector, as a vital portion of the health system, have a significant effect on intermediate and final indices of health. In this research, the structure of the pharmaceutical market in Iran was examined through the calculation of concentration indices in 2011. In this cross-sectional study, the needed data was gathered from the Food and Drug Administration in the year 2011. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20 and Microsoft Office Excel software. Finally, two common measures of market concentration, the Concentration Ratio and the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, were calculated. The largest and the smallest shares of the industry were 5.57% and 0.01%, respectively. The average industry share was 1.09%. The share range was calculated to be 5.56%. The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index was 248.5, which indicates a very low concentration of the pharmaceutical market in Iran. Also, based on the Concentration Ratio of 4 companies (18.39%), the concentration of the pharmaceutical market has been too low. The pharmaceutical market in Iran has a very low concentration and it does not have an exclusive mode in terms of market structure. Therefore, it can be attributed to the competitive model. The policy makers in this area can use this characteristic as a leverage to improve efficiency, fairness, revenue and health indices.

  15. Partnership in Sector Wide Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolley, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of bilateral support to the education sector in Tonga and the Solomon Islands, this paper will explore how the discourse of "partnership" has been interpreted and activated within the Sector wide approach (SWAp). In concentrating particularly on the relationship between the respective Ministries of Education and New…

  16. Pharmaceuticals and Controlled Substances and Demolition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pharmaceuticals and controlled substances found during residential demolition, such as prescription medications or illegal drugs, may require special treatment for disposal or recycling before demolition.

  17. Pharmaceutical Cocrystals and Their Physicochemical Properties

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, the number of publications outlining the advances in design strategies, growing techniques, and characterization of cocrystals has continued to increase significantly within the crystal engineering field. However, only within the last decade have cocrystals found their place in pharmaceuticals, primarily due to their ability to alter physicochemical properties without compromising the structural integrity of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and thus, possibly, the bioactivity. This review article will highlight and discuss the advances made over the last 10 years pertaining to physical and chemical property improvements through pharmaceutical cocrystalline materials and, hopefully, draw closer the fields of crystal engineering and pharmaceutical sciences. PMID:19503732

  18. Agenda for an anthropology of pharmaceutical practice.

    PubMed

    Nichter, M; Vuckovic, N

    1994-12-01

    Over the last two decades, patterns of pharmaceutical-related behavior and the cultural interpretation of medicines have been examined by anthropologists in several cultural settings. In this paper the authors identify additional issues warranting study so as to broaden the scope of pharmaceutical anthropology, utilizing as a unifying focus the examination of pharmaceutical use in the context of social transformation. Ten interactive themes are presented which bridge micro-level and macro-level investigations of pharmaceutical use. The discussion moves from the discourse on 'rational drug use' to the rationales which underscore drug prescription, manufacture, and demand.

  19. The Use of Animated Videos to Illustrate Oral Solid Dosage Form Manufacturing in a Pharmaceutics Course

    PubMed Central

    Roberson, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of animated videos of oral solid dosage form manufacturing as visual instructional aids on pharmacy students’ perception and learning. Design. Data were obtained using a validated, paper-based survey instrument designed to evaluate the effectiveness, appeal, and efficiency of the animated videos in a pharmaceutics course offered in spring 2014 and 2015. Basic demographic data were also collected and analyzed. Assessment data at the end of pharmaceutics course was collected for 2013 and compared with assessment data from 2014, and 2015. Assessment. Seventy-six percent of the respondents supported the idea of incorporating animated videos as instructional aids for teaching pharmaceutics. Students’ performance on the formative assessment in 2014 and 2015 improved significantly compared to the performance of students in 2013 whose lectures did not include animated videos as instructional aids. Conclusions. Implementing animated videos of oral solid dosage form manufacturing as instructional aids resulted in improved student learning and favorable student perceptions about the instructional approach. Therefore, use of animated videos can be incorporated in pharmaceutics teaching to enhance visual learning. PMID:27899837

  20. The Use of Animated Videos to Illustrate Oral Solid Dosage Form Manufacturing in a Pharmaceutics Course.

    PubMed

    Yellepeddi, Venkata Kashyap; Roberson, Charles

    2016-10-25

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of animated videos of oral solid dosage form manufacturing as visual instructional aids on pharmacy students' perception and learning. Design. Data were obtained using a validated, paper-based survey instrument designed to evaluate the effectiveness, appeal, and efficiency of the animated videos in a pharmaceutics course offered in spring 2014 and 2015. Basic demographic data were also collected and analyzed. Assessment data at the end of pharmaceutics course was collected for 2013 and compared with assessment data from 2014, and 2015. Assessment. Seventy-six percent of the respondents supported the idea of incorporating animated videos as instructional aids for teaching pharmaceutics. Students' performance on the formative assessment in 2014 and 2015 improved significantly compared to the performance of students in 2013 whose lectures did not include animated videos as instructional aids. Conclusions. Implementing animated videos of oral solid dosage form manufacturing as instructional aids resulted in improved student learning and favorable student perceptions about the instructional approach. Therefore, use of animated videos can be incorporated in pharmaceutics teaching to enhance visual learning.

  1. An examination of pharmaceutical systems in severely disrupted countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This research assesses informal markets that dominate pharmaceutical systems in severely disrupted countries and identifies areas for further investigation. Findings are based on recent academic papers, policy and grey literature, and field studies in Somalia, Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Haiti. The public sector in the studied countries is characterized in part by weak Ministries of Health and low donor coordination. Informal markets, where medicines are regularly sold in market stalls and unregulated pharmacies, often accompanied by unqualified medical advice, have proliferated. Counterfeit and sub-standard medicines trade networks have also developed. To help increase medicine availability for citizens, informal markets should be integrated into existing access to medicines initiatives. PMID:23217184

  2. SLIDE PRESENTATION--PHARMACEUTICALS AS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    While pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous trace contaminants in the environment, thetypes, concentrations, and relative abundances of individual residues will vary depending on thegeographic locale and time of year, primarily a reflection of differing and varying prescribing andconsumption practices. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical

  3. Microbial factories for recombinant pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Domingo-Espín, Joan; Corchero, José Luis; Vázquez, Esther; Villaverde, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Most of the hosts used to produce the 151 recombinant pharmaceuticals so far approved for human use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and/or by the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) are microbial cells, either bacteria or yeast. This fact indicates that despite the diverse bottlenecks and obstacles that microbial systems pose to the efficient production of functional mammalian proteins, namely lack or unconventional post-translational modifications, proteolytic instability, poor solubility and activation of cell stress responses, among others, they represent convenient and powerful tools for recombinant protein production. The entering into the market of a progressively increasing number of protein drugs produced in non-microbial systems has not impaired the development of products obtained in microbial cells, proving the robustness of the microbial set of cellular systems (so far Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisae) developed for protein drug production. We summarize here the nature, properties and applications of all those pharmaceuticals and the relevant features of the current and potential producing hosts, in a comparative way. PMID:19317892

  4. ABSTRACT PRESENTATION--PHARMACEUTICALS AS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pharmaceuticals comprise a large and diverse array of contaminants that can occur in the environmentfrom the combined activities and actions of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary andagricultural use. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for med

  5. Plant cells as pharmaceutical factories.

    PubMed

    Rischer, Heiko; Häkkinen, Suvi T; Ritala, Anneli; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Miralpeix, Bruna; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja

    2013-01-01

    Molecules derived from plants make up a sizeable proportion of the drugs currently available on the market. These include a number of secondary metabolite compounds the monetary value of which is very high. New pharmaceuticals often originate in nature. Approximately 50% of new drug entities against cancer or microbial infections are derived from plants or micro-organisms. However, these compounds are structurally often too complex to be economically manufactured by chemical synthesis, and frequently isolation from naturally grown or cultivated plants is not a sustainable option. Therefore the biotechnological production of high-value plant secondary metabolites in cultivated cells is potentially an attractive alternative. Compared to microbial systems eukaryotic organisms such as plants are far more complex, and our understanding of the metabolic pathways in plants and their regulation at the systems level has been rather poor until recently. However, metabolic engineering including advanced multigene transformation techniques and state-of-art metabolomics platforms has given us entirely new tools to exploit plants as Green Factories. Single step engineering may be successful on occasion but in complex pathways, intermediate gene interventions most often do not affect the end product accumulation. In this review we discuss recent developments towards elucidation of complex plant biosynthetic pathways and the production of a number of highvalue pharmaceuticals including paclitaxel, tropane, morphine and terpenoid indole alkaloids in plants and cell cultures.

  6. PHARMACEUTICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: SOURCES ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An issue that began to receive more attention by environmental scientists in the late 1990s was the conveyancy of pharmaceuticals in the environment by way of their use in human and veterinary medical practices and personal care The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, intervi

  7. American Foundation for Pharmaceutical Education Survey of Scientific Manpower Needs in the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Albert B., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Those disciplines in the pharmaceutical sciences where critical manpower shortages now exist or will occur are identified by 34 pharmaceutical manufacturers in response to a request by the American Foundation for Pharmaceutical Education, which awarded fellowships in four critical areas. High priority needs are appended. (JMD)

  8. The shaping of pharmaceutical governance: the Israeli case

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on governance of the pharmaceutical sector in Israel. It traces the relationships between the state, industry, and sick funds from before the establishment of National Health Insurance (NHI) in 1995 to the beginning of this decade, in particular as they have grappled with the challenge of making national formulary decisions in a rational manner. Subsequent to the introduction of NHI there have been shifts in the modes and mix of governance. This research shows empirically that a relatively complex mix of hierarchical and network modes of governance can be successfully established over an extended period of time when flexibility is maintained through the implementation process. The system for defining and updating a standard basket of health services has coped well with the challenge of managing a range of difficult and potentially volatile stakeholder relationships in the pharmaceutical sector and of distancing ministers from controversies of funding and listing decisions. Government has succeeded in containing drug costs whilst still maintaining a basket of reimbursable drugs that, from an international perspective, is comprehensive and technologically advanced. On the other hand, network arrangements appear to have delayed the introduction of suitable accountability relationships and hindered their development. The state has traditionally played an intermediary role between unavoidable corporate interests of industry and sick funds, with little transparency and to the detriment of more pluralistic access to decision making. Governance arrangements in Israel appear to limit the potential and incentive of the state and the sick funds to realize their potential countervailing powers in subsidy and pricing decisions. PMID:24914409

  9. The shaping of pharmaceutical governance: the Israeli case.

    PubMed

    Sax, Philip

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on governance of the pharmaceutical sector in Israel. It traces the relationships between the state, industry, and sick funds from before the establishment of National Health Insurance (NHI) in 1995 to the beginning of this decade, in particular as they have grappled with the challenge of making national formulary decisions in a rational manner. Subsequent to the introduction of NHI there have been shifts in the modes and mix of governance. This research shows empirically that a relatively complex mix of hierarchical and network modes of governance can be successfully established over an extended period of time when flexibility is maintained through the implementation process. The system for defining and updating a standard basket of health services has coped well with the challenge of managing a range of difficult and potentially volatile stakeholder relationships in the pharmaceutical sector and of distancing ministers from controversies of funding and listing decisions. Government has succeeded in containing drug costs whilst still maintaining a basket of reimbursable drugs that, from an international perspective, is comprehensive and technologically advanced. On the other hand, network arrangements appear to have delayed the introduction of suitable accountability relationships and hindered their development. The state has traditionally played an intermediary role between unavoidable corporate interests of industry and sick funds, with little transparency and to the detriment of more pluralistic access to decision making. Governance arrangements in Israel appear to limit the potential and incentive of the state and the sick funds to realize their potential countervailing powers in subsidy and pricing decisions.

  10. Are Students Customers? Perceptions of Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomas, Laurie

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of the student as a customer in a university, focusing on the perceptions of academic staff. Changes in the higher education sector in recent years have significantly reduced the differences between universities and other types of organisations and it has been argued that students have become "consumers" of…

  11. Students' Perception of University Teaching Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Akhtar; Tariq, Riaz H.; Topping, J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to explore students' perception of university teaching behaviours in Pakistan. Three hundred and fifty students from the six public sector Pakistani universities returned questionnaires. Assessment framework, learning activities and instructional strategies emerged from factor analysis as common factors. Students' views…

  12. Students' Perception of University Teaching Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Akhtar; Tariq, Riaz H.; Topping, J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to explore students' perception of university teaching behaviours in Pakistan. Three hundred and fifty students from the six public sector Pakistani universities returned questionnaires. Assessment framework, learning activities and instructional strategies emerged from factor analysis as common factors. Students' views…

  13. Nanoparticulate carriers (NPC) for oral pharmaceutics and nutraceutics.

    PubMed

    Lopes, C M; Martins-Lopes, P; Souto, E B

    2010-02-01

    The introduction of nanoparticulate carriers (NPC) in the pharmaceutic and nutraceutic fields has changed the definitions of disease management and treatment, diagnosis, as well as the supply food chain in the agri-food sector. NPC composed of synthetic polymers, proteins or polysaccharides gather interesting properties to be used for oral administration of pharmaceutics and nutraceutics. Oral administration remains the most convenient way of delivering drugs (e.g. peptides, proteins and nucleic acids) since these suffer similar metabolic pathways as food supply. Recent advances in biotechnology have produced highly potent new molecules however with low oral bioavailability. A suitable and promising approach to overcome their sensitivity to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis as well as the poor cellular uptake, would be their entrapment within suitable gastrointestinal (GI) resistant NPC. Increasing attention has been paid to the potential use of NPC for peptides, proteins, antioxidants (carotenoids, omega fatty acids, coenzyme Q10), vitamins, probiotics, for oral administration. This review focuses on the most important materials to produce NPC for oral administration, and the most recent achievements in the production techniques and bioactives successfully delivered by these means.

  14. Changing Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallett, Susanne; Wren, Steve; Dawes, Mark; Blinco, Amy; Haines, Brett; Everton, Jenny; Morgan, Ellen; Barton, Craig; Breen, Debbie; Ellison, Geraldine; Burgess, Danny; Stavrou, Jim; Carre, Catherine; Watson, Fran; Cherry, David; Hawkins, Chris; Stapenhill-Hunt, Maria; Gilderdale, Charlie; Kiddle, Alison; Piggott, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    A group of teachers involved in embedding NRICH tasks (http://nrich.maths.org) into their everyday practice were keen to challenge common perceptions of mathematics, and of the teaching and learning of mathematics. In this article, the teachers share what they are doing to change these perceptions in their schools.

  15. Machine perception

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The book is aimed at the level of a graduate student or the practising professional and discusses visual perception by computers. Topics covered include: pattern classification methods; polyhedra scenes; shape analysis and recognition; perception of brightness and colour; edge and curve detection; region segmentation; texture analysis; depth measurement analysis; knowledge-based systems and applications. A subject index is included.

  16. Accounting- versus economic-based rates of return: implications for profitability measures in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Skrepnek, Grant H

    2004-01-01

    Accounting-based profits have indicated that pharmaceutical firms have achieved greater returns relative to other sectors. However, partially due to the theoretically inappropriate reporting of research and development (R&D) expenditures according to generally accepted accounting principles, evidence suggests that a substantial and upward bias is present in accounting-based rates of return for corporations with high levels of intangible assets. Given the intensity of R&D in pharmaceutical firms, accounting-based profit metrics in the drug sector may be affected to a greater extent than other industries. The aim of this work was to address measurement issues associated with corporate performance and factors that contribute to the bias within accounting-based rates of return. Seminal and broadly cited works on the subject of accounting- versus economic-based rates of return were reviewed from the economic and finance literature, with an emphasis placed on issues and scientific evidence directly related to the drug development process and pharmaceutical industry. With international convergence and harmonization of accounting standards being imminent, stricter adherence to theoretically sound economic principles is advocated, particularly those based on discounted cash-flow methods. Researchers, financial analysts, and policy makers must be cognizant of the biases and limitations present within numerous corporate performance measures. Furthermore, the development of more robust and valid economic models of the pharmaceutical industry is required to capture the unique dimensions of risk and return of the drug development process. Empiric work has illustrated that estimates of economic-based rates of return range from approximately 2 to approximately 11 percentage points below various accounting-based rates of return for drug companies. Because differences in the nature of risk and uncertainty borne by drug manufacturers versus other sectors make comparative assessments

  17. No blank slates: Pre-existing schemas about pharmaceuticals predict memory for side effects.

    PubMed

    Heller, Monika K; Chapman, Sarah C E; Horne, Rob

    2017-04-01

    Attribution of symptoms as medication side effects is informed by pre-existing beliefs about medicines and perceptions of personal sensitivity to their effects (pharmaceutical schemas). We tested whether (1) pharmaceutical schemas were associated with memory (recall/recognition) for side effect information (2) memory explained the attribution of a common unrelated symptom as a side effect. In this analogue study participants saw the patient leaflet of a fictitious asthma drug listing eight side effects. We measured recall and recognition memory for side effects and used a vignette to test whether participants attributed an unlisted common symptom (headache) as a side effect. Participants who perceived pharmaceuticals as more harmful in general recalled fewer side effects correctly (rCorrect Recall = -.273), were less able to differentiate between listed and unlisted side effects (rRecognition Sensitivity = -.256) and were more likely to attribute the unlisted headache symptom as a side effect (rside effect attribution = .381, ps < .01). The effect of harm beliefs on side effect attribution was partially mediated by correct recall of side effects. Pharmaceutical schemas are associated with memory for side effect information. Memory may explain part of the association between pharmaceutical schemas and the attribution of unrelated symptoms as side effects.

  18. Three Dimensional Sector Design with Optimal Number of Sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min

    2009-01-01

    The concept of dynamic sector design suggests a strategic approach to ease air traffic congestion, which is predicted to become a serious problem in the national airspace system by 2025. Considerable research has been conducted to address the sectorization problem. In previous work, an approach that combines the Voronoi diagrams, Genetic Algorithms (GA), and the iterative deepening algorithm was proposed. However, as originally formulated, the number of sectors used was predefined and only two-dimensional partitions were allowed, which constrained the method's ability to achieve good designs. The current work extends the earlier Voronoi-based method by treating the number of sectors as an additional decision variable, allowing 3D partitions, and developing more comprehensive costs.

  19. Thermal relics in hidden sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jonathan L; Tu, Huitzu; Yu, Hai-Bo E-mail: huitzut@uci.edu

    2008-10-15

    Dark matter may be hidden, with no standard model gauge interactions. At the same time, in WIMPless models (WIMP: weakly interacting massive particles) with hidden matter masses proportional to hidden gauge couplings squared, the hidden dark matter's thermal relic density may naturally be in the right range, preserving the key quantitative virtue of WIMPs. We consider this possibility in detail. We first determine model-independent constraints on hidden sectors from big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. Contrary to conventional wisdom, large hidden sectors are easily accommodated. A flavour-free version of the standard model is allowed if the hidden sector is just 30% colder than the observable sector after reheating. Alternatively, if the hidden sector contains a one-generation version of the standard model with characteristic mass scale below 1 MeV, even identical reheating temperatures are allowed. We then analyse hidden sector freeze-out in detail for a concrete model, solving the Boltzmann equation numerically and explaining the results from both observable and hidden sector points of view. We find that WIMPless dark matter does indeed obtain the correct relic density for masses in the range keV{approx}

  20. Exposure of medical students to pharmaceutical marketing in primary care settings: frequent and influential.

    PubMed

    Sarikaya, Ozlem; Civaner, Murat; Vatansever, Kevser

    2009-12-01

    It is known that interaction between pharmaceutical companies and medical professionals may lead to corruption of professional values, irrational use of medicine, and negative effects on the patient-physician relationship. Medical students frequently interact with pharmaceutical company representatives and increasingly accept their gifts. Considering the move toward early clinical encounters and community-based education, which expose students early to pharmaceutical representatives, the influence of those gifts is becoming a matter of concern. This study examines the frequency and influence of student exposure to drug marketing in primary care settings, as well as student perceptions of physician-pharmaceutical company relationships. This was a two-phase study consisting of qualitative research followed by a cross-sectional survey. Clinical experience logbooks of 280 second-year students in one school were analysed, and the themes that emerged were used to develop a survey that was administered to 308 third-year students from two medical schools. Survey results showed a 91.2% exposure to any type of marketing, and 56.8% of students were exposed to all classes of marketing methods studied. Deliberate targeting of students by pharmaceutical representatives, in particular, was correlated with being less sensitive to the negative effects of and having positive opinions about interactions with pharmaceutical companies. The vast majority of students are exposed to drug marketing in primary care settings, and may become more vulnerable to that strategy. Considering that medical students are vulnerable and are targeted deliberately by pharmaceutical companies, interventions aimed at developing skills in the rational use of medicines and in strategies for coping with drug marketing should be devised.

  1. Nanostructured materials in electroanalysis of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Rahi, A; Karimian, K; Heli, H

    2016-03-15

    Basic strategies and recent developments for the enhancement of the sensory performance of nanostructures in the electroanalysis of pharmaceuticals are reviewed. A discussion of the properties of nanostructures and their application as modified electrodes for drug assays is presented. The electrocatalytic effect of nanostructured materials and their application in determining low levels of drugs in pharmaceutical forms and biofluids are discussed.

  2. The Impact of Biotechnology on Pharmaceutics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Lawrence H.

    1990-01-01

    The emergence of bioactive peptides and proteins as new drug species poses formidable problems for the pharmaceutical scientist. Implications for revision or change in undergraduate and graduate pharmaceutics curricula derive from the biopharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, and physiochemical aspects of the new drug species, which differ from…

  3. The Impact of Biotechnology on Pharmaceutics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Lawrence H.

    1990-01-01

    The emergence of bioactive peptides and proteins as new drug species poses formidable problems for the pharmaceutical scientist. Implications for revision or change in undergraduate and graduate pharmaceutics curricula derive from the biopharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, and physiochemical aspects of the new drug species, which differ from…

  4. Synthetic biology advances for pharmaceutical production

    PubMed Central

    Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology enables a new generation of microbial engineering for the biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and other high-value chemicals. This review presents an overview of recent advances in the field, describing new computational and experimental tools for the discovery, optimization and production of bioactive molecules, and outlining progress towards the application of these tools to pharmaceutical production systems. PMID:25744872

  5. Potential bias in ophthalmic pharmaceutical clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Varner, Paul

    2008-01-01

    To make clinicians aware of potential sources of error in ophthalmic pharmaceutical clinical trials that can lead to erroneous interpretation of results, a critical review of the study design of various pharmaceutical ophthalmic clinical trials was completed. Discrepancies as a result of study shortcomings may explain observed differences between reported ophthalmic trial data and observed clinical results. PMID:19668731

  6. Pharmaceutical experiment aboard STS-67 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut William G. Gregory, pilot, works with a pharmaceutical experiment on the middeck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour during the STS-67 mission. Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Instruments Technology Associates Experiments (CMIX-03) includes not only pharmaceutical, but also biotechnology, cell biology, fluids, and crystal growth investigation

  7. Ethics of pharmaceutical company relationships with the nursing profession: no free lunch...and no more pens?

    PubMed

    Crock, Elizabeth

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, nurses have increasingly become recipients of pharmaceutical company gifts, funding and sponsorship. There has been little discussion in the nursing literature, however, of the ethical and professional implications of nurses' acceptance of such sponsorship. This article examines ethical issues related to the issue of nurses' accepting benefits from pharmaceutical companies (and other commercial enterprises). It aims to encourage nurses to look critically at the implications of accepting such gifts/sponsorship, or to enter any form of relationship with commercial companies within the health sector, and to stimulate further discussion of this issue within the profession.

  8. Marine-Derived Bioactive Peptides for Biomedical Sectors: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Federico; Mancera-Andrade, Elena I; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2017-01-01

    Marine-based resources such as algae and other marine by-products have been recognized as rich sources of structurally diverse bioactive peptides. Evidently, their structural characteristics including unique amino acid residues are responsible for their biological activity. Several of the above-mentioned marine-origin species show multi-functional bioactivities that are useful for a new discovery and/or reinvention of biologically active ingredients, nutraceuticals and/or pharmaceuticals. Therefore, in recent years, marine-derived bioactive peptides have gained a considerable attention with high-value biomedical and/or pharmaceutical potentials. Furthermore, a wider spectrum of bioactive peptides can be produced through proteolytic-assisted hydrolysis of various marine resources under controlled physicochemical (pH and temperature of the reaction media) environment. Owing to their numerous health-related beneficial effects and therapeutic potential in the treatment and/or prevention of many diseases, such marine-derived bioactive peptides exhibit a wider spectrum of biological activities such as anti-cancerous, anti-proliferative, anti-coagulant, antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-tumor activities among many others. Based on emerging evidence of marine-derived peptide mining, the above-mentioned marine resources contain noteworthy levels of high-value protein. The present review article mainly summarizes the marine-derived bioactive peptides and emphasizing their potential applications in biomedical and/or pharmaceutical sectors of the modern world. In conclusion, recent literature has provided evidence that marine-derived bioactive peptides play a critical role in human health along with many possibilities of designing new functional nutraceuticals and/or pharmaceuticals to clarify potent mechanisms of action for a wider spectrum of diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Pharmaceutical counterfeiting and the RFID technology intervention.

    PubMed

    Coustasse, Alberto; Arvidson, Cody; Rutsohn, Phil

    2010-07-01

    Both nationally and internationally, pharmaceutical counterfeiting has become a problem that is threatening economic stability and public health. The purpose of the present research study review was to analyze the scope and severity of pharmaceutical counterfeiting and to establish if the implantation of the Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) model can more efficiently be used within the pharmaceutical supply chain to reduce the problem counterfeit drugs impose on public health and international economic stability. Results indicated that implementing the RFID model for tracking drugs at the item level in the pharmaceutical supply chain has potential to alleviate the scope of the counterfeit drug problem. Recommendations for how the pharmaceutical industry may sooner adopt the RFID model are made.

  10. KAP AMONG DOCTORS WORKING IN HOSPITALS, REGARDING HALAL PHARMACEUTICALS; A CROSS SECTIONAL ASSESSMENT.

    PubMed

    Sadeeqa, Saleha; Sarriff, Azmi; Masood, Imran; Atif, Muhammad; Farooqui, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing awareness amongst Muslims to avoid all items containing non-Halal ingredients. This sentiment has now progressed into the field of various medications. It therefore, required a study to assess the knowledge, attitude and perception (KAP) relating to pharmaceuticals containing non-Halal ingredients among doctors working in various hospitals of Malaysia. This was a cross sectional study, carried out in January 2013-February 2013 period, using a structured, self-administered questionnaires. Study settings included various government hospitals in Malaysia. Data were collected by distributing questionnaires through respective heads of the departments. Study was conducted on a sample of 243 participants. Inclusion criterion was a registered medical doctor working in a government hospital. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, frequency, percentage, median, inter quartile range) was applied to summarize the data, non-parametric tests were applied. χ2 Test and Fisher's Exact Test were applied to assess the association between demographic characteristics and knowledge, attitude and perception scores. Results revealed that the hospital doctors had a good and positive attitude and perception about Halal pharmaceuticals. Mean knowledge score out of maximum possible 9 score was 7.67 ± 1.68. Mean attitude score out of maximum possible 45 score was 34.10 ± 5.35 while mean perception score out of maximum possible 55 score was 45.73 ± 5.44. Mean overall KAP score out of maximum possible 109 was 87.60 ± 10.37. There was a significant, positive and weak correlation (0.20-0.29) between knowledge and attitude (r = 0.231, p < 0.001) as well as between knowledge and perception (r = 0.209, p = 0.001) while there was good correlation (0.5-0.75) between attitude and perception (r = 0.588, p < 0.001). It is concluded from the results that the better knowledge the respondents have on Halal pharmaceuticals the better is their perception and attitude towards

  11. Temperature compensation for miniaturized magnetic sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Temperature compensation for a magnetic sector used in mass spectrometry. A high temperature dependant magnetic sector is used. This magnetic sector is compensated by a magnetic shunt that has opposite temperature characteristics to those of the magnet.

  12. UV imaging in pharmaceutical analysis.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, Jesper

    2017-08-01

    UV imaging provides spatially and temporally resolved absorbance measurements, which are highly useful in pharmaceutical analysis. Commercial UV imaging instrumentation was originally developed as a detector for separation sciences, but the main use is in the area of in vitro dissolution and release testing studies. The review covers the basic principles of the technology and summarizes the main applications in relation to intrinsic dissolution rate determination, excipient compatibility studies and in vitro release characterization of drug substances and vehicles intended for parenteral administration. UV imaging has potential for providing new insights to drug dissolution and release processes in formulation development by real-time monitoring of swelling, precipitation, diffusion and partitioning phenomena. Limitations of current instrumentation are discussed and a perspective to new developments and opportunities given as new instrumentation is emerging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [An analysis of the pharmaceuticals market in Vietnam].

    PubMed

    Simonet, D

    2001-01-01

    pharmaceutical researchers. A strong decentralisation process characterises the pharmaceutical sector, with pharmacies in the provinces and districts while wholesalers remain located in Hanoi and Saigon. The presence of many middlemen has contributed to an increase in prices. Today, a concentration of pharmacies is still noted in inner cities while the suburbs and the villages still have difficulties supplying drugs for inhabitants. Solutions have been implemented such as the opening of new pharmacies and additional professional training for pharmacists. Prices were lowered while the quality of the supply chain was improved. Local production is encouraged as hospitals are prompted to prescribe Vietnamese products. The modernisation of the Vietnamese pharmaceutical industry is also visible through the importation of medical materials and an increase in the number of private hospitals financed with both the help of local and foreign investors, mainly through joint-ventures, most often in Saigon and Hanoi. The renovation of local hospitals was also possible with the help of France and Japan. Columbia Gia Dinh International, located in Saigon, is one of the very few US/Vietnamese medical institutions created with a local partner, the Gia Dinh hospital. The recovery of the economy will accelerate the creation of new projects designed to improve local medical infrastructures. Other private companies, some of which are based in Singapore, have been specifically designed to deliver care to expatriates working in Vietnam. Insurance coverage has been provided in Vietnam since in 1992. Other improvements concern the implementation of "Good Manufacturing Practices" (GMP) and "Good Laboratory Practices" and "Good Storage Practices". Most norms were implemented at the end of the 90s in joint companies linking foreign investors and local partners or in independent foreign drug manufacturers based in Vietnam. Special areas were created to receive high tech investments in the medical and

  14. Pharmaceutical firms' generosity and physicians: legal aspects in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Desmet, Christophe

    2003-01-01

    In this article we will examine the relation between physicians and (representatives of) the pharmaceutical industry. More in particular we want to discuss the appropriateness of some of the gifts that are given to physicians by companies in the pharmaceutical (and medical equipment) industry, since there has been growing concern about the potential negative consequences of these so-called 'gift-giving practices'. Although the relation between physicians and industry can result in impressive medical advances, they also create opportunities for bias and can result in unfavourable public perceptions, over-consumption and misuse of public money. First of all, a concise factual summary of the different types of gift-giving will be given, since not every gift can automatically be considered as inappropriate: depending on the extent to which the gift serves a function beneficial to patient care and on whether the same benefits can be realised through less costly promotional activities, gifts can be appropriate. In connection with that remark, we will next outline the positive and negative impact pharmaceutical promotion has on patient welfare, according to advocates as well as opponents of 'gift-giving'. We will not take position in the discussion whether 'gift-giving' is appropriate or not. This paper focuses on the position the (Belgian) legislator, following a European Directive of 1992, takes in this controversy. For the answer to that question the following documents are of crucial importance: the Belgian Law on Medicinal Products of 25 March 1964, the European Council Directive 92/28/EEC of 31 March 1992 on the advertising of medicinal products for human use and the Belgian Crown Order of 7 April 1995 on the advertising of medicinal products for human use. To round up, we will examine how the principles laid down in these documents are being interpreted in the Belgian case-law.

  15. Dry Cleaning Sector (NAICS 8123)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The dry cleaning sector includes establishments engaged in providing laundry services and industrial launderers. Find environmental regulatory information for perchloroethylene (PERC) cleaners as well as hazardous waste regulations for dry cleaners.

  16. Textile Manufacturing Sector (NAICS 313)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the textile and leather manufacturing sector, including NESHAPs for leather tanning and fabric printing, and small business guidance for RCRA hazardous waste requirements.

  17. Wood and Paper Manufacturing Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find EPA regulatory information for the wood product and paper manufacturing sectors, including paper, pulp and lumber. Information includes NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for pulp and paper rulemaking, and compliance guidelines

  18. Chemical Manufacturing Sector (NAICS 325)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    find EPA regulatory information for the chemical manufacturing sector, including NESHAPs, the SNAP program for ozone depleting substances,effluent guidelines, and new and existing chemicals testing requirements under TSCA.

  19. The US drug safety system: role of the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Brent R; Suh, Ryung; Tilson, Hugh

    2008-02-01

    Despite increasingly strident calls for improved drug safety in the United States, recent events underscore the continuing gap among manufacturers, regulators, patients, and physicians. In the period leading to the recent Institute of Medicine report on the future of drug safety, representatives from industry were given an opportunity to provide input into this report. In light of continuing concerns about drug safety and pending legislation, this original perspective provides an important context. This work consolidates the views of representatives of individual pharmaceutical companies; the large industry trade associations, the Pharmaceutical Researchers and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) and the Biotechnology Industry Association (BIO); and those of the authors with regard to the industry role of drug safety in the United States. To ensure continued protection of the public's health, manufacturers must recognize themselves as critical to ensuring safe products; maintain corporate safety functions separate from marketing functions; provide oversight by a senior medical executive; engage in structured epidemiological research, risk assessment, and risk communication; and mandate the formation and maintenance of an internal, interdisciplinary, senior level safety council. The importance of aggressive and accountable drug safety will only become more salient as the public and their elected representatives demand better accountability from industry. Individual corporations now have the opportunity to move first to counter perceptions of profit over safety and to ensure that their business practices adequately protect the public's health. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Consumer Perceptions of Sponsors of Disease Awareness Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Danika V.; Jones, Sandra C.; Iverson, Donald C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In many countries there is emerging concern regarding alliances between the pharmaceutical industry and health non-profit organizations (NPOs), and the increase of co-sponsored marketing activities such as disease awareness advertising. The current study aims to explore Australian women's perceptions of disease awareness advertising with…

  1. Consumer Perceptions of Sponsors of Disease Awareness Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Danika V.; Jones, Sandra C.; Iverson, Donald C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In many countries there is emerging concern regarding alliances between the pharmaceutical industry and health non-profit organizations (NPOs), and the increase of co-sponsored marketing activities such as disease awareness advertising. The current study aims to explore Australian women's perceptions of disease awareness advertising with…

  2. Factors associated with the recruitment and retention of dentists in the public sector.

    PubMed

    Hopcraft, Matthew Scott; Milford, Elizabeth; Yapp, Kehn; Lim, Yujin; Tan, Vanessa; Goh, Leo; Low, Cheng Cheng; Phan, Tung

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for public dental services in Australia, with many community dental clinics unable to meet this demand because of an inadequate number of dentists in the workforce. The aim of this study was to identify factors contributing to the recruitment and retention of dentists in the public sector. A postal questionnaire survey of 180 dentists (response rate 75.6 percent) working in the Victorian public sector was undertaken to investigate the characteristics of public sector dentists, job satisfaction, remuneration, perceptions of public dentistry, future career intentions, and issues that relate to recruitment and retention of staff. Victorian public dentists' main reason for entering the public sector was to work in a community-based setting in a supportive and mentored environment. The main factors related to dentists leaving the public sector were poor remuneration, lack of clinical experience, and frustration with administrative policies. Victoria's oral health workforce shortages in the public sector are mainly attributed to retention issues. The potential for mentoring and a desire for helping those in need were factors attracting dentists to work in the public sector. There was a disproportionate number of female dentists in the public sector compared with the general population, and female dentists had a lower mean salary than male dentists regardless of experience. A range of factors were associated with retention, and gradual frustration because of poor remuneration and lack of professional autonomy were significant reasons for the decision to leave the public sector.

  3. The distribution of pharmaceuticals in Europe--current and future trends in wholesaling.

    PubMed

    Andersson, F

    1994-03-01

    As of January 1, 1993 a huge market, encompassing more than 325 million people, has been established with the unification of the 12 member states in the European Community. During the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical wholesaling sector has therefore been involved in an intense restructuring process. But, there is a considerable scientific gap in the knowledge of pharmaceutical wholesaling. In view of the uncertain situation and the scarcity of structured information, the purpose of this article is to examine current and future trends in the European pharmaceutical wholesaling sector. We reviewed the literature and identified three major areas of interest; general threats to traditional full-line wholesaling, wholesalers' response to these threats, and the new Glaxo distribution scheme. The current and expected importance of these areas were assessed with the help of a survey, encompassing 20 experts in this field. Based on the review and the survey, we conclude that there are many serious threats to traditional wholesaling, the major ones being governmental pressures to lower the already relatively low gross margins, manufacturers contemplating taking over the drug distribution process themselves and increasing international competition. The major responses to these threats are to become a truly international player (via mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures), or being able to provide the customers with detailed management information through computerised networks. In order to survive the next 5-10 years, companies have to be very alert to the changing competitive situation.

  4. Roundtable discussion: what is the future role of the private sector in health?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role for the private sector in health remains subject to much debate, especially within the context of achieving universal health coverage. This roundtable discussion offers diverse perspectives from a range of stakeholders – a health funder, a representative from an implementing organization, a national-level policy-maker, and an expert working in a large multi-national company – on what the future may hold for the private sector in health. Discussion The first perspective comes from a health funder, who argues that the discussion about the future role of the private sector has been bogged down in language. He argues for a ‘both/and’ approach rather than an ‘either/or’ when it comes to talking about health service provision in low- and middle-income countries. The second perspective is offered by an implementer of health insurance in sub-Saharan Africa. The piece examines the comparative roles of public sector actors, private sector actors and funding agencies, suggesting that they must work together to mobilize domestic resources to fund and deliver health services in the longer term. Thirdly, a special advisor working in the federal government of Nigeria considers the situation in that country. He notes that the private sector plays a significant role in funding and delivering health services there, and that the government must engage the private sector or forever be left behind. Finally, a representative from a multi-national pharmaceutical corporation gives an overview of global shifts that are creating opportunities for the private sector in health markets. Summary Overall, the roundtable discussants agree that the private sector will play an important role in future health systems. But we must agree a common language, work together, and identify key issues and gaps that might be more effectively filled by the private sector. PMID:24961806

  5. Evolution of Plant-Made Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, David R.; Penney, Claire A.; Majumder, Amrita; Walmsley, Amanda M.

    2011-01-01

    The science and policy of pharmaceuticals produced and/or delivered by plants has evolved over the past twenty-one years from a backyard remedy to regulated, purified products. After seemingly frozen at Phase I human clinical trials with six orally delivered plant-made vaccines not progressing past this stage over seven years, plant-made pharmaceuticals have made a breakthrough with several purified plant-based products advancing to Phase II trials and beyond. Though fraught with the usual difficulties of pharmaceutical development, pharmaceuticals made by plants have achieved pertinent milestones albeit slowly compared to other pharmaceutical production systems and are now at the cusp of reaching the consumer. Though the current economic climate begs for cautious investment as opposed to trail blazing, it is perhaps a good time to look to the future of plant-made pharmaceutical technology to assist in planning for future developments in order not to slow this technology’s momentum. To encourage continued progress, we highlight the advances made so far by this technology, particularly the change in paradigms, comparing developmental timelines, and summarizing the current status and future possibilities of plant-made pharmaceuticals. PMID:21686181

  6. Vulnerabilities to misinformation in online pharmaceutical marketing

    PubMed Central

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2013-01-01

    Given the large percentage of Internet users who search for health information online, pharmaceutical companies have invested significantly in online marketing of their products. Although online pharmaceutical marketing can potentially benefit both physicians and patients, it can also harm these groups by misleading them. Indeed, some pharmaceutical companies have been guilty of undue influence, which has threatened public health and trust. We conducted a review of the available literature on online pharmaceutical marketing, undue influence and the psychology of decision-making, in order to identify factors that contribute to Internet users’ vulnerability to online pharmaceutical misinformation. We find five converging factors: Internet dependence, excessive trust in the veracity of online information, unawareness of pharmaceutical company influence, social isolation and detail fixation. As the Internet continues to change, it is important that regulators keep in mind not only misinformation that surrounds new web technologies and their contents, but also the factors that make Internet users vulnerable to misinformation in the first place. Psychological components are a critical, although often neglected, risk factor for Internet users becoming misinformed upon exposure to online pharmaceutical marketing. Awareness of these psychological factors may help Internet users attentively and safely navigate an evolving web terrain. PMID:23761527

  7. Vulnerabilities to misinformation in online pharmaceutical marketing.

    PubMed

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2013-05-01

    Given the large percentage of Internet users who search for health information online, pharmaceutical companies have invested significantly in online marketing of their products. Although online pharmaceutical marketing can potentially benefit both physicians and patients, it can also harm these groups by misleading them. Indeed, some pharmaceutical companies have been guilty of undue influence, which has threatened public health and trust. We conducted a review of the available literature on online pharmaceutical marketing, undue influence and the psychology of decision-making, in order to identify factors that contribute to Internet users' vulnerability to online pharmaceutical misinformation. We find five converging factors: Internet dependence, excessive trust in the veracity of online information, unawareness of pharmaceutical company influence, social isolation and detail fixation. As the Internet continues to change, it is important that regulators keep in mind not only misinformation that surrounds new web technologies and their contents, but also the factors that make Internet users vulnerable to misinformation in the first place. Psychological components are a critical, although often neglected, risk factor for Internet users becoming misinformed upon exposure to online pharmaceutical marketing. Awareness of these psychological factors may help Internet users attentively and safely navigate an evolving web terrain.

  8. Pitch perception.

    PubMed

    Yost, William A

    2009-11-01

    This article is a review of the psychophysical study of pitch perception. The history of the study of pitch has seen a continual competition between spectral and temporal theories of pitch perception. The pitch of complex stimuli is likely based on the temporal regularities in a sound's waveform, with the strongest pitches occurring for stimuli with low-frequency components. Thus, temporal models, especially those based on autocorrelation-like processes, appear to account for the majority of the data.

  9. Pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement reforms in Greece.

    PubMed

    Yfantopoulos, John

    2008-02-01

    Pharmaceutical price regulation in Greece is centralized. The National Drug Organization (EOF) is the main regulatory authority functioning under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity. In 2004, total pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece reached the level of 2.9 billion euro, of which 77.9% were public expenditure and the remaining 22.1% private. According to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) data the total per-capita expenditure on pharmaceutical care in Greece is among the lowest in Europe, representing 58% of the EU-12 average. In 1998, Greece introduced a reimbursement list, and the lowest reference pricing system among the 15 European Union member states with the purpose of controlling the growth of pharmaceutical expenditure. The measures proved to be ineffective since pharmaceutical expenditure, after a short-term reduction, continued to increase at similar rates to those before the introduction of price control mechanisms. The average annual increase of pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece over the period 1998-2003 was 7.9%, which is among the highest in the OECD countries (average 6.1%). New pharmaceutical legislation, no. 3457, was enacted on May 8th 2006, aiming at greater access to medicines, improvements to citizens' quality of life, effective and efficient utilization of health resources, transparency in public management, protecting public health, and maintaining long-term financial viability of the insurance system. The innovative aspect of the new legislation is the abolition of the positive list and the establishment of a rebate system granting the National Insurance Funds a rebate rate paid by the pharmaceutical companies. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First to assess the effectiveness of the positive list introduced in 1988 in Greece, using simple econometric models. Second to present the recent pharmaceutical reforms aimed at the introduction of a rebate system and establishing

  10. Why the MDGs need good governance in pharmaceutical systems to promote global health.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Jillian Clare; Mackey, Tim Ken; Ovtcharenko, Natalia

    2014-01-21

    Corruption in the health sector can hurt health outcomes. Improving good governance can in turn help prevent health-related corruption. We understand good governance as having the following characteristics: it is consensus-oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, equitable and inclusive, effective and efficient, follows the rule of law, is participatory and should in theory be less vulnerable to corruption. By focusing on the pharmaceutical system, we explore some of the key lessons learned from existing initiatives in good governance. As the development community begins to identify post-2015 Millennium Development Goals targets, it is essential to evaluate programs in good governance in order to build on these results and establish sustainable strategies. This discussion on the pharmaceutical system illuminates why. Considering pharmaceutical governance initiatives such as those launched by the World Bank, World Health Organization, and the Global Fund, we argue that country ownership of good governance initiatives is essential but also any initiative must include the participation of impartial stakeholders. Understanding the political context of any initiative is also vital so that potential obstacles are identified and the design of any initiative is flexible enough to make adjustments in programming as needed. Finally, the inherent challenge which all initiatives face is adequately measuring outcomes from any effort. However in fairness, determining the precise relationship between good governance and health outcomes is rarely straightforward. Challenges identified in pharmaceutical governance initiatives manifest in different forms depending on the nature and structure of the initiative, but their regular occurrence and impact on population-based health demonstrates growing importance of addressing pharmaceutical governance as a key component of the post-2015 Millennium Development Goals. Specifically, these challenges need to be acknowledged and

  11. Why the MDGs need good governance in pharmaceutical systems to promote global health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Corruption in the health sector can hurt health outcomes. Improving good governance can in turn help prevent health-related corruption. We understand good governance as having the following characteristics: it is consensus-oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, equitable and inclusive, effective and efficient, follows the rule of law, is participatory and should in theory be less vulnerable to corruption. By focusing on the pharmaceutical system, we explore some of the key lessons learned from existing initiatives in good governance. As the development community begins to identify post-2015 Millennium Development Goals targets, it is essential to evaluate programs in good governance in order to build on these results and establish sustainable strategies. This discussion on the pharmaceutical system illuminates why. Discussion Considering pharmaceutical governance initiatives such as those launched by the World Bank, World Health Organization, and the Global Fund, we argue that country ownership of good governance initiatives is essential but also any initiative must include the participation of impartial stakeholders. Understanding the political context of any initiative is also vital so that potential obstacles are identified and the design of any initiative is flexible enough to make adjustments in programming as needed. Finally, the inherent challenge which all initiatives face is adequately measuring outcomes from any effort. However in fairness, determining the precise relationship between good governance and health outcomes is rarely straightforward. Summary Challenges identified in pharmaceutical governance initiatives manifest in different forms depending on the nature and structure of the initiative, but their regular occurrence and impact on population-based health demonstrates growing importance of addressing pharmaceutical governance as a key component of the post-2015 Millennium Development Goals. Specifically, these challenges need

  12. Short Summary European Reports on Retail Sector, Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector, Food and Beverages Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is composed of European synthesis reports on retail trade, the agro-food sector, and the motor vehicle sales and repair sector. They are based on the most important findings of the European report and the 12 national reports for each sector. Section 1, "Retail Sector," deals in part 1 with the structure of retailing in the…

  13. Metrology in Pharmaceutical Industry - A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuvamoto, Priscila D.; Fermam, Ricardo K. S.; Nascimento, Elizabeth S.

    2016-07-01

    Metrology is recognized by improving production process, increasing the productivity, giving more reliability to the measurements and consequently, it impacts in the economy of a country. Pharmaceutical area developed GMP (Good Manufacture Practice) requeriments, with no introduction of metrological concepts. However, due to Nanomedicines, it is expected this approach and the consequent positive results. The aim of this work is to verify the level of metrology implementation in a Brazilian pharmaceutical industry, using a case study. The purpose is a better mutual comprehension by both areas, acting together and governmental support to robustness of Brazilian pharmaceutical area.

  14. Public Service Motivation as a Predictor of Attraction to the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Jacqueline; Doverspike, Dennis; Miguel, Rosanna F.

    2012-01-01

    According to public service motivation theory, individuals with a strong public service orientation are attracted to government jobs. This proposition was investigated in three studies by measuring public sector motivation at a pre-entry level as an individual difference variable affecting perceptions of fit and organizational attraction. Results…

  15. Public Service Motivation as a Predictor of Attraction to the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Jacqueline; Doverspike, Dennis; Miguel, Rosanna F.

    2012-01-01

    According to public service motivation theory, individuals with a strong public service orientation are attracted to government jobs. This proposition was investigated in three studies by measuring public sector motivation at a pre-entry level as an individual difference variable affecting perceptions of fit and organizational attraction. Results…

  16. Evaluation and Selection of Predicaments in Pharmaceutical Supply Chain using AHP under Fuzzy Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikhil, E. V. S.; Sai Ram, V.; Charan Yadav, V.; Kiran Kumar, Kalla; Nagaraju, Dega

    2017-05-01

    Pharmaceutical sector plays an important role in the medical and health system. Due to the globalization of the business, increasing demand and supply for drugs, growing regulatory requirements, all stages of the pharmaceutical supply chain (SC) are facing numerous predicaments. The traditional way of selection and evaluation of these predicaments is customarily done using technical information. This approach lacks the ability to project the burning issue that to be addressed first. Hence, a computing method of selecting the crucial issue from the existing issues is essential in a pharmaceutical supply chain. This paper considers seven different predicaments as criteria and five sub-criteria under each main predicament of a pharmaceutical supply chain. The intention of this project is to manifest the process of assessing and selecting the issue that to be addressed first by using multi-criteria decision making technique (MCDM), i.e., fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The criteria and sub-criteria weights are calculated and priority assessment of the predicaments is done by using FAHP. Finally, from the findings of this work, the predicaments are ranked from most important to least important. This gives information to the decision maker (DM) to solve the issue that is affecting the SC the most with respect to the others.

  17. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the personal activities of individual citizens and their environment. PPCPS, in contrast to other types of pollutants, owe their origins in the environment directly to their worldwide, universal, frequent, highly dispersed, and individually small but cumulative usage by multitudes of individuals - as opposed to the larger, highly delineated, and more controllable industrial manufacturing/usage of most high- volume synthetic chemicals. Many PPCPs (as well as their metabolites and transformation products) can enter the environment following ingestion or application by the user or administration to domestic animals. Disposal of unused/expired PPCPs in landfills and in domestic sewage is another route to the environment. The aquatic environment serves as the major, ultimate receptacle for these chemicals, for which little is known with respect to actual or potential adverse effects. Domestic sewage treatment plants are not specifically engineered to remove PPCPS, and the efficiencies with which they are removed vary from nearly complete to ineffective. While PPCPs in the environment (or domestic drinking water) are not regulated, and even though their concentrations are extremely low (ng/L-ug/L), the consequences of exposure over multiple generations to

  18. ORIGINS AND RAMIFICATIONS OF PHARMACEUTICALS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the personal activities of individual citizens and their environment. PPCPS, in contrast to other types of pollutants, owe their origins in the environment directly to their worldwide, universal, frequent, highly dispersed, and individually small but cumulative usage by multitudes of individuals - as opposed to the larger, highly delineated, and more controllable industrial manufacturing/usage of most high- volume synthetic chemicals. Many PPCPs (as well as their metabolites and transformation products) can enter the environment following ingestion or application by the user or administration to domestic animals. Disposal of unused/expired PPCPs in landfills and in domestic sewage is another route to the environment. The aquatic environment serves as the major, ultimate receptacle for these chemicals, for which little is known with respect to actual or potential adverse effects. Domestic sewage treatment plants are not designed to remove PPCPS, and the efficiencies with which they are removed vary from nearly complete to ineffective. While PPCPs in the environment (or domestic drinking water) are not regulated, and even though their concentrations are extremely low (ng/L-@Lg/L), the consequences of exposure to multiple compounds having different as w

  19. PHARMACEUTICAL AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  20. ORIGINS AND RAMIFICATIONS OF PHARMACEUTICALS & ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  1. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is no abstract for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. Subtask 3: T

  2. PHARMACEUTICAL AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  3. Pharmaceutical research involving the homeless.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Tom L; Jennings, Bruce; Kinney, Eleanor D; Levine, Robert J

    2002-10-01

    Discussions of research involving vulnerable populations have left the homeless comparatively ignored. Participation by these subjects in drug studies has the potential to be upsetting, inconvenient, or unpleasant. Participation occasionally produces injury, health emergencies, and chronic health problems. Nonetheless, no ethical justification exists for the categorical exclusion of homeless persons from research. The appropriate framework for informed consent for these subjects of pharmaceutical research is not a single event of oral or written consent, but a multi-staged arrangement of disclosure, dialogue, and permission-giving. Payments and other rewards in biomedical research raise issues of whether it is ethical to offer inducements to the homeless in exchange for participation in drug studies. Such inducements can influence desperate persons who are seriously lacking in resources. The key is to strike a balance between a rate of payment high enough that it does not exploit subjects by underpayment and low enough that it does not create an irresistible inducement. This proposal does not underestimate the risks of research, which are often overestimated and need to be appraised in light of the relevant empirical literature.

  4. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the individual activities of consumers and their environment. In contrast to other types of pollutants, PPCPs owe their origins in the environment directly to their worldwide, universal, frequent, highly dispersed, and individually small but aggregate/cumulative usage and disposal by multitudes of individuals. An overview of this multi-faceted issue can be found at a U.S. EPA web site (http://www.epa.gov/nerlesdl/chemistry/pharma/index.htm), which also provides a reprint of a review article published in Environmental Health Perspectives. PPCPs can enter the environment following their ingestion or application by the user or administration to domestic animals. Disposal of unused/expired PPCPS in landfills and to domestic sewage are additional routes to the environment. Domestic sewage treatment plants are not specifically engineered to remove PPCPS; the efficiencies with which they are removed from sewage vary from nearly complete to ineffective. The aquatic environment serves as the major, ultimate receptacle for most PPCPS. Little is known with respect to actual or even potential adverse effects on non-target species; human exposure via drinking water is poorly defined. While PPCPs in the environment (or domestic drinking water) are not regulated

  5. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  6. OVERVIEW OF PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  7. ORIGINS AND RAMIFICATIONS OF PHARMACEUTICALS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  8. PHARMACEUTICALS IN SOURCE WATER - OVERVIEW ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  9. INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is no abstract for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. Subtask 3: T

  10. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm, the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the documented or potential hazards associated with trace exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive and perpetually present in many aquatic locales. The continually growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on water supplies and resultant potential for human or ecological exposure be minimized.Of the many facets involved in this complex issue, that of sources/origins and environmental occurrence is the better understood end of the larger spectrum. The potential for adverse ecological or human health effects (especially from long-term, combined exposure to multiple xenobiotics at low concentrations) is the

  11. Indigenous and multinational pharmaceutical companies.

    PubMed

    Lilja, J

    1983-01-01

    There is a set of complex relationships between governments and the pharmaceutical companies. These relationships can be analysed in many different ways. In the following article the drug system of each country will be the unit of analysis. The drug system includes all the decision processes, formal as well as informal, from the production or importation of drugs to the intake of the drug by the patient. The aim of this paper is to discuss how environmental factors, the strategies of the drug companies and the national policies, will effect the drug system of a country. Satisfying solutions to the economical and health goals of the country will be searched for. If we want a more rational discussion in this area, professionally and politically, we need more empirical knowledge about the multinational drug companies and their effects on society. This does not mean that we shall sit waiting for this new knowledge. We have to make decisions using todays knowledge. However, in the long run rational decision strategy must include ways to collect important empirical data about the phenomenom under investigation. The aim of this survey is to indicate areas where we already have quite good knowledge and indicate other areas where this data is missing.

  12. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm, the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the documented or potential hazards associated with trace exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive and perpetually present in many aquatic locales. The continually growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on water supplies and resultant potential for human or ecological exposure be minimized.Of the many facets involved in this complex issue, that of sources/origins and environmental occurrence is the better understood end of the larger spectrum. The potential for adverse ecological or human health effects (especially from long-term, combined exposure to multiple xenobiotics at low concentrations) is the

  13. Emerging pharmaceutical therapies for COPD

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Sowmya P; Reddy, Aravind T; Reddy, Raju C

    2017-01-01

    COPD, for which cigarette smoking is the major risk factor, remains a worldwide burden. Current therapies provide only limited short-term benefit and fail to halt progression. A variety of potential therapeutic targets are currently being investigated, including COPD-related proinflammatory mediators and signaling pathways. Other investigational compounds target specific aspects or complications of COPD such as mucus hypersecretion and pulmonary hypertension. Although many candidate therapies have shown no significant effects, other emerging therapies have improved lung function, pulmonary hypertension, glucocorticoid sensitivity, and/or the frequency of exacerbations. Among these are compounds that inhibit the CXCR2 receptor, mitogen-activated protein kinase/Src kinase, myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate, selectins, and the endothelin receptor. Activation of certain transcription factors may also be relevant, as a large retrospective cohort study of COPD patients with diabetes found that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists rosiglitazone and pioglitazone were associated with reduced COPD exacerbation rate. Notably, several therapies have shown efficacy only in identifiable subgroups of COPD patients, suggesting that subgroup identification may become more important in future treatment strategies. This review summarizes the status of emerging therapeutic pharmaceuticals for COPD and highlights those that appear most promising. PMID:28790817

  14. Mixed Reality Meets Pharmaceutical Development.

    PubMed

    Forrest, William P; Mackey, Megan A; Shah, Vivek M; Hassell, Kerry M; Shah, Prashant; Wylie, Jennifer L; Gopinath, Janakiraman; Balderhaar, Henning; Li, Li; Wuelfing, W Peter; Helmy, Roy

    2017-09-01

    As science evolves, the need for more efficient and innovative knowledge transfer capabilities becomes evident. Advances in drug discovery and delivery sciences have directly impacted the pharmaceutical industry, though the added complexities have not shortened the development process. These added complexities also make it difficult for scientists to rapidly and effectively transfer knowledge to offset the lengthened drug development timelines. While webcams, camera phones, and iPads have been explored as potential new methods of real-time information sharing, the non-"hands-free" nature and lack of viewer and observer point-of-view render them unsuitable for the R&D laboratory or manufacturing setting. As an alternative solution, the Microsoft HoloLens mixed-reality headset was evaluated as a more efficient, hands-free method of knowledge transfer and information sharing. After completing a traditional method transfer between 3 R&D sites (Rahway, NJ; West Point, PA and Schnachen, Switzerland), a retrospective analysis of efficiency gain was performed through the comparison of a mock method transfer between NJ and PA sites using the HoloLens. The results demonstrated a minimum 10-fold gain in efficiency, weighing in from a savings in time, cost, and the ability to have real-time data analysis and discussion. In addition, other use cases were evaluated involving vendor and contract research/manufacturing organizations. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. PHARMACEUTICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: OVERVIEW ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) comprise a large and diverse array of unregulated pollutants that can occur in the environment from the combined activities and actions of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary and agricultural use (http://epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/pharma/images/drawing.pdf). Concerted research that began in Europe about two decades ago, and in the u.s. in the late 1990s, has begun escalating in the last few years. Investigation that was originally limited to studying the sources, origins, and occurrence of PPCPs primarily in waters has now expanded to encompass occurrence in other matrices and to consider the complexities involved with the range of unanticipated and subtle effects that might occur from low-dose. chronic exposure of non-target organisms. Risk management options designed around the principles of pollution prevention and environmental stewardship are also under discussion in the healthcare community. This paper will focus on the efforts being coordinated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, much of which is captured on the PPCPs web site: http://epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/pharma/. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth co

  16. Occupational allergy to pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Occupational allergy in healthcare workers is common and can lead to significant costs from both loss of productivity within the workforce as well as those associated with diagnosis and treatment. This review aims to provide an update on drugs implicated in causing occupational allergy. Drugs traditionally reported as causing occupational allergy, such as penicillin, remain problematic. However, as their use reduces and newer drugs, such as cephalosporins, are used more frequently there is a changing pattern to occupational sensitization. In some studies up to 17% of healthcare workers now appear sensitized to cephalosporins. Other drug classes also reported include proton pump inhibitors and benzodiazepines. Interestingly, drugs such as omeprazole and tetrazepam rarely cause allergy in patients but can be very sensitizing if applied topically or inhaled. Recent studies involving pharmaceutical company employees show that this problem can no longer be considered primarily related to healthcare workers. The diagnosis of occupational allergy to drugs can be complicated and has been shown to take up to 5 years from the onset of symptoms. Ultimately, workplace avoidance remains key; however, an up to date awareness of culprit drugs and the patterns of allergy seen are key to a prompt resolution of symptoms.

  17. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  18. PHARMACEUTICALS & PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS AS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Those chemical pollutants that are regulated under various international, federal, and state programs represent but a small fraction of the universe of chemicals that occur in the environment as a result of both natural processes and human influence. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-revi

  19. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the individual activities of consumers and their environment. In contrast to other types of pollutants, PPCPs owe their origins in the environment directly to their worldwide, universal, frequent, highly dispersed, and individually small but aggregate/cumulative usage and disposal by multitudes of individuals. An overview of this multi-faceted issue can be found at a U.S. EPA web site (http://www.epa.gov/nerlesdl/chemistry/pharma/index.htm), which also provides a reprint of an Environmental Health Perspectives review article. PPCPs can enter the environment via excreta or wash water following their ingestion or application by the user or administration to domestic animals. Direct disposal of unused/expired PPCPs in landfills and domestic sewage is an additional route to the environment. Domestic sewage treatment plants are not specifically engineered to remove PPCPS; removal efficiencies vary from nearly complete to ineffective. The aquatic and groundwater environments serve as the major, ultimate receptacles for most PPCPS. Little is known with respect to actual or even potential adverse effects on non-target species; human exposure via drinking water is poorly defined. While PPCPs in the environment (or drinking water) are not regulated, and even t

  20. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the individual activities of consumers and their environment. In contrast to other types of pollutants, PPCPs owe their origins in the environment directly to their worldwide, universal, frequent, highly dispersed, and individually small but aggregate/cumulative usage and disposal by multitudes of individuals. An overview of this multi-faceted issue can be found at a U.S. EPA web site (http://www.epa.gov/nerlesdl/chemistry/pharma/index.htm), which also provides a reprint of a review article published in Environmental Health Perspectives as well as many other resources including several chapters from a new American Chemical Society book. PPCPs can enter the environment following their ingestion or application by the user or administration to domestic animals. Disposal of unused/expired PPCPs in landfills and to domestic sewage are additional routes to the environment. Domestic sewage treatment plants are not specifically engineered to remove PPCPS; the efficiencies with which they are removed from sewage vary from nearly complete to ineffective. The aquatic environment serves as the major, ultimate receptacle for most PPCPS. Little is known with respect to actual or even potential adverse effects on non-target species; human exposure via drinking wate

  1. PREFACE TO: "PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Often overlooked in our daily lives are the inescapable, intimate, and immediate connections between our personal activities and the environment in which we live. This is especially true with regard to the use and disposal of consumer chemicals. A significant aspect of our global society that illustrates the potential impact of our lives on the environment is the widespread and escalating use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products - simply referred to as PPCPS. Many of these chemicals are specifically designed to elicit potent pharmacological or toxicological effects. In distinct contrast to nearly all agro/industrial chemicals, which are often used on large, relatively confined scales, the end use for PPCPs is highly dispersed and centered around the activities and actions of the individual. PPCPs enjoy worldwide usage and attendant discharge or inadvertent release to the environment. Their introduction to the environment has no geographic boundaries or climatic-use limitations as do many other synthetic chemicals - they are discharged to the environment wherever people live or visit, regardless of the time of year. It is difficult for the individual to perceive their small-scale activities as having any measurable impact on the larger environment - personal actions are often deemed minuscule or inconsequential in the larger scheme. Yet it is the combined actions and activities of individuals that indeed can significantly impact the environment in a myri

  2. WATER QUALITY MONITORING OF PHARMACEUTICALS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The demand on freshwater to sustain the needs of the growing population is of worldwide concern. Often this water is used, treated, and released for reuse by other communities. The anthropogenic contaminants present in this water may include complex mixtures of pesticides, prescription and nonprescription drugs, personal care and common consumer products, industrial and domestic-use materials and degradation products of these compounds. Although, the fate of these pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater treatment facilities is largely unknown, the limited data that does exist suggests that many of these chemicals survive treatment and some others are returned to their biologically active form via deconjugation of metabolites.Traditional water sampling methods (i.e., grab or composite samples) often require the concentration of large amounts of water to detect trace levels of PPCPs. A passive sampler, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS), has been developed to integratively concentrate the trace levels of these chemicals, determine the time-weighted average water concentrations, and provide a method of estimating the potential exposure of aquatic organisms to these complex mixtures of waterborne contaminants. The POCIS (U.S. Patent number 6,478,961) consists of a hydrophilic microporous membrane, acting as a semipermeable barrier, enveloping various solid-phase sorbents that retain the sampled chemicals. Sampling rates f

  3. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the personal activities of individual citizens and their environment. PPCPs, in contrast to other types of pollutants, owe their origins in the environment directly to their worldwide, universal, frequent, highly dispersed, and individually small but cumulative usage by multitudes of individuals ? as opposed to the larger, highly delineated, and more controllable industrial manufacturing/usage of most high-volume synthetic chemicals.Many PPCPs can enter the environment following ingestion or application by the user or administration to domestic animals. Disposal of unused/expired PPCPs in landfills and in domestic sewage is another route to the environment. The aquatic environment serves as the major, ultimate receptacle for these chemicals, for which little is known with respect to actual or potential adverse effects. Domestic sewage treatment plants are not specifically engineered to remove PPCPs, and the efficiencies with which they are removed vary from nearly complete to ineffective. While PPCPs in the environment (or domestic drinking water) are not regulated, and even though their concentrations are extremely low (ng/L- g/L), the consequences of exposure over multiple generations to multiple compounds having different as well as similar modes

  4. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm, the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the documented or potential hazards associated with trace exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive and perpetually present in many aquatic locales. The continually growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on water supplies and resultant potential for human or ecological exposure be minimized.Of the many facets involved in this complex issue, that of sources/origins and environmental occurrence is the better understood end of the larger spectrum. The potential for adverse ecological or human health effects (especially from long-term, combined exposure to multiple xenobiotics at low concentrations) is the l

  5. Medicine and pharmacy--facts and myths about the development of an innovative pharmaceutical industry in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Włodzimierz

    2005-01-01

    Innovation is fundamental to the pharmaceutical industry and a key to improvements in healthcare. Its effectiveness depends on huge, constant investments in research. This innovative industry directly affects the course of studies in healthcare and medicine. Its efforts translate directly into the length and quality of our lives. For several years now, the progress underway in pharmaceutical industry has produced measurable benefits. Doctors have new pharmaceuticals at their disposal, including many types of antibiotics and anti-viral drugs, vaccines and a wide range of drugs which save lives or make them more comfortable. In the near future, ever more efficient cures for neoplastic, rheumatic, neurological, psychic, metabolic, circulatory or respiratory diseases can be expected. Innovation is necessary. The human population is ageing, and the task of an innovative pharmaceutical industry is to keep it in a good condition. The use of innovative drugs can translate directly into lowering the costs of illness. A continuous reduction in spending on healthcare has been observed. The costs of inventing an innovative drug are enormous though (US dollar 800 million), and studies on a new drug last between 10 and 13 years. An essential element in recovering the incurred costs and ensuring funds needed for new research is protection by patent. Innovative pharmaceutical companies in Poland are committed to increasing the competitiveness and sustaining the development of not only the market, but also the entire pharmaceutical sector. It is a group of companies of crucial importance to the Polish healthcare system, as it influences improvement in the quality of medical services. Through their investments and spending on research and development, innovative companies accelerate economic growth. In Poland, the innovative pharmaceutical industry is represented by the Association of Pharmaceutical Companies Representatives in Poland (SPFFwP).

  6. Methods for estimating and comparing VA outpatient drug benefits with the private sector.

    PubMed

    Render, Marta L; Nowak, John; Hammond, Emmett K; Roselle, Gary

    2003-06-01

    To estimate and compare Veterans Health Administration (VA) expenditures for outpatient pharmaceuticals for veterans at six VA facilities with hypothetical private sector costs. Using the VA Pharmacy Benefits Management Strategic Health Care Group (PBM) database, we extracted data for all dispensed outpatient prescriptions from the six study sites over federal fiscal year 1999. After extensive data validation, we converted prescriptions to the same units and merged relevant VA pricing information by National Drug Code to Redbook listed average wholesale price and the Medicaid maximal allowable charge, where available. We added total VA drug expenditures to personnel cost from the pharmacy portion of that medical center's cost distribution report. Hypothetical private sector payments were $200.8 million compared with an aggregate VA budget of $118.8 million. Using National Drug Code numbers, 97% of all items dispensed from the six facilities were matched to private sector price data. Nonmatched pharmaceuticals were largely generic over-the-counter pain relievers and commodities like alcohol swabs. The most commonly prescribed medications reflect the diseases and complaints of an older male population: pain, cardiovascular problems, diabetes, and depression or other psychiatric disorders. Use of the VA PBM database permits researchers to merge expenditure and prescription data to patient diagnoses and sentinel events. A critical element in its use is creating similar units among the systems. Such data sets permit a deeper view of the variability in drug expenditures, an important sector of health care whose inflation has been disproportionate to that of the economy and even health care.

  7. Pharmaceutical technology management--profitable business avenue.

    PubMed

    Puthli, Shivanand P

    2010-01-01

    Growing research expenditure, regulatory framework and generic erosion have forced pharmaceutical companies globally to resort to pharmaceutical technology management (PTM). Indeed, the pharmaceutical industry has witnessed the impact of innovative drug delivery and device technologies and their influence on business. PTM has given a new business insight with greater profits and enhancement of product franchise. Promising breakthrough technologies have not been able to reach a commercial platform largely owing to lack of capital at the preliminary stages of the product development program. Intellectual property plays a considerable role in protecting innovative technologies. Joint ventures and strategic alliances also become important for commercializing a new technology. The synergy of PTM with options of in-licensing is expected to infuse newer opportunities to the pharmaceutical business.

  8. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead. PMID:26664401

  9. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead.

  10. Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients and Aquatic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of active pharmaceuticals ingredients (APIs) in aquatic systems in recent years has led to a burgeoning literature examining environmental occurrence, fate, effects, risk assessment, and treatability of these compounds. Although APIs have received much attention as ...

  11. Paying for On-Patent Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Goldfield, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    In this article we propose a new approach to pricing for patent-protected (on-patent) pharmaceuticals. We describe and define limit pricing as a method for drug companies to maximize revenue for their investment by offering budget-neutral pricing to encourage early adoption by payers. Under this approach, payers are incentivized to adopt innovative but expensive drugs more quickly if drug companies provide detailed analyses of the net impact of the new pharmaceutical upon total health budgets. For payers to adopt use of a new pharmaceutical, they would require objective third-party evaluation and pharmaceutical manufacturer accountability for projected outcomes efficacy of their treatments on population health. The pay for outcomes underpinning of this approach falls within the wider aspirations of health reform. PMID:26945298

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP OF PHARMACEUTICALS - THE GREEN PHARMACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of conceited attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environme...

  13. Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients and Aquatic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of active pharmaceuticals ingredients (APIs) in aquatic systems in recent years has led to a burgeoning literature examining environmental occurrence, fate, effects, risk assessment, and treatability of these compounds. Although APIs have received much attention as ...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP OF PHARMACEUTICALS - THE GREEN PHARMACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of conceited attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environme...

  15. An overview of the Greek pharmaceutical market.

    PubMed

    Kontozamanis, V; Mantzouneas, E; Stoforos, C

    2003-11-01

    This contribution presents the major aspects of the pharmaceutical market in Greece. Total expenditure on pharmaceuticals rose from euro 1.22 billion in 1995 to euro 1.85 billion in 2000. The rise in pharmaceutical expenditure is expected to continue due to factors determining demand (e.g., aging population) and deficiencies in public policy. The latter is related to the pricing and reimbursement of medicinal products. Regarding pricing, the lowest ex-factory price in the EU is applied de facto to imported products but for domestically produced/packaged products is the upper limit. The pharmaceutical market in Greece has a trade deficit, which exceeded euro 953 million in 2000. Finally, parallel trade has received increased attention. The consequences are twofold: shortages in Greek pharmacies and delays in launching new and more effective drugs. The latter is the result of a defensive strategy followed by major companies to minimize the effects of this activity.

  16. Agreements at the Pharmaceutical/University Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Katherine

    1987-01-01

    Specific agreements that arise at the interface between universities and pharmaceutical companies are described including sponsored research agreements, license agreements, clinical study agreements, material transfer agreements, and patient consent forms with respect to commercialization rights. (Author/MLW)

  17. Does Your Drug Expertise Include Clinical Pharmaceutics?

    PubMed

    Newton, David W

    2016-01-01

    Whose job is it to protect patients from harm from drug instabilities and incompatibilities and other aspects of clinical pharmaceutics? Pharmacists are better educated via multiple required general and organic chemistry prerequisite and professional curricula medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutics courses. Therefore, no healthcare professional other than pharmacists are nicknamed drug experts or are better formally educated to master drug chemistry in the bottle (i.e., injection stability and compatibility/incompatibility clinical pharmaceutics) as a prerequisite for drug administration to cause safe and effective drug chemistry in the body (i.e., clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacology). To be a patient's last chance for safe and effective drug therapy requires terminal control by pharmacists over identification, retrieval, preparation, labeling, and counseling or instruction of drug therapy. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  18. Pharmaceutical applications of non-linear imaging.

    PubMed

    Strachan, Clare J; Windbergs, Maike; Offerhaus, Herman L

    2011-09-30

    Non-linear optics encompasses a range of optical phenomena, including two- and three-photon fluorescence, second harmonic generation (SHG), sum frequency generation (SFG), difference frequency generation (DFG), third harmonic generation (THG), coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). The combined advantages of using these phenomena for imaging complex pharmaceutical systems include chemical and structural specificities, high optical spatial and temporal resolutions, no requirement for labels, and the ability to image in an aqueous environment. These features make such imaging well suited for a wide range of pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical investigations, including material and dosage form characterisation, dosage form digestion and drug release, and drug and nanoparticle distribution in tissues and within live cells. In this review, non-linear optical phenomena used in imaging will be introduced, together with their advantages and disadvantages in the pharmaceutical context. Research on pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical applications is discussed, and potential future applications of the technology are considered.

  19. How Should Clinical Pharmaceutical Scientists Be Trained?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Gerhard

    1977-01-01

    A rationale for defining "clinical pharmaceutical scientist" is developed along with an outline of the aims and purposes of a training program for him. Postdoctoral (PharmD) fellowships are described as the most effective training method. (LBH)

  20. Funding pharmaceutical innovation through direct tax credits.

    PubMed

    Lybecker, Kristina M; Freeman, Robert A

    2007-07-01

    Rising pharmaceutical prices, increasing demand for more effective innovative drugs and growing public outrage have heightened criticism of the pharmaceutical industry. The public debate has focused on drug prices and access. As a consequence, the patent system is being reexamined as an efficient mechanism for encouraging pharmaceutical innovation and drug development. We propose an alternative to the existing patent system, instead rewarding the innovating firm with direct tax credits in exchange for marginal cost pricing. This concept is based on the fundamental assumption that innovation that benefits society at large may be financed publicly. As an industry which produces a social good characterized by high fixed costs, high information and regulatory costs, and relatively low marginal costs of production, pharmaceuticals are well-suited to such a mechanism. Under this proposal, drug prices fall, consumer surplus increases, access is enhanced, and the incentives to innovate are preserved.

  1. [Annual lifelong learning program for pharmaceutical care practice by the Gifu Pharmaceutical University].

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Tadashi; Horiuchi, Tadashi; Tsuchiya, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge and techniques involved in medical affairs have been steadily advancing. The lifelong learning programs supported by Gifu Pharmaceutical University are introduced. The 3 unique programs consist of (1) a lifelong learning program concerning recent medical topics provided by our university, (2) a reeducation program containing some lectures and practices concerning the most advanced knowledge and techniques on pharmacy and medicine, provided by co-organization of 3 public universities (Nagoya City University, University of Shizuoka, and Gifu Pharmaceutical University), and (3) an annual lifelong learning program promoted by Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy. Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy accommodates 100 prescriptions daily from hospitals. The annual lifelong learning programs held by our pharmacy have comprehensively provided practical knowledge and techniques on newly developed medicines, pharmaceutical care practice, pharmacotherapy, community pharmaceutics, and so on, for the last 10 years. Pharmacists should have full responsibility for pharmacotherapy as health care workers. The pharmacists should make a concerted effort to understand pharmacotherapy through pharmaceutical care practice by cooperation with community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and pharmaceutical associations. Our lifelong learning program has contributed to the improvement of pharmaceutical skills and communication among pharmacists, medical doctors, and other health care workers.

  2. Pharmaceutical Formulation Facilities as Sources of Opioids and Other Pharmaceuticals to Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Facilities involved in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products are an under-investigated source of pharmaceuticals to the environment. Between 2004 and 2009, 35 to 38 effluent samples were collected from each of three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in New York and analyzed for seven pharmaceuticals including opioids and muscle relaxants. Two WWTPs (NY2 and NY3) receive substantial flows (>20% of plant flow) from pharmaceutical formulation facilities (PFF) and one (NY1) receives no PFF flow. Samples of effluents from 23 WWTPs across the United States were analyzed once for these pharmaceuticals as part of a national survey. Maximum pharmaceutical effluent concentrations for the national survey and NY1 effluent samples were generally <1 μg/L. Four pharmaceuticals (methadone, oxycodone, butalbital, and metaxalone) in samples of NY3 effluent had median concentrations ranging from 3.4 to >400 μg/L. Maximum concentrations of oxycodone (1700 μg/L) and metaxalone (3800 μg/L) in samples from NY3 effluent exceeded 1000 μg/L. Three pharmaceuticals (butalbital, carisoprodol, and oxycodone) in samples of NY2 effluent had median concentrations ranging from 2 to 11 μg/L. These findings suggest that current manufacturing practices at these PFFs can result in pharmaceuticals concentrations from 10 to 1000 times higher than those typically found in WWTP effluents. PMID:20521847

  3. Pharmaceutical research: paradox, challenge or dilemma?

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Abdul Latif

    2006-01-01

    A great deal of pharmaceutical research is nowadays carried out in developing countries such as Pakistan. Is it, however, beneficial for the country and the participants, often the poorly educated and illiterate? Pharmaceutical research in Pakistan can bring benefits to both patients and country. Promotion of good clinical practice and the development of national guidelines are advocated. Government and industry both have a role to play to maintain the right balance.

  4. Production of Plasmid DNA as Pharmaceutical.

    PubMed

    Schmeer, Marco; Schleef, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical applications of plasmid DNA require certain quality standards, depending on the intended use of the plasmids. That is, for direct gene transfer into human, GMP Grade is mandatory, however, for GMP production of for example viral vectors (AAV or mRNA etc.), the plasmid DNA used has not to be produced under GMP necessarily. Here we summarize important features of producing plasmid DNA, ensuring the required quality for the intended (pharmaceutical) application.

  5. Why are pharmaceutical companies gradually abandoning vaccines?

    PubMed

    Offit, Paul A

    2005-01-01

    During the past fifty years, the number of pharmaceutical companies making vaccines has decreased dramatically, and those that still make vaccines have reduced resources to make new ones. Pharmaceutical companies are gradually abandoning vaccines because the research, development, testing, and manufacture of vaccines are expensive and because the market to sell vaccines is much smaller than the market for other drug products. Congressional action could assure both a steady supply of existing vaccines and the promise of vaccines for the future.

  6. Synthetic biology advances for pharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic biology enables a new generation of microbial engineering for the biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and other high-value chemicals. This review presents an overview of recent advances in the field, describing new computational and experimental tools for the discovery, optimization and production of bioactive molecules, and outlining progress towards the application of these tools to pharmaceutical production systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatially Enabling the Health Sector

    PubMed Central

    Weeramanthri, Tarun Stephen; Woodgate, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Spatial information describes the physical location of either people or objects, and the measured relationships between them. In this article, we offer the view that greater utilization of spatial information and its related technology, as part of a broader redesign of the architecture of health information at local and national levels, could assist and speed up the process of health reform, which is taking place across the globe in richer and poorer countries alike. In making this point, we describe the impetus for health sector reform, recent developments in spatial information and analytics, and current Australasian spatial health research. We highlight examples of uptake of spatial information by the health sector, as well as missed opportunities. Our recommendations to spatially enable the health sector are applicable to high- and low-resource settings. PMID:27867933

  8. Network topology of economic sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djauhari, Maman A.; Gan, Siew Lee

    2016-09-01

    A lot of studies dealing with stock network analysis, where each individual stock is represented by a univariate time series of its closing price, have been published. In these studies, the similarity of two different stocks is quantified using a Pearson correlation coefficient on the logarithmic price returns. In this paper, we generalize the notion of similarity between univariate time series into multivariate time series which might be of different dimensions. This allows us to deal with economic sector network analysis, where the similarity between economic sectors is defined using Escoufier’s vector correlation RV. To the best of our knowledge, there is no study dealing with this notion of economic sector similarity. Two examples of data from the New York stock exchange will be presented and discussed, and some important results will be highlighted.

  9. [Medical research and the pharmaceutical industry. Uneasy bedfellows or a prenuptial agreement?].

    PubMed

    Cohen, A F

    2001-07-28

    Recent publications in medical journals and the media seem to indicate that there are a number of major problems in the relationship between researchers and the pharmaceutical sector. Results of research allegedly are influenced or manipulated, the right to publish the results are taken away from the researchers, and all this for money. The underlying data do not seem to indicate that this is a very common problem, but rather a generalisation of incidents. To efficiently develop medicines in future requires an ever-growing amount of academic know-how that these companies simply lack; in modern pharmaceutical development there are many opportunities to connect academic and industrial research programmes, resulting in synergy rather than an academic sell-out. All parties concerned should make transparent and clear agreements.

  10. Between confidentiality and scientific exchange: the place of publication in drug discovery and pharmaceutical research.

    PubMed

    Clozel, Martine

    2011-01-26

    To continue to improve life expectancy and quality of life, the discovery of innovative therapies should be among the prime goals of the life sciences. The large majority of the drugs that are discovered and successfully developed to the point of being used by patients come from the drug industry, but publications from this sector are rare among life sciences research publications. Publications in the field of pharmaceutical drug discovery should take into account the confidentiality inherent to the protection of the intellectual property rights of a discovery, but they are fundamentally important because they can enhance scientific knowledge, improve the care and safety of patients, provide information for prescribers, and educate the public about the pharmaceutical industry.

  11. Pharmaceutical regulation in 15 European countries review.

    PubMed

    Panteli, Dimitra; Arickx, Francis; Cleemput, Irina; Dedet, Guillaume; Eckhardt, Helen; Fogarty, Emer; Gerkens, Sophie; Henschke, Cornelia; Hislop, Jennifer; Jommi, Claudio; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Kawalec, Pawel; Keskimaki, Ilmo; Kroneman, Madelon; Lopez Bastida, Julio; Pita Barros, Pedro; Ramsberg, Joakim; Schneider, Peter; Spillane, Susan; Vogler, Sabine; Vuorenkoski, Lauri; Wallach Kildemoes, Helle; Wouters, Olivier; Busse, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    In the context of pharmaceutical care, policy-makers repeatedly face the challenge of balancing patient access to effective medicines with affordability and rising costs. With the aim of guiding the health policy discourse towards questions that are important to actual and potential patients, this study investigates a broad range of regulatory measures, spanning marketing authorization to generic substitution and resulting price levels in a sample of 16 European health systems (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Scotland, Spain and Sweden). All countries employ a mix of regulatory mechanisms to contain pharmaceutical expenditure and ensure quality and efficiency in pharmaceutical care, albeit with varying configurations and rigour. This variation also influences the extent of publicly financed pharmaceutical costs. Overall, observed differences in pharmaceutical expenditure should be interpreted in conjunction with the differing volume and composition of consumption and price levels, as well as dispensation practices and their impact on measurement of pharmaceutical costs. No definitive evidence has yet been produced on the effects of different cost-containment measures on patient outcomes. Depending on the foremost policy concerns in each country, different levers will have to be used to enable the delivery of appropriate care at affordable prices. World Health Organization 2016 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  12. Bromination of selected pharmaceuticals in water matrices.

    PubMed

    Benitez, F Javier; Acero, Juan L; Real, Francisco J; Roldan, Gloria; Casas, Francisco

    2011-11-01

    The bromination of five selected pharmaceuticals (metoprolol, naproxen, amoxicillin, phenacetin, and hydrochlorothiazide) was studied with these compounds individually dissolved in ultra-pure water. The apparent rate constants for the bromination reaction were determined as a function of the pH, obtaining the sequence amoxicillin>naproxen>hydrochlorothiazide≈phenacetin≈metoprolol. A kinetic mechanism specifying the dissociation reactions and the species formed for each compound according to its pK(a) value and the pH allowed the intrinsic rate constants to be determined for each elementary reaction. There was fairly good agreement between the experimental and calculated values of the apparent rate constants, confirming the goodness of the proposed reaction mechanism. In a second stage, the bromination of the selected pharmaceuticals simultaneously dissolved in three water matrices (a groundwater, a surface water from a public reservoir, and a secondary effluent from a WWTP) was investigated. The pharmaceutical elimination trend agreed with the previously determined rate constants. The influence of the main operating conditions (pH, initial bromine dose, and characteristics of the water matrix) on the degradation of the pharmaceuticals was established. An elimination concentration profile for each pharmaceutical in the water matrices was proposed based on the use of the previously evaluated apparent rate constants, and the theoretical results agreed satisfactorily with experiment. Finally, chlorination experiments performed in the presence of bromide showed that low bromide concentrations slightly accelerate the oxidation of the selected pharmaceuticals during chlorine disinfection.

  13. Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector. Farm Sector Review, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report contains 44 tables and 23 figures, along with narrative summaries, that provide an overall view of the farm sector in the United States in 1986. Some of the findings highlighted in the report are the following: (1) farmers spent less to produce their crops and livestock in 1986; (2) government payments to farmers increased, but prices…

  14. Cure for empire: the 'Conquer-Russia-Pill', pharmaceutical manufacturers, and the making of patriotic Japanese, 1904-45.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoi-Eun

    2013-04-01

    Seirogan, a popular anti-diarrhoeal pill, is arguably one of the most successful pharmaceutical products of modern Japan. What is less known is that the Japanese army initially developed Seirogan during the Russo-Japanese War as the ‘Conquer-Russia-Pill’, which was later marketed to the public by private manufacturers. Previous scholars have emphasised the top–down governmental method of mobilising private sectors to manipulate public opinion for the cause of external imperialist expansion and domestic stability during wartime Japan. But the matrix that the Conquer-Russia-Pill allows us to glimpse is an inverted power relation among the state, commercial sectors, and imperial citizens. While the Japanese government remained indifferent if not hostile to jingoistic pharmaceutical manufacturers who could easily disrupt international relations, pharmaceutical companies quickly recognised and exploited the opportunities that the Conquer-Russia-Pill and its symbolism provided under the banner of the empire. In turn, Japanese consumers reacted to commercial sermons carefully anchored in patriotic and militaristic discourses and images by opening their wallets. In other words, the popularity of the Conquer-Russia-Pill was a culmination of the convergence of a governmental initiative to enhance military capabilities, the commercial ingenuity of pharmaceutical manufacturers, and a consumer response to patriotic exhortations.

  15. Stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zuba-Surma, Ewa K; Józkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Józef

    2011-11-01

    Multiple populations of stem cells have been indicated to potentially participate in regeneration of injured organs. Especially, embryonic stem cells (ESC) and recently inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPS) receive a marked attention from scientists and clinicians for regenerative medicine because of their high proliferative and differentiation capacities. Despite that ESC and iPS cells are expected to give rise into multiple regenerative applications when their side effects are overcame during appropriate preparation procedures, in fact their most recent application of human ESC may, however, reside in their use as a tool in drug development and disease modeling. This review focuses on the applications of stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology. We discuss possible relevance of pluripotent cell stem populations in developing physiological models for any human tissue cell type useful for pharmacological, metabolic and toxicity evaluation necessary in the earliest steps of drug development. The present models applied for preclinical drug testing consist of primary cells or immortalized cell lines that show limitations in terms of accessibility or relevance to their in vivo counterparts. The availability of renewable human cells with functional similarities to their in vivo counterparts is the first landmark for a new generation of cell-based assays. We discuss the approaches for using stem cells as valuable physiological targets of drug activity which may increase the strength of target validation and efficacy potentially resulting in introducing new safer remedies into clinical trials and the marketplace. Moreover, we discuss the possible applications of stem cells for elucidating mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. The knowledge about the mechanisms governing the development and progression of multitude disorders which would come from the cellular models established based on stem cells, may give rise to new therapeutical strategies for such diseases. All

  16. The biotech equipment and supplies sector in Europe-is it European?

    PubMed

    Reiss, Thomas; Woerner, Stefan

    2002-09-11

    Socio-economic research on biotechnology is dealing mainly with the sectors of biopharmaceuticals, agro-food or environmental technologies. In contrast, the equipment and supplies sector seems to be largely ignored. This is surprising because this sector provides important input in terms of technology and material for the development of biotechnology in general. Our comparative analysis of the sector in eight countries indicates that there exists no specific science base for the sector and that it is largely neglected by public research funding. Commercial activities are concentrated in countries with a large general science base in biotechnology and strong multinational pharmaceutical or chemical companies. There is a rather broad diversity in the way the sector has developed in the eight countries. Our data support the notion that national peculiarities seem dominant for explaining this picture. We anticipate growing business opportunities for European firms to step into large markets of equipment and supplies for functional genomics and protein analyses where Europe maintains a strong science base.

  17. Estimating sectoral pollution load in Lagos by Industrial Pollution Projection System (IPPS).

    PubMed

    Oketola, A A; Osibanjo, O

    2007-05-15

    Sensitivity to environmental issues brought about increasing pressure from local community, groups, environmental organizations and government regulators on industries to reduce their pollutant emissions. In this study, Industrial Pollution Projection System (IPPS), which was developed by the Infrastructure and Environment Team of the World Bank, was used to estimate pollution load in ton/yr (with respect to employment) of industrial sectors in Lagos. The IPPS was developed to exploit the fact that the scale of industrial activity, its sectorial composition, and the process technologies, employed in production, heavily affect industrial pollution. Available data, from Manufacturer's Association of Nigeria (M.A.N.) for the years 1997-2002 was used for the estimation. From the cumulative ranking of the pollution load (ton/yr) estimate to all media (i.e. air, land, and water), Chemical and Pharmaceutical (CPH) sector is the highest polluting sector, followed by Basic Metal (BML), Domestic and Industrial Plastics (DIP), and Food, Beverage and Tobacco (FBT) sectors. Some of these sectors have the highest number of employees, and also appeared as the most polluting sectors in Lagos.

  18. Survey of practices around pharmaceutical company funding for continuing professional development among medical oncologists and trainees in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeh Chen; Kroon, René; Koczwara, Bogda; Haines, Ian; Francis, Kay; Millward, Michael; Kefford, Richard; Olver, Ian; Mileshkin, Linda

    2017-08-01

    The completion of continuing professional development (CPD) is mandatory for medical oncologists and trainees (MO&T). Pharmaceutical companies may fund some CPD activities, but there is increasing debate about the potential for conflicts of interest (COI). To assess current practices around funding to attend CPD activities. An electronic survey was distributed to Australian MO&T. The survey asked questions about current practices, institutional policies and perceptions about attending CPD funded by pharmaceutical companies. The design looked at comparing responses between MO&T as well as their understanding of and training around institutional and ethical process. A total of 157 of 653 (24%) responses was received, the majority from MO (76%). Most CPD activities attended by MO&T were self-funded (53%), followed by funding from institutions (19%), pharmaceutical companies (16%) and salary award (16%). Most institutions allowed MO&T to receive CPD funding from professional organisations (104/157, 66%) or pharmaceutical companies (90/157, 57%). A minority of respondents (13/157, 8%) reported that the process to use pharmaceutical funds had been considered by an ethics committee. Although 103/157 (66%) had received pharmaceutical funding for CPD, most (109/157, 69%) reported never receiving training about potential COI. The lack of education was more noticeable among trainees (odds ratio (OR) 8.61, P = 0.02). MO&T acknowledged the potential bias towards a pharmaceutical product (P = 0.05) but believed there was adequate separation between themselves and pharmaceutical companies (P < 0.01). Majority of CPD attended by MO&T is self-funded. There is lack of clarity in institutional policies regarding external funding support for CPD activities. Formal education about potential COI is lacking. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  19. An evaluation of governance capacity of the specialized component of pharmaceutical services in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rover, Marina Raijche Mattozo; Peláez, Claudia Marcela Vargas; Faraco, Emília Baierle; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Leite, Silvana Nair

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents application of an indicator protocol to assessment of current levels of governance capacity of the Specialized Component of Pharmaceutical Services (CEAF) in a state of the South of Brazil. We chose the theoretical referential of 'governance capacity' proposed by Carlos Matus, which reflects in the concepts of management capacity and pharmaceutical service management, due to the perception of a need to overcome the fragmentation and technicist reductionism that we believe has been imposed on the area of pharmaceutical services. Data was collected using the protocol in 74 municipal or state units. The results of the analysis indicate that the currently existing governance capacity needs improvement in all three dimensions that were evaluated, principally in relation to the aspects that seek sustainability of the governance. The model and the protocol used indicate a way forward for governance of pharmaceutical service by proposing a change from the technicist-logistical focus to an emphasis on strategic and political actions, or ones which foster greater participation and autonomy. With these results in hand, it will be possible to develop strategies for improvement of access to medicines in the SUS, in the sense that the CEAF becomes able to guarantee integrality of medicines treatments.

  20. Environmental management practices in the Lebanese pharmaceutical industries: implementation strategies and challenges.

    PubMed

    Massoud, May A; Makarem, N; Ramadan, W; Nakkash, R

    2015-03-01

    This research attempts to provide an understanding of the Lebanese pharmaceutical industries' environmental management strategies, priorities, and perceptions as well as drivers, barriers, and incentives regarding the implementation of the voluntary ISO 14001 Environmental Management System. Accordingly, a semistructured in-depth interview was conducted with the pharmaceutical industries. The findings revealed a significant lack of knowledge about the standard among the industries. The main perceived drivers for adopting the ISO 14001 are improving the companies' image and overcoming international trade. The main perceived barriers for acquiring the standard are the lack of government support and the fact that ISO 14001 is not being legally required or enforced by the government. Moreover, results revealed that adopting the ISO 14001 standard is not perceived as a priority for the Lebanese pharmaceutical industries. Although the cost of certification was not considered as a barrier for the implementation of ISO 14001, the majority of the pharmaceutical industries are neither interested nor willing to adopt the Standard if they are not exposed to any regulatory pressure or external demand. They are more concerned with quality and safety issues with the most adopted international standard among the industries being the ISO 9001 quality management system. This study highlights the aspect that financial barriers are not always the hurdles for implementing environmental management strategies in developing countries and underscores the need for regulatory frameworks and enforcement.

  1. Pharmaceutical costs of assisted reproduction in Spain.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Maria-Reyes; Hernández, Juana; Antoñanzas, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Assisted reproduction is one of the health services currently being considered for possible limitation or exclusion from the public health services portfolio in Spain. One of the main reasons claimed for this is the impact on the budget for pharmaceutical expenditure. The objective of this study was to assess the significance of the pharmaceutical costs of assisted reproduction in Spain. This study focused on medical practice in Spain, and is based on the opinions of experts in assisted reproduction and the results provided by professional societies' publications. The reference year is 2012 and the setting was secondary care. We have included all existing pharmaceutical modalities for assisted reproduction, as well as the most common drug for each modality. We have considered the pharmaceutical cost per cycle for artificial insemination, in vitro fertilisation with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF_ICSI), and cryotransfer and donated fresh oocytes reception. In Spain, artificial insemination has a pharmaceutical cost per cycle of between €69.36 and €873.79. This amounts to an average cycle cost of €364.87 for partner's sperm and €327.10 for donor sperm. The pharmaceutical cost of IVF_ICSI ranges between €278.16 and €1,902.66, giving an average cost per cycle of €1,139.65. In the case of cryotransfer and donated fresh oocytes reception, the pharmaceutical cost per cycle is between €22.61 and €58.73, yielding an average cost of €40.67. The budgetary impact of pharmaceutical expenditure for assisted reproduction in Spain for the year 2012 was estimated at €98.7 million. In Spain, the total pharmaceutical cost of assisted reproduction is substantial. According to our results, we can say that about 29% of the total pharmaceutical expenditure for assisted reproduction techniques is funded by the National Health System and the rest represents 2.4% of the total annual out-of-pocket family expenditure on drugs.

  2. Ukrain’s Technology Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Technology Sector 2 new materials, and biotechnologies; high-tech development of agriculture and the food- processing industry ; building and...main industries are chemicals, coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, food processing (especially sugar), and machinery and transport...Ukraine’s researchers were in Dnepropetrovsk, where the main industries are mining, machinebuilding, metallurgy, and food processing ; and more than

  3. Inter-Sectoral Educational Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This book contains papers discussing inter-sectoral educational planning in countries belonging to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Intersectoral educational planning is interpreted as educational policy formation by any country which takes into consideration influences generated by that country's social and…

  4. What is the Service Sector?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottinger, Cecilia

    1992-01-01

    This research brief reviews the literature concerning recent trends in the service-producing sector of the economy and to speculate on the implications for higher education. An opening section offers highlights noting key facts and statistics and a general profile of service-producing industries. The first of three sections describes some of the…

  5. Design of experiments (DoE) in pharmaceutical development.

    PubMed

    N Politis, Stavros; Colombo, Paolo; Colombo, Gaia; M Rekkas, Dimitrios

    2017-06-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century, Sir Ronald Fisher introduced the concept of applying statistical analysis during the planning stages of research rather than at the end of experimentation. When statistical thinking is applied from the design phase, it enables to build quality into the product, by adopting Deming's profound knowledge approach, comprising system thinking, variation understanding, theory of knowledge, and psychology. The pharmaceutical industry was late in adopting these paradigms, compared to other sectors. It heavily focused on blockbuster drugs, while formulation development was mainly performed by One Factor At a Time (OFAT) studies, rather than implementing Quality by Design (QbD) and modern engineering-based manufacturing methodologies. Among various mathematical modeling approaches, Design of Experiments (DoE) is extensively used for the implementation of QbD in both research and industrial settings. In QbD, product and process understanding is the key enabler of assuring quality in the final product. Knowledge is achieved by establishing models correlating the inputs with the outputs of the process. The mathematical relationships of the Critical Process Parameters (CPPs) and Material Attributes (CMAs) with the Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) define the design space. Consequently, process understanding is well assured and rationally leads to a final product meeting the Quality Target Product Profile (QTPP). This review illustrates the principles of quality theory through the work of major contributors, the evolution of the QbD approach and the statistical toolset for its implementation. As such, DoE is presented in detail since it represents the first choice for rational pharmaceutical development.

  6. Pharmacy student perceptions of adverse event reporting.

    PubMed

    Kalari, Sirisha; Dormarunno, Matthew; Zvenigorodsky, Oleg; Mohan, Aparna

    2011-09-10

    To assess US pharmacy students' knowledge and perceptions of adverse event reporting. To gauge pharmacy students' impressions of adverse event reporting, a 10-question survey instrument was administered that addressed student perceptions of the reporting procedures of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and pharmaceutical manufacturers, as well as student understanding of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and its relationship to adverse event reporting. Two hundred twenty-eight pharmacy students responded to the survey. The majority of respondents believed that the FDA is more likely than a pharmaceutical company to take action regarding an adverse event. There were misconceptions relating to the way adverse event reports are handled and the influence of HIPAA regulations on reporting. Communication between the FDA and pharmaceutical manufacturers regarding adverse event reports is not well understood by pharmacy students. Education about adverse event reporting should evolve so that by the time pharmacy students become practitioners, they are well acquainted with the relevance and importance of adverse event reporting.

  7. Were medicine quality and pharmaceutical management contributing factors in diminishing artemisinin efficacy in Guyana and Suriname?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies in Guyana and Suriname unveiled diminished efficacy of artemisinin derivatives based on day-3 parasitaemia. The migrant characteristics of the population at risk and the potential development of resistance pose a serious health threat in the region. Assessment of factors that may have contributed to this situation is warranted, and analysis of the data generated in those countries on quality and pharmaceutical managements of anti-malarials may contribute to a better understanding of this occurrence. Methods Data on malaria medicine quality and pharmaceutical management, generated in the context of the Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI), was reviewed and discussed. Results Numerous substandard artemisinin-containing malaria medicines were identified in both countries, particularly in Guyana, where a larger number and variety of anti-malarials were sampled. Poor quality was more frequent in the private and informal sector than in the public sector, posing a greater threat to the populations at risk, which are mostly located in hard to reach areas with scarce public facilities. Stock-outs identified in the public sector in Guyana could enhance the need to access those alternative sectors, exacerbating the risk of utilizing poor quality medicines. The availability of monotherapies and other non-recommended therapies for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, could also have contributed to the diminished efficacy. The type of quality deficiencies identified -reduced content of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and/or poor dissolution- and the irrational use of non-recommended treatments could result in non-sustained or lower levels of API in blood, favouring survival of more resistant mutants by exposing parasites to sub-lethal doses of the active ingredient. Conclusions The quality of malaria medicines and the availability and use of non-recommended treatments could have played a role in the diminished efficacy of artemisinin derivatives described

  8. A critique of emerging European legislation in the pharmaceutical industry: a clinical trials analysis.

    PubMed

    Murray, Elizabeth; McAdam, Rodney; Burke, Moira T

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to critique emerging legislation in the pharmaceutical industry, focusing on the clinical trials sector. Possible changes are identified and discussed inrelation to their impact on phase I clinical trials conducted in the UK. It is concluded that smaller contract research organisations, which have benefited in the past from European Union legislative variation, may have resource problems in trying to cope with the changing business environment created through legislative harmonization. These SMEs must use this opportunity to seek clinical trials research partnerships in a new harmonized EU market.

  9. Water and stability of pharmaceutical solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaev, Evgenyi

    2007-03-01

    Solid pharmaceuticals are multi-component systems consisting of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and inactive ingredients (excipients). Excipients may include inorganic salts (e.g., NaCl), carbohydrates (e.g., lactose), and polymers, to name a few, whereas APIs range from relatively simple molecules (e.g., aspirin) to proteins and olygonucleotides. Pharmaceutical solids could exist either as single-phase or heterophase systems. They also may have different extent of order, such as highly ordered crystalline phases, amorphous solids that are thermodynamically unstable but might be kinetically stable under the time frame of observation, and crystalline mesophases including liquid crystals. With all this diversity, there are common features for such systems, and two of them will be discussed in the presentation. (i) Requirements for chemical stability of pharmaceuticals are very strict. A very limited (e.g., less than 0.1%) extent of conversion is allowed in these materials over the shelf life, i.e., during several years of storage at ambient and (sometimes) not fully controlled (e.g., a medicine cabinet in one's bathroom) conditions. (ii) All pharmaceutical solids contain some water, although its amount and physical state are highly variable and may change during manufacturing and shelf life. There are many challenging questions and issues associated with the ``Water and stability of pharmaceutical solids'' subject; some of them will be considered in the presentation: (i) What are the features of chemical reactivity of crystalline vs disordered systems? (ii) What is the role of water in solid state chemical reactivity of amorphous solids, e.g., water as plasticizer vs reactant vs reaction media? (iii) How homogeneous are pharmaceutical amorphous solid solutions, e.g., carbohydrate-water systems? (iv) What is the optimal water content? With water being the most common destabilizing factor, is ``the drier - the better'' always the case?

  10. The UK pharmaceutical market. An overview.

    PubMed

    Towse, A

    1996-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) accounts for more than 98% of the UK prescription medicines market, which is the sixth largest pharmaceutical market in the world. Most of this market is driven by the UK's approximately 35,000 general practitioners (GPs). It is an open market, with most leading foreign pharmaceutical companies having a strong presence. While the growth rate of this market has been decelerating, it remains one of the fastest growing components of NHS expenditure. The NHS does not operate any kind of national reimbursement list, but the UK government has adopted several means to keep medicines expenditure under control. These include cash incentives and constraints for GPs relating to expenditure on medicines, individual quarterly updates on GP prescribing, the publication of a list of medicines that cannot be prescribed by GPs, the switching of some prescription-only medicines to over-the-counter medicines, and a co-payment system. The main form of economic regulation in the UK, however, remains the Pharmaceutical Price Regulation Scheme (PPRS). This limits the rate-of-return on capital attributable to medicines sales to the NHS, with the intended rate-of-return being equal to that of UK industry overall. The pharmaceutical industry has generally performed relatively well in the UK market, managing to preserve incentives to innovation. This reflects the fact that UK GPs have been able to maintain their clinical freedom, as well as government recognition of the economic contribution made by the pharmaceutical industry. Current issues of interest in the UK pharmaceutical market context include the future of the PPRS, the debates over the imposition of a national formulary and generic substitution, and over parallel trade, the potential impact of managed-care protocols and computer-based prescribing on pharmaceutical expenditures, and possible political changes.

  11. [Social change and Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (PAL)].

    PubMed

    Masuyama, Koichi; Isobe, Soichiro

    2010-01-01

    Former Japanese pharmaceutical laws, originally based on the Pharmaceutical Marketing and Handling Regulations enacted in 1874 were in operation for many years before World War II. However, in order to address several drug issues, such as poor drug quality and insufficiences regarding the role of pharmacists during the War, the laws needed to be unified and revised. In this paper, we analyzed the record of discussions held by the Imperial Diet on the bill for the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (PAL) in 1943. This is also regarded as the origin of the current PAL (LawNo.145 in 1960). Through this analysis, we tried to clarify the relationship between the social change and the role of PAL in society. During the War, the bill was discussed, aiming at the improvement of both human resources who treated drugs, and the quality of drug materials. Diet members discussed three main points, namely, "the duty of pharmacists", "the mission of the Japan Pharmaceutical Association" and "the quality control of pharmaceutical products". Notably, the bill pharmacists are required not only to dispense drugs, a role they had previously, but also to manage drug and food hygiene through the quality control of pharmaceutical products and the inspection of food and drink, in order to improve the public health in Japan. Originally, the law was passed to deal with the extraordinary circumstances during the War, but through our analysis, we found that they proactively improved the role of the law to comply with various drug issues raised during the War, the rapid change of the pharmaceutical hygiene concept and the social transformation.

  12. Pharmacist, the pharmaceutical industry and pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia: A questionnaire-based study

    PubMed Central

    Bin Saleh, Ghada; Rezk, Naser L.; Laika, Laila; Ali, Anna; El-Metwally, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Saudi Arabia there is an estimated need of more than 100,000 pharmacy graduates to cover all present sectors. The shortage of pharmacists has affected many of these sectors especially the pharmaceutical industry. The contribution of Saudi pharmacists to local pharmaceuticals industry would be extremely beneficial and important for shaping the future of the drug industry within the Kingdom. It is not clear whether future Saudi pharmacists are willing to contribute to local pharmaco-industrial fields. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted on all final-year pharmacy students in King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Results: Out of a total of 130 students registered in the final-year of the pharmacy program in KSU, 122 (93.8%) were able to complete the questionnaire. The results showed that the majority (83%) of Saudi pharmacy students indicated that they had not received practical training in the pharmaceutical companies, while only 17.2% of the students felt that they had the knowledge and the skills to work in the pharmaceutical industry after graduation. The majority of the students (66.7%) chose clinical pharmacy as their future career field while only 10.9% indicated willingness to work in a pharmaceutical industry career. Only 8.2% selected working in the pharmaceutical industry. The significant predictor of possibly choosing a career in the local drug industry is a student with a bachelor’s degree (compared to Pharm D degree) in pharmacy (OR = 2.7 [95% CI 1.1–6.3]). Conclusion: Pharmacy students who are enrolled in the capital city of Riyadh are not properly trained to play an influential role in local drug companies. As a result, their level of willingness to have a career in such important business is not promising (more among Pharm D program). Future research in other pharmacy colleges within Saudi Arabia is needed to confirm such results. PMID:26594125

  13. AN INFORMATIC APPROACH TO ESTIMATING ECOLOGICAL RISKS POSED BY PHARMACEUTICAL USE: HUMAN PRESCRIPTION PHARMACEUTICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pharmaceuticals are often excreted from patients as the parent compound or as active metabolites. Some of these compounds have been found in the environment. However, the environmental concentrations of the majority of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites are not known. The re...

  14. AN INFORMATIC APPROACH TO ESTIMATING ECOLOGICAL RISKS POSED BY PHARMACEUTICAL USE: HUMAN PRESCRIPTION PHARMACEUTICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pharmaceuticals are often excreted from patients as the parent compound or as active metabolites. Some of these compounds have been found in the environment. However, the environmental concentrations of the majority of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites are not known. The re...

  15. AG-3340 (Agouron Pharmaceuticals Inc).

    PubMed

    Griffioen, A W

    2000-03-01

    Agouron Pharmaceuticals is developing AG-3340 (prinomastat), the lead compound in a series of structurally related metalloproteinase inhibitors, for the potential treatment of cancer and age-related macular degeneration. AG-3340, an oral, non-peptide inhibitor of gelatinase types A and B (MMP-2 and -9), MT1-MP (MMP-14) and collagenase III [234058], was selected following demonstration of activity in a variety of in vivo preclinical models upon oral dosing. In May 1999, phase III trials for lung and prostate cancers of AG-3340 in front-line combination with chemotherapy was begun in the US and Canada [286380,326640]. The tested dose for these trials is 5 to 15 mg bid. Following demonstration of the enhanced efficacy of chemotherapy when supplemented with AG-3340 in preclinical tumor models, pilot combination studies and double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase III trials in 700 patients are in progress for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer or advanced hormone-refractory prostate cancer [302584,327014]. In August 1999, Agouron initiated a second, confirmatory phase III trial of AG-3340 in combination with chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer [337253]. Pharmacokinetic studies have been conducted in healthy male volunteers and single agent dose-escalation studies in patients demonstrated toxicities (grade 1 or 2; joint related) were not doselimiting [302238]. At the 10th European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) meeting in Amsterdam (June 1998), Agouron released encouraging results from two phase I studies and one preclinical study of AG-3340 [289688]. In a further 15- patient, phase I study of AG-3340 with paclitaxel and carboplatin, the combination was safe and well tolerated [326268]. AG-3340 has demonstrated significant antimetastatic and antitumor activity in animal models, as well as oral bioavailability and a favorable pharmacokinetic profile. Daily doses of 50 mg/kg completely halted growth of

  16. Cloud computing in pharmaceutical R&D: business risks and mitigations.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Karl

    2010-05-01

    Cloud computing provides information processing power and business services, delivering these services over the Internet from centrally hosted locations. Major technology corporations aim to supply these services to every sector of the economy. Deploying business processes 'in the cloud' requires special attention to the regulatory and business risks assumed when running on both hardware and software that are outside the direct control of a company. The identification of risks at the correct service level allows a good mitigation strategy to be selected. The pharmaceutical industry can take advantage of existing risk management strategies that have already been tested in the finance and electronic commerce sectors. In this review, the business risks associated with the use of cloud computing are discussed, and mitigations achieved through knowledge from securing services for electronic commerce and from good IT practice are highlighted.

  17. Pharmaceutical identifier confirmation via DART-TOF.

    PubMed

    Easter, Jacob L; Steiner, Robert R

    2014-07-01

    Pharmaceutical analysis comprises a large amount of the casework in forensic controlled substances laboratories. In order to reduce the time of analysis for pharmaceuticals, a Direct Analysis in Real Time ion source coupled with an accurate mass time-of-flight (DART-TOF) mass spectrometer was used to confirm identity. DART-TOF spectral data for pharmaceutical samples were analyzed and evaluated by comparison to standard spectra. Identical mass pharmaceuticals were differentiated using collision induced dissociation fragmentation, present/absent ions, and abundance comparison box plots; principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used for differentiation of identical mass mixed drug spectra. Mass assignment reproducibility and robustness tests were performed on the DART-TOF spectra. Impacts on the forensic science community include a decrease in analysis time over the traditional gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) confirmations, better laboratory efficiency, and simpler sample preparation. Using physical identifiers and the DART-TOF to confirm pharmaceutical identity will eliminate the use of GC/MS and effectively reduce analysis time while still complying with accepted analysis protocols. This will prove helpful in laboratories with large backlogs and will simplify the confirmation process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. New pharmaceuticals reduce cost of illness.

    PubMed

    Hansen, R W

    1986-06-01

    The cost of illness includes not only the funds required to treat illness, but also the effect on the patient's quality of life. Recent concern about rising health costs have focused on the direct expenditures without noting that the cost of illness in terms of mortality and morbidity has declined significantly. Pharmaceuticals have played a major role in reducing the total cost of illness. Several studies of the cost-effectiveness of past introductions of vaccines and pharmaceuticals reveal large cost savings. Although the focus of most studies has been on major advances, the continuing process of less dramatic therapeutic improvements has significantly trimmed the cost of illness. Cost-benefit studies of new drugs or changes in drug use, while more difficult to perform, make it possible to influence the selection of therapy. Since pharmaceuticals represent less than 10% of total treatment costs, reduction in the cost of pharmaceutical products can only have a minor impact on the total cost of illness. Pharmaceuticals can reduce the cost of illness by providing alternative therapies that reduce direct treatment cost or improve the public health.

  19. Case histories in pharmaceutical risk management.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Cynthia G; Henningfield, Jack E; Haddox, J David; Varughese, Sajan; Lindholm, Anders; Rosen, Susan; Wissel, Janne; Waxman, Deborah; Carter, Lawrence P; Seeger, Vickie; Johnson, Rolley E

    2009-12-01

    The development and implementation of programs in the U.S. to minimize risks and assess unintended consequences of new medications has been increasingly required by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since the mid 1990s. This paper provides four case histories of risk management and post-marketing surveillance programs utilized recently to address problems associated with possible abuse, dependence and diversion. The pharmaceutical sponsors of each of these drugs were invited to present their programs and followed a similar template for their summaries that are included in this article. The drugs and presenting companies were OxyContin, an analgesic marketed by Purdue Pharma L.P., Daytrana and Vyvanse, ADHD medications marketed by Shire Pharmaceuticals, Xyrem for narcolepsy marketed by Jazz Pharmaceuticals, and Subutex and Suboxone for opioid dependence marketed by Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals Inc. These case histories and subsequent discussions provide invaluable real-world examples and illustrate both the promise of risk management programs in providing a path to market and/or for keeping on the market drugs with serious potential risks. They also illustrate the limitations of such programs in actually controlling unintended consequences, as well as the challenge of finding the right balance of reducing risks without posing undue barriers to patient access. These experiences are highly relevant as the FDA increasingly requires pharmaceutical sponsors to develop and implement the more formalized and enforceable versions of the risk management term Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS).

  20. 'Linkage' pharmaceutical evergreening in Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas A; Lexchin, Joel

    2007-06-01

    'Evergreening' is not a formal concept of patent law. It is best understood as a social idea used to refer to the myriad ways in which pharmaceutical patent owners utilise the law and related regulatory processes to extend their high rent-earning intellectual monopoly privileges, particularly over highly profitable (either in total sales volume or price per unit) 'blockbuster' drugs. Thus, while the courts are an instrument frequently used by pharmaceutical brand name manufacturers to prolong their patent royalties, 'evergreening' is rarely mentioned explicitly by judges in patent protection cases. The term usually refers to threats made to competitors about a brand-name manufacturer's tactical use of pharmaceutical patents (including over uses, delivery systems and even packaging), not to extension of any particular patent over an active product ingredient. This article focuses in particular on the 'evergreening' potential of so-called 'linkage' provisions, imposed on the regulatory (safety, quality and efficacy) approval systems for generic pharmaceuticals of Canada and Australia, by specific articles in trade agreements with the US. These 'linkage' provisions have also recently appeared in the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement (KORUSFTA). They require such drug regulators to facilitate notification of, or even prevent, any potential patent infringement by a generic pharmaceutical manufacturer. This article explores the regulatory lessons to be learnt from Canada's and Australia's shared experience in terms of minimizing potential adverse impacts of such 'linkage evergreening' provisions on drug costs and thereby potentially on citizen's access to affordable, essential medicines.

  1. Characterization and Quality Control of Pharmaceutical Cocrystals.

    PubMed

    Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Koide, Tatsuo; Takata, Noriyuki; Ikeda, Yukihiro; Ono, Makoto; Inoue, Motoki; Fukami, Toshiro; Yonemochi, Etsuo

    2016-10-01

    Recent active research and new regulatory guidance on pharmaceutical cocrystals have increased the rate of their development as promising approaches to improve handling, storage stability, and bioavailability of poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). However, their complex structure and the limited amount of available information related to their performance may require development strategies that differ from those of single-component crystals to ensure their clinical safety and efficacy. This article highlights current methods of characterizing pharmaceutical cocrystals and approaches to controlling their quality. Different cocrystal regulatory approaches between regions are also discussed. The physical characterization of cocrystals should include elucidating the structure of their objective crystal form as well as their possible variations (e.g., polymorphs, hydrates). Some solids may also contain crystals of individual components. Multiple processes to prepare pharmaceutical cocrystals (e.g., crystallization from solutions, grinding) vary in their applicable ingredients, scalability, and characteristics of resulting solids. The choice of the manufacturing method affects the quality control of particular cocrystals and their formulations. In vitro evaluation of the properties that govern clinical performance is attracting increasing attention in the development of pharmaceutical cocrystals. Understanding and mitigating possible factors perturbing the dissolution and/or dissolved states, including solution-mediated phase transformation (SMPT) and precipitation from supersaturated solutions, are important to ensure the bioavailability of orally administrated lower-solubility APIs. The effect of polymer excipients on the performance of APIs emphasizes the relevance of formulation design for appropriate use.

  2. Pharmaceutical supply chain risks: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. Objective In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Methods Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Results Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. Conclusion It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies. PMID:24355166

  3. Pharmaceutical supply chain risks: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jaberidoost, Mona; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Abdollahiasl, Akbar; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2013-12-19

    Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies.

  4. 'Linkage' pharmaceutical evergreening in Canada and Australia

    PubMed Central

    Faunce, Thomas A; Lexchin, Joel

    2007-01-01

    'Evergreening' is not a formal concept of patent law. It is best understood as a social idea used to refer to the myriad ways in which pharmaceutical patent owners utilise the law and related regulatory processes to extend their high rent-earning intellectual monopoly privileges, particularly over highly profitable (either in total sales volume or price per unit) 'blockbuster' drugs. Thus, while the courts are an instrument frequently used by pharmaceutical brand name manufacturers to prolong their patent royalties, 'evergreening' is rarely mentioned explicitly by judges in patent protection cases. The term usually refers to threats made to competitors about a brand-name manufacturer's tactical use of pharmaceutical patents (including over uses, delivery systems and even packaging), not to extension of any particular patent over an active product ingredient. This article focuses in particular on the 'evergreening' potential of so-called 'linkage' provisions, imposed on the regulatory (safety, quality and efficacy) approval systems for generic pharmaceuticals of Canada and Australia, by specific articles in trade agreements with the US. These 'linkage' provisions have also recently appeared in the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement (KORUSFTA). They require such drug regulators to facilitate notification of, or even prevent, any potential patent infringement by a generic pharmaceutical manufacturer. This article explores the regulatory lessons to be learnt from Canada's and Australia's shared experience in terms of minimizing potential adverse impacts of such 'linkage evergreening' provisions on drug costs and thereby potentially on citizen's access to affordable, essential medicines. PMID:17543113

  5. Stakeholder Perception Comparison Through the Use of Mental Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillotson, K.; Grecu, N.

    2012-12-01

    The WSC-Category 1 Sustainability Dynamics for Water Resources in a Rapidly Urbanizing and Climatically Sensitive Region grant seeks to develop an understanding of water planning and use for urbanization in the Spokane, Washington-Coeur d'Alene, Idaho Corridor. One way of achieving this understanding is through the use of mental mapping. A mental map is an internalized representation of a system or process that represents a real system, but does is not completely accurate (Doyle and Ford, 1997). Mental maps and models have potential application in risk assessment and perception comparison within or between interest groups, here referred to as sectors. Similarities and differences between the development sector and "expert" mental models, based on interviews from the development sector and from "experts" in water management and use, were examined in order to assess where gaps in knowledge lie or where the perceived risks are different between the two sectors. Assessing these differences can help target future communication between those that manage water and those that are impacted by water management practices. I will present briefly present the iterative steps of building the expert and development sector mental maps as well as the final mental map that combines expert and development perceptions. Discussion of the differences between the two sector maps and the implications of those differences will be included. Understanding these different perceptions is important in this region where water quantity and quality are highly regulated and development is rapid.

  6. The future of risk communication and the role of the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sweta; Bouder, Frederic

    2013-02-01

    Risk communication is an interactive two-way process that various stakeholders (e.g., patients, regulators, industry) utilize to address prescription drug safety. This paper will specifically examine the pharmaceutical industry's engagement with risk communication as a tool for information exchange with patients and other stakeholders about the associated risks related to its medicines. Risk communications are not solely meant to inform; and rather effective two-way risk communications have the potential to change behavioral outcomes for the purpose of individual and societal benefit. Despite this indispensable role of risk communication for the pharmaceutical industry, more research is needed for the appropriate development and dissemination of risk communications. A crucial missing component for the crafting of pharmaceutical risk communications is the understanding of risk perceptions from the patient/consumer's perspective. This is necessary to see where any divergences in views may lie between the industry and its final consumer, which is crucial in tailoring communications to target a specific erroneous belief or to address what might be deemed as a needed behavioral shift. It is also necessary to develop communications in consideration of the levels of public trust in the industry as well as other perceived actors in the healthcare system. Even the most meticulously crafted and tested risk communications will fail to fulfill their purpose if the role of trust is not taken into consideration. These considerations can lead to the establishment of a "social contract" that effectively addresses what is required from both parties for continued and mutually beneficial interactions. Conducting risk perception research, addressing the role of trust, establishing a social contract, and having a realistic outlook on the impact of risk communications are necessary considerations as pharmaceutical risk communication evolves for the future.

  7. Sex, drugs and gender roles: mapping the use of sex and gender based analysis in pharmaceutical policy research.

    PubMed

    Greyson, Devon L; Becu, Annelies Re; Morgan, Steven G

    2010-11-19

    Sex and gender sensitive inquiry is critical in pharmaceutical policy due to the sector's historical connection with women's health issues and due to the confluence of biological, social, political, and economic factors that shape the development, promotion, use, and effects of medicinal treatments. A growing number of research bodies internationally have issued laws, guidance or encouragement to support conducting sex and gender based analysis (SGBA) in all health related research. In order to investigate the degree to which attempts to mainstream SGBA have translated into actual research practices in the field of pharmaceutical policy, we employed methods of literature scoping and mapping. A random sample of English-language pharmaceutical policy research articles published in 2008 and indexed in MEDLINE was analysed according to: 1) use of sex and gender related language, 2) application of sex and gender related concepts, and 3) level of SGBA employed. Two thirds of the articles (67%) in our sample made no mention of sex or gender. Similarly, 69% did not contain any sex or gender related content whatsoever. Of those that did contain some sex or gender content, the majority focused on sex. Only 2 of the 85 pharmaceutical policy articles reviewed for this study were primarily focused on sex or gender issues; both of these were review articles. Eighty-one percent of the articles in our study contained no SGBA, functioning instead at a sex-blind or gender-neutral level, even though the majority of these (86%) were focused on topics with sex or gender aspects. Despite pharmaceutical policy's long entwinement with issues of sex and gender, and the emergence of international guidelines for the inclusion of SGBA in health research, the community of pharmaceutical policy researchers has not internalized, or "mainstreamed," the practice. Increased application of SGBA is, in most cases, not only appropriate for the topics under investigation, but well within the reach of

  8. Marketing concepts for pharmaceutical service development.

    PubMed

    Grauer, D W

    1981-02-01

    Marketing concepts as a mechanism to help pharmacy develop, communicate, and sell future pharmaceutical services to consumers are discussed. Pharmacy as a profession must define itself broadly to take advantage of future growth opportunities. These growth opportunities will be realized from unmet health-care needs and changing consumer life style trends and values. New services must therefore be oriented toward consumers (i.e., patients, health professionals, and third-party agencies) to gain acceptance. Dispensing and drug-knowledge-distribution pharmaceutical services are reviewed by a product life cycle analysis of sales profits versus time. A marketing mix for new pharmaceutical services is developed consisting of service, price, distribution, and promotion strategies. Marketing can encompass those key elements necessary to meet the organizational goals of pharmacy and provide a systematic, disciplined approach for presenting a new service to consumers.

  9. Organic solvents in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Grodowska, Katarzyna; Parczewski, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Organic solvents are commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry as reaction media, in separation and purification of synthesis products and also for cleaning of equipment. This paper presents some aspects of organic solvents utilization in an active pharmaceutical ingredient and a drug product manufacturing process. As residual solvents are not desirable substances in a final product, different methods for their removal may be used, provided they fulfill safety criteria. After the drying process, analyses need to be performed to check if amounts of solvents used at any step of the production do not exceed acceptable limits (taken from ICH Guideline or from pharmacopoeias). Also new solvents like supercritical fluids or ionic liquids are developed to replace "traditional" organic solvents in the pharmaceutical production processes.

  10. [Public health and chemical-pharmaceutical companies].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, M A

    This article is concerned with the establishment of the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry. It addresses some issues of relevance to social-economic history, such as the emergence of the public health system, procedures for combating infectious disease, the relations between disinfection campaigns and the chemical industry, serotherapy and the production of serums and vaccines by public research institutions and private pharmaceutical companies. Focusing on the private pharmaceutical industry in Brazil, with special reference to the Instituto Pinheiros - Produtos Terapêuticos S.A., this article highlights the relations between scientists technology and product development. It also considers the debate which involved the scientific community and some governmental research institutions for public health policy development in the state of São Paulo.

  11. Thermal properties of food and pharmaceutical powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiad, Mohamad Ghassan

    Foods and pharmaceuticals are complex systems usually exposed to various environmental conditions during processing and thus storage, stability, functionality and quality are key attributes that deserve careful attention. The quality and stability of foods and pharmaceuticals are mainly affected by environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, time, and processing conditions (e.g. shear, pressure) under which they may undergo physical and/or chemical transformations. Glass transition as well as other thermal properties is a key to understand how external conditions affect physical changes of such materials. Development of new materials and understanding the physico-chemical behavior of existing ones require a scientific foundation that translates into safe and high quality foods, improved quality of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals with lower risk to patients and functional efficacy of polymers used in food and medicinal products. This research provides an overview of the glass transition and other thermal properties and introduces novel methods developed to characterize such properties.

  12. Agglomeration tendency in dry pharmaceutical granular systems.

    PubMed

    Lachiver, Emilie DesRosiers; Abatzoglou, Nicolas; Cartilier, Louis; Simard, Jean-Sébastien

    2006-10-01

    The agglomeration tendency of dry pharmaceutical mixtures containing various concentrations of Xylitab 100 (Xylitol), calcium carbonate precipitated (CCP) and magnesium stearate (MgSt) was evaluated statistically as a function of mixing time. A Ro-Tap tester was employed to mix the three pharmaceutical components, and the agglomerates formed were measured with respect to their weight and size. An experimental design was devised and applied to structure and then statistically analyze the results. Xylitab was found not to be influential in the formation of agglomerates, but aided in deagglomeration when mixed with other components. CCP and MgSt formed agglomerates over time and showed positive interactions favouring agglomeration. The agglomerates started to fracture when they reached a critical size, at which stage the particles' attraction forces (cohesion forces) were weaker than both gravity and inertia. It has been shown and quantitatively demonstrated that the mixing time and ingredient concentrations of a three-component pharmaceutical mixture can affect agglomeration tendency.

  13. Pharmaceutical strategy and innovation: an academics perspective.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Ian R; Hayward, John J; Ley, Steven V; Tranmer, Geoffrey K

    2007-06-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is under increasing pressure on many fronts, from investors requiring larger returns to consumer groups and health authorities demanding cheaper and safer drugs. It is also feeling additional pressure from the infringement upon its profit margins by generic drug producers. Many companies are aggressively pursuing outsourcing contracts in an attempt to counter many of the financial pressures and streamline their operations. At the same time, the productivity of the pharmaceutical industry at its science base is being questioned in terms of the number of products and the timeframes required for each company to deliver them to market. This has generated uncertainties regarding the current corporate strategies that have been adopted and the levels of innovation being demonstrated. In this essay we discuss these topics in the context of the global pharmaceutical market, investigating the basis for many of these issues and highlighting the hurdles the industry needs to overcome, especially as they relate to the chemical sciences.

  14. Modeling choice behavior for new pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Bingham, M F; Johnson, F R; Miller, D

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic generalization of a model often used to aid marketing decisions relating to conventional products. The model uses stated-preference data in a random-utility framework to predict adoption rates for new pharmaceutical products. In addition, this paper employs a Markov model of patient learning in drug selection. While the simple learning rule presented here is only a rough approximation to reality, this model nevertheless systematically incorporates important features including learning and the influence of shifting preferences on market share. Despite its simplifications, the integrated framework of random-utility and product attribute updating presented here is capable of accommodating a variety of pharmaceutical marketing and development problems. This research demonstrates both the strengths of stated-preference market research and some of its shortcomings for pharmaceutical applications.

  15. Globalization and the pharmaceutical industry revisited.

    PubMed

    Busfield, Joan

    2003-01-01

    This survey of the pharmaceutical industry at the beginning of the 21st century updates some of the information provided in Claudio Tarabusi and Graham Vickery's survey, "Globalization in the Pharmaceutical Industry," published in the International Journal of Health Services in 1998, which was largely based on data up to 1993. However, the purpose of the present article differs from that of Tarabusi and Vickery, which covered a wide range of aspects of the industry relevant to globalization but did not explicitly address the question of the extent to which the industry could be described as globalized. After looking at the industry in some detail, the author directly confronts the question of the appropriateness of the use of the term "globalization" for characterizing the directions in which the pharmaceutical industry has been moving.

  16. Printed sectoral horn power combiner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccia, Luigi; Emanuele, Antonio; Shamsafar, Alireza; Arnieri, Emilio; Amendola, Giandomenico

    2015-02-01

    In this work, it is presented a new configuration of planar power combiner/divider based on an H-plane sectoral horn antenna. This component is proposed to realise the basic building blocks of printed power-combining amplifiers. It will be shown how the sectoral horn elements can be implemented on substrate integrated waveguide and multilayer printed circuit board technologies, thus obtaining a high integration level. In the following, the design procedure will be described reporting an example of an 11-stage power divider/combiner in C-band. A prototype has been fabricated, and the measured results compared with the numerical model. Experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations showing a single-stage efficiency of about 90% and a bandwidth of 40%.

  17. Patients' attitudes about gifts to physicians from pharmaceutical companies.

    PubMed

    Blake, R L; Early, E K

    1995-01-01

    Little is known about patients' awareness of and attitudes about gifts to physicians from pharmaceutical companies. During a 7-week period in summer 1994, we surveyed adults (18 years of age and older) in the waiting rooms of two family practice centers in central Missouri. Four-hundred eighty-six adults (83 percent participation rate) responded to a self-administered questionnaire that assessed awareness of and attitudes about representative gifts. Rates of awareness of specific gifts were 87.0 percent for free drug samples, 55.3 percent for ballpoint pens, 34.6 percent for medical books, 28.6 percent for baby formula, 22.4 percent for dinner at a restaurant, and 13.8 percent for a coffee maker. Of the 486 respondents, the following percentages were reported that "it is not all right" for physicians to accept specific gifts: dinner at a restaurant, 48.4 percent; baby formula, 44.2 percent; coffee maker, 40.7 percent; ballpoint pens, 17.5 percent; medical books, 16.9 percent; drug samples, 7.6 percent. In addition, 32.5 percent did not approve of their physicians accepting payment by a pharmaceutical company of medical conference expenses and from 28.0 percent to 43.4 percent disapproved of their physicians attending specific social events sponsored by pharmaceutical companies at a medical conference. Seventy percent of the subjects believed that gifts sometimes or frequently influence a physician's prescribing of medication; 64.0 percent believed that gifts to physicians increase the cost of medication. Beliefs that gifts influence prescribing behavior and beliefs that gifts increase medication costs were strongly associated with disapproval of each gift except for drug samples. Respondents distinguished between particular gifts; approval rates were high for gifts generally considered to be trivial or that have potential value to patient care; disapproval rates were relatively high for gifts that have some monetary value but have little or no benefit for patients

  18. Biomass Resources for the Federal Sector

    SciTech Connect

    R. Robichaud; A. Crawley; and L. Poole: NREL

    2005-09-09

    Biomass Resources for the Federal Sector is a fact sheet that explains how biomass resources can be incorporated into the federal sector, and also how they can provide opportunities to meet federal renewable energy goals.

  19. Biomass Resources for the Federal Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-08-01

    Biomass Resources for the Federal Sector is a fact sheet that explains how biomass resources can be incorporated into the federal sector, and also how they can provide opportunities to meet federal renewable energy goals.

  20. 33 CFR 84.17 - Horizontal sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... prescribed sectors. (2) For sternlights and masthead lights and at 22.5 degrees abaft the beam for sidelights... so located as not to be obscured by masts, topmasts or structures within angular sectors of more than...

  1. 33 CFR 84.17 - Horizontal sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... prescribed sectors. (2) For sternlights and masthead lights and at 22.5 degrees abaft the beam for sidelights... so located as not to be obscured by masts, topmasts or structures within angular sectors of more than...

  2. 33 CFR 84.17 - Horizontal sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... prescribed sectors. (2) For sternlights and masthead lights and at 22.5 degrees abaft the beam for sidelights... so located as not to be obscured by masts, topmasts or structures within angular sectors of more than...

  3. 33 CFR 84.17 - Horizontal sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... prescribed sectors. (2) For sternlights and masthead lights and at 22.5 degrees abaft the beam for sidelights... so located as not to be obscured by masts, topmasts or structures within angular sectors of more than...

  4. 33 CFR 84.17 - Horizontal sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... prescribed sectors. (2) For sternlights and masthead lights and at 22.5 degrees abaft the beam for sidelights... so located as not to be obscured by masts, topmasts or structures within angular sectors of more than...

  5. Sulfite-containing Canadian pharmaceutical products available in 1991.

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, M; Schuster, B; Schellenberg, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compile an inclusive list of Canadian pharmaceutical products available in 1991 that contained sulfites. DATA SOURCES: Written and oral responses from 94 pharmaceutical companies selected from the 1989 Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties. RESULTS: A list of sulfite-containing pharmaceutical products was compiled from data supplied by the 90 responding companies. Companies whose products contained no sulfites were separately identified. CONCLUSIONS: Sulfites are present in many pharmaceutical products and are one of many excipients and additives that have been reported to cause severe adverse reactions. The provided list should be a useful aid for health care practitioners when prescribing pharmaceutical products for sulfite-sensitive patients. PMID:1483237

  6. WHO Expert Committee on specifications for pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    The Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations works towards clear, independent and practical standards and guidelines for the quality assurance of medicines. Standards are developed by the Committee through worldwide consultation and an international consensus-building process. The following new guidelines were adopted and recommended for use: good practices for pharmaceutical quality control laboratories; supplementary guidelines for active pharmaceutical ingredients; good manufacturing practices for pharmaceutical products containing hazardous substances; good manufacturing practices for sterile pharmaceutical products; good distribution practices for pharmaceutical products; guidelines on the requalification of prequalified dossiers: and guidelines for the preparation of a contract research organization master file.

  7. WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    The Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations works towards clear, independent and practical standards and guidelines for the quality assurance of medicines. Standards are developed by the Committee through worldwide consultation and an international consensus-building process. The following new standards and guidelines were adopted and recommended for use: the current list of available International Chemical Reference Substances and International Infrared Reference Spectra; guidelines on stability testing of active pharmaceutical ingredients and finished pharmaceutical products; procedure for prequalification of pharmaceutical products; and the procedure for assessing the acceptability, in principle, of active pharmaceutical ingredients for use in pharmaceutical products.

  8. Pharmaceutical care: the PCNE definition 2013.

    PubMed

    Allemann, Samuel S; van Mil, J W Foppe; Botermann, Lea; Berger, Karin; Griese, Nina; Hersberger, Kurt E

    2014-06-01

    Twenty-three years after Hepler and Strand published their well-known definition of Pharmaceutical Care (PhC), confusion remains about what the term includes and how to differentiate it from other terms. The board of the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE) felt the need to redefine PhC and to answer the question: "What is Pharmaceutical Care in 2013". The aims of this paper were to review existing definitions of PhC and to describe the process of developing a redefined definition. A literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE database (1964-January 2013). Keywords included "Pharmaceutical Care", "Medication (Therapy) Management", "Medicine Management", and "Pharmacist Care" in the title or abstract together with the term "defin*". To ease comparison between definitions, we developed a standardised syntax to paraphrase the definitions. During a dedicated meeting, a moderated discussion about the definition of PhC was organised. The initial literature search produced 186 hits, with eight unique PhC definitions. Hand searching identified a further 11 unique definitions. These 19 definitions were paraphrased using the standardised syntax (provider, recipient, subject, outcome, activities). Fourteen members of PCNE and 10 additional experts attended the moderated discussion. Working groups of increasing size developed intermediate definitions, which had similarities and differences to those retrieved in the literature search. At the end of the session, participants reached a consensus on a "PCNE definition of Pharmaceutical Care" reading: "Pharmaceutical Care is the pharmacist's contribution to the care of individuals in order to optimize medicines use and improve health outcomes". It was possible to paraphrase definitions of PhC using a standardised syntax focusing on the provider, recipient, subject, outcomes, and activities included in PhC practice. During a one-day workshop, experts in PhC research agreed on a definition, intended to be applicable for the

  9. North America's wood pellet sector

    Treesearch

    Henry Spelter; Daniel Toth

    2009-01-01

    The North American wood pellet sector is profiled in this paper. A small pellet industry has existed since the 1930s, but its main growth occurred in the wake of the energy crisis in the 1970s. Its current spurt is even greater, growing from is set to reach 6.2 million in 2009. Most plants are small, relying on sawmill residues for fiber and thus are limited to 100,000...

  10. Private Sector Engagement: An Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, G.

    2016-12-01

    Public health organizations serve as scientific societies as a major part of their core mission. In addition, mobilizing partners to identify health threats and to work collaboratively to improve community health involves engagement of a variety of partners including those in the private sector. Increased concerns about conflicts of interest, transparency and undue influence are emerging as a major concern. This presentation will explore one framework for decision making to minimize risks and enhancing independence in scientific inquiry and public health programming.

  11. Physicians’ perceptions of medical representative visits in Yemen: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The pharmaceutical industry invests heavily in promotion, and it uses a variety of promotional strategies to influence physicians’ prescribing decisions. Within this context, medical representatives (MRs) are the key personnel employed in promoting their products. One significant consequence of the interactions between physicians and medical representatives is a conflict of interests which may contribute to the over prescribing of medications and thus negative effects on patients’ health and economics. There is limited detailed information published on the reasons why physicians interact with pharmaceutical representatives. This study aims to qualitatively explore physicians’ attitudes about interactions with medical representatives and their reasons for accepting the medical representatives’ visits. Methods In-depth interviews were used to gain a better understanding of physicians’ perceptions of medical representative visits. A total of 32 physicians from both private and public hospitals were interviewed. The recordings of the interviews were transcribed verbatim and subject to thematic analysis using a framework analysis approach. Results The present qualitative study found that the majority of the physicians had positive interactions with medical representatives. The physicians’ main reasons stated for allowing medical representatives’ visits are the social contacts and mutual benefits they will gain from these representatives. They also emphasized that the meeting with representatives provides educational and scientific benefits. A few physicians stated that the main reasons behind refusing the meeting with medical representatives were lack of conviction about the product and obligation to prescribe medicine from the representative company. Most of the physicians believed that they were under marketing pressure to prescribe certain medicines. Conclusions Although physicians are aware that the medical representatives could influence

  12. Sectoral shifts and aggregate unemployment

    SciTech Connect

    Loungani, P.

    1986-01-01

    Some recent research has taken the view that sectoral or industry-specific shocks significantly affect aggregate unemployment by increasing the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required. The empirical evidence for this view rests on the finding that during the 1950s - and again during the 1970s - there was a positive correlation between aggregate unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth rates. This thesis demonstrates that this correlation arises largely because oil price shocks affect both unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth. Once the dispersion due to oil shocks is accounted for, the residual dispersion in employment has very low explanatory power for unemployment. Since the dispersion index does not measure pure sectoral shifts, an alternate measure of dispersion is developed that serves as a better proxy for the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required each period. Estimates using this measure suggest that, during the 1950s, temporary increases in the relative price of oil were responsible for generating the observed correlation. On the other hand, sectoral shifts were important during the 1970s; in particular, the 1973 oil price increase has had significant reallocative effects on the economy. This contention is subjected to further tests by looking at the time-series behavior of employment in durable-goods industries and also by following the inter-industry movements of workers over time through the use of panel data.

  13. Radiostability of pharmaceuticals under different irradiation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crucq, Anne-Sophie; Deridder, Véronique; Tilquin, Bernard

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, the products studied are cefazolin, glucagon and dobutamine HCl. The radioresistance of pharmaceuticals may depend on the conditions of irradiation. The best is to irradiate the drugs in solid state and the chemical transformations can be reduced also by lowering the temperature of the liquid. In solid state, the dose rate has no influence on the decomposition for the selected molecules and it should be noted that drug excipients selected for bioavailability reasons are not always radioprotectors. These results are important from a technical point of view in pharmaceutical industry.

  14. MSc degree in color technology for the automotive sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Verdu, F.; Perales, E.; Chorro, E.; Viqueira, V.; Gilabert, E.

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays, the measurement and management of color quality of the gonio-apparent materials is complex, but highly demanded in many industrial sectors, as automotive, cosmetics, plastics for consumer electronics, printing inks, architectural coatings, etc. It is necessary to control complex instrumentation and to do visual assessments of texture and color differences to get, for instance, a visual harmony in car bodies; and a profound knowledge of physics and chemistry of special-effect pigments for their optical formulation to obtain attractive visual effects in coatings, plastics, etc, combining among them and with solid pigments. From University of Alicante, for the academic year 2013-14, we are organizing the first MSc degree in Color Technology for the Automotive Sector, with a design of contents embracing CIE colorimetry and visual perception, included the AUDI2000 color difference formula, instrumentation and color management software, fundamentals of coatings and plastics in the automotive sector, and, optical formulation of pigments. The MSc syllabus, with 60 ECTS, is designed to be taught in two semesters: from September to February with on classroom theoretical and practical activities, and, from March to June at virtual level, with internships of training in some companies. Therefore, the MSc Thesis would be the performance report during the internship in companies or research institutions. Some multinational companies, both as car makers and coatings and plastics providers, from European and non-European countries have already shown their support and interest in welcoming students for specific training, even some job offers when the first MSc edition finishes.

  15. Assessing potential impacts of the EVFTA on Vietnam's pharmaceutical imports from the EU: an application of SMART analysis.

    PubMed

    Vu, Huong Thanh

    2016-01-01

    This paper by adopting the Software on Market Analysis and Restrictions on Trade assessed the ex-ante impact of tariff elimination under the European-Vietnam free trade agreement (EVFTA) on Vietnam's pharmaceutical imports from the EU based on two scenarios. The results showed that although Vietnam's tariff removal for the EU's medicines would not result in a significant increase in Vietnam's imports from the EU, Vietnam's deeper integration with ASEAN + 3 and TPP (the Trans-Pacific Partnership) nations would affect quite slightly on its imports from the EU. Therefore, the EU would be still the most important and biggest source of pharmaceuticals for Vietnam in the near future. In addition, there might be an uneven distribution in Vietnam's import increases by the EU nation, pharmaceutical group and product. The simulation results also pointed out that the EVFTA's trade creation effect would be higher than trade diversion effect and therefore the agreement would improve welfare of Vietnam. When Vietnam extends its coverage of tariff elimination to also TPP and ASEAN + 3, Vietnam's welfare would potentially increase more but Vietnam would face with the relatively high increases of pharmaceutical imports from not only the EU but also the US, Australia, South Korea, Thailand and China. Bases on these results, the paper argued that both the Vietnamese government and pharmaceutical enterprises should not neglect the EVFTA and its impacts on the pharmaceutical sector, and perceive clearly the uneven distribution of Vietnam's import changes from the EU by nation and by product to design appropriate business and investment strategy. In addition, Vietnam should take measures to diversify its European import markets to be less dependent on the traditional ones in the current context of the EU. Finally, Vietnam should promote the integration in the pharmaceutical sector with all three groups of nations, especially ASEAN and ASEAN's key partners, to reduce trade diversion

  16. The reasons behind medicine shortages from the perspective of pharmaceutical companies and pharmaceutical wholesalers in Finland.

    PubMed

    Heiskanen, Kati; Ahonen, Riitta; Kanerva, Risto; Karttunen, Pekka; Timonen, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the reasons behind medicine shortages from the perspective of pharmaceutical companies and pharmaceutical wholesalers in Finland. The study took the form of semi-structured interviews. Forty-one pharmaceutical companies and pharmaceutical wholesalers were invited to participate in the study. The pharmaceutical companies were the member organizations of Pharma Industry Finland (PIF) (N = 30) and the Finnish Generic Pharmaceutical Association (FGPA) (N = 7). One company which is a central player in the pharmaceutical market in Finland but does not belong to PIF or FGPA was also invited. The pharmaceutical wholesalers were those with a nationwide distribution network (N = 3). A total of 30 interviews were conducted between March and June 2016. The data were subjected to qualitative thematic analysis. The most common reasons behind medicine shortages in Finland were the small size of the pharmaceutical market (29/30), sudden or fluctuating demand (28/30), small stock sizes (25/30), long delivery time (23/30) and a long or complex production chain (23/30). The reasons for the medicine shortages were supply-related more often than demand-related. However, the reasons were often complex and there was more than one reason behind a shortage. Supply-related reasons behind shortages commonly interfaced with the country-specific characteristics of Finland, whereas demand-related reasons were commonly associated with the predictability and attractiveness of the market. Some reasons, such as raw material shortages, were considered global and thus had similar effects on other countries.

  17. Business and AIDS: sectoral challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Weston, Mark D; Churchyard, Gavin J; Mametja, David; McIntyre, James A; Randera, Fazel

    2007-07-01

    The Business and AIDS think tank held in Durban, South Africa, in June 2006, included a discussion of the policies with which different types of employer could address HIV/AIDS in southern Africa. Breakout groups discussed the role of large and small private sector firms, the public sector, and parastatal organizations. They made recommendations for policies, programmes and future research for each sector.

  18. The Information Sector: Definition and Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porat, Marc U.

    In the last 20 years the U.S. economy had changed as a result of the increase in production, processing, and distribution of information goods and services. Three information sectors--the primary sector producing information goods and services, the private bureaucracy, and the public bureaucracy--are part of a six-sector economy. Today,…

  19. Obstacles to Private Sector Activities in Africa,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    87 E. Effectiveness of US Government Agencies ... ............ .... 89 APPENDIX A : METHODOLOGY...source of negativism toward MNCs emanates from the LDCs. It stems from recent historical experience and, in some instances, ideological perspectives. Due...agricultural sector will obviously have a buoyant effect on private sector development generally. Nor will this analysis focus on other private sector

  20. Quality of pharmaceutical advertising and gender bias in medical journals (1998-2008): a review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Cambronero Saiz, Belén; Ruiz Cantero, María Teresa; Papí Gálvez, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    To review the scientific literature on pharmaceutical advertising aimed at health professionals in order to determine whether gender bias has decreased and the quality of information in pharmaceutical advertising has improved over time. We performed a content analysis of original articles dealing with medical drug promotion (1998-2008), according to quality criteria such as (a) the number, validity and accessibility of bibliographic references provided in pharmaceutical advertising and (b) the extent to which gender representations were consistent with the prevalence of the diseases. Databases: PUBMED, Medline, Scopus, Sociological Abstract, Eric and LILACS. We reviewed 31 articles that analyzed advertising in medical journals from 1975-2005 and were published between 1998 and 2008. We found that the number of references used to support pharmaceutical advertising claims increased from 1975 but that 50% of these references were not valid. There was a tendency to depict men in paid productive roles, while women appeared inside the home or in non-occupational social contexts. Advertisements for psychotropic and cardiovascular drugs overrepresented women and men respectively. The use of bibliographic references increased between 1998 and 2008. However, representation of traditional male-female roles was similar in 1975 and 2005. Pharmaceutical advertisements may contribute to reinforcing the perception that certain diseases are associated with the most frequently portrayed sex. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.