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Sample records for pharmacies face closure

  1. Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015: suggestions for pharmacy strategic planning.

    PubMed

    Weber, Robert J

    2015-02-01

    Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department's goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services.

  2. Issues Facing Pharmacy Leaders in 2015: Suggestions for Pharmacy Strategic Planning

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department’s goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:25717212

  3. Trends in Community Pharmacy Counts and Closures before and after the Implementation of Medicare Part D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klepser, Donald G.; Xu, Liyan; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Medicare Part D provided 3.4 million American seniors with prescription drug insurance. It may also have had an unintended effect on pharmacy viability. This study compares trends in the number of pharmacies and rate of pharmacy closures before and after the implementation of Medicare Part D. Methods: This retrospective observational…

  4. Issues Facing Pharmacy Leaders in 2014: Suggestions for Pharmacy Strategic Planning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the Director’s Forum published our assessment of issues facing pharmacy leaders to assist pharmacy directors in planning for the year ahead. The issues include health care reform and the Affordable Care Act, the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative, the health care workforce, patients’ perceptions of pharmacists, and the changing landscape of pharmacy education. Based on our environmental scan, the issues addressed in 2013 are pertinent to a department’s plan for 2014. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to each of these issues to help pharmacy directors focus their department’s goals for 2014 to support the development of patient-centered pharmacy services. This column will address (1) strategies to reduce medication costs and generate new pharmacy revenue streams, (2) innovative approaches to improving medication safety and quality, (3) steps to advance the clinical practice model, and (4) ways to create mutually beneficial student experiences. PMID:24715750

  5. Update: independently owned pharmacy closures in rural America, 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith J

    2014-06-01

    Key Findings. (1) From March 2003 to December 2013, there was a loss of 924 (12.1%) independently owned rural pharmacies in the United States. The most drastic loss occurred between 2007 and 2009. From 2010-2013, the trend has been for more closures, although the decline is not as pronounced or clear as in earlier years. (2) Four hundred ninety rural communities that had one or more retail pharmacy (including independent, chain, or franchise pharmacy) in March 2003 had no retail pharmacy in December 2013. PMID:25399472

  6. The impact of face-to-face educational outreach on diarrhoea treatment in pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Ross-Degnan, D; Soumerai, S B; Goel, P K; Bates, J; Makhulo, J; Dondi, N; Sutoto; Adi, D; Ferraz-Tabor, L; Hogan, R

    1996-09-01

    Private pharmacies are an important source of health care in developing countries. A number of studies have documented deficiencies in treatment, but little has been done to improve practices. We conducted two controlled trials to determine the efficacy of face-to-face educational outreach in improving communication and product sales for cases of diarrhoea in children in 194 private pharmacies in two developing countries. A training guide was developed to enable a national diarrhoea control programme to identify problems and their causes in pharmacies, using quantitative and qualitative research methods. The guide also facilitates the design, implementation, and evaluation of an educational intervention, which includes brief one-on-one meetings between diarrhoea programme educators and pharmacists/owners, followed by one small group training session with all counter attendants working in the pharmacies. We evaluated the short-term impact of this intervention using a before-and-after comparison group design in Kenya, and a randomized controlled design in Indonesia, with the pharmacy as unit of analysis in both countries (n = 107 pharmacies in Kenya; n = 87 in Indonesia). Using trained surrogate patients posing as mothers of a child under five with diarrhoea, we measured sales of oral rehydration salts (ORS); sales of antidiarrhoeal agents; and history-taking and advice to continue fluids and food. We also measured knowledge about dehydration and drugs to treat diarrhoea among Kenyan pharmacy employees after training. Major discrepancies were found at baseline between reported and observed behaviour. For example, 66% of pharmacy attendants in Kenya, and 53% in Indonesia, reported selling ORS for the previous case of child diarrhoea, but in only 33% and 5% of surrogate patient visits was ORS actually sold for such cases. After training, there was a significant increase in knowledge about diarrhoea and its treatment among counter attendants in Kenya, where these

  7. The changing face of pharmacy practice and the need for a new model of pharmacy education.

    PubMed

    Toklu, Hale Zerrin; Hussain, Azhar

    2013-06-01

    Pharmacy profession has evolved from its conventional and traditional drug focused basis to an advanced patient focused basis over the years. In the past century the pharmacists were more involved in compounding and manufacturing of medicines, but this role has significantly reduced over time. This advancement in the role of pharmacist calls for them to be the part of the broader health care team working for providing better health care for the patients, thus contributing in achieving the global millennium development goals. To match up, the role of today's pharmacists needs to be expanded to include pharmaceutical care concepts, making the pharmacist a health care professional rather than a drug seller in a commercial enterprise. Therefore, pharmacy schools should prepare a program that has competence with the changing role of the pharmacist. The education should provide ability for critical thinking, improve problem-solving skills and decision making during pharmacotherapy. The student should be trained to create, transmit, and apply new knowledge based on cutting-edge research in the pharmaceutical, social, and clinical sciences; collaborate with other health professionals and learn to enhance the quality of life through improved health for the people of local society and as well as the global community.

  8. The changing face of pharmacy practice and the need for a new model of pharmacy education

    PubMed Central

    Toklu, Hale Zerrin; Hussain, Azhar

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacy profession has evolved from its conventional and traditional drug focused basis to an advanced patient focused basis over the years. In the past century the pharmacists were more involved in compounding and manufacturing of medicines, but this role has significantly reduced over time. This advancement in the role of pharmacist calls for them to be the part of the broader health care team working for providing better health care for the patients, thus contributing in achieving the global millennium development goals. To match up, the role of today's pharmacists needs to be expanded to include pharmaceutical care concepts, making the pharmacist a health care professional rather than a drug seller in a commercial enterprise. Therefore, pharmacy schools should prepare a program that has competence with the changing role of the pharmacist. The education should provide ability for critical thinking, improve problem-solving skills and decision making during pharmacotherapy. The student should be trained to create, transmit, and apply new knowledge based on cutting-edge research in the pharmaceutical, social, and clinical sciences; collaborate with other health professionals and learn to enhance the quality of life through improved health for the people of local society and as well as the global community. PMID:24023452

  9. The changing face of pharmacy practice and the need for a new model of pharmacy education.

    PubMed

    Toklu, Hale Zerrin; Hussain, Azhar

    2013-06-01

    Pharmacy profession has evolved from its conventional and traditional drug focused basis to an advanced patient focused basis over the years. In the past century the pharmacists were more involved in compounding and manufacturing of medicines, but this role has significantly reduced over time. This advancement in the role of pharmacist calls for them to be the part of the broader health care team working for providing better health care for the patients, thus contributing in achieving the global millennium development goals. To match up, the role of today's pharmacists needs to be expanded to include pharmaceutical care concepts, making the pharmacist a health care professional rather than a drug seller in a commercial enterprise. Therefore, pharmacy schools should prepare a program that has competence with the changing role of the pharmacist. The education should provide ability for critical thinking, improve problem-solving skills and decision making during pharmacotherapy. The student should be trained to create, transmit, and apply new knowledge based on cutting-edge research in the pharmaceutical, social, and clinical sciences; collaborate with other health professionals and learn to enhance the quality of life through improved health for the people of local society and as well as the global community. PMID:24023452

  10. Safety culture assessment in community pharmacy: development, face validity, and feasibility of the Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework

    PubMed Central

    Ashcroft, D; Morecroft, C; Parker, D; Noyce, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To develop a framework that could be used by community pharmacies to self-assess their current level of safety culture maturity, which has high face validity and is both acceptable and feasible for use in this setting. Design: An iterative review process in which the framework was developed and evaluated through a series of 10 focus groups with a purposive sample of 67 community pharmacists and support staff in the UK. Main outcome measures: Development of the framework and qualitative process feedback on its acceptability, face validity, and feasibility for use in community pharmacies. Results: Using this process, a version of the Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework (MaPSAF) was developed that is suitable for application to community pharmacies. The participants were able to understand the concepts, recognised differences between the five stages of safety culture maturity, and concurred with the descriptions from personal experience. They also indicated that they would be willing to use the framework but recognised that staff would require protected time in order to complete the assessment. Conclusions: In practice the MaPSAF is likely to have a number of uses including raising awareness about patient safety and illustrating any differences in perception between staff, stimulating discussion about the strengths and weaknesses of patient safety culture within the pharmacy, identifying areas for improvement, and evaluating patient safety interventions and tracking changes over time. This will support the development of a mature safety culture in community pharmacies. PMID:16326787

  11. Toward Aerosol/Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Closure during CRYSTAL-FACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanReken, Timothy M.; Rissman, Tracey, A.; Roberts, Gregory C.; Varutbangkul, Varuntida; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2003-01-01

    During July 2002, measurements of cloud condensation nuclei were made in the vicinity of southwest Florida as part of the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) field campaign. These observations, at supersaturations of 0.2 and 0.85%, are presented here. The performance of each of the two CCN counters was validated through laboratory calibration and an in situ intercomparison. The measurements indicate that the aerosol sampled during the campaign was predominantly marine in character: the median concentrations were 233 cm-3 (at S = 0.2%) and 371 cm(sup -3) (at S = 0.85%). Three flights during the experiment differed from this general trend; the aerosol sampled during the two flights on 18 July was more continental in character, and the observations on 28 July indicate high spatial variability and periods of very high aerosol concentrations. This study also includes a simplified aerosol/CCN closure analysis. Aerosol size distributions were measured simultaneously with the CCN observations, and these data are used to predict a CCN concentration using Kohler theory. For the purpose of this analysis, an idealized composition of pure ammonium sulfate was assumed. The analysis indicates that in this case, there was good general agreement between the predicted and observed CCN concentrations: at S = 0.2%, N(sub predicted)/N(sub observed)= 1.047 (R(sup 2)= 0.911)); at S = 0.85%, N(sub predicted)/N(sub observed)=1.201 (R(sup 2)= 0.835)). The impacts of the compositional assumption and of including in-cloud data in the analysis are addressed. The effect of removing the data from the 28 July flight is also examined; doing so improves the result of the closure analysis at S = 0.85%. When omitting that atypical flight, N(sub predicted)/N(sub observed) = 1.085 (R(sup 2) = 0.770) at S = 0.85%.

  12. Aerosol-Cloud microphysical closure in warm tropical cumulus during CRYSTAL-FACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conant, W. C.; Lu, M.; Vanreken, T.; Rissman, T.; Varutbangkul, V.; Jonsson, H. H.; Nenes, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Delia, A. E.; Bahreini, R.; Roberts, G. C.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2002-12-01

    We present a closure study between aerosol and warm-cloud microphysics using field data collected during the NASA CRYSTAL-FACE campaign. CRYSTAL-FACE was conducted in continental and marine environments near southern Florida in July, 2002. Detailed profiles of thirteen cumulus clouds were made by the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft, which was equipped with four aerosol sizing systems, two CCN counters operated at 0.4% and 0.7% supersaturation, an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer, a MOUDI filter sampler system, two cloud drop sizing probes, and two turbulence probes. A wide range of CCN (300 to >3500 cm-3) and cloud drop concentrations (200 to >1600 cm-3) provides an ideal case study for aerosol-cloud interactions and the first and second indirect effects. Vertical characterization of the young and mature cumulus clouds are obtained from multiple horizontal passes from below cloud base to cloud top. A detailed adiabatic cloud activation model accurately predicts the cloud drop concentration 100 m above cloud base. The model is constrained by observed updraft velocity and below-cloud aerosol properties (i.e. concentration, size distribution, composition, and supersaturation spectrum). Each cloud contains a core often exceeding 500 m in height in which the equivalent potential temperature follows a moist-adiabatic vertical profile. Effective radius most often follows an adiabatic profile, even in regions where liquid water content and/or equivalent potential temperature are sub-adiabatic. Large cloud-to-cloud variations in the vertical profile of effective radius are primarily driven by below-cloud aerosol concentration and to a lesser degree by cloud dynamics (i.e. vertical velocity). Six of the thirteen clouds are simulated using the RAMS large-eddy-simulation model. RAMS is integrated with bulk and bin microphysical models and is coupled to an offline 3-D radiative transfer model to study the aerosol effects on cloud microphysics and radiative properties. More

  13. Pharmacy education in France.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine; Brion, Françoise

    2008-12-15

    In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a "diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie" This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice.

  14. Pharmacy Education in France

    PubMed Central

    Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a “diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie” This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice. PMID:19325952

  15. Free flap transfer for closure and interposition-arthroplasty in noma defects of the lateral face associated with bony ankylosis.

    PubMed

    Giessler, Goetz A; Schmidt, Andreas B; Deubel, Ute; Cornelius, C-Peter

    2004-09-01

    Noma defects of the anterolateral face are often associated with fibrous or bony ankylosis fusing the mandibula to the skull base. According to the extent of the ankylosis, the temporomandibular joint mobility can be restricted or even completely frozen. In third world conditions the surgical approach to severe forms of bony ankylosis consists of a single linear opening osteotomy (trismus release) and the closure of the noma defect with locoregional flaps. Relapse of jaw immobility is common and may be caused by minor bone resection, the lack of adequate postoperative physiotherapy, or even the scarring of the defect coverage. In 4 years the authors have gained increasing experience with folded free flaps for simultaneous closure of outer and inner lining of large noma defects and the maintenance and training of re-established jaw function by the use of a dynamic external distractor fixed between the zygoma and the mandibular body. The authors report the bony reankylosis can be reduced by extended wedge osteotomies of the bony bridge and tip-like shaping of the ascending mandibular ramus. To preclude the reossification of the osteotomy site and fibrous scar formation, a dermofatty or muscular tail of the free flap is interposed into the bone gap. Two cases were treated according to this concept with a free parascapular and a latissimus dorsi flap in combination with simultaneous arthroplasty. During a 6-month follow-up period, no signs of a recurrent reduction of mandibular movement were noted in either case.

  16. Pharmacy Technologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of pharmacy technologist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 16 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of pharmacy technologist. The following skill areas…

  17. Pharmacy alternatives (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... common source for obtaining prescriptions is the local pharmacy. Usually the pharmacy is located in a drug or grocery store. ... some insurance companies have chosen is mail-order pharmacy. Once a pharmacy has been chosen it is ...

  18. Clinical Pharmacy Education in a Dental Pharmacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helling, Dennis K.; Walker, John A.

    1978-01-01

    A clinical pharmacy training program for undergraduate students developed at the University of Iowa provides conjoint training of pharmacy and dental students in the clinic areas and pharmacy at the College of Dentistry. (LBH)

  19. Pharmacy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    New York State education laws, rules, and regulations concerning the practice of pharmacy are presented. Provisions relating to the manufacture, sale, distribution, purity, potency, and labeling of drugs are included. State statutory provisions cover: licensing; duration and registration of a license; practice and regulation of the profession;…

  20. Pharmacy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Cultural Education Center.

    New York State education law, rules, and regulations concerning the practice of pharmacy are presented. Provisions relating to the manufacture, sale, distribution, purity, potency, and labeling of drugs are included. State statutory provisions cover: licensing, duration and registration of a license, practice and regulation of the profession,…

  1. Significant Issues Raised by the Study Commission on Pharmacy Report--A View From the Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francke, Donald E.

    1976-01-01

    An opinion is offered of the Millis Commission report on pharmacy. Two major areas are considered: levels of pharmacy practice and roles for clinical pharmacy practice. It is concluded that the report failed to explore the issues facing pharmacy in the depth necessary to initiate meaningful change. (LBH)

  2. The challenges of pharmacy education in Yemen.

    PubMed

    Al-Worafi, Yaser Mohammed

    2014-10-15

    Pharmacy education in Yemen has faced many challenges since its introduction in the 1980s. Most Yemeni pharmacy schools, especially private ones, are experiencing difficulties in providing the right quality and quantity of clinical educational experiences. Most of these challenges are imbedded in a teaching style and curricula that have failed to respond to the needs of the community and country. The slow shift from traditional drug-dispensing to a patient-centered or focused approach in pharmacy practice requires a fundamental change in the roles and responsibilities of both policymakers and educators. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss the challenges facing the pharmacy education in Yemen; (2) to provided recommendations to overcome challenges.

  3. Characteristics of Rural Communities with a Sole, Independently Owned Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Nattinger, Matthew; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith J

    2015-04-01

    Prior RUPRI Center policy briefs have described the role of rural pharmacies in providing many essential clinical services (in addition to prescription and nonprescription medications), such as blood pressure monitoring, immunizations, and diabetes counseling, and the adverse effects of Medicare Part D negotiated networks on the financial viability of rural pharmacies.1 Because rural pharmacies play such a broad role in health care delivery, pharmacy closures can sharply reduce access to essential health care services in rural and underserved communities. These closures are of particular concern in rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy (i.e., a pharmacy unaffiliated with a chain or franchise). This policy brief characterizes the population of rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. Dependent on a sole pharmacy, these areas are at highest risk to lose access to many essential clinical services. Key Findings. (1) In 2014 over 2.7 million people lived in 663 rural communities served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. (2) More than one-quarter of these residents (27.9 percent) were living below 150 percent of the federal poverty level. (3) Based on estimates from 2012, a substantial portion of the residents of these areas were dependent on public insurance (i.e., Medicare and/or Medicaid, 20.5 percent) or were uninsured (15.0 percent). (4) If the sole, independent retail pharmacy in these communities were to close, the next closest retail pharmacy would be over 10 miles away for a majority of rural communities (69.7 percent). PMID:26793812

  4. Characteristics of Rural Communities with a Sole, Independently Owned Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Nattinger, Matthew; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith J

    2015-04-01

    Prior RUPRI Center policy briefs have described the role of rural pharmacies in providing many essential clinical services (in addition to prescription and nonprescription medications), such as blood pressure monitoring, immunizations, and diabetes counseling, and the adverse effects of Medicare Part D negotiated networks on the financial viability of rural pharmacies.1 Because rural pharmacies play such a broad role in health care delivery, pharmacy closures can sharply reduce access to essential health care services in rural and underserved communities. These closures are of particular concern in rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy (i.e., a pharmacy unaffiliated with a chain or franchise). This policy brief characterizes the population of rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. Dependent on a sole pharmacy, these areas are at highest risk to lose access to many essential clinical services. Key Findings. (1) In 2014 over 2.7 million people lived in 663 rural communities served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. (2) More than one-quarter of these residents (27.9 percent) were living below 150 percent of the federal poverty level. (3) Based on estimates from 2012, a substantial portion of the residents of these areas were dependent on public insurance (i.e., Medicare and/or Medicaid, 20.5 percent) or were uninsured (15.0 percent). (4) If the sole, independent retail pharmacy in these communities were to close, the next closest retail pharmacy would be over 10 miles away for a majority of rural communities (69.7 percent).

  5. A multistate trial of pharmacy syringe purchase.

    PubMed

    Compton, Wilson M; Horton, Joe C; Cottler, Linda B; Booth, Robert; Leukefeld, Carl G; Singer, Merrill; Cunningham-Williams, Renee; Reich, Wendy; Fortuin Corsi, Karen; Staton, Michele; Fink, Joseph L; Stopka, Thomas J; Spitznagel, Edward L

    2004-12-01

    Pharmacies are a potential site for access to sterile syringes as a means for preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but the type and extent of their utility is uncertain. To examine pharmacy syringe purchase, we conducted a standardized, multistate study in urban and rural areas of four states in which attempts to purchase syringes were documented. Of 1,600 overall purchase attempts, 35% were refused. Colorado (25%) and Connecticut (28%) had significantly lower rates of refusal than Kentucky (41%) and Missouri (47%). Furthermore, urban settings had higher rates of refusal (40%) than rural settings (31%, P < .01). Race and gender did not have a consistent impact on rates of refusal. Despite potential advantages of pharmacies as sites for access to sterile syringes, pharmacy purchase of syringes faces significant obstacles in terms of the practices in different jurisdictions. PMID:15466847

  6. Women in pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Janzen, Donica; Fitzpatrick, Kerry; Suveges, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Women have historically been attracted to pharmacy because it is widely perceived as a profession that offers them an opportunity to combine a professional career with a family. Women now make up the majority of practising pharmacists in Canada, yet the literature demonstrates disparities such as gender segregation and underrepresentation of women in senior positions. This study was intended to identify the attitudes and beliefs of pharmacy students about women’s issues in pharmacy and raise awareness of these issues. Methods: First- and fourth-year University of Saskatchewan pharmacy students were invited to share their overall impressions of the status of female pharmacists and the impact of women on the pharmacy profession through an online questionnaire. Results: Of the 60 respondents, the majority disagreed that there is segregation of men and women in pharmacy. More fourth-year students than first-year students recognized the underrepresentation of women in pharmacy management. Many students believed the number of women in pharmacy would have no negative impact on the profession. Forty students (67.8%) agreed that it is important to maintain a significant proportion of men in pharmacy. Conclusion: Most pharmacy students in this study do not recognize gender disparities present in pharmacy or the impact the disproportionate number of women could have on the profession. Can Pharm J 2013;146:109-116. PMID:23795187

  7. Strategic alliance as a competitive tactics for biological-pharmacy industry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuanming; Wang, Ling; Qi, Ershi

    2005-01-01

    Biological-pharmacy industry refers to biotechnology companies and pharmacy makers. Because of the uncertainty and time-lag in the field of biological-pharmacy, the former is confronted with lacking of capital and the later is faced with improving technique-innovation and product-exploitation. This paper analyzes basic operation principle of strategic alliance, and related strategies are also put forward for biological-pharmacy enterprise to carry out. PMID:17282722

  8. Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ceiling grate, facing north. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Community pharmacy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Benrimoj, Shalom I; Frommer, Michael S

    2004-11-01

    This article describes the evolution of community pharmacy in the Australian health system, and assesses its current and potential future contribution to health care. A central theme is the unique extent and accessibility of community pharmacy to the public, with a vast and dispersed infrastructure that is funded by private enterprise. The viability of community pharmacy as a retail trade depends on a diversification of its service roles and retention of its product-supply roles. Initiatives by the pharmacy profession, the pharmacy industry and the Australian Government are likely to give community pharmacy an increasingly prominent place in health promotion and primary, secondary and tertiary prevention, especially in relation to the management of chronic diseases.

  10. 21 CFR 1306.27 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FILL” on the face of the original prescription and record the name, address, and DEA registration... record of all the information transmitted by the retail pharmacy, including the name, address, and...

  11. 21 CFR 1306.27 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FILL” on the face of the original prescription and record the name, address, and DEA registration... record of all the information transmitted by the retail pharmacy, including the name, address, and...

  12. 21 CFR 1306.27 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FILL” on the face of the original prescription and record the name, address, and DEA registration... record of all the information transmitted by the retail pharmacy, including the name, address, and...

  13. 21 CFR 1306.27 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FILL” on the face of the original prescription and record the name, address, and DEA registration... record of all the information transmitted by the retail pharmacy, including the name, address, and...

  14. [Effects of pharmacy market deregulation regarding patient-centred drug care in Germany from a health economics perspecitve].

    PubMed

    Rumm, R; Böcking, W

    2013-03-01

    This article analyses the impact of a potential deregulation Germany's pharmacy market by allowing foreign ownership of pharmacies and removing the limit of the number pharmacies that can be owned by a pharmacist. Based on a mathematical model and empirical values of foreign countries, scenarios for the German market are calculated and the impact on all participants of the health care system analysed. The key outcomes are:- A deregulation would enables the creation of pharmacy chains- In all simulated scenarios the total number of pharmacies would drastically grow- The increased pharmacy density improves patient centred drug care- The competition among pharmacies increases and leads to the closure of many independently owned and operated pharmacies.

  15. Partner for Promotion: An Innovative Advanced Community Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Legg, Julie E.; Casper, Kristin A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To implement the Partner for Promotion (PFP) program which was designed to enhance the skills and confidence of students and community pharmacy preceptors to deliver and expand advanced patient care services in community pharmacies and also to assess the program's impact. Design A 10-month longitudinal community advanced pharmacy practice experience was implemented that included faculty mentoring of students and preceptors via formal orientation; face-to-face training sessions; online monthly meetings; feedback on service development materials; and a web site offering resources and a discussion board. Pre- and post-APPE surveys of students and preceptors were used to evaluate perceptions of knowledge and skills. Assessment The skills survey results for the first 2 years of the PFP program suggest positive changes occurring from pre- to post-APPE survey in most areas for both students and preceptors. Four of the 7 pharmacies in 2005-2006 and 8 of the 14 pharmacies in 2006-2007 were able to develop an advanced patient care service and begin seeing patients prior to the conclusion of the APPE. As a result of the PFP program from 2005-2007, 14 new experiential sites entered into affiliation agreements with The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy. Conclusion The PFP program offers an innovative method for community pharmacy faculty members to work with students and preceptors in community pharmacies in developing patient care services. PMID:19325954

  16. Pharmacy Technician Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Ray R.

    This Idaho state curriculum guide provides lists of tasks, performance objectives, and enabling objectives for instruction designed to prepare entry-level pharmacy technicians or help already employed pharmacy technicians retain their jobs or advance in their field. Following a list of tasks and an introduction, the bulk of the document consists…

  17. Motivational theory applied to hospital pharmacy practice.

    PubMed

    Grace, M

    1980-12-01

    In recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to motivation and job satisfaction among hospital pharmacy practitioners. Institutional pharmacy managers should become more aware of ways in which they can motivate members of their staff. Specifically, Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is discussed in reference to its origination, major tenets, and practical applications in institutional pharmacy practice settings. Principally, Herzberg's theory explains needs of workers in terms of extrinsic factors called "hygienes" and intrinsic factors called "motivators." The theory suggests that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites but two separate dimensions. According to this theory, an employee will be motivated if the task allows for the following: 1)actual achievement, 2) recognition for achievement, 3) increased responsibility, 4) opportunity for growth (professionally), and 5) chance for advancement. It is concluded that some of these suggested applications can be useful to managers who are faced with low morale among the members of their staff.

  18. The pharmacy gaze: bodies in pharmacy practice.

    PubMed

    Jamie, Kimberly

    2014-11-01

    The body is a central feature of pharmacy practice. Despite this and the increased sociological focus on bodies in health and social care practice, the nature of the body and the work undertaken upon it in pharmacy have not been explored. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with hospital and community pharmacists, this article explores the ways in which bodies are constructed and managed in these two practice contexts. It is argued that pharmacists see patients' bodies in particular ways given their expertise in medicines, which is conceptualised here as the pharmacy gaze. The notion of complexity, as a way of constructing the body, and the generation of algorithmic bodies, as a way of managing this complexity, are shown to be central to the pharmacy gaze in both hospital and community contexts. In hospitals, complexity was located in a singular body, that is, increasingly rationalised to reduce costs and toxicity. In community practice, complexity arose from the multiplicity of bodies with which pharmacists interact in their multifaceted role as retailers, dispensers and public health practitioners. The article concludes by reflecting on the ways in which current UK health policy may broaden the body work that English pharmacists undertake.

  19. The Impact of Biotechnology upon Pharmacy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speedie, Marilyn K.

    1990-01-01

    Biotechnology is defined, and its impact on pharmacy practice, the professional curriculum (clinical pharmacy, pharmacy administration, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, basic sciences, and continuing education), research in pharmacy schools, and graduate education are discussed. Resulting faculty, library, and research resource…

  20. Procedures for construction of anisotropic elastic plastic property closures for face-centered cubic polycrystals using first-order bounding relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proust, Gwénaëlle; Kalidindi, Surya R.

    2006-08-01

    Microstructure-sensitive design (MSD) is a novel mathematical framework that facilitates a rigorous consideration of the material microstructure as a continuous design variable in the engineering design enterprise [Adams, B.L., Henrie, A., Henrie, B., Lyon, M., Kalidindi, S.R., Garmestani, H., 2001. Microstructure-sensitive design of a compliant beam. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 49(8), 1639-1663; Adams, B.L., Lyon, M., Henrie, B., 2004. Microstructures by design: linear problems in elastic-plastic design. Int. J. Plasticity 20(8-9), 1577-1602; Kalidindi, S.R., Houskamp, J.R., Lyons, M., Adams, B.L., 2004. Microstructure sensitive design of an orthotropic plate subjected to tensile load. Int. J. Plasticity 20(8-9), 1561-1575]. MSD employs spectral representations of the local state distribution functions in describing the microstructure quantitatively, and these in turn enable development of invertible linkages between microstructure and effective properties using established homogenization (composite) theories. As a natural extension of the recent publications in MSD, we provide in this paper a detailed account of the methods that can be readily used by mechanical designers to construct first-order elastic-plastic property closures. The main focus in this paper is on the crystallographic texture (also called Orientation Distribution Function or ODF) as the main microstructural parameter controlling the elastic and yield properties of cubic (fcc and bcc) polycrystalline metals. The following specific advances are described in this paper: (i) derivation of rigorous first-order bounds for the off-diagonal terms of the effective elastic stiffness tensor and their incorporation in the MSD framework, (ii) delineation of the union of the property closures corresponding to both the upper and lower bound theories resulting in comprehensive first-order closures, (iii) development of generalized and readily usable expressions for effective anisotropic elastic-plastic properties

  1. Service preferences differences between community pharmacy and supermarket pharmacy patrons.

    PubMed

    Dominelli, Angela; Weck Marciniak, Macary; Jarvis, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Differences in service preferences between patrons of supermarket and chain pharmacies were determined. Subjects fell into two groups: patrons of a supermarket chain's pharmacies and patrons of the same supermarket chain who patronized other community chain pharmacies for prescription drug purchases. Subjects were asked to prioritize services in terms of convenience and impact on pharmacy selection. Differences in service preferences emerged. Community pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate easy navigation through a pharmacy and 24 X 7 hours of operation as key services. Supermarket pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate one-stop shopping and adequate hours of operation as priorities. Both groups rated basic services such as maintenance of prescription and insurance information as priorities. Pharmacies should stress the delivery of basic services when trying to attract customers.

  2. Pharmaceuticals: online pharmacies: year end report-2002.

    PubMed

    Kammer, Claire

    2002-12-31

    During the late 1990s, the Internet became a popular place to purchase merchandise, and states faced a new challenge in dealing with a type of business that is not the traditional "brick and mortar." As online pharmacies became part of the spectrum of stores on the Internet, states grappled with how to ensure the safety of their residents while balancing the convenience and potential cost saving from using the Internet to purchase prescription drugs.

  3. Physician and Pharmacy Student Expectations of Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voris, John C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The attitudes of family practice residents toward ambulatory pharmacy services were compared with pharmacy students' predictions on what the residents' attitudes would be. The residents' perceptions of pharmacist behaviors rated significantly higher than how the pharmacy students thought they would respond. (Author/MLW)

  4. Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed The Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding Get Consumer Updates by E-mail Consumer ... page: A Troubling Trend What You Can Do Pharmacy compounding is a practice in which a licensed ...

  5. Managing the pharmacy manager.

    PubMed

    White, S J

    1984-03-01

    Methods of self-assessment, self-development, and coping with stress in the role of hospital pharmacy manager are described. Personal development and career growth should be systematically appraised; goals and priorities should be continually re-evaluated; and time management, response to change, and impact on others should be examined. Questions for assessment in each of these areas are provided. Advice for reducing stress and avoiding burnout is given. Managers' attitudes affect employee productivity; positive attitudes and related actions that are applicable to hospital pharmacy management are described. Managers' personal and professional goals and priorities and their methods of using time and coping with stress affect management of their departments.

  6. Pharmacy Education and the Role of the Local Pharmacy at Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Teramachi, Hitomi

    2016-01-01

    Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy was established in front of Gifu University Hospital (GUH) as a pharmacy attached to the university, the first in Japan in 1998. When GUH moved in 2004, Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy was built in its current location. One of the priorities of the design of the new facility was easy access to those with disabilities. For example, ramps, wheelchair accessible restrooms, and handicap-friendly waiting-room chairs were installed. In cooperation with GUH, we introduced a two-dimensional bar code system for prescriptions. This promoted the efficiency of compounding medicines. In addition, starting in 2006, we introduced digital drug-history records at Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy. We also increased the staff of the affiliated pharmacy in 2006. We designed the system of the affiliated pharmacy for long-term pharmacy practice. Currently, we accept pharmacy students visiting pharmacy of early exposure and long-term pharmacy practice. Today, the pharmacy fills an average of 80 prescriptions a day, primarily from GUH. Our staff consists of six pharmacists, one full-time office manager, and three part-time office assistants. In keeping with our role as a community pharmacy, we hold regular lectures and an education forum for pharmacists. We also carry out clinical studies. PMID:27150929

  7. Pharmacy practice in 2040.

    PubMed

    Knapp, D A

    1992-10-01

    Pharmacy practice 50 years in the future is discussed. The practice of pharmacy in 2040 will be influenced by many trends and issues, such as increasing cultural diversity, the aging population, evolving drug and information technology, rising drug costs, and increasing third-party coverage. Pharmacy may take one of two paths. In the first scenario, institutional and community practice would drift further apart, with community pharmacy becoming more involved with retailing than with health care. In the second scenario, all pharmacists would become a vital component of an integrated, patient-centered system of health care; pharmacists, like physicians, would be salaried professionals, paid for by health-care programs financed through health insurance. The difference between the two scenarios is the degree to which pharmacists actively participate in their creation: The first will happen if pharmacists do not take action; the second will require a considerable amount of work. If pharmacists wish to see an active system of patient-centered pharmaceutical care in 2040, they must begin to create it now, regardless of their practice setting. Pharmacists must work to create a future in which they are an integral part of the health-care system. PMID:1442821

  8. Ethical dilemmas in pharmacy.

    PubMed Central

    Lowenthal, W

    1988-01-01

    Results of surveys in which pharmacy students and pharmacists responded to ethical dilemmas are discussed. Respondents indicated a high level of concern about patient welfare and patient rights in dilemmas involving conflicts with socio-economic issues, and with peers and physicians. Conflicts that might arise as the roles of pharmacists change and the health-care systems evolve are also discussed. PMID:3351881

  9. Visual Closure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groffman, Sidney

    An experimental test of visual closure based on an information-theory concept of perception was devised to test the ability to discriminate visual stimuli with reduced cues. The test is to be administered in a timed individual situation in which the subject is presented with sets of incomplete drawings of simple objects that he is required to name…

  10. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    PubMed

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  11. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    PubMed

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented. PMID:6465152

  12. Duct closure

    DOEpatents

    Vowell, Kennison L.

    1987-01-01

    A closure for an inclined duct having an open upper end and defining downwardly extending passageway. The closure includes a cap for sealing engagement with the open upper end of the duct. Associated with the cap are an array of vertically aligned plug members, each of which has a cross-sectional area substantially conforming to the cross-sectional area of the passageway at least adjacent the upper end of the passageway. The plug members are interconnected in a manner to provide for free movement only in the plane in which the duct is inclined. The uppermost plug member is attached to the cap means and the cap means is in turn connected to a hoist means which is located directly over the open end of the duct.

  13. Pharmacy benefit management companies.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, R

    1995-09-01

    The principal services offered by pharmacy benefit management companies (PBMs) are described. A PBM contracts with employers, insurers, and others to provide accessible and cost-effective benefits to those groups' members. PBMs vary in their organization and services because they originate from different types of businesses. Many PBMs have been formed by publicly traded companies that have combined traditional ways of controlling cost and use, such as formularies, with new elements to form organizations whose primary function is managing the pharmacy benefit. Often, the PBM is paid a fixed amount for which it must provide all contracted services. PBMs may provide pharmacy services themselves (e.g., mail order prescription service is offered by Medco, one of the largest PBMs); more often, they subcontract with others to provide certain services. Full-service PBMs have the following functions: establishing networks of pharmacies for use by plan members; processing claims electronically at the time a prescription is filled and thus maintaining a database on drug use and cost; using these data to generate various reports; encouraging the use of generic products; managing existing formularies, helping to establish customized formularies, or providing a national formulary; providing information to support formulary guidelines (counter-detailing); offering programs in which prescriptions for maintenance medications are filled less frequently with larger amounts, often by mail order; negotiating volume-based rebates from manufacturers; performing drug-use review; developing disease management programs based on clinical practice guidelines and measurements of patient outcome; and evaluating outcomes by combining data on drug therapy with information about other parts of the patient's care.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Regulating compounding pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Noble, Ashley

    2015-06-01

    (1) The Pew Charitable Trusts identified 27 compounding incidents that resulted in 89 deaths since 2001. (2) Unlike drug manufacturers, compounding pharmacies are generally not required to report adverse events associated with their products to the FDA. (3) Federal law on drug compounding was updated in 2013 to create a new group of compounders called "outsourcing facilities." Over 50 facilities in 23 states are now registered with the FDA.

  15. Types of pharmacy/pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Williams, LaVonn A

    2013-01-01

    There are many career opportunities for pharmacists, as well as many environments in which to practice pharmacy. Although pharmacy has changed throughout the years and will continue to change, one aspect of pharmacy remains constant and that constant is that compounding has been a part of pharmacy since the beginning of time and will remain an integral part of pharmacy. This article discusses some of the environments in which pharmacists can choose to practice their profession and discusses some of the types of pharmacists. If you searched vigorously for information about each of the different types of pharmacy/ pharmacists, you will find that very few of them are not in some respect involved in the compounding/ preparation of pharmaceuticals. It is not uncommon for pharmacists to specialize in specific aspects of drug therapy.

  16. Types of pharmacy/pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Williams, LaVonn A

    2013-01-01

    There are many career opportunities for pharmacists, as well as many environments in which to practice pharmacy. Although pharmacy has changed throughout the years and will continue to change, one aspect of pharmacy remains constant and that constant is that compounding has been a part of pharmacy since the beginning of time and will remain an integral part of pharmacy. This article discusses some of the environments in which pharmacists can choose to practice their profession and discusses some of the types of pharmacists. If you searched vigorously for information about each of the different types of pharmacy/ pharmacists, you will find that very few of them are not in some respect involved in the compounding/ preparation of pharmaceuticals. It is not uncommon for pharmacists to specialize in specific aspects of drug therapy. PMID:24261144

  17. Rural Health in Pharmacy Curricula

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, Kim; O’Connor, Shanna K.

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act proposes strategies to address the workforce shortages of primary care practitioners in rural America. This review addresses the question, “What specialized education and training are colleges and schools of pharmacy providing for graduates who wish to enter pharmacy practice in rural health?” All colleges and schools accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education or those in precandidate status as of December 2011 were included in an Internet-based review of Web sites. A wide scope of curricular offerings were found, ranging from no description of courses or experiences in a rural setting to formally developed programs in rural pharmacy. Although the number of pharmacy colleges and schools providing either elective or required courses in rural health is encouraging, more education and training with this focus are needed to help overcome the unmet need for quality pharmacy care for rural populations. PMID:23193344

  18. Succession Planning in US Pharmacy Schools

    PubMed Central

    Surratt, Christopher K.; Green, James S.; Gallucci, Randle M.; Colbert, James; Zatopek, Shara L.; Blouin, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    The deans, associate and assistant deans, and department chairs of a college or school of pharmacy retain historic memories of the institution and share the responsibility for day-to-day operation, sustainability, and future planning. Between the anticipated retirement of baby boomers who are senior administrative faculty members and the steady increase in number of colleges and schools of pharmacy, the academy is facing a shortage of qualified successors. Succession planning involves planning for the effective transition of personnel in leadership positions within an organization. This paper describes the subject of succession planning at a sample population of AACP institutions by obtaining perspectives on the subject from the deans of these institutions via standardized interview instruments. The instruments were utilized with 15 deans; all interview data were blinded and analyzed using analyst triangulation. The majority of deans responded that some level of succession planning was desirable and even necessary; however, none claimed to have a formal succession planning structure in place at his or her home institution. Although widely accepted and well-recognized in the corporate and military sectors, succession planning within pharmacy schools and colleges is neither universally documented nor implemented. Differences exist within the administrative structure of these non-academic and academic institutions that may preclude a uniform succession planning format. While the evidence presented suggests that succession planning is needed within the academy, a concerted effort must be made towards implementing its practice. PMID:20798799

  19. Succession planning in US pharmacy schools.

    PubMed

    Van Amburgh, Jenny; Surratt, Christopher K; Green, James S; Gallucci, Randle M; Colbert, James; Zatopek, Shara L; Blouin, Robert A

    2010-06-15

    The deans, associate and assistant deans, and department chairs of a college or school of pharmacy retain historic memories of the institution and share the responsibility for day-to-day operation, sustainability, and future planning. Between the anticipated retirement of baby boomers who are senior administrative faculty members and the steady increase in number of colleges and schools of pharmacy, the academy is facing a shortage of qualified successors. Succession planning involves planning for the effective transition of personnel in leadership positions within an organization. This paper describes the subject of succession planning at a sample population of AACP institutions by obtaining perspectives on the subject from the deans of these institutions via standardized interview instruments. The instruments were utilized with 15 deans; all interview data were blinded and analyzed using analyst triangulation. The majority of deans responded that some level of succession planning was desirable and even necessary; however, none claimed to have a formal succession planning structure in place at his or her home institution. Although widely accepted and well-recognized in the corporate and military sectors, succession planning within pharmacy schools and colleges is neither universally documented nor implemented. Differences exist within the administrative structure of these non-academic and academic institutions that may preclude a uniform succession planning format. While the evidence presented suggests that succession planning is needed within the academy, a concerted effort must be made towards implementing its practice.

  20. ASHP statement on the pharmacy technician's role in pharmacy informatics.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    The American Society of Health- System Pharmacists (ASHP) believes that specially trained pharmacy technicians can assume important supportive roles in pharmacy informatics. These roles include automation and technology systems management, management of projects, training and education, policy and governance, customer service, charge integrity, and reporting. Such roles require pharmacy technicians to gain expertise in information technology (IT) systems, including knowledge of interfaces, computer management techniques, problem resolution, and database maintenance. This knowledge could be acquired through specialized training or experience in a health science or allied scientific field (e.g., health informatics). With appropriate safeguards and supervision, pharmacy technician informaticists (PTIs) will manage IT processes in health-system pharmacy services, ensuring a safe and efficient medication-use process.

  1. The Ethics of Pharmacy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Francis X.

    1985-01-01

    An address to the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy focuses on the pharmacy school and faculty's role in providing an ethical foundation for practicing pharmacists. The issues of professional socialization, burnout, the influence of pharmaceutical advertising, and regulation of health care are noted. (MSE)

  2. Pharmacy Program Review. Consultant's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Robert D.; And Others

    Site visits were made by a team of consultants to Florida A&M University (FAMU) and the University of Florida (UF), the two institutions providing pharmacy education in Florida, to review programs and assess issues relating to entry-level degrees, manpower needs, and delivery systems. After a brief history of academic programs in pharmacy, the…

  3. Individualizing Instruction in Pharmacy Jurisprudence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindall, William N.

    1978-01-01

    Students at Creighton University's School of Pharmacy were offered the option of taking a pharmacy jurisprudence course by a self-taught, self-paced mode or by the traditional lecture mode. Comparasions were made of students in each group. Topics of the learning module and NABPLEX propositions for examining competency are included. (SW)

  4. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, James A.; Stoddard, Lawrence M.

    1986-01-01

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  5. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

    1984-01-31

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  6. [Lorraine pharmacy historians].

    PubMed

    Labrude, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The most known historian was Paul Dorveaux, but precursors were Husson during the 19th century and Grélot at the beginning of the 20th century. The best period for historical researchs was the twenty years between 1920 and 1940, then the creation of the "diplôme d'Etat de docteur en pharmacie" at the end of the century. Two professors, André Meunier and Jean Martin, managed historical thesis. They leaved us useful thesis on the past of our profession.

  7. [Evaluation of Brazilian online pharmacies].

    PubMed

    Gondim, Ana Paula Soares; Falcão, Cláudio Borges

    2007-04-01

    The growing number of Internet users brought forth an increase in the search for Brazilian online pharmacy services. Aiming at evaluating the validity of information disseminated in these websites, a descriptive study was carried out in 18 virtual pharmacies concerning legal aspects, accessibility, sources of information and drug advertising. It was found 15 pharmacies did not have authorization of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency; the manager pharmaceutical officer's name could not be found in 17 of them; 17 pharmacies marketed drugs with no registration, especially herbal medicines, and did not show either information on adverse drug reactions or this agency's alerts and health recommendations. Since health control and drug commerce in Brazilian online pharmacies have not been yet regulated by proper government agencies, these gaps found in the sites can pose risk to the users' health.

  8. Branding a college of pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Michael T

    2012-11-12

    In a possible future of supply-demand imbalance in pharmacy education, a brand that positively differentiates a college or school of pharmacy from its competitors may be the key to its survival. The nominal group technique, a structured group problem-solving and decision-making process, was used during a faculty retreat to identify and agree on the core qualities that define the brand image of Midwestern University's College of Pharmacy in Glendale, AZ. Results from the retreat were provided to the faculty and students, who then proposed 168 mottos that embodied these qualities. Mottos were voted on by faculty members and pharmacy students. The highest ranked 24 choices were submitted to the faculty, who then selected the top 10 finalists. A final vote by students was used to select the winning motto. The methods described here may be useful to other colleges and schools of pharmacy that want to better define their own brand image and strengthen their organizational culture.

  9. Pharmacy Student Perception of Characteristics and Activities of Pharmacy Faculty; Basic Science Compared with Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doering, Paul L.; House, Michael L.

    1981-01-01

    Student attitudes toward pharmacy faculty were measured. Areas of inquiry included faculty characteristics such as age, sex, academic rank, education, licensure, experience, teaching, research, service and credibility. Analysis of data involved a comparision of student answers for pharmacy practice and basic science faculty. (Author/MLW)

  10. Work group design in pharmacy: the pharmacist-technician team.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, B P; Solomon, D K; Zarowitz, B J

    1987-05-01

    The contemporary pharmacy practice manager faces the challenge of designing pharmacy service programs that not only satisfy the needs of the patient, but at the same time satisfy and motivate the pharmacists and technicians who sustain the programs. This research examined the team design, which has been recommended but not fully described in the literature. This application did not explore the full potential of the team design in the hospital pharmacy setting. More study is needed in this area to assess the impact of work group design on the expansion of clinical programs, employee turnover rates, quality and quantity of work produced, and, most important, the impact on job satisfaction enjoyed by pharmacists and technicians. PMID:10314224

  11. Hospital pharmacy financial management: challenges of the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Nold, E G

    1984-08-01

    This paper concludes a series on financial management of hospital pharmacies. A decade of expansion of health-care services is ending. Changes in health care are predicted by examining changes that followed deregulation of the banking industry. Pharmacists' need for training in financial management is reiterated, and the need for computerized financial reports is emphasized. Pharmacy departments should prepare for constant changes in reimbursement methods and fluctuations in workload that require flexible staffing. Marketing of pharmaceutical services and increases in productivity will be necessary. Health-care cost reductions can be achieved using the available technology, although hospital closure, restructuring, and staff reductions may occur. Pharmacist-managers need financial skills to remain competitive. PMID:6475975

  12. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. 1304.05 Section 1304.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. (a) Every retail pharmacy that utilizes the services of...

  13. CLOSURE DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Linzell, S.M.; Dorcy, D.J.

    1958-08-26

    A quick opening type of stuffing box employing two banks of rotatable shoes, each of which has a caraming action that forces a neoprene sealing surface against a pipe or rod where it passes through a wall is presented. A ring having a handle or wrench attached is placed eccentric to and between the two banks of shoes. Head bolts from the shoes fit into slots in this ring, which are so arranged that when the ring is rotated a quarter turn in one direction the shoes are thrust inwardly to cramp the neopnrene about the pipe, malting a tight seal. Moving the ring in the reverse direction moves the shoes outwardly and frees the pipe which then may be readily removed from the stuffing box. This device has particular application as a closure for the end of a coolant tube of a neutronic reactor.

  14. 21 CFR 1311.200 - Pharmacy responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pharmacy responsibilities. 1311.200 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.200 Pharmacy responsibilities. (a) Before initially using a pharmacy application to process controlled substance prescriptions, the pharmacy...

  15. Professional liability for pharmacists: a focus on pharmacy practice acts.

    PubMed

    Munger, M A; Green, J A; Greve, P A; Lovejoy, L S

    1988-11-01

    The increased complexity of pharmacotherapeutics and the expanded role of pharmacists in the drug-use process may bring about an increased liability exposure for failure to conform to a professional standard of care. Therefore, a survey of 51 state pharmacy practice acts was conducted: (1) to establish a nationwide statutory definition of pharmacy practice, and (2) to outline possible use of the statutes in civil and administrative law. Twenty percent of state statutes contain no definition of pharmacy practice. Of the remaining 41 states, dispensing (97.5 percent), compounding (92.5 percent), interpretation and evaluation of prescriptions (68.2 percent), and consultation (73 percent) are legally defined. Pharmacokinetic consultation, drug administration, pharmacist prescribing, and pharmaceutical research are defined in one, seven, four, and one state(s), respectively. Pharmacists may face legal responsibilities from both the courts and state boards of medical and pharmacy practice. Aggressively updating the statutes and regulations to reflect contemporary pharmacy practice may provide a mechanism for a defense in court litigation and regulatory action.

  16. Evaluation of Pharmacy-Based HIV Testing in a High-Risk New York City Community.

    PubMed

    Amesty, Silvia; Crawford, Natalie D; Nandi, Vijay; Perez-Figueroa, Rafael; Rivera, Alexis; Sutton, Madeline; Weidle, Paul J; Willis, Leigh; Smith, Dawn K; Hernandez, Carolyn; Harripersaud, Katherine; Fuller Lewis, Crystal

    2015-08-01

    Blacks/Hispanics face limited access to HIV testing. We examined in-pharmacy HIV testing among customers in pharmacies participating in a nonprescription syringe program in New York City. Participants were recruited in two pharmacies to complete a survey and receive an optional HIV test. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed to examine associations of demographics and risk behaviors with receiving in-pharmacy HIV testing. Most participants were male (55%), black (80%), had used hard drugs (88%), and 39.5% received in-pharmacy HIV testing. Being female (AOR=2.24; 95%CI 1.24-4.05), having multiple sex partners (AOR=1.20; 95% CI 1.06-1.35), having an HIV test more than 12 months ago (AOS=4.06; CI 1.85-8.91), injecting drugs in last 3 months (AOR=2.73; 95% CI 1.31-5.69) and having continuous care (AOR=0.32; 95% CI 0.17-0.58) were associated with receiving in-pharmacy HIV test. These data provide evidence of in-pharmacy HIV testing reaching persons at risk of HIV. HIV testing in pharmacies may complement existing strategies.

  17. Plato's Pharmacy and Derrida's Drugstore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortensen, Chris

    2000-01-01

    In a long essay titled "Plato's Pharmacy, Jacques Derrida attacked Western metaphysics. This article undertakes to defend Western philosophy from Derrida's arguments. It is shown that Derrida's arguments are very unsatisfactory. (Author/VWL)

  18. Pharmacy experience with facsimile prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, Paul E

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this mixed qualitative/quantitative study was to review the impact of a policy to accept facsimile (fax) prescriptions as standard operating procedure. Between February and April 2009 the pharmacy processed 4,792 new prescriptions of which 363 (7.6%) were received through fax. Of the fax prescriptions, 19 (5.2%) concerned clarification of information, which took approximately 30 minutes to resolve. The fax prescription process allowed the pharmacy to adjust the distribution of its workload, provided quicker service for new prescriptions, and allowed more time for medication consultation that resulted in a high level of customer satisfaction. It appeared the policy allowing fax prescriptions was a "win-win" situation for both the pharmacy and its customers. Military pharmacies should consider running trials of accepting fax prescriptions to see whether it improves their prescription filling process.

  19. Pharmacy experience with facsimile prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, Paul E

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this mixed qualitative/quantitative study was to review the impact of a policy to accept facsimile (fax) prescriptions as standard operating procedure. Between February and April 2009 the pharmacy processed 4,792 new prescriptions of which 363 (7.6%) were received through fax. Of the fax prescriptions, 19 (5.2%) concerned clarification of information, which took approximately 30 minutes to resolve. The fax prescription process allowed the pharmacy to adjust the distribution of its workload, provided quicker service for new prescriptions, and allowed more time for medication consultation that resulted in a high level of customer satisfaction. It appeared the policy allowing fax prescriptions was a "win-win" situation for both the pharmacy and its customers. Military pharmacies should consider running trials of accepting fax prescriptions to see whether it improves their prescription filling process. PMID:21121504

  20. Rufus A. Lyman: Pharmacy's Lamplighter

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Rufus Ashley Lyman, a physician, was one of the most prominent leaders in US pharmacy education during the first half of the 20th century. He remains the only individual to be the founding dean at colleges of pharmacy at 2 state universities. His role in the creation and sustenance of the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education provided a platform for a national community and a sounding board for faculty members and others interested in professional education. His efforts to increase pharmacy educational standards were instrumental in the abandonment of the 2-year graduate in pharmacy (PhG) degree and the universal acceptance of the 4-year bachelor of science (BS) degree. Lyman's simple approach and fierce championship of his beliefs led to his recognition as a lamplighter for the profession. Curt P. Wimmer, chair of the New York Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association (now the American Pharmacists Association (APhA), introduced the 1947 Remington Honor Medalist, Rufus Ashley Lyman. Wimmer mentioned that Lyman worked as a lamplighter in Omaha, Nebraska, during medical school. Continuing the lamplighter analogy, Wimmer cited Lyman's work as a pharmacy educator and editor: “in the councils of your colleagues, your lamp became a torch emitting red hot sparks that often burnt and seared and scorched—but always made for progress.”1 This description provides an evocative image of one of the most prominent pharmacy educators and leaders of the first half of the 20th century. PMID:19777099

  1. Diversification strategies for hospital pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Smith, J E; Phillips, D J; Meyer, G E

    1984-09-01

    Several ways used by the pharmacy department of a large university hospital to generate revenue through diversification are described. The department offers its facilities and staff as a resource in training medical service representatives for several pharmaceutical manufacturers, which is projected to provide $85,000 in net income for fiscal year (FY) 1983-84. The pharmacy department also conducts a six-month program for training pharmacy technicians, which yields a small net profit. The pharmacy department actively participates in educational programs such as college courses and clerkships earning extra income. An apothecary-style outpatient pharmacy was set up under a for-profit corporation. Services have been expanded to include the preparation of i.v. solutions that support home care. A durable medical equipment (DME) business is planned. The ambulatory and home-care programs are expected to generate approximately $165,000 in net profit next year. Contract pharmaceutical services are provided to another hospital. The net income generated through diversification in this pharmacy department will exceed $250,000 in FY 1983-84.

  2. The Role of Servant Leadership and Transformational Leadership in Academic Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Allen, George P.; Moore, W. Mark; Neill, Kathryn K.; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Bell, Hershey S.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of changes are facing leaders in academic pharmacy. Servant and transformational leadership have attributes that provide guidance and inspiration through these changes. Servant leadership focuses on supporting and developing the individuals within an institution, while transformational leadership focuses on inspiring followers to work towards a common goal. This article discusses these leadership styles and how they may both be ideal for leaders in academic pharmacy. PMID:27756921

  3. Automated decentralized pharmacy dispensing systems.

    PubMed

    1996-12-01

    Automated decentralized pharmacy dispensing systems (ADPDSs) are medication management systems that allow hospitals to store and dispense drugs near the point of use. These systems, which can be compared with the automated teller machines used by banks, provide nurses with ready access to medications while maintaining tight control of drug distribution. In this study, we evaluated three ADPDSs from two suppliers, focusing on whether these systems can store and dispense drugs in a safe, secure, and effective manner. When rating the systems, we considered their applicability to two different implementation schemes: The use of a system with a pharmacy profile interface. This feature broadens the capabilities of the system by allowing more information to be provided at the dispensing cabinet and by providing better integration of the information from this cabinet with the pharmacy's information system. Two of the evaluated systems have this feature and were rated Acceptable. The use of a system without a pharmacy profile interface. We rated all three of the evaluated systems Acceptable for such implementations. To decide which scheme is most appropriate for a particular hospital, the facility will need to determine both how it intends to use the ADPDS and what it hopes to achieve by implementing the system. By performing this type of analysis, the facility can then determine which ADPDS features and capabilities are needed to accomplish its goals. To help facilities make these decisions, we have provided an Equipment Management Guide, "Improving the Drug Distribution Process-Do You Need an Automated Decentralized Pharmacy Dispensing System?," which precedes this Evaluation. In addition, readers unfamiliar with the roles of both the pharmacy and the pharmacist within the hospital can refer to the Primer, "Functions of a Hospital Pharmacy," also published in this issue. PMID:8968721

  4. Accountability in Action: A Comprehensive Guide to Charter School Closure. School Closure Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechtenhiser, Kim, Ed.; Wade, Andrew, Ed.; Lin, Margaret, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Closing a failing charter school is difficult, but it can be done. In fact, it has been done hundreds of times across the country. However, if you are on the staff or the board of a charter school authorizing agency that is facing a closure decision, the fact that other authorizers have closed schools may be of small comfort. You are facing a…

  5. Potential risks of pharmacy compounding.

    PubMed

    Gudeman, Jennifer; Jozwiakowski, Michael; Chollet, John; Randell, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Pharmacy compounding involves the preparation of customized medications that are not commercially available for individual patients with specialized medical needs. Traditional pharmacy compounding is appropriate when done on a small scale by pharmacists who prepare the medication based on an individual prescription. However, the regulatory oversight of pharmacy compounding is significantly less rigorous than that required for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs; as such, compounded drugs may pose additional risks to patients. FDA-approved drugs are made and tested in accordance with good manufacturing practice regulations (GMPs), which are federal statutes that govern the production and testing of pharmaceutical products. In contrast, compounded drugs are exempt from GMPs, and testing to assess product quality is inconsistent. Unlike FDA-approved drugs, pharmacy-compounded products are not clinically evaluated for safety or efficacy. In addition, compounded preparations do not have standard product labeling or prescribing information with instructions for safe use. Compounding pharmacies are not required to report adverse events to the FDA, which is mandatory for manufacturers of FDA-regulated medications. Some pharmacies engage in activities that extend beyond the boundaries of traditional pharmacy compounding, such as large-scale production of compounded medications without individual patient prescriptions, compounding drugs that have not been approved for use in the US, and creating copies of FDA-approved drugs. Compounding drugs in the absence of GMPs increases the potential for preparation errors. When compounding is performed on a large scale, such errors may adversely affect many patients. Published reports of independent testing by the FDA, state agencies, and others consistently show that compounded drugs fail to meet specifications at a considerably higher rate than FDA-approved drugs. Compounded sterile preparations pose the additional risk

  6. Branding a College of Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In a possible future of supply-demand imbalance in pharmacy education, a brand that positively differentiates a college or school of pharmacy from its competitors may be the key to its survival. The nominal group technique, a structured group problem-solving and decision-making process, was used during a faculty retreat to identify and agree on the core qualities that define the brand image of Midwestern University’s College of Pharmacy in Glendale, AZ. Results from the retreat were provided to the faculty and students, who then proposed 168 mottos that embodied these qualities. Mottos were voted on by faculty members and pharmacy students. The highest ranked 24 choices were submitted to the faculty, who then selected the top 10 finalists. A final vote by students was used to select the winning motto. The methods described here may be useful to other colleges and schools of pharmacy that want to better define their own brand image and strengthen their organizational culture. PMID:23193330

  7. Measuring Empathy in Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Van Winkle, Lon J.; Hojat, Mohammadreza

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To validate the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Profession Students version (JSE-HPS) in pharmacy students. Methods. The JSE-HPS (20 items), adapted from the original Jefferson Scale of Empathy for use among students in the healthcare professions, was completed by 187 first-year pharmacy students at Midwestern University Chicago College of Pharmacy. Results. Two factors, “perspective-taking” and “compassionate care,” emerged from factor analysis in this study, accounting for 31% and 8% of the variance, respectively. These factors are similar to the prominent ones reported in previous research involving physicians and medical students, supporting the construct validity of this instrument for pharmacy students. In the current study, mean JSE-HPS score was comparable to those reported for medical students, and consistent with previous findings with medical students and physicians. Women scored significantly higher than men. Conclusions. Findings support the construct validity and reliability of the JSE-HPS for measuring empathy in pharmacy students. PMID:21931447

  8. Branding a college of pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Michael T

    2012-11-12

    In a possible future of supply-demand imbalance in pharmacy education, a brand that positively differentiates a college or school of pharmacy from its competitors may be the key to its survival. The nominal group technique, a structured group problem-solving and decision-making process, was used during a faculty retreat to identify and agree on the core qualities that define the brand image of Midwestern University's College of Pharmacy in Glendale, AZ. Results from the retreat were provided to the faculty and students, who then proposed 168 mottos that embodied these qualities. Mottos were voted on by faculty members and pharmacy students. The highest ranked 24 choices were submitted to the faculty, who then selected the top 10 finalists. A final vote by students was used to select the winning motto. The methods described here may be useful to other colleges and schools of pharmacy that want to better define their own brand image and strengthen their organizational culture. PMID:23193330

  9. An Evaluation of the Pharmacy College Admissions Test as a Tool for Pharmacy College Admissions Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Katherine A.; Secnik, Kristina; Boye, Mark E.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the capacity of the Pharmacy College Admissions Test (PCAT) to predict success in pharmacy school. Found demographic differences in PCAT scores, and that the PCAT used in combination with pre-pharmacy grade point average is meaningful in assessing applicants to pharmacy school; applicants with PCAT composite percentile scores below 40…

  10. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all central fill pharmacies, including name, address and DEA... be made available upon request for inspection by DEA. (b) Every central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all retail pharmacies, including name, address and DEA number, for which it is authorized...

  11. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all central fill pharmacies, including name, address and DEA... be made available upon request for inspection by DEA. (b) Every central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all retail pharmacies, including name, address and DEA number, for which it is authorized...

  12. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all central fill pharmacies, including name, address and DEA... be made available upon request for inspection by DEA. (b) Every central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all retail pharmacies, including name, address and DEA number, for which it is authorized...

  13. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all central fill pharmacies, including name, address and DEA... be made available upon request for inspection by DEA. (b) Every central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all retail pharmacies, including name, address and DEA number, for which it is authorized...

  14. Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmocology: Friends or Foes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csaky, T. Z.

    1973-01-01

    Two recent trends in the field of health education-the declining emphasis on basic sciences in medical instruction and the heavy emphasis on pharmacology, therapeutics, and clinical pharmacy in colleges of pharmacy-are compared. (Editor)

  15. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal...

  16. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal...

  17. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal...

  18. Modeling the Interactions Between Multiple Crack Closure Mechanisms at Threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Riddell, William T.; Piascik, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    A fatigue crack closure model is developed that includes interactions between the three closure mechanisms most likely to occur at threshold; plasticity, roughness, and oxide. This model, herein referred to as the CROP model (for Closure, Roughness, Oxide, and Plasticity), also includes the effects of out-of plane cracking and multi-axial loading. These features make the CROP closure model uniquely suited for, but not limited to, threshold applications. Rough cracks are idealized here as two-dimensional sawtooths, whose geometry induces mixed-mode crack- tip stresses. Continuum mechanics and crack-tip dislocation concepts are combined to relate crack face displacements to crack-tip loads. Geometric criteria are used to determine closure loads from crack-face displacements. Finite element results, used to verify model predictions, provide critical information about the locations where crack closure occurs.

  19. 21 CFR 1306.15 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled substances... between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled... provided to an authorized central fill pharmacy by a retail pharmacy for dispensing purposes. The...

  20. 21 CFR 1306.27 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for initial and refill prescriptions of Schedule III, IV... Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for initial and... provided to an authorized central fill pharmacy by a retail pharmacy for dispensing purposes. The...

  1. An Innovative Approach to Pharmacy Law Education Utilizing a Mock Board of Pharmacy Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Bess, D. Todd; Taylor, Jade; Schwab, Carol A.; Wang, Junling; Carter, Jason A.

    2016-01-01

    A thorough understanding of pharmacy law by students is important in the molding of future pharmacy practitioners but a standardized template for the best way to educate students in this area has not been created. A mock Board of Pharmacy meeting was designed and incorporated into the Pharmacy Law course to meet the ACPE accreditation standards at the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy. Students acted as Board of Pharmacy members and utilized technology to decide outcomes of cases and requests addressed in a typical 2 day Tennessee Board of Pharmacy meeting. The actual responses to those cases, as well as similar cases and requests addressed over a 5 year period, were revealed to students after they made motions on mock scenarios. Student participation in this interactive learning experience resulted in good understanding of the rules and regulations of pharmacy practice and the consequences associated with violating regulations. Such mock Board of Pharmacy meeting is recommended for future pharmacy law education. PMID:27347433

  2. 42 CFR 483.60 - Pharmacy services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy services. 483.60 Section 483.60 Public... Care Facilities § 483.60 Pharmacy services. The facility must provide routine and emergency drugs and... the provision of pharmacy services in the facility; (2) Establishes a system of records of receipt...

  3. Thinking About Ethical Dilemmas in Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Werner; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Pharmacy students and pharmacists surveyed on ethical dilemmas in pharmacy practice indicated a high degree of concern over patient welfare. The major area of disagreements was on economic concerns. The ethical dilemmas in pharmacy practice survey is appended. (Author/MLW)

  4. Motivational interviewing and specialty pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Berger, Bruce A; Bertram, Carl T

    2015-01-01

    It is well documented in substance abuse and health care literature that motivational interviewing is an evidenced-based and effective intervention for influencing patient behaviors and associated positive health outcomes. The introduction of motivational interviewing training in specialty pharmacy has great potential to increase patient and pharmacist satisfaction, maximize adherence rates, and improve health outcomes. This commentary examines the need for effective approaches for improving patient adherence and outcomes and briefly describes the history and efficacy of motivational interviewing. Case studies using traditional approaches to patient care and motivational interviewing are analysed, and real-world experience using motivational interviewing is presented in the form of a specialty pharmacy case study.

  5. Closure Issues with Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Steven E.; Bischof, Gary H.

    Closure of the counseling relationship constitutes both an ending and a beginning. Although closure signifies the ending of the present counseling relationship, many family counselors conceptualize closure as the start of a working relationship between counselor and family that may be summoned in future times of crisis or during a difficult life…

  6. Decision-Making and Problem-Solving Approaches in Pharmacy Education.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lindsay C; Donohoe, Krista L; Holdford, David A

    2016-04-25

    Domain 3 of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) 2013 Educational Outcomes recommends that pharmacy school curricula prepare students to be better problem solvers, but are silent on the type of problems they should be prepared to solve. We identified five basic approaches to problem solving in the curriculum at a pharmacy school: clinical, ethical, managerial, economic, and legal. These approaches were compared to determine a generic process that could be applied to all pharmacy decisions. Although there were similarities in the approaches, generic problem solving processes may not work for all problems. Successful problem solving requires identification of the problems faced and application of the right approach to the situation. We also advocate that the CAPE Outcomes make explicit the importance of different approaches to problem solving. Future pharmacists will need multiple approaches to problem solving to adapt to the complexity of health care.

  7. Organizing a Community Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Koenigsfeld, Carrie Foust; Tice, Angela L

    2006-01-01

    Setting up a community advanced pharmacy practice experience can be an overwhelming task for many pharmacy preceptors. This article provides guidance to pharmacist preceptors in developing a complete and effective community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). When preparing for the APPE, initial discussions with the college or school of pharmacy are key. Benefits, training, and requirements should be addressed. Site preparation, including staff education, will assist in the development process. The preceptor should plan orientation day activities and determine appropriate evaluation and feedback methods. With thorough preparation, the APPE will be rewarding for both the student and the pharmacy site. PMID:17136163

  8. Do online pharmacies fit European internal markets?

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Mia Maria; Rautava, Päivi Tuire; Forsström, Jari Johannes

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this article is to consider the suitability of online pharmacies into European internal market area. This required considering the models of present online pharmacies in respect to the existing legislation. Data on online pharmacy settings was collected by looking some online pharmacies, which were found by using Goggle search machine with term "online pharmacy" and by studying websites of some well-known online pharmacies. European legislation and policy were studied from European Union's official website. Online drug markets seem to be increasing in popularity for reasons related to their ready availability and cost benefits. Few online pharmacies are based in Europe, yet online markets are worldwide. Community legislation does not stipulate on the legality of online pharmacies on European internal markets. Instead Community legislation offers framework for electronic commerce that could also include online pharmacy practise. National legislation, however, may rule them out either directly or indirectly. Regardless of European internal markets online pharmacies' cross-border operations are particularly complicated. Preliminary ruling from the European Court of Justice concerning one European online pharmacy's cross-border practise is awaited 2003-2004 and will offer some aspects for future. PMID:15802158

  9. Do online pharmacies fit European internal markets?

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Mia Maria; Rautava, Päivi Tuire; Forsström, Jari Johannes

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this article is to consider the suitability of online pharmacies into European internal market area. This required considering the models of present online pharmacies in respect to the existing legislation. Data on online pharmacy settings was collected by looking some online pharmacies, which were found by using Goggle search machine with term "online pharmacy" and by studying websites of some well-known online pharmacies. European legislation and policy were studied from European Union's official website. Online drug markets seem to be increasing in popularity for reasons related to their ready availability and cost benefits. Few online pharmacies are based in Europe, yet online markets are worldwide. Community legislation does not stipulate on the legality of online pharmacies on European internal markets. Instead Community legislation offers framework for electronic commerce that could also include online pharmacy practise. National legislation, however, may rule them out either directly or indirectly. Regardless of European internal markets online pharmacies' cross-border operations are particularly complicated. Preliminary ruling from the European Court of Justice concerning one European online pharmacy's cross-border practise is awaited 2003-2004 and will offer some aspects for future.

  10. Promoting residencies to pharmacy students.

    PubMed

    Knapp, K K

    1991-08-01

    A program for promoting pharmacy residency training to pharmacy students at the University of the Pacific (UOP) is described. A residency club was started in 1982 to increase UOP students' interest in residency training and to provide them with relevant information. Some students needed to be convinced that residencies were primarily educational rather than staffing experiences. Students were made aware of pharmacists' practice in specialty areas, for which residency training is needed, and were taught how to prepare themselves for selection for residencies. The club was formed to encourage mutual support among the students, which would be less likely to occur if residencies were promoted only through work with individual students. Club meetings provide information about available residencies, the application process, and the value of residency training to a career in pharmacy. Students are taught how to prepare curricula vitae, how to interview, and how to select programs to which to apply. Applications for residencies increased. Although the rate of acceptance was low at first, it was expected to increase as more UOP students demonstrated their interest in and qualification for residency training. The promotion of residencies as part of a balanced career planning and placement program for pharmacy students is encouraged.

  11. Pharmacy Technician. Technical Committee Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This report contains the task list for the pharmacy technician program in the state of Idaho. The task list reflects the current trends and skills necessary for an employee to obtain a job in this industry in Idaho, retain a job once hired, and advance in the occupational field. Technical information provided includes program area, program title,…

  12. Evolution of Preprofessional Pharmacy Curricula

    PubMed Central

    Siracuse, Mark V.; Moniri, Nader H.; Birnie, Christine R.; Okamoto, Curtis T.; Crouch, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To examine changes in preprofessional pharmacy curricular requirements and trends, and determine rationales for and implications of modifications. Methods. Prerequisite curricular requirements compiled between 2006 and 2011 from all doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs approved by the Accreditation Council of Pharmacy Education were reviewed to ascertain trends over the past 5 years. An online survey was conducted of 20 programs that required either 3 years of prerequisite courses or a bachelor’s degree, and a random sample of 20 programs that required 2 years of prerequisites. Standardized telephone interviews were then conducted with representatives of 9 programs. Results. In 2006, 4 programs required 3 years of prerequisite courses and none required a bachelor’s degree; by 2011, these increased to 18 programs and 7 programs, respectively. Of 40 programs surveyed, responses were received from 28 (70%), 9 (32%) of which reported having increased the number of prerequisite courses since 2006. Reasons given for changes included desire to raise the level of academic achievement of students entering the PharmD program, desire to increase incoming student maturity, and desire to add clinical sciences and experiential coursework to the pharmacy curriculum. Some colleges and schools experienced a temporary decrease in applicants. Conclusions. The preprofessional curriculum continues to evolve, with many programs increasing the number of course prerequisites. The implications of increasing prerequisites were variable and included a perceived increase in maturity and quality of applicants and, for some schools, a temporary decrease in the number of applicants. PMID:23788806

  13. Working in Pharmacies. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driever, Carl W.; McClaugherty, Larry

    This publication, one of a series of self-contained instructional materials for students enrolled in training within the allied health field, includes competencies that are associated with the performance of skills by students beginning the study of pharmacy assistance. It is intended to be used for individualized instruction under the supervision…

  14. [Internet pharmacies and counterfeit drugs].

    PubMed

    Schweim, Janna K; Schweim, Harald G

    2009-02-15

    Counterfeit drugs are mainly distributed via the internet. On statement of the World Health Organization (WHO), one medicine out of ten ordered on the internet is counterfeit. Fighting against counterfeits needs close and international cooperation among manufacturers, wholesalers, pharmacies and agencies.

  15. Assertiveness Training for Pharmacy Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimberlin, Carole L.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of assertiveness is defined, some of the theorized reasons for nonassertiveness problems are examined, and some methods used in assertiveness training are described, with special attention to their application with pharmacy students. Assertiveness training is recommended for pharmacists to assume a leadership role in health care.…

  16. A Pharmacy Political Advocacy Elective Course

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Patricia H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To develop and implement an elective course to increase pharmacy students’ awareness of legislation that might affect the pharmacy profession and to promote advocacy for the profession. Design. Students participated in class discussions regarding current legislative issues and methods to advocate for the pharmacy profession. Assignments included a student-led presentation of the advocacy agendas for various pharmacy organizations, a take-home examination, participation in class debates, and a legislative presentation. Assessment. Forty-eight students enrolled in the elective course over 3 years. Assignments and class participation were assessed using grading rubrics. At the end of the semester, students completed a questionnaire to assess the overall benefit of the course. Conclusions. Participation in an elective course devoted to pharmacy political advocacy increased awareness of legislation and the desire to become involved in pharmacy organizations to promote the pharmacy profession. PMID:21969723

  17. Management seminar miniseries for training pharmacy residents.

    PubMed

    Gallina, J N; Jeffrey, L P; Temkin, L A; Cardi, V

    1985-02-01

    A management seminar miniseries for training hospital pharmacy residents is described. A series of lectures and workshops on the administrative aspects of hospital pharmacy practice are an integral part of a 2400-hour residency training program. Hospital pharmacy practice, clinical pharmacy practice, communication skills, and pharmacy administration and personnel management are the four major areas covered by the program. The section on pharmacy administration and personnel management is initiated in the middle of program after the residents have gained an appreciation of the intricacies of the department. The management workshops emphasize role playing and actual case-study analyses. The program's faculty members are members of the professional staff who have received formal training in the topics they teach. Twenty-two of this program's 53 graduates have assumed management positions. The management miniseries described can provide residents with the managerial skills they need to become effective pharmacy leaders.

  18. Academic Program Closures: A Legal Compendium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houpt, Corinne A., Ed.

    The materials in this compendium are intended to assist counsel and administrators at institutions of higher education faced with the need to consider and plan for program closures. Some materials also deal with the closely related issues of financial exigency, faculty reductions, and reductions in force. Section I offers the following papers:…

  19. Perception of community pharmacists towards the barriers to enhanced pharmacy services in the healthcare system of Dubai: a quantitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Rayes, Ibrahim K.; Hassali, Mohamed A.; Abduelkarem, Abduelmula R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In many developing countries, pharmacists are facing many challenges while they try to enhance the quality of services provided to patients approaching community pharmacies. Objective: To explore perception of community pharmacists in Dubai regarding the obstacles to enhanced pharmacy services using a part of the results from a nation-wide quantitative survey. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 281 full-time licensed community pharmacists in Dubai. The questionnaire had 5 inter-linked sections: demographic information, information about the pharmacy, interaction with physicians, pharmacists’ current professional role, and barriers to enhanced pharmacy services. Results: About half of the respondents (45.4%, n=90) agreed that pharmacy clients under-estimate them and 52.5% (n=104) felt the same by physicians. About 47.5% (n=94) of the respondents felt that they are legally unprotected against profession’s malpractice. Moreover, 64.7% (n=128) stated that pharmacy practice in Dubai turned to be business-focused. In addition, 76.8% (n=252) found that one of the major barriers to enhanced pharmacy services is the high business running cost. Pharmacists screened tried to prove that they are not one of the barriers to optimized pharmacy services as 62.7% (n=124) disagreed that they lack appropriate knowledge needed to serve community and 67.7% (n=134) gave the same response when asked whether pharmacy staff lack confidence when treating consumers or not. Conclusions: Although being well established within the community, pharmacists in Dubai negatively perceived their own professional role. They stated that there are number of barriers which hinder optimized delivery of pharmacy services like under-estimation by pharmacy clients and other healthcare professionals, pressure to make sales, and high running cost. PMID:26131039

  20. Health care policy and community pharmacy: implications for the New Zealand primary health care sector.

    PubMed

    Scahill, Shane; Harrison, Jeff; Carswell, Peter; Shaw, John

    2010-06-25

    The aim of our paper is to expose the challenges primary health care reform is exerting on community pharmacy and other groups. Our paper is underpinned by the notion that a broad understanding of the issues facing pharmacy will help facilitate engagement by pharmacy and stakeholders in primary care. New models of remuneration are required to deliver policy expectations. Equally important is redefining the place of community pharmacy, outlining the roles that are mooted and contributions that can be made by community pharmacy. Consistent with international policy shifts, New Zealand primary health care policy outlines broad directives which community pharmacy must respond to. Policymakers are calling for greater integration and collaboration, a shift from product to patient-centred care; a greater population health focus and the provision of enhanced cognitive services. To successfully implement policy, community pharmacists must change the way they think and act. Community pharmacy must improve relationships with other primary care providers, District Health Boards (DHBs) and Primary Health Organisations (PHOs). There is a requirement for DHBs to realign funding models which increase integration and remove the requirement to sell products in pharmacy in order to deliver services. There needs to be a willingness for pharmacy to adopt a user pays policy. General practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses (PNs) need to be aware of the training and skills that pharmacists have, and to understand what pharmacists can offer that benefits their patients and ultimately general practice. There is also a need for GPs and PNs to realise the fiscal and professional challenges community pharmacy is facing in its attempt to improve pharmacy services and in working more collaboratively within primary care. Meanwhile, community pharmacists need to embrace new approaches to practice and drive a clearly defined agenda of renewal in order to meet the needs of health funders, patients

  1. Social Pharmacy: Its Performance and Promise.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Among private Universities of Pharmacy in Japan, Kyoritsu University of Pharmacy was the first to introduce courses in social pharmacy in 1991. Social pharmacy is a discipline driven by social needs. By studying the relationship between pharmacy and society, particularly through case studies, the impact of drugs and changes in societal expectation of them, as well as through historical background studies and surveys of current trends, this discipline acts to determine the roles of pharmacists and pharmacies expected by society. Social pharmacy requires a basic knowledge of pharmaceutical science, but an understanding from economic viewpoints of the current systems and structures in which healthcare functions is important as well. Once these are understood, the goal is to identify social problems, and to create and apply models for their resolution which connect pharmacy and society. So far, social pharmacy has played an important role in training programs for community-based pharmacists essential for a hyper-aged society, for community pharmacies' health management programs aimed at promoting the health of residents, and educational programs for elementary and middle school children.

  2. 21 CFR 1304.55 - Reports by online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports by online pharmacies. 1304.55 Section 1304... REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.55 Reports by online pharmacies. (a) Each online pharmacy shall report to... dosage units dispensed of all controlled substances combined. (b) Each online pharmacy shall report...

  3. The Faculties of Pharmacy Schools Should Make an Effort to Network with Community Pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    By law, medical faculties are mandated to have a designated partner hospital for the purposes of student practical training. In contrast, pharmacy faculties do not have such a legal requirement for student training in a community pharmacy setting. Nevertheless, there are several public and private universities that do have community pharmacies. However, there is no national university that has established both an educational hospital and a community pharmacy. When Kanazawa University (KU) established a graduate school with a clinical pharmacy course, the faculty of KU deemed it necessary to set up an independent community pharmacy for the purpose of practical training. Thus, in 2003, the Acanthus Pharmacy was set up as the first educational community pharmacy in Japan, managed by a nonprofit organization, with the permission of the Ishikawa Pharmaceutical Association and local community pharmacists. Since that time, Acanthus has managed a clinical pharmacy practice for students from both the undergraduate and graduate schools of KU. From 2006, the undergraduate pharmacy program was changed to a 6-year program, and the Acanthus Pharmacy has continued its roles in educating undergraduate pharmaceutical students, medical students, and as a site of early exposure for KU freshmen. From our experience, it is important to have a real clinical environment available to university pharmacy faculty and students, especially in training for community pharmacy practices.

  4. The Determinants of Care Home Closure

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Stephen; Forder, Julien

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the causes of full closure of care homes in the English care home/nursing home market. We develop theoretical arguments about two causes for closure that are triggered by errors or external shocks: poor economic sustainability and regulatory action. Homes aiming to operate with lower quality in the market are argued for a number of reasons to be more susceptible to errors/shocks in setting quality, especially negative errors, leading to an empirical hypothesis that observed quality should negatively affect closure chance. In addition, given quality, homes facing relatively high levels of local competition should also have an increased chance of closure. We use a panel of care homes from 2008 and 2010 to examine factors affecting their closure status in subsequent years. We allow for the potential endogeneity of home quality and use multiple imputation to replace missing data. Results suggest that homes with comparatively higher quality and/or lower levels of competition have less chance of closure than other homes. We discuss that the results provide some support for the policy of regulators providing quality information to potential purchasers in the market. © 2015 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25760588

  5. The 2011 PHARMINE report on pharmacy and pharmacy education in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; Rombaut, Bart

    The PHARMINE consortium consists of 50 universities from European Union member states or other European countries that are members of the European Association of Faculties of Pharmacy (EAFP). EU partner associations representing community (PGEU), hospital (EAHP) and industrial pharmacy (EIPG), together with the European Pharmacy Students’ Association (EPSA) are also part of the consortium. The consortium surveyed pharmacies and pharmacists in different settings: community, hospital, industry and other sectors. The consortium also looked at how European Union higher education institutions and courses are organised. The PHARMINE survey of pharmacy and pharmacy education in Europe produced country profiles with extensive information for EU member states and several other European countries. These data are available at: http://www.pharmine.org/losse_paginas/Country_Profiles/. This 2011 PHARMINE report presents the project and data, and some preliminary analysis on the basic question of how pharmacy education is adapted to pharmacy practice in the EU. PMID:24198854

  6. Specialty Pharmacy at a Crossroad

    PubMed Central

    ADAMS, KATHERINE T.

    2005-01-01

    Consolidation of the specialty pharmacy business indicates a repositioning to buy new market channels, reduce costs, and compete in a burgeoning market. The challenge for SP is to prove its value to payers. Some companies are doing that on the basis of price or by offering care management services. Here’s a look at a business in transition as it redefines itself for the biologics era. PMID:23424307

  7. International Practice Experiences in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Jawaid, Sarah Parnapy; Kendall, Debra A.; McPherson, Charles E.; Mu, Keli; Weston, Grady Scott; Roberts, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To identify reasons for inclusion of international practice experiences in pharmacy curricula and to understand the related structure, benefits, and challenges related to the programs. Methods. A convenience sample of 20 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States with international pharmacy education programs was used. Telephone interviews were conducted by 2 study investigators. Results. University values and strategic planning were among key driving forces in the development of programs. Global awareness and cultural competency requirements added impetus to program development. Participants’ advice for creating an international practice experience program included an emphasis on the value of working with university health professions programs and established travel programs. Conclusion. Despite challenges, colleges and schools of pharmacy value the importance of international pharmacy education for pharmacy students as it increases global awareness of health needs and cultural competencies. PMID:24249850

  8. Quality indicators to compare accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Arkaravichien, Wiwat; Wongpratat, Apichaya; Lertsinudom, Sunee

    2016-08-01

    Background Quality indicators determine the quality of actual practice in reference to standard criteria. The Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand), with technical support from the International Pharmaceutical Federation, developed a tool for quality assessment and quality improvement at community pharmacies. This tool has passed validity and reliability tests, but has not yet had feasibility testing. Objective (1) To test whether this quality tool could be used in routine settings. (2) To compare quality scores between accredited independent and accredited chain pharmacies. Setting Accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies in the north eastern region of Thailand. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in 34 accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies. Quality scores were assessed by observation and by interviewing the responsible pharmacists. Data were collected and analyzed by independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test as appropriate. Results were plotted by histogram and spider chart. Main outcome measure Domain's assessable scores, possible maximum scores, mean and median of measured scores. Results Domain's assessable scores were close to domain's possible maximum scores. This meant that most indicators could be assessed in most pharmacies. The spider chart revealed that measured scores in the personnel, drug inventory and stocking, and patient satisfaction and health promotion domains of chain pharmacies were significantly higher than those of independent pharmacies (p < 0.05). There was no statistical difference between independent pharmacies and chain pharmacies in the premise and facility or dispensing and patient care domains. Conclusion Quality indicators developed by the Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand) could be used to assess quality of practice in pharmacies in routine settings. It is revealed that the quality scores of chain pharmacies were higher than those of independent pharmacies.

  9. Performance of retail pharmacies in low- and middle-income Asian settings: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Rosalind; Goodman, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) in Asia, pharmacies are often patients’ first point of contact with the health care system and their preferred channel for purchasing medicines. Unfortunately, pharmacy practice in these settings has been characterized by deficient knowledge and inappropriate treatment. This paper systematically reviews both the performance of all types of pharmacies and drug stores across Asia’s LMIC, and the determinants of poor practice, in order to reflect on how this could best be addressed. Poor pharmacy practice in Asia appears to have persisted over the past 30 years. We identify a set of inadequacies that occur at key moments throughout the pharmacy encounter, including: insufficient history taking; lack of referral of patients who require medical attention; illegal sale of a wide range of prescription only medicines without a prescription; sale of medicines that are either clinically inappropriate and/or in doses that are outside of the therapeutic range; sale of incomplete courses of antibiotics; and limited provision of information and counselling. In terms of determinants of poor practice, first knowledge was found to be necessary but not sufficient to ensure correct management of patients presenting at the pharmacy. This is evidenced by large discrepancies between stated and actual practice; little difference in the treatment behaviour of less and more qualified personnel and the failure of training programmes to improve practice to a satisfactory level. Second, we identified a number of profit maximizing strategies employed by pharmacy staff that can be linked to poor practices. Finally, whilst the research is relatively sparse, the regulatory environment appears to play an important role in shaping behaviour. Future efforts to improve the situation may yield more success than historical attempts, which have tended to concentrate on education, if they address the profit incentives faced by pharmacy personnel and the

  10. Taking the pulse of Internet pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Peterson, R T; Huang, L

    2001-01-01

    Like most businesses, online pharmacy companies will only be successful if they make sure customers are satisfied with the service they receive. But what attributes of service quality lead to satisfaction and dissatisfaction? This study identified 19 Internet pharmacy service quality dimensions in three categories: (1) product cost and availability, (2) customer service, and (3) the online information system. Our analysis uncovered attributes that tend to determine consumer satisfaction and points out ways to improve overall service quality in the Internet pharmacy arena.

  11. Pharmacy layout: What are consumers' perceptions?.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Dennis; Paul, David P; Chandra, Ashish; Barrett, Hilton

    2006-01-01

    The physical layout of a retail pharmacy can play a significant role in the development of the customers' perceptions which can have a positive (or negative) impact on its sales potential. Compared to most general merchandise stores, pharmacies are more concerned about safety and security issues due to the nature of their products. This paper will discuss these aspects as well as the physical and professional environments of retail pharmacies that influence the perceptions of customers and how these vary whether chain, independent, or hospital pharmacies.

  12. Pharmacy layout: What are consumers' perceptions?.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Dennis; Paul, David P; Chandra, Ashish; Barrett, Hilton

    2006-01-01

    The physical layout of a retail pharmacy can play a significant role in the development of the customers' perceptions which can have a positive (or negative) impact on its sales potential. Compared to most general merchandise stores, pharmacies are more concerned about safety and security issues due to the nature of their products. This paper will discuss these aspects as well as the physical and professional environments of retail pharmacies that influence the perceptions of customers and how these vary whether chain, independent, or hospital pharmacies. PMID:17062535

  13. Managing Minor Ailments; The Public’s Preferences for Attributes of Community Pharmacies. A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Mandy; Bond, Christine; Watson, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Background Demand for health services continues to rise. Greater use of community pharmacy services instead of medical services for minor ailments could help relieve pressure on healthcare providers in high-cost settings. Community pharmacies are recognised sources of treatment and advice for people wishing to manage these ailments. However, increasing the public’s use of pharmacy services may depend on attributes of pharmacies and their staff. This study aimed to determine the general public’s relative preferences for community pharmacy attributes using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). Method A UK-wide DCE survey of the general public was conducted using face-to-face computer-assisted personal interviews. Attributes and levels for the DCE were informed by a literature review and a cohort study of community pharmacy customers. The context for the experiment was a minor ailment scenario describing flu-like symptoms. The DCE choice sets described two hypothetical community pharmacy services; respondents were asked to choose which (if either) of the two pharmacies they would prefer to help them manage symptoms. Data from 1,049 interviews were analysed using an error components logit model. Willingness to pay (WTP), a monetary measure of benefit, was estimated for the different attribute levels. Results When seeking help or treatment for flu-like symptoms, respondents most valued a pharmacy service that would improve their understanding and management of symptoms (WTP = £6.28), provided by staff who are trained (WTP (pharmacist) = £2.63: WTP(trained assistant) = £3.22), friendly and approachable (WTP = £3.38). Waiting time, pharmacy location and availability of parking also contributed to respondents’ preferences. WTP for a service comprising the best possible combination of attributes and levels was calculated as £55.43. Conclusion Attributes of a community pharmacy and its staff may influence people’s decisions about which pharmacy they would visit to

  14. Knowledge, Skills, and Resources for Pharmacy Informatics Education

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Brent I.; Flynn, Allen J.; Fortier, Christopher R.; Clauson, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacy has an established history of technology use to support business processes. Pharmacy informatics education within doctor of pharmacy programs, however, is inconsistent, despite its inclusion as a requirement in the 2007 Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education Standards and Guidelines. This manuscript describes pharmacy informatics knowledge and skills that all graduating pharmacy students should possess, conceptualized within the framework of the medication use process. Additionally, we suggest core source materials and specific learning activities to support pharmacy informatics education. We conclude with a brief discussion of emerging changes in the practice model. These changes are facilitated by pharmacy informatics and will inevitably become commonplace in our graduates’ practice environment. PMID:21829267

  15. Pharmacy Students’ Perceptions of Natural Science and Mathematics Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sarah Ellen; Wan, Kai-Wai

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the level of importance pharmacy students placed on science and mathematics subjects for pursuing a career in pharmacy. Method. Two hundred fifty-four students completed a survey instrument developed to investigate students’ perceptions of the relevance of science and mathematics subjects to a career in pharmacy. Pharmacy students in all 4 years of a master of pharmacy (MPharm) degree program were invited to complete the survey instrument. Results. Students viewed chemistry-based and biology-based subjects as relevant to a pharmacy career, whereas mathematics subjects such as physics, logarithms, statistics, and algebra were not viewed important to a career in pharmacy. Conclusion. Students’ experience in pharmacy and year of study influenced their perceptions of subjects relevant to a pharmacy career. Pharmacy educators need to consider how they can help students recognize the importance of scientific knowledge earlier in the pharmacy curriculum. PMID:25147390

  16. JSC Pharmacy Services for Remote Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, Paul S.; Bayuse, Tina

    2005-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center Pharmacy began operating in March of 2003. The pharmacy serves in two main capacities: to directly provide medications and services in support of the medical clinics at the Johnson Space Center, physician travel kits for NASA flight surgeon staff, and remote operations, such as the clinics in Devon Island, Star City and Moscow; and indirectly provide medications and services for the International Space Station and Space Shuttle medical kits. Process changes that occurred and continued to evolve in the advent of the installation of the new JSC Pharmacy, and the process of stocking medications for each of these aforementioned areas will be discussed. Methods: The incorporation of pharmacy involvement to provide services for remote operations and supplying medical kits was evaluated. The first step was to review the current processes and work the JSC Pharmacy into the existing system. The second step was to provide medications to these areas. Considerations for the timeline of expiring medications for shipment are reviewed with each request. The third step was the development of a process to provide accountability for the medications. Results: The JSC Pharmacy utilizes a pharmacy management system to document all medications leaving the pharmacy. Challenges inherent to providing medications to remote areas were encountered. A process has been designed to incorporate usage into the electronic medical record upon return of the information from these remote areas. This is an evolving program and several areas have been identified for further improvement.

  17. A Model for Continuing Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Newlon, Carey; Dickerhofe, Jeannine

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop and implement a continuing pharmacy education (CPE) program at Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO) Design To address the continuing education needs of its diverse pharmacy staff, an internal continuing pharmacy education (CPE) program was developed. The pharmacy department became an accredited provider by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE). Live, interactive, and evidence-based CPE programs, presented by highly qualified internal staff members, utilized videoconferencing and a Web-based learning management system. Cross-accreditation of medical and pharmacy educational programs was offered to KPCO staff members. Assessment Annual needs assessments were conducted to ensure the provision of relevant educational topics and to assess learning needs. To demonstrate outcomes of the CPE programs, 2 methods were utilized: objective effectiveness assessment and knowledge acquisition assessment. This program met the objectives for CPE activities a large majority of the time (usually over 90%), demonstrated statistically significant (p < 0.05) improvement in knowledge from before to after the CPE activity in 11 of 13 questions asked, and minimized the cost to acquire CPE credit for both the pharmacy department and its staff members. Conclusion The KPCO continuing pharmacy education program has developed a high quality and cost-favorable system that has resulted in significant improvements in attendee knowledge. PMID:19777102

  18. Pharmacy Aide. Student Manual [and] Instructor Key.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Kelly

    The first component of this three-part package is a student manual designed to be used independently in secondary health occupations programs or on-the-job training programs for pharmacy aides. The manual contains six units that cover the following topics: introduction to pharmacy, communication skills, pharmaceuticals, prescription processing,…

  19. Audiovisual Instruction in Pediatric Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutchie, Kelly D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A pharmacy practice program added to the core baccalaureate curriculum at the University of Utah College of Pharmacy which includes a practice in pediatrics is described. An audiovisual program in pediatric diseases and drug therapy was developed. This program allows the presentation of more material without reducing clerkship time. (Author/MLW)

  20. Teaching about Confidentiality in Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Evelyn S.

    1989-01-01

    The recent shift in pharmacy practice from product to information orientation, patients' desires to know more about medications, computerized access to records, and increased third-party payments may result in serious ethical dilemmas for pharmacists. Pharmacy schools must provide background in the responsibilities of health care professionals to…

  1. Incorporating Pharmacy Scholarship to Management Responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    Practice advancement demands innovation. Amidst professional change, pharmacy leaders have the opportunity to collaborate with colleagues to develop transformational ideas, implement these solutions, and share those successes with professionals around the state, country, and world. Scholarship, defined as contributing to the literature through publications, presentations, and other writings, is an ideal way to advance innovation within the profession. It is critical for pharmacy leaders to build scholarship into their professional workflow. Ensuring that successful projects are published or presented may translate into shared best practices. Many pharmacy leaders may find it difficult to participate in scholarship activities because of their busy schedules. This column serves to outline recommendations on how to effectively incorporate writing for publications, making presentations, and other scholarly work into the role of pharmacy leaders and managers. To reduce the barriers to scholarship, pharmacy leaders role can apply project management principles to their work and identify projects that otherwise would not be published and support their development.

  2. Quality safeguards and regulation of online pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Arruñada, Benito

    2004-04-01

    Using econometric evidence, this article confirms that distribution of medicines online is split into two market segments of very diverse quality, and identifies the factors that drive quality and quality assurance in this activity. Unlike fraudulent, 'rogue,' websites, which offer scant guarantees and usually sell just a few medicines without prescription, online pharmacies offering insurance coverage and linked to conventional pharmacies typically sell a whole range of drugs, require third-party medical prescriptions and provide abundant information to patients. It is shown that, where online pharmacies are allowed to act legally, market forces enhance quality, as private insurers require professional standards, and specialized third parties make a business of certifying them. Furthermore, older online pharmacies and those running conventional operations offer higher quality, probably because of reputational investments. Overall, this evidence supports licensing online pharmacies, especially considering that prohibiting them is ineffective against fraudulent sites.

  3. Incorporating Pharmacy Scholarship to Management Responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    Practice advancement demands innovation. Amidst professional change, pharmacy leaders have the opportunity to collaborate with colleagues to develop transformational ideas, implement these solutions, and share those successes with professionals around the state, country, and world. Scholarship, defined as contributing to the literature through publications, presentations, and other writings, is an ideal way to advance innovation within the profession. It is critical for pharmacy leaders to build scholarship into their professional workflow. Ensuring that successful projects are published or presented may translate into shared best practices. Many pharmacy leaders may find it difficult to participate in scholarship activities because of their busy schedules. This column serves to outline recommendations on how to effectively incorporate writing for publications, making presentations, and other scholarly work into the role of pharmacy leaders and managers. To reduce the barriers to scholarship, pharmacy leaders role can apply project management principles to their work and identify projects that otherwise would not be published and support their development. PMID:26823623

  4. Incorporating Pharmacy Scholarship to Management Responsibilities

    PubMed Central

    Hertig, John B.; Weber, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Practice advancement demands innovation. Amidst professional change, pharmacy leaders have the opportunity to collaborate with colleagues to develop transformational ideas, implement these solutions, and share those successes with professionals around the state, country, and world. Scholarship, defined as contributing to the literature through publications, presentations, and other writings, is an ideal way to advance innovation within the profession. It is critical for pharmacy leaders to build scholarship into their professional workflow. Ensuring that successful projects are published or presented may translate into shared best practices. Many pharmacy leaders may find it difficult to participate in scholarship activities because of their busy schedules. This column serves to outline recommendations on how to effectively incorporate writing for publications, making presentations, and other scholarly work into the role of pharmacy leaders and managers. To reduce the barriers to scholarship, pharmacy leaders role can apply project management principles to their work and identify projects that otherwise would not be published and support their development. PMID:26823623

  5. Pharmacy student expectations for professional practice.

    PubMed

    Baran, R W; Shaw, J; Crumlish, K

    1998-08-01

    The professional employment market for pharmacists has changed radically in recent years. Additionally, data regarding perception of future practice among pharmacy students are limited. The purpose of this study was to characterize expectations for professional practice among pharmacy students and to identify curriculum support at a college of pharmacy. A survey examining student educational experiences, career preferences, and demographic variables was distributed to 1,297 students enrolled in the first to sixth year. Six hundred thirty responses were evaluated. Doctor of Pharmacy students indicated that their education better prepared them for their expected career than did Bachelor of Science students (P < .03). The former also had a more positive outlook regarding future career opportunities than the latter (P < .01) and indicated to a greater extent that HMOs and pharmacy benefit management companies are growing sources of employment for pharmacists (P < .001).

  6. Enhancing Pharmacy Practice Models Through Pharmacists’ Privileging

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Benjamin; Weber, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Director’s Forum is designed to guide pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. This article focuses on the concept of granting clinical privileges to pharmacists (acute and ambulatory care) to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of medication use. As the practice models change in hospital pharmacy practice to require the pharmacist to enter into pharmacy board-approved consult agreements, institutional privileging of pharmacists will be necessary. The pharmacy director must understand the steps of the credentialing and privileging process and should apply the process where appropriate in the department. Through hospital medical staff actively supporting pharmacists’ privileging, the national Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI) can meet its goals of integrating pharmacists as effective members of the patient care team with tangible accountability for achieving optimal drug therapy outcomes. PMID:24421454

  7. Strategies for implementation of an effective pharmacogenomics program in pharmacy education.

    PubMed

    Rao, U Subrahmanyeswara; Mayhew, Susan L; Rao, Prema S

    2015-07-01

    Sequencing of the human genome and the evidence correlating specific genetic variations to diseases have opened up the potential of genomics to more effective and less harmful interventions of human diseases. A wealth of pharmacogenomics knowledge is in place for the practice of precision medicine. However, this knowledge is not fully realized in clinical practice. One reason for this impasse is the lack of in-depth understanding of the potential of pharmacogenomics among the healthcare professionals. Pharmacists are the point-of-care providers and are expected to advise clinicians on matters relating to the implementation of pharmacogenomics in patient care. However, current pharmacogenomics instruction in pharmacy schools fails to produce pharmacists with the required knowledge or practical training in this discipline. In this perspective, we provide several strategies to overcome limitations faced by pharmacy schools. Once implemented, pharmacy schools will produce precision medicine-ready pharmacists.

  8. Strategies for implementation of an effective pharmacogenomics program in pharmacy education.

    PubMed

    Rao, U Subrahmanyeswara; Mayhew, Susan L; Rao, Prema S

    2015-07-01

    Sequencing of the human genome and the evidence correlating specific genetic variations to diseases have opened up the potential of genomics to more effective and less harmful interventions of human diseases. A wealth of pharmacogenomics knowledge is in place for the practice of precision medicine. However, this knowledge is not fully realized in clinical practice. One reason for this impasse is the lack of in-depth understanding of the potential of pharmacogenomics among the healthcare professionals. Pharmacists are the point-of-care providers and are expected to advise clinicians on matters relating to the implementation of pharmacogenomics in patient care. However, current pharmacogenomics instruction in pharmacy schools fails to produce pharmacists with the required knowledge or practical training in this discipline. In this perspective, we provide several strategies to overcome limitations faced by pharmacy schools. Once implemented, pharmacy schools will produce precision medicine-ready pharmacists. PMID:26067487

  9. Soft targets or partners in health? Retail pharmacies and their role in Tanzania's malaria control program.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Vinay R; Nyato, Daniel J

    2010-08-01

    The retail sector has been at the center of recent policy debates concerning its role in malaria control programs in Africa. This article closely examines the perspectives of owners and managers of retail pharmacies and drug shops in Dar es Salaam, toward the dominant public health discourse and practices surrounding the deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as a way forward in malaria control. Drawing on fieldwork conducted between May-August 2007, and July-August 2009, involving in-depth interviews and participant observation in pharmacies and drug shops in Dar es Salaam, the article describes the social realities facing people who manage retail pharmacies, the nature of their interactions with customers, the kinds of antimalarials they sell, and their perspective on how the new malaria treatment guidelines have affected their business. Findings suggest that for most pharmacy owners and managers, it is 'business as usual' concerning the sale of conventional antimalarials, with a majority reporting that the introduction of ACT in public health facilities had not negatively affected their business. Implications of the research findings are examined in the context of proposed interventions to make pharmacy owners and managers more socially responsible and adhere to government health regulations. The article makes a case for actively involving pharmacy owners and managers in decision making processes surrounding the implementation of new treatment guidelines, and training programs that have an impact on their business, social responsibility, and community health. In considering regulatory interventions, health planners must explicitly address the concern that retail pharmacies fill an important role in the country's health care system, and that the complex nexus that drives the global pharmaceutical market often governs their operations at the local level.

  10. Fracture mechanics analyses of partial crack closure in shell structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun

    2007-12-01

    This thesis presents the theoretical and finite element analyses of crack-face closure behavior in shells and its effect on the stress intensity factor under a bending load condition. Various shell geometries, such as spherical shell, cylindrical shell containing an axial crack, cylindrical shell containing a circumferential crack and shell with double curvatures, are all studied. In addition, the influence of material orthotropy on the crack closure effect in shells is also considered. The theoretical formulation is developed based on the shallow shell theory of Delale and Erdogan, incorporating the effect of crack-face closure at the compressive edges. The line-contact assumption, simulating the crack-face closure at the compressive edges, is employed so that the contact force at the closure edges is introduced, which can be translated to the mid-plane of the shell, accompanied by an additional distributed bending moment. The unknown contact force is computed by solving a mixed-boundary value problem iteratively, that is, along the crack length, either the normal displacement of the crack face at the compressive edges is equal to zero or the contact pressure is equal to zero. It is found that due to the curvature effects crack closure may not always occur on the entire length of the crack, depending on the direction of the bending load and the geometry of the shell. The crack-face closure influences significantly the magnitude of the stress intensity factors; it increases the membrane component but decreases the bending component. The maximum stress intensity factor is reduced by the crack-face closure. The significant influence of geometry and material orthotropy on rack closure behavior in shells is also predicted based on the analytical solutions. Three-dimensional FEA is performed to validate the theoretical solutions. It demonstrates that the crack face closure occurs actually over an area, not on a line, but the theoretical solutions of the stress intensity

  11. Quick actuating closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, III, Dorsey E. (Inventor); Updike, deceased, Benjamin T. (Inventor); Allred, Johnny W. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A quick actuating closure for a pressure vessel 80 in which a wedge ring 30 with a conical outer surface 31 is moved forward to force shear blocks 40, with conical inner surfaces 41, radially outward to lock an end closure plug 70 within an opening 81 in the pressure vessel 80. A seal ring 60 and a preload ramp 50 sit between the shear blocks 40 and the end closure plug 70 to provide a backup sealing capability. Conical surfaces 44 and 55 of the preload ramp 50 and the shear blocks 40 interact to force the seal ring 60 into shoulders 73 and 85 in the end closure plug 70 and opening 81 to form a tight seal. The end closure plug 70 is unlocked by moving the wedge ring 30 rearward, which causes T-bars 32 of the wedge ring 30 riding within T -slots 42 of the shear blocks 40 to force them radially inward. The end closure plug 70 is then removed, allowing access to the interior of the pressure vessel 80.

  12. The Relationship between Student Engagement and Professionalism in Pharmacy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Anne Guerin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between student engagement (as measured by the National Survey of Student Engagement benchmarks) and pharmacy student professionalism (as measured by the Pharmacy Professionalism Domain instrument) in first and third year pharmacy students at seven different schools of pharmacy. Engagement provides the…

  13. 45 CFR 162.1901 - Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is...

  14. 21 CFR 1301.19 - Special requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... by means of the Internet as an online pharmacy (but continue its business activity as a non-online... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special requirements for online pharmacies. 1301... Special requirements for online pharmacies. (a) A pharmacy that has been issued a registration...

  15. Development of a Community Pharmacy Management Elective Rotation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zgarrick, David P.; Talluto, Beverly A.

    1997-01-01

    Midwestern University-Chicago College of Pharmacy has developed a five-week elective community pharmacy management rotation in partnership with local pharmacies. Students work directly with district and pharmacy managers, covering a list of topics developed by faculty and preceptors and performing one major project and several smaller ones.…

  16. Geographical access to community pharmacies in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Norris, Pauline; Horsburgh, Simon; Sides, Gerald; Ram, Sanya; Fraser, John

    2014-09-01

    Geographic access to community pharmacies is an important aspect of access to appropriate medicines. This study aimed to explore changes in the number and location of pharmacies in New Zealand and determine whether some populations have poor geographical access to pharmacies. Pharmacy numbers in New Zealand have been declining since the mid-1980s, and, adjusted for population growth, there are now only half the number there was in 1965. While the urbanisation of pharmacies has been matched by loss of population in rural areas, the loss of pharmacies from smaller rural towns leaves many people with poor access to pharmacy services.

  17. A Survey of Pharmacy Education in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Low, Bee Yean; Wongpoowarak, Payom; Moolasarn, Summana; Anderson, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To explore the current status of pharmacy education in Thailand. Methods. The International Pharmaceutical Federation of the World Health Organization’s (FIP-WHO) Global Survey of Pharmacy Schools was used for this study. The survey instrument was distributed to the deans of the 19 faculties (colleges) of pharmacy in Thailand. Results. More than half the colleges have been in existence less than 20 years, and the government owns 80% of them. There were 2 paths of admission to study pharmacy: direct admission and central admission system. The doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs can be divided into 4 types. Approximately 60% of all teaching staff holds a doctoral degree. Regarding the work balance among teaching staff, around 60% focus on teaching activities, 20% focus on research, and less than 20% focus on patient care services concurrent with real practice teaching. The proportion of student time dedicated to theory, practice, and research in PharmD programs is 51.5%, 46.7%, and 1.8%, respectively. Sites owned by the colleges or by others were used for student training. Colleges followed the Office of the National Education Standards’ Internal Quality Assurance (IQA) and External Quality Assurance (EQA), and the Pharmacy Council’s Quality Assessment (ONESQA) . Conclusion. This study provides a picture of the current status of curriculum, teaching staff, and students in pharmacy education in Thailand. The curriculum was adapted from the US PharmD program with the aim of meeting the country’s needs and includes industrial pharmacy and public health tracks as well as clinical tracks. However, this transition in pharmacy education in Thailand needs to be monitored and evaluated. PMID:26056400

  18. A Graduate Program in Institutional Pharmacy Management Leading to an MS in Hospital Pharmacy, MBA and Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Jan N.; Lipman, Arthur G.

    1981-01-01

    A combined program leading to the MS in Hospital Pharmacy, MBA, and Certificate of Residency in Hospital Pharmacy established at the University of Utah in 1978 is described. The program provides coursework in both hospital pharmacy and management plus practical experience in hospital pharmacy practice management. (Author/MLW)

  19. Double face sealing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A double face sealing device for mounting between two surfaces to provide an airtight and fluid-tight seal between a closure member bearing one of the surfaces and a structure or housing bearing the other surface which extends around the opening or hatchway to be closed. The double face sealing device includes a plurality of sections or segments mounted to one of the surfaces, each having a main body portion, a pair of outwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, and a pair of inwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, an elastomeric cover on the distal, free, ends of the outwardly extending and diverging spring arms, and an elastomeric cover on the distal, free, ends of the inwardly extending and diverging spring arms. The double face sealing device has application or use in all environments requiring a seal, but is particularly useful to seal openings or hatchways between compartments of spacecraft or aircraft.

  20. A roadmap for educational research in pharmacy.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Dean, Meredith J; Mumper, Russell J; Blouin, Robert A; Roth, Mary T

    2013-12-16

    Educational research must play a critical role in informing practice and policy within pharmacy education. Understanding the educational environment and its impact on students, faculty members, and other stakeholders is imperative for improving outcomes and preparing pharmacy students to meet the needs of 21st century health care. To aid in the design and implementation of meaningful educational research within colleges and schools of pharmacy, this roadmap addresses philosophy and educational language; guidelines for the conduct of educational research; research design, including 4 approaches to defining, collecting, and analyzing educational data; measurement issues; ethical considerations; resources and tools; and the value of educational research in guiding curricular transformation.

  1. Factors influencing pharmacy students’ attitudes towards pharmacy practice research and strategies for promoting research interest in pharmacy practice

    PubMed Central

    Kritikos, Vicky S.; Saini, Bandana; Carter, Stephen; Moles, Rebekah J.; Krass, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To (1) investigate the relationships between students’ characteristics and their (a) perceptions of research in general and (b) attitudes towards pharmacy practice research; (2) identify strategies that could be used by pharmacy educators to promote research interest in pharmacy practice; and (3) identify perceived barriers to the pursuit or completion of a pharmacy practice research degree. Methods: A survey was administered to all students enrolled in each year of the four-year pharmacy undergraduate program, University of Sydney, Australia. Perceptions of research in general were measured using 4 items on a five-point semantic-differential scale and attitudes towards pharmacy practice research were measured using 16 items on a five-point Likert scale. Student characteristics were also collected as were responses to open-ended questions which were analysed using content analysis. Results: In total 853 students participated and completed the survey (83% response rate). Participants’ characteristics were associated with some but not all aspects of research and pharmacy practice research. It appeared that positive attitudes and perspectives were influenced strongly by exposure to the ‘research’ process through projects, friends or mentors, previous degrees or having future intentions to pursue a research degree. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative analyses suggest positive attitudes and perceptions of research can be nurtured through the formal inclusion in research processes, particularly the utility of practice research in clinical practice across the four years of study. Participants indicated there was a lack of awareness of the needs, benefits and career opportunities associated with pharmacy practice research and voiced clear impediments in their career path with respect to the choice of practice research-related careers. Conclusions: Future research should investigate changes in perceptions and attitudes in a single cohort

  2. Automation and the future practice of pharmacy--changing the focus of pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Lee, M P

    1995-10-01

    Automation technology offers great potential in pharmacy practice. To realize the full benefits of the potential inherent in automation systems, it is necessary to understand basic concepts of automation and to realize that automation is simply a tool to help achieve the goals of practice. The goal of pharmacy practice is pharmaceutical care. Through using the techniques of reengineering, pharmacies can be redesigned with the help of automation to facilitate the accomplishment of that goal. Essential to achieving that goal is the necessity to change the focus of pharmacy from distribution to pharmaceutical care. Reengineering and automation are the tools to help make that change in focus.

  3. Pharmacy in a New Frontier - The First Five Years at the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayuse, Tina

    2008-01-01

    A poster entitled "Space Medicine - A New Role for Clinical Pharmacists" was presented in December 2001 highlighting an up-and-coming role for pharmacists at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Since that time, the operational need for the pharmacy profession has expanded with the administration s decision to open a pharmacy on site at JSC to complement the care provided by the Flight Medicine and Occupational Medicine Clinics. The JSC Pharmacy is a hybrid of traditional retail and hospital pharmacy and is compliant with the ambulatory care standards set forth by the Joint Commission. The primary charge for the pharmacy is to provide medication management for JSC. In addition to providing ambulatory care for both clinics, the pharmacists also practice space medicine. A pharmacist had been involved in the packing of both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station Medical Kits before the JSC Pharmacy was established; however, the role of the pharmacist in packing medical kits has grown. The pharmacists are now full members of the operations team providing consultation for new drug delivery systems, regulations, and patient safety issues. As the space crews become more international, so does the drug information provided by the pharmacists. This presentation will review the journey of the JSC Pharmacy as it celebrated its five year anniversary in April of 2008. The implementation of the pharmacy, challenges to the incorporation of the pharmacy into an existing health-care system, and the current responsibilities of a pharmacist at the Johnson Space Center will be discussed.

  4. Communication Capacity Building through Pharmacy Practice Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Michelle; Hills, Ruth; Priddle, Alannah

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effectiveness of simulated learning modules (SLMs) encompassing EXcellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership (EXCELL) core competencies in enhancing pharmacy students’ professional communication skills. Methods. Students completed three hours of preparatory lectures and eight hours of workshops comprising six SLMs themed around pharmacy practice and pharmacy placements. Each SLM comprised role-plays with actors, facilitation using EXCELL Social Interaction Maps (SIMs), and debriefing. Evaluations of SLMs included quantitative and qualitative survey responses collected before, during and after workshops, and after placements. Facilitators reflected on SLMs as a pedagogic modality. Results. Student feedback was positive about SLMs as an effective learning tool. The majority indicated areas of new learning and found SLMs enhanced their professional skills and confidence. Facilitator feedback was positive, and suggested SLM optimization strategies. Conclusion. Student and teaching team recommendations will inform future curriculum development including the optimization of SLMs in pharmacy education. PMID:27073281

  5. The new frontier for pharmacy automation.

    PubMed

    Burke, M

    1994-11-01

    The retail pharmacy industry, long a leader in applying EDI, is preparing to use automation in several new areas. For example, pharmacists will be able to interact electronically with physicians' offices and access clinical information.

  6. Communication Capacity Building through Pharmacy Practice Simulation.

    PubMed

    Fejzic, Jasmina; Barker, Michelle; Hills, Ruth; Priddle, Alannah

    2016-03-25

    Objective. To examine the effectiveness of simulated learning modules (SLMs) encompassing EXcellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership (EXCELL) core competencies in enhancing pharmacy students' professional communication skills. Methods. Students completed three hours of preparatory lectures and eight hours of workshops comprising six SLMs themed around pharmacy practice and pharmacy placements. Each SLM comprised role-plays with actors, facilitation using EXCELL Social Interaction Maps (SIMs), and debriefing. Evaluations of SLMs included quantitative and qualitative survey responses collected before, during and after workshops, and after placements. Facilitators reflected on SLMs as a pedagogic modality. Results. Student feedback was positive about SLMs as an effective learning tool. The majority indicated areas of new learning and found SLMs enhanced their professional skills and confidence. Facilitator feedback was positive, and suggested SLM optimization strategies. Conclusion. Student and teaching team recommendations will inform future curriculum development including the optimization of SLMs in pharmacy education. PMID:27073281

  7. The Need for an Aerospace Pharmacy Residency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayuse, T.; Schuyler, C.; Bayuse, Tina M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph poster presentation reviews the rationale for a call for a new program in residency for aerospace pharmacy. Aerospace medicine provides a unique twist on traditional medicine, and a specialty has evolved to meet the training for physicians, and it is becoming important to develop such a program for training in pharmacy designed for aerospace. The reasons for this specialist training are outlined and the challenges of developing a program are reviewed.

  8. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  9. Tank closure reducing grout

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  10. 40 CFR 264.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.258... Waste Piles § 264.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove... facility and perform post-closure care in accordance with the closure and post-closure care...

  11. When procedures meet practice in community pharmacies: qualitative insights from pharmacists and pharmacy support staff

    PubMed Central

    Ashcroft, Darren M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to explore how members of community pharmacy staff perceive and experience the role of procedures within the workplace in community pharmacies. Setting Community pharmacies in England and Wales. Participants 24 community pharmacy staff including pharmacists and pharmacy support staff were interviewed regarding their view of procedures in community pharmacy. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Results 3 main themes were identified. According to the ‘dissemination and creation of standard operating procedures’ theme, community pharmacy staff were required to follow a large amount of procedures as part of their work. At times, complying with all procedures was not possible. According to the ‘complying with procedures’ theme, there are several factors that influenced compliance with procedures, including work demands, the high workload and the social norm within the pharmacy. Lack of staff, pressure to hit targets and poor communication also affected how able staff felt to follow procedures. The third theme ‘procedural compliance versus using professional judgement’ highlighted tensions between the standardisation of practice and the professional autonomy of pharmacists. Pharmacists feared being unsupported by their employer for working outside of procedures, even when acting for patient benefit. Some support staff believed that strictly following procedures would keep patients and themselves safe. Dispensers described following the guidance of the pharmacist which sometimes meant working outside of procedures, but occasionally felt unable to voice concerns about not working to rule. Conclusions Organisational resilience in community pharmacy was apparent and findings from this study should help to inform policymakers and practitioners regarding factors likely to influence the implementation of procedures in community pharmacy settings. Future research should focus on exploring community pharmacy employees' intentions

  12. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services.

  13. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:27559194

  14. University-based sports pharmacy program.

    PubMed

    Price, K O; Huff, P S; Isetts, B J; Goldwire, M A

    1995-02-01

    Ways for pharmacists to become involved in sports pharmacy are discussed, and a university-based sports pharmacy program is described. Sports pharmacy encompasses treating athletic injuries, distributing drugs and sports-related supplies, counseling patients, and monitoring therapeutic outcomes, along with educating athletes, trainers, and others about drug use and abuse. Pharmacists can contribute their expertise by presenting information at schools, health clubs, and other exercise-related organizations. They can serve on drug-testing crews at collegiate athletic events. Pharmacists can also provide supplies and services to schools or athletic facilities; ideally, this could be a contractual arrangement to provide comprehensive pharmaceutical care. A sports pharmacy program was implemented at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1980. Pharmacists provide drug therapy monitoring and patient education to all patients at the school; patients' level of athletic activity is taken into consideration. Pharmacists also ensure proper use, storage, and distribution of drugs kept in clinics, training rooms, and sports medicine travel bags, as well as identifying and providing drugs and supplies that might be needed at an off-campus event. They provide inservice education to athletic trainers and physicians. The program has improved patient outcomes and helped to ensure adequate drug supplies and minimum waste. There are numerous opportunities for practitioners to become involved in sports pharmacy. A university-based sports pharmacy program improved the care of student athletes and helped contain drug costs. PMID:7749959

  15. The Economic, Social and Administrative Pharmacy (ESAP) Discipline in US Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M.; Latif, David A.; Adkins, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States have struggled over the past several decades with identifying a consistent title for the broad body of knowledge related to the social, economic, behavioral, and administrative aspects of pharmacy. This paper examines the educational background and professional experience of those teaching…

  16. Social pharmacy as a field of study: the needs and challenges in global pharmacy education.

    PubMed

    Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Al-Haddad, Mahmoud Sa'di; Abduelkarem, Abduelmula Rajab; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Palaian, Subish; Abrika, Omar Saad Saleh

    2011-12-01

    The practice of pharmacy and, consequently, pharmacy curricula have undergone significant changes over the past years in response to a rapidly changing economic, political, and social environment. Within this context, the pharmacist's role had expanded to include more direct interaction with the public in terms of the provision of health information and advice on the safe and rational use of medications. To carry out these roles effectively, pharmacists need to be well prepared on how to deal with patients' behavior and psychology. The understanding of patient sociobehavioral aspects in the medication use process is paramount to achieving optimal clinical and humanistic outcomes from therapy. The concept of behavioral sciences and health psychology are embedded as the fundamental concepts in the field of social pharmacy, and thus it is imperative that this should be taught and nurtured to future pharmacy practitioners. Based on the growing needs for future pharmacists to be exposed to issues in social pharmacy, many pharmacy schools around the world have adopted this subject to be part of their standard curriculum. In this commentary, a discussion of the needs of social pharmacy courses in pharmacy curriculum will be addressed in the context of both developed and developing countries.

  17. ROCKET PORT CLOSURE

    DOEpatents

    Mattingly, J.T.

    1963-02-12

    This invention provides a simple pressure-actuated closure whereby windowless observation ports are opened to the atmosphere at preselected altitudes. The closure comprises a disk which seals a windowless observation port in rocket hull. An evacuated instrument compartment is affixed to the rocket hull adjacent the inner surface of the disk, while the outer disk surface is exposed to the atmosphere through which the rocket is traveling. The pressure differential between the evacuated instrument compartment and the relatively high pressure external atmosphere forces the disk against the edge of the observation port, thereby effecting a tight seai. The instrument compartment is evacuated to a pressure equal to the atmospheric pressure existing at the altitude at which it is desiretl that the closure should open. When the rocket reaches this preselected altitude, the inwardly directed atmospheric force on the disk is just equaled by the residual air pressure force within the instrument compartment. Consequently, the closure disk falls away and uncovers the open observation port. The separation of the disk from the rocket hull actuates a switch which energizes the mechanism of a detecting instrument disposed within the instrument compartment. (AE C)

  18. Pharmacy Student Learning During Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences in Relation to the CAPE 2013 Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    May, Dianne W.; Kanmaz, Tina J.; Reidt, Shannon L.; Serres, Michelle L.; Edwards, Heather D.

    2016-01-01

    Outcomes from The Center for Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) are intended to represent the terminal knowledge, skills, and attitudes pharmacy students should possess and have guided delivery of pharmacy education for more than two decades. Advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) are the endpoint of pharmacy curricula where demonstration and assessment of terminal learning occurs. This review examines published literature in relation to the most recent CAPE outcomes to determine the extent to which they have been addressed during APPEs since 1996. Details related to the APPE focus, intervention(s)/learning setting(s), and assessments are summarized according to the 15 CAPE outcomes. Further, the assessments are categorized according to the level of learning achieved using an available method. Common CAPE outcomes are highlighted, as well as those for which published reports are lacking for APPEs. The range and quality of assessments are discussed and emphasize the need for continuous improvement of scholarly design and assessment. PMID:27756935

  19. Pharmacies as providers of expanded health services for people who inject drugs: a review of laws, policies, and barriers in six countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People who inject drugs (PWID) are underserved by health providers but pharmacies may be their most accessible care settings. Methods Studies in the U.S., Russia, Vietnam, China, Canada and Mexico employed a three-level (macro-, meso-, and micro-) model to assess feasibility of expanded pharmacy services for PWID. Studies employed qualitative and quantitative interviews, review of legal and policy documents, and information on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of key stakeholders. Results Studies produced a mixed assessment of feasibility. Provision of information and referrals by pharmacies is permissible in all study sites and sale and safe disposal of needles/syringes by pharmacies is legal in almost all sites, although needle/syringe sales face challenges related to attitudes and practices of pharmacists, police, and other actors. Pharmacy provision of HIV testing, hepatitis vaccination, opioid substitution treatment, provision of naloxone for drug overdose, and abscess treatment, face more serious legal and policy barriers. Discussion Challenges to expanded services for drug users in pharmacies exist at all three levels, especially the macro-level characterized by legal barriers and persistent stigmatization of PWID. Where deficiencies in laws, policies, and community attitudes block implementation, stakeholders should advocate for needed legal and policy changes and work to address community stigma and resistance. Laws and policies are only as good as their implementation, so attention is also needed to meso- and micro- levels. Policies, attitudes, and practices of police departments and pharmacy chains as well as knowledge, attitudes, and practices of individual PWID, individual pharmacies, and police officers should support rather than undermine positive laws and expanded services. Despite the challenges, pharmacies remain potentially important venues for delivering health services to PWID. PMID:24938376

  20. [Ancient history of Indian pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism.

  1. [Ancient history of Indian pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism. PMID:21032887

  2. Qualifications for future hospital pharmacy directors as perceived by pharmacy directors and hospital administrators in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Vejraska, M T; Wiederholt, J B; Zilz, D A

    1987-07-01

    Hospital pharmacy directors and administrators in Wisconsin were surveyed to determine their perceptions of the responsibilities, skills, postgraduate education, training, and experience necessary for hospital pharmacy directors during the next 10 years. Packages containing two identical questionnaires were mailed in April 1985 to the pharmacy directors at all 159 hospitals in Wisconsin. The pharmacy director and his or her immediate supervisor were asked to use a 5-point Likert-type scale to rate the importance of various responsibilities and skills and also to rank the most important responsibilities, skills, and issues. In addition, respondents answered forced-choice questions about postgraduate education and training and an open-ended question about academic coursework. All responses were compared by respondent characteristics and hospital size. There was a response rate of 48.1% to the questionnaire, representing 60.7% of the pharmacy directors (n = 96) and 34.6% of the administrators (n = 55). Both groups agreed on which responsibilities and issues will be very important (mean importance rating of greater than 4) for future pharmacy directors. However, administrators rated clinical and technical skills as significantly more important than did pharmacy directors. Only 48% of pharmacy directors believed that a residency is essential and preferred either a general or administrative residency coupled with an advanced degree, whereas more than 50% of the responding administrators favored residencies not affiliated with a degree program. The majority of pharmacy directors and administrators believed that both general staff and administrative experience is necessary for future pharmacy directors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Development, test-retest reliability and validity of the Pharmacy Value-Added Services Questionnaire (PVASQ)

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Christine L.; Hassali, Mohamed A.; Saleem, Fahad; Shafie, Asrul A.; Aljadhey, Hisham; Gan, Vincent B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: (i) To develop the Pharmacy Value-Added Services Questionnaire (PVASQ) using emerging themes generated from interviews. (ii) To establish reliability and validity of questionnaire instrument. Methods: Using an extended Theory of Planned Behavior as the theoretical model, face-to-face interviews generated salient beliefs of pharmacy value-added services. The PVASQ was constructed initially in English incorporating important themes and later translated into the Malay language with forward and backward translation. Intention (INT) to adopt pharmacy value-added services is predicted by attitudes (ATT), subjective norms (SN), perceived behavioral control (PBC), knowledge and expectations. Using a 7-point Likert-type scale and a dichotomous scale, test-retest reliability (N=25) was assessed by administrating the questionnaire instrument twice at an interval of one week apart. Internal consistency was measured by Cronbach’s alpha and construct validity between two administrations was assessed using the kappa statistic and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Confirmatory Factor Analysis, CFA (N=410) was conducted to assess construct validity of the PVASQ. Results: The kappa coefficients indicate a moderate to almost perfect strength of agreement between test and retest. The ICC for all scales tested for intra-rater (test-retest) reliability was good. The overall Cronbach’ s alpha (N=25) is 0.912 and 0.908 for the two time points. The result of CFA (N=410) showed most items loaded strongly and correctly into corresponding factors. Only one item was eliminated. Conclusions: This study is the first to develop and establish the reliability and validity of the Pharmacy Value-Added Services Questionnaire instrument using the Theory of Planned Behavior as the theoretical model. The translated Malay language version of PVASQ is reliable and valid to predict Malaysian patients’ intention to adopt pharmacy value-added services to collect partial medicine

  4. Experience with a Drug Screening Program at a School of Pharmacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Marshall E.; Hogue, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Substance use and abuse among pharmacy students is a concern of pharmacy schools, boards of pharmacy, and training sites alike. Pharmacy students must complete approximately 30% of their academic coursework in experiential settings such as community pharmacies, hospitals, and other health systems as part of any accredited pharmacy school's…

  5. Pharmacy practice and injection use in community pharmacies in Pokhara city, Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community pharmacies in Nepal serve as the first point of contact for the public with the health care system and provide many services, including administering injections. However, there is a general lack of documented information on pharmacy practice and injection use in these pharmacies. This study aims to provide information about pharmacy practice in terms of service and drug information sources, and injection use, including the disposal of used injection equipment. Methods A mixed method, cross-sectional study was conducted in 54 community pharmacies in Pokhara city. Data was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, and also by the direct observation of pharmacy premises. Interviews with pharmacy supervisors (proprietors) were also conducted to obtain additional information about certain points. Results Interviews were carried out with 54 pharmacy supervisors/proprietors (47 males and 7 females) with a mean age and experience of 35.54 and 11.73 years, respectively. Approximately a half of the studied premises were operated by legally recognized pharmaceutical personnel, while the remainder was run by people who did not have the legal authority to operate pharmacies independently. About a quarter of pharmacies were providing services such as the administration of injections, wound dressing, and laboratory and consultation services in addition to medicine dispensing and counseling services. The ‘Current Index of Medical Specialties’ was the most commonly used source for drug information. Almost two-thirds of patients visiting the pharmacies were dispensed medicines without a prescription. Tetanus Toxoid, Depot-Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, and Diclofenac were the most commonly-used/administered injections. Most of the generated waste (including sharps) was disposed of in a municipal dump without adhering to the proper procedures for the disposal of hazardous waste. Conclusions Community pharmacies in Pokhara offer a wide range

  6. Orientating Nonpharmacist Faculty Members to Pharmacy Practice

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Bianca; Sheridan, Leah; Sucher, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To design, implement, and evaluate a faculty development program intended to orient nonpharmacist faculty members to pharmacy practice. Design. A multifaceted program was implemented in 2012 that included 4 shadowing experiences in which faculty members visited acute care, ambulatory care, hospital, and community pharmacy settings under the guidance of licensed preceptors. Itineraries for each visit were based on objective lists of anticipated practice experiences that define the role of the pharmacist in each setting. Assessment. The 4 shadowing experiences culminated with reflection and completion of a survey to assess the impact of the program. All of the faculty participants agreed that the experience improved their conceptual understanding of contemporary pharmacy practice and the role of the pharmacist in the healthcare setting. The experience also improved faculty comfort with creating practice-relevant classroom activities. Conclusions. A shadowing experience is an effective way of orienting nonpharmacist faculty members to the practice of pharmacy. This program inspired the creation of an experience to introduce pharmacy practice faculty to pharmaceutical science faculty research initiatives. PMID:24954946

  7. Pharmacy in Turkey: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Tekiner, H

    2014-06-01

    Pharmacy in Turkey underwent a radical change within the last decade. Introduction of the Health Transformation Program in 2003 has had a significant impact on Turkey's pharmacy system in accordance with objectives of the program to establish new pricing regulations for pharmaceuticals based on reference prices, and to develop better computer based health information/record systems. In this context, Pharmaceutical Tracking (Track-and-Trace) System using two dimensional matrix barcodes was initiated to prevent not only drug counterfeiting, but also fraud against the medical insurance system and off-record transactions within the pharmaceutical sector; and the process of recording prescriptions in an electronic format was launched. Some other improvements have also been made with respect to pharmacy education, law and practice. In contrast with all these positive outcomes, Turkish pharmacy sector is currently in a deep financial struggle. This paper aims to provide a brief overview of the recent developments in Turkish pharmacy system and to discuss future roles and challenges of the profession.

  8. Compounding pharmacies: who is in charge?

    PubMed

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Labhsetwar, Sumedha; LeQuang, Jo Ann

    2013-03-01

    Compounding pharmacies play an increasing and increasingly important role in our healthcare system, but recent media attention has exposed limited regulatory control over these organizations at the same time their role is expanding. Compounding pharmacies are not regulated in the same manner as pharmaceutical companies and are governed largely by Chapter <797>, a monograph on the pharmaceutical compounding of sterile products, issued but not enforced by the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention. Not all states require adherence to Chapter <797>, and those that do may choose not to enforce it stringently. Furthermore, Chapter <797> is not a strong standard--for example, it does not require documentation of drug lot numbers or cross-references for patient identification. Thus, there have long been many potential quality issues associated with compounding pharmacies. As these compounding pharmacies provide important products and services, better regulation is urgently needed. Moreover, clinicians should be better aware that some injectable products they use may have been prepared by a compounding pharmacy.

  9. Technicians and the future of pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R W

    1987-07-01

    Ways in which pharmacists and pharmacy technicians can grow professionally to fulfill pharmacy's fundamental responsibility for appropriate drug use in patients are described. From the 1985 "Hilton Head Conference" on directions for clinical practice in pharmacy, the idea grew that pharmacists' traditional functions should be melded with a clinical orientation to provide pharmacy's maximum contribution to patient care. When the focus shifts from discrete activities of individual pharmacists to overall responsibilities of the department, each pharmacist and technician can see his or her contribution to the clinical endeavor; technicians assigned with a pharmacist to a specific group of patients are likely to take a more active interest in their jobs. Instead of ratios, patient outcome and job satisfaction should be the determinants of staffing patterns. Delineation of roles as judgmental or nonjudgmental should be replaced by clear job descriptions and procedures and an understanding of the complementary roles of pharmacists and technicians. Important elements in technician training include seminars presented by professional staff members and planned jointly by pharmacists and technicians, departmentwide seminars, policies that encourage technicians to join and participate in professional organizations, and liberal tuition-reimbursement policies. For career advancement, the pharmacy organizational structure might contain three levels: technician trainee, technician, and technician specialist. Pharmacists and technicians can overcome barriers between them by realizing the enormous growth potential and value of the services that both provide. PMID:3631089

  10. Using the Consumer Experience with Pharmacy Services Survey as a quality metric for ambulatory care pharmacies: older adults' perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Mott, David A; Croes, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe older adults' perceptions of evaluating and comparing pharmacies based on the Consumer Experience with Pharmacy Services Survey (CEPSS), describe older adults' perceived importance of the CEPSS and its specific domains, and explore older adults' perceptions of the influence of specific CEPSS domains in choosing/switching pharmacies. Design Focus group methodology was combined with the administration of a questionnaire. The focus groups explored participants' perceived importance of the CEPSS and their perception of using the CEPSS to choose and/or switch pharmacies. Then, using the questionnaire, participants rated their perceived importance of each CEPSS domain in evaluating a pharmacy, and the likelihood of using CEPSS to switch pharmacies if their current pharmacy had low ratings. Descriptive and thematic analyses were done. Setting 6 semistructured focus groups were conducted in a private meeting room in a Mid-Western state in the USA. Participants 60 English-speaking adults who were at least 65 years, and had filled a prescription at a retail pharmacy within 90 days. Results During the focus groups, the older adults perceived the CEPSS to have advantages and disadvantages in evaluating and comparing pharmacies. Older adults thought the CEPSS was important in choosing the best pharmacies and avoiding the worst pharmacies. The perceived influence of the CEPSS in switching pharmacies varied depending on the older adult's personal experience or trust of other consumers' experience. Questionnaire results showed that participants perceived health/medication-focused communication as very important or extremely important (n=47, 82.5%) in evaluating pharmacies and would be extremely likely (n=21, 36.8%) to switch pharmacies if their pharmacy had low ratings in this domain. Conclusions The older adults in this study are interested in using patient experiences as a quality metric for avoiding the worst pharmacies. Pharmacists' communication

  11. An Elective Course in Community Pharmacy Management with Practitioner Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiederholt, Joseph B.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A course in community pharmacy management that involves community pharmacy managers in the instruction of the course found a high degree of pharmacist interest in course projects and in participation in the program. (MSE)

  12. A Postdoctoral Fellowship in Industrial Clinical Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Joseph; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A postdoctoral pharmacy fellowship is described that provides training in industrial clinical pharmacy practice and related tasks associated with the development of new pharmaceuticals, through experience in industrial and hospital settings and in research projects. (MSE) PUBTYPE[141

  13. Types of selected security devices for hospital pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Smolarek, R T; Roffe, B D; Solomon, D K

    1984-12-01

    Every pharmacist, whether in the hospital or in a community environment, faces the daily possibility of a holdup, burglary, or forged prescription. Statistics on drug-related crime are on the upswing as an increasing number of perpetrators recognize that wholesalers and hospitals are large depots of injectable narcotics and controlled substances. In response to this, many Federal drug crime laws and increased security have been proposed. This report identifies many types of security devices available to provide early warning or deter robberies. They include perimeter security systems, motion detectors, surveillance cameras, bullet-resistant windows, and key-lock systems. This report also suggests several considerations to be used in developing a security system in a hospital pharmacy. A basic understanding of security devices will enhance the manager's ability to choose the appropriate devices(s) for a particular service.

  14. Remote controlled vacuum joint closure mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Doll, David W.; Hager, E. Randolph

    1986-01-01

    A remotely operable and maintainable vacuum joint closure mechanism for a noncircular aperture is disclosed. The closure mechanism includes an extendible bellows coupled at one end to a noncircular duct and at its other end to a flange assembly having sealed grooves for establishing a high vacuum seal with the abutting surface of a facing flange which includes an aperture forming part of the system to be evacuated. A plurality of generally linear arrangements of pivotally coupled linkages and piston combinations are mounted around the outer surface of the duct and aligned along the length thereof. Each of the piston/linkage assemblies is adapted to engage the flange assembly by means of a respective piston and is further coupled to a remote controlled piston drive shaft to permit each of the linkages positioned on a respective flat outer surface of the duct to simultaneously and uniformly displace a corresponding piston and the flange assembly with which it is in contact along the length of the duct in extending the bellows to provide a high vacuum seal between the movable flange and the facing flange. A plurality of latch mechanisms are also pivotally mounted on the outside of the duct. A first end of each of the latch mechanisms is coupled to a remotely controlled latch control shaft for displacing the latch mechanism about its pivot point. In response to the pivoting displacement of the latch mechanism, a second end thereof is displaced so as to securely engage the facing flange.

  15. Third-Year Pharmacy Students' Work Experience and Attitudes and Perceptions of the Pharmacy Profession

    PubMed Central

    Schondelmeyer, Stephen W.; Hadsall, Ronald S.; Schommer, Jon C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To describe PharmD students' work experiences and activities; examine their attitudes towards their work; examine perceptions of preceptor pharmacists they worked with; and determine important issues associated with career preference. Methods A written survey was administered to third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students at 8 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the Midwest. Results Five hundred thirty-three students (response rate = 70.4%) completed the survey instrument. Nearly 100% of PharmD students reported working in a pharmacy by the time their advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) began. Seventy-eight percent reported working in a community pharmacy, and 67% had worked in a chain community pharmacy. For all practice settings, students reported spending 69% of their time on activities such as compounding, dispensing, and distribution of drug products. Conclusions Most students are working in community pharmacy (mainly chain) positions where their primary function is traditional drug product dispensing and distribution. Having a controllable work schedule was the variable most strongly associated with career choice for all students. PMID:18698391

  16. Building a business case for an outpatient pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Burger, Gregory S; Jorgenson, James A; Stevenson, James G

    2015-06-01

    To be successful, an outpatient prescription pharmacy service built and operated by a hospital should be run as a competitive business, not in the manner of an inpatient operation. The outpatient pharmacy should not be a siloed entity that operates separately from the inpatient pharmacy. A hospital may miss a significant margin opportunity if it runs the pharmacy strictly as a safety net for uninsured or underinsured patients. PMID:26665338

  17. Building a business case for an outpatient pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Burger, Gregory S; Jorgenson, James A; Stevenson, James G

    2015-06-01

    To be successful, an outpatient prescription pharmacy service built and operated by a hospital should be run as a competitive business, not in the manner of an inpatient operation. The outpatient pharmacy should not be a siloed entity that operates separately from the inpatient pharmacy. A hospital may miss a significant margin opportunity if it runs the pharmacy strictly as a safety net for uninsured or underinsured patients.

  18. Recognizing faces.

    PubMed

    Ellis, H D

    1975-11-01

    Following a review of the stimulus and subject factors which have been found to affect recognition faces, the question of whether this process can be considered a special one is dealt with. Evidence from studies involving the development of face recognition, the recognition of inverted faces, and the clinical condition prosopagnosia is considered, and in each case found to be inadequate for the unequivocal conclusion that the processes underlying face recognition are qualitatively different from those employed in recognizing other pictorial material.

  19. The potential dual use of online pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Górski, Andrzej

    2010-03-01

    The technological advances of the 20th century resulted in the creation of the Internet and its introduction into everyday life on a global scale. The Internet provides access to information and the sale and purchase of goods. Medications are also subject to trade. Their sale is conducted by online pharmacies and their global turnover amounts to hundreds of billions of dollars. Medications ordered over the Internet are sent by mail all over the world. Considering the events of recent years, we cannot exclude the risk of a terrorist attack through online pharmacies. Terrorists can establish such companies, legally or illegally, or acquire ones already existing. Parcels, which are highly trusted by the customers of online pharmacies, can, for example, be contaminated with dangerous materials. The sale of online medications in the international system is potentially dangerous and requires international regulation.

  20. Vaccine shortages and suspect online pharmacy sellers.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim K

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines represent half the products on the FDA Biologics Product Shortages list. As a result, providers and patients may purchase them online, a process rife with patient safety risks. We examined vaccine online availability by assessing up to 5 identified online sellers. We determined if sites were accredited by the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) VIPPS program, listed as US or international, employed social media linking to suspect online pharmacies, and if they were on the NABP Not Recommended list. All vaccines were advertised by online pharmacies and through data aggregation and social media sites, none were VIPPS-accredited, and most were on the NABP Not Recommended list. We found some online sellers advertising vaccines as over-the-counter. We extended our analysis to WHO Essential Medicines List vaccines and found all are also available online from suspect, non-VIPPS accredited sellers. Stakeholders should be aware of these online patient safety dangers.

  1. Entrepreneurs: leading the way to pharmacy's future.

    PubMed

    Martin, Caren McHenry

    2011-12-01

    Entrepreneurship has always been central to the practice of pharmacy. Whether opening a new retail store, setting up a unique clinic practice, or researching a novel therapy, pharmacists are continually looking forward and following their visions of how pharmacy can be part of a new direction in health care. In 2011, the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists (ASCP) Foundation--itself the product of entrepreneurship--awarded grants to three entrepreneurs who are seeking to establish a fee-for-service component of their senior care pharmacy practices in the community. The grant recipients, while differing in their approaches, share the common goal of providing safe, effective, and cost-justified medication therapy and education to ambulatory older adults. PMID:22155573

  2. Game Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Jill

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to teach…

  3. 21 CFR 1304.40 - Notification by online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pharmacy has made the notifications to the DEA Administrator required by 21 U.S.C. 831 and 21 CFR 1304.40... controlled substance for sale, delivery, distribution, or dispensing by means of the Internet, an online...) of this section: (1) The pharmacy's Internet Pharmacy Site Disclosure information required to...

  4. 21 CFR 1304.40 - Notification by online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pharmacy has made the notifications to the DEA Administrator required by 21 U.S.C. 831 and 21 CFR 1304.40... controlled substance for sale, delivery, distribution, or dispensing by means of the Internet, an online...) of this section: (1) The pharmacy's Internet Pharmacy Site Disclosure information required to...

  5. 21 CFR 1306.09 - Prescription requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prescription requirements for online pharmacies... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.09 Prescription requirements for online pharmacies. (a) No controlled... course of his professional practice and is acting on behalf of a pharmacy whose registration has...

  6. 21 CFR 1306.09 - Prescription requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription requirements for online pharmacies... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.09 Prescription requirements for online pharmacies. (a) No controlled... course of his professional practice and is acting on behalf of a pharmacy whose registration has...

  7. 21 CFR 1306.09 - Prescription requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription requirements for online pharmacies... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.09 Prescription requirements for online pharmacies. (a) No controlled... course of his professional practice and is acting on behalf of a pharmacy whose registration has...

  8. 21 CFR 1306.09 - Prescription requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prescription requirements for online pharmacies... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.09 Prescription requirements for online pharmacies. (a) No controlled... course of his professional practice and is acting on behalf of a pharmacy whose registration has...

  9. 21 CFR 1306.09 - Prescription requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prescription requirements for online pharmacies... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.09 Prescription requirements for online pharmacies. (a) No controlled... course of his professional practice and is acting on behalf of a pharmacy whose registration has...

  10. An Evaluation of the Education of Hospital Pharmacy Directors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakley, Robert S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Hospital pharmacy directors ranked their academic needs as: personnel and financial management (greatest), computers, hospital organization, clinical pharmacy practice, traditional pharmacy practice, and statistics. Those with MBAs perceived themselves stronger in these areas than did those with other degrees. Only MBAs and MSs felt adequately…

  11. Standards of Practice for the Profession of Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Samuel H.; Schlegel, John F.

    1979-01-01

    New standards of practice that describe in generic terms what a pharmacist does in fulfilling the basic responsibilities of the profession are presented as part of the Continuing Competence in Pharmacy Project of the American Pharmacy Association and the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. The four major areas of responsibilities for…

  12. Herbal Remedies: The Design of a New Course in Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouzi, Samir A.

    1996-01-01

    A new pharmacy course developed at Northeast Louisiana University School of Pharmacy trains pharmacy students in use of herbs as self-selected over-the-counter products. Emphases are on use of herbal preparations by the general public as alternative therapies, safety and efficacy of herbs and other phytomedicinals, and the pharmacist's role in…

  13. Pharmacy practice in an operating room complex.

    PubMed

    Evans, D M; Guenther, A M; Keith, T D; Lazarus, H L

    1979-10-01

    The steps involved in establishing a comprehensive pharmaceutical service in an operating and recovery room complex is described. Objectives of the operating room pharmaceutical satellite were to: (1) improve control of distribution, storage and charging for all drugs, especially Schedule II controlled substances; (2) reduce inventory costs and loss of revenue; (3) improve compliance with the drug formulary; and (4) establish patient-oriented pharmaceutical services. The pharmacy satellite improved inventory control and patient charging, assured continual access to all drugs and appropriate security for controlled substances, and expanded the pharmacy department's clinical, drug information and research activities. PMID:507076

  14. Relevance of Physics to the Pharmacy Major

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Objective To offer a physics course that is relevant to pharmacy students, yet still contains many of the fundamental principles of physics. Design The course was modified over a period of several years to include activities and examples that were related to other courses in the curriculum. Assessment Course evaluations were given to assess student attitudes about the importance of physics in the pharmacy curriculum. Conclusion Students' attitudes have changed over time to appreciate the role that physics plays in their studies. Students gained confidence in their ability to learn in other courses. PMID:17786257

  15. Clinical Pharmacy Services in Canadian Emergency Departments: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wanbon, Richard; Lyder, Catherine; Villeneuve, Eric; Shalansky, Stephen; Manuel, Leslie; Harding, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Providing clinical pharmacy services in emergency departments (EDs) is important because adverse drug events commonly occur before, during, and after ED encounters. Survey studies in the United States have indicated a relatively low presence of clinical pharmacy services in the ED setting, but a descriptive survey specific to Canada has not yet been performed. Objectives: To describe the current status of pharmacy services in Canadian EDs and potential barriers to implementing pharmacy services in this setting. Methods: All Canadian hospitals with an ED and at least 50 acute care beds were contacted to identify the presence of dedicated ED pharmacy services (defined as at least 0.5 full-time equivalent [FTE] position). Three different electronic surveys were then distributed by e-mail to ED pharmacy team members (if available), pharmacy managers (at hospitals without an ED pharmacy team), and ED managers (all hospitals). The surveys were completed between July and September 2013. Results: Of the 243 hospitals identified, 95 (39%) had at least 0.5 FTE clinical pharmacy services in the ED (based on initial telephone screening). Of the 60 ED pharmacy teams that responded to the survey, 56 had pharmacists (27 of which also had ED pharmacy technicians) and 4 had pharmacy technicians (without pharmacists). Forty-four (79%) of the 56 ED pharmacist services had been established within the preceding 10 years. Order clarification, troubleshooting, medication reconciliation, and assessment of renal dosing were the services most commonly provided. The large majority of pharmacy managers and ED managers identified the need for ED pharmacy services where such services do not yet exist. Inadequate funding, competing priorities, and lack of training were the most commonly reported barriers to providing this service. Conclusions: Although the establishment of ward-based pharmacy services in Canadian EDs has increased over the past 10 years, lack of funding and a lack of

  16. Using Bourdieu’s Theoretical Framework to Examine How the Pharmacy Educator Views Pharmacy Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore how different pharmacy educators view pharmacy knowledge within the United Kingdom MPharm program and to relate these findings to Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretical framework. Methods. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted with 4 faculty members from 3 different types of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom: a newer school, an established teaching-based school, and an established research-intensive school. Selection was based on a representation of both science-based and practice-based disciplines, gender balance, and teaching experience. Results. The interview transcripts indicated how these members of the academic community describe knowledge. There was a polarization between science-based and practice-based educators in terms of Bourdieu’s description of field, species of capital, and habitus. Conclusion. A Bourdieusian perspective on the differences among faculty member responses supports our understanding of curriculum integration and offers some practical implications for the future development of pharmacy programs. PMID:26889065

  17. Autonomic closure for turbulence simulations.

    PubMed

    King, Ryan N; Hamlington, Peter E; Dahm, Werner J A

    2016-03-01

    A new approach to turbulence closure is presented that eliminates the need to specify a predefined turbulence model and instead provides for fully adaptive, self-optimizing, autonomic closures. The closure is autonomic in the sense that the simulation itself determines the optimal local, instantaneous relation between any unclosed term and resolved quantities through the solution of a nonlinear, nonparametric system identification problem. This nonparametric approach allows the autonomic closure to freely adapt to varying nonlinear, nonlocal, nonequilibrium, and other turbulence characteristics in the flow. Even a simple implementation of the autonomic closure for large eddy simulations provides remarkably more accurate results in a priori tests than do dynamic versions of traditional prescribed closures. PMID:27078285

  18. Community pharmacy incident reporting: a new tool for community pharmacies in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ho, Certina; Hung, Patricia; Lee, Gary; Kadija, Medina

    2010-01-01

    Incident reporting offers insight into a variety of intricate processes in healthcare. However, it has been found that medication incidents are under reported in the community pharmacy setting. The Community Pharmacy Incident Reporting (CPhIR) program was created by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada specifically for incident reporting in the community pharmacy setting in Canada. The initial development of key elements for CPhIR included several focus-group teleconferences with pharmacists from Ontario and Nova Scotia. Throughout the development and release of the CPhIR pilot, feedback from pharmacists and pharmacy technicians was constantly incorporated into the reporting program. After several rounds of iterative feedback, testing and consultation with community pharmacy practitioners, a final version of the CPhIR program, together with self-directed training materials, is now ready to launch. The CPhIR program provides users with a one-stop platform to report and record medication incidents, export data for customized analysis and view comparisons of individual and aggregate data. These unique functions allow for a detailed analysis of underlying contributing factors in medication incidents. A communication piece for pharmacies to share their experiences is in the process of development. To ensure the success of the CPhIR program, a patient safety culture must be established. By gaining a deeper understanding of possible causes of medication incidents, community pharmacies can implement system-based strategies for quality improvement and to prevent potential errors from occurring again in the future. This article highlights key features of the CPhIR program that will assist community pharmacies to improve their drug distribution system and, ultimately, enhance patient safety.

  19. Nevada Test Site closure program

    SciTech Connect

    Shenk, D.P.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of the history, design and development, procurement, fabrication, installation and operation of the closures used as containment devices on underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. It also addresses the closure program mothball and start-up procedures. The Closure Program Document Index and equipment inventories, included as appendices, serve as location directories for future document reference and equipment use.

  20. Acute care clinical pharmacy practice: unit- versus service-based models.

    PubMed

    Haas, Curtis E; Eckel, Stephen; Arif, Sally; Beringer, Paul M; Blake, Elizabeth W; Lardieri, Allison B; Lobo, Bob L; Mercer, Jessica M; Moye, Pamela; Orlando, Patricia L; Wargo, Kurt

    2012-02-01

    This commentary from the 2010 Task Force on Acute Care Practice Model of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy was developed to compare and contrast the "unit-based" and "service-based" orientation of the clinical pharmacist within an acute care pharmacy practice model and to offer an informed opinion concerning which should be preferred. The clinical pharmacy practice model must facilitate patient-centered care and therefore must position the pharmacist to be an active member of the interprofessional team focused on providing high-quality pharmaceutical care to the patient. Although both models may have advantages and disadvantages, the most important distinction pertains to the patient care role of the clinical pharmacist. The unit-based pharmacist is often in a position of reacting to an established order or decision and frequently is focused on task-oriented clinical services. By definition, the service-based clinical pharmacist functions as a member of the interprofessional team. As a team member, the pharmacist proactively contributes to the decision-making process and the development of patient-centered care plans. The service-based orientation of the pharmacist is consistent with both the practice vision embraced by ACCP and its definition of clinical pharmacy. The task force strongly recommends that institutions pursue a service-based pharmacy practice model to optimally deploy their clinical pharmacists. Those who elect to adopt this recommendation will face challenges in overcoming several resource, technologic, regulatory, and accreditation barriers. However, such challenges must be confronted if clinical pharmacists are to contribute fully to achieving optimal patient outcomes.

  1. Orbiter door closure tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acres, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    Safe reentry of the shuttle orbiter requires that the payload bay doors be closed and securely latched. Since a malfunction in the door drive or bulkhead latch systems could make safe reentry impossible, the requirement to provide tools to manually close and secure the doors was implemented. The tools would disconnect a disabled door or latch closure system and close and secure the doors if the normal system failed. The tools required to perform these tasks have evolved into a set that consists of a tubing cutter, a winch, a latching tool, and a bolt extractor. The design, fabrication, and performance tests of each tool are described.

  2. Pharmacy Education in the Context of Australian Practice

    PubMed Central

    Nation, Roger L.; Roller, Louis; Costelloe, Marian; Galbraith, Kirstie; Stewart, Peter; Charman, William N

    2008-01-01

    Accredited pharmacy programs in Australia provide a high standard of pharmacy education, attracting quality students. The principal pharmacy degree remains the 4-year bachelor of pharmacy degree; however, some universities offer graduate-entry master of pharmacy degrees taught in 6 semesters over a 2-year period. Curricula include enabling and applied pharmaceutical science, pharmacy practice, and clinical and experiential teaching, guided by competency standards and an indicative curriculum (a list of topics that are required to be included in a pharmacy degree curriculum before the program must be accredited by the Australian Pharmacy Council). Graduate numbers have increased approximately 250% with a dramatic increase from 6 pharmacy degree programs in 1997 to 21 such programs in 2008. Graduates must complete approximately 12 months of internship in a practice setting after graduation and prior to the competency-based registration examinations. An overview of pharmacy education in Australia is provided in the context of the healthcare system, a national system for subsidizing the cost of prescription medicines, the Australian National Medicines Policy and the practice of pharmacy. Furthermore, the innovations in practice and technology that will influence education in the future are discussed. PMID:19325951

  3. Activity and the Role of Keio University Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Keio University Faculty of Pharmacy opened an insurance pharmacy on its campus in 2001. This pharmacy was opened with the objectives of 1) educating pharmacists to serve the regional community; 2) heightening students' motivation; and 3) providing practical education geared to the needs of actual healthcare settings. Since my appointment as director in 2003, I have led various initiatives to determine an ideal business model for a university pharmacy. This paper reports these initiatives and discusses the mission and future prospects of university pharmacies. In terms of education, all 4th-year students provide medication guidance to simulated patients at our university pharmacy counters, and are briefed by pharmacists about pharmacy administration and dispensing activities. Over three periods each academic year, trainees from other universities have been accepted for long-term on-site training. Students also work at local facilities for elderly persons to learn how to effectively communicate with this demographic and to better understand their unique pharmacokinetic profiles, impaired QOL, etc. Students can also participate in health promotion and drug education courses for regional residents, and support their self-medication. Pharmacies are important points of contact with local communities where residents' lives can be medically monitored. It is important for pharmaceutical universities to operate their own pharmacies in order to determine and stay abreast of the evolving challenges society expects pharmaceutical science to address. University pharmacies need to become models for general community pharmacies.

  4. Profitability, third-party reimbursement, and access to community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Carroll, N V; Miederhoff, P A; Waters, L W

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent to which third-party reimbursement programs have affected the profitability and availability of community pharmacies. Data were taken from records maintained by the Virginia Board of Pharmacy and a survey of 177 community pharmacies. Between 1989 and 1994, 258 outpatient pharmacies opened and 342 closed. Chain and independent pharmacies suffered net losses, and supermarket and mass merchandiser pharmacies experienced net increases. Few significant changes occurred in the distribution of pharmacies over the study period. Fifty-nine chain and independent pharmacies and 1 supermarket pharmacy chain provided usable profit and reimbursement data. These pharmacies experienced declines in profits and increases in the percentage of prescriptions reimbursed by private third-party prescription programs over the last several years. Regression analyses indicated that higher ratios of sales of private third-party prescriptions to private-pay prescriptions were associated with lower profits. All respondents indicated that changes in private third-party reimbursement had substantially reduced profits over the past 5 years. The results indicate that the growth of private third-party payment has led to lower pharmacy profits but has not yet resulted in problems of consumer access.

  5. 21 CFR 1311.200 - Pharmacy responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....200 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.200 Pharmacy responsibilities. (a... as required by § 1306.22 of this chapter. (4) Import, store, and verify the practitioner's...

  6. Impact of Biotechnology on Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Curtis D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the role of schools of pharmacy in (1) preparing future practitioners to assimilate and shape the impact of biotechnology; (2) establish graduate and research programs to enhance and apply products of biotechnology; and (3) identify manpower needs to fully realize potential advances caused by biotechnology. (DB)

  7. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January...

  8. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January...

  9. Attitudes of Pharmacy Students toward Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, A. Thomas; Kotzan, Jeffrey A.

    1984-01-01

    A study of one institution's baccalaureate pharmacy students' attitudes about cancer, chemotherapy, and related pharmaceutical practice roles examined four factors: pharmacist-patient conflict, patient rights, vigorous treatment, and acceptance. Results revealed male-female attitudinal differences as well as differences correlating with marital…

  10. NASA LaRC Hazardous Material Pharmacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esquenet, Remy

    1995-01-01

    In 1993-1994 the Office of Environmental Engineering contracted SAIC to develop NASA Langley's Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. One of the priority projects identified in this contract was the development of a hazardous waste minimization (HAZMIN)/hazardous materials reutilization (HAZMART) program in the form of a Hazardous Materials Pharmacy. A hazardous materials pharmacy is designed to reduce hazardous material procurement costs and hazardous waste disposal costs. This is accomplished through the collection and reissue of excess hazardous material. Currently, a rarely used hazardous material may be stored in a shop area, unused, until it passes its expiration date. The material is then usually disposed of as a hazardous waste, often at a greater expense than the original cost of the material. While this material was on the shelf expiring, other shop areas may have ordered new supplies of the same material. The hazardous material pharmacy would act as a clearinghouse for such materials. Material that is not going to be used would be turned in to the pharmacy. Other users could then be issued this material free of charge, thereby reducing procurement costs. The use of this material by another shop prevents it from expiring, thereby reducing hazardous waste disposal costs.

  11. Pharmacy Research Online. A Guide for Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Derral; And Others

    This document is a self-paced training packet developed for a pilot project at the University of Houston-University Park to teach pharmacy faculty members to do their own online searching. The training begins with general topics such as the kinds of searches that can be done effectively online, the selection of appropriate databases to search, and…

  12. Pharmacy benefits: new concepts in plan design.

    PubMed

    Goff, Veronica V

    2002-03-01

    This issue brief examines changes to prescription drug benefit coverage in large employer plans and implications for a Medicare prescription drug benefit. The brief discusses reasons behind employer benefit plan redesign and recent coverage trends, as well as potential paths to modernize benefits. Information is based on a literature review and conversations and interviews with employers, benefit consultants, and pharmacy benefit management executives.

  13. 38 CFR 51.180 - Pharmacy services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.180 Pharmacy services. The facility... disseminating drug information to medical and nursing staff. (a) Procedures. The facility management must... irregularities to the primary physician and the director of nursing, and these reports must be acted upon....

  14. 38 CFR 51.180 - Pharmacy services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.180 Pharmacy services. The facility... disseminating drug information to medical and nursing staff. (a) Procedures. The facility management must... irregularities to the primary physician and the director of nursing, and these reports must be acted upon....

  15. 38 CFR 51.180 - Pharmacy services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.180 Pharmacy services. The facility... disseminating drug information to medical and nursing staff. (a) Procedures. The facility management must... irregularities to the primary physician and the director of nursing, and these reports must be acted upon....

  16. 38 CFR 51.180 - Pharmacy services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.180 Pharmacy services. The facility... disseminating drug information to medical and nursing staff. (a) Procedures. The facility management must... irregularities to the primary physician and the director of nursing, and these reports must be acted upon....

  17. 38 CFR 51.180 - Pharmacy services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.180 Pharmacy services. The facility... disseminating drug information to medical and nursing staff. (a) Procedures. The facility management must... irregularities to the primary physician and the director of nursing, and these reports must be acted upon....

  18. Proceedings. Pharmacy Cadre Training Structured Externship Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Univ., Lawrence. School of Pharmacy.

    The proceedings are for two workshops, held in November 1972 and April 1973, in the process of establishing a structured externship in pharmacy. At the first workshop the field instructors were apprised of the goals and techniques of the project, and the policy of the program was developed. At the followup workshop the experiences of the first…

  19. An investigation on pharmacy functions and services affecting satisfaction of patients with prescriptions in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hidehiko; Nakajima, Fumio; Tada, Yuichirou; Yoshikawa, Emi; Iwahashi, Yoshiki; Fujita, Kenji; Hayase, Yukitoshi

    2009-05-01

    Various functions expected by patient expects are needed with progress in the system for separation of dispensing and prescribing functions. In this investigation, the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy function were analyzed quantitatively. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 178 community pharmacies. Questions on pharmacy functions and services totaled 87 items concerning information service, amenities, safety, personnel training, etc. The questionnaires for patients had five-grade scales and composed 11 items (observed variables). Based on the results, "the percentage of satisfied patients" was determined. Multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy functions or services provided, to confirm patient's evaluation of the pharmacy, and how factors affected comprehensive satisfaction. In correlation analysis, "the number of pharmacists" and "comprehensive satisfaction" had a negative correlation. Other interesting results were obtained. As a results of factor analysis, three latent factors were obtained: the "human factor," "patients' convenience," and "environmental factor," Multiple regression analysis showed that the "human factor" affected "comprehensive satisfaction" the most. Various pharmacy functions and services influence patient satisfaction, and improvement in their quality increases patient satisfaction. This will result in the practice of patient-centered medicine.

  20. Unrealized potential and residual consequences of electronic prescribing on pharmacy workflow in the outpatient pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Nanji, Karen C; Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Boehne, Jennifer J; Keohane, Carol A; Ash, Joan S; Poon, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Electronic prescribing systems have often been promoted as a tool for reducing medication errors and adverse drug events. Recent evidence has revealed that adoption of electronic prescribing systems can lead to unintended consequences such as the introduction of new errors. The purpose of this study is to identify and characterize the unrealized potential and residual consequences of electronic prescribing on pharmacy workflow in an outpatient pharmacy. Methods A multidisciplinary team conducted direct observations of workflow in an independent pharmacy and semi-structured interviews with pharmacy staff members about their perceptions of the unrealized potential and residual consequences of electronic prescribing systems. We used qualitative methods to iteratively analyze text data using a grounded theory approach, and derive a list of major themes and subthemes related to the unrealized potential and residual consequences of electronic prescribing. Results We identified the following five themes: Communication, workflow disruption, cost, technology, and opportunity for new errors. These contained 26 unique subthemes representing different facets of our observations and the pharmacy staff's perceptions of the unrealized potential and residual consequences of electronic prescribing. Discussion We offer targeted solutions to improve electronic prescribing systems by addressing the unrealized potential and residual consequences that we identified. These recommendations may be applied not only to improve staff perceptions of electronic prescribing systems but also to improve the design and/or selection of these systems in order to optimize communication and workflow within pharmacies while minimizing both cost and the potential for the introduction of new errors. PMID:24154836

  1. Stakeholder Perspectives on Outcome Expectations of Pharmacy Graduates From a Caribbean School of Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Sa, Bidyadhar; Ignacio, Diane N.; Extavour, Rian M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To explore stakeholders’ views regarding the performance of pharmacy graduates upon entering the workforce and to identify curricular deficiencies and possible solutions. Methods. Practicing pharmacists, many of whom were members of government and pharmacy organizations, were asked to complete a 40-item questionnaire to determine their views regarding the educational outcomes of pharmacy graduates from a Caribbean pharmacy school. In addition, the stakeholders participated in focus group discussions to capture feedback not gathered on the questionnaire. Results. Ten stakeholders completed the questionnaire and 11 participated in the focus group discussions. Stakeholders rated graduates higher than average in 13 educational outcomes: application of knowledge and skills, patient care, communication skills, confidentiality, ethics, problem solving, and innovation. However, responses to open-ended questions and comments made during the focus group discussions identified deficiencies, which included a lack of clinical faculty members and qualified preceptors to teach pharmacy students, and the need to revise basic sciences courses. Conclusion. Feedback from key stakeholders suggests that the quality of pharmacy graduates is above average for the most part; however, additional work is needed to address the deficiencies identified. PMID:23788810

  2. History of Pharmacy Museum of the Faculty of Pharmacy University of Belgrade.

    PubMed

    Krajnović, Dusanka; Kernican, Leontina

    2009-01-01

    History of Pharmacy Museum at the Faculty of Pharmacy University of Belgrade was founded in Belgrade in 1952, thanks to many pharmacists and historians, but especially to Mr Andrija Mirković (Mpharm). His precious private collection of antiquities, which he donated to the Faculty of Pharmacy in Belgrade, subsequently a basic one for the Museum foundation, included apothecary vessels, apparatuses, manuscripts and books dated back to the XVI century. Furthermore, there were included many other antiquities, books and manuscripts from pharmacies on the territory of former Yugoslavia, mostly from Serbia, so the entire Museum collection comprises various apothecary vessels: 700 ceramic, wooden, glass, porcelain and halide glass jars, as well as the XIX century exhibits from Pravitelstvena Apoteka (the first state-owned pharmacy in Serbia, which operated between 1836-1859). The Museum collection of accessories and vessels is completed with a library and precious archive materials. The library itself includes the original manuscripts as well as the colour offprint of some manuscripts, and printed works; mostly scientific books, textbooks, journals and pharmacopoeias with drug tax lists. Some printed books dating back to the Late Middle Ages are very rare and precious, such as Curio's Medicina Salernitana (1612) and the Ruel's version of Dioscorides' De materia medica. This entire collection is considered a unique one in Serbia for its variety and greatness, representing a precious source for studying the History of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Ethics (as a subject was included into the Faculty's curriculum since 1952 and cancelled recently in 2008). PMID:20500004

  3. Essential elements for a pharmacy practice mentoring program.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Anne H; Hardy, Yolanda M; Jarvis, Courtney; Stoner, Steven C; Pitlick, Matthew; Hilaire, Michelle L; Hanes, Scott; Burke, Jack; Lodise, Nicole M

    2013-03-12

    Formal guidelines for mentoring faculty members in pharmacy practice divisions of colleges and schools of pharmacy do not exist in the literature. This paper addresses the background literature on mentoring programs, explores the current state of mentoring programs used in pharmacy practice departments, and provides guidelines for colleges and schools instituting formal mentoring programs. As the number of pharmacy colleges and schools has grown, the demand for quality pharmacy faculty members has dramatically increased. While some faculty members gain teaching experience during postgraduate residency training, new pharmacy practice faculty members often need professional development to meet the demands of their academic responsibilities. A mentoring program can be 1 means of improving faculty success and retention. Many US colleges and schools of pharmacy have developed formal mentoring programs, whereas several others have informal processes in place. This paper discusses those programs and the literature available, and makes recommendations on the structure of mentoring programs.

  4. Acoustic emission measurement of fatigue crack closure

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.S.; Rhyim, Y.M. . Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials); Kwon, D. . Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering); Ono, K. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1995-03-01

    In this study the acoustic emission (AE) technique has been applied to measure the crack closure loads precisely and the results have been compared with those measured by the conventional techniques such as the crack opening displacement (COD) method, back face strain gage (BFS) method, and surface strain gage method. In addition, fatigue tests at high stress ratio (R=0.8) have also been conducted to compared the results with those of the above methods at R=0.1 and to verify the accuracy of each method. The material used in the present investigation was an Al-Li 8090 alloy which was supplied as a 44.5mm thick rolled plate in the solution heat treated, 6% stretched and naturally aged condition. The COD and BFS methods show relatively good agreement with each other and measure the through-thickness mean value of crack closure loads. In the plane strain condition, the crack closure levels obtained by the COD and BFS methods were lower than those by the AE and surface train gage methods. The data obtained by the surface strain gage method must be interpreted carefully, because the shape of the compliance curves is affected by the location relative to the crack tip. The intrinsic fatigue life curve (da/dN vs. [Delta]K[sub eff]) obtained by the AE technique fitted well with the curve of high stress ratio (R=0.8) test at high [Delta]K, suggesting that the AE technique is sensitive to local crack-tip behavior on a microscopic scale and can be considered as a reliable measurement method for crack closure phenomena under repetitive loads.

  5. Randomized, community-based pharmacy intervention to expand services beyond sale of sterile syringes to injection drug users in pharmacies in New York City.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Natalie D; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M

    2013-09-01

    Structural interventions may help reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV. In 2009 to 2011, we randomized pharmacies participating in a nonprescription syringe access program in minority communities to intervention (pharmacy enrolled and delivered HIV risk reduction information to injection drug users [IDUs]), primary control (pharmacy only enrolled IDUs), and secondary control (pharmacy did not engage IDUs). Intervention pharmacy staff reported more support for syringe sales than did control staff. An expanded pharmacy role in HIV risk reduction may be helpful.

  6. System for closure of a physical anomaly

    DOEpatents

    Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S

    2014-11-11

    Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.

  7. FINAL CLOSURE PLAN SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS CLOSURE, SITE 300

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J E; Scott, J E; Mathews, S E

    2004-09-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory of the University of California (LLNL) operates two Class II surface impoundments that store wastewater that is discharged from a number of buildings located on the Site 300 Facility (Site 300). The wastewater is the by-product of explosives processing. Reduction in the volume of water discharged from these buildings over the past several years has significantly reduced the wastewater storage needs. In addition, the impoundments were constructed in 1984, and the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane liners are nearing the end of their service life. The purpose of this project is to clean close the surface impoundments and provide new wastewater storage using portable, above ground storage tanks at six locations. The tanks will be installed prior to closure of the impoundments and will include heaters for allowing evaporation during relatively cool weather. Golder Associates (Golder) has prepared this Final Closure Plan (Closure Plan) on behalf of LLNL to address construction associated with the clean closure of the impoundments. This Closure Plan complies with State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Section 21400 of the California Code of Regulations Title 27 (27 CCR {section}21400). As required by these regulations and guidance, this Plan provides the following information: (1) A site characterization, including the site location, history, current operations, and geology and hydrogeology; (2) The regulatory requirements relevant to clean closure of the impoundments; (3) The closure procedures; and, (4) The procedures for validation and documentation of clean closure.

  8. 40 CFR 264.197 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.197... Tank Systems § 264.197 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a tank system, the owner or..., then the owner or operator must close the tank system and perform post-closure care in accordance...

  9. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the closure and post-closure requirements that apply to landfills (40 CFR 264.310). ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265... post-closure care. (a) At closure of a magazine or unit which stored hazardous waste under this...

  10. 40 CFR 265.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.258... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 265.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or... or decontaminated, he must close the facility and perform post-closure care in accordance with...

  11. 40 CFR 265.197 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.197... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.197 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a tank system..., then the owner or operator must close the tank system and perform post-closure care in accordance...

  12. Face Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Diana

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of face painting as a technique for making the endangered species issue tangible for children while addressing the complexity of the issue. Children are "given" an animal of their own and are educated about the animal while having their faces painted to resemble the animal. (LZ)

  13. Double face sealing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A double face sealing device is disclosed for mounting between two surfaces to provide an air-tight and fluid-tight seal between a closure member bearing one of the surfaces and a structure or housing bearing the other surface which extends around the opening or hatchway to be closed. The double face sealing device includes a plurality of sections or segments mounted to one of the surfaces, each having a main body portion, a pair of outwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, and a pair of inwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, an elastomeric cover on the distal, free ends of the outwardly extending and diverging spring arms, and an elastomeric cover on the distal, free, ends of the outwardly extending and diverging spring arms, and an elastomeric cover on the distal, free ends of the inwardly extending and diverging spring arms. The double face sealing device has application or use in all environments requiring a seal, but is particularly useful to seal openings or hatchways between compartments of spacecraft or aircraft.

  14. Beyond Faces and Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Holistic processing—the tendency to perceive objects as indecomposable wholes—has long been viewed as a process specific to faces or objects of expertise. Although current theories differ in what causes holistic processing, they share a fundamental constraint for its generalization: Nonface objects cannot elicit facelike holistic processing in the absence of expertise. Contrary to this prevailing view, here we show that line patterns with salient Gestalt information (i.e., connectedness, closure, and continuity between parts) can be processed as holistically as faces without any training. Moreover, weakening the saliency of Gestalt information in these patterns reduced holistic processing of them, which indicates that Gestalt information plays a crucial role in holistic processing. Therefore, holistic processing can be achieved not only via a top-down route based on expertise, but also via a bottom-up route relying merely on object-based information. The finding that facelike holistic processing can extend beyond the domains of faces and objects of expertise poses a challenge to current dominant theories. PMID:26674129

  15. 27 CFR 19.523 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Closure Requirements § 19.523 Affixing closures. Each bottle or other container of spirits having...

  16. 40 CFR 258.60 - Closure criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Closure and Post-Closure Care § 258.60 Closure criteria. (a) Owners or... (a)(2) of this section, and (2) An erosion layer that provides equivalent protection from wind...

  17. Pharmacy students’ experiences in provision of community pharmacy mental health services

    PubMed Central

    Szumilas, Magdalena; Rowe, Denise; Landry, Kathryn; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Kutcher, Stan; Gardner, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little information is available describing the pharmacy student’s experience working in community practice with people with lived experience of mental illness. Students’ perspectives as observers, learners, technical staff and future pharmacists are important. Objective: To gain a better understanding of the pharmacy student experience in community pharmacy–based service provision to people with lived experience of mental illness. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study using interpretive description and application of the Theoretical Domains Framework. Focus groups were held with third- and fourth-year undergraduate pharmacy students from one Canadian university. Results: Two student focus groups were held in the fall of 2012 with 11 students (7 third year and 4 fourth year), 6 women and 5 men, mean age 24.5 (range, 21 to 30) years, averaging 3.2 years (range, 2 weeks to 7 years) of cumulative, mostly part-time, community pharmacy experience. Three broad themes emerged from the pharmacy student experience: (1) business tension; (2) roles, responsibilities and relationships; and (3) stigma. Students discussed their own roles, responsibilities and relationships in a pluralistic identity experience (i.e., pharmacy student, technician, future pharmacist). Application of the Theoretical Domains Framework demonstrated numerous influences on behaviour. Conclusions: From the students’ description of community pharmacy–based care of people with lived experience of mental illness, significant issues exist with current practices and behaviours. Advancing the role of pharmacists and pharmacy students to meet the needs of people with mental illness will require strategies to address multifactorial influences on behaviour. PMID:24494016

  18. The Vision and Challenges of Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University's Affiliated Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Norose, Takahiko; Manabe, Tomohiro; Furuta, Seiichi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University (HPU), according to its educational mission, seeks to "develop medical professionals who contribute to community medicine", and it has produced more than 6300 graduates since 1974. With recent medical advancements and a progressively aging society, the role of the pharmacist in community medicine has diversified and is increasing in importance. Therefore, in April 2012, the Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University Affiliated Pharmacy was established as a for-profit business of the Educational Foundation of the Hokkaido University of Science, the parent body of HPU. The pharmacy is located near the Sapporo station; it is operated by six pharmacists and four clerks, and supported by three faculty members who are engaged in providing HPU student education such as on-site clinical training, in addition to their pharmacy duties such as home care pharmaceutics. For the first two years it was open, the pharmacy focused on the establishment of pharmacy administration and fiscal consolidation. In April 2015, the Pharmacy Management Committee set the pharmacy's future vision, as well as its mid-term strategy, which consists of the four main components of pharmacy practices, education, research, and social contribution, in order for the pharmacy to serve as a model of community pharmacy.

  19. Closedure - Mine Closure Technologies Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppila, Päivi; Kauppila, Tommi; Pasanen, Antti; Backnäs, Soile; Liisa Räisänen, Marja; Turunen, Kaisa; Karlsson, Teemu; Solismaa, Lauri; Hentinen, Kimmo

    2015-04-01

    Closure of mining operations is an essential part of the development of eco-efficient mining and the Green Mining concept in Finland to reduce the environmental footprint of mining. Closedure is a 2-year joint research project between Geological Survey of Finland and Technical Research Centre of Finland that aims at developing accessible tools and resources for planning, executing and monitoring mine closure. The main outcome of the Closedure project is an updatable wiki technology-based internet platform (http://mineclosure.gtk.fi) in which comprehensive guidance on the mine closure is provided and main methods and technologies related to mine closure are evaluated. Closedure also provides new data on the key issues of mine closure, such as performance of passive water treatment in Finland, applicability of test methods for evaluating cover structures for mining wastes, prediction of water effluents from mine wastes, and isotopic and geophysical methods to recognize contaminant transport paths in crystalline bedrock.

  20. Tobacco cessation education for pharmacists: Face-to-face presentations versus live webinars.

    PubMed

    Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Hoch, Matthew A; Vitale, Frank M; Wahl, Kimberly R; Corelli, Robin L; de Moor, Carl

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the perceived effectiveness of tobacco cessation continuing education for pharmacists in face-to-face presentation versus live webinar modalities. METHODS A continuing pharmacy education (CPE) activity, Do Ask, Do Tell: A Practical Approach to Smoking Cessation, was offered in face-to-face and live webinar modalities. Following the activity, participants completed a brief questionnaire that assessed the anticipated impact of the activity on their smoking cessation counseling practices. RESULTS Of the 1,088 CPE participants, 819 (75%) attended a face-to-face presentation and 269 (25%) participated in a live webinar. Posttraining self-rated ability to address tobacco use was similar between groups ( P = 0.38), and both the face-to-face and live webinar groups reported a significant difference between pre- and posttraining abilities ( P < 0.05 for both groups). Attendees of the face-to-face presentation reported higher likelihoods of providing each of the individual tasks required to provide an effective, brief tobacco cessation intervention ( P < 0.05 for each task). CONCLUSION These data suggest that more value exists in face-to-face education than live webinars when personal and interactive skills are the focus of the activity.

  1. Attitude of Pharmacy Students Towards a Nutrition Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed Abdul, Majid Mufaqam

    Today's pharmacists are likely to encounter questions about nutritional products sold in the pharmacy. This is due, in part, to the increased number of pharmacies attached to grocery stores and the availability of pharmacists. Many pharmacists report they lack nutritional knowledge and believe the best time to educate pharmacists about nutrition is during pharmacy school. This study was conducted to determine if today's pharmacy students receive education in nutrition and if they realize the importance of nutrition education. Two hundred and twenty five students from India and ninety five students from the United States currently attending pharmacy school were surveyed. Results showed only 3.5% of students from India and 13.6% of students from the United States received nutrition education during their pharmacy degree curriculum. In addition, 81.8% of students from India and 82.9% of students from the United States who had taken a course in nutrition believed a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. When pharmacy-related experience was taken into account, 92.9% of students from India and 73.3% of students from the United States also believed a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. Overall, 88% of students from India and 70.5% of students from the United States believed nutrition education was important and should be included in the pharmacy degree curriculum. Results of this study suggest the majority of today's pharmacy students believe a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum regardless of past nutrition education or pharmacy-related experience.

  2. Spontaneous ileostomy closure

    PubMed Central

    Alyami, Mohammad S.; Lundberg, Peter W.; Cotte, Eddy G.; Glehen, Olivier J.

    2016-01-01

    Iatrogenic ileostomies are routinely placed during colorectal surgery for the diversion of intestinal contents to permit healing of the distal anastomosis prior to elective reversal. We present an interesting case of spontaneous closure of a diverting ileostomy without any adverse effects to the patient. A 65-year-old woman, positive for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer type-I, with locally invasive cancer of the distal colon underwent en-bloc total colectomy, hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingoophorectomy with creation of a proximal loop ileostomy. The ostomy temporarily closed without reoperation at 10 weeks, after spontaneously reopening, it definitively closed, again without surgical intervention at 18 weeks following the original surgery. This rare phenomenon has occurred following variable colorectal pathology and is poorly understood, particularly in patients with aggressive disease and adjunct perioperative interventions. PMID:27279518

  3. CPT-hole closure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noce, T.E.; Holzer, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    The long-term stability of deep holes 1.75 inches. (4.4 cm) in diameter by 98.4 feet (30 m) created by cone penetration testing (CPT) was monitored at a site in California underlain by Holocene and Pleistocene age alluvial fan deposits. Portions of the holes remained open both below and above the 28.6-foot (8.7 m)-deep water table for approximately three years, when the experiment was terminated. Hole closure appears to be a very slow process that may take decades in the stiff soils studied here. Other experience suggests holes in softer soils may also remain open. Thus, despite their small diameter, CPT holes may remain open for years and provide paths for rapid migration of contaminants. The observations confirm the need to grout holes created by CPT soundings as well as other direct-push techniques in areas where protection of shallow ground water is important.

  4. Clinical or industrial pharmacy? Case studies of hospital pharmacy automation in Canada and France.

    PubMed

    Novek, J

    1998-01-01

    Automated medication dispensing systems for hospital pharmacies, heralded as an important means of reducing drug errors and improving labor productivity, have also been seen as a means of furthering the transformation of the pharmacy profession from its role in dispensing prescriptions to a clinical profession concerned with treatments and patient outcomes. Automation aids this transformation by transferring the responsibility for routine dispensing to technicians performing rationalized and computer-mediated tasks. Not all pharmacists agree with these trends. Some fear a loss of professional status and employment as their knowledge is expropriated and incorporated into machinery operated by those with lesser qualifications. They fear an industrial rather than a clinical future. Their concerns are compounded by health care cutbacks. These issues were studied at two hospitals in Canada and one in France, all mid-sized public hospitals with automated unit dose drug delivery systems installed in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Preliminary results indicated national differences in approaches to hospital pharmacy automation. In Canada, pharmacists have resisted major changes in their control of the dispensing process and in their traditional roles vis à vis doctors and pharmacy technicians. In France, where hospital pharmacy as a profession is less developed than in North America, automation has brought about a far more radical substitution for pharmacists' labor.

  5. Using critical realism as a framework in pharmacy education and social pharmacy research.

    PubMed

    Oltmann, Carmen; Boughey, Chrissie

    2012-01-01

    This article challenges the idea that positivism is capable of representing the complexity of social pharmacy and pharmacy education. It is argued that critical realism provides a framework that allows researchers to look at the nature of reality and at mechanisms that produce, or have the tendency to produce, events and experiences of those events. Critical realism is a framework, not a method. It allows researchers to make observations about phenomena and explain the relationships and connections involved. The researcher has to look for mechanisms and structures that could explain why the phenomena, the connections, and the relationships exist (or do not) and then try to show that these mechanisms do exist. This article first contextualizes critical realism, then briefly describes it, and lastly exemplifies the use of critical realism in a discussion of a research project conducted in pharmacy education. Critical realism may be particularly useful in interdisciplinary research, for example, where practitioners and researchers are working together in a social pharmacy or pharmacy education setting. Critical realism requires the practitioners and the researchers to question and make known their assumptions about their own realities and to think of a complex problem or phenomenon in terms of a stratified reality, generative mechanisms, and tendencies. Critical realism may make research more rigorous and also allow researchers to conceive of a greater breadth of research designs for their work.

  6. Impact of utilizing pharmacy students as workforce for Hawai'i Asthma Friendly Pharmacy Project.

    PubMed

    Ma, Carolyn S; Nett, Blythe; Kishaba, Gregg; Gomez, Lara

    2015-02-01

    A partnership was formed between the University of Hawai'i at Hilo Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (DKICP) and the Department of Health to carry out the Hawai'i Asthma Friendly Pharmacy Project (HAFPP), which utilizes pharmacy students as a workforce to administer Asthma Control Tests™ (ACT), and provide Asthma Action Plans (AAP) and inhaler technique education. Evaluation of data from a pilot project in 2008 with first and second year students prompted more intensive training in therapeutics, inhaler medication training, and communication techniques. Data collection began when two classes of students were first and second year students and continued until the students became fourth year students in their advanced experiential ambulatory care clinic and retail community pharmacy rotations. Patients seen included pediatric (32%) and adult (68%) aged individuals. Hawai'i County was the most common geographic site (50%) and most sites were retail pharmacies (72%). Administered ACT surveys (N=96) yielded a mean score of 19.64 (SD +/-3.89). In addition, 12% of patients had received previous ACT, and 47% had previous AAPs. Approximately 83% of patients received an additional intervention of AAP and inhaler education with 73% of these patients able to demonstrate back proper inhaler technique. Project challenges included timing of student training, revising curriculum and logistics of scheduling students to ensure consistent access to patients.

  7. Pharmacy Students’ Interpretation of Academic Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hai; McKauge, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To explore pharmacy students’ recognition and interpretation of situations constituting breaches of academic integrity. Methods. A survey instrument comprising 10 hypothetical student(s) scenarios was completed by 852 students in the bachelor of pharmacy program at an Australian university. The scenarios were relevant to current modes of assessment and presented degrees of ambiguity around academic integrity. Results. Identification of the hypothetical student(s) at fault, particularly in the deliberately ambiguous scenarios, was not related to the respondents’ year of study or sex. Students with fewer years of postsecondary education were more definitive in their interpretation of contentious cases. Respondents from all 4 years of study reported witnessing many of these behaviors among their peers. Conclusion. This study provided novel insight into the ambiguity surrounding academic integrity and students’ perceptions relating to the deliberate or inadvertent involvement of other parties. PMID:25147391

  8. Team-Based Learning in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Ofstad, William

    2013-01-01

    Instructors wanting to engage students in the classroom seek methods to augment the delivery of factual information and help students move from being passive recipients to active participants in their own learning. One such method that has gained interest is team-based learning. This method encourages students to be prepared before class and has students work in teams while in the classroom. Key benefits to this pedagogy are student engagement, improved communication skills, and enhanced critical-thinking abilities. In most cases, student satisfaction and academic performance are also noted. This paper reviews the fundamentals of team-based learning in pharmacy education and its implementation in the classroom. Literature reports from medical, nursing, and pharmacy programs are also discussed. PMID:23716738

  9. Remote Library Access for Pharmacy Preceptors

    PubMed Central

    Soltis, Denise; Schott, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Objective To institute and evaluate the response to a program providing access to electronic library resources for pharmacy preceptors. Design The pharmacy experiential office and the library collaborated using existing programs and technology to provide and market secure remote access for preceptors. Assessment Preceptor participation was tracked in the experiential office, and response to the program was assessed using an online survey instrument that included questions about use of and preference for specific library resources. Three hundred thirty-four adjunct faculty members registered, representing 34% of all preceptors with active e-mail accounts. Conclusion Preceptor participation in the program exceeded expectations. Some minor flaws in the logistics of delivering the service were identified and remedied. PMID:21179247

  10. Face pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... gets worse when you bend forward) Tic douloureux Temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome Sometimes the reason for the face pain ... is persistent, unexplained, or accompanied by other unexplained symptoms. Call your primary provider. What to Expect at ...

  11. Remote controlled vacuum joint closure mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Doll, D.W.; Hager, E.R.

    1984-02-22

    A remotely operable and maintainable vacuum joint closure mechanism for a noncircular aperture is disclosed. The closure mechanism includes an extendible bellows coupled at one end to a noncircular duct and at its other end to a flange assembly having sealed grooves for establishing a high vacuum seal with the abutting surface of a facing flange which includes an aperture forming part of the system to be evacuated. A plurality of generally linear arrangements of pivotally coupled linkages and piston combinations are mounted around the outer surface of the duct and aligned along the length thereof. Each of the piston/linkage assemblies is adapted to engage the flange assembly by means of a respective piston and is further coupled to a remote controlled piston drive shaft to permit each of the linkages positioned on a respective flat outer surface of the duct to simultaneously and uniformly displace a corresponding piston and the flange assembly with which it is in contact along the length of the duct in extending the bellows to provide a high vacuum seal between the movable flange and the facing flange. A plurality of latch mechanisms are also pivotally mounted on the outside of the duct. A first end of each of the latch mechanisms is coupled to a remotely controlled latch control shaft for displacing the latch mechanism about its pivot point. In response to the pivoting displacement of the latch mechanism, a second end thereof is displaced so as to securely engage the facing flange and maintain the high vacuum seal established by the displacement of the flange assembly and extension of the bellows without displacing the entire duct.

  12. Systematic screening for cardiovascular risk at pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Rohla, Miklos; Haberfeld, Heinz; Sinzinger, Helmut; Kritz, Harald; Tscharre, Maximilian; Freynhofer, Matthias K; Huber, Kurt; Weiss, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Background Early identification and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) is essential to prevent excess morbidity, mortality and healthcare-related costs. We sought to investigate whether an active screening programme at pharmacies could identify a significant proportion of patients with previously undetected CVRFs. Methods and results Between April and July 2013, 184 pharmacies in Lower Austria enrolled a total of 6800 participants, in whom body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Mean age was 58±17 years and 67.8% were women. 21% of men and 16% of women had a BMI≥30 kg/m2. The crude prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) was 7%, hypercholesterolaemia was identified in 57%, and 44% had elevated BP. Among fasting individuals (n=1814), DM was found in 18%. In total, 30% were confronted with a CVRF they were previously unaware of, and pharmacists recommended 45% of all participants to actively consult a physician. A first-time diagnosis of a CVRF was most frequent in the age groups between 25 and 64 (32% of participants). Conclusions This pharmacy-based approach for cardiovascular risk screening found similar overall prevalences of CVRFs as reported by national surveys, but revealed underdiagnoses, particularly in lower age groups. A previously unknown CVRF was identified in every third individual, frequently prompting the pharmacists to recommend the consultation of a physician. An active screening approach at pharmacies might therefore serve as an effective alternative to the public preventive medical examination, particularly in younger age groups. PMID:27738518

  13. Cross training of hospital pharmacy technicians.

    PubMed

    Robinson, E T; Schafermeyer, K W

    1996-04-01

    Cross training is a job design method that can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of a hospital pharmacy department. Although employee satisfaction is often improved, some employees may fear that cross training makes them expendable. Good communication and employee participation are keys to successful implementation of a cross-training program. Methods of implementing cross-training programs and avoiding potential pitfalls are also described.

  14. Fundamentals of nuclear pharmacy, 3rd Ed

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, G.B. )

    1992-01-01

    This book is a standard text/reference of nuclear pharmacy. New sections in the Third Edition include: instruments used for radiation detection and measurement; disposal of radioactive materials; clinical uses of all new and existing radiopharmaceuticals; 99m Tc and 123I-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, as well as radiolabeled leukocytes, platelets, and antibodies; and up-to-date descriptions of the latest FDA regulations.

  15. Managing Conflict: A Guide for the Pharmacy Manager

    PubMed Central

    Haumschild, Ryan J.; Hertig, John B.; Weber, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Managing conflict among a variety of people and groups is a necessary part of creating a high performance pharmacy department. As new pharmacy managers enter the workforce, much of their success depends on how they manage conflict. The goal of this article is to provide a guide for the pharmacy director on conflict in the workplace. By evaluating each type of conflict, we can learn how to respond when it occurs. Resolving conflict requires a unique and individualized approach, and the strategy used may often be based on the situational context and the personality of the employee or manager. The more that pharmacy leaders can engage in conflict resolution with employees and external leaders, the more proactive they can be in achieving positive results. If pharmacy directors understand the source of conflicts and use management strategies to resolve them, they will ensure that conflicts result in a more effective patient-centered pharmacy service. PMID:26405347

  16. Survey of Pharmacy Schools' Approaches and Attitudes toward Curricular Integration.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Therese I; Fan, Jingyang; Nieto, Marcelo J

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To identify ways in which curricular integration is addressed in US pharmacy schools, the structure of therapeutics and foundational science courses, and perceptions of the effects current curricular integration methods have on student learning. Methods. An electronic survey was sent to academic leaders representing 131 pharmacy schools in the United States. Frequency data was tabulated and demographic analysis was performed. Results. Respondent data represents 94 schools of pharmacy. Arranging similar content from various disciplines in a course, a skills laboratory and pharmacy practice experiences were the most common methods for achieving curricular integration. More than one half of the schools indicated that foundational sciences were integrated with therapeutics. The most common reported challenge to curricular integration was logistics. Conclusion. Pharmacy education in the United States has evolved in addressing curricular integration in the curricula, which is consistent with changes in accreditation standards. Most pharmacy schools reported a variety of methods for achieving the intent of curricular integration. PMID:27667833

  17. Survey of Pharmacy Schools’ Approaches and Attitudes toward Curricular Integration

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jingyang; Nieto, Marcelo J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To identify ways in which curricular integration is addressed in US pharmacy schools, the structure of therapeutics and foundational science courses, and perceptions of the effects current curricular integration methods have on student learning. Methods. An electronic survey was sent to academic leaders representing 131 pharmacy schools in the United States. Frequency data was tabulated and demographic analysis was performed. Results. Respondent data represents 94 schools of pharmacy. Arranging similar content from various disciplines in a course, a skills laboratory and pharmacy practice experiences were the most common methods for achieving curricular integration. More than one half of the schools indicated that foundational sciences were integrated with therapeutics. The most common reported challenge to curricular integration was logistics. Conclusion. Pharmacy education in the United States has evolved in addressing curricular integration in the curricula, which is consistent with changes in accreditation standards. Most pharmacy schools reported a variety of methods for achieving the intent of curricular integration.

  18. Clinical pharmacy: is it a credible academic discipline?

    PubMed

    Walker, R

    1996-11-01

    A review of the development of clinical pharmacy in the UK reveals that its origins stem from the mid 70's when many undergraduates received short clinical attachments with physicians. The evolution was accelerated by the appointment of pharmacists who held joint university and hospital contracts. Innovative postgraduate diploma and masters programmes in clinical pharmacy established in the early 80's secured a steady supply of skilled individuals to undertake the various roles that arose. Acceptance within academia was marked by the establishment of a series of Chairs in clinical pharmacy in the late 80's and early 90's along with PhD research programmes in clinical pharmacy. As an emerging discipline the forthcoming university research assessment exercise will mark a milestone in the progress of clinical pharmacy. There is, however, concern that the assessment exercise will use criteria not entirely sympathetic to the uniqueness of clinical pharmacy. PMID:8973164

  19. Survey of Pharmacy Schools’ Approaches and Attitudes toward Curricular Integration

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jingyang; Nieto, Marcelo J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To identify ways in which curricular integration is addressed in US pharmacy schools, the structure of therapeutics and foundational science courses, and perceptions of the effects current curricular integration methods have on student learning. Methods. An electronic survey was sent to academic leaders representing 131 pharmacy schools in the United States. Frequency data was tabulated and demographic analysis was performed. Results. Respondent data represents 94 schools of pharmacy. Arranging similar content from various disciplines in a course, a skills laboratory and pharmacy practice experiences were the most common methods for achieving curricular integration. More than one half of the schools indicated that foundational sciences were integrated with therapeutics. The most common reported challenge to curricular integration was logistics. Conclusion. Pharmacy education in the United States has evolved in addressing curricular integration in the curricula, which is consistent with changes in accreditation standards. Most pharmacy schools reported a variety of methods for achieving the intent of curricular integration. PMID:27667833

  20. Engaging Pharmacy Students, Residents, and Fellows in Antimicrobial Stewardship.

    PubMed

    Chahine, Elias B; El-Lababidi, Rania M; Sourial, Mariette

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship programs are mainly established by infectious diseases physicians and infectious diseases-trained clinical pharmacists with the goal of optimizing patients' outcomes while halting antimicrobial resistance, decreasing adverse events, and controlling health care cost. The role of the infectious diseases-trained clinical pharmacist in antimicrobial stewardship is well established; however, there are not enough formally trained pharmacists to assume the challenging responsibilities of the steward coordinator. The purpose of this article was to review the available literature and resources and propose a model to engage introductory pharmacy practice experience students, advanced pharmacy practice experience students, postgraduate year (PGY) 1 pharmacy residents, PGY2 infectious diseases pharmacy residents, and PGY2 or PGY3 infectious diseases pharmacy fellows in antimicrobial stewardship. Further studies are needed to assess and document the impact of pharmacy students and postgraduate trainees on antimicrobial stewardship programs.

  1. Accelerated Tank Closure Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS, T.L.

    2003-02-01

    Among the highest priorities for action under the ''Hanford Federal Facility and Agreement and Consent Order'', hereafter referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement, is the retrieval, treatment and disposal of Hanford Site tank waste. Tank waste is recognized as one of the primary threats to the Columbia River and one of the most complex technical challenges. Progress has been made in resolving safety issues, characterizing tank waste and past tank leaks, enhancing double-shell tank waste transfer and operations systems, retrieving single-shell tank waste, deploying waste treatment facilities, and planning for the disposal of immobilized waste product. However, limited progress has been made in developing technologies and providing a sound technical basis for tank system closure. To address this limitation the Accelerated Tank Closure Demonstration Project was created to develop information through technology demonstrations in support of waste retrieval and closure decisions. To complete its mission the Accelerated Tank Closure Demonstration Project has adopted performance objectives that include: protecting human health and the environment; minimizing/eliminating potential waste releases to the soil and groundwater; preventing water infiltration into the tank; maintaining accessibility of surrounding tanks for future closure; maintaining tank structural integrity; complying with applicable waste retrieval, disposal, and closure regulations; and maintaining flexibility for final closure options in the future.

  2. National Survey of Volunteer Pharmacy Preceptors

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rhonda M.; Nemire, Ruth E.; Boyle, Cynthia J.; Assemi, Mitra; Kahaleh, Abby A.; Soltis, Denise A.; Allen, Rondall E.; Hritcko, Philip M.; O'Sullivan, Teresa A.; Destache, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To survey pharmacy preceptors regarding experiential education and determine the implications of the findings on colleges and schools of pharmacy. Methods An online survey was sent to 4,396 experiential sites. The survey instrument consisted of 41 questions regarding the experiential education environment from the preceptor's perspective (eg, experiential load, time-quality issues, compensation, etc). Results One thousand one hundred sixty-three preceptors responded (26.5%) to the survey. Concerning experiential load, 73% took 2 or more students in the past year and almost half of the sites had to turn placements away. Nearly all preceptors felt that the more time they spent with students, the higher quality the experience, and 20% felt they didn't have enough time to provide a quality experience. Thirty-six percent of respondents chose monetary stipend as the form of compensation they valued most. Conclusions This study provides insights into the issues that concern volunteer preceptors and the findings could be used to enhance the quality of experiential education in pharmacy. PMID:19214266

  3. Pharmacy Residents’ Pursuit of Academic Positions

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Tiffany R.; Mehta, Bella H.; Rodis, Jennifer L.; Pruchnicki, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe pharmacy residents’ interest in and pursuit of academic positions. Methods. An electronic presurvey and postsurvey were sent to pharmacy residents during the 2011-2012 residency year. The initial survey evaluated residents’ job preferences and interest in academia at the beginning of residency, and the follow-up survey focused on job selection and reasons for pursuing or not pursuing positions in academia. Results. Nine hundred thirty-six residents responded to the initial survey and 630 participated in both the initial and follow-up survey. Forty-eight percent of those responding to both surveys strongly considered a career in academia in the initial survey, 28% applied for an academic position, and 7% accepted a position. Second-year postgraduate residents were more likely than first-year postgraduate residents to apply for and be offered a faculty position. Conclusion. Pharmacy residents are interested in academia. While increasing interest among residents is encouraging for faculty recruitment, the academy should also encourage and develop adequate training experiences to prepare residents to succeed in these positions. PMID:25995513

  4. Job Turnover Intentions Among Pharmacy Faculty

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Mark H.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To determine the primary reasons why pharmacy faculty intend to remain or leave their current institution and why they left their most recent academic institution, and the relative contribution of various organizational and individual characteristics toward explaining variance in turnover intentions. Methods A survey instrument was e-mailed to pharmacy faculty members asking respondents to indicate up to 5 reasons for their intentions and up to 5 reasons why they left a previous institution. The survey also elicited perceptions on quality of work life in addition to demographic and institutional data, upon which turnover intentions were regressed using a forward-conditional procedure. Organizational commitment as a moderator of turnover intentions was regressed over the remaining variables not acting directly on employer intentions. Results Just over 1 in 5 respondents indicated intentions to leave their current academic institution. Excessive workload, seeking a new challenge, poor salary, and poor relationships with college or school administrators were frequently cited as reasons for leaving. Turnover intentions are influenced directly by department chair support and organizational commitment, which moderates various support and satisfaction variables. Conclusions Pharmacy faculty members’ decision to remain or leave an institution is dependent upon developing a sense of commitment toward the institution. Commitment is facilitated by support from the institution and department chair, in addition to a sense of satisfaction with the teaching environment. PMID:17786250

  5. Competition in the German pharmacy market: an empirical analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical products are an important component of expenditure on public health insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany. For years, German policy makers have regulated public pharmacies in order to limit the increase in costs. One reform has followed another, main objective being to increase competition in the pharmacy market. It is generally assumed that an increase in competition would reduce healthcare costs. However, there is a lack of empirical proof of a stronger orientation of German public pharmacies towards competition thus far. Methods This paper analyses the self-perceptions of owners of German public pharmacies and their orientation towards competition in the pharmacy markets. It is based on a cross-sectional survey (N = 289) and distinguishes between successful and less successful pharmacies, the location of the pharmacies (e.g. West German States and East German States) and the gender of the pharmacy owner. The data are analysed descriptively by survey items and employing bivariate and structural equation modelling. Results The analysis reveals that the majority of owners of public pharmacies in Germany do not currently perceive very strong competitive pressure in the market. However, the innovativeness of the pharmacist is confirmed as most relevant for net revenue development and the profit margin. Some differences occur between regions, e.g. public pharmacies in West Germany have a significantly higher profit margin. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the German healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the competition between public pharmacies in Germany have not been completely successful. Many owners of public pharmacies disregard instruments of active customer-orientated management (such as customer loyalty or an offensive position and economies of scale), which could give them a competitive advantage. However, it is clear that those pharmacists who strive for systematic and innovative management and adopt an

  6. Specialty Pharmacy Services: Preparing for a New Era in Health-System Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Shay, Blake; Louden, Les; Kirschenbaum, Bonnie

    2015-10-01

    To deal with the changing health care landscape and the expanding growth of specialty pharmaceuticals, it is imperative that health systems evaluate their current structure of providing hospitalbased specialty pharmacy services. Specialty pharmacy services have rapidly expanded over the last decade, and this has affected a wide variety of disease states and in many cases has dramatically enhanced clinical outcomes. However, these medications come at a substantial cost, and a clear plan must be established at each institution to sustain financial viability. By focusing on developing a plan for specialty pharmaceuticals, the pharmacy director can help ensure the institution has prepared a strategy that is conservative, financially viable, and patient-centered. PMID:26912924

  7. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  8. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  9. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  10. Closure report for N Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This report has been prepared to satisfy Section 3156(b) of Public Law 101-189 (Reports in Connection with Permanent Closures of Department of Energy Defense Nuclear Facilities), which requires submittal of a Closure Report to Congress by the Secretary of Energy upon the permanent cessation of production operations at a US Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facility (Watkins 1991). This closure report provides: (1) A complete survey of the environmental problems at the facility; (2) Budget quality data indicating the cost of environmental restoration and other remediation and cleanup efforts at the facility; (3) A proposed cleanup schedule.

  11. [Angle-closure chronic glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Lachkar, Y

    2003-10-01

    The incidence of chronic angle closure glaucoma is considerably greater than the incidence of the acute type. This type of glaucoma may mimic primary open angle glaucoma with visual field deterioration, optic nerve alteration and intraocular pressure elevation with a quiet painless eye. Its diagnosis is based on indentation gonioscopy showing peripheral anterior synechiae. The mechanisms of angle closure are the pupillary block, the plateau iris configuration and the creeping form. The treatment of chronic angle closure glaucoma is based on laser peripheral iridotomy. PMID:14646832

  12. Development and Implementation of Critical Thinking Assignments Throughout a Pharmacy Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Marilyn F.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    In a summer faculty development workshop, seven faculty in different pharmacy disciplines (biochemistry, therapeutics, pharmacy management, pharmaceutics, pathophysiology, pharmaceutical analysis, pharmacy administration) clarified critical thinking objectives for their courses, practiced this approach in a faculty workshop, and piloted the…

  13. Pharmacy Technology: A Community College's Response to a Growing Health Care Need.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedel, Janice N.; Kabat, Ellen J.

    1991-01-01

    A needs assessment received 526 responses from 958 Iowa pharmacy-related businesses, and 183 businesses participated in a DACUM process to validate competencies for pharmacy technicians. Results were used to design a competency-based pharmacy technician curriculum. (SK)

  14. Cutaneous Wound Closure Materials: An Overview and Update

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mubarak, Luluah; Al-Haddab, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: On a daily basis, dermasurgeons are faced with different kinds of wounds that have to be closed. With a plethora of skin closure materials currently available, choosing a solution that combines excellent and rapid cosmetic results with practicality and cost-effectiveness can be difficult, if not tricky. Objectives: We aimed to review the available skin closure materials over the past 20 years and the scientific claims behind their effectiveness in repairing various kinds of wounds. Materials and Methods: The two authors independently searched and scrutinised the literature. The search was performed electronically using Pub Med, the Cochrane Database, Google Scholar and Ovid as search engines to find articles concerning skin closure materials written since 1990. Conclusion: Many factors are involved in the choice of skin closure material, including the type and place of the wound, available materials, physician expertise and preferences, and patient age and health. Evidence-based main uses of different skin closure materials are provided to help surgeons choose the appropriate material for different wounds. PMID:24470712

  15. CVS All Kids Can: CVS/Pharmacy Charitable Trust and CVS/Pharmacy Create Program that Supports Children with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article briefly describes CVS All Kids Can, a program launched by CVS/Pharmacy Charitable Trust and CVS/Pharmacy designed to make life easier for children with special needs. CVS is America's largest retail pharmacy, operating more than 5,400 retail and specialty pharmacy stores in 36 states and the District of Columbia. Through this…

  16. An Academic Multihealth System PGY2 Pediatric Pharmacy Residency Program.

    PubMed

    Klosterman, Theresa; Meyers, Rachel; Siu, Anita; Shah, Pooja; Kimler, Katelin; Sturgill, Marc; Robinson, Christine

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel multihealth system pediatric pharmacy residency program through the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy at Rutgers University. Pediatric clinical pharmacy is a growing field that has seen an increase in demand for practitioners. Practice sites include freestanding children's hospitals, children's hospitals within adult hospitals, and pediatric units within adult hospitals. To accommodate a residency program in a region with no freestanding children's hospital, the pediatric faculty members at the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy at Rutgers University developed a multihealth system postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) pediatric pharmacy residency program with 6 pediatric faculty members functioning as preceptors at their 5 respective practice sites. The multihealth system setup of the program provides the resident exposure to a multitude of patient populations, pediatric specialties, and pediatric pharmacy practices. In addition, the affiliation with Rutgers University allows an emphasis on academia with opportunities for the resident to lecture in small and large classrooms, facilitate discussion periods, assist with clinical laboratory classes, and precept pharmacy students. The resident has the unique opportunity to develop a research project with a large and diverse patient population owing to the multihealth system rotation sites. A multihealth system PGY2 residency in pediatric pharmacy provides the resident a well-rounded experience in pediatric clinical practice, research, and academia that will enhance the resident's ability to build his or her own pediatric pharmacy practice. PMID:26766936

  17. Pharmacy officer support of U.S. Coast Guard cutters.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, P E

    2000-11-01

    U.S. Public Health Service commissioned officers serve in 16 pharmacy billets with the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). Thirteen of these billets involve serving as points of contact for, and providing logistical, materiel, and educational support to, USCG cutters. USCG instructions have solidified the role of pharmacy officers in the support of USCG afloat units. This article describes one USCG pharmacy officer's experience in providing pharmacy service support to USCG cutters based in Alameda, California, Yerba Buena Island (San Francisco), California, and Honolulu, Hawaii.

  18. The Utrecht Pharmacy Practice network for Education and Research: a network of community and hospital pharmacies in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Koster, Ellen S; Blom, Lyda; Philbert, Daphne; Rump, Willem; Bouvy, Marcel L

    2014-08-01

    Practice-based networks can serve as effective mechanisms for the development of the profession of pharmacists, on the one hand by supporting student internships and on the other hand by collection of research data and implementation of research outcomes among public health practice settings. This paper presents the characteristics and benefits of the Utrecht Pharmacy Practice network for Education and Research, a practice based research network affiliated with the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Utrecht University. Yearly, this network is used to realize approximately 600 student internships (in hospital and community pharmacies) and 20 research projects. To date, most research has been performed in community pharmacy and research questions frequently concerned prescribing behavior or adherence and subjects related to uptake of regulations in the pharmacy setting. Researchers gain access to different types of data from daily practice, pharmacists receive feedback on the functioning of their own pharmacy and students get in depth insight into pharmacy practice.

  19. Pharmaceutical Consultation in UAE Community Pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Hamoudi, N M; Shirwaikar, A A; Ali, H S; Al Ayoubi, E I

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, the focus of pharmacists as traditional drug dispensers has shifted to more active and participative role in risk assessment, risk management, and other medication related consultation activities. Pharmacy profession is evolving steadily in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Pharmacists in UAE are so much occupied in their administrative and managerial duties that dispensing is mostly attended to by pharmacy technicians. Pharmacist-led patient counseling is limited to the dosage and frequency of medications and rarely adverse reactions and drug interactions with other medications. Therefore we decided to perform quantitative questionnaires study to explore the role of pharmacist in patient counseling in UAE, the evaluation of pharmacist's opinion on patient counseling and the potential determinants of personal consultation. Results show the frequency and nature of inquiries received by pharmacist. Five to twenty inquires per month are received from patient, most of them related to drug prescription and dose recommendation. Thirty nine percent of pharmacists received inquiries from doctors, most of them related to the dose and mode of action. Ninty two percent of the pharmacists agreed that patient counseling is their professional responsibility. About 82% of pharmacists agreed that counseling will increase their sales and enhance the reputation of their pharmacies. Seventy percent of pharmacists mentioned that they need to undergo training for effective counseling while 46% of pharmacists felt that more staff in the pharmacies would have a positive influence on patient compliance to medication therapies and patient safety. The potential determinants of personal consultation show that 52% of participants trusted pharmacist and 55% considered the pharmacist as a friend. Forty eight percent of participants visited the pharmacy for medical recommendation while 30% for drug compounding, 72% agreed that pharmacist conducts full instruction while 31% agreed

  20. Pharmaceutical Consultation in UAE Community Pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Hamoudi, N. M.; Shirwaikar, A. A.; Ali, H. S.; Al Ayoubi, E. I.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the focus of pharmacists as traditional drug dispensers has shifted to more active and participative role in risk assessment, risk management, and other medication related consultation activities. Pharmacy profession is evolving steadily in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Pharmacists in UAE are so much occupied in their administrative and managerial duties that dispensing is mostly attended to by pharmacy technicians. Pharmacist-led patient counseling is limited to the dosage and frequency of medications and rarely adverse reactions and drug interactions with other medications. Therefore we decided to perform quantitative questionnaires study to explore the role of pharmacist in patient counseling in UAE, the evaluation of pharmacist's opinion on patient counseling and the potential determinants of personal consultation. Results show the frequency and nature of inquiries received by pharmacist. Five to twenty inquires per month are received from patient, most of them related to drug prescription and dose recommendation. Thirty nine percent of pharmacists received inquiries from doctors, most of them related to the dose and mode of action. Ninty two percent of the pharmacists agreed that patient counseling is their professional responsibility. About 82% of pharmacists agreed that counseling will increase their sales and enhance the reputation of their pharmacies. Seventy percent of pharmacists mentioned that they need to undergo training for effective counseling while 46% of pharmacists felt that more staff in the pharmacies would have a positive influence on patient compliance to medication therapies and patient safety. The potential determinants of personal consultation show that 52% of participants trusted pharmacist and 55% considered the pharmacist as a friend. Forty eight percent of participants visited the pharmacy for medical recommendation while 30% for drug compounding, 72% agreed that pharmacist conducts full instruction while 31% agreed

  1. Impact of Drug Shortages on Health System Pharmacies in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Brenna; Bookstaver, P. Brandon; Sims, LaVetra D.; Stevenson, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Background: Drug shortages have become all too common and affect all aspects of the health care delivery system. The increased number of drug shortages has had a negative impact on patient care as well as costly financial implications. Objectives: This article identifies the current problems and negative outcomes drug shortages have caused and provides a framework for how to best prepare for and combat future shortages. It highlights specific problems faced by health care system pharmacies in the Southeastern United States and the managerial responses to address these shortage situations. Methods: A 34-question, multiple-choice survey was distributed to pharmacy directors in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Results: Of 549 surveys distributed, 219 (40%) responses were received. Respondents reported that drug shortages cause 1% to 5% error rates in hospitals and that 60% of the time drug shortages create unsafe conditions for patients and staff. Many of the respondents reported a 300% to 500% markup on medications on the shortage list. Seventy-six percent of institutions have autosubstitutions for drug shortages that have been preapproved by Pharmacy & Therapeutics Committees. Conclusions: The causes of drug shortages are multifaceted, and the safety and financial implications can be costly. In the short term, health care institutions can utilize pharmacists to assist in circumventing the drug shortage problem. The combined efforts of all health care professionals, the US government, manufacturers, and the lay public are necessary to bring awareness and plausible solutions to the drug shortage problems in the long term. PMID:26448658

  2. Role of community pharmacies in prevention of AIDS among injecting drug misusers: findings of a survey in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Glanz, A.; Byrne, C.; Jackson, P.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the current and potential roles of community pharmacists in the prevention of AIDS among misusers of injected drugs. DESIGN--Cross sectional postal survey of a one in four random sample of registered pharmacies in England and Wales. SETTING--Project conducted in the addiction research unit of the Institute of Psychiatry, London. SUBJECTS--2469 Community pharmacies in the 15 regional health authorities in England and Wales. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Willingness of pharmacists to sell injecting equipment to known or suspected misusers of drugs; pharmacists' attitudes to syringe exchange schemes, keeping a "sharps" box for use by misusers of drugs, and offering face to face advice and leaflets; and opinions of community pharmacists on their role in AIDS prevention and drug misuse. RESULTS--1946 Questionnaires were returned, representing a response rate of 79%. This fell short of the target of one in four pharmacies in each family practitioner committee area in England and Wales, and total numbers of respondents were therefore weighted in inverse proportion to the response rate in each area. The findings disclosed a substantial demand for injecting equipment by drug misusers. After weighting of numbers of respondents an estimated 676 of 2434 pharmacies were currently selling injecting equipment and 65 of 2415 (3%) were participating in local syringe exchange schemes; only 94 of 2410 pharmacies (4%) had a sharps box for used equipment. There was a high degree of concern among pharmacists about particular consequences of drug misusers visiting their premises, along with a widespread acceptance that the community pharmacist had an important part to play. CONCLUSIONS--Promoting the participation of community pharmacists in the prevention of AIDS among misusers of injected drugs is a viable policy, but several problems would need to be overcome before it was implemented. PMID:2511969

  3. [The ideal of establishing an evaluation system about the combination program of Chinese medical pharmacy and western medical pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun-song

    2013-08-01

    The necessity of establishing an evaluation system about the combination program of Chinese medical pharmacy and Western medical pharmacy was addressed in this paper. Besides, its contents were systematically clarified. Besides, existent problems and its future development trend were also explained. The author believed that it was necessary to perform researches on constructing the evaluation system on the basis of patients' needs and physicians' responsibilities. The ultimate goal of this system was to produce an optimal combination program of Chinese medical pharmacy and Western medical pharmacy for a specific disease. This optimal program was the results of comparing and analyzing the therapeutic efficacies of different combination programs. In this program, Chinese medical pharmacy and Western medical pharmacy combined together. On the one hand, it is safe; on the other hand, they do not produce adverse reaction. Their therapeutic effects were synergetic. Chinese medical pharmacy could not only advance the cure effects of Western medical pharmacy, but also supplement the insufficiency of Western medical pharmacy. Of course, the author put forward some assumptions only from the perspective of clinical application in this paper. The evaluation system will become perfect along with further deepening researches of basic sciences.

  4. Closure and Sealing Design Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    T. Lahnalampi; J. Case

    2005-08-26

    The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not

  5. 40 CFR 264.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.1102 Section 264.1102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID... FACILITIES Containment Buildings § 264.1102 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a...

  6. 40 CFR 264.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.1102 Section 264.1102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID... FACILITIES Containment Buildings § 264.1102 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a...

  7. 40 CFR 264.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.1102 Section 264.1102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID... FACILITIES Containment Buildings § 264.1102 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a...

  8. 40 CFR 264.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.1102 Section 264.1102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID... FACILITIES Containment Buildings § 264.1102 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a...

  9. 40 CFR 264.197 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.197 Section 264.197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Tank Systems § 264.197 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a tank system, the owner...

  10. 40 CFR 264.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264... FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 264.1202 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At... or decontaminated, he or she must close the facility and perform post-closure care in accordance...

  11. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the closure and post-closure requirements that apply to landfills (40 CFR 264.310). ... post-closure care. (a) At closure of a magazine or unit which stored hazardous waste under this subpart... estimates for closure, and financial responsibility for magazines or units must meet all of the...

  12. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the closure and post-closure requirements that apply to landfills (40 CFR 264.310). ... post-closure care. (a) At closure of a magazine or unit which stored hazardous waste under this subpart... estimates for closure, and financial responsibility for magazines or units must meet all of the...

  13. Has pharmacy adequately promoted pharmaceutical discoveries to the public?

    PubMed

    Crellin, John K

    2010-09-01

    In summary, twentieth-century British and American cards published by the organisations of pharmacy albeit a limited window into public relations--suggest that relatively little attention was given to offering the public an understanding of the science basis of pharmacy or the nature of pharmacy research. On the other hand, clear hints of this came from industry despite being diluted, some might say tainted, with overt commercialism. Thus it is suggested that the public came to associate industry with pharmacy research, a suggestion that needs to be examined in the light of other approaches to PR. It is, of course, not surprising that PR from pharmacy's professional bodies has focused largely on community practice. However, it is reasonable to ask, What is the cost in terms of professional image when opportunities to promote an understanding of the science of pharmacy are given little attention? Indeed, it seems to me that it was soon forgotten that an emphasis placed on the science base of pharmacy was very much behind the successful efforts in establishing the Pharmaceutical Society and a professional image for pharmacy. I suggest, too, that the pattern of limited science PR contributes, unconsciously, to current concerns over the place of scientists in the new professional society. As is well known, interminable debate exists over what the public sees as 'professional'. Even so, I think few would disagree that an image of science can be more than helpful. Maybe, in the current upheaval for British pharmacy, there is a case for the publication of free cards analogous to those recently produced by the School of Pharmacy, although only so long as they indicate, by way of context, both the science and humanity demanded for pharmacy practice.

  14. Exploring consumer understanding and preferences for pharmacy quality information

    PubMed Central

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O.; Mort, Jane R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe consumer understanding of pharmacy quality measures and consumer preferences for pharmacy quality information. Methods: Semi-structured focus group design was combined with survey methods. Adults who filled prescription medications for self-reported chronic illnesses at community pharmacies discussed their understanding of Pharmacy Quality Alliance approved quality measures. Questions examined preference of pharmacy quality information rating systems (e.g. stars versus percentages) and desired data display/formats. During the focus group, participants completed a survey examining their understanding of each pharmacy quality measure. All focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis and descriptive statistics. Results: Thirty-four individuals participated (mean age= 62.85; SD=16.05). Participants were unfamiliar with quality measures information and their level of understanding differed for each quality measure. Surveys indicated 94.1% understood “Drug-Drug Interactions” and “Helping Patients Get Needed Medications” better than other measures (e.g., 76.5% understood “Suboptimal Treatment of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes”). Qualitative analysis indicated participants preferred an overall pharmacy rating for quick access and use. However, participants also wanted quality measures information displayed by health conditions. Participants favored comparison of their pharmacy to city data instead of state data. Most participants liked star ratings better than percentages, letter grades, or numerical ratings. Conclusions: Individuals who have a chronic illness and regularly use community pharmacies are interested in pharmacy quality measures. However, specific quality measures were not understood by some participants. Participants had specific preferences for the display of pharmacy quality information which will be helpful in the design of appropriate quality report systems. PMID

  15. Has pharmacy adequately promoted pharmaceutical discoveries to the public?

    PubMed

    Crellin, John K

    2010-09-01

    In summary, twentieth-century British and American cards published by the organisations of pharmacy albeit a limited window into public relations--suggest that relatively little attention was given to offering the public an understanding of the science basis of pharmacy or the nature of pharmacy research. On the other hand, clear hints of this came from industry despite being diluted, some might say tainted, with overt commercialism. Thus it is suggested that the public came to associate industry with pharmacy research, a suggestion that needs to be examined in the light of other approaches to PR. It is, of course, not surprising that PR from pharmacy's professional bodies has focused largely on community practice. However, it is reasonable to ask, What is the cost in terms of professional image when opportunities to promote an understanding of the science of pharmacy are given little attention? Indeed, it seems to me that it was soon forgotten that an emphasis placed on the science base of pharmacy was very much behind the successful efforts in establishing the Pharmaceutical Society and a professional image for pharmacy. I suggest, too, that the pattern of limited science PR contributes, unconsciously, to current concerns over the place of scientists in the new professional society. As is well known, interminable debate exists over what the public sees as 'professional'. Even so, I think few would disagree that an image of science can be more than helpful. Maybe, in the current upheaval for British pharmacy, there is a case for the publication of free cards analogous to those recently produced by the School of Pharmacy, although only so long as they indicate, by way of context, both the science and humanity demanded for pharmacy practice. PMID:20973456

  16. Revisiting "The strengths of pharmacy": the 1953 Remington Medal address.

    PubMed

    Oddis, J A

    1990-09-01

    Five reasons for the continued strength of the pharmacy profession, each of which was originally proposed in 1953 by Hugh Muldoon, are explored in this address by 1990 Remington Medalist Joseph A. Oddis. The strengths of pharmacy in the 1990s are based on the same factors that served the profession well in the 1950s. As outlined in Muldoon's 1953 Remington Medal address, these factors are (1) pharmacists' character and motivation, (2) the profession's public trust, (3) the profession's respect for education, (4) pharmacy's willingness to confront its problems, and (5) pharmacy's concern for the future. Today's pharmacists are strongly motivated; they continue to strive to raise the level of services provided in all practice settings and to maximize their value to patients. Pharmacists retain a high degree of public trust; they should take advantage of this position to expand their scope of services in areas such as managed care. During the 1990s pharmacy's concern for education is focused on pharmacy work force needs as a whole, including issues related to technical personnel and specialization as well as the role of the Pharm.D. degree in the overall education program. Pharmacy's willingness to resolve its problems is evident in the growth of such organizations as the Joint Commission of Pharmacy Practitioners, which has allowed the profession to achieve strength through unity. Pharmacy's concern for the future is reflected in the deliberations at recent conferences on Pharmacy in the 21st Century, where participants concurred that pharmacy's highest priority is to demonstrate and communicate to others its value in health care.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. RCRA closure of mixed waste impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Blaha, F.J.; Greengard, T.C.; Arndt, M.B.

    1989-11-01

    A case study of a RCRA closure action at the Rocky Flats Plant is presented. Closure of the solar evaporation ponds involves removal and immobilization of a mixed hazardous/radioactive sludge, treatment of impounded water, groundwater monitoring, plume delineation, and collection and treatment of contaminated groundwater. The site closure is described within the context of regulatory negotiations, project schedules, risk assessment, clean versus dirty closure, cleanup levels, and approval of closure plans and reports. Lessons learned at Rocky Flats are summarized.

  18. Funny Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Yvonne

    2000-01-01

    Presents a torn-paper and gadget-print activity for younger students, specifically pre-kindergarten to first grade, that can be done any time over the school year or at Halloween. Discusses how the students create their funny faces and lists the materials needed. (CMK)

  19. Pharmacy Characteristics Associated with the Provision of Drug Therapy Services in Nonmetropolitan Community Pharmacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadkari, Abhijit S.; Mott, David A.; Kreling, David H.; Bonnarens, Joseph K.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Higher prevalence of chronic diseases and reduced access to other health professionals in rural areas suggest that rural Medicare enrollees will benefit from pharmacist-provided drug therapy services (DTS). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe non-metropolitan community pharmacy sites in Wisconsin, the provision of DTS at…

  20. 76 FR 51415 - Ideal Pharmacy Care, Inc., D/B/A Esplanade Pharmacy; Revocation of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ...(f). These factors are considered in the disjunctive. Robert A. Leslie, M.D., 68 FR 15227, 15230... also Paul H. Volkman, 73 FR 30630, 30644 (2008) (``Recordkeeping is one of the CSA's central features... Bourne Pharmacy, Inc., 72 FR 18273, 18274 (2007). However, the State's suspension was not cited as...

  1. Cumulative and Randomized Evaluation: Ascertaining Performance in Pharmacy Coursework in a Manner Congruent with Pharmacy Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Kenneth J.; Purohit, Anal

    1977-01-01

    A testing mechanism that provides a closer approximation than traditional testing of the frequency and random manner with which disease state and therapeutic problems present in practice was developed with the initiation of self-directed study courses in pharmacy therapeutics. The rationales, construction, and application of this model for…

  2. Geriatric Pharmacy Curriculum in U.S. Pharmacy Schools: A Nationwide Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, William; Pratt, Clara Collette

    1982-01-01

    A survey of 72 pharmacy schools shows 22 percent of the schools had no geriatric coursework, 35 percent offered only courses in which the geriatric content averaged under 12 percent of course content, and 43 percent offered courses that focused primarily on geriatrics, most including a major clinical component. (Author/MSE)

  3. The Annual Pharmacy Undergraduate Research Seminar at West Virginia University School of Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malanga, Carl J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    For 10 years, the undergraduate research seminar has provided an opportunity for presentation and evaluation of undergraduate research projects, enabled students to learn about research activity and graduate study in a variety of pharmacy specialties, and created enthusiasm among students. (MSE)

  4. [The formula book. The pharmacies' own formulas].

    PubMed

    Loldrup, Hans-Otto

    2011-01-01

    During the 19th century and part of the 20th, a book of formulas was a useful tool for many Danish pharmacists in their daily work in the pharmacy laboratory. These books were handwritten and contained formulas that supplemented the official formula books, e.g. the pharmacopoeias. They originated from many different sources such as colleagues, the pharmaceutical press, local doctors, veterinarians and dentists. The book of formulas could be a pharmacist's personal document, or it could belong to a pharmacy for general use in the laboratory. The formulas included many drugs, but a number of the products were intended for daily domestic life: ingredients for food and spirits, cosmetics, cleaning and maintenance, etc. Other products were for use by the local hairdresser or photographer, for example. The article provides an overview of 52 formula books in a wide variety of shapes and sizes with instructions for a total of 8,000-10,000 compositions. Part of this large body of practical knowledge by individual pharmacists was collected and published in books in order to be available to all pharmacists. Some of this knowledge was also printed in booklets written for the general public under such pseudonyms as "An old Pharmacist". In the mid-20th century, Sven Holm enjoyed a prominent career as a well-known pharmacist giving advice on the radio and TV and in newspapers and magazines. The need for these formula books declined as pharmacies gradually stopped making up their own medicines towards the end of 20th century and finally ceased altogether in 1990.

  5. Perceived Stress by Students in a Pharmacy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales-Gonzales, Patricia L.; Kranz, Peter L.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated stress levels experienced by students in a pharmacy curriculum. A survey was used to evaluate perceived levels of stress, factors that contribute to stress, and mechanisms used to cope with stress. Participants were first, second, and third year students enrolled in pharmacy school. Data were collected using an individual…

  6. Public Radio as a Means of Continuing Education in Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savela, Eeva M.; Enlund, Hannes K.

    1996-01-01

    A Finnish study investigated the response of practicing pharmacists to a radio series on safe use of medicines and cognitive changes from use of three taped radio programs for in-house training at 22 large pharmacies. Despite positive attitudes toward continuing education via radio, readiness to participate was modest among pharmacy personnel.…

  7. A Prescription for Reframing Continuing Pharmacy Education in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anita M.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research indicates that adults learn best when they are motivated, self-directed and choose what and how they learn. This project focuses on continuing pharmacy education and seeks to answer the question: "How can pharmacists be motivated to participate in continuing pharmacy education programs because they want to, not because they…

  8. Substance Use Attitudes and Behaviors at Three Pharmacy Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Jeffrey N.; Scott, David M.; DeSimone, Edward M., II; Forrester, Joy H.; Fankhauser, Martha P.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to profile and compare alcohol and other drug (AOD) use attitudes and behaviors in three pharmacy colleges. Student surveys of AOD use attitudes and behaviors were conducted at one southwestern and two midwestern pharmacy colleges. Response was 86.5% (566/654). Reported past-year use included alcohol 82.8%, tobacco…

  9. 21 CFR 1311.205 - Pharmacy application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pharmacy application requirements. 1311.205 Section 1311.205 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REQUIREMENTS FOR... pharmacist's verification. (7) The pharmacy application must read and retain the full DEA number...

  10. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Education in United States Pharmacy Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, Donna M.; Kroll, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Survey of 50 pharmacy schools investigated the degree to which instruction in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) was included in the pharmacy curriculum, and use of alternative practitioners as instructors. Almost three-quarters offered coursework in herbal medicine or other areas of CAM; about half offered other alternative medicine…

  11. Certificate Program in Self-Care for Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Jerome W.; Popovich, Nicholas G.

    The Purdue University School of Pharmacy and Pharmacal Sciences initiated a Certificate Program in Self-Care for Pharmacy Practice. The program aimed to enable pharmacists to develop their practice to better serve the self-care needs of customers. In a pilot group 26 participating pharmacists took a sequence of home study modules and workshops…

  12. 75 FR 65667 - Lincoln Pharmacy; Revocation of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... factors are * * * considered in the disjunctive.'' Robert A. Leslie, M.D., 68 FR 15227, 15230 (2003). I... Pharmacy, 55 FR 30043, 30044 (1990); see also Frank's Corner Pharmacy, 60 FR 17574, 17576 (1995); Ralph J. Bertolino, 55 FR 4729, 4730 (1990); United States v. Seelig, 622 F.2d 207, 213 (6th Cir. 1980). This...

  13. 21 CFR 1304.40 - Notification by online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notification by online pharmacies. 1304.40 Section 1304.40 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF... of, more than one Web site, the pharmacy shall provide, for purposes of complying with this...

  14. 21 CFR 1304.40 - Notification by online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notification by online pharmacies. 1304.40 Section 1304.40 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF... of, more than one Web site, the pharmacy shall provide, for purposes of complying with this...

  15. 21 CFR 1304.40 - Notification by online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notification by online pharmacies. 1304.40 Section 1304.40 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF... of, more than one Web site, the pharmacy shall provide, for purposes of complying with this...

  16. A Half Century in Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Science and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swintosky, Joseph V.

    1990-01-01

    A pharmacist chronicles his 50 years in the study and practice of pharmacy, recounting significant events of the undergraduate and graduate experiences and the evolution of a career in the emerging field of biopharmaceutical research, clinical practice, and academic pharmacy. A 68-item bibliography is included. (MSE)

  17. Handbook for the Design of Instruction in Pharmacy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyrs, Thomas E., Jr., Ed.

    New instructional procedures for the competency-based curriculum for pharmacy education are examined by educators. The evolution of the competency-based program at the College of Pharmacy at the University of Minnesota is described, and information is presented concerning the classroom instructional model, the development of performance…

  18. 21 CFR 1311.205 - Pharmacy application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pharmacy application requirements. 1311.205 Section 1311.205 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REQUIREMENTS FOR... into a database or spreadsheet that is readable and sortable. (13) The pharmacy application...

  19. 21 CFR 1311.205 - Pharmacy application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pharmacy application requirements. 1311.205 Section 1311.205 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REQUIREMENTS FOR... into a database or spreadsheet that is readable and sortable. (13) The pharmacy application...

  20. 21 CFR 1311.205 - Pharmacy application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pharmacy application requirements. 1311.205 Section 1311.205 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REQUIREMENTS FOR... into a database or spreadsheet that is readable and sortable. (13) The pharmacy application...

  1. 21 CFR 1304.55 - Reports by online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reports by online pharmacies. 1304.55 Section 1304.55 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF... section apply to every pharmacy that, at any time during a calendar month, holds a modified...

  2. 21 CFR 1304.55 - Reports by online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reports by online pharmacies. 1304.55 Section 1304.55 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF... section apply to every pharmacy that, at any time during a calendar month, holds a modified...

  3. Minimum Requirements for Core Competency in Pediatric Pharmacy Practice.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Elizabeth A; Burke, Margaret M; Johnson, Peter N; Klein, Kristin C; Miller, Jamie L

    2015-01-01

    Colleges of pharmacy provide varying amounts of didactic and clinical hours in pediatrics resulting in variability in the knowledge, skills, and perceptions of new graduates toward pediatric pharmaceutical care. The Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group (PPAG) endorses the application of a minimum set of core competencies for all pharmacists involved in the care of hospitalized children. PMID:26766938

  4. Minimum Requirements for Core Competency in Pediatric Pharmacy Practice.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Elizabeth A; Burke, Margaret M; Johnson, Peter N; Klein, Kristin C; Miller, Jamie L

    2015-01-01

    Colleges of pharmacy provide varying amounts of didactic and clinical hours in pediatrics resulting in variability in the knowledge, skills, and perceptions of new graduates toward pediatric pharmaceutical care. The Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group (PPAG) endorses the application of a minimum set of core competencies for all pharmacists involved in the care of hospitalized children.

  5. Minimum Requirements for Core Competency in Pediatric Pharmacy Practice

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Elizabeth A.; Burke, Margaret M.; Johnson, Peter N.; Klein, Kristin C.; Miller, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    Colleges of pharmacy provide varying amounts of didactic and clinical hours in pediatrics resulting in variability in the knowledge, skills, and perceptions of new graduates toward pediatric pharmaceutical care. The Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group (PPAG) endorses the application of a minimum set of core competencies for all pharmacists involved in the care of hospitalized children. PMID:26766938

  6. [The Library of the Franciscan pharmacy in Jerusalem].

    PubMed

    Lafont, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    The inventory of the pharmacy of Franciscan monks in Jerusalem contained the description of the eighty books they kept in their Library. Most of them could be identified. A great number were of Italian origin, 45 were redacted in Latin, and 32 in an Italian language. 27 dealt with pharmacy, 18 with medicine and 17 were encyclopaedias or hygiene books.

  7. Life in a fishbowl: accountability and integrity in pharmacy leadership.

    PubMed

    Haumschild, Ryan J; Weber, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    The Director's Forum is designed to guide pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems by providing practical information on various leadership topics. Pharmacists are bound to practice in the best interest of the patient and are obligated to act with integrity and in an ethical manner. Pharmacy directors and their leadership staff are additionally bound to manage their department with integrity. Staff often scrutinize the pharmacy director's actions, giving the director a feeling of "life in a fishbowl." Every action of the leader is judged in the context of personal integrity or their individual commitment to moral, spiritual, and ethical values. The objective of this article is to describe how a pharmacy leader manages this responsibility. This article addresses the pharmacy leader's obligations to act with integrity, reviews key integrity concerns in pharmacy leadership, and provides guidance for leading and managing in the context of ethics and integrity. Pharmacy directors must always be aware that they are open to both department and public scrutiny if they do not conduct themselves in a professional manner. Being accountable for their actions and maintaining a high standard of integrity, leaders can keep the focus of their departments on the goal of patient-centered pharmacy services.

  8. Hard Core Pharmacology: How Much Is Taught in Pharmacy Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachmann, Kenneth A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A survey was sent to eighty-five American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy-member schools and affiliates to learn how many lectures are accorded to core sequences in pharmacology. The data were intended to provide a frame of reference for the University of Toledo College of Pharmacy. (Author/MLW)

  9. The Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy Scripts

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Carolyn; Tokumaru, Sheri; Goo, Roy; Ciarleglio, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Residency training is designed to provide recent pharmacy school graduates who have the profession's terminal Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) degree with accelerated growth beyond entry-level professional competence. Placement into residency programs is highly competitive through an application and match process. These programs provide additional training in patient-centered care with advancement of skills in clinical judgment, pharmacy operations, clinical research, project management, and leadership. Approximately 20% of a pharmacy graduating class will apply for a residency. With increasing numbers of pharmacy schools across the country, the availability of residency programs is falling behind applicants. The establishment of the Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (DKICP) has addressed the shortage of pharmacists within the state. In recent years, resident positions in Hawai‘i have doubled to a total of ten first year residency (PGY1) and two second year (PGY2) specialty residencies. Given the limited availability of positions in Hawai‘i, graduates continue to return to the continental US to seek positions, thus increasing the likelihood of them not returning to practice in Hawai‘i. Establishing residency programs is essential to elevate the level of pharmacy practice toward innovation and adherence to best practices, academia/teaching and scholarly research. This descriptive paper will detail the general components and types of pharmacy practice residency, the unique components of the Hawai‘i programs, the career placement of Hawai‘i's programs graduates and future challenges. PMID:26019990

  10. Pharmacists' liability: what my pharmacy law professor did not cover.

    PubMed

    Rizo, Mike; Seamon, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes a practicing pharmacist's take on the liability of pharmacists in current pharmacy practice. The author, who feels that compounding pharmacists should be held to the same standards as other healthcare providers in civil litigations, provides a look at what he considers "entrapment" by way of legal double standards between independent pharmacy and big pharma.

  11. Results of Comprehensive Communications Training for Pharmacy Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penwarden, Jeffrey R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Undergraduate pharmacy communication skills training's effect on students' acquisition of interpersonal skills was studied in three analyses: (1) empathic listening in simulated pharmacy interviews; (2) self-reported assertiveness; and (3) moral reasoning, ability to discriminate empathic responsiveness, cognitive complexity, and attitudes toward…

  12. Teaching and Learning about Ethical Dilemmas in Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Werner

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of ethics instruction in pharmacy practice argues that, because pharmacy students are still rapidly developing cognitively, faculty has an opportunity to help students mature and become socially conscious critical thinkers. The problem-solving process, dealing with alternative solutions, ambiguity, and flexible curriculum construction…

  13. Geriatric Experience for Pharmacy Students: Classroom Instruction Applied during Externship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Holly L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    During the Fall 1982 semester, Purdue pharmacy students elected to participate in a 24 class-hour course that stressed instruction and practical experience in geriatric pharmacy services. A major course project was the step-by-step development and presentation of an inservice educational program. (Author/MLW)

  14. A Relevant New Undergraduate Track in Retail Pharmacy Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Philip W., Jr.; Fitzpatrick, Peter G.

    1995-01-01

    An undergraduate track in retail pharmacy management was designed to prepare students better for everyday needs in community pharmacy. Multiple teaching approaches were used. Student response has been positive and enrollment has increased substantially. Graduate recommendations for course improvement are minimal. Course descriptions are appended.…

  15. 21 CFR 1311.205 - Pharmacy application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pharmacy application requirements. 1311.205 Section 1311.205 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REQUIREMENTS FOR... stored audit records from unauthorized deletion. The pharmacy application shall prevent modifications...

  16. [Drugs of a Baroque monastery pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Drábek, Pavel

    2013-08-01

    This paper deal with a manuscript from the years 1714-1720, originating most probably from the hospital of the Brothers of Mercy in Nové Mesto nad Metují. it contains the records of the hospital pharmacy about the drugs prepared for both patients and monks who operated this hospital. The included drugs were mainly intended for elderly males. The manuscript lists about fifteen hundred drugs and more than three hundred active ingredients, of which about two thirds were of plant origin. The paper presents the compositions of more important drugs and partly deals also with their preparation. PMID:24236317

  17. Pharmacy utilization and the Medicare Modernization Act.

    PubMed

    Maio, Vittorio; Pizzi, Laura; Roumm, Adam R; Clarke, Janice; Goldfarb, Neil I; Nash, David B; Chess, David

    2005-01-01

    To control expenditures and use medications appropriately, the Medicare drug coverage program has established pharmacy utilization management (PUM) measures. This article assesses the effects of these strategies on the care of seniors. The literature suggests that although caps on drug benefits lower pharmaceutical costs, they may also increase the use of other health care services and hurt health outcomes. Our review raises concerns regarding the potential unintended effects of the Medicare drug program's PUM policies for beneficiaries. Therefore, the economic and clinical impact of PUM measures on seniors should be studied further to help policymakers design better drug benefit plans. PMID:15787955

  18. [Gods, women and pharmacy in Greek Mythology].

    PubMed

    Vons, J

    2001-01-01

    The study of Greek Mythology fully justifies Herophilus's phrase: "Medicines are the hands of Gods" (third cent. B.C.). A number of Gods are said to be the inventors of the drugs which are useful to men. Their names are still alive in the scholarly or popular appellations of a great many medicinal herbs. However, insofar as the action of a drug (of a Pharmakon) remains mysterious, one finds it in essentially female practices as well as in medicine. The study of these ancient beliefs, which have survived in spite of the progress of twentieth century science, can develop the history of epistemology of pharmacy by stimulating interdisciplinary research.

  19. Pharmacy benefit caps and the chronically ill.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Geoffrey F; Goldman, Dana P; Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Zheng, Yuhui

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we examine medication use among retirees with employer-sponsored drug coverage both with and without annual benefit limits. We find that pharmacy benefit caps are associated with higher rates of medication discontinuation across the most common therapeutic classes and that only a minority of those who discontinue use reinitiate therapy once coverage resumes. Plan members who reach their cap are more likely than others to switch plans and increase their rate of generic use; however, in most cases, the shift is temporary. Given the similarities between these plans and Part D, we make some inferences about reforms for Medicare.

  20. A growing codependency: compounding pharmacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Prince, Bryan; Lundevall, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians are in constant contact with potent compounds. When compounding with powders, there is a susceptibility to environmental conditions such that proper containment be in place to keep the employees safe, the medicine free from cross contamination or the introduction of outside contaminants, and the workplace free from floating active pharmaceutical ingredient particles. Adapting powder hoods as safety devices that work in direct relation to clearly defined standard operating procedures and good lab practices will facilitate a safer lab environment for employees and ensure good-quality prescriptions. This article discusses the safety concerns of compounding with powders and the safety measures to consider when purchasing powder hoods. PMID:24579299

  1. Organisational culture: an important concept for pharmacy practice research.

    PubMed

    Scahill, Shane; Harrison, Jeff; Carswell, Peter; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2009-10-01

    Throughout the developed world, community pharmacy is under considerable pressure to play a greater part in delivering effective primary health care. The requirement to adopt new roles continues to challenge community pharmacy and drive change. The factors that determine the ability of community pharmacy to effectively deliver services for health gain are complex and include; policy, professional, financial and structural elements. There is also evidence to suggest that organisational culture may influence the effectiveness of an organisation. In order to address this there is a need to understand the dimensions of organisational culture that lead to successful implementation of the change necessary for community pharmacy to become a more effective primary health care organisation. In this commentary, we introduce the concept of organisational culture, outline two frameworks for studying culture, and argue the benefits of pursuing an organisational culture research agenda for the evolution of pharmacy practice and research.

  2. Organisational culture: an important concept for pharmacy practice research.

    PubMed

    Scahill, Shane; Harrison, Jeff; Carswell, Peter; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2009-10-01

    Throughout the developed world, community pharmacy is under considerable pressure to play a greater part in delivering effective primary health care. The requirement to adopt new roles continues to challenge community pharmacy and drive change. The factors that determine the ability of community pharmacy to effectively deliver services for health gain are complex and include; policy, professional, financial and structural elements. There is also evidence to suggest that organisational culture may influence the effectiveness of an organisation. In order to address this there is a need to understand the dimensions of organisational culture that lead to successful implementation of the change necessary for community pharmacy to become a more effective primary health care organisation. In this commentary, we introduce the concept of organisational culture, outline two frameworks for studying culture, and argue the benefits of pursuing an organisational culture research agenda for the evolution of pharmacy practice and research. PMID:19662509

  3. Is a pharmacy student the customer or the product?

    PubMed

    Holdford, David A

    2014-02-12

    Academic entitlement and student consumerism have been described as a cause for unprofessional behavior in higher education. Colleges and schools of pharmacy may inadvertently encourage student consumerism and academic entitlement by misunderstanding who is the primary customer of pharmacy education. Pharmacy colleges and schools who view students as the primary customer can unintentionally pressure faculty members to relax expectations for professionalism and academic performance and thereby cause a general downward spiral in the quality of pharmacy graduates. In contrast, this paper argues that the primary customer of pharmacy education is the patient. Placing the patient at the center of the educational process is consistent with the concepts of pharmaceutical care, medication therapy management, the patient-centered home, and the oath of the pharmacist. Emphasizing the patient as the primary customer discourages academic entitlement and student consumerism and encourages an emphasis on learning how to serve the medication-related needs of the patient.

  4. Emotional Intelligence Instruction in a Pharmacy Communications Course

    PubMed Central

    Lust, Elaine; Moore, Frances C.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To determine the benefits of incorporating emotional intelligence instruction into a required pharmacy communications course. Design Specific learning objectives were developed based upon the emotional intelligence framework and how it can be applied to pharmacy practice. Qualitative data on student perceptions were collected and analyzed using theme analysis. Assessment Students found instruction on emotional intelligence to be a positive experience. Students reported learning the taxonomy of emotional intelligence – a concept that previously was difficult for them to articulate or describe, and could use this knowledge in future pharmacy management situations. Students also recognized that their new knowledge of emotional intelligence would lead to better patient outcomes. Conclusion Students had positive perceptions of the importance of emotional intelligence. They valued its inclusion in the pharmacy curriculum and saw practical applications of emotional intelligence to the practice of pharmacy. PMID:17136149

  5. Is a Pharmacy Student the Customer or the Product?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Academic entitlement and student consumerism have been described as a cause for unprofessional behavior in higher education. Colleges and schools of pharmacy may inadvertently encourage student consumerism and academic entitlement by misunderstanding who is the primary customer of pharmacy education. Pharmacy colleges and schools who view students as the primary customer can unintentionally pressure faculty members to relax expectations for professionalism and academic performance and thereby cause a general downward spiral in the quality of pharmacy graduates. In contrast, this paper argues that the primary customer of pharmacy education is the patient. Placing the patient at the center of the educational process is consistent with the concepts of pharmaceutical care, medication therapy management, the patient-centered home, and the oath of the pharmacist. Emphasizing the patient as the primary customer discourages academic entitlement and student consumerism and encourages an emphasis on learning how to serve the medication-related needs of the patient. PMID:24558271

  6. Is a pharmacy student the customer or the product?

    PubMed

    Holdford, David A

    2014-02-12

    Academic entitlement and student consumerism have been described as a cause for unprofessional behavior in higher education. Colleges and schools of pharmacy may inadvertently encourage student consumerism and academic entitlement by misunderstanding who is the primary customer of pharmacy education. Pharmacy colleges and schools who view students as the primary customer can unintentionally pressure faculty members to relax expectations for professionalism and academic performance and thereby cause a general downward spiral in the quality of pharmacy graduates. In contrast, this paper argues that the primary customer of pharmacy education is the patient. Placing the patient at the center of the educational process is consistent with the concepts of pharmaceutical care, medication therapy management, the patient-centered home, and the oath of the pharmacist. Emphasizing the patient as the primary customer discourages academic entitlement and student consumerism and encourages an emphasis on learning how to serve the medication-related needs of the patient. PMID:24558271

  7. Pharmacy cases in Second Life: an elective course

    PubMed Central

    Veronin, Michael A; Daniels, Lacy; Demps, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Interactive pharmacy case studies are an essential component of the pharmacy curriculum. We recently developed an elective course at the Rangel College of Pharmacy in pharmacy case studies for second- and third-year Doctor of Pharmacy students using Second Life® (SL), an interactive three-dimensional virtual environment that simulates the real world. This course explored the use of SL for education and training in pharmacy, emphasizing a case-based approach. Virtual worlds such as SL promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, and can potentially develop problem-solving skills in pharmacy students. Students were presented ten case scenarios that primarily focused on drug safety and effective communication with patients. Avatars, representing instructors and students, reviewed case scenarios during sessions in a virtual classroom. Individually and in teams, students participated in active-learning activities modeling both the pharmacist’s and patient’s roles. Student performance and learning were assessed based on SL class participation, activities, assignments, and two formal, essay-type online exams in Blackboard 9. Student course-evaluation results indicated favorable perceptions of content and delivery. Student comments included an enhanced appreciation of practical issues in pharmacy practice, flexibility of attendance, and an increased ability to focus on course content. Excellent student participation and performance in weekly active-learning activities translated into positive performance on subsequent formal assessments. Students were actively engaged and exposed to topics pertinent to pharmacy practice that were not covered in the required pharmacy curriculum. The multiple active-learning assignments were successful in increasing students’ knowledge, and provided additional practice in building the communication skills beneficial for students preparing for experiential clinical rotations. PMID:23762008

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of presumed STIs at Mexican pharmacies: survey results from a random sample of Mexico City pharmacy attendants

    PubMed Central

    Turner, A; Ellertson, C; Thomas, S; Garcia, S

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: People in developing countries often seek medical advice for common ailments from pharmacies. As one example, pharmacists routinely diagnose and treat symptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We aimed to assess the quality of advice provided in Mexico City pharmacies by presenting hypothetical STI related syndromes and recording pharmacy attendants' suggested diagnoses and treatments. Methods: We interviewed the first available attendant in each of a 5% random sample of Mexico City's pharmacies. We inquired about the training, age, and experience of the attendant and about the typical number of clients coming for treatment of suspected STIs. After considering three hypothetical case studies, attendants recommended diagnoses, treatments, and, sometimes, physician follow up. Results: Most Mexico City "pharmacists" are actually clerks, with trained pharmacists rarely available on the premises. The average pharmacy attendant was 32 years old, with a median of 5 years' experience at that pharmacy, but very limited (if any) training. 62% reported seeing 10 or more clients with genital or vaginal infections per month. Depending on the case study, attendants provided appropriate diagnoses in 0–12% of cases, recommended appropriate treatments in 12–16% of cases, and suggested physician follow up for 26–67% of cases. Conclusions: In general, surveyed pharmacy personnel were unable to diagnose accurately or offer appropriate treatment advice when presented with classic, common STI symptoms. Given the volume of clients seeking advice from this source, training pharmacy attendants could significantly help to reduce the burden of disease associated with STIs in Mexico City. PMID:12794207

  9. Attitudes of First-Year Pharmacy Students and Preceptors to a "Mini-Externship" in Hospital and Community Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivey, Michael P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The University of Montana School of Pharmacy has included a miniexternship experience in a required introductory course. Goals of a survey of 67 first year students and 17 preceptors included students' demographic profile and prior exposure to pharmacy practice, assessment of the influence of the externship on career goals, etc. (MLW)

  10. 21 CFR 1306.15 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the name, address, and DEA registration number of the central fill pharmacy to which the prescription... the date of transmittal. For electronic prescriptions the name, address, and DEA registration number... DEA registration number of the retail pharmacy transmitting the prescription; (2) Keep a record of...

  11. 21 CFR 1306.15 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the name, address, and DEA registration number of the central fill pharmacy to which the prescription... the date of transmittal. For electronic prescriptions the name, address, and DEA registration number... DEA registration number of the retail pharmacy transmitting the prescription; (2) Keep a record of...

  12. 21 CFR 1306.15 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the name, address, and DEA registration number of the central fill pharmacy to which the prescription... the date of transmittal. For electronic prescriptions the name, address, and DEA registration number... DEA registration number of the retail pharmacy transmitting the prescription; (2) Keep a record of...

  13. 21 CFR 1306.15 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the name, address, and DEA registration number of the central fill pharmacy to which the prescription... the date of transmittal. For electronic prescriptions the name, address, and DEA registration number... DEA registration number of the retail pharmacy transmitting the prescription; (2) Keep a record of...

  14. Linearly exact parallel closures for slab geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.; Jhang, Hogun

    2013-08-15

    Parallel closures are obtained by solving a linearized kinetic equation with a model collision operator using the Fourier transform method. The closures expressed in wave number space are exact for time-dependent linear problems to within the limits of the model collision operator. In the adiabatic, collisionless limit, an inverse Fourier transform is performed to obtain integral (nonlocal) parallel closures in real space; parallel heat flow and viscosity closures for density, temperature, and flow velocity equations replace Braginskii's parallel closure relations, and parallel flow velocity and heat flow closures for density and temperature equations replace Spitzer's parallel transport relations. It is verified that the closures reproduce the exact linear response function of Hammett and Perkins [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] for Landau damping given a temperature gradient. In contrast to their approximate closures where the vanishing viscosity coefficient numerically gives an exact response, our closures relate the heat flow and nonvanishing viscosity to temperature and flow velocity (gradients)

  15. Linearly exact parallel closures for slab geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.; Jhang, Hogun

    2013-08-01

    Parallel closures are obtained by solving a linearized kinetic equation with a model collision operator using the Fourier transform method. The closures expressed in wave number space are exact for time-dependent linear problems to within the limits of the model collision operator. In the adiabatic, collisionless limit, an inverse Fourier transform is performed to obtain integral (nonlocal) parallel closures in real space; parallel heat flow and viscosity closures for density, temperature, and flow velocity equations replace Braginskii's parallel closure relations, and parallel flow velocity and heat flow closures for density and temperature equations replace Spitzer's parallel transport relations. It is verified that the closures reproduce the exact linear response function of Hammett and Perkins [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] for Landau damping given a temperature gradient. In contrast to their approximate closures where the vanishing viscosity coefficient numerically gives an exact response, our closures relate the heat flow and nonvanishing viscosity to temperature and flow velocity (gradients).

  16. Carbon Nanotubes: Applications in Pharmacy and Medicine

    PubMed Central

    He, Hua; Pham-Huy, Lien Ai; Dramou, Pierre; Xiao, Deli; Zuo, Pengli

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon, made of graphite and constructed in cylindrical tubes with nanometer in diameter and several millimeters in length. Their impressive structural, mechanical, and electronic properties are due to their small size and mass, their strong mechanical potency, and their high electrical and thermal conductivity. CNTs have been successfully applied in pharmacy and medicine due to their high surface area that is capable of adsorbing or conjugating with a wide variety of therapeutic and diagnostic agents (drugs, genes, vaccines, antibodies, biosensors, etc.). They have been first proven to be an excellent vehicle for drug delivery directly into cells without metabolism by the body. Then other applications of CNTs have been extensively performed not only for drug and gene therapies but also for tissue regeneration, biosensor diagnosis, enantiomer separation of chiral drugs, extraction and analysis of drugs and pollutants. Moreover, CNTs have been recently revealed as a promising antioxidant. This minireview focuses the applications of CNTs in all fields of pharmacy and medicine from therapeutics to analysis and diagnosis as cited above. It also examines the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and toxicity of different forms of CNTs and discusses the perspectives, the advantages and the obstacles of this promising bionanotechnology in the future. PMID:24195076

  17. Marketing and pricing strategies of online pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Levaggi, Rosella; Orizio, Grazia; Domenighini, Serena; Bressanelli, Maura; Schulz, Peter J; Zani, Claudia; Caimi, Luigi; Gelatti, Umberto

    2009-10-01

    Internet and e-commerce have profoundly changed society, the economy, and the world of health care. The web offers opportunities to improve health, but it may also represent a big health hazard since it is a basically unregulated market with very low consumer protection. In this paper we analyze marketing and pricing strategies of online pharmacies (OPs). Our analysis shows that OPs use strategies that would be more suitable for a commodity market than for drugs. These strategies differentiate according to variety (brand or generic), quality, quantity, and target group. OPs are well aware that the vacuum in the legislation allows them to reach a target of consumers that pharmacies cannot normally reach, such as those who would like to use the drug without consulting a physician (or, even worse, against the physician's advice). In this case, they usually charge a higher price, reassure the users by minimizing on the side effects, and induce them to bulk purchase through sensible price discounts. This analysis suggests that the selling of drugs via the Internet can turn into a "public health risk", as has been pointed out by the US Food and Drug Administration. PMID:19394104

  18. Marketing and pricing strategies of online pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Levaggi, Rosella; Orizio, Grazia; Domenighini, Serena; Bressanelli, Maura; Schulz, Peter J; Zani, Claudia; Caimi, Luigi; Gelatti, Umberto

    2009-10-01

    Internet and e-commerce have profoundly changed society, the economy, and the world of health care. The web offers opportunities to improve health, but it may also represent a big health hazard since it is a basically unregulated market with very low consumer protection. In this paper we analyze marketing and pricing strategies of online pharmacies (OPs). Our analysis shows that OPs use strategies that would be more suitable for a commodity market than for drugs. These strategies differentiate according to variety (brand or generic), quality, quantity, and target group. OPs are well aware that the vacuum in the legislation allows them to reach a target of consumers that pharmacies cannot normally reach, such as those who would like to use the drug without consulting a physician (or, even worse, against the physician's advice). In this case, they usually charge a higher price, reassure the users by minimizing on the side effects, and induce them to bulk purchase through sensible price discounts. This analysis suggests that the selling of drugs via the Internet can turn into a "public health risk", as has been pointed out by the US Food and Drug Administration.

  19. Pharmacies, communication, and condoms. Research report: Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pick De Weiss, S

    1995-01-01

    The Institute Mexicano de Investigacion de Familia y Poblacion, A.C. (IMIFAP) tested the effectiveness of a training course and educational materials that were designed to increase the awareness and knowledge of pharmacy employees concerning acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and its prevention, and to promote condoms. 174 employees participated in workshops that included information on transmission and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and AIDS, and condom usage. Pre- and post-session tests were performed to ascertain the short-term retention of information; the long-term effect was assessed via incognito shopper visits and monitoring of condom sales. Short, intensive training, when reinforced by posters, pamphlets, and video, significantly increased knowledge of AIDS (symptoms, transmission, and prevention) and correct condom usage. Awareness of risk behaviors and groups at risk for AIDS improved. Printed materials alone did not have a substantial impact on knowledge or sales of condoms, and increased knowledge alone did not increase information disseminated. After 6 months there was a significantly higher rise in condom sales (16%) in the course-plus-materials group. This group also took a greater initiative in providing information to clients. In spite of these positive results, knowledge and initiative are still unsatisfactory, especially when the role of pharmacies in general health care and the suspected prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus in Mexico are considered. PMID:12319333

  20. Implementing disease management in community pharmacy practice.

    PubMed

    Holdford, D; Kennedy, D T; Bernadella, P; Small, R E

    1998-01-01

    Disease management (DM) is a comprehensive approach to preventing and treating disease that: (1) targets patients with specific diseases; (2) provides integrated services across organizational and professional boundaries; (3) utilizes services based on the best scientific evidence available; and (4) focuses on outcomes. DM differs from pharmaceutical care in that pharmaceutical care targets not only patients with specific diseases but also those with risk factors for drug-related problems, a history of nonadherence, and frequent changes in medication regimens. Steps to starting a DM program include: (1) identifying a target population based on the population's strategic importance to the goals and aims of the organization; (2) assessing the organization's available resources, both internal and external; (3) defining key indicators with which to assess the program for the purposes of internal quality control and of obtaining compensation from third-party payers; (4) implementing the program using the best scientific methods available; and (5) assessing the impact of the program. The development of a smoking cessation program at a nationwide retail pharmacy chain is used as an example of a DM program initiated in community pharmacy practice. Pharmacists are well positioned to take a major role in DM, because they are accessible to the community and because DM frequently involves drug therapy. DM is also widely used in managed care. It is important that community pharmacists be closely involved in the DM approach as it evolves.

  1. Hospital diversification: how to involve the pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Smith, J E; Black, B L

    1987-05-01

    Participation by hospital pharmacy departments in planning and development of diversified services is described. Diversification requires market planning. Seven basic marketing steps are identification of mission, goals, and objectives; identification of growth strategies (market penetration, market development, product development, and diversification); market analysis of external factors (size, growth, and logistics; reimbursement and financial considerations; competition; regulatory issues; and legal issues); market analysis of internal factors (departmental organization and reporting lines, demographics of the institution, and costs and productivity associated with the new service); program development and design; implementation; and evaluation. Hospitals can diversify by expanding acute-care services through management contracts and mergers; developing new services to include long-term-care, ambulatory-care, occupational-health, and wellness programs; starting other health-care ventures, such as consulting, continuing medical education, and continuing education for nurses; and expanding into non-health-care businesses. Vertical diversification is finding new markets for existing services; horizontal diversification is development of new services for new markets. To diversify, an institution may need to change its corporate structure; it may form a family of corporations that includes a university, nonprofit hospitals, holding companies, for-profit corporations, joint ventures, and service organizations. Through diversification, institutions and pharmacy departments can create alternative sources of funding and offer more comprehensive services to patients.

  2. Mapping the literature of hospital pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Ann; Helwig, Melissa; Neves, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study describes the literature of hospital pharmacy and identifies the journals most commonly cited by authors in the field, the publication types most frequently cited, the age of citations, and the indexing access to core journals. The study also looks at differing citation practices between journals with a wide audience compared to a national journal with a focus on regional issues and trends in the field. Method Cited references from five discipline-specific source journals were collected and analyzed for publication type and age. Two sets were created for comparison. Bradford's Law of Scattering was applied to both sets to determine the most frequently cited journals. Results Three-quarters of all cited items were published within the last 10 years (71%), and journal articles were the most heavily cited publication type (n=65,760, 87%). Citation analysis revealed 26 journal titles in Zone 1, 177 journal titles in Zone 2, and the remaining were scattered across 3,886 titles. Analysis of a national journal revealed Zone 1 comprised 9 titles. Comparison of the 2 sets revealed that Zone 1 titles overlapped, with the exception of 2 titles that were geographically focused in the national title. Conclusion Hospital pharmacy literature draws heavily from its own discipline-specific sources but equally from core general and specialty medical journals. Indexing of cited journals is complete in PubMed and EMBASE but lacking in International Pharmaceutical Abstracts. Gray literature is a significant information source in the field. PMID:27076798

  3. Carbon nanotubes: applications in pharmacy and medicine.

    PubMed

    He, Hua; Pham-Huy, Lien Ai; Dramou, Pierre; Xiao, Deli; Zuo, Pengli; Pham-Huy, Chuong

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon, made of graphite and constructed in cylindrical tubes with nanometer in diameter and several millimeters in length. Their impressive structural, mechanical, and electronic properties are due to their small size and mass, their strong mechanical potency, and their high electrical and thermal conductivity. CNTs have been successfully applied in pharmacy and medicine due to their high surface area that is capable of adsorbing or conjugating with a wide variety of therapeutic and diagnostic agents (drugs, genes, vaccines, antibodies, biosensors, etc.). They have been first proven to be an excellent vehicle for drug delivery directly into cells without metabolism by the body. Then other applications of CNTs have been extensively performed not only for drug and gene therapies but also for tissue regeneration, biosensor diagnosis, enantiomer separation of chiral drugs, extraction and analysis of drugs and pollutants. Moreover, CNTs have been recently revealed as a promising antioxidant. This minireview focuses the applications of CNTs in all fields of pharmacy and medicine from therapeutics to analysis and diagnosis as cited above. It also examines the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and toxicity of different forms of CNTs and discusses the perspectives, the advantages and the obstacles of this promising bionanotechnology in the future. PMID:24195076

  4. Fundamental base closure environmental principles

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Military base closures present a paradox. The rate, scale and timing of military base closures is historically unique. However, each base itself typically does not present unique problems. Thus, the challenge is to design innovative solutions to base redevelopment and remediation issues, while simultaneously adopting common, streamlined or pre-approved strategies to shared problems. The author presents six environmental principles that are fundamental to base closure. They are: remediation not clean up; remediation will impact reuse; reuse will impact remediation; remediation and reuse must be coordinated; environmental contamination must be evaluated as any other initial physical constraint on development, not as an overlay after plans are created; and remediation will impact development, financing and marketability.

  5. The mechanics of airway closure.

    PubMed

    Heil, Matthias; Hazel, Andrew L; Smith, Jaclyn A

    2008-11-30

    We describe how surface-tension-driven instabilities of the lung's liquid lining may lead to pulmonary airway closure via the formation of liquid bridges that occlude the airway lumen. Using simple theoretical models, we demonstrate that this process may occur via a purely fluid-mechanical "film collapse" or through a coupled, fluid-elastic "compliant collapse" mechanism. Both mechanisms can lead to airway closure in times comparable with the breathing cycle, suggesting that surface tension is the primary mechanical effect responsible for the closure observed in peripheral regions of the human lungs. We conclude by discussing the influence of additional effects not included in the simple models, such as gravity, the presence of pulmonary surfactant, respiratory flow and wall motion, the airways' geometry, and the mechanical structure of the airway walls. PMID:18595784

  6. Humid site stabilization and closure

    SciTech Connect

    Cutshall, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the work described here is to identify and evaluate the importance of factors that are expected to dictate the nature of site stabilization and closure requirements. Subsequent efforts will plan for implementation of such requirements. Two principal areas of site stabilization and closure effort will be pursued initially - geological management and vegetation management. The geological effort will focus on chemical weathering and surficial erosion. Such catastrophic geologic events as landslides, flooding, earthquakes, volcanos, etc. are already considered in site selection and operation and these factors will not be emphasized initially. Vegetation management will be designed to control erosion, to minimize nuclide mobilization by roots and to be compatible with natural successional pressures. It is anticipated that the results of this work will be important both to site selection and operation as well as the actual stabilization and closure procedure.

  7. Closure of Building 624 incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ridley, M.N.; Hallisey, M.L.; Terusaki, S.; Steverson, M.

    1992-06-01

    The Building 624 incinerator was a Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) mixed waste incinerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This incinerator was in operation from 1978 to 1989. The incinerator was to be closed as a mixed waste incinerator, but was to continue burning classified nonhazardous solid waste. The decision was later made to discontinue all use of the incinerator. Closure activities were performed from June 15 to December 15, 1991, when a clean closure was completed. The main part of the closure was the characterization, which included 393 samples and 30 blanks. From these 393 samples, approximately 13 samples indicated the need for further investigation, such as an isotopic scan; however, none of the samples was concluded to be hazardous or radioactive.

  8. Pharmacy Practice and Pharmaceutical Education in the People's Republic of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, Norman R.

    1976-01-01

    The visit to the PCR by a herbal pharmacology study group during June 1-26, 1976 is reported. Although the primary purpose was not to study pharmacy and pharmaceutical education, the group observed many activities related to pharmacy, visiting several hospital and community pharmacies as well as one college of pharmacy. (LBH)

  9. Evaluation of urban-rural differences in pharmacy practice needs in Maine with the MaPPNA

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sarah L.; Baker, Robert P.; Piper, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maine is a rural state with an aging population located in the northeastern United States. Pharmacists play an important role in serving the public’s health as they are often the most available point-of-contact within a community. Objective: To assess the current pharmacy practice needs as viewed by licensed pharmacists across our rural state, and to distinguish issues that are unique to rural pharmacy practice. Methods: An online survey was sent to all licensed pharmacists in the state in the fall of 2014 (n=1,262) to assess their pharmacy practice needs, and specify an rural-specific needs, within the categories of (1) opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion, (2) challenges associated with access to healthcare, (3) poly-pharmacy use, (4) meeting the needs of special populations, (5) lack of antibiotic stewardship, and (6) resources, such as staffing. Results: The response rate was 22.1 % (n=279). We found the most agreed upon issue facing pharmacists’ in Maine is opioid use, misuse and diversion, followed closely by shortages in staffing. We also learned that pharmacists’ view pharmaceutical care for older adults, those with low health literacy, and those with mental disabilities more time-consuming. Some urban-rural differences were discovered in with regard to the pharmacists’ views; such as the magnitude of the distance barrier, and limited transportation options available to rural residents. Issues related to polypharmacy were viewed as more problematic by pharmacists practicing in urban versus rural sites. Conclusions: Pharmaceutical care in Maine must focus on meeting the needs of the elderly, those with disabilities, and those with limited health literacy. As with the rest of the nation, opioids challenge pharmacy practice in a variety of ways. These findings clarify areas that present opportunities for pharmacists to focus more specifically on Maine’s largely rural population. PMID:26759622

  10. Impact of Internet Pharmacy Regulation on Opioid Analgesic Availability*

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Edward W.; Wines, James D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Access to prescription opioid analgesics has made Internet pharmacies the object of increased regulatory scrutiny, but the effectiveness of regulatory changes in curtailing availability of opioid analgesics from online sources has been not assessed. As part of an ongoing investigation into the relationship between the Internet and substance abuse, we examined the availability of prescription opioid analgesics from online pharmacies. Method: From a pharmacy watch Web site, we constructed a data set of postings entered every 3 months beginning November 1, 2005, that were related to the purchase of prescription opioid analgesics. Trained examiners assessed whether the final post described accessibility of pain medications that was increasing or decreasing. Results: We identified 45 threads related to the availability of opioid analgesics from Internet pharmacies. Of the 41 (91%) threads describing the declining availability of opioid analgesic agents from Internet pharmacies, 34 (82%) received posts on November 1, 2007. Despite the subjective nature of the research question, there was high interobserver agreement between coders (κ = .845) that availability of opioid analgesics from online pharmacies had decreased. This finding was supported by a dramatic rise in the number of pageviews (an accepted measure of Web site visitor interest in a page's content) of Web pages describing decreased availability of opioid analgesics. Conclusions: These data suggest striking decreases in the availability of prescription opioid analgesic pharmaceuticals. This self-reported change in drug availability may be related to increased regulation of and law enforcement operations directed against Internet pharmacies. PMID:18781245

  11. Future-proofing the pharmacy profession in a hypercompetitive market.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Judith A; Nissen, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the hypercompetitive nature of the current pharmacy landscape in Australia and to suggest either a superior level of differentiation strategy or a focused differentiation strategy targeting a niche market as two viable, alternative business models to cost leadership for small, independent community pharmacies. A description of the Australian health care system is provided as well as background information on the current community pharmacy environment in Australia. The authors propose a differentiation or focused differentiation strategy based on cognitive professional services (CPS) which must be executed well and of a superior quality to competitors' services. Market research to determine the services valued by target customers and that they are willing to pay for is vital. To achieve the superior level of quality that will engender high patient satisfaction levels and loyalty, pharmacy owners and managers need to develop, maintain and clearly communicate service quality specifications to the staff delivering these services. Otherwise, there will be a proliferation of pharmacies offering the same professional services with no evident service differential. However, to sustain competitive advantage over the long-term, these smaller, independent community pharmacies will need to exploit a broad core competency base in order to be able to continuously introduce new sources of competitive advantage. With the right expertise, the authors argue that smaller, independent community pharmacies can successfully deliver CPS and sustain profitability in a hypercompetitive market. PMID:23820045

  12. Future-proofing the pharmacy profession in a hypercompetitive market.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Judith A; Nissen, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the hypercompetitive nature of the current pharmacy landscape in Australia and to suggest either a superior level of differentiation strategy or a focused differentiation strategy targeting a niche market as two viable, alternative business models to cost leadership for small, independent community pharmacies. A description of the Australian health care system is provided as well as background information on the current community pharmacy environment in Australia. The authors propose a differentiation or focused differentiation strategy based on cognitive professional services (CPS) which must be executed well and of a superior quality to competitors' services. Market research to determine the services valued by target customers and that they are willing to pay for is vital. To achieve the superior level of quality that will engender high patient satisfaction levels and loyalty, pharmacy owners and managers need to develop, maintain and clearly communicate service quality specifications to the staff delivering these services. Otherwise, there will be a proliferation of pharmacies offering the same professional services with no evident service differential. However, to sustain competitive advantage over the long-term, these smaller, independent community pharmacies will need to exploit a broad core competency base in order to be able to continuously introduce new sources of competitive advantage. With the right expertise, the authors argue that smaller, independent community pharmacies can successfully deliver CPS and sustain profitability in a hypercompetitive market.

  13. Factors associated with pharmacy student interest in international study.

    PubMed

    Owen, Chelsea; Breheny, Patrick; Ingram, Richard; Pfeifle, William; Cain, Jeff; Ryan, Melody

    2013-04-12

    OBJECTIVES. To examine the interest of pharmacy students in international study, the demographic factors and involvement characteristics associated with that interest, and the perceived advantages and barriers of engaging in international opportunities during pharmacy school. METHODS. A self-administered electronic survey instrument was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy. RESULTS. There were 192 total respondents, for a response rate of 50.9%. Seventy-two percent reported interest in international study. Previous international study experience (p=0.001), previous international travel experience (p=0.002), year in pharmacy school (p=0.03), level of academic involvement (p<0.001), and level of diversity involvement (p<0.001) were associated with international study interest. Positive influences to international study included desire to travel and availability of scholarships. Perceived barriers included an inability to pay expenses and lack of foreign language knowledge. CONCLUSIONS. The needs and interests of pharmacy students should be considered in the development and expansion of internationalization programs in order to effectively optimize global partnerships and available international experiences. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should engage students early in the curriculum when interest in study-abroad opportunities is highest and seek to alleviate concerns about expenses as a primary influence on study-abroad decisions through provision of financial assistance. PMID:23610472

  14. Deregulating the pharmacy market: the case of Iceland and Norway.

    PubMed

    Anell, Anders

    2005-12-01

    The pharmacy market in many European countries is characterised by individually owned pharmacies that operate under tight government control regarding barriers to entry, scope of activities and profit margins. Many countries are, however, in the process of introducing pro-competitive policies, including possibilities to own several pharmacies and competition based on price. In Iceland and Norway, restrictions to ownership and competition were relaxed in 1996 and 2001, respectively. In both countries, the new policies quickly led to horizontal integration and concentration of the market, and in Norway the merging pharmacy groups integrated vertically with wholesalers. By 2004, two pharmacy groups in Iceland and three pharmacy groups in Norway controlled 85 and 97% of the markets, respectively. In combination with remaining barriers to entry, this market concentration may call for additional pro-competitive interventions to prevent unfavourable developments. Such policies will simultaneously make it more difficult to uphold traditional social objectives related to pharmacy services. Experiences in both Iceland and Norway highlight the complexity of managing reforms that fundamentally influence competitive behaviour.

  15. Active-Learning Processes Used in US Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stacy D.; Clavier, Cheri W.; Wyatt, Jarrett

    2011-01-01

    Objective To document the type and extent of active-learning techniques used in US colleges and schools of pharmacy as well as factors associated with use of these techniques. Methods A survey instrument was developed to assess whether and to what extent active learning was used by faculty members of US colleges and schools of pharmacy. This survey instrument was distributed via the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) mailing list. Results Ninety-five percent (114) of all US colleges and schools of pharmacy were represented with at least 1 survey among the 1179 responses received. Eighty-seven percent of respondents used active-learning techniques in their classroom activities. The heavier the teaching workload the more active-learning strategies were used. Other factors correlated with higher use of active-learning strategies included younger faculty member age (inverse relationship), lower faculty member rank (inverse relationship), and departments that focused on practice, clinical and social, behavioral, and/or administrative sciences. Conclusions Active learning has been embraced by pharmacy educators and is used to some extent by the majority of US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Future research should focus on how active-learning methods can be used most effectively within pharmacy education, how it can gain even broader acceptance throughout the academy, and how the effect of active learning on programmatic outcomes can be better documented. PMID:21769144

  16. Factors Associated With Pharmacy Student Interest in International Study

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Chelsea; Breheny, Patrick; Ingram, Richard; Pfeifle, William; Cain, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the interest of pharmacy students in international study, the demographic factors and involvement characteristics associated with that interest, and the perceived advantages and barriers of engaging in international opportunities during pharmacy school. Methods. A self-administered electronic survey instrument was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy. Results. There were 192 total respondents, for a response rate of 50.9%. Seventy-two percent reported interest in international study. Previous international study experience (p=0.001), previous international travel experience (p=0.002), year in pharmacy school (p=0.03), level of academic involvement (p<0.001), and level of diversity involvement (p<0.001) were associated with international study interest. Positive influences to international study included desire to travel and availability of scholarships. Perceived barriers included an inability to pay expenses and lack of foreign language knowledge. Conclusions. The needs and interests of pharmacy students should be considered in the development and expansion of internationalization programs in order to effectively optimize global partnerships and available international experiences. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should engage students early in the curriculum when interest in study-abroad opportunities is highest and seek to alleviate concerns about expenses as a primary influence on study-abroad decisions through provision of financial assistance. PMID:23610472

  17. Assuming a Pharmacy Organization Leadership Position: A Guide for Pharmacy Leaders.

    PubMed

    Shay, Blake; Weber, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Important and influential pharmacy organization leadership positions, such as president, board member, or committee chair, are volunteer positions and require a commitment of personal and professional time. These positions provide excellent opportunities for leadership development, personal promotion, and advancement of the profession. In deciding to assume a leadership position, interested individuals must consider the impact on their personal and professional commitments and relationships, career planning, employer support, current and future department projects, employee support, and personal readiness. This article reviews these factors and also provides an assessment tool that leaders can use to determine their readiness to assume leadership positions. By using an assessment tool, pharmacy leaders can better understand their ability to assume an important and influential leadership position while achieving job and personal goals. PMID:27621512

  18. Assuming a Pharmacy Organization Leadership Position: A Guide for Pharmacy Leaders.

    PubMed

    Shay, Blake; Weber, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Important and influential pharmacy organization leadership positions, such as president, board member, or committee chair, are volunteer positions and require a commitment of personal and professional time. These positions provide excellent opportunities for leadership development, personal promotion, and advancement of the profession. In deciding to assume a leadership position, interested individuals must consider the impact on their personal and professional commitments and relationships, career planning, employer support, current and future department projects, employee support, and personal readiness. This article reviews these factors and also provides an assessment tool that leaders can use to determine their readiness to assume leadership positions. By using an assessment tool, pharmacy leaders can better understand their ability to assume an important and influential leadership position while achieving job and personal goals.

  19. Pharmaceutical Compounding in Portuguese Community Pharmacies: CHARACTERIZATION AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES.

    PubMed

    Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Rita; Macedo, Marina; Machado, Rita M; Pacheco, Ana Filipa; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; Martinez-de-Oliveira, José; Duarte, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    A study of compounding practices among Portuguese community pharmacies from 2008 to 2011 and pharmacists' perspectives concerning compounding was conducted. The retrospective study was based on an online questionnaire developed to gather information on pharmacies characteristics frequency, and type of compounded preparations. Additionally, difficulties, motivations, and pharmacist's perspectives regarding compounding were assessed. Up to 1,450 Portuguese pharmacies were contacted, and 250 completed questionnaires obtained. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Version 21. Frequency and cross-tab analysis was used to describe data. Chi-square test was used to assess statistical significant differences between compounding and non-compounding pharmacies' characteristics. Among all pharmacies, 75.2% reported compounding practices, although the majority prepared less than 50 preparations per year, corresponding to less than 10 different formulations. Those pharmacies' with a higher lifetime activity, number of customers, and team members were associated to compounding practices. Dermatological preparations were the most frequently prepared formulations, followed by oral solutions, and otorhinolaryngological preparations. Dermatologists and pediatricians were the most frequent prescribers of compounded medicines. Regarding future perspectives, 51.4% of pharmacists believed that compounding will decrease. However, 79.1% indicated that they will continue to compound, and 70.7% considered that compounded prescriptions should be encouraged. Patient satisfaction (66.1%) and improvement of the pharmacy image (63.8%) were considered the main advantages of compounding services. Compounded medicines are still prepared in the community pharmacy setting to fulfill special patients' therapeutic needs, especially following dermatologists' and pediatricians' prescriptions. Offering compounding services is perceived by pharmacists as an important factor for high

  20. Development of a Supervisory Skills Course for Hospital Pharmacy Workplaces

    PubMed Central

    Woloschuk, Donna M M; Raymond, Colette B

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objective: Many Canadian hospital pharmacies are experiencing difficulties recruiting supervisory personnel. It was expected that, through a “learning-by-doing” course, pharmacy staff would learn to apply basic skills in the day-to-day supervision of pharmacy operations and human resources and to apply the principles of supervisory documentation. Methods: A supervisory skills course targeted to pharmacy staff members was developed and implemented by the pharmacy department of a large urban health region. The course was initially offered to practising pharmacy technicians. The course design emphasized a constructivist framework incorporating authentic learning and reflective practice during seminars, with experiential and self-directed learning in the workplace. Preceptors assisted learners to achieve the course goals. Learners and preceptors provided feedback about hours spent (as the course progressed) and about their satisfaction with the course itself (at the end of the course). Learners and preceptors completed a post-program evaluation 2 months after completing the course to help in the assessment of the transfer of learning (lasting impact) associated with the course. Overall performance in the course was assessed on a pass/fail basis. Results: Eighteen pharmacy technicians were admitted to the program, but one withdrew because of a job change. All learners successfully completed the course. Two months after the course, learners and preceptors described enhanced organization, time management, leadership, communication, and conflict-resolution skills on the part of learners, as well as their increased confidence, maturity, and ability to supervise staff. Learners’ evaluations revealed a broadened perspective of pharmacy. The preceptors valued the enhancement of learners’ skills and their increased enthusiasm. At the time of writing, 6 of the participants had secured supervisory positions. Conclusion: Creating formal instruction that

  1. Transitioning knowledge gained from simulation to pharmacy practice.

    PubMed

    Kane-Gill, Sandra L; Smithburger, Pamela L

    2011-12-15

    Using simulation to teach pharmacy practice skills may result in knowledge that is transferable to patient care. Key areas in which simulation is being used in pharmacy education include therapeutics, communication, physical assessment, patient safety, and populations to which students may have infrequent exposure. Enhancing interprofessional healthcare team dynamics and the skills of practicing healthcare professionals are other practical applications for simulation education. Educators should continue to be creative in the incorporation of simulation into pharmacy education and conduct more studies on the impact of simulation education on patient care to demonstrate the efficacy of this teaching modality.

  2. Global Education Implications of the Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency Examination

    PubMed Central

    Clauson, Kevin A.; Latif, David A.; Al-Rousan, Rabaa M.

    2010-01-01

    Although the Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency Examination (FPGEE) is not intended to measure educational outcomes or institutional effectiveness, it may be a reliable and valid criterion to assess the quality or success of international pharmacy programs. This comprehensive review describes the evolution and historical milestones of the FPGEE, along with trends in structure, administration, and passing rates, and the impact of country of origin on participant performance. Similarities between the FPGEE and the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA) are also explored. This paper aims to provide a global prospective and insight for foreign academic institutions into parameters for evaluating their students' educational capabilities. PMID:20798798

  3. A Model for Assessing Reflective Practices in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Lonie, John M.; Smith, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To research the literature and examine assessment strategies used in health education that measure reflection levels and to identify assessment strategies for use in pharmacy education. Methods. A simple systematic review using a 5-step approach was employed to locate peer-reviewed articles addressing assessment strategies in health education from the last 20 years. Results. The literature search identified assessment strategies and rubrics used in health education for assessing levels of reflection. There is a significant gap in the literature regarding reflective rubric use in pharmacy education. Conclusion. Two assessment strategies to assess levels of reflection, including a reflective rubric tailored for pharmacy education, are proposed. PMID:26690718

  4. Global education implications of the foreign pharmacy graduate equivalency examination.

    PubMed

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Clauson, Kevin A; Latif, David A; Al-Rousan, Rabaa M

    2010-06-15

    Although the Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency Examination (FPGEE) is not intended to measure educational outcomes or institutional effectiveness, it may be a reliable and valid criterion to assess the quality or success of international pharmacy programs. This comprehensive review describes the evolution and historical milestones of the FPGEE, along with trends in structure, administration, and passing rates, and the impact of country of origin on participant performance. Similarities between the FPGEE and the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA) are also explored. This paper aims to provide a global prospective and insight for foreign academic institutions into parameters for evaluating their students' educational capabilities.

  5. Integrating Internships with Professional Study in Pharmacy Education in Finland.

    PubMed

    Pitkä, Katja; Löfhjelm, Ulla; Passi, Sanna; Airaksinen, Marja

    2014-11-15

    Pharmacy internships are an important part of undergraduate pharmacy education worldwide. Internships in Finland are integrated into professional study during the second and third year, which has several pedagogic advantages, such as better understanding of the association between academic studies and pharmaceutical work-life during the studies, and enhanced self-reflection through the feedback from preceptors and peers during the internships. The objective of this paper is to describe the Finnish integrated internship using the pharmacy curriculum at the University of Helsinki as an example.

  6. Integrating Internships with Professional Study in Pharmacy Education in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Löfhjelm, Ulla; Passi, Sanna; Airaksinen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacy internships are an important part of undergraduate pharmacy education worldwide. Internships in Finland are integrated into professional study during the second and third year, which has several pedagogic advantages, such as better understanding of the association between academic studies and pharmaceutical work-life during the studies, and enhanced self-reflection through the feedback from preceptors and peers during the internships. The objective of this paper is to describe the Finnish integrated internship using the pharmacy curriculum at the University of Helsinki as an example. PMID:26056411

  7. Transitioning Knowledge Gained From Simulation to Pharmacy Practice

    PubMed Central

    Smithburger, Pamela L.

    2011-01-01

    Using simulation to teach pharmacy practice skills may result in knowledge that is transferable to patient care. Key areas in which simulation is being used in pharmacy education include therapeutics, communication, physical assessment, patient safety, and populations to which students may have infrequent exposure. Enhancing interprofessional healthcare team dynamics and the skills of practicing healthcare professionals are other practical applications for simulation education. Educators should continue to be creative in the incorporation of simulation into pharmacy education and conduct more studies on the impact of simulation education on patient care to demonstrate the efficacy of this teaching modality. PMID:22345729

  8. Pharmacy 2.0: a scoping review of social media use in pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Grindrod, Kelly; Forgione, Andrea; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Gavura, Scott; Giustini, Dean

    2014-01-01

    New "social" information and communication technologies such as social media and smartphones are allowing non-experts to access, interpret and generate medical information for their own care and the care of others. Pharmacists may also benefit from increased connectivity, but first there needs to be an understanding of how pharmacists engage with social media. A scoping review methodology was used to describe pharmacist and pharmacy student participation in social media networks and to describe the gaps in research. Three themes that emerged from reviewing social media use in pharmacy education were student engagement, boundaries and e-professionalism. For pharmacists, the themes of liability and professional use were prominent. Few pharmacy leadership organizations are providing guidance on social media but that appears to be changing. As the control of medical knowledge shifts from health professionals to the larger social community, pharmacists need to be present. Social media use and training in undergraduate programs is promising but experienced pharmacists also need to join the conversation.

  9. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    SciTech Connect

    Reekers, Jim A.; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zelenak, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods: The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results: Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0-14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1-2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only <0.5% of patients. Postdeployment bleeding occurred in 6.4%, and most these (51.5%) could be managed with light manual compression. During follow-up, other device-related complications were reported in 1.3%: seven false aneurysms, three hematoma >5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion: The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters.

  10. A Cultural Competency Course for Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Lakesha M.; Devraj, Radhika; Gupchup, Gireesh V.; Santanello, Cathy; Lynch, J. Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Objective To design, implement, and evaluate a course on health promotion and literacy. Design Course objectives such as the development of cultural competency skills, awareness of personal biases, and appreciation of differences in health beliefs among sociocultural groups were addressed using a team-based learning instructional strategy. Student learning outcomes were enhanced using readiness assessment tests (RATs), group presentations, portfolio reflections, and panel discussions. Assessment Comparing precourse and postcourse Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence among Healthcare Professionals (IAPCC-R) scores and portfolio responses indicated enhanced progress toward cultural competency. The Student Evaluation of Teaching (SET) provided suggestions for course enhancements. Conclusions Evidence supporting enhanced cultural competency after completing the course affirms its value as we prepare pharmacy students to provide patient-centered care in a culturally diverse world. PMID:19777096

  11. Implementing a pharmacy patient education center.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, Paul E

    2003-08-01

    Ambulatory care federal pharmacists may be readily used by beneficiaries to obtain verbal and written pharmaceutical and/or medical information because of their high visibility and accessibility. In addition to information provided for prescription medications, pharmacists may provide medication and disease information through a patient education center. A patient education center may contain written information in the form of pamphlets, booklets, or tear-off sheets, static displays such as posters, or interactive devices such as computers. The purpose of this study is to describe implementation of a patient education center consisting of written information and static displays at a Coast Guard pharmacy. The processes described in this study may be emulated by other health care professionals in a variety of settings.

  12. Bolatu's pharmacy theriac in early modern China.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Carla

    2009-01-01

    In early modem China, natural history and medicine were shifting along with the boundaries of the empire. Naturalists struggled to cope with a pharmacy's worth of new and unfamiliar substances, texts, and terms, as plants, animals, and the drugs made from them travelled into China across land and sea. One crucial aspect of this phenomenon was the early modern exchange between Islamic and Chinese medicine. The history of theriac illustrates the importance of the recipe for the naturalization of foreign objects in early modem Chinese medicine. Theriac was a widely sought-after and hotly debated product in early modern European pharmacology and arrived into the Chinese medical canon via Arabic and Persian texts. The dialogue between language and material objects was critical to the Silk Road drug trade, and transliteration was ultimately a crucial technology used to translate drugs and texts about them in the early modern world.

  13. Political advocacy in pharmacy: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Apollonio, Dorie E

    2015-01-01

    Many pharmacists have expressed a desire to become more involved in patient care, in part by being compensated for patient counseling, as well as by providing services traditionally offered by physicians and nurse practitioners. Recent efforts to develop collaborative care models, as well as major restructurings of US health insurance coverage, provide a unique opportunity for pharmacists to become recognized as independent health care providers and be reimbursed as primary care providers. Achieving that goal would require addressing advocacy challenges familiar to other health care professionals who have achieved provider status under existing reimbursement rules. Historically, political advocacy has not been a major part of pharmacy practice, or even viewed as necessary. However, pharmacists would be more politically effective with a single organization to speak for them as a profession, and with further education in advocacy. PMID:26301185

  14. Using knowledge rules for pharmacy mapping.

    PubMed

    Shakib, Shaun C; Che, Chengjian; Lau, Lee Min

    2006-01-01

    The 3M Health Information Systems (HIS) Healthcare Data Dictionary (HDD) is used to encode and structure patient medication data for the Electronic Health Record (EHR) of the Department of Defense's (DoD's) Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technology Application (AHLTA). HDD Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) are responsible for initial and maintenance mapping of disparate, standalone medication master files from all 100 DoD host sites worldwide to a single concept-based vocabulary, to accomplish semantic interoperability. To achieve higher levels of automation, SMEs began defining a growing set of knowledge rules. These knowledge rules were implemented in a pharmacy mapping tool, which enhanced consistency through automation and increased mapping rate by 29%.

  15. Developing Entrepreneurial Skills in Pharmacy Students.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Garry; Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Haughey, Sharon; Hughes, Carmel

    2015-09-25

    Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate a workshop that teaches undergraduate pharmacy students about entrepreneurship. Design. Workshops with 3 hours of contact time and 2 hours of self-study time were developed for final-year students. Faculty members and students evaluated peer assessment, peer development, communication, critical evaluation, creative thinking, problem solving, and numeracy skills, as well as topic understanding. Student evaluation of the workshops was done primarily via a self-administered, 9-item questionnaire. Assessment. One hundred thirty-four students completed the workshops. The mean score was 50.9 out of 65. Scores ranged from 45.9 to 54.1. The questionnaire had a 100% response rate. Many students agreed that workshops about entrepreneurship were a useful teaching method and that key skills were fostered. Conclusion. Workshops effectively delivered course content about entrepreneurship and helped develop relevant skills. This work suggests students value instruction on entrepreneurship.

  16. [Approach of dry cough in community pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Duquet, N

    2012-12-01

    Cough is a common symptom, often experienced as troublesome. The cough reflex is a physiological defense of the respiratory tract, most often triggered by irritation or obstruction of the airways. Productive cough can expel bronchial secretions. This cough is certainly useful. An irritating, dry cough however, has no purpose and can justify the temporary use of a cough suppressant to relieve symptoms. The pharmacist is often the first person to whom the patient turns. Persistent cough generally indicates an underlying condition that requires a causal treatment. In this case, the pharmacist should refer the patient to the doctor. This article aims to provide guidelines for dealing with dry cough in the pharmacy. PMID:23350209

  17. Developing Entrepreneurial Skills in Pharmacy Students.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Garry; Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Haughey, Sharon; Hughes, Carmel

    2015-09-25

    Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate a workshop that teaches undergraduate pharmacy students about entrepreneurship. Design. Workshops with 3 hours of contact time and 2 hours of self-study time were developed for final-year students. Faculty members and students evaluated peer assessment, peer development, communication, critical evaluation, creative thinking, problem solving, and numeracy skills, as well as topic understanding. Student evaluation of the workshops was done primarily via a self-administered, 9-item questionnaire. Assessment. One hundred thirty-four students completed the workshops. The mean score was 50.9 out of 65. Scores ranged from 45.9 to 54.1. The questionnaire had a 100% response rate. Many students agreed that workshops about entrepreneurship were a useful teaching method and that key skills were fostered. Conclusion. Workshops effectively delivered course content about entrepreneurship and helped develop relevant skills. This work suggests students value instruction on entrepreneurship. PMID:27168619

  18. Developing Entrepreneurial Skills in Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Haughey, Sharon; Hughes, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate a workshop that teaches undergraduate pharmacy students about entrepreneurship. Design. Workshops with 3 hours of contact time and 2 hours of self-study time were developed for final-year students. Faculty members and students evaluated peer assessment, peer development, communication, critical evaluation, creative thinking, problem solving, and numeracy skills, as well as topic understanding. Student evaluation of the workshops was done primarily via a self-administered, 9-item questionnaire. Assessment. One hundred thirty-four students completed the workshops. The mean score was 50.9 out of 65. Scores ranged from 45.9 to 54.1. The questionnaire had a 100% response rate. Many students agreed that workshops about entrepreneurship were a useful teaching method and that key skills were fostered. Conclusion. Workshops effectively delivered course content about entrepreneurship and helped develop relevant skills. This work suggests students value instruction on entrepreneurship. PMID:27168619

  19. 40 CFR 265.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.1102 Section 265.1102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Containment Buildings § 265.1102 Closure and post-closure care. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 265.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.1102 Section 265.1102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Containment Buildings § 265.1102 Closure and post-closure care. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 265.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.1102 Section 265.1102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Containment Buildings § 265.1102 Closure and post-closure care. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 265.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.1102 Section 265.1102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Containment Buildings § 265.1102 Closure and post-closure care. (a)...

  3. Purchasing Over-the-counter medicines from Australian pharmacy: What do the pharmacy customers value and expect?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over-the-counter medicines (OTC) are widely available and can be purchased without a prescription. Their availability means that a customer may choose to purchase them without the involvement of a pharmacy/pharmacist. It is important to understand customer OTC purchasing perceptions and behaviour from a pharmacy to better understand the needs and opportunities in this space. Objective: This study aimed to examine customers’ key expectations and what they value when purchasing OTC and how the effect of health status/stress and perceived risks/benefits of purchasing OTCs from a pharmacy may influence their OTC shopping behaviour. Methods: Customers from two metropolitan pharmacies across two different suburbs in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data collection was conducted over a six-week period. The questionnaire examined demographics, current level of health and stress, as well as a range of questions (seven-point Likert-scale) examining perceived benefits and risks, what they value, trust and expect when purchasing OTC. Results: A total of 86 customers from a broad range of demographics were captured in this study. When asked about their current health state, 41% and 23% respectively indicated that they were stressed and tense when they arrived at the pharmacy but many were feeling well (38%). Most customers strongly agreed/agreed that trust in the advice from a pharmacy (96%), trust in the products (73%), and the altruistic approach of a pharmacy (95%) were critical to them. Further, 82% and 78% respectively disagreed that time pressures or costs were concerns, despite many feeling tense and stressed when they came in. When asked where they intend to buy their future OTC, 89% indicated pharmacy instead of a supermarket. Conclusions: High levels of trust, confidence and sense of altruism and care were key factors for customers buying OTC from a pharmacy, regardless of time pressures, costs or existing

  4. Facilitating memory with hypnosis, focused meditation, and eye closure.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Graham F; Brunas-Wagstaff, Jo; Cole, Jon; Knapton, Luke; Winterbottom, James; Crean, Vicki; Wheatcroft, Jacqueline

    2004-10-01

    Three experiments examined some features of hypnotic induction that might be useful in the development of brief memory-facilitation procedures. The first involved a hypnosis procedure designed to facilitate face identification; the second employed a brief, focused-meditation (FM) procedure, with and without eye closure, designed to facilitate memory for an emotional event. The third experiment was a check for simple motivation and expectancy effects. Limited facilitation effects were found for hypnosis, but these were accompanied by increased confidence in incorrect responses. However, eye closure and FM were effective in facilitating free recall of an event without an increase in errors. FM reduced phonemic fluency, suggesting that the effectiveness of FM was not due to simple changes in expectancy or motivation.

  5. Executive summary: The Virginia Commonwealth University pharmacy practice transformation conference.

    PubMed

    Matzke, Gary R; Moczygemba, Leticia R; Goode, Jean-Venable R; Silvester, Janet A

    2012-04-01

    Pharmacy practice transformation was the focus of an invitational conference held in June 2011 to address the current status of the practice of pharmacy in Virginia and elucidate the consensus on future directions from pharmacists across the commonwealth. The series of presentations provided visionary perspectives on the role that pharmacists can have in the collaborative management of patients with chronic disease states, the optimal pharmacy practice model for direct patient care delivery in acute care settings, and payment for pharmacists' cognitive services, such as medication therapy management (MTM). The discussion groups were structured to have conference participants first identify future goals for pharmacy practice and then consider strategies to achieve these goals. The conference concluded with a consensus development dialogue that revealed the priorities as well as the strategies that needed to be employed to move the profession toward its goals.

  6. Effectiveness of E-learning in pharmacy education.

    PubMed

    Salter, Sandra M; Karia, Ajay; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Clifford, Rhonda M

    2014-05-15

    Over the past 2 decades, e-learning has evolved as a new pedagogy within pharmacy education. As learners and teachers increasingly seek e-learning opportunities for an array of educational and individual benefits, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. This systematic review of the literature examines the quality of e-learning effectiveness studies in pharmacy, describes effectiveness measures, and synthesizes the evidence for each measure. E-learning in pharmacy education effectively increases knowledge and is a highly acceptable instructional format for pharmacists and pharmacy students. However, there is limited evidence that e-learning effectively improves skills or professional practice. There is also no evidence that e-learning is effective at increasing knowledge long term; thus, long-term follow-up studies are required. Translational research is also needed to evaluate the benefits of e-learning at patient and organizational levels.

  7. Validity of the Study Practices Inventory for Pharmacy Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, T. Lee; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The validity of the Study Practices Inventory (SPI) for a group of entering pharmacy students was assessed. The four subscores of the SPI showed moderate correlation with entering grade point average and with measures of reading ability. (Author/JKS)

  8. Cyberdrugs: a cross-sectional study of online pharmacies characteristics.

    PubMed

    Orizio, Grazia; Schulz, Peter; Domenighini, Serena; Caimi, Luigi; Rosati, Cristina; Rubinelli, Sara; Gelatti, Umberto

    2009-08-01

    As e-commerce and online pharmacies (OPs) arose, the potential impact of the Internet on the world of health shifted from merely the spread of information to a real opportunity to acquire health services directly. Aim of the study was to investigate the offer of prescription drugs in OPs, analysing their characteristics, using the content analysis method. The research performed using the Google search engine led to an analysis of 118 online pharmacies. Only 51 (43.2%) of them stated their precise location. Ninety-six (81.4%) online pharmacies did not require a medical prescription from the customer's physician. Online pharmacies rise complex issues in terms of patient-doctor relationship, consumer empowerment, drug quality, regulation and public health implications.

  9. Expanding Dress Code Requirements in the Doctor of Pharmacy Program.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Cynthia A; Schweiger, Teresa A; Angelo, Lauren B; Lea Bonner, C; Dhing, Conrad W; Farley, Joel F

    2016-06-25

    Although the use of a professional dress code is standard practice across colleges and schools of pharmacy during introductory and advanced pharmacy practice experiences, requiring professional attire is not applied consistently during the didactic portion of students' education. There are arguments for and against the adoption of a professional dress code throughout the entire doctor of pharmacy program, including the classroom setting. Given uncertainty regarding the potential benefits and challenges that may arise from adopting a professional dress code in the didactic portion of a student pharmacist's education, it is perhaps not surprising that programs adopt disparate policies regarding its use. This exploration was conducted as part of a series of debates held in conjunction with the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy's (AACP) Academic Leadership Fellows Program (ALFP) and was presented at the 2015 AACP Interim Meeting on February 7, 2015. PMID:27402977

  10. Cyberdrugs: a cross-sectional study of online pharmacies characteristics.

    PubMed

    Orizio, Grazia; Schulz, Peter; Domenighini, Serena; Caimi, Luigi; Rosati, Cristina; Rubinelli, Sara; Gelatti, Umberto

    2009-08-01

    As e-commerce and online pharmacies (OPs) arose, the potential impact of the Internet on the world of health shifted from merely the spread of information to a real opportunity to acquire health services directly. Aim of the study was to investigate the offer of prescription drugs in OPs, analysing their characteristics, using the content analysis method. The research performed using the Google search engine led to an analysis of 118 online pharmacies. Only 51 (43.2%) of them stated their precise location. Ninety-six (81.4%) online pharmacies did not require a medical prescription from the customer's physician. Online pharmacies rise complex issues in terms of patient-doctor relationship, consumer empowerment, drug quality, regulation and public health implications. PMID:19151103

  11. Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Medical Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ knowledge of and attitudes toward medical marijuana and to determine if pharmacy students need additional education on the topic. Methods. Pharmacy students were asked to complete a survey on medical marijuana that assessed their knowledge of, medical uses of, adverse effects with, and attitudes toward medical marijuana through 23 Likert-scale questions. Results. Three hundred eleven students completed the survey. Fifty-eight percent of the students felt that medical marijuana should be legalized in all states. However, the majority of students did not feel comfortable answering consumers’ questions regarding efficacy, safety, or drug interactions related to the substance. Accurate responses for diseases or conditions for permitted medical marijuana use was low, with only cancer (91%) and glaucoma (57%) identified by more than half the students. Conclusion. With an increasing number of states adopting medical marijuana use, pharmacy schools need to evaluate the adequacy of medical marijuana education in their curriculum. PMID:26430272

  12. Cognitive Determinants of Academic Performance in Nigerian Pharmacy Schools.

    PubMed

    Ubaka, Chukwuemeka M; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Ukwe, Chinwe V

    2015-09-25

    Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs.

  13. Canadian Educational Approaches for the Advancement of Pharmacy Practice

    PubMed Central

    Louizos, Christopher; Austin, Zubin

    2014-01-01

    Canadian faculties (schools) of pharmacy are actively engaged in the advancement and restructuring of their programs in response to the shift in pharmacy to pharmacists having/assuming an advanced practitioner role. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of evidence outlining optimal strategies for accomplishing this task. This review explores several educational changes proposed in the literature to aid in the advancement of pharmacy education such as program admission requirements, critical-thinking assessment and teaching methods, improvement of course content delivery, value of interprofessional education, advancement of practical experiential education, and mentorship strategies. Collectively, implementation of these improvements to pharmacy education will be crucial in determining the direction the profession will take. PMID:25258448

  14. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Job Satisfaction Characteristics Among Pharmacy Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purohit, Anal A.; Lambert, Randall L.

    1983-01-01

    Of 20 extrinsic and intrinsic factors relating to job satisfaction, pharmacy students at the University of Illinois most frequently selected these: salaries, sense of accomplishment, use of training, learning opportunities, and relationships with coworkers. (MSE)

  15. [The history of the first pharmacy of Leskovac region].

    PubMed

    Milić, Petar; Milić, Slavica

    2011-01-01

    This paper explains the social and healthcare related conditions in the Leskovac region during 18th and 19th century, and the foundation of the first pharmacy in Serbia. Based on the available historical facts and private documents, the history of the origin and activities of the first pharmacy in the Leskovac region during the Turkish reign in 1862 is presented.The paper also mentions the founder, Dr. Alexiadis (Greek by origin), who was a doctor working in pharmaceutical industry, as well as his son Mgr.Ph. Djordje Aleksić, born in 1847 in Ioannina (Greece) and graduated from the Pharamacy Faculty in Constantinople in 1875, who later became the owner. After graduation, Mgr.Ph. Djordje Aleksić came in Leskovac and took over the "Hipokrat" pharmacy from his father, and started pharmacy business in Leskovac in the true meaning of that word. PMID:22070011

  16. Reflective Practice and Its Implications for Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Smith, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacy students require critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to integrate theory learned in the classroom with the complexities of practice, yet many pharmacy students fall short of acquiring these skills.1-2 Reflective practice activities encourage learning from the student’s own experiences and those of others, and offer a possible solution for the integration of knowledge-based curricula with the ambiguities of practice, as well as enhance communication and collaboration within a multidisciplinary team. Although reflective practices have been embraced elsewhere in health professions education, their strengths and shortcomings need to be considered when implementing such practices into pharmacy curricula. This review provides an overview of the evolution of theories related to reflective practice, critically examines the use of reflective tools (such as portfolios and blogs), and discusses the implications of implementing reflective practices in pharmacy education. PMID:24558286

  17. Cross-sectional study of the ethics of pharmacy students.

    PubMed

    Boyce, E G; Montagne, M; Reinsmith, W A; Hennessy, S; Knowlton, C H

    1989-01-01

    The importance of ethics in pharmacy education and practice has recently received increased attention. Previous studies have addressed occupational orientation and personality traits as well as the nature of attitudes and values. Many unanswered questions remain. This cross-sectional study was designed to compare the attitudes and value priorities of pharmacy students in preprofessional and professional years of study and to evaluate a modified questionnaire. The 495 students who completed the questionnaire were representative of the 835 pharmacy students enrolled in this "0/5" undergraduate pharmacy program. The survey results indicated that honesty and full disclosure are preferences held by preprofessional students, whereas what may be described as professional judgment predominates in students during their final two professional years. Most students felt they had an idealistic or humanistic orientation. The differences among the classes may be due to any of a number of factors including curricula, normal maturation, or chance differences in the students within each class.

  18. Interprofessional Peer Teaching of Pharmacy and Physical Therapy Students

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Cheryl A.; Li, Johnson Ching-hong; Pasay, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate an interprofessional peer-teaching activity during which physical therapy students instructed undergraduate pharmacy students on 3 ambulatory devices (canes, crutches, walkers). Design. The pre/post evaluation of 2 pharmacy undergraduate classes included 220 students, 110 per year. After pharmacy students completed a 10-point, knowledge-based pretest, they participated in a hands-on activity with physical therapy students teaching them about sizing, use, and safety of canes, crutches, and walkers. A 10-point posttest was completed immediately afterward. Assessment. The mean difference of pre/post scores was 3.5 (SD 1.9) for the peer-led teaching, and 3.8 (SD 2.2) for the peer learning group. Students had positive responses regarding the learning exercise and recommended further peer teaching. Conclusion. The peer-learning activity involving physical therapy students teaching pharmacy students was an effective method of improving knowledge and skills regarding basic ambulatory devices. PMID:26889067

  19. Health Canada considers dispensing medical marijuana through pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Thaczuk, Derek

    2004-08-01

    Health Canada may be poised to emulate the Netherlands' system of distributing marijuana to HIV/AIDS and other patients through pharmacies. Meanwhile, revisions to the much-criticized medical marijuana regulatory system are under development. PMID:15540329

  20. Improving Pharmacy Practice in the Third World. The Jamaican Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, M. Faith

    1985-01-01

    Using data from Jamaica, this article examines the need for more information and training in Third World pharmacies, and suggests a model of continuing education to promote informed and appropriate drug use. (Author/CT)

  1. Cognitive Determinants of Academic Performance in Nigerian Pharmacy Schools.

    PubMed

    Ubaka, Chukwuemeka M; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Ukwe, Chinwe V

    2015-09-25

    Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs. PMID:27168614

  2. Reflective practice and its implications for pharmacy education.

    PubMed

    Tsingos, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Smith, Lorraine

    2014-02-12

    Pharmacy students require critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to integrate theory learned in the classroom with the complexities of practice, yet many pharmacy students fall short of acquiring these skills.(1-2) Reflective practice activities encourage learning from the student's own experiences and those of others, and offer a possible solution for the integration of knowledge-based curricula with the ambiguities of practice, as well as enhance communication and collaboration within a multidisciplinary team. Although reflective practices have been embraced elsewhere in health professions education, their strengths and shortcomings need to be considered when implementing such practices into pharmacy curricula. This review provides an overview of the evolution of theories related to reflective practice, critically examines the use of reflective tools (such as portfolios and blogs), and discusses the implications of implementing reflective practices in pharmacy education.

  3. The Relationship of Financial Pressures and Community Characteristics to Closure of Private Safety Net Clinics.

    PubMed

    Li, Suhui; Dor, Avi; Pines, Jesse M; Zocchi, Mark S; Hsia, Renee Y

    2016-10-01

    In order to better understand what threatens vulnerable populations' access to primary care, it is important to understand the factors associated with closing safety net clinics. This article examines how a clinic's financial position, productivity, and community characteristics are associated with its risk of closure. We examine patterns of closures among private-run primary care clinics (PCCs) in California between 2006 and 2012. We use a discrete-time proportional hazard model to assess relative hazard ratios of covariates, and a random-effect hazard model to adjust for unobserved heterogeneity among PCCs. We find that lower net income from patient care, smaller amount of government grants, and lower productivity were associated with significantly higher risk of PCC closure. We also find that federally qualified health centers and nonfederally qualified health centers generally faced the same risk factors of closure. These results underscore the critical role of financial incentives in the long-term viability of safety net clinics.

  4. Pharmaceutical care education in Kuwait: pharmacy students’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Katoue, Maram G.; Awad, Abdelmoneim I.; Schwinghammer, Terry L.; Kombian, Samuel B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical care is defined as the responsible provision of medication therapy to achieve definite outcomes that improve patients’ quality of life. Pharmacy education should equip students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to practise pharmaceutical care competently. Objective To investigate pharmacy students’ attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to perform pharmaceutical care competencies, opinions about the importance of the various pharmaceutical care activities, and the barriers to its implementation in Kuwait. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of pharmacy students (n=126) was conducted at Faculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait University. Data were collected via a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics including percentages, medians and means Likert scale rating (SD) were calculated and compared using SPSS, version 19. Statistical significance was accepted at a p value of 0.05 or lower. Results The response rate was 99.2%. Pharmacy students expressed overall positive attitudes towards pharmaceutical care. They felt prepared to implement the various aspects of pharmaceutical care, with the least preparedness in the administrative/management aspects. Perceived pharmaceutical care competencies grew as students progressed through the curriculum. The students also appreciated the importance of the various pharmaceutical care competencies. They agreed/strongly agreed that the major barriers to the integration of pharmaceutical care into practice were lack of private counseling areas or inappropriate pharmacy layout (95.2%), lack of pharmacist time (83.3%), organizational obstacles (82.6%), and pharmacists’ physical separation from patient care areas (82.6%). Conclusion Pharmacy students’ attitudes and perceived preparedness can serve as needs assessment tools to guide curricular change and improvement. Student pharmacists at Kuwait University understand and

  5. Continued cost justification of an operating room satellite pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Fiala, D; Grady, K P; Smigla, R

    1993-03-01

    Cost justification for the establishment and continued operation of an operating room satellite pharmacy is described. Establishment of an operating room satellite pharmacy can be justified based on the need to recover lost revenue, regulate controlled substances, monitor inventory, and enhance communication between operating room personnel and the department of pharmacy. At a 510-bed community hospital, an internal audit performed before the satellite pharmacy was opened revealed an average loss of $14.53 in drug charges per surgical procedure; 16 months after the pharmacy opened, changes in the way drugs are distributed to the departments of surgery and anesthesia has resulted in a decrease in this loss to $9.61, or a 34% improvement. To regulate controlled substances, the pharmacy attaches a drug-use log to each dispensing kit, which has resulted in 98% agreement between recorded administration of controlled substances and actual amounts signed out and ultimately returned. Recommendations made by the department of pharmacy regarding the use of high-cost drugs during surgery has resulted in an annual savings of more than $100,000, and improvements in drug packaging reduced, and in some cases eliminated, wastage. Direct contact between operating room personnel and pharmacists has fostered discussions regarding cost-effective application of pharmacotherapy, and the potential for cost savings is substantial. Although the remaining loss of $9.61 per case must still be addressed, considerable progress has been made in a relatively short period of time. The satellite pharmacy in the operating room has led to increased revenue recovery, improved regulation of controlled substances and monitoring of drug inventory, and better communication among the involved personnel.

  6. Can professionalism be measured?: evidence from the pharmacy literature

    PubMed Central

    Rutter, Paul M.; Duncan, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    The need to ensure the future pharmacy workforce demonstrates professionalism has become important to both pharmacy educators and professional bodies. Objective To determine the extent to which Schools of Pharmacy have taught or measured student professionalism. Methods Review of the healthcare literature on teaching of professionalism at an undergraduate level Results Two-hundred and thirty one papers were retrieved but only 45 papers related specifically to pharmacy. Of these a further 25 were narrative in nature and did not report any findings. Nineteen papers were reviewed (one was excluded as it reported the same data). Papers could be broadly categorised in to those that have tried to create a tool to measure professionalism, those that are in effect pedagogical evaluations of new initiatives or longitudinal studies on student perceptions toward aspects of professionalism. Conclusion A growing body of literature exists on pharmacy and professionalism. However, to date, very few Schools of Pharmacy appear to formally teach it let alone assess students’ acquisition of professionalism. PMID:25152789

  7. Teaching Medication Adherence in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Linda Garrelts; Hess, Karl; Farmer, Kevin C.; Yurkon, Afton M.; Ha, Carolyn C.; Schwartzman, Emmanuelle; Law, Anandi V.; Milani, Paul A.; Trotta, Katie; Labella, Sara R.; Designor, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine and describe the nature and extent of medication adherence education in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Methods. A mixed-methods research study was conducted that included a national survey of pharmacy faculty members, a national survey of pharmacy students, and phone interviews of 3 faculty members and 6 preceptors. Results. The majority of faculty members and students agreed that background concepts in medication adherence are well covered in pharmacy curricula. Approximately 40% to 65% of the students sampled were not familiar with several adherence interventions. The 6 preceptors who were interviewed felt they were not well-informed on adherence interventions, unclear on what students knew about adherence, and challenged to provide adherence-related activities for students during practice experiences because of practice time constraints. Conclusions. Intermediate and advanced concepts in medication adherence, such as conducting interventions, are not adequately covered in pharmacy curriculums; therefore stakeholders in pharmacy education must develop national standards and tools to ensure consistent and adequate medication adherence education. PMID:22761520

  8. Bullying in the Clinical Training of Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Shane, Patricia; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Yoshizuka, Keith; Chan, Paul; Vo, Thuy

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether bullying is a significant factor in the clinical training of pharmacy students. Methods. The literature as well as the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Standards and American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) surveys were reviewed for mention and/or measurement of bullying behaviors in the clinical training of pharmacy students. The authors used a Delphi process to define bullying behavior. The consensus definition was used to analyze 2,087 in-house student evaluations of preceptors for evidence of bullying behaviors. The authors mapped strings of text from in-house student comments to different, established categories of bullying behaviors. Results. The ACPE Standards and AACP surveys contained no mention or measures of bullying. The 2013 AACP survey data reported overwhelmingly positive preceptor ratings. Of the 2,087 student evaluations of preceptors, 119 (5.7%) had at least 1 low rating. Within those 119 survey instruments, 34 comments were found describing bullying behaviors. Students’ responses to the AACP survey were similar to data from the national cohort. Conclusions. Given the evidence that bullying behaviors occur in pharmacy education and that bullying has long-term and short-term damaging effects, more attention should be focused on this problem. Efforts should include addressing bullying in ACPE Standards and AACP survey tools developing a consensus definition for bullying and conducting more research into bullying in the clinical training of pharmacy students. PMID:25147389

  9. Poly-pharmacy among the elderly: analyzing the co-morbidity of hypertension and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Michela; Pieroni, Stefania; Fortunato, Loredana; Molinaro, Sabrina; Liebman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Clinical medicine faces many challenges, e.g. applying personalized medicine and genomics in daily practice; utilizing highly specialized diagnostic technologies; prescribing costly therapeutics. Today's population is aging and patients are diagnosed with more co-morbid conditions than in the past. Co-morbidity makes management of the elderly difficult also in terms of pharmacotherapy. The high prevalence of hypertension and diabetes as co-morbidities is indicative of the complexities that can impact accuracy in diagnosis and treatment, with poly-pharmacy being a significant component. It is essential to apply analytic methods to evaluate retrospective data to understand real world patients and medical practice. This study applies social network analysis, a novel method, to administrative data to evaluate the scope and impact of poly-pharmacy and reveal potential problems in management of elderly patients with diabetes and hypertension. Social Network Analysis (SNA) enables the examination of large patient data sets to identify complex relationships that may exist and go undetected either because of infrequent observation or complexity of the interactions. The application of SNA identifies critical aspects derived from over-connected portions of the network. These criticalities mainly involve the high rate of poly-pharmacy that results from the observation of additional co-morbid conditions in the study population. The analysis identifies crucial factors for consideration in developing clinical guidelines to deal with real-world patient observations. The analysis of routine health data, as analyzed using SNA, can be further compared with the inclusion/exclusion criteria presented in the current guidelines and can additionally provide the basis for further enhancement of such criteria. PMID:25341855

  10. Uptake of Quality-Related Event Standards of Practice by Community Pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Todd A; Bishop, Andrea C; Overmars, Craig; MacMaster, Kaleigh; Mahaffey, Thomas; Zwicker, Bev; MacKinnon, Neil J

    2015-10-01

    Quality-related events (QREs), including medication errors and near misses, are an inevitable part of community pharmacy practice. As QREs have significant implications for patient safety, pharmacy regulatory authorities across North America are increasing their expectations regarding QRE reporting and learning. Such expectations, commonly encapsulated as standards of practice (SoP), vary greatly between pharmacy jurisdictions and may range from the simple requirement to document QREs occurring within the pharmacy, all the way to requiring that quality improvement plans have been put in place. This research explores the uptake of QRE reporting and learning SoP and how this uptake varies based on pharmacy characteristics including location, prescription volume, and pharmacy type. Secondary data analysis of 91 community pharmacy assessments in Nova Scotia, Canada, was used to explore uptake of QRE standards. Overall, pharmacies are performing relatively well on reporting QREs. However, despite initial success with basic QRE reporting, community pharmacy uptake of QRE learning activities is lagging.

  11. Atrioventricular block after ASD closure

    PubMed Central

    Asakai, Hiroko; Weskamp, Sofia; Eastaugh, Lucas; d'Udekem, Yves; Pflaumer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Objective Secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common congenital heart defect. There is limited data on both early and late atrioventricular (AV) block post ASD closure. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of AV block associated with ASD closure. Methods A retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent ASD closure either with a device or surgical method at the Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne between 1996 and 2010 was performed. Baseline demographics, procedural details and follow-up data were collected from medical records. Results A total of 378 patients were identified; 242 in the device group and 136 in the surgical group. Fourteen patients (3.7%) had AV block (1 with second degree and 13 with first degree) at a median follow-up of 28 months; 11/242 (4.5%) in the device group and 3/135 (2.2%) in the surgical group (p=0.39). Six patients had new-onset AV block after ASD closure. In the device subgroup, patients with AV block at follow-up had a larger indexed device size compared with those without (22 (15–31) vs 18(7–38), p=0.02). Multivariate analysis revealed the presence of AV block either pre procedure or post procedure to be the only variables associated with late AV block. Conclusions Late AV block in patients with repaired ASD is rare and most likely independent of the technique used. In the device subgroup, the only risk factor identified to be associated with late AV block was the presence of either preprocedural or postprocedural AV block, so long-term follow-up for these patients should be provided. PMID:27540418

  12. The Determinants of High School Closures: Lessons from Longitudinal Data throughout Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billger, Sherrilyn M.; Beck, Frank D.

    2012-01-01

    Facing substantial financial pressure, many districts close schools in order to preserve solvency and improve student outcomes. Using a new longitudinal data set on all non-Cook County Illinois schools, we examine the determinants of high school closure decisions from 1986 through 2006. Our dataset combines information from a wide variety of…

  13. Hereditary premature closure of a coronal suture in the Abraham Lincoln family.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Ronald S

    2013-10-01

    The most easily recognized facial features of unilateral premature closure of a coronal suture in the skull are an upward arching of the superior orbital rim and a smaller face on the involved side. Photographs indicate that at least 9 individuals over 5 generations of the Abraham Lincoln family showed this anomaly.

  14. Sampling and monitoring for closure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLemore, V.T.; Russell, C.C.; Smith, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    The Metals Mining Sector of the Acid Drainage Technology Initiative (ADTI-MMS) addresses technical drainage-quality issues related to metal mining and related metallurgical operations, for future and active mines, as well as, for historical mines and mining districts. One of the first projects of ADTI-MMS is to develop a handbook describing the best sampling, monitoring, predicting, mitigating, and modeling of drainage from metal mines, pit lakes and related metallurgical facilities based upon current scientific and engineering practices. One of the important aspects of planning a new mine in today's regulatory environment is the philosophy of designing a new or existing mine or expansion of operations for ultimate closure. The holistic philosophy taken in the ADTI-MMS handbook maintains that sampling and monitoring programs should be designed to take into account all aspects of the mine-life cycle. Data required for the closure of the operation are obtained throughout the mine-life cycle, from exploration through post-closure.

  15. Incorporating Health Information Technology and Pharmacy Informatics in a Pharmacy Professional Didactic Curriculum -with a Team-based Learning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Timothy W.; Fingado, Amanda R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To incorporate a pharmacy informatics program in the didactic curriculum of a team-based learning institution and to assess students’ knowledge of and confidence with health informatics during the course. Design. A previously developed online pharmacy informatics course was adapted and implemented into a team-based learning (TBL) 3-credit-hour drug information course for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in their second didactic year. During a period of five weeks (15 contact hours), students used the online pharmacy informatics modules as part of their readiness assurance process. Additional material was developed to comply with the TBL principles. Online pre/postsurveys were administered to evaluate knowledge gained and students’ perceptions of the informatics program. Assessment. Eighty-three second-year students (84% response rate) completed the surveys. Participants’ knowledge of electronic health records, computerized physician order entry, pharmacy information systems, and clinical decision support was significantly improved. Additionally, their confidence significantly improved in terms of describing health informatics terminology, describing the benefits and barriers of using health information technology, and understanding reasons for systematically processing health information. Conclusion. Students responded favorably to the incorporation of pharmacy informatics content into a drug information course using a TBL approach. Students met the learning objectives of seven thematic areas and had positive attitudes toward the course after its completion.

  16. Incorporating Health Information Technology and Pharmacy Informatics in a Pharmacy Professional Didactic Curriculum -with a Team-based Learning Approach.

    PubMed

    Hincapie, Ana L; Cutler, Timothy W; Fingado, Amanda R

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To incorporate a pharmacy informatics program in the didactic curriculum of a team-based learning institution and to assess students' knowledge of and confidence with health informatics during the course. Design. A previously developed online pharmacy informatics course was adapted and implemented into a team-based learning (TBL) 3-credit-hour drug information course for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in their second didactic year. During a period of five weeks (15 contact hours), students used the online pharmacy informatics modules as part of their readiness assurance process. Additional material was developed to comply with the TBL principles. Online pre/postsurveys were administered to evaluate knowledge gained and students' perceptions of the informatics program. Assessment. Eighty-three second-year students (84% response rate) completed the surveys. Participants' knowledge of electronic health records, computerized physician order entry, pharmacy information systems, and clinical decision support was significantly improved. Additionally, their confidence significantly improved in terms of describing health informatics terminology, describing the benefits and barriers of using health information technology, and understanding reasons for systematically processing health information. Conclusion. Students responded favorably to the incorporation of pharmacy informatics content into a drug information course using a TBL approach. Students met the learning objectives of seven thematic areas and had positive attitudes toward the course after its completion.

  17. Incorporating Health Information Technology and Pharmacy Informatics in a Pharmacy Professional Didactic Curriculum -with a Team-based Learning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Timothy W.; Fingado, Amanda R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To incorporate a pharmacy informatics program in the didactic curriculum of a team-based learning institution and to assess students’ knowledge of and confidence with health informatics during the course. Design. A previously developed online pharmacy informatics course was adapted and implemented into a team-based learning (TBL) 3-credit-hour drug information course for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in their second didactic year. During a period of five weeks (15 contact hours), students used the online pharmacy informatics modules as part of their readiness assurance process. Additional material was developed to comply with the TBL principles. Online pre/postsurveys were administered to evaluate knowledge gained and students’ perceptions of the informatics program. Assessment. Eighty-three second-year students (84% response rate) completed the surveys. Participants’ knowledge of electronic health records, computerized physician order entry, pharmacy information systems, and clinical decision support was significantly improved. Additionally, their confidence significantly improved in terms of describing health informatics terminology, describing the benefits and barriers of using health information technology, and understanding reasons for systematically processing health information. Conclusion. Students responded favorably to the incorporation of pharmacy informatics content into a drug information course using a TBL approach. Students met the learning objectives of seven thematic areas and had positive attitudes toward the course after its completion. PMID:27667844

  18. Incorporating Health Information Technology and Pharmacy Informatics in a Pharmacy Professional Didactic Curriculum -with a Team-based Learning Approach.

    PubMed

    Hincapie, Ana L; Cutler, Timothy W; Fingado, Amanda R

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To incorporate a pharmacy informatics program in the didactic curriculum of a team-based learning institution and to assess students' knowledge of and confidence with health informatics during the course. Design. A previously developed online pharmacy informatics course was adapted and implemented into a team-based learning (TBL) 3-credit-hour drug information course for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in their second didactic year. During a period of five weeks (15 contact hours), students used the online pharmacy informatics modules as part of their readiness assurance process. Additional material was developed to comply with the TBL principles. Online pre/postsurveys were administered to evaluate knowledge gained and students' perceptions of the informatics program. Assessment. Eighty-three second-year students (84% response rate) completed the surveys. Participants' knowledge of electronic health records, computerized physician order entry, pharmacy information systems, and clinical decision support was significantly improved. Additionally, their confidence significantly improved in terms of describing health informatics terminology, describing the benefits and barriers of using health information technology, and understanding reasons for systematically processing health information. Conclusion. Students responded favorably to the incorporation of pharmacy informatics content into a drug information course using a TBL approach. Students met the learning objectives of seven thematic areas and had positive attitudes toward the course after its completion. PMID:27667844

  19. Towards an operational definition of pharmacy clinical competency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Charles Allen

    The scope of pharmacy practice and the training of future pharmacists have undergone a strategic shift over the last few decades. The pharmacy profession recognizes greater pharmacist involvement in patient care activities. Towards this strategic objective, pharmacy schools are training future pharmacists to meet these new clinical demands. Pharmacy students have clerkships called Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs), and these clerkships account for 30% of the professional curriculum. APPEs provide the only opportunity for students to refine clinical skills under the guidance of an experienced pharmacist. Nationwide, schools of pharmacy need to evaluate whether students have successfully completed APPEs and are ready treat patients. Schools are left to their own devices to develop assessment programs that demonstrate to the public and regulatory agencies, students are clinically competent prior to graduation. There is no widely accepted method to evaluate whether these assessment programs actually discriminate between the competent and non-competent students. The central purpose of this study is to demonstrate a rigorous method to evaluate the validity and reliability of APPE assessment programs. The method introduced in this study is applicable to a wide variety of assessment programs. To illustrate this method, the study evaluated new performance criteria with a novel rating scale. The study had two main phases. In the first phase, a Delphi panel was created to bring together expert opinions. Pharmacy schools nominated exceptional preceptors to join a Delphi panel. Delphi is a method to achieve agreement of complex issues among experts. The principal researcher recruited preceptors representing a variety of practice settings and geographical regions. The Delphi panel evaluated and refined the new performance criteria. In the second phase, the study produced a novel set of video vignettes that portrayed student performances based on recommendations of

  20. Principles of economics crucial to pharmacy students' understanding of the prescription drug market.

    PubMed

    Rattinger, Gail B; Jain, Rahul; Ju, Jing; Mullins, C Daniel

    2008-06-15

    Many pharmacy schools have increased the amount of economics coursework to which pharmacy students are exposed in their prepharmacy and pharmacy curriculums. Students obtain competencies aimed at understanding the basic concepts of microeconomic theory, such as supply and demand. However, pharmacy students often have trouble applying these principles to real world pharmaceuticals or healthcare markets. Our objective is to make economics more relevant for pharmacy students. Specifically, we detail and provide pharmacy-relevant examples of the effects of monopoly power, barriers to marketplace entry, regulatory environment, third party insurance, information asymmetry and unanticipated changes in the marketplace on the supply and demand for pharmaceuticals and healthcare services.

  1. Principles of Economics Crucial to Pharmacy Students' Understanding of the Prescription Drug Market

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rahul; Ju, Jing; Mullins, C. Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Many pharmacy schools have increased the amount of economics coursework to which pharmacy students are exposed in their prepharmacy and pharmacy curriculums. Students obtain competencies aimed at understanding the basic concepts of microeconomic theory, such as supply and demand. However, pharmacy students often have trouble applying these principles to real world pharmaceuticals or healthcare markets. Our objective is to make economics more relevant for pharmacy students. Specifically, we detail and provide pharmacy-relevant examples of the effects of monopoly power, barriers to marketplace entry, regulatory environment, third party insurance, information asymmetry and unanticipated changes in the marketplace on the supply and demand for pharmaceuticals and healthcare services. PMID:18698403

  2. Effect of closure of collinear cracks on the stress-strain state and the limiting equilibrium of bent shallow shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatskii, I. P.; Makoviichuk, N. V.

    2011-05-01

    The problem of closure of collinear cracks during bending of a shallow shell is considered within the framework of the Kirchhoff theory. Crack closure is described using the model of contact along a line on one of the shell faces. Strain and moment intensity factors and fracture load are studied as functions of shell curvature and defect location, and the distribution of contact forces along the cracks is investigated.

  3. [Pharmacy compounding of medicinal shampoos: an update].

    PubMed

    Varçin, M; Vandael, A; Zier-Vercammen, J

    2012-12-01

    Delivery of magistral (extemporaneous) preparations must comply with quality standards, as described in the "Guide to Good Officinal Pharmaceutical Practice" and the pharmacy's Quality Manual (Royal Decree of 21 January 2009). In this study, the shampoo Simplex Herdewijn, prepared with Texapon NSO, is compared with commercially available basic shampoos (Shampoo Fagron and Shampoo Simplex Conforma) with respect to its composition as well as its physicochemical properties. These basic shampoos were used to develop medicinal shampoos. The active compounds of these shampoos were: 0.5% hexachlorophene, 1% ichtammol, 1% cade oil or 2% liquor carbonis detergens. The necessary concentration of Cetomacrogol 1000, required to solubilise the active compounds was determined, as well as the amount of sodium chloride needed to adjust the viscosity of the shampoo. The viscosity of the basic and medicinal shampoos was determined by means of rheograms and by calculating their apparent viscosity. Additionally, a number of fundamental aspects of the formulation of shampoos are discussed in this paper. The results can be useful to pharmacists as guidelines for the preparation of medicinal shampoos. Beside patient instruction and pharmaceutical care, the intrinsic quality of magistral preparations is a prerequisite for therapeutic activity.

  4. Dryden Flight Research Center Chemical Pharmacy Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bette

    1997-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) Chemical Pharmacy "Crib" is a chemical sharing system which loans chemicals to users, rather than issuing them or having each individual organization or group purchasing the chemicals. This cooperative system of sharing chemicals eliminates multiple ownership of the same chemicals and also eliminates stockpiles. Chemical management duties are eliminated for each of the participating organizations. The chemical storage issues, hazards and responsibilities are eliminated. The system also ensures safe storage of chemicals and proper disposal practices. The purpose of this program is to reduce the total releases and transfers of toxic chemicals. The initial cost of the program to DFRC was $585,000. A savings of $69,000 per year has been estimated for the Center. This savings includes the reduced costs in purchasing, disposal and chemical inventory/storage responsibilities. DFRC has chemicals stored in 47 buildings and at 289 locations. When the program is fully implemented throughout the Center, there will be three chemical locations at this facility. The benefits of this program are the elimination of chemical management duties; elimination of the hazard associated with chemical storage; elimination of stockpiles; assurance of safe storage; assurance of proper disposal practices; assurance of a safer workplace; and more accurate emissions reports.

  5. Pharmacy Student Learning Through Community Service.

    PubMed

    Sobota, Kristen Finley; Barnes, Jeremiah; Fitzpatrick, Alyse; Sobota, Micah J

    2015-07-01

    The Ohio Northern University American Society of Consultant Pharmacists chapter provides students the opportunity to apply classroom knowledge with learning through community service. One such program took place at the Lima Towers Apartment Community from September 18, 2014, to October 2, 2014, in Lima, Ohio. Three evening educational sessions focused on a different health topic: 1) mental health, 2) medication adherence/brown bag, and 3) healthy lifestyle choices/nutrition/smoking cessation. All three programs were structured identically, starting with dinner, followed by educational intervention, survey, blood pressure checks, and medication reviews. Two pharmacists and 16 pharmacy students implemented the program. Participants completed a total of 76 satisfaction surveys for the three programs, which were included in the data analysis. The average age of the participants was 65 years; 82% (n = 63) were female. Data demonstrated that 94% (n = 72) "learned something new," while 96% (n = 74) would "recommend the program to a friend/family member." The collected data showed the vast majority of participants from the surrounding community found value in the presentations performed by students, especially with regard to the new information they received and its perceived benefits. In light of such successes, we encourage other student chapters to implement similar community outreach events. ASCP student members can make a strong, positive impact in the community while learning in a nontraditional environment. PMID:26173194

  6. Pharmacy Student Learning Through Community Service.

    PubMed

    Sobota, Kristen Finley; Barnes, Jeremiah; Fitzpatrick, Alyse; Sobota, Micah J

    2015-07-01

    The Ohio Northern University American Society of Consultant Pharmacists chapter provides students the opportunity to apply classroom knowledge with learning through community service. One such program took place at the Lima Towers Apartment Community from September 18, 2014, to October 2, 2014, in Lima, Ohio. Three evening educational sessions focused on a different health topic: 1) mental health, 2) medication adherence/brown bag, and 3) healthy lifestyle choices/nutrition/smoking cessation. All three programs were structured identically, starting with dinner, followed by educational intervention, survey, blood pressure checks, and medication reviews. Two pharmacists and 16 pharmacy students implemented the program. Participants completed a total of 76 satisfaction surveys for the three programs, which were included in the data analysis. The average age of the participants was 65 years; 82% (n = 63) were female. Data demonstrated that 94% (n = 72) "learned something new," while 96% (n = 74) would "recommend the program to a friend/family member." The collected data showed the vast majority of participants from the surrounding community found value in the presentations performed by students, especially with regard to the new information they received and its perceived benefits. In light of such successes, we encourage other student chapters to implement similar community outreach events. ASCP student members can make a strong, positive impact in the community while learning in a nontraditional environment.

  7. Assessment of Hospital Pharmacy Preparedness for Mass Casualty Events

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Nadia I.; Cocchio, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the preparedness of hospital pharmacies in New Jersey to provide pharmaceutical services in mass casualty scenarios. Methods: An electronic cross-sectional survey was developed to assess the general knowledge of available resources and attitudes toward the preparedness of the pharmacy department. Results: Out of 60 invitations to participate, 18 surveys (30%) were completed. Respondents practiced at community hospitals (12, 66.6%) with no trauma center designation (11, 67.4%) that served more than 500 licensed beds (five, 29.4%). Six respondents (35.3%) indicated that 75,000 to 100,000 patients visited their emergency departments annually. Seventeen sites (94.4%) reported the existence of an institutional disaster preparedness protocol; 10 (55.5%) indicated that there is a specific plan for the pharmacy department. Most respondents (10, 55.5%) were unsure whether their hospitals had an adequate supply of analgesics, rapid sequence intubation agents, vasopressors, antiemetics, respiratory medications, ophthalmics, oral antimicrobials, and chemical-weapon-specific antidotes. Five (27.7%) agreed that the pharmacy disaster plan included processes to ensure care for patients already hospitalized, and four (22.2%) agreed that the quantity of medication was adequate to treat patients and hospital employees if necessary. Medication stock and quantities were determined based on national or international guidelines at three (16.6%) institutions surveyed. Conclusion: This survey demonstrates a lack of general consensus regarding hospital pharmacy preparedness for mass casualty scenarios despite individualized institutional protocols for disaster preparedness. Standardized recommendations from government and/or professional pharmacy organizations should be developed to guide the preparation of hospital pharmacy departments for mass casualty scenarios. PMID:25859121

  8. Career goals and expectations of men and women pharmacy residents.

    PubMed

    King, C M; Oliver, E J; Jeffrey, L P

    1982-11-01

    Personal and professional characteristics of men and women hospital pharmacy residents were studied to identify differences that could affect future hospital pharmacy practice. Residents in 111 ASHP-accredited pharmacy residency programs received a survey containing questions on demographic information, reasons for selecting a residency, areas of professional interest, postresidency career goals, responsibilities to home and family, and advantages and disadvantages associated with gender. Of 286 residents receiving questionnaires, 226 responded; the percentages of men and women responding corresponded to the ratio of men and women in hospital pharmacy residencies. While men and women expressed educational goals that were not significantly different, more men than women had earned or were in the process of earning advanced degrees. No significant differences were evident between men's and women's plans for marriage and children, but 73% of the women indicated that they would take time out from their practice to raise children, compared with only 9% of the men. The majority of residents did not think their gender affected them in their residency programs, but in professional interactions more men saw gender as an advantage and more women as a disadvantage. Significantly more than women aspired to be hospital pharmacy directors. The results suggest that men are obtaining advanced training closer to the time they graduate from pharmacy school and that in the future women competing for promotions may be older than men competing for comparable positions. Those planning pharmacy staffing should consider the needs of women, and men, who expect to take time out from their careers for family responsibilities and possibly seek part-time positions when they return to the work force.

  9. Initial uptake of the Ontario Pharmacy Smoking Cessation Program

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lindsay; Burden, Andrea M.; Liu, Yan Yun; Tadrous, Mina; Pojskic, Nedzad; Dolovich, Lisa; Calzavara, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking is a significant public health concern. The Ontario Pharmacy Smoking Cessation Program was launched in September 2011 to leverage community pharmacists and expand access to smoking cessation services for public drug plan beneficiaries. Methods: We examined health care utilization data in Ontario to describe public drug plan beneficiaries receiving, and pharmacies providing, smoking cessation services between September 2011 and September 2013. Patient characteristics were summarized, stratified by drug plan group: seniors (age ≥65 years) or social assistance. Trends over time were examined by plotting the number of services, unique patients and unique pharmacies by month. We then examined use of follow-up services and prescription smoking cessation medications. Results: We identified 7767 residents receiving pharmacy smoking cessation services: 28% seniors (mean age = 69.9, SD = 4.8; 53% male) and 72% social assistance (mean age = 44.4 years, SD = 11.8; 48% male). Cumulative patient enrollment increased over time with an average of 311 (SD = 61) new patients per month, and one-third (n = 1253) of pharmacies participated by the end of September 2013. Regions with the highest number of patients were Erie St. Clair (n = 1328) and Hamilton Niagara Haldimand Brant (n = 1312). Sixteen percent of all patients received another pharmacy service (e.g., MedsCheck) on the same day as smoking cessation program enrollment. Among patients with follow-up data, 56% received follow-up smoking cessation services (60% seniors, 55% social assistance) and 74% received a prescription smoking cessation medication. One-year quit status was reported for 12%, with a 29% success rate. Conclusions: Program enrollment has increased steadily since its launch, yet only a third of pharmacies participated and 56% of patients received follow-up services. PMID:26759563

  10. Implementation of asthma guidelines to West Australian community pharmacies: an exploratory, quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Trevenen, Michelle; Murray, Kevin; Kendall, Peter A; Schneider, Carl R; Clifford, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pharmacy assistants are often the first point of contact for patients presenting in community pharmacies. The current role of pharmacy assistants in the supply of asthma-reliever medications (short-acting β-agonists) was identified as a barrier to appropriate guideline-based care. The aim of this research was to devise and evaluate a team-based intervention to formalise the role of pharmacy assistants and to improve asthma guideline-based care in community pharmacy. Design A controlled pre-post intervention study was conducted in 336 metropolitan pharmacies located in Perth, Western Australia. Pharmacies were stratified into 2 groups (187 intervention and 149 control) based on known confounders for asthma control. The intervention was designed using a common-sense approach and resources developed included a checklist, videos and web page. Delivery was via workshops (25 pharmacies) or academic detailing (162 pharmacies). Pharmacy practice was assessed preintervention and postintervention via covert simulated patient methodology. Primary outcome measures included patient medical referral, device use demonstration and counselling, internal referral and/or direct involvement of a pharmacist in consultations. Results There was a significant increase in patient medical referral in intervention pharmacies from 32% to 47% (p=0.0007) from preintervention to postintervention, while control pharmacies showed a non-significant decrease from 50% to 44% (p=0.22). Device counselling was not routinely carried out at any stage or in any cohort of this research and no significant changes in internal referral were observed. Conclusions Increases in medical referral indicate that asthma guideline compliance can be improved in community pharmacy if implementation employs a team-based approach and involves pharmacy assistants. However, results were variable and the intervention did not improve practice related to device counselling or internal referral/pharmacist involvement

  11. Implementation and Use of the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment at US Schools of Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Brenda S.; Salinitri, Francine D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe how schools and colleges of pharmacy use the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA) in relation to student assessment and curricular feedback. Methods. A survey was distributed to all programs that have implemented the PCOA. The survey was designed to assess 3 domains regarding the use of the PCOA: rationale for use, logistics of administration, and performance data review and distribution. Results. A 79% response rate (41/52) was obtained. The mix of responses was 93% current PCOA users and 7% past users. The most common reasons for PCOA use were for programmatic assessment and benchmarking. The examination was most frequently administered during the P3 year, with minimal stakes attached to performance. Significant differences in responses based on public vs private institution were seen with respect to length of accreditation of current PCOA users, messaging to students regarding performance, inclusion of results in student advising, and distribution of results to stakeholders. Conclusion. Programs were using the PCOA primarily as an assessment in the P3 year for reasons related to programmatic and curricular assessment. Some differences existed between public and private institutional PCOA use and examination-related processes and results distribution. PMID:26839427

  12. Rewards and advancements for clinical pharmacy practitioners. American College of Clinical Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    It is important to recognize that pharmacy practice models are changing quickly. Although the concepts of pharmaceutical care depict all pharmacists as clinical practitioners, there are still significant opportunities for individuals to develop advanced and refined skills and knowledge, and to seek recognition. Criteria for professional advancement need to be reevaluated and modified periodically. As departments become more effective in implementing pharmaceutical care, and practice skills advance, criteria for advancement must be updated. Recognition and advancement within newer models of practice such as patient focus units, clinical path teams, and quality improvement teams complicate assessment and evaluation strategies. In the future, pharmacy managers will need to look at reward and advancement systems that incorporate the recommendations of the team manager or members for these newer models of practice. Perhaps there will be a shift in responsibility for recognition to the team manager. Career ladders may need to provide for new roles, and reward practitioners for behaviors not currently represented in most departmental performance evaluations. Performance evaluation, standards of practice, and advancement criteria will need to be carefully reviewed and integrated with the patient focus team's objectives, structure, and processes to assure that appropriate recognition is given to pharmacists in this exciting new environment. Career ladders provide one form of reward and advancement for practitioners. Institutions can include many elements of career ladder process, function, and structure, as well as implement many other management tools for reward and recognition, without implementing a complete career ladder.

  13. Pharmacy Faculty Retirement at Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy in the United States and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the work-related activities of full-time faculty members 55 years of age and older; to describe the retirement plans and perceptions of these faculty members; and to examine the factors, perceptions, or conditions that might influence the retirement decision. Methods. Pharmacy faculty members aged 55 years and older in the United States and Canada were invited to participate in an online survey regarding their perceptions on issues related to their retirement planning behavior. Results. Four hundred eighty-eight faculty members completed the survey instrument. The typical respondent worked 50 hours per week on work-related activities, was active in teaching and service, and had published an average of 5 refereed papers during the previous 36 months. The number of articles published was positively related to the respondent's target retirement age. The average anticipated retirement age was 66.6 years, and most respondents participated in a defined benefit plan. The majority would revise their target retirement age downwards if conditions were favorable. Conclusion. The primary factors that influence the pharmacy faculty retirement decision include financial status, academic productivity, and higher order needs such as the opportunity to participate in meaningful activities. These findings can be used by administrators in strategic planning related to attracting and retaining quality faculty members. PMID:22412203

  14. Patterns and Predictors of Non-Prescription Medicine Use among Malaysian Pharmacy Patrons: A National Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Mohamad Yahaya, Abdul Haniff; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Saleem, Fahad; Chua, Gin Nie; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study aims to evaluate the predictors of non-prescription medicine purchasing patterns among pharmacy patrons in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional nationwide study was undertaken in 2011 in sixty randomly selected community pharmacies across 14 Malaysian states. A pharmacy exit survey was conducted over a 6-month period across Malaysia. A one-stage random cluster sampling technique was employed as there was no national sampling framework available for conducting this survey. Face-to-face interviews using a validated and pre-tested questionnaire were conducted by trained data collectors. The non-prescription medicine purchasing pattern was explored and analysed descriptively. Chi-square/Fisher exact test was used to determine the association between study variables. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of type of non-prescription medicine purchased. Results A total of 2729 pharmacy patrons agreed to participate in 60 selected pharmacy outlets. A total of 3462 non-prescription medicine were purchased during the study period with an average of 1.3 medicines per participant. Most of the non-prescription medicine purchased was meant for alimentary tract and metabolism (31.8%), followed by respiratory system (19.4%) and musculoskeletal system (15.8%) usage. Factors found to be associated with the choice of non-prescription medicine purchased were age group [χ2 = 170.75, (df = 57), p<0.01], locality [χ2 = 48.16, (df = 19), p<0.01], gender [χ2 = 32.93, (df = 13), p = 0.002], ethnic group [χ2 = 118.89, (df = 39), p<0.01] and type of occupation [χ2 = 222.434, (df = 117), p<0.01]. Non-prescription medicine purchased defined about 20% of the variance in the combination of predictors such as locality, gender, age, ethnicity, type of occupation and household income. Conclusion The predictors for selection of non-prescription medicine were locality (urban or rural), gender

  15. Health information, an area for competition in Swedish pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Elin C.; Viberg, Nina; Vernby, Åsa; Nordmark, Johanna; Stålsby-Lundborg, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the views and expectations of a selected group of customers regarding health information in Swedish pharmacies. Methods A repeated cross sectional, questionnaire study carried out in 2004 and 2005. Customers buying calcium products answered questions on osteoporosis and general questions on health promotion and information. Results Respondents had a positive attitude towards receiving health information from the pharmacies and towards the pharmacies’ future role in health promotion. However, only 30% of the respondents expected to get information on general health issues from the pharmacy. In spite of this, 76% (2004) and 72% (2005) of the respondents believed that the pharmacies could influence people’s willingness to improve their health. Conclusion There is a gap between the respondents’ positive attitudes towards the Swedish pharmacies and their low expectations as regards the pharmacies’ ability to provide health information. In the light of the upcoming change to the state monopoly on medicine sales, this gap could be an important area for competition between the actors in the new situation for medicine sales in Sweden. PMID:25157284

  16. A Pharmacogenetics Service Experience for Pharmacy Students, Residents, and Fellows

    PubMed Central

    Drozda, Katarzyna; Labinov, Yana; Jiang, Ruixuan; Thomas, Margaret R.; Wong, Shan S.; Patel, Shitalben; Nutescu, Edith A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To utilize a comprehensive, pharmacist-led warfarin pharmacogenetics service to provide pharmacy students, residents, and fellows with clinical and research experiences involving genotype-guided therapy. Design. First-year (P1) through fourth-year (P4) pharmacy students, pharmacy residents, and pharmacy fellows participated in a newly implemented warfarin pharmacogenetics service in a hospital setting. Students, residents, and fellows provided genotype-guided dosing recommendations as part of clinical care, or analyzed samples and data collected from patients on the service for research purposes. Assessment. Students’, residents’, and fellows’ achievement of learning objectives was assessed using a checklist based on established core competencies in pharmacogenetics. The mean competency score of the students, residents, and fellows who completed a clinical and/or research experience with the service was 97% ±3%. Conclusion. A comprehensive warfarin pharmacogenetics service provided unique experiential and research opportunities for pharmacy students, residents, and fellows and sufficiently addressed a number of core competencies in pharmacogenetics. PMID:24159216

  17. Knowledge-Centric Management of Business Rules in a Pharmacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puustjärvi, Juha; Puustjärvi, Leena

    A business rule defines or constraints some aspect of the business. In healthcare sector many of the business rules are dictated by law or medical regulations, which are constantly changing. This is a challenge for the healthcare organizations. Although there is available several commercial business rule management systems the problem from pharmacies point of view is that these systems are overly geared towards the automation and manipulation of business rules, while the main need in pharmacies lies in easy retrieving of business rules within daily routines. Another problem is that business rule management systems are isolated in the sense that they have their own data stores that cannot be accessed by other information systems used in pharmacies. As a result, a pharmacist is burdened by accessing many systems inside a user task. In order to avoid this problem we have modeled business rules as well as their relationships to other relevant information by OWL (Web Ontology Language) such that the ontology is shared among the pharmacy's applications. In this way we can avoid the problems of isolated applications and replicated data. The ontology also encourages pharmacies business agility, i.e., the ability to react more rapidly to the changes required by the new business rules. The deployment of the ontology requires that stored business rules are annotated by appropriate metadata descriptions, which are presented by RDF/XML serialization format. However, neither the designer nor the pharmacists are burdened by RDF/XML format as there are sophisticated graphical editors that can be used.

  18. Pharmacy students’ knowledge and attitudes about antibiotics in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Fejza, Albina; Kryeziu, Zeqir; Kadrija, Kushtrim; Musa, Malbora

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude among Pharmacy students of the University of Prishtina in regards to the antibiotics. Methods: 144 pharmacy students at the University of Prishtina were recruited in this study to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The total number of questions in this questionnaire was eight (8), covering two (2) major themes: self-report of the current and past antibiotic use and behavior; and anticipated prescription behavior of antibiotics upon graduation. The data was statistically analyzed through using SPSS for Windows. Descriptive analysis was employed, and the results were expressed in frequency and percentages. Results: The results showcased a good knowledge of antibiotic among students. The most common answer of students’ knowledge about antibiotics was good or moderate (82 %), while 63.2% of the subjects used antibiotics by self-decision, most of them (45 %) for sore throat. Upon graduation, 56.9 % of the students will not sell antibiotics without prescription and 85.4% think that module for rational use of antibiotics is very necessary to be inside the pharmacy syllabus. Conclusion: The study showed good and moderate knowledge of pharmacy students regarding the antibiotics. Half of them use antibiotics by self-decision but the majority of them stated that they will not serve the antibiotics without medical prescription. Specific modules and training for proper antibiotic use should be implemented within the Pharmacy program in The Faculty of Medicine. PMID:27011780

  19. Preprofessional Curriculum in Preparation for Doctor of Pharmacy Educational Programs

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    The preprofessional pharmacy curriculum provides the foundation for the professional curriculum. Basic requirements are noted in the ACPE Standards and Guidelines, but there is considerable variation in the preprofessional curriculum requirements for entry into doctor of pharmacy programs in the United States. Changes in higher education, pharmacy practice, and health care continue to drive the need to evaluate the preprofessional curriculum. The objectives of this white paper were to create model preprofessional curricula that would enable students to be successful during and after entry into the professional curriculum. Using an evidence-based approach where possible, a number of factors were found to be associated with academic success during a pharmacy program and on licensing examinations. These data and other information were used to create 2 preprofessional curricular models that include the development of general and discipline-specific abilities. Challenges remain in accurately evaluating the abilities and attributes of applicants and the impact of those abilities and attributes on their success as a student and a practitioner. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should consider adopting a more consistent preprofessional curriculum on a national level. This preprofessional curriculum should be multi-dimensional, based on needs for future practice, and revised over time. PMID:20221348

  20. Attrition of Canadian Internet pharmacy websites: what are the implications?

    PubMed Central

    Veronin, Michael A; Clancy, Kristen M

    2013-01-01

    Background The unavailability of Internet pharmacy websites may impact a consumer’s drug purchases and health care. Objective To address the issue of attrition, a defined set of Canadian Internet pharmacy websites was examined at three separate time intervals. Methods In February to March 2006, 117 distinct, fully functional “Canadian Internet pharmacy” websites were located using the advanced search options of Google and the uniform resource locator (URL) for each website was recorded. To determine website attrition, each of the 117 websites obtained and recorded from the previous study was revisited at two later periods of time within a 4-year period. Results After approximately 4 years and 5 months, only 59 (50.4%) sites were found in the original state. Thirty-four sites (29.1%) had moved to a new URL address and were not functioning as the original Internet pharmacy. For 24 sites (20.5%) the viewer was redirected to another Canadian Internet pharmacy site. Conclusion Of concern for patients if Internet pharmacy sites were suddenly inaccessible would be the disruption of continuity of care. PMID:23983491

  1. The Role of Academic Pharmacy in Tobacco Cessation and Control

    PubMed Central

    McBane, Sarah E.; Corelli, Robin L.; Albano, Christian B.; Conry, John M.; Della Paolera, Mark A.; Kennedy, Amy K.; Jenkins, Antoine T.

    2013-01-01

    Despite decades of public health initiatives, tobacco use remains the leading known preventable cause of death in the United States. Clinicians have a proven, positive effect on patients’ ability to quit, and pharmacists are strategically positioned to assist patients with quitting. The American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy recognizes health promotion and disease prevention as a key educational outcome; as such, tobacco cessation education should be a required component of pharmacy curricula to ensure that all pharmacy graduates possess the requisite evidence-based knowledge and skills to intervene with patients who use tobacco. Faculty members teaching tobacco cessation-related content must be knowledgeable and proficient in providing comprehensive cessation counseling, and all preceptors and practicing pharmacists providing direct patient care should screen for tobacco use and provide at least minimal counseling as a routine component of care. Pharmacy organizations should establish policies and resolutions addressing the profession’s role in tobacco cessation and control, and the profession should work together to eliminate tobacco sales in all practice settings where pharmacy services are rendered. PMID:23788804

  2. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the closure and post-closure requirements that apply to landfills (40 CFR 264.310). ... decontamination of contaminated components, subsoils, structures, and equipment as required in paragraph (a)...

  3. Experience with the Implementation of Clinical Pharmacy Services and Processes in a University Hospital in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Somers, Annemie; Claus, Barbara; Vandewoude, Koen; Petrovic, Mirko

    2016-03-01

    This article summarizes the experience with the development of clinical pharmacy services in the Ghent University Hospital in Belgium. Implementation of clinical pharmacy services in Belgian hospitals has not been evident because these activities were initially not structurally financed. The aim is to describe the strengths and weaknesses of the clinical pharmacy development process, and the milestones that enhanced the progress. Furthermore, the organisation of clinical pharmacy in the Ghent University Hospital is explained, including back- and front-office activities, seamless pharmaceutical care and medication safety improvement. Some working methods, procedures and tools are explained for different clinical pharmacy services. In particular, the clinical pharmacy projects for geriatric patients as well as the preparation of clinical pharmacy services for the accreditation process are explained. We also reflect on the organisation model and the future development of clinical pharmacy, taking into consideration facilitators and potential barriers. PMID:26922733

  4. Ambulatory Care Pharmacy Practice Course: Introduction and Evaluation of Oral Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Celeste M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Student perceptions of the preparation for and fairness, value as a learning experience, and logistics of a newly implemented oral examination in a course preparing senior pharmacy students for community pharmacy practice are summarized. (MSE)

  5. Experience with the Implementation of Clinical Pharmacy Services and Processes in a University Hospital in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Somers, Annemie; Claus, Barbara; Vandewoude, Koen; Petrovic, Mirko

    2016-03-01

    This article summarizes the experience with the development of clinical pharmacy services in the Ghent University Hospital in Belgium. Implementation of clinical pharmacy services in Belgian hospitals has not been evident because these activities were initially not structurally financed. The aim is to describe the strengths and weaknesses of the clinical pharmacy development process, and the milestones that enhanced the progress. Furthermore, the organisation of clinical pharmacy in the Ghent University Hospital is explained, including back- and front-office activities, seamless pharmaceutical care and medication safety improvement. Some working methods, procedures and tools are explained for different clinical pharmacy services. In particular, the clinical pharmacy projects for geriatric patients as well as the preparation of clinical pharmacy services for the accreditation process are explained. We also reflect on the organisation model and the future development of clinical pharmacy, taking into consideration facilitators and potential barriers.

  6. Clamshell closure for metal drum

    DOEpatents

    Blanton, Paul S

    2014-09-30

    Closure ring to retain a lid in contact with a metal drum in central C-section conforming to the contact area between a lid and the rim of a drum and further having a radially inwardly directed flange and a vertically downwardly directed flange attached to the opposite ends of the C-section. The additional flanges reinforce the top of the drum by reducing deformation when the drum is dropped and maintain the lid in contact with the drum. The invention is particularly valuable in transportation and storage of fissile material.

  7. 100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure.

  8. Identification of Selected Child-Resistant Closures (Continuous Thread, Lug-Bayonet, and Snap Closures).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Rosalind L.; White, Harry E.

    This publication describes a selected group of child-resistant closures used in packaging five categories of medicine and household products. The material in the document was collected to train survey personnel to identify closures for a planned household study of the effectiveness of child-resistant packaging. The 39 closures described are of…

  9. A Face Inversion Effect without a Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…

  10. Learning Faces from Photographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longmore, Christopher A.; Liu, Chang Hong; Young, Andrew W.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies examining face learning have mostly used only a single exposure to 1 image of each of the faces to be learned. However, in daily life, faces are usually learned from multiple encounters. These 6 experiments examined the effects on face learning of repeated exposures to single or multiple images of a face. All experiments…

  11. Knowledge and Perceptions of Pharmacy Students in Qatar on Anti-Doping in Sports and on Sports Pharmacy in Undergraduate Curricula

    PubMed Central

    Mottram, David; Rahhal, Alaa; Alemrayat, Bayan; Ahmed, Afif; Stuart, Mark; Khalifa, Sherief

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess pharmacy students’ knowledge and perceptions of doping and anti-doping in sports and to explore the curricular needs for undergraduate pharmacy in the field of sports pharmacy. Methods. A cross-sectional, descriptive, web-based survey of pharmacy students was conducted at Qatar University College of Pharmacy from March to May 2014. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. Eighty respondents completed the online survey (80% response rate). Sixty percent were unaware of the World Anti-Doping Agency, and 85% were unaware of the International Pharmaceutical Federation’s statement on the pharmacist’s role in anti-doping. Students’ knowledge score regarding the prohibited status of drugs that may be used by athletes was around 50%. Fourth-year pharmacy students had significantly higher knowledge scores than the other groups of students. Respondents acknowledged the important role of health care professionals, including pharmacists, as advisors on the safe and effective use of drugs in sports. Ninety percent of the students supported the inclusion of sports pharmacy in the curriculum. Conclusion. Pharmacy students indicated a strong desire to play a role in doping prevention and ensure safe and rational use of drugs among athletes. They suggested requiring an education and training strategy for sports pharmacy in undergraduate pharmacy curricula. PMID:26689844

  12. Knowledge and Perceptions of Pharmacy Students in Qatar on Anti-Doping in Sports and on Sports Pharmacy in Undergraduate Curricula.

    PubMed

    Awaisu, Ahmed; Mottram, David; Rahhal, Alaa; Alemrayat, Bayan; Ahmed, Afif; Stuart, Mark; Khalifa, Sherief

    2015-10-25

    Objective. To assess pharmacy students' knowledge and perceptions of doping and anti-doping in sports and to explore the curricular needs for undergraduate pharmacy in the field of sports pharmacy. Methods. A cross-sectional, descriptive, web-based survey of pharmacy students was conducted at Qatar University College of Pharmacy from March to May 2014. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. Eighty respondents completed the online survey (80% response rate). Sixty percent were unaware of the World Anti-Doping Agency, and 85% were unaware of the International Pharmaceutical Federation's statement on the pharmacist's role in anti-doping. Students' knowledge score regarding the prohibited status of drugs that may be used by athletes was around 50%. Fourth-year pharmacy students had significantly higher knowledge scores than the other groups of students. Respondents acknowledged the important role of health care professionals, including pharmacists, as advisors on the safe and effective use of drugs in sports. Ninety percent of the students supported the inclusion of sports pharmacy in the curriculum. Conclusion. Pharmacy students indicated a strong desire to play a role in doping prevention and ensure safe and rational use of drugs among athletes. They suggested requiring an education and training strategy for sports pharmacy in undergraduate pharmacy curricula. PMID:26689844

  13. Knowledge and Perceptions of Pharmacy Students in Qatar on Anti-Doping in Sports and on Sports Pharmacy in Undergraduate Curricula.

    PubMed

    Awaisu, Ahmed; Mottram, David; Rahhal, Alaa; Alemrayat, Bayan; Ahmed, Afif; Stuart, Mark; Khalifa, Sherief

    2015-10-25

    Objective. To assess pharmacy students' knowledge and perceptions of doping and anti-doping in sports and to explore the curricular needs for undergraduate pharmacy in the field of sports pharmacy. Methods. A cross-sectional, descriptive, web-based survey of pharmacy students was conducted at Qatar University College of Pharmacy from March to May 2014. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. Eighty respondents completed the online survey (80% response rate). Sixty percent were unaware of the World Anti-Doping Agency, and 85% were unaware of the International Pharmaceutical Federation's statement on the pharmacist's role in anti-doping. Students' knowledge score regarding the prohibited status of drugs that may be used by athletes was around 50%. Fourth-year pharmacy students had significantly higher knowledge scores than the other groups of students. Respondents acknowledged the important role of health care professionals, including pharmacists, as advisors on the safe and effective use of drugs in sports. Ninety percent of the students supported the inclusion of sports pharmacy in the curriculum. Conclusion. Pharmacy students indicated a strong desire to play a role in doping prevention and ensure safe and rational use of drugs among athletes. They suggested requiring an education and training strategy for sports pharmacy in undergraduate pharmacy curricula.

  14. Pharmacy Students' Knowledge Assessment of Naegleria fowleri Infection.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Sadia; Iffat, Wajiha; Khan, Madeeha

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to August 2015 to assess the knowledge of pharmacy students towards Naegleria fowleri infection. A questionnaire was distributed to senior pharmacy students in different private and public sector universities of Karachi. Descriptive statistics were used to demonstrate students' demographic information and their responses to the questionnaire. Pearson chi-square test was adopted to assess the relationship between independent variables and responses of students. The study revealed that pharmacy students were having adequate awareness of Naegleria fowleri infection and considered it as a serious health issue that necessitates instantaneous steps by the government to prevent the general public from the fatal neurological infection. The students recommended that appropriate methods should be projected in the community from time to time that increases public awareness about the associated risk factors. PMID:26981318

  15. Pharmacy Students’ Ability to Identify Plagiarism After an Educational Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C.; Nuzum, Donald S.; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students’ ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (p<0.05). The mean change was greatest for P1 and P2 students (5% and 4.8%, respectively). Conclusion. An educational intervention about plagiarism can significantly improve students’ ability to identify plagiarism. PMID:24672066

  16. Fostering and managing diversity in schools of pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Nkansah, Nancy T; Youmans, Sharon L; Agness, Chanel F; Assemi, Mitra

    2009-12-17

    Organizational benefits of diversity in the workplace have been well documented. In health professions, however, diversity-related research traditionally has focused on the effect of diversity on health care disparities. Few tools exist describing the benefits of diversity from an organizational standpoint to guide pharmacy administrators and faculty members in nurturing and developing a culture of diversity. Given the scarcity of pharmacy specific data, experience from other academic areas and national/international diversity reports were incorporated into this manuscript to supplement the available pharmacy evidence base. This review summarizes the benefits of diversity from an academic organizational standpoint, discusses the issues administrators and faculty members must consider when developing programs, and provides guidance on best practices in fostering and managing diversity.

  17. Fostering and managing diversity in schools of pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Nkansah, Nancy T; Youmans, Sharon L; Agness, Chanel F; Assemi, Mitra

    2009-12-17

    Organizational benefits of diversity in the workplace have been well documented. In health professions, however, diversity-related research traditionally has focused on the effect of diversity on health care disparities. Few tools exist describing the benefits of diversity from an organizational standpoint to guide pharmacy administrators and faculty members in nurturing and developing a culture of diversity. Given the scarcity of pharmacy specific data, experience from other academic areas and national/international diversity reports were incorporated into this manuscript to supplement the available pharmacy evidence base. This review summarizes the benefits of diversity from an academic organizational standpoint, discusses the issues administrators and faculty members must consider when developing programs, and provides guidance on best practices in fostering and managing diversity. PMID:20221345

  18. Educational Games as a Teaching Tool in Pharmacy Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Aburahma, Mona Hassan; Mohamed, Heba Moustafa

    2015-05-25

    The shift in the pharmacist's role from simply dispensing medications to effective delivery of pharmaceutical care interventions and drug therapy management has influenced pharmacy education.(1-3) The educational focus has shifted from basic sciences to clinical and integrated courses that require incorporating active-learning strategies to provide pharmacy graduates with higher levels of competencies and specialized skills. As opposed to passive didactic lectures, active-learning strategies address the educational content in an interactive learning environment to develop interpersonal, communication, and problem-solving skills needed by pharmacists to function effectively in their new roles.(4-6) One such strategy is using educational games. The aim of this paper is to review educational games adopted in different pharmacy schools and to aid educators in replicating the successfully implemented games and overcoming deficiencies in educational games. This review also highlights the main pitfalls within this research area. PMID:26089568

  19. Are Serious Games a Good Strategy for Pharmacy Education?

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Serious gaming is the use of game principles for the purposes of learning, skill acquisition, and training. Higher education is beginning to incorporate serious gaming into curricula, and health professions education is the most common area for serious game use. Advantages of serious gaming in pharmacy education include authentic, situated learning without risk of patient consequences, collaborative learning, ability to challenge students of all performance levels, high student motivation with increased time on task, immediate feedback, ability to learn from mistakes without becoming discouraged, and potential for behavior and attitude change. Development of quality games for pharmacy education requires content expertise as well as expertise in the science and design of gaming. When well done, serious gaming provides a valuable additional tool for pharmacy education. PMID:26089556

  20. Ensuring rigour and trustworthiness of qualitative research in clinical pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; José Closs, S

    2016-06-01

    The use of qualitative research methodology is well established for data generation within healthcare research generally and clinical pharmacy research specifically. In the past, qualitative research methodology has been criticized for lacking rigour, transparency, justification of data collection and analysis methods being used, and hence the integrity of findings. Demonstrating rigour in qualitative studies is essential so that the research findings have the "integrity" to make an impact on practice, policy or both. Unlike other healthcare disciplines, the issue of "quality" of qualitative research has not been discussed much in the clinical pharmacy discipline. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of rigour in qualitative research, present different philosophical standpoints on the issue of quality in qualitative research and to discuss briefly strategies to ensure rigour in qualitative research. Finally, a mini review of recent research is presented to illustrate the strategies reported by clinical pharmacy researchers to ensure rigour in their qualitative research studies.