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Sample records for pharmacokinetics tissue distribution

  1. [Pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of liposomal mitoxantrone hydrochloride].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cai-xia; Li, Chun-lei; Zhao, Xi; Yang, Han-yu; Wei, Na; Li, Yan-hui; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Lan

    2010-12-01

    This study is to compare the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of liposomal mitoxantrone (Mit-lipo) and free mitoxantrone (Mit-free). The antineoplastic effect of Mit-lipo was evaluated on PC-3 human xenograft tumor model after repeated intravenous injection at dose levels of 1, 2 and 4 mg x kg(-1). The pharmacokinetic study of Mit-lipo and Mit-free was performed on dogs following a single intravenous injection. The tissue distribution of Mit-lipo and Mit-free was observed on S-180 bearing mice after a single intravenous injection. (1) Pharmacodynamics: Mit-lipo dose-dependently inhibited PC-3 tumor growth at a dose ranging from 1 to 4 mg x kg(-1). The antitumor effect studies showed that Mit-lipo significantly improved the therapeutic effect in comparison with free drug. (2) Pharmacokinetics: in comparison with Mit-free, the AUC and t(1/2) values of Mit-lipo at the same dose level were higher than those of Mit-free in Beagle dogs. The results showed that Mit-lipo had long circulation characteristics. (3) Tissue distribution in S-180 bearing mice: compared to Mit-free, Mit-lipo preferentially accumulated into tumor zones instead of normal tissues. Tumor AUC in Mit-lipo treated animals was 8.7 fold higher than that in mice treated with the same dose of Mit-free. The Cmax values of Mit-lipo in heart, kidney, lung, spleen and intestinal tissue in Mit-lipo were 30.2%, 161.6%, 20.2%, 27.9% and 78.3% lower than those of Mit-free, respectively. The pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of Mit-lipo changed obviously, thus increasing therapeutic effect and improving drug therapeutic index.

  2. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of liposomal etoposide in rats.

    PubMed

    Sistla, Anand; Smith, David J; Kobrinsky, Nathan L; Kumar, Krishna

    2009-11-01

    Precipitation of etoposide and adverse events associated with the co-solvents in intravenous solutions can be avoided by using liposomal etoposide (LE). The pharmacokinetics and distribution of the commercial formulation (ETPI) and LE were compared in rats. The pharmacokinetic profiles were biphasic and similar in the initial phase (C(max), Vd, and t(1/2alpha)). However, LE showed a 60% increase in AUC with a 35% decrease in clearance (p < 0.05). This decreased clearance resulted in a 70% increase in the MRT of etoposide. The uptake of etoposide from LE was higher in macrophage-phagocytic endowed tissues indicating that LE is superior to ETPI for targeted delivery of etoposide.

  3. Effects of charge on antibody tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Boswell, C Andrew; Tesar, Devin B; Mukhyala, Kiran; Theil, Frank-Peter; Fielder, Paul J; Khawli, Leslie A

    2010-12-15

    Antibody pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are often governed by biological processes such as binding to antigens and other cognate receptors. Emphasis must also be placed, however, on fundamental physicochemical properties that define antibodies as complex macromolecules, including shape, size, hydrophobicity, and charge. Electrostatic interactions between anionic cell membranes and the predominantly positive surface charge of most antibodies can influence blood concentration and tissue disposition kinetics in a manner that is independent of antigen recognition. In this context, the deliberate modification of antibodies by chemical means has been exploited as a valuable preclinical research tool to investigate the relationship between net molecular charge and biological disposition. Findings from these exploratory investigations may be summarized as follows: (I) shifts in isoelectric point of approximately one pI unit or more can produce measurable changes in tissue distribution and kinetics, (II) increases in net positive charge generally result in increased tissue retention and increased blood clearance, and (III) decreases in net positive charge generally result in decreased tissue retention and increased whole body clearance. Understanding electrostatic interactions between antibodies and biological matrices holds relevance in biotechnology, especially with regard to the development of immunoconjugates. The guiding principles and knowledge gained from preclinical evaluation of chemically modified antibodies will be discussed and placed in the context of therapeutic antibodies that are currently marketed or under development, with a particular emphasis on pharmacokinetic and disposition properties.

  4. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Miri; Chung, Hae-Eun; Yu, Jin; Lee, Jung-A; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Oh, Jae-Min; Lee, Won-Jae; Paek, Seung-Min; Lee, Jong Kwon; Jeong, Jayoung; Choy, Jin-Ho; Choi, Soo-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background This study explored the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion profile of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles with respect to their particle size in rats. Methods Two ZnO nanoparticles of different size (20 nm and 70 nm) were orally administered to male and female rats, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve, tissue distribution, excretion, and the fate of the nanoparticles in organs were analyzed. Results The plasma zinc concentration of both sizes of ZnO nanoparticles increased during the 24 hours after administration in a dose-dependent manner. They were mainly distributed to organs such as the liver, lung, and kidney within 72 hours without any significant difference being found according to particle size or rat gender. Elimination kinetics showed that a small amount of ZnO nanoparticles was excreted via the urine, while most of nanoparticles were excreted via the feces. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies in the tissues showed no noticeable ZnO nanoparticles, while new Zn-S bonds were observed in tissues. Conclusion ZnO nanoparticles of different size were not easily absorbed into the bloodstream via the gastrointestinal tract after a single oral dose. The liver, lung, and kidney could be possible target organs for accumulation and toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles was independent of particle size or gender. ZnO nanoparticles appear to be absorbed in the organs in an ionic form rather than in a particulate form due to newly formed Zn-S bonds. The nanoparticles were mainly excreted via the feces, and smaller particles were cleared more rapidly than the larger ones. ZnO nanoparticles at a concentration below 300 mg/kg were distributed in tissues and excreted within 24 hours. These findings provide crucial information on possible acute and chronic toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in potential target organs. PMID:22811602

  5. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of salidroside in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Liqun; Lin, Li; Liu, Jianxun; Zhang, Zaohua; Xu, Dongjin; Xiang, Feijun

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the pharmacokinetics, excretion, and tissue distribution of salidroside, a main active constituent in the roots of Rhodiola species. The plasma concentration declined rapidly following the intravenous dosing at 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg with a short half-life time of about 1 h. The mean values of area under the concentration-time curve (300.48 ± 36.73, 514.51 ± 134.99, and 1036.64 ± 101.67 mg · min/L), total body clearance (0.025 ± 0.003, 0.031 ± 0.008, and 0.029 ± 0.003 L/min/kg), and distribution value (2.02 ± 0.80, 2.47 ± 1.09 and 2.58 ± 0.68 L/kg) suggested linear pharmacokinetics between the three doses. After intravenous injection of salidroside at 15 mg/kg, the total cumulative recovery of salidroside in urine was 53.67 ± 12.03 % over 48 h, but only 0.09 ± 0.03 % and 0.18 ± 0.18 % of the dosage was excreted in bile and feces. Concentrations of salidroside in 12 tissues as well as plasma were evaluated at 15, 40, and 120 min after dosing. At all time points, no higher concentration of salidroside was detected in tissues than that in plasma, with the lowest concentration of salidroside being observed in the brain, liver, fat, and skeletal muscle were tissues with a higher concentration of salidroside. A better distribution was also observed in the ovary and testis than that in the kidney and spleen. This finding demonstrated that salidroside is eliminated from plasma rapidly mainly by kidney clearance and conspicuously penetrated well into the skeletal muscle, fat, ovary and testis. A total recovered salidroside of about 54 % from excretion routes suggested that the metabolism was likely to take an important role in its elimination. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and safety of cinnarizine delivered in lipid emulsion.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuai; Chen, Hao; Lin, Xia; Tang, Xing

    2010-01-04

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of cinnarizine loaded in lipid emulsion to modify the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and safety of cinnarizine. The cinnarizine-loaded emulsion (CLE) which can remain stable over 18-month storage at 4+/-2 degrees C was prepared by high-pressure homogenization. Nicomp 380 particle sizing system and HPLC were used to evaluate CLE in vitro, while UPLC/MS/MS for pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution study. The pharmacokinetics and tissue distributions of CLE were assessed by comparing with the solution form after intravenous administration to rats at a dose of 2mg/kg. The CLE showed significant higher AUC and lower clearance and distribution volume than those of solution form. This helped cinnarizine to reach higher level in vessel, and circulate in the blood stream for a longer time resulting in better therapeutic effect. The tissue distribution exhibited significant lower uptake of CLE emulsion in lung and brain, indicating the advantage of CLE over the solution form in reducing drug precipitation in vivo and toxicity in CNS. Drug safety assessment studies including hemolysis test, intravenous stimulation and injection anaphylaxis revealed that the CLE was safe for intravenous injection.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of warfarin in rats: role of serum protein binding and tissue distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, W.K.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of serum protein binding and tissue distribution in the non-linear pharmacokinetics of warfarin in rats. The first phase of the research was an attempt to elucidate the causes of intersubject differences in serum protein binding of warfarin in rats. It was found that the distribution of S-warfarin between blood and liver, kidneys, muscle, or fatty tissue was non-linear. Based on the tissue distribution data obtained, a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model was developed to describe the time course of S-warfarin concentrations in the serum and tissues of rats. The proposed model was able to display the dose-dependent pharmacokinetics of warfarin in rats. Namely a lower clearance and a smaller apparent volume of distribution with increasing dose, which appear to be due to the presence of capacity-limited, high-affinity binding sites for warfarin in various tissues. To determine if the binding of warfarin to the high-affinity binding sites in the liver of rats is reversible, concentrations of S-warfarin in the liver and serum of rats were monitored for a very long time after an intravenous injection of a 1 mg/kg dose. In another study in rats, non-radioactive warfarin was found to be able to displace tissue-bound C/sup 14/-warfarin which was administered about 200 hours before the i.v. injection of the non-radioactive warfarin, showing that the binding of warfarin to the high-affinity binding sites in the body is persistent and reversible.

  8. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and anti-tumour efficacy of paclitaxel delivered by polyvinylpyrrolidone solid dispersion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangrui; Sun, Jiabei; Chen, Xiaomei; Wang, Shanshan; Scott, Hannah; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-06-01

    Paclitaxel is a potent anti-cancer drug that has exhibited clinical activity against several tumours. Unfortunately, serious side effects are associated with Taxol, the commercial formulation of paclitaxel, which contains Cremophor EL (CrEL). Currently, the main focus of developing paclitaxel formulations is on improving efficacy and reducing toxicity. A novel, Cremophor-free, paclitaxel solid dispersion (PSD) was prepared in our laboratory previously. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, acute toxicity and anti-tumour efficacy of the PSD compared with Taxol. SD rats were used to examine the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of PSD. The acute toxicity of PSD was evaluated in ICR mouse. The anti-tumor activity of PSD was assessed in an in vivo anti-tumor nude mice model inoculated with human SKOV-3 cancer cells. The two formulations presented different pharmacokinetic behaviour. The plasma AUC of paclitaxel in the PSD was 5.84-fold lower than that of Taxol, and the mean residence time, total body clearance and apparent volume of distribution of paclitaxel in the PSD were increased by 1.73, 4.67 and 8.57 fold, respectively. However, the two formulations showed similar tissue distribution properties. CrEL, the vehicle in Taxol, decreased the clearance of paclitaxel from plasma. The LD50 (median lethal dose) was 34.8 mg/kg for Taxol, whereas no death was observed at 160 mg/kg for the PSD. The anti-tumour activity of PSD was similar to that of Taxol at a dose of 15 mg/kg. Most importantly, the improved tolerance of PSD enabled a higher administrable dose of paclitaxel, which resulted in improved efficacy compared with Taxol administered at its maximum tolerated dose. These results suggest that the PSD, a CrEL-free formulation, is a promising approach to increase the safety and efficacy of paclitaxel. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and plasma protein binding study of chicoric acid by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yutang; Xie, Guo; Liu, Qian; Duan, Xiang; Liu, Zhigang; Liu, Xuebo

    2016-09-15

    Chicoric acid is a major active constituent of Echinacea purpurea and has a variety of biological functions. In this study, a liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) approach was developed and validated for the determination of chicoric acid in rat plasma and various tissues using ferulic acid as an internal standard (IS). This method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and plasma protein binding (PPB) study of chicoric acid in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats dosed with 50mg/kg by gastric gavage. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined and showed a half-life (t1/2) of 4.53±1.44h, an apparent volume of mean residual time (MRT) of 18.58±4.43h, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 26.14 mghL(-1). The tissue distribution of chicoric acid in rats after gavage administration showed a decreasing tendency in different tissues (liver>lung>kidney>heart>spleen>brain). The PPB rates in rat plasma, human plasma, and bovine serum albumin were 98.3, 96.9, and 96.6%, respectively. These results provide insight for the further pharmacological investigation of chicoric acid.

  10. Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution and Protein Binding Studies of Chrysocauloflavone I in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sufang; Shi, Peiying; Huang, Xiaomei; Zhao, Meifeng; Li, Shaoguang; Wu, Youjia; Lin, Xinhua; Yao, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Chrysocauloflavone I, an unfrequent biflavonoid, was purified from Selaginella doederleinii in this study. It showed cytotoxic effects on three human cancer cells, NCI-H1975, A549, and HepG-2, in vitro. In silico assessment of the physicochemical properties was performed for predicting the permeability and intestinal absorption of the tested compound. Subsequently, a rapid, sensitive, and specific high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for determination of the compound in different biological samples to ascertain the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and protein binding profiles of this active ingredient in rats. After intravenous dosing of chrysocauloflavone I at different levels (10 and 20 mg/kg), the elimination half-life was approximately 85 min, and the AUC0-∞ increased with the dose from 148.52 mg/L × min for 10 mg/kg to 399.01 mg/L × min for 20 mg/kg. After single intravenous dosing (20 mg/kg), chrysocauloflavone I was detected in all tissues studied with higher levels in the heart, blood, and lungs. The results of equilibrium dialysis indicated a very high protein binding degree (over 97%) for chrysocauloflavone I. After intragastric administration of 100 mg/kg chrysocauloflavone I to rats, no parent drug was detected in the rat plasma. This is the first report of the favorable bioactivities, plasma pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and protein binding profiles of the rare biflavone chrysocauloflavone I.

  11. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of a new photodynamic drug deuxemether.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Hao, Haiping; Wang, Guangji; Xie, Haitang; Xu, Meijuan; Wang, Wei; He, Hui; Li, Xiaoyu

    2008-03-28

    Deuxemether was a new photodynamic drug effective for many kinds of solid tumor therapy, which was mainly composed of 3-(or 8-)-(1-methoxyethyl)-8-(or 3-)-(1-hydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX (MHD) and 3,8-di(1-methoxyethyl)-deuteroporphyrin IX (DMD). The aims of this study were to elucidate its pharmacokinetic characteristics, tissue distribution, plasma protein binding and excretion properties and underlying mechanisms of deuxemether in rats based on the simultaneous determination of MHD and DMD. The pharmacokinetic profiles of both MHD and DMD in rats after intravenous doses were linear and best fitted to a two compartment model, characterized with a rapid distribution phase (MHD: t(1/2)alpha, 0.09-0.14 h; DMD: t 1/2 alpha, 0.07-0.11h) and a relatively slow elimination phase (MHD: t 1/2 beta, 2.03-3.20 h; DMD: t 1/2 beta, 2.51-3.20 h). The tissue distributions of MHD and DMD in rats were rather limited as evidenced from their low distribution volume (0.75-1.70 L/kg) and the results of tissue distribution study. Protein binding of MHD and DMD were moderate (65.36-89.99% for MHD; 45.43-76.23% for DMD), independent of drug concentrations and similar between human and rat plasma over a concentration range of 0.50-50.0 microg/mL. Both MHD and DMD were predominantly (>74.1%) eliminated from rats as the parent drugs through the hepatobiliary systems and finally excreted into the feces. The multidrug resistance-associated proteins 2 (MRP2) inhibitors, bromosulfophthalein and probenecid, substantially inhibited the hepatobiliary elimination of MHD and DMD while the P-gp inhibitor digoxin had little effect, suggesting that MRP2 may contribute to the rapid and extensive hepatobiliary excretion of deuxemether. There were no significant differences between MHD and DMD for all pharmacokinetic characteristics studied. In conclusion, this study provided firstly the full pharmacokinetic characteristics and mechanisms of deuxemether, which would be helpful for its clinical

  12. An algorithm for evaluating potential tissue drug distribution in toxicology studies from readily available pharmacokinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Patrick; Dambach, Donna M; Hartley, Dylan H; Ford, Kevin; Theil, Frank-Peter; Harstad, Eric; Halladay, Jason; Choo, Edna; Boggs, Jason; Liederer, Bianca M; Dean, Brian; Diaz, Dolores

    2013-10-01

    Having an understanding of drug tissue accumulation can be informative in the assessment of target organ toxicities; however, obtaining tissue drug levels from toxicology studies by bioanalytical methods is labor-intensive and infrequently performed. Additionally, there are no described methods for predicting tissue drug distribution for the experimental conditions in toxicology studies, which typically include non-steady-state conditions and very high exposures that may saturate several processes. The aim was the development of an algorithm to provide semiquantitative and quantitative estimates of tissue-to-plasma concentration ratios (Kp ) for several tissues from readily available parameters of pharmacokinetics (PK) such as volume of distribution (Vd ) and clearance of each drug, without performing tissue measurement in vivo. The computational approach is specific for the oral route of administration and non-steady-state conditions and was applied for a dataset of 29 Genentech small molecules such as neutral compounds as well as weak and strong organic bases. The maximum success rate in predicting Kp values within 2.5-fold error of observed Kp values was 82% at low doses (<100 mg/kg) in preclinical species. Prediction accuracy was relatively lower with saturation at high doses (≥100 mg/kg); however, an approach to perform low-to-high dose extrapolations of Kp values was presented and applied successfully in most cases. An approach for the interspecies scaling was also applied successfully. Finally, the proposed algorithm was used in a case study and successfully predicted differential tissue distribution of two small-molecule MET kinase inhibitors, which had different toxicity profiles in mice. This newly developed algorithm can be used to predict the partition coefficients Kp for small molecules in toxicology studies, which can be leveraged to optimize the PK drivers of tissue distribution in an attempt to decrease drug tissue level, and improve safety

  13. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and metabolism of nitrofurantoin in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stehly, G.R.; Plakas, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and metabolism of the drug nitrofurantoin were examined in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) after intravascular or oral dosing. Mean plasma concentrations of nitrofurantoin after intravascular administration at 1 and 10 mg/kg of body weight were best fit to two- and three-compartment pharmacokinetic models, respectively. Nitrofurantoin was rapidly eliminated from the plasma after intravascular dosing; at 1 and 10 mg/kg, the terminal half-lives were 23 and 46 min, respectively. After oral dosing at 1 mg/kg, peak plasma concentrations (0.06 mu g/ml) occurred at 2 h; the bioavailability was 17%. Residues of nitrofurantoin and its metabolites in the tissues were initially eliminated rapidly but persisted at the later sampling times. Residue concentrations were highest in the plasma and excretory tissues. Approximately 21% and 4% of the oral dose were eliminated in the urine and bile, respectively. Parent nitrofurantoin was the major radiolabelled compound found in the urine; however, the percentage of total residues composed of metabolites increased with time. Biliary residues consisted mostly of nitrofurantoin metabolites. High-performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of at least five metabolites in the urine and bile.

  14. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, tissue distribution, excretion, and metabolite identification of methoxyflavones in Kaempferia parviflora extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Mekjaruskul, Catheleeya; Jay, Michael; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2012-12-01

    Kaempferia parviflora (KP) is an herbal plant in the family of Zingiberaceae. KP mainly contains methoxyflavones, especially 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (DMF), 5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (TMF), and 3,5,7,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF). The present study was designed to characterize the pharmacokinetics, including bioavailability, distribution, excretion, and identification of metabolites after administration of a KP ethanolic extract. Male rats were orally or intravenously administered a 250 mg/kg concentration of a KP extract, and blood samples were obtained at selected times to determine pharmacokinetic parameters of PMF, TMF, and DMF. For distribution and excretion studies, the organs, urine, and feces samples were collected at various times after oral administration of a larger (750 mg/kg) dose of KP extract. Methoxyflavones in the biological samples were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-UV, and the metabolites in urine and feces were further identified by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. After oral administration, concentrations of the three methoxyflavones quickly approached their maximal concentration, ranging from 0.55 to 0.88 μg/ml within 1 to 2 h after administration, and then were gradually excreted with half-lives of 3 to 6 h. The methoxyflavones showed low oral bioavailability of 1 to 4%. Three methoxyflavones were detected at their highest levels in liver followed by kidney. They were also found in lung, testes, and brain. After absorption, organ distribution, and metabolism, the components of KP were mainly eliminated through urine in the forms of demethylated, sulfated, and glucuronidated products and as demethylated metabolites in the feces. The parent compounds were found to have 0.79, 1.76, and 3.10% dose recovery in urine and 1.06, 1.77, and 0.96% dose recovery in feces for PMF, TMF, and DMF, respectively. These studies are the first to describe the pharmacokinetics of KP extract to provide the information on

  15. Cinnamaldehyde in a Novel Intravenous Submicrometer Emulsion: Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Antitumor Efficacy, and Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hang; Yuan, Jiani; Yang, Qian; Xie, Yanhua; Cao, Wei; Wang, Siwang

    2015-07-22

    The purpose of our research is to find a new lipid emulsion to deliver a low water-soluble compound, cinnamaldehyde (CA). Its characteristics, pharmacokinetics, antitumor efficacy, and toxicity were evaluated. The mean particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency of the submicromemter emulsion of CA (SME-CA) were 130 ± 5.92 nm, -25.7 ± 6.00 mV, and 99.5 ± 0.25%, respectively. The area under the curve from 0 h to termination time (AUC(0-t)) of SME-CA showed a significantly higher value than that of CA (589 ± 59.2 vs 375 ± 83.5 ng h/L, P < 0.01). Tissue distribution study showed various changes; among them, a 27% higher concentration was found in brain tissue when using SME-CA at 15 min after administration. For the efficacy evaluation, SME-CA exhibited 8- and 11-fold antitumor activity in the depression of HeLa and A549 cell lines with the IC50 decreasing to 0.003 and 0.001 mmol/L, respectively. The LD50 values of CA and SME-CA in mice were 74.8 and 125 mg/kg, suggesting increased safety from the new formulation. The new formulation exhibited lower toxicity, higher antitumor activity, and a more satisfactory pharmacokinetic property, which displayed great potential for future pharmacological application.

  16. Galactosylated bovine serum albumin nanoparticles for parenteral delivery of oridonin: tissue distribution and pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Caiyun; Zhang, Dianrui; Guo, Yuanyuan; Guo, Hejian; Li, Tingting; Hao, Leilei; Zheng, Dandan; Liu, Guangpu; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticle is a promising drug carrier system. Oridonin (ORI)-loaded galactosylated BSA nanoparticle (ORI-GB-NP) was prepared for liver targeting delivery of ORI. This work was designed to investigate the in vitro release, in vivo pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of ORI-GB-NP. ORI-GB-NP was prepared by the desolvation method. The particle size of ORI-GB-NP was 172.0 ± 8.3 nm with narrow size distribution. The in vitro release of ORI-GB-NP exhibited biphasic drug release pattern with an initial burst release and consequently sustained release. Pharmacokinetic analysis displayed that ORI-GB-NP and ORI-loaded BSA nanoparticle (ORI-BSA-NP) could enhance the drug plasma level and prolong the circulation time in contrast with ORI solution. Meanwhile, compared with ORI-BSA-NP, ORI-GB-NP could deliver more ORI to liver and simultaneously reduce the toxicity of ORI to heart, lung and kidney. In conclusion, ORI-GB-NP could be a promising drug delivery system for liver cancer therapy.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of two novel isomerism anticancer platinum compounds.

    PubMed

    He, Donglin; Yin, Shuhui; Han, Fuguo; Zhu, Jingjie; Shi, Yun; Tong, Zhiyuan; Liu, Qingfei

    2016-11-01

    LLC-0601(S,S) and LLC-0601(R,R) are two novel synthesized isomerism platinum compounds both with encouraging anticancer activity. However, the previous study showed that toxicity of LLC-0601(R,R) was much higher than that of LLC-0601(S,S) with higher body weight loss and mortality rate of tested rats. This paper is focused on the comparison of the two compounds with their pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles in rats and tissue distribution in mice after intravenous administration. The atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) method was successfully developed and applied for the determination of platinum in plasma and tissues. The results showed that main PK parameters such as half-life, AUC and MRT of the two compounds had no significant difference after intravenous administration to rats (p  > 0.05). The tissue distribution after intravenous administration to mice showed that the concentration of LLC-0601(R,R) in heart at 0.083 h was higher than that of LLC-0601(S,S) (p  < 0.05) and it was the same case for AUC5min-4 h (p  < 0.05). Different distribution of the two compounds in heart was possibly the main reason of different toxicity and more in-depth research on the metabolites and other mechanism are needed to investigate the toxicity.

  18. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of gentiopicroside following oral and intravenous administration in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Hong; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Bligh, S W Annie; White, Kenneth N; White, Christopher J Branford

    2004-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of Gentiopicroside (GPS), one of the major active components of the Gentiana species of medicinal plants, was studied following oral and intravenous administration in mice. The distribution of GPS in mice after oral and intravenous doses could be fitted to a two-compartments open model. The serum half-life of GPS was 6.1 h and 2.8 h for intravenous and oral administration, respectively. The Tmax of GPS after oral administration was 0.50 h, and the bioavailability was 39.6%. The AUC gradient in individual tissues following intravenous administration was kidney >serum >liver >spleen >lung >thymus >fat >heart >muscle >stomach >intestinal >brain. The MRT gradient was muscle >serum >lung >spleen >lung >intestinal>heart >stomach >brain >liver >thymus >kidney >fat. Overall the data show that GPS could be absorbed rapidly in mice, but with a low bioavailability, and could distribute to tissues extensively, but was generally cleared quickly with short MRTs. The study demonstrates the need for repeated dosage, or better, a slow release formulation as an ideal means of administering GPS.

  19. Docetaxel-loaded liposomes: preparation, pH sensitivity, pharmacokinetics, and tissue distribution*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Rui-ying; Lu, Xia; Mou, Zhen-zhen; Lin, Gui-mei

    2012-01-01

    Docetaxel (DTX), as a member of taxoid family, has been widely used in the treatment of cancers. The present study prepared pH-sensitive DTX-loaded liposomes (DTX-Lips) by thin-film dispersion method and various physico-chemical and morphological properties were examined. The pH sensitivity of in vitro DTX release and the in vivo pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution using Kunming mice were also investigated. The mean particle size and zeta potential of DTX liposomes were (277±2) nm and (−32.60±0.26) mV, respectively. Additionally, in vitro drug release study showed that the cumulative release rate was 1.3 times more at pH 5.0 than at pH 7.4, suggesting a pH-dependent release ability of DTX-Lips. Pharmacokinetic and pharmaceutical studies in comparison with Duopafei® showed that the half-time period (t 1/2) and area under the curve (AUC) of DTX-Lips in mouse plasma were 1.8 times longer and 2.6 times higher, respectively, and that DTX-Lips selectively accumulated in macrophage-rich organs such as liver and spleen. These results together suggest that the DTX-Lips could be a promising formulation for the clinical administration of DTX. PMID:23225853

  20. Pharmacokinetics of spiramycin in the rhesus monkey: transplacental passage and distribution in tissue in the fetus.

    PubMed Central

    Schoondermark-Van de Ven, E; Galama, J; Camps, W; Vree, T; Russel, F; Meuwissen, J; Melchers, W

    1994-01-01

    Transplacental transfer of spiramycin was investigated in a rhesus monkey model to study whether the antibiotic reaches therapeutic levels in the fetus. Spiramycin concentrations were measured by bioassay and high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for bioactive spiramycin as measured by the bioassay. Pharmacokinetic pilot studies showed that spiramycin distribution follows a two-compartment model in rhesus monkeys. Following a single intravenous dose of 50 or 250 mg, dose-dependent kinetics were observed. At a dose of 50 mg, 10% of the dose was excreted unchanged in the urine. At the higher dose of 250 mg, an oliguric effect was observed. Spiramycin concentrations in fetal serum were measured over time while the maternal concentration was maintained at a constant level. During a 5-h experiment, a maximum fetal-maternal serum ratio of 0.27 was found. In three fetuses, concentrations in serum and tissue were measured following intravenous administration of 50 mg of spiramycin twice daily to the mother for at least 7 days. The fetal-maternal serum ratios were found to be 0.4 to 0.58 after intravenous administration of the final dose of 50 mg to the mother. It appeared that spiramycin accumulated in the soft tissues, especially in the liver and spleen, of both the mother and the fetus. The concentration in placental tissue appeared to be 10 to 20 times that of the concentration in fetal serum. The concentration of spiramycin in amniotic fluid was about five times higher than the concentration in fetal serum. Another important observation was that absolutely no spiramycin was found in the brain. PMID:7810999

  1. Bioavailability, Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution of P57AS3 (P57) from Hoodia gordonii Mouse Model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    P57AS3, an oxypregnane steroidal glycoside (P57) is known to be responsible for the diet suppressing activity of Hoodia gordonii, a dietary supplement used for weight loss. In this study, bioavailability, pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of P57 was determined in CD1 female mice after adminis...

  2. Paclitaxel-loaded niosomes for intravenous administration: pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution in rats.

    PubMed

    Bayindir, Zerrin Sezgin; Be, Arzu Beşikci; Yüksel, Nilüfer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the pharmacokinetic behavior and tissue distribution of paclitaxel, delivered as commercial preparation Taxol or through Span 40 niosomes, after intravenous injection to rats. Paclitaxel-loaded Span 40 niosomes were prepared using the thin-film method. An HPLC method was developed and validated for paclitaxel determination in rat plasma and tissues. The area under the curve value of the niosome-recipient group (3.22 ± 0.255 μg h/mL) was significantly higher compared to that of the Taxol group (0.725 ± 0.163 μg h/mL). The mean residence time and the elimination half-life of paclitaxel were 1.66 ± 0.133 h and 1.15 ± 0.085 h for Taxol administration, respectively. The elimination half-life (7.63 ± 0.380 h) and the mean residence time (11.0 ± 0.6 h) of paclitaxel were significantly increased, and a pronounced delay was observed in general excretion of paclitaxel from plasma (0.0925 ± 0.00490 h(-1)) after niosomal administration. The spleen was the main tissue that accumulated paclitaxel from both niosomes and Taxol. The findings of this study show that niosomal formulation might be a useful drug delivery system for intravenous administration of paclitaxel.

  3. Noninvasive assessment of tissue distribution and tumor pharmacokinetics of Pc 181, a silicon phthalocyanine analogue, in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lihua; Guo, Jianxia; Clausen, Dana M.; Eiseman, Julie L.

    2010-02-01

    Objective: In in vitro photodynamic therapy, the LD50 of Pc 181 has been reported to be 7 to 8 times less than that of silicon phthalocyanine 4 (Pc 4). The Optical Pharmacokinetic System (OPS) can measure photosensitizer concentrations in accessible tissues non-invasively. We used OPS to evaluate the tumor pharmacokinetics of Pc 181 and Pc 4 and the tissue drug distribution in SCID mice bearing either human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 or human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma SCC-15 xenografts. Methods: Following iv administration of 2.5 mg/kg Pc 181 or 2 mg/kg Pc 4 to SCID mice, OPS measurements were taken on tumor and normal tissues between 5 and 4320 min in vivo or in situ. Results: Large variations in tumor Pc 181 concentrations were observed among mice. In MDA-MB-231 tumors, the Pc 181 concentration peaked at 240 min, and was retained in the tumor. Tumor Pc 181 concentrations were much less than the tumor Pc 4 concentrations at an equimolar dose. Pc 181 concentrations were the highest in liver, followed by spleen, and kidney. In mice bearing SCC-15 xenografts, skin and underlying tissue Pc 181 concentrations were higher than tumor concentrations at all time points examined. Conclusions: This first Pc 181 pharmacokinetics study described a tissue Pc 181 distribution similar to that of Pc 4. However, tumor Pc 181 concentrations were lower than those of Pc 4 at equimolar doses.

  4. The pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of coumaroylspinosin in rat: A novel flavone C-glycoside derived from Zizyphi Spinosi Semen.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaotong; Liu, Junjun; Wen, Zhiyou; Zhang, Yanqing; Yu, Mingxin; Pan, Bingcheng; Zeng, Jun; Xie, Junbo

    2017-03-01

    Zizyphi Spinosi Semen (ZSS) has a long history of sedative-hypnotic use in China. As a novel flavone C-glycoside, coumaroylspinosin is a main flavonoid only found in ZSS. Up to now, its pharmacokinetic information and tissue distribution in vivo are not available yet. With a simple, rapid and sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method, the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of coumaroylspinosin were investigated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats after its intravenous administration. Puerarin was used as the internal standard (IS). The samples were extracted by a simple protein precipitation method with methanol. The MS analysis was performed with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), and the transitions were set at m/z 753.3→427.0 for coumaroylspinosin and m/z 415.3→295.3 for IS, respectively. The method was successfully applied for investigating the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of coumaroylspinosin in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats after tail vein injection with 4.0mg/kg of the flavonoid. The calibration curves covered over the range of 0.02-10μg/mL in plasma and various tissues samples with good linearity(r≥0.9956). The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) in all samples was less than 20ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were below 15% and accuracy was from -3.78% to 4.68%. No significant matrix effect was observed, and the average extraction recovery was acceptable. Coumaroylspinosin could be cleared quickly from the rat plasma with the half-life (t1/2) of 1.86±0.15h. It was distribute widely in vivo, and the main tissue depots of coumaroylspinosin in rats were found to be intestine, muscle and lung. With the method, the pharmacokinetic parameters and tissue distribution of coumaroylspinosin in SD rats were investigated for the first time. The results demonstrated that coumaroylspinosin was distributed widely and rapidly in various rat tissues after intravenous administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Study on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of the isocorydine derivative (AICD) in rats by HPLC-DAD method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yali; Yan, Qian; Zhong, Mei; Zhao, Quanyi; Liu, Junxi; Di, Duolong; Liu, Jinxia

    2015-05-01

    A simple and effective high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection method coupled with a liquid-liquid extraction pretreatment has been developed for determining the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of a novel structurally modified derivative (8-acetamino-isocorydine) of isocorydine. According to the in vivo experiments data calculations by DAS 2.0 software, a two-compartment metabolic model was suitable for describing the pharmacokinetic of 8-acetamino-isocorydine in rats. 8-Acetamino-isocorydine was absorbed well after oral administration, and the absolute bioavailability was 76.5%. The half-life of 8-acetamino-isocorydine after intravenous and oral administration was 2.2 h and 2.0 h, respectively. In vivo, 8-acetamino-isocorydine was highly distributed in the lungs, kidney and liver; however, relatively little entered the brain, suggesting that 8-acetamino-isocorydine could not easily pass through the blood brain barrier. Our work describes the first characterization of the pharmacokinetic parameters and tissue distribution of 8-acetamino-isocorydine. The acquired data will provide useful information for the in vivo pharmacology of 8-acetamino-isocorydine, and can be applied to new drug research.

  6. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of amphotericin B following oral administration of three lipid-based formulations to rats.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Fady; Gershkovich, Pavel; Sivak, Olena; Wasan, Ellen K; Wasan, Kishor M

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of amphotericin B (AmB) in rats following oral administration of three lipid-based formulations (iCo-009, iCo-010 and iCo-011). The lipid-based formulations were administered to rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg and blood samples were withdrawn at predose, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h, after which the animals were sacrificed and the body organs were collected for AmB quantification using a validated HPLC method. Plasma pharmacokinetics parameters were determined using non-compartmental analysis. The disappearance of AmB from plasma was the slowest following the administration of iCo-010 with MRT of 63 h followed by iCo-009 then iCo-011 (36 and 27 h). The AUC(0-24h) of iCo-009 and iCo-010 was 1.5-2-fold higher than that of iCo-011. The kidney exposure was comparable between iCo-009 and iCo-010 and was higher than that of iCo-011. The lung exposure was the highest following iCo-010 administration as compared to that of iCo-009. The distribution of AmB from plasma to tissues resulted in a high accumulation of AmB overtime with slow back-distribution to plasma. The pharmacokinetics profiles varied among the three formulations, despite the similarity in lipid composition between iCo-010 and iCo-011 and the presence of Peceol® as a common component in the formulations. The administration of oral iCo-010 could lead to higher steady state concentrations in the tissues after multiple dosing, which could lead to enhanced eradication of tissue borne fungal and parasitic infections.

  7. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil with a novel carrier solution in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhi-Gang; Li, Guo-Xin; Huang, Xiang-Cheng; Zhen, Li; Yu, Jiang; Deng, Hai-Jun; Qing, Shan-Hua; Zhang, Ce

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of 5-fluorouracil administered intraperitoneally with two isotonic carrier solutions: HAES-steri (neotype 6% hydroxyethyl starch), a novel carrier solution with middle molecular weight and physiologic saline (0.9% sodium chloride solution), a traditional carrier solution for intraperitoneal chemotherapy, in rats. METHODS: A total of 60 Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into groups according to the carrier solution administered. Each group was further randomized according to the intraperitoneal dwell period (1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h). At the end of the procedure the rats were killed, the peritoneal fluid was withdrawn completely and quantitated. Drug concentrations in peritoneal fluid, plasma, and tissues were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The mean volumes remaining in the peritoneal cavity were significantly higher with HAES-steri than those with physiologic saline at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h (P = 0.047, 0.009, 0.005, 0.005 and 0.005 respectively, the percentages of remaining peritoneal fluid volume were 89.9 ± 5.6 vs 83.4 ± 4.9, 79.9 ± 2.8 vs 56.2 ± 15.7, 46.8 ± 5.5 vs 24.7 ± 9.7, 23.0 ± 2.8 vs 0.0 ± 0.0 and 4.2 ± 1.7 vs 0.0 ± 0.0 respectively). Mean concentrations in peritoneal fluid were significantly higher with HAES-steri than those with physiologic saline at 3, 12 and 18 h (P = 0.009, 0.009 and 0.005 respectively, the concentrations were 139.2768 ± 28.2317 mg/L vs mg/L, 11.5427 ± 3.0976 mg/L vs 0.0000 ± 0.0000 mg/L and 4.7724 ± 1.0936 mg/L vs 0.0000 ± 0.0000 mg/L respectively). Mean plasma 5-fluorouracil concentrations in portal vein were significantly higher with HAES-steri at 3, 12, 18 and 24 h (P = 0.009, 0.034, 0.005 and 0.019 respectively, the concentrations were 3.3572 ± 0.8128 mg/L vs 0.8794 ± 0.2394 mg/L, 0.6203 ± 0.9935 mg/L vs 0.0112 ± 0.0250 mg/L, 0.3725 ± 0.3871 mg/L vs 0.0000 ± 0.0000 mg/L, and 0.2469 ± 0.1457 mg/L vs 0.0000 ± 0

  8. Application of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in analyzing pharmacokinetics and distribution of deltamethrin in miniature pig tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Pan; Fan, Sai; Zou, Jian Hong; Miao, Hong; Li, Jing Guang; Zhang, Guo Wen; Wu, Yong Ning

    2014-06-01

    To characterize the pharmacokinetics and distribution profiles of deltamethrin in miniature pig tissues by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Pharmacokinetics and distribution of deltamethrin in blood and tissues of 30 miniature pigs were studied by GC-MS after oral administration of deltamethrin (5 mg/kg bw). Data were processed by 3P97 software. The serum deltamethrin level was significantly lower in tissues than in blood of miniature pigs. The AUC0-72 h, Cmax, of deltamethrin were 555.330 ± 316.987 ng h/mL and 17.861 ± 11.129 ng/mL, respectively. The Tmax, of deltamethrin was 6.004 ± 3.131 h. The metabolism of deltamethrin in miniature pigs is fit for a one-compartment model with a weighting function of 1/C2. Deltamethrin is rapidly hydrolyzed and accumulated in miniature pig tissues. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  9. Abcb1 in Pigs: Molecular cloning, tissues distribution, functional analysis, and its effect on pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tingting; Huang, Jinhu; Zhang, Hongyu; Dong, Lingling; Guo, Dawei; Guo, Li; He, Fang; Bhutto, Zohaib Ahmed; Wang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the best-known ATP-dependent efflux transporters, contributing to differences in pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions. Until now, studies on pig P-gp have been scarce. In our studies, the full-length porcine P-gp cDNA was cloned and expressed in a Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line. P-gp expression was then determined in tissues and its role in the pharmacokinetics of oral enrofloxacin in pigs was studied. The coding region of pig Abcb1 gene was 3,861 bp, encoding 1,286 amino acid residues (Mw = 141,966). Phylogenetic analysis indicated a close evolutionary relationship between porcine P-gp and those of cow and sheep. Pig P-gp was successfully stably overexpressed in MDCK cells and had efflux activity for rhodamine 123, a substrate of P-gp. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that P-gp was highly expressed in brain capillaries, small intestine, and liver. In MDCK-pAbcb1 cells, enrofloxacin was transported by P-gp with net efflux ratio of 2.48 and the efflux function was blocked by P-gp inhibitor verapamil. High expression of P-gp in the small intestine could modify the pharmacokinetics of orally administrated enrofloxacin by increasing the Cmax, AUC and Ka, which was demonstrated using verapamil, an inhibitor of P-gp. PMID:27572343

  10. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion studies of l-isocorypalmine using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weihui; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Xiaoning; Peng, Yan; Wang, Nannan; Lee, David Y W; Dai, Ronghua

    2017-03-01

    l-Isocorypalmine is a newly identified metabolite of l-tetrahydropalmatine with a unique dual pharmacological profile as a partial dopamine receptor 1 agonist and dopamine receptor 2 antagonist properties for treating cocaine use disorder. The purpose of this study was to explore the pharmacokinetic profiles, tissue distribution, and excretion of l-isocorypalmine in Sprague-Dawley rats. A sensitive and reliable ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for determination of l-isocorypalmine in biological samples. The biological samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and separated on a Bonshell ASB C18 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 2.7 μm, Agela) with gradient mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The detection was performed by positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring mode. Satisfactory linearity, precision, accuracy, extraction recovery, and acceptable matrix effect were achieved. The quantitative method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion study of l-isocorypalmine. The results showed that l-isocorypalmine was rapidly distributed, and eliminated from rat plasma and manifested linear dynamics in a dose range of 7.5-15 mg/kg. In addition, the results would be helpful for further clinical reference of l-isocorypalmine as a potential candidate drug for the treatment of cocaine addiction.

  11. Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and distribution in tissue of terbinafine and metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Kovarik, J M; Mueller, E A; Zehender, H; Denouël, J; Caplain, H; Millerioux, L

    1995-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of terbinafine and its inactive metabolites SDZ 86-621 (the N-demethyl form), SDZ 280-027 (the carboxybutyl form), and SDZ 280-047 (N-demethyl- carboxybutyl form) in plasma were characterized for 10 healthy male subjects receiving 250 mg of terbinafine orally once a day for 4 weeks and in the subsequent 8-week washout phase. Terbinafine concentrations were also measured in sebum, hair, nail, and stratum corneum samples. Concentrations of the parent compound and metabolites were determined by validated high-performance liquid chromatography methods. Terbinafine was rapidly absorbed, with peak concentrations in plasma of 1.70 +/- 0.77 micrograms/ml occurring 1.2 +/- 0.3 h postdose. Concentrations subsequently exhibited a triphasic decline, with a terminal deposition half-life of 16.5 +/- 2.8 days. Terbinafine accumulated approximately twofold over the 4-week dosing phase. The predominant metabolite in plasma samples was SDZ 280-027; specifically, the ratios of metabolite area under the curve to terbinafine area under the curve following the last dose were 1.25, 1.38, and 1.08 for metabolites SDZ 86-621, SDZ 280-027, and SDZ 280-047. Measurable concentrations of terbinafine were achieved in sebum and hair samples within the first week of administration and by week 3 in stratum corneum and nail samples. Fungicidal concentrations persisted in plasma and peripheral tissue samples for prolonged periods (weeks to months) after administration of the last dose. These pharmacokinetic properties are likely an underlying factor in the shorter treatment times and good clinical cure rates which have been reported for terbinafine in the therapy of onychomycoses and dermatomycoses. PMID:8593011

  12. Determination of the plasma pharmacokinetic and tissue distributions of swertiamarin in rats by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, H-L; He, J-C; Bai, M; Song, Q-Y; Feng, E-F; Rao, G-X; Xu, G-L

    2012-03-01

    An LC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantification of swertiamarin (CAS 17388-39-5) in rat plasma and tissues using gentiopicroside as the internal standard (IS). Swertiamarin and an IS were extracted from plasma and tissues by a simple solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. Separation was achieved on a Phenomenex kinetex-C18 column (100 mm×2.1 mm, 2.6 µm) with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of methanol and water (22:78, v/v) with 0.1% acetic acid at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The analyte and IS were detected by negative ion electrospray ionisation in multiple-reaction monitoring mode while monitoring the transitions of m/z 433 [M + CH3COO] - →179 and m/z 415 [M + CH3COO] - →179 for swertiamarin and the IS, respectively. The method was validated with respect to selectivity, matrix effect, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery and stability. The method was successfully applied in a pharmacokinetic study of swertiamarin after intravenous and oral administration to rats. The pharmacokinetics of swertiamarin showed rapid absorption and elimination, and its absolute bioavailability was low at 10.3%. After oral administration to rats, swertiamarin was rapidly and widely distributed in its tissues. High concentrations were found in the liver and kidney, indicating that swertiamarin was possibly absorbed in the liver and eliminated by the kidney. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Pharmacokinetic analysis and tissue distribution of Vam3 in the rat by a validated LC-MS/MS method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruixia; Mao, Ping; Zhang, Tingting; Ma, Chen; Jin, Bo; Li, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Vam3 is a potential pharmacologically active ingredient isolated from Vitis amurensis Rupr. A rapid, simple and sensitive method to determine Vam3 levels in rat plasma and tissue was developed based on LC-MS/MS. Vam3 and an internal standard (IS) were chromatographed on a C18 short column with acetonitrile–0.1% formic acid in water by gradient elution. MS detection was performed by electrospray ionization in negative ion multiple reaction–monitoring modes. This method monitored the transitions m/z 451.0→345.0 and m/z 301.0→164.0 for Vam3 and IS, respectively. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 1.64–1000 ng/mL. The inter-day and intra-day variabilities in precision was less than 12.8%, while the inter-day and intra-day accuracies ranged from –10.60% to 9.08% in plasma and tissue homogenates. This method was applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of Vam3 in rats. The results indicated that Vam3 had poor absorption into systemic circulation and extensive tissue distribution after oral administration, and the absolute bioavailability was low (0.79%). Vam3 had a relatively long terminal elimination half-life in lung, and the highest concentration was found in small intestinal tissue. The developed method and the pharmacokinetic data can provide a basis for further studies on the bioactivity of Vam3. PMID:26579454

  14. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and metabolism of acriflavine and proflavine in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    PubMed

    Plakas, S M; el Said, K R; Bencsath, F A; Musser, S M; Hayton, W L

    1998-06-01

    1. The disposition of proflavine (PRO) and acriflavine (ACR) were examined in channel catfish after intravascular (i.v.) dosing (1 mg/kg) or waterborne exposure (10 mg/l for 4 h). 2. After i.v. dosing, plasma concentration-time profiles of parent PRO and ACR were best described by two- and three-compartment pharmacokinetic models respectively. Terminal elimination half-lives of PRO and ACR in plasma were 8.7 and 11.4 h respectively. 3. In animals dosed with 14C-PRO or 14C-ACR, total drug equivalent concentrations were highest in the excretory organs and lowest in muscle, fat and plasma. In PRO-dosed animals, residues in the liver and trunk kidney were composed primarily of glucuronosyl and acetyl conjugates of PRO; residues in muscle were composed mostly (> 95%) of the parent drug. In ACR-dosed animals, the parent compound comprised > 90% of the total residues in all tissues examined. 4. PRO and ACR were poorly absorbed in catfish during waterborne exposure. At the end of a 4-h exposure, parent PRO and ACR concentrations in muscle were 0.064 and 0.020 microgram/g respectively. Levels in muscle declined below the limit of determination (0.005 microgram/g) within 1-2 weeks.

  15. Grepafloxacin: pharmacokinetics and tissue penetration.

    PubMed

    Wise, Richard

    1998-03-01

    Pharmacokinetic and tissue penetration studies of grepafloxacin, a new broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone, show that it has useful properties for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. Grepafloxacin has a volume of distribution that is larger than those of many of the other fluoroquinolones and is concentrated in alveolar macrophages, bronchial mucosa and epithelial lining fluid to a greater extent than are certain other fluoroquinolones. Grepafloxacin concentrations achieved in plasma after a 400-mg oral dose are well in excess of those required to inhibit the respiratory pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Streptococcus pneumoniae is also covered for most of the dosing interval, but at normal dose levels grepafloxacin might not inhibit Enterococcus faecalis. The maximum plasma concentrations and area under the concentration---time curve achieved with grepafloxacin suggest that it will be effective for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. The pharmacokinetics of fluoroquinolones are among their most useful properties. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate whether the differences between grepafloxacin and the other fluoroquinolones are of therapeutic significance.

  16. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of tissue distribution of pirfenidone and its metabolites for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis therapy.

    PubMed

    Togami, Kohei; Kanehira, Yukimune; Tada, Hitoshi

    2015-05-01

    Pirfenidone is the first and only clinically used anti-fibrotic drug for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). It was reported previously that pirfenidone metabolites (5-hydroxypirfenidone and 5-carboxypirfenidone) also have anti-fibrotic effects. The present study evaluated the distribution of pirfenidone and its metabolites in the lung, liver and kidney tissues in rats. The time course for the different concentrations of pirfenidone, 5-hydroxypirfenidone and 5-carboxypirfenidone in the lung tissue following oral administration (30 mg/kg) to rats was lower than that in plasma, and the area under the drug concentration-time curve (AUC) ratios of lung/plasma for pirfenidone, 5-hydroxypirfenidone and 5-carboxypirfenidone were 0.52, 0.40 and 0.61, respectively. In in vitro transport experiments, the basolateral-to-apical transport of pirfenidone and its metabolites through the model of lung epithelial cell (Calu-3) monolayers was not significantly different from their apical-to-basolateral transport. In binding experiments, the binding rate of these drugs to the lung tissue was lower than that to the plasma protein. These findings suggest that the low distribution of pirfenidone and its metabolites in the lungs was based on their low affinities with lung tissue and not the transport characteristics of lung epithelial cells. On the other hand, the AUC ratios of liver/plasma for pirfenidone and 5-carboxypirfenidone were 2.3 and 6.5 and the AUC ratios of kidney/plasma were 1.5 and 20, respectively. The binding rates to the liver and kidney tissues were higher than those to the plasma protein. These results suggest that high concentrations of these drugs were found in the liver and kidney tissues.

  17. Comparative pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive components in normal and hepatic fibrosis rats after oral administration of Fuzheng Huayu recipe.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Shan; Wang, Chang-Hong; Tao, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Hua; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2015-10-10

    Fuzheng Huayu recipe (FZHY) is a herbal product for the treatment of liver fibrosis approved by the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA), but its pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution had not been investigated. In this study, the liver fibrotic model was induced with intraperitoneal injection of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), and FZHY was given orally to the model and normal rats. The plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive components from FZHY were analyzed in the normal and fibrotic rat groups using an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method. Results revealed that the bioavailabilities of danshensu (DSS), salvianolic acid B (SAB) and rosmarinic acid (ROS) in liver fibrotic rats increased 1.49, 3.31 and 2.37-fold, respectively, compared to normal rats. There was no obvious difference in the pharmacokinetics of amygdalin (AMY) between the normal and fibrotic rats. The tissue distribution of DSS, SAB, and AMY trended to be mostly in the kidney and lung. The distribution of DSS, SAB, and AMY in liver tissue of the model rats was significantly decreased compared to the normal rats. Significant differences in the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of DSS, ROS, SAB and AMY were observed in rats with hepatic fibrosis after oral administration of FZHY. These results provide a meaningful basis for developing a clinical dosage regimen in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis by FZHY. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study in mice of triptolide-loaded lipid emulsion and accumulation effect on pancreas.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Mao, Yuling; Li, Kai; Shi, Tianyu; Yao, Huimin; Yao, Jianhua; Wang, Shujun

    2016-05-01

    Triptolide (TP) shows strong anti-tumor activities on various cancer cells, especially on pancreatic cancer. TP inhibits HSP70 expression leading to cell death in pancreatic cancer cells and induces cell death by apoptotic and autophagic pathways. In order to increase the therapeutic index of TP, a novel intravenous TP-loaded delivery system, TP-loaded lipid emulsion (TP-LE), has been developed to treat solid tumor. In the present study, the preparation and characterization of TP-LE were described. The pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study of TP-LE in mice were also evaluated. Results demonstrated that TP-LE had an average particle size of 154.6 nm, entrapment efficiency (EE%) of 87%, zeta potential of -0.903 mV and autoclaved stability. The pharmacokinetic study showed that blood concentrations of both TP-LE and TP reached a maximum at the end of intravenous administration (1.25 mg/kg) and declined rapidly within the first 10 min with a mean residence time (MRT) of about 10 min. In the tissue distribution study, a preferential accumulation and longer residence time of drug in pancreas were found in TP-LE. The AUC0-60min of TP-LE in pancreas was 2.19 times in comparison to free TP, suggesting that the use of TP-LE conferred improvements in biodistribution, accumulation and therapeutic efficacy in pancreas. Moreover, the concentrations of TP-LE in heart, lung and kidney were lower than that of the TP group, indicating the potential for reduced toxicity of TP-LE. Together, all the results show that TP-LE appears to be a promising formulation for using TP in treating cancer, and more specifically pancreatic cancer.

  19. Characterization, pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of chlorogenic acid-loaded self-microemulsifying drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Liu, Chang-Shun; Chen, Qing-Zhen; Wang, Sen; Xiong, Yong-Ai; Jing, Jing; Lv, Jia-Jia

    2017-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to develop a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) to improve the oral bioavailability of Chlorogenic acid (CA), an important bioactive compound from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos with poor permeability. SMEDDS was prepared and characterized by self-emulsifying rate, morphological observation, droplet size determination, stability, in vitro release, in vivo bioavailability and tissue distribution experiments. Results shown that the SMEDDS of CA has a high self-emulsifying rate (>98%) in the dissolution media, and its microemulsion exhibits small droplet size (16.37nm) and good stability. In vitro release test showed a complete release of CA from SMEDDS in 480min. After oral administration in mice, significantly enhanced bioavailability of CA was achieved through SMEDDS (249.4% relative to the CA suspension). Interestingly, SMEDDS significantly changed the tissue distribution of CA and showed a better targeting property to the kidney (2.79 of the relative intake efficiency). It is suggested that SMEDDS improves the oral bioavailability of CA may mainly through increasing its absorption and slowing the metabolism of absorbed CA via changing its distribution from the liver to the kidney. In conclusion, it is indicated that SMEDDS is a promising carrier for the oral delivery of CA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling 2: predicting the tissue distribution of acids, very weak bases, neutrals and zwitterions.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Trudy; Rowland, Malcolm

    2006-06-01

    A key component of whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (WBPBPK) models is the tissue-to-plasma water partition coefficients (Kpu's). The predictability of Kpu values using mechanistically derived equations has been investigated for 7 very weak bases, 20 acids, 4 neutral drugs and 8 zwitterions in rat adipose, bone, brain, gut, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, pancreas, skin, spleen and thymus. These equations incorporate expressions for dissolution in tissue water and, partitioning into neutral lipids and neutral phospholipids. Additionally, associations with acidic phospholipids were incorporated for zwitterions with a highly basic functionality, or extracellular proteins for the other compound classes. The affinity for these cellular constituents was determined from blood cell data or plasma protein binding, respectively. These equations assume drugs are passively distributed and that processes are nonsaturating. Resultant Kpu predictions were more accurate when compared to published equations, with 84% as opposed to 61% of the predicted values agreeing with experimental values to within a factor of 3. This improvement was largely due to the incorporation of distribution processes related to drug ionisation, an issue that is not addressed in earlier equations. Such advancements in parameter prediction will assist WBPBPK modelling, where time, cost and labour requirements greatly deter its application. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  1. Characterization, pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and antitumor activity of honokiol submicron lipid emulsions in tumor-burdened mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiaxin; Tang, Yujie; Sun, Moran; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Yanzhi

    2013-01-01

    Honokiol, isolated from the Chinese traditional herb magnolia, is a poorly water-soluble component and has been found to have anti-tumor properties. In the current study, honokiol submicron lipid emulsions (HK-SLEs) were prepared by high pressure homogenization technology. After HK-SLEs were physically characterized, their pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and antitumor activity after intravenous (i.v.) administration to tumor-burdened mice were examined, using honokiol solution (HK-SOL) as the control. The results showed that the mean particle size, zeta potential, pH value, osmolality, drug loading (DL)% and entrapment efficiency (EE)% of HK-SLEs were 186.6 +/- 1.7 nm, -35.65 +/- 0.67 mV, 7.22 +/- 0.26, 298 +/- 2.3 mOsm/L, 7.1 +/- 0.2% and 95.5 +/- 0.2%, respectively. HK-SLEs were stable for at least 12 months when stored at 4 +/- 2 degrees C. The pharmacokinetic results showed that the drug concentration-time curves of HK-SLEs and HK-SOL could both be described by an open two-compartment model. The half-life of HK-SLEs (t1/2(alpha) = 8.014 min, t1/2(beta) = 35.784 min) was remarkably prolonged compared to that of HK-SOL (t1/2(alpha) = 4.318 min, t1/2(beta) = 15.522 min). HK-SLEs exhibited a greater AUC and reduced plasma clearance. The tissue distribution results indicated that HK-SLEs have better targeting properties to lung and tumor tissues compared with those of HK-SOL. Both HK-SLEs and HK-SOL tended to accumulate in brain tissue. In vivo study showed that HK-SLEs treatment caused significant inhibition of mouse sarcoma S180 tumor growth compared to HK-SOL. These results suggest that HK-SLEs might be an effective parenteral carrier for honokiol delivery in cancer treatment.

  2. Preclinical pharmacokinetics and distribution to tissue of AG1343, an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease.

    PubMed

    Shetty, B V; Kosa, M B; Khalil, D A; Webber, S

    1996-01-01

    AG1343, a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease (Ki = 2 nM), was designed by protein structure-based drug design techniques. AG1343 has potent antiviral activity (95% effective dose = 0.04 microgram/ml) against a number of HIV-1 strains in acute and chronic models of infection. As part of its preclinical development, the oral bioavailability of AG1343 in rats, dogs, monkeys, and marmosets was determined and its tissue distribution in rats was evaluated. There were no major interspecies differences in AG1343 pharmacokinetics. Following intravenous administration, the elimination half-life of AG1343 ranged from 1 to 1.4 hr. The total volume of distribution (2 to 7 liters/kg) exceeded the volume of total body water, indicating extensive tissue distribution. Systemic clearance of AG1343 (1 to 4 liters/kg) in the different species corresponded to hepatic blood flow, suggesting possible hepatic involvement in the elimination of AG1343. Following oral administration, peak levels in plasma ranged from 0.34 microgram/ml after treatment with 10 mg/kg of body weight in the dog to 1.7 micrograms/ml after dosing with 50 mg/kg in the rat. Because of the slow absorption of AG1343, plasma concentrations of AG1343 exceeding that required for 95% inhibition of HIV-1 replication were maintained for up to 7 h after a single oral dose in all species evaluated. Average oral bioavailability of AG1343 ranged from 17% in the marmoset to 47% in the dog. Studies of distribution to tissue in the rat after oral administration of 14C-AG1343 established extensive distribution with concentrations in most tissues exceeding that found in plasma. Of particular significance were high levels of AG1343 equivalent in mesenteric lymph nodes (32.05 micrograms/g) and spleen tissue (9.33 micrograms/g). The major excretory route for AG1343 was via feces, with 100% of the dose recovered by 48 h. Results from these studies demonstrate that AG1343 is orally bioavailable and

  3. Preclinical pharmacokinetics and distribution to tissue of AG1343, an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease.

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, B V; Kosa, M B; Khalil, D A; Webber, S

    1996-01-01

    AG1343, a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease (Ki = 2 nM), was designed by protein structure-based drug design techniques. AG1343 has potent antiviral activity (95% effective dose = 0.04 microgram/ml) against a number of HIV-1 strains in acute and chronic models of infection. As part of its preclinical development, the oral bioavailability of AG1343 in rats, dogs, monkeys, and marmosets was determined and its tissue distribution in rats was evaluated. There were no major interspecies differences in AG1343 pharmacokinetics. Following intravenous administration, the elimination half-life of AG1343 ranged from 1 to 1.4 hr. The total volume of distribution (2 to 7 liters/kg) exceeded the volume of total body water, indicating extensive tissue distribution. Systemic clearance of AG1343 (1 to 4 liters/kg) in the different species corresponded to hepatic blood flow, suggesting possible hepatic involvement in the elimination of AG1343. Following oral administration, peak levels in plasma ranged from 0.34 microgram/ml after treatment with 10 mg/kg of body weight in the dog to 1.7 micrograms/ml after dosing with 50 mg/kg in the rat. Because of the slow absorption of AG1343, plasma concentrations of AG1343 exceeding that required for 95% inhibition of HIV-1 replication were maintained for up to 7 h after a single oral dose in all species evaluated. Average oral bioavailability of AG1343 ranged from 17% in the marmoset to 47% in the dog. Studies of distribution to tissue in the rat after oral administration of 14C-AG1343 established extensive distribution with concentrations in most tissues exceeding that found in plasma. Of particular significance were high levels of AG1343 equivalent in mesenteric lymph nodes (32.05 micrograms/g) and spleen tissue (9.33 micrograms/g). The major excretory route for AG1343 was via feces, with 100% of the dose recovered by 48 h. Results from these studies demonstrate that AG1343 is orally bioavailable and

  4. An HPLC-ESI-MS method for analysis of loureirin A and B in dragon's blood and application in pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haiyan; Chen, Zilin

    2013-04-01

    A sensitive HPLC-ESI-MS method for the simultaneous determination of loureirin A (LA) and loureirin B (LB) in rat plasma and tissues was developed, and the pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution characteristics of LA and LB were investigated after gavage administration. The samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with ethyl acetate and then separated on a Welch Ultimate XB-C18 column with water-acetonitrile (42:58, v/v) containing 0.1% glacial acetic acid as the mobile phase. The analytes were detected with no interference in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode on an electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometer. The analytes showed good linearity over a wide concentration range and the lowest limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 5 ng/mL for LA and 2ng/mL for LB in matrices. The pharmacokinetic curves of both analytes were best fitted to one-compartment model. It suggested that the analytes absorbed and distributed very quickly in rats. Tissue distribution results showed that the analytes had a wide distribution in tissues and the highest levels for LA and LB were observed in liver followed by kidney, lung, spleen, heart and cerebrum. This work provided the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution characteristics of LA and LB, which would be instructive for their clinical regiment design. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dihydroartemisinin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (DHA-NLC): evaluation of pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution after intravenous administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyun; Qiao, Hua; Liu, Jianping; Dong, Haijun; Shen, Chenlin; Ni, Jingman; Shi, Yanbin; Xu, Ying

    2010-09-01

    A simple and rapid LC-MS/MS method was established for the determination of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in plasma and tissues of rats. Sample preparation was achieved by liquid-liquid extraction with aether and analysis was performed on LC-MS/MS in positive ion mode using electrospray ionization (ESI) as an interface. Target compounds were quantified in a single ion-monitoring (SIM) mode. DHA was monitored at m/z 267.1 and the internal standard finasteride at m/z 305.2. Chromatography was carried out using a Synergi fusion RP 80 column with a mixture of ethanol and 0.1% formic acid mixture (75:25) as the mobile phase. The pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution after intravenous administration of DHA in nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) and in solution were then compared. The mean residence times (MRT) of the DHA-NLC was much longer than that of the DHA solution. In the tested organs, the AUC values of the DHA-NLC were higher than that of the DHA solution in liver, spleen, lung, brain and muscle, and lower than the DHA solution in heart and kidney. DHA-NLC prepared in this study is a promising sustained-release and drug-targeting system for antitumor drugs. It may also allow a reduction in dosage and a decrease in systemic toxicity.

  6. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of resveratrol, emodin and their metabolites after intake of Polygonum cuspidatum in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Chu, Pei-Ming; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Wu, Meng-Hao; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2012-12-18

    The rhizome of Polygonum cuspidatum SIEB. et ZUCC. (Polygonaceae, PC), a widely used Chinese medicine, is commonly prescribed for the treatments of amenorrhea, arthralgia, jaundice, abscess, scald and bruises. PC contains various polyphenols including stilbenes, anthraquinones and flavonoids. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of emodin and resveratrol in PC. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered PC (2 and 4 g/kg) and blood samples were withdrawn at the designed time points via cardiopuncture. Moreover, after 7-dose administrations of PC (4 g/kg), brain, liver, lung, kidney and heart were collected. The concentrations of resveratrol and emodin in the plasma and tissues were assayed by HPLC before and after hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase and sulfatase. The glucuronides/sulfates of emodin and resveratrol were exclusively present in the plasma. In liver, kidney, lung and heart, the glucuronides/sulfates of resveratrol were the major forms. For emodin, its glucuronides/sulfates were the major forms in kidney and lung, whereas considerable concentration of emodin free form was found in liver. Neither free forms nor conjugated metabolites of resveratrol and emodin were detected in brain. The sulfates/glucuronides of resveratrol and emodin were the major forms in circulation and most assayed organs after oral intake of PC. However, the free form of emodin was predominant in liver. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion study of a furostanol glycoside-based standardized fenugreek seed extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Kandhare, Amit D; Bodhankar, Subhash L; Mohan, V; Thakurdesai, Prasad A

    2015-08-01

    The furostanol glycoside isolated from the seed of fenugreek (SFSE-G) has an array of pharmacological activities. To date, no validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been reported for quantification of SFSE-G in biological samples. Hence, the aim of the present study was to study the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion profiles of SFSE-G after oral administration in rats. A rapid, sensitive, selective, robust and reproducible HPLC method has been developed for determination of SFSE-G in the rat biological samples. The chromatographic separation was accomplished on a reversed-phase C18 column using formic acid and acetonitrile (80:20) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and 274 nm as a detection wavelength. The assay was linear for SFSE-G with the correlation coefficients (R(2)) >0.996. The analytes were stable during samples storage and handling, and no matrix effects were observed. After oral dosing of SFSE-G at a dose of 200 mg/kg, the elimination half-life was app. 40.10 h. It showed relatively slowly distribution and eliminated in urine and feces after 24 h, and could be detected until 108 h post-dosing. Following oral single dose (200 mg/kg), SFSE-G was detected in lung and brain which indicated that it could cross the blood-brain barrier. It is a major route of elimination is excretion through urine and feces. In conclusion, oral administration of SFSE-G showed slow distribution to tissues, such as lung and brain, but showed fast renal elimination.

  8. Pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution of doxycycline in broiler chickens pretreated with either: diclazuril or halofuginone.

    PubMed

    El-Gendi, A Y I; Atef, M; Amer, Aziza M M; Kamel, Gehan M

    2010-11-01

    Following IV injection of doxycycline in a dose of 20 mg kg(-1) b.wt., its serum concentration was best fitted in two-compartment open model in chickens fed either on control or on anticoccidials-containing rations. Diclazuril and halofuginone resulted in a significant short distribution half-life (t(½α)) (7.17±0.39 and 11.88±1.05 min, respectively) and increased total body clearance (Cl(tot)) 0.37±0.024 and 0.295±0.034 L/kg/h, respectively. Following oral dosing the tested drug absorbed with t(½ab) of 41.38±1.6, 17.48±0.86 and 41.83±1.8 min, respectively and their C(max) values (3.18±0.18, 5.425±0.48 and 0.986±0.037 μg/ml) were attained at 2.07±0.097, 1.403±0.074 and 2.55±0.106 h. For doxycycline alone and in presence of diclazuril and halofuginone, respectively. Systemic bioavailability was 22.64±3.46, 86.74±9.23 and 22.38±3.09%, respectively. Following IM injection t(½ab) were 9.096±1.34 for doxycycline alone, 16.24±2.21 and 15.6±1.7 min in the presence of diclazuril and halofuginone, respectively. C(max) was 3.10±0.28, 4.63±0.57 and 0.55±0.07 μg/ml reached at 0.8±0.083, 1.13±0.126 and 1.21±0.105 h. For the antibiotic alone, and in presence of either diclazuril and halofuginone, respectively. Systemic bioavailability was 22.41±3.86, 88.97±12.9 and 12.31±0.99% in chickens fed on anticoccidial-free, diclazuril- and halofuginone-containing rations, respectively. Both the tested anticoccidials induced higher doxycycline tissue residues in all tested tissue samples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of drug conjugation on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of anti-STEAP1 antibody-drug conjugates in rats.

    PubMed

    Boswell, C Andrew; Mundo, Eduardo E; Zhang, Crystal; Bumbaca, Daniela; Valle, Nicole R; Kozak, Katherine R; Fourie, Aimee; Chuh, Josefa; Koppada, Neelima; Saad, Ola; Gill, Herman; Shen, Ben-Quan; Rubinfeld, Bonnee; Tibbitts, Jay; Kaur, Surinder; Theil, Frank-Peter; Fielder, Paul J; Khawli, Leslie A; Lin, Kedan

    2011-10-19

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are designed to combine the exquisite specificity of antibodies to target tumor antigens with the cytotoxic potency of chemotherapeutic drugs. In addition to the general chemical stability of the linker, a thorough understanding of the relationship between ADC composition and biological disposition is necessary to ensure that the therapeutic window is not compromised by altered pharmacokinetics (PK), tissue distribution, and/or potential organ toxicity. The six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of prostate 1 (STEAP1) is being pursued as a tumor antigen target. To assess the role of ADC composition in PK, we evaluated plasma and tissue PK profiles in rats, following a single dose, of a humanized anti-STEAP1 IgG1 antibody, a thio-anti-STEAP1 (ThioMab) variant, and two corresponding thioether-linked monomethylauristatin E (MMAE) drug conjugates modified through interchain disulfide cysteine residues (ADC) and engineered cysteines (TDC), respectively. Plasma PK of total antibody measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed ∼45% faster clearance for the ADC relative to the parent antibody, but no apparent difference in clearance between the TDC and unconjugated parent ThioMab. Total antibody clearances of the two unconjugated antibodies were similar, suggesting minimal effects on PK from cysteine mutation. An ELISA specific for MMAE-conjugated antibody indicated that the ADC cleared more rapidly than the TDC, but total antibody ELISA showed comparable clearance for the two drug conjugates. Furthermore, consistent with relative drug load, the ADC had a greater magnitude of drug deconjugation than the TDC in terms of free plasma MMAE levels. Antibody conjugation had a noticeable, albeit minor, impact on tissue distribution with a general trend toward increased hepatic uptake and reduced levels in other highly vascularized organs. Liver uptakes of ADC and TDC at 5 days postinjection were 2-fold and 1.3-fold higher

  10. Preparation, characterization, pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with tetrandrine.

    PubMed

    Li, Su; Ji, Zhaoshuai; Zou, Meijuan; Nie, Xin; Shi, Yijie; Cheng, Gang

    2011-09-01

    Tetrandrine (TET) is a poorly water-soluble bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid. In this study, TET solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared by a melt-emulsification and ultrasonication technique. Precirol(®) ATO 5, glyceryl monostearate, and stearic acid were used as the lipid matrix for the SLNs, while Lipoid E80, Pluronic F68, and sodium deoxycholate were used as emulsifying and stabilizing agents. The physicochemical characteristics of the TET-SLNs were investigated when it was found that the mean particle size and zeta potential of the TET-SLNs were 134 ± 1.3 nm and -53.8 ± 1.7 mV, respectively, and the entrapment efficiency (EE) was 89.57% ± 0.39%. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that TET was in an amorphous state in SLNs. TET-SLNs exhibited a higher release rate at a lower pH and a lower release rate at a higher pH. The release pattern of the TET-SLNs followed the Weibull model. The pharmacokinetics of TET-SLNs after intravenous administration to male rats was studied. TET-SLN resulted in a higher plasma concentration and lower clearance. The biodistribution study indicated that TET-SLN showed a high uptake in reticuloendothelial system organs. In conclusion, TET-SLNs with a small particle size, and high EE, can be produced by the method described in this study. The SLN system is a promising approach for the intravenous delivery of tetrandrine.

  11. Comparative Kinetics and Distribution to Target Tissues of Organophosphates Using Physiologically - Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    to action and toxicological target tissues? What are the levels of acetylcholine (ACh) in target tissues as a resulting from different exposure...the toxicological effects of low-level exposure to 27 chemical warfare agents (Genovese, 2004, Henderson, 2002). Genovese (2004) defines a “low...the efficacy of HI 6 in percutaneous VX poisoning,” Toxicology , 224: 74-80. Calvert, J.B. (2002). Chemical Warfare. Retrieved June 20, 2007

  12. Comparative pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of lignan components in normal and hepatic fibrosis rats after oral administration of Fuzheng Huayu recipe.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Shan; Zheng, Tian-Hui; Tao, Yan-Yan; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2015-05-26

    Fuzheng Huayu recipe (FZHY) is formulated on the basis of Chinese medicine theory in treating liver fibrosis. To illuminate the influence of the pathological state of liver fibrosis on the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of lignan components from FZHY. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal group and Hepatic fibrosis group (induced by dimethylnitrosamine). Six lignan components were detected and quantified by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UHPLC-MS/MS)in the plasma and tissue of normal and hepatic fibrosis rats. A rapid, sensitive and convenient UHPLC-MS/MS method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of six lignan components in different rat biological samples successfully. After oral administration of FZHY at a dose of 15g/kg, the pharmacokinetic behaviors of schizandrin A (SIA), schizandrin B (SIB), schizandrin C (SIC), schisandrol A (SOA), Schisandrol B (SOB) and schisantherin A (STA) have been significantly changed in hepatic fibrosis rats compared with the normal rats, and their AUC(0-t) values were increased by 235.09%, 388.44%, 223.30%, 669.30%, 295.08% and 267.63% orderly (P<0.05). Tissue distribution results showed the amount of SIA, SIB, SOA and SOB were significant increased in heart, lung, spleen and kidney of hepatic fibrosis rats compared with normal rats at most of the time point (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the result also reveals that the hepatic fibrosis could delay the peak time of lignans in liver. The results proved that the established UHPLC-MS/MS method could be applied to the comparative study on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of lignan components in normal and hepatic fibrosis rats. The hepatic fibrosis could alter the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution properties of lignan components in rats after administration of FZHY. The results might be helpful for guide the clinical application of this medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  13. Determination of a novel anticancer AMPK activator hernandezine in rat plasma and tissues with a validated UHPLC-MS/MS method: Application to pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Wang, Zhibin; Zhang, Baozhen; Zhang, Yujia; Zhang, Weipeng; Yang, Chunjuan; Meng, Fanhao; Feng, Xuesong

    2017-07-15

    Hernandezine, a novel anticancer AMPK activator, is a major active constituent of Thalictrum Ranunculaceae. A simple, specific and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantification of hernandezine in rat plasma and tissues after intravenous administration. Sample preparation was carried out through a protein-precipitation extraction with acetonitrile using tetrandrine as internal standard (IS). The chromatographic separation was achieved by using an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile and water (containing 10mM ammonium acetate) in an isocratic elution way. The mass spectrometry (MS) analysis was conducted in positive ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions at m/z 653.4→411.2 for hernandezine and m/z 623.3→381.3 for tetrandrine (IS). Calibration curves were linear over the ranges of 20.0-4000ng/ml f or both plasma samples and tissue samples (r>0.991). The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 20.0ng/ml. The intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD%) were less than 14.0%, while the accuracy was ranged from 85.2% to 114.9%. Finally, this developed method was successfully applied in the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study of hernandezine after intravenous administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of schisandrin, deoxyschisandrin and schisandrin B in rats after combining acupuncture and herb medicine (schisandra chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yuan; Yin, Fangzhou; Dai, Guoliang; Li, Lin; Xu, Bin; Ji, De; Sun, Yong; Mao, Chunqin; Lu, Tulin

    2014-08-01

    Recently, combination therapy with acupuncture and medicine as a practical strategy to treat diseases has gained increasing attention. The present study aimed to investigate whether acupuncture stimulation at ST.36 had a potential impact on the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of lignans. An HPLC-ESI/MS analytical method was established and successfully applied to a comparative study of drug concentration in plasma and tissues of three lignans. The parameters area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the final measurable point and from time zero to infinity, and peak concentration were significantly increased, with a prolonged mean residence time and a corresponding decrease in clearance in comparision with the Schisandra-alone group. Additionally, tissue concentrations of three lignans were improved in the group with acupuncture, especially in liver. The results indicated that acupuncture has a synergistic effect on the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of the three lignans, which could postpone their elimination, resulting in a longer blood circulating time in rat plasma and prolonged residence time in target tissues, leading to higher tissue concentration. The findings provide some scientific evidence for the mechanism of the combined use of acupuncture and herbal medicine. Furthermore, we suggest that acupuncture and its combination with herbal medicine should be investigated further as a possible adjuvant therapy in clinical treatment for liver injury.

  15. Silymarin in liposomes and ethosomes: pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution in free-moving rats by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Li-Wen; Hou, Mei-Ling; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2014-12-03

    The aim of this study was to prepare silymarin formulations (silymarin entrapped in liposomes and ethosomes, formulations referred to as LSM and ESM, respectively) to improve oral bioavailability of silymarin and evaluate its tissue distribution by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in free-moving rats. Silibinin is the major active constituent of silymarin, which is the main component to be analyzed. A rapid, sensitive, and repeatable LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated in terms of precision, accuracy, and extraction recovery. Furthermore, the established method was applied to study the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of silymarin in rats. The size, ζ potential, and drug release of the formulations were characterized. These results showed that the LSM and ESM encapsulated formulations of silymarin may provide more efficient tissue distribution and increased oral bioavailability, thus improving its therapeutic bioactive properties in the body.

  16. Elucidation of Arctigenin Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution after Intravenous, Oral, Hypodermic and Sublingual Administration in Rats and Beagle Dogs: Integration of In Vitro and In Vivo Findings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Li, Xin; Ren, Yu-Shan; Lv, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Jun-Sheng; Xu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Xian-Zhen; Yao, Jing-Chun; Zhang, Gui-Min; Liu, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Although arctigenin (AG) has diverse bioactivities, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, immunoregulatory and neuroprotective activities, its pharmacokinetics have not been systematically evaluated. The purpose of this work was to identify the pharmacokinetic properties of AG via various experiments in vivo and in vitro. In this research, rats and beagle dogs were used to investigate the PK (pharmacokinetics, PK) profiles of AG with different drug-delivery manners, including intravenous (i.v), hypodermic injection (i.h), and sublingual (s.l) administration. The data shows that AG exhibited a strong absorption capacity in both rats and beagle dogs (absorption rate < 1 h), a high absorption degree (absolute bioavailability > 100%), and a strong elimination ability (t1/2 < 2 h). The tissue distributions of AG at different time points after i.h showed that the distribution of AG in rat tissues is rapid (2.5 h to reach the peak) and wide (detectable in almost all tissues and organs). The AG concentration in the intestine was the highest, followed by that in the heart, liver, pancreas, and kidney. In vitro, AG were incubated with human, monkey, beagle dog and rat liver microsomes. The concentrations of AG were detected by UPLC-MS/MS at different time points (from 0 min to 90 min). The percentages of AG remaining in four species’ liver microsomes were human (62 ± 6.36%) > beagle dog (25.9 ± 3.24%) > rat (15.7 ± 9%) > monkey (3.69 ± 0.12%). This systematic investigation of pharmacokinetic profiles of arctigenin (AG) in vivo and in vitro is worthy of further exploration. PMID:28659807

  17. Elucidation of Arctigenin Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution after Intravenous, Oral, Hypodermic and Sublingual Administration in Rats and Beagle Dogs: Integration of In Vitro and In Vivo Findings.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Li, Xin; Ren, Yu-Shan; Lv, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Jun-Sheng; Xu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Xian-Zhen; Yao, Jing-Chun; Zhang, Gui-Min; Liu, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Although arctigenin (AG) has diverse bioactivities, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, immunoregulatory and neuroprotective activities, its pharmacokinetics have not been systematically evaluated. The purpose of this work was to identify the pharmacokinetic properties of AG via various experiments in vivo and in vitro. In this research, rats and beagle dogs were used to investigate the PK (pharmacokinetics, PK) profiles of AG with different drug-delivery manners, including intravenous (i.v), hypodermic injection (i.h), and sublingual (s.l) administration. The data shows that AG exhibited a strong absorption capacity in both rats and beagle dogs (absorption rate < 1 h), a high absorption degree (absolute bioavailability > 100%), and a strong elimination ability (t1/2 < 2 h). The tissue distributions of AG at different time points after i.h showed that the distribution of AG in rat tissues is rapid (2.5 h to reach the peak) and wide (detectable in almost all tissues and organs). The AG concentration in the intestine was the highest, followed by that in the heart, liver, pancreas, and kidney. In vitro, AG were incubated with human, monkey, beagle dog and rat liver microsomes. The concentrations of AG were detected by UPLC-MS/MS at different time points (from 0 min to 90 min). The percentages of AG remaining in four species' liver microsomes were human (62 ± 6.36%) > beagle dog (25.9 ± 3.24%) > rat (15.7 ± 9%) > monkey (3.69 ± 0.12%). This systematic investigation of pharmacokinetic profiles of arctigenin (AG) in vivo and in vitro is worthy of further exploration.

  18. [Comparative study on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of a novel microemulsion based on the paclitaxel/L-OH lipid complex and paclitaxel injection in cremophor].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan-li; Ye, Jun; Zhang, Peng-xiao; Xia, Xue-jun; Liu, Yu-ling

    2013-11-01

    The pharmacokinetics and tissue distributions of the novel paclitaxel microemulsion based on the L-OH lipid complex made in our laboratory were studied in this article with the commercial paclitaxel injection in cremophor as reference preparation by injected intravenously with single dose of 5 mg x kg(-1) in rats. LC-MS/MS method was used to determine the drug concentration in plasma and calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters. [3H]-paclitaxel was used to reveal the tissue distributions of different organs in 0.5 h, 3 h, 24 h and 120 h. The results indicated that the AUC of the emulsion group descended to 42.55%, with the CLz and Vz increased by 2.27 times and 3.81 times respectively. Tissue distribution results revealed that the emulsion showed a significantly increase in liver and spleen with a peak concentration up to 5 times; a slightly increase was observed in lung with no statistical differences; a significantly decrease in heart, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, bone marrow, aorta, thymus, pancreas, fat, muscle, skin, seminal vesicle, reproductive organs and brain with a drop of 40%-80%. These results indicated that paclitaxel microemulsion based on L-OH lipid complexes can remarkably reduced the blood exposure, accelerate plasma clearance rate and increase distribution volume. The fact that paclitaxel microemulsion tended to be uptake by reticuloendothelial system (RES) contributed to the target in liver, spleen and lung, and help to reduce the toxicity in blood, heart, kidney and gastrointestinal tract.

  19. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of ginsenoside Rh2 and Rg3 epimers after oral administration of BST204, a purified ginseng dry extract, in rats.

    PubMed

    Bae, Soo Hyeon; Park, Jung Bae; Zheng, Yu Fen; Jang, Min Jung; Kim, Sun Ok; Kim, Jeom Yong; Yoo, Young Hyo; Yoon, Kee Dong; Oh, Euichaul; Bae, Soo Kyung

    2014-12-01

    1. BST204, a purified ginseng dry extract containing a high concentration of racemic Rh2 and Rg3 mixtures, is being developed for supportive care use in cancer patients in Korea. This study investigates the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of BST204 in rats. 2. After oral administration of BST204, only the S epimers, S-Rh2 and S-Rg3, could be determined in rat plasma. The poor absorption of the R-epimers, R-Rh2 and R-Rg3, may be attributed to lower membrane permeability and extensive intestinal oxygenation and/or deglycosylation into metabolites. The AUC and Cmax values of both S-Rh2 and S-Rg3 after BST204 oral administration were proportional to the administered BST204 doses ranged from 400 mg/kg to 2000 mg/kg, which suggested linear pharmacokinetic properties. 3. There were no statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetics of S-Rh2 and S-Rg3 after oral administration of pure S-Rh2 (31.5 mg/kg) and S-Rg3 (68 mg/kg) compared with oral administration of BST204, 1000 mg/kg. These indicated that the presence of other components of BST204 extract did not influence the pharmacokinetic behavior of S-Rh2 and S-Rg3. 4. After oral dosing of BST204, S-Rh2 and S-Rg3 were distributed mainly to the liver and gastrointestinal tract in rats. 5. Our finding may help to understand pharmacokinetic characteristics of S-Rh2, R-Rh2, S-Rg3, and R-Rg3, comprehensively, and provide useful information in clinical application of BST204.

  20. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of the new non-imidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonist 1-[3-(4-tert-butylphenoxy) propyl]piperidine in rats.

    PubMed

    Szafarz, Malgorzata; Kryczyk, Agata; Lazewska, Dorota; Kiec-Kononowicz, Katarzyna; Wyska, Elzbieta

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of novel histamine H3 receptor antagonist 1-[3-(4-tert-butylphenoxy)propyl]piperidine (compound DL76). 2. Following intravenous administration of DL76 at the dose of 3 mg/kg, pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis. The systemic serum clearance was 10.08 L/h/kg and the estimated blood clearance was 5.64 L/h/kg. The volume of distribution at steady state was 16.1 L/kg which was greater than total body water, terminal half-life and MRT equalled 1.41 h and 1.6 h, respectively. The two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with enterohepatic circulation was also successfully fitted to the experimental data. 3. After systemic administration, DL76 was rapidly distributed into all organs studied (liver, kidney, brain, and lung). The highest AUC of DL76 was observed in lungs followed by brain, where the exposure to the investigated compound expressed as AUC was almost 30 times higher than in serum. 4. Bioavailability, calculated based on the area-under-the-concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity after intravenous and intragastric administration of the dose 3 mg/kg, equalled 60.9%.

  1. Preclinical Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, and Plasma Protein Binding of Sodium (±)-5-Bromo-2-(α-Hydroxypentyl) Benzoate (BZP), an Innovative Potent Anti-ischemic Stroke Agent

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xin; Li, Hong-Meng; Wei, Jing-Yao; Liu, Bing-Jie; Zhang, Yu-Hai; Wang, Gao-Ju; Chang, Jun-Biao; Qiao, Hai-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Sodium (±)-5-bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl) benzoate (BZP) is a potential cardiovascular drug and exerts potent neuroprotective effect against transient and long-term ischemic stroke in rats. BZP could convert into 3-butyl-6-bromo-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone (Br-NBP) in vitro and in vivo. However, the pharmacokinetic profiles of BZP and Br-NBP still have not been evaluated. For the purpose of investigating the pharmacokinetic profiles, tissue distribution, and plasma protein binding of BZP and Br-NBP, a rapid, sensitive, and specific method based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for determination of BZP and Br-NBP in biological samples. The results indicated that BZP and Br-NBP showed a short elimination half-life, and pharmacokinetic profile in rats (3, 6, and 12 mg/kg; i.v.) and beagle dogs (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg; i.v.gtt) were obtained after single dosing of BZP. After multiple dosing of BZP, there was no significant accumulation of BZP and Br-NBP in the plasma of rats and beagle dogs. Following i.v. single dose (6 mg/kg) of BZP to rats, BZP and Br-NBP were distributed rapidly into all tissues examined, with the highest concentrations of BZP and Br-NBP in lung and kidney, respectively. The brain distribution of Br-NBP in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats was more than in normal rats (P < 0.05). The plasma protein binding degree of BZP at three concentrations (8000, 20,000, and 80,000 ng/mL) from rat, beagle dog, and human plasma were 98.1–98.7, 88.9–92.7, and 74.8–83.7% respectively. In conclusion, both BZP and Br-NBP showed short half-life, good dose-linear pharmacokinetic profile, wide tissue distribution, and different degree protein binding to various species plasma. This was the first preclinical pharmacokinetic investigation of BZP and Br-NBP in both rats and beagle dogs, which provided vital guidance for further preclinical research and the subsequent clinical trials. PMID:27588003

  2. A sensitive and specific HPGPC-FD method for the study of pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao; Wang, Zhuojun; Sun, Guilan; Shen, Lan; Xu, Desheng; Feng, Yi

    2010-08-01

    Interest in antimyocardial ischemic activity of a graminan-type fructan with a weight average molecular weight of 4.8 kDa extracted from Radix Ophiopogonis (ROP) has necessitated the study of its pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution. For that, a simple HPGPC-FD method was developed for the sensitive and specific determination of FITC-ROP (fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labeled ROP) in plasma and rat tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, brain and stomach). The analyte was separated on a Shodex Sugar KS-802 high-performance gel column with 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, and fluorescence detection at lambda(ex) 495 nm and lambda(em) 515 nm. The calibration curve for FITC-ROP was linear over the range 0.25-20.0 or 50.0 microg/mL in all studied biosamples with correlation coefficients > 0.995. The inter-day and intra-day precisions of analysis were not more than 10%, and assay accuracy ranged from 93 to 105% for plasma and from 89 to 108% for tissue homogenates. This method has been confirmed here to be suitable for the study of pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of ROP and the achieved results are highly instructive for the further pharmaceutical development of ROP, suggesting the promising application of the method to the increasingly important carbohydrate-based drugs.

  3. Simultaneous determination of bioactive components of Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple in rat plasma and tissues by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Luo, Niancui; Li, Zhenhao; Qian, Dawei; Qian, Yefei; Guo, Jianming; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhu, Min

    2014-07-15

    A highly sensitive and rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of seven components in rat plasma and five components in rat tissues after oral administration of the extracts of different combination Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple and has been applied to compare the different pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution properties of these bioactive components. The extracts of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS), Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple (RRHC) were orally administrated to rats, respectively. The concentrations of ferulic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, ligustilide, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin in rat plasma and the concentrations of ferulic acid, vanillic acid, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin in tissues were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol and the tissue samples were homogenated with water and pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as mobile phase for gradient elution. A triple quadrupole (TQ) tandem mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization source was used as detector operating both in positive and negative ionization mode and operated by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0 program. The differences between each group were compared by SPSS 16.0 with Independent-Samples T-test. The pharmacokinetic parameters (such as Cmax, Tmax, T1/2, AUC0-T, MRT0-T, Vz/F or CLz/F) of all the detected components between the single herb (RAS or RPA) and herb pair (RRHP) showed significant differences (P<0.05). It indicated that the compatibility of RAS and RPA could alter the pharmacokinetics features

  4. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of novel platinum containing anticancer agent BP-C1 studied in rabbits using sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Navolotskii, Denis V; Ivanenko, Natalya B; Solovyev, Nikolay D; Fedoros, Elena I; Panchenko, Andrey V

    2015-09-01

    A method of platinum quantification in whole blood samples after microwave digestion using sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been developed. The following analytical figures of merit have been established: limit of detection 1.1 µg/L for blood samples, dynamic range 3.6-200 µg/L, intra-day precision (relative standard deviation, n = 9) did not exceed 5%. Spiked samples were analyzed for method validation. The method was used for pharmacokinetics studies of a novel anti-cancer drug BP-С1, a complex of cis-configured platinum and benzene-poly-carboxylic acids. Main pharmacokinetic parameters (area under curve, maximum concentration, clearance, half-life times for α- and β-phase) were estimated for two dosage forms of BP-C1 0.05 and 0.125 mass %. Pharmacokinetic curves were assessed for single and course administration. Studies were performed using rabbits (n = 6) as a model. BP-C1 was injected intramuscularly. The study established dose proportionality of the tested dosage forms and suggested clinical dosing schedule: 5 days of injections followed by 2 days' break. Platinum tissue distribution was studied in tissue samples collected 20 days after the last injection. Predominant platinum accumulation was observed in kidneys, liver, and muscles near injection site. 'Slow' phase of platinum excretion kinetics may be related to the muscles at the injection site.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of 14C-labeled grape polyphenols in the periphery and the central nervous system following oral administration.

    PubMed

    Janle, Elsa M; Lila, Mary Ann; Grannan, Michael; Wood, Lauren; Higgins, Aine; Yousef, Gad G; Rogers, Randy B; Kim, Helen; Jackson, George S; Ho, Lap; Weaver, Connie M

    2010-08-01

    Grape polyphenols confer potential health benefits, including prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. To determine the absorption and tissue distribution of the complex grape polyphenol mixture, (14)C-labeled polyphenols were biosynthesized by grape cell suspension cultures, during co-incubation with radioisotopically labeled sucrose, and fractionated into polyphenolic subfractions. The pharmacokinetics and distribution of grape polyphenols into blood, brain, and peripheral interstitial fluid were determined by tracking the (14)C label. The blood peak (14)C concentration of the fractions ranged from 15 minutes to 4 hours. Absorption and tissue distribution varied greatly between fractions. Concentrations in interstitial fluid were lower than in blood. The amount of residual label in the brain at 24 hours ranged from 0.1% to 1.7% of the dose, depending on the fraction. (14)C label found in the brain tissue and brain microdialysate indicated that grape polyphenols or their metabolites are able to cross the blood-brain barrier. Using (14)C-labeled plant polyphenols it is possible to track the compounds or their metabolic products into any tissue and determine distribution patterns in spite of low concentrations. A central question regarding the potential role of dietary polyphenolics in neurodegenerative research is whether they are bioavailable in the brain. Our observations indicate that some grape-derived polyphenolics do reach the brain, which suggests their potential value for applications in neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion study of dl-praeruptorin A of Peucedanum praeruptorum in rats by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Liu, Y Y; Su, M Q; Liang, X F; Wang, W F; Zhu, X

    2011-04-15

    dl-Praeruptorin A (Pd-Ia), isolated from Chinese traditional herbal medicine Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn, has been proved to be a novel Ca²+-influx blocker and K+-channel opener, and displayed bright prospects in prevention and therapy of cardiac diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of Pd-Ia in rats following a single intravenous (i.v.) administration. The levels of Pd-Ia in plasma, tissues, bile, urine and feces were measured by a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The results showed that Pd-Ia was rapidly distributed and then eliminated from rat plasma and manifested linear dynamics in dose range of 5-20 mg/kg. The mean elimination half-life (t(½) of Pd-Ia for 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg dose were 57.46, 60.87 and 59.01 min, respectively. The major distribution tissues of Pd-Ia in rats were spleen, heart and lung, and low polarity enabled Pd-Ia to cross the blood-brain barrier. There was no long-term accumulation of Pd-Ia in rat tissues. Total recoveries of Pd-Ia within 24 h were low (0.097% in bile, 0.120% in urine and 0.009% in feces), which might be resulted from liver first pass effect.

  7. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of five active ingredients of Eucommiae cortex in normal and ovariectomized mice by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    An, Jing; Hu, Fangdi; Wang, Changhong; Zhang, Zijia; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2016-09-01

    1. Pinoresinol di-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (PDG), geniposide (GE), geniposidic acid (GA), aucubin (AN) and chlorogenic acid (CA) are the representative active ingredients in Eucommiae cortex (EC), which may be estrogenic. 2. The ultra high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of the five ingredients showed good linearity, low limits of quantification and high extraction recoveries, as well as acceptable precision, accuracy and stability in mice plasma and tissue samples (liver, spleen, kidney and uterus). It was successfully applied to the comparative study on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of PDG, GE, GA, AN and CA between normal and ovariectomized (OVX) mice. 3. The results indicated that except CA, the plasma and tissue concentrations of PDG, GE, GA in OVX mice were all greater than those in normal mice. AN could only be detected in the plasma and liver homogenate of normal mice, which was poorly absorbed in OVX mice and low in other measured tissues. PDG, GE and GA seem to be better absorbed in OVX mice than in normal mice proved by the remarkable increased value of AUC0-∞ and Cmax. It is beneficial that PDG, GE, GA have better plasma absorption and tissue distribution in pathological state.

  8. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution after intravenous administration of a single dose of amphotericin B cochleates, a new lipid-based delivery system.

    PubMed

    Segarra, Ignacio; Movshin, Diane A; Zarif, Leila

    2002-08-01

    Model independent pharmacokinetic analysis of intravenous (iv) amphotericin B cochleates (CAMB), a new lipid-based drug delivery system, in mice (0.625 mg/kg) shows a two-phase disposition profile in blood [area under the curve of concentration versus time from time zero to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)) = 1.01 microg. h/mL, half-life (t((1/2))) = 11.68 h, volume of distribution at steady state (V(ss)) = 9.59 L/kg, clearance (CL) = 10.36 mL/min/kg and mean residence time from time 0 to infinity (MRT(0-infinity)) = 15.41 h). In target tissues, maximum time (t(max)) ranged from 2 min (spleen and lung) to 10 min (liver) and lungs presented the highest AMB concentration (16.4 microg. h/g) followed by liver (8.56 microg/g), and spleen (6.63 microg/g). In addition, liver and spleen presented the longest elution half-life (75.03 and 66.71 h, respectively), MRT(0-infinity) (98.4 and 86.3 h, respectively), and AMB exposure:liver AUC(0-infinity) = 474 and 116.4 microg. h/g for the spleen. The large V(ss) and the extensive tissue AUC indicate large and efficient ability of cochleates to penetrate and deliver AMB. Differences in tissue uptake mechanism and pharmacokinetic data suggest a crucial role of macrophages in CAMB clearance from blood as well as an essential role of the liver and the spleen in AMB distribution to target tissues.

  9. Development and validation of HPLC method for vicenin-1 isolated from fenugreek seeds in rat plasma: application to pharmacokinetic, tissue distribution and excretion studies.

    PubMed

    Kandhare, Amit D; Bodhankar, Subhash L; Mohan, Vishwaraman; Thakurdesai, Prasad A

    2016-11-01

    Vicenin-1, a flavonol glycoside, has potent platelet aggregation inhibition, antioxidant, radioprotectants and anti-inflammatory activities. To establish a rapid, simple, precise and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determination of vicenin-1 in rat plasma, and to investigate the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion after a single 60 mg/kg oral dose in rats. Vicenin-1 was extracted by solid-liquid extraction through Tulsicon(®) ADS-400 (0.40-1.2 mm). Chromatographic separation was achieved by HPLC with a C18 column with a mobile phase composed of water and acetonitrile (75:25 v/v) and a flow rate of 1 mL/min along with UV detection at 210 nm. Good linearity of calibration curve was found between 10.5 and 100.5 μg/mL (R(2 )=( )0.995) for plasma and tissue, whereas 2.5-500 μg/mL (R(2 )=( )0.999) for the urine and stool samples. The extraction recoveries were 98.51-99.58% for vicenin-1 in plasma, whereas intra-day and inter-day precision were validated by relative standard deviation (%RSD), that came in the ranges of 1.16-1.79% and 1.28-1.73%, respectively. The pharmacokinetics results showed Cmax (7.039 μg/mL) and Tmax (2 h) after oral administration of vicenin-1. Tissue distribution study showed that the highest concentration of vicenin-1 was achieved in the liver followed by the lung. Approximately 24.2% of its administered dose was excreted via urinary excretion route. The first-pass metabolism, poor solubility and presence of reducing sugar moiety in vicenin-1 may decrease its bioavailability. The developed method is sensitive, specific and was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion studies of vicenin-1 in rats.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of novel platinum containing anticancer agent BP‐C1 studied in rabbits using sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Navolotskii, Denis V.; Ivanenko, Natalya B.; Fedoros, Elena I.; Panchenko, Andrey V.

    2015-01-01

    A method of platinum quantification in whole blood samples after microwave digestion using sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been developed. The following analytical figures of merit have been established: limit of detection 1.1 µg/L for blood samples, dynamic range 3.6–200 µg/L, intra‐day precision (relative standard deviation, n = 9) did not exceed 5%. Spiked samples were analyzed for method validation. The method was used for pharmacokinetics studies of a novel anti‐cancer drug BP‐С1, a complex of cis‐configured platinum and benzene‐poly‐carboxylic acids. Main pharmacokinetic parameters (area under curve, maximum concentration, clearance, half‐life times for α‐ and β‐phase) were estimated for two dosage forms of BP‐C1 0.05 and 0.125 mass %. Pharmacokinetic curves were assessed for single and course administration. Studies were performed using rabbits (n = 6) as a model. BP‐C1 was injected intramuscularly. The study established dose proportionality of the tested dosage forms and suggested clinical dosing schedule: 5 days of injections followed by 2 days’ break. Platinum tissue distribution was studied in tissue samples collected 20 days after the last injection. Predominant platinum accumulation was observed in kidneys, liver, and muscles near injection site. ‘Slow’ phase of platinum excretion kinetics may be related to the muscles at the injection site. © 2015 The Authors. Drug Testing and Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26061351

  11. Drug Distribution to Human Tissues: Prediction and Examination of the Basic Assumption in In Vivo Pharmacokinetics-Pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) Research.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    The tissue:plasma partition coefficients (Kp ) are good indicators of the extent of tissue distribution. Therefore, advanced tissue composition-based models were used to predict the Kp values of drugs under in vivo conditions on the basis of in vitro and physiological input data. These models, however, focus on animal tissues and do not challenge the predictions with human tissues for drugs. The first objective of this study was to predict the experimentally determined Kp values of seven human tissues for 26 drugs. In all, 95% of the predicted Kp values are within 2.5-fold error of the observed values in humans. Accordingly, these results suggest that the tissue composition-based model used in this study is able to provide accurate estimates of drug partitioning in the studied human tissues. Furthermore, as the Kp equals to the ratio of total concentration between tissue and plasma, or the ratio of unbound fraction between plasma (fup ) and tissue (fut ), this parameter Kp would deviate from the unity. Therefore, the second objective was to examine the corresponding relationships between fup and fut values experimentally determined in humans for several drugs. The results also indicate that fup may significantly deviate to fut ; the discrepancies are governed by the dissimilarities in the binding and ionization on both sides of the membrane, which were captured by the tissue composition-based model. Hence, this violated the basic assumption in in vivo pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) research, since the free drug concentration in tissue and plasma was not equal particularly for the ionizable drugs due to the pH gradient effect on the fraction of unionized drug in plasma (fuip ) and tissue (fuit ) (i.e., fup × fuip × total plasma concentration = fut × fuit × total tissue concentration, and, hence, the free drug concentration in plasma and tissue differed by fuip/fuit). Therefore, this assumption should be adjusted for the ionized drugs, and, hence, a

  12. A validated LC-MS/MS method for quantitative analysis of curcumin in mouse plasma and brain tissue and its application in pharmacokinetic and brain distribution studies.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Prakash; Ko, Young Tag

    2014-10-15

    Curcumin is a well-known multitherapeutic agent widely employed in neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. A selective, fast, and sensitive method employing liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of curcumin in mouse plasma and brain tissue, by using salbutamol as an internal standard. Triple quadrupole mass detection with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used to monitor the ion transitions, m/z of 369>285 for curcumin, and m/z of 240>148 for salbutamol. The method was validated for recovery, accuracy, precision, linearity, and applicability. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) in both matrices were 2.5ng/mL. The inter-day and intra-day precisions and accuracy values were within the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) acceptance criteria, for both matrixes. The method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetics and brain distribution studies of curcumin after intravenous administration of free curcumin and curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles to mice. Furthermore, the application of this method along with serial blood sampling in mice has led to significant reduction in animal use and dosage and drastic improvement in speed, throughput, and quality of pharmacokinetic parameters.

  13. Investigation on pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of a novel platinum anticancer agent in rats by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Wen, Yanli; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Di; Fan, Ali; Zhang, Yongjie; Deng, Shuhua; Wang, Xin; Liu, Qingwang; Lu, Yang; Wang, Zhimei; Gou, Shaohua; Chen, Xijing

    2014-08-01

    1. DN604 is a new platinum agent with encouraging anticancer activity. The present study was to explore the pharmacokinetic profiles, distribution and excretion of platinum in Sprague-Dawley rats after intravenous administration of DN604. A sensitive and selective inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method was established for determination of platinum in biological specimens. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by a non-compartmental method. 2. The area under concentration-time curve AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ for platinum originating from DN604 at 10 mg/kg were 25.15 ± 1.29 and 28.72 ± 1.04 μg/hml, respectively. The mean residence time MRT was 36.59 ± 6.65 h. The volume of distribution Vz was 11.42 ± 2.49 l/kg and clearance CL was 0.18 ± 0.01 l/h/kg. In addition, the elimination half-life T1/2z was 44.83 ± 9.75 h. After intravenous administration of DN604, platinum was extensively distributed in most of tested tissues except brain. The majority of platinum excreted via urine, and its accumulative excretion ratio during the period of 120 h was 63.5% ± 7.7% for urine, but only 6.94% ± 0.11% for feces. 3. The satisfactory half-life, wide distribution and high excretion made this novel platinum agent worthy of further research and development.

  14. Preclinical Development of an anti-5T4 Antibody-Drug Conjugate: Pharmacokinetics in Mice, Rats, and NHP and Tumor/Tissue Distribution in Mice.

    PubMed

    Leal, Mauricio; Wentland, JoAnn; Han, Xiaogang; Zhang, Yanhua; Rago, Brian; Duriga, Nicole; Spriggs, Franklin; Kadar, Eugene; Song, Wei; McNally, James; Shakey, Quazi; Lorello, Leslie; Lucas, Judy; Sapra, Puja

    2015-11-18

    The pharmacokinetics of an antibody (huA1)-drug (auristatin microtubule disrupting MMAF) conjugate, targeting 5T4-expressing cells, were characterized during the discovery and development phases in female nu/nu mice and cynomolgus monkeys after a single dose and in S-D rats and cynomolgus monkeys from multidose toxicity studies. Plasma/serum samples were analyzed using an ELISA-based method for antibody and conjugate (ADC) as well as for the released payload using an LC-MS/MS method. In addition, the distribution of the Ab, ADC, and released payload (cys-mcMMAF) was determined in a number of tissues (tumor, lung, liver, kidney, and heart) in two tumor mouse models (H1975 and MDA-MB-361-DYT2 models) using similar LBA and LC-MS/MS methods. Tissue distribution studies revealed preferential tumor distribution of cys-mcMMAF and its relative specificity to the 5T4 target containing tissue (tumor). Single dose studies suggests lower CL values at the higher doses in mice, although a linear relationship was seen in cynomolgus monkeys at doses from 0.3 to 10 mg/kg with no evidence of TMDD. Evaluation of DAR (drug-antibody ratio) in cynomolgus monkeys (at 3 mg/kg) indicated that at least half of the payload was still on the ADC 1 to 2 weeks after IV dosing. After multiple doses, the huA1 and conjugate data in rats and monkeys indicate that exposure (AUC) increases with increasing dose in a linear fashion. Systemic exposure (as assessed by Cmax and AUC) of the released payload increased with increasing dose, although exposure was very low and its pharmacokinetics appeared to be formation rate limited. The incidence of ADA was generally low in rats and monkeys. We will discuss cross species comparison, relationships between the Ab, ADC, and released payload exposure after multiple dosing, and insights into the distribution of this ADC with a focus on experimental design as a way to address or bypass apparent obstacles and its integration into predictive models.

  15. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and photodynamic therapy efficacy of liposomal-delivered hypocrellin A, a potential photosensitizer for tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z J; He, Y Y; Huang, C G; Huang, J S; Huang, Y C; An, J Y; Gu, Y; Jiang, L J

    1999-11-01

    Hypocrellin A, from Hypocrella bambusae, is a novel photosensitizer of high singlet oxygen quantum yield for photodynamic therapy (PDT). Tissue distributions were studied in tumor-bearing mice as a function of time following administration. The tumor model was S-180 sarcoma transplanted into one hind leg of male Kunming mice; hypocrellin A (HA) was delivered to the mice by intravenous injection of 5 mg/kg of body weight as a suspension either as a unilamellar liposome or in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-solubilized saline. The HA was isolated from several tissues and organs, as well as tumors and peritumoral muscles and skin. Quantitation was performed by a high-performance liquid chromatographic technique with detection that utilizes the native fluorescence of HA. Independent of the delivery system, the dye was retained in tumors at higher concentrations than in normal tissues, except for kidney, liver, lung and spleen. The dye retention in tumors was high and was vehicle dependent. For the liposomal system, the maximal accumulation in tumor and maximal ratios of dye in tumor versus peritumoral muscle and skin occurred 12 h postinjection; for the DMSO saline system, the maximal ratio occurred earlier, 6 h postadministration. Liposomal delivery improved the selective accumulation of the dye in tumor with higher maximal levels in tumor and higher ratios of tumor-to-muscle and tumor-to-skin. Levels of dye were very low or not detectable in the brain. The PDT efficacy of HA in the liposome and DMSO saline systems was determined by evaluating the tumor volume regression percent. The PDT efficacy of HA in liposomes was highest when light treatment was performed at 12 h postinjection, consistent with the highest retention of HA in tumors. Similarly, the maximal PDT efficacy in DMSO saline was attained at 6 h postinjection, the highest HA retention point in tumor. Moreover, the peak PDT efficacy of HA in liposomes was much higher than that of HA in DMSO saline and even

  16. A Bottom-Up Whole-Body Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model to Mechanistically Predict Tissue Distribution and the Rate of Subcutaneous Absorption of Therapeutic Proteins.

    PubMed

    Gill, Katherine L; Gardner, Iain; Li, Linzhong; Jamei, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    The ability to predict subcutaneous (SC) absorption rate and tissue distribution of therapeutic proteins (TPs) using a bottom-up approach is highly desirable early in the drug development process prior to clinical data being available. A whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, requiring only a few drug parameters, to predict plasma and interstitial fluid concentrations of TPs in humans after intravenous and subcutaneous dosing has been developed. Movement of TPs between vascular and interstitial spaces was described by considering both convection and diffusion processes using a 2-pore framework. The model was optimised using a variety of literature sources, such as tissue lymph/plasma concentration ratios in humans and animals, information on the percentage of dose absorbed following SC dosing via lymph in animals and data showing loss of radiolabelled IgG from the SC dosing site in humans. The resultant model was used to predict t max and plasma concentration profiles for 12 TPs (molecular weight 8-150 kDa) following SC dosing. The predicted plasma concentration profiles were generally comparable to observed data. t max was predicted within 3-fold of reported values, with one third of the predictions within 0.8-1.25-fold. There was no systematic bias in simulated C max values, although a general trend for underprediction of t max was observed. No clear trend between prediction accuracy of t max and TP isoelectric point or molecular size was apparent. The mechanistic whole-body PBPK model described here can be applied to predict absorption rate of TPs into blood and movement into target tissues following SC dosing.

  17. The influence of distributional kinetics into a peripheral compartment on the pharmacokinetics of substrate partitioning between blood and brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Padowski, Jeannie M; Pollack, Gary M

    2011-12-01

    Development of CNS-targeted agents often focuses on identifying compounds with "good" CNS exposure (brain-to-blood partitioning >1). Some compounds undergoing enterohepatic recycling (ER) evidence a partition coefficient, K (p,brain) (expressed as C (brain) /C (plasma)), that exceeds and then decreases to (i.e., overshoots) a plateau (distribution equilibrium) value, rather than increasing monotonically to this value. This study tested the hypothesis that overshoot in K (p,brain) is due to substrate residence in a peripheral compartment. Simulations were based on a 3-compartment model with distributional clearances between central and brain (CL (br)) and central and peripheral (CL (d)) compartments and irreversible clearance from the central compartment (CL). Parameters were varied to investigate the relationship between overshoot and peripheral compartment volume (V (p)), and how this relationship was modulated by other model parameters. Overshoot magnitude and duration were characterized as peak C (brain)/C (plasma) relative to the plateau value (%OS) and time to reach plateau (TRP). Except for systems with high CL (d), increasing V (p) increased TRP and %OS. Increasing brain (V (br)) or central (V (c)) distribution volumes eliminated V (p)-related OS. Parallel increases in all clearances shortened TRP, but did not alter %OS. Increasing either CL or CL (d) individually increased %OS related to V (p), while increasing CL (br) decreased %OS. Under realistic peripheral distribution scenarios, C (brain)/C (plasma) may overshoot substantially K (p,brain) at distribution equilibrium. This observation suggests potential for erroneous assessment of brain disposition, particularly for compounds which exhibit a large apparent V (p), and emphasizes the need for complete understanding of distributional kinetics when evaluating brain uptake.

  18. Sunitinib-ibuprofen drug interaction affects the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of sunitinib to brain, liver, and kidney in male and female mice differently.

    PubMed

    Lau, Christine Li Ling; Chan, Sook Tyng; Selvaratanam, Manimegahlai; Khoo, Hui Wen; Lim, Adeline Yi Ling; Modamio, Pilar; Mariño, Eduardo L; Segarra, Ignacio

    2015-08-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib (used in GIST, advanced RCC, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors) undergoes CYP3A4 metabolism and is an ABCB1B and ABCG2 efflux transporters substrate. We assessed the pharmacokinetic interaction with ibuprofen (an NSAID used by patients with cancer) in Balb/c male and female mice. Mice (study group) were coadministered (30 min apart) 30 mg/kg of ibuprofen and 60 mg/kg of sunitinib PO and compared with the control groups, which received sunitinib alone (60 mg/kg, PO). Sunitinib concentration in plasma, brain, kidney, and liver was measured by HPLC as scheduled and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters estimated. In female control mice, sunitinib AUC0→∞ decreased in plasma (P < 0.05), was higher in liver and brain (P < 0.001), and lower in kidney (P < 0.001) vs. male control mice. After ibuprofen coadministration, female mice showed lower AUC0→∞ in plasma (P < 0.01), brain, liver, and kidney (all P < 0.001). However, in male mice, AUC0→∞ remained unchanged in plasma, increased in liver and kidney, and decreased in brain (all P < 0.001). The tissue-to-plasma AUC0→∞ ratio was similar between male and female control mice, but changed after ibuprofen coadministration: Male mice showed 1.6-fold higher liver-to-plasma ratio (P < 0.001) while remained unchanged in female mice and in kidney (male and female mice) but decreased 55% in brain (P < 0.05). The tissue-to-plasma partial AUC ratio, the drug tissue targeting index, and the tissue-plasma hysteresis-like plots also showed sex-based ibuprofen-sunitinib drug interaction differences. The results illustrate the relevance of this DDI on sunitinib pharmacokinetics and tissue uptake. These may be due to gender-based P450 and efflux/transporters differences.

  19. Estimation of placental and lactational transfer and tissue distribution of atrazine and its main metabolites in rodent dams, fetuses, and neonates with physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhoumeng; Fisher, Jeffrey W.; Wang, Ran; Ross, Matthew K.; Filipov, Nikolay M.

    2013-11-15

    Atrazine (ATR) is a widely used chlorotriazine herbicide, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, and a potential developmental toxicant. To quantitatively evaluate placental/lactational transfer and fetal/neonatal tissue dosimetry of ATR and its major metabolites, physiologically based pharmacokinetic models were developed for rat dams, fetuses and neonates. These models were calibrated using pharmacokinetic data from rat dams repeatedly exposed (oral gavage; 5 mg/kg) to ATR followed by model evaluation against other available rat data. Model simulations corresponded well to the majority of available experimental data and suggest that: (1) the fetus is exposed to both ATR and its major metabolite didealkylatrazine (DACT) at levels similar to maternal plasma levels, (2) the neonate is exposed mostly to DACT at levels two-thirds lower than maternal plasma or fetal levels, while lactational exposure to ATR is minimal, and (3) gestational carryover of DACT greatly affects its neonatal dosimetry up until mid-lactation. To test the model's cross-species extrapolation capability, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted with pregnant C57BL/6 mice exposed (oral gavage; 5 mg/kg) to ATR from gestational day 12 to 18. By using mouse-specific parameters, the model predictions fitted well with the measured data, including placental ATR/DACT levels. However, fetal concentrations of DACT were overestimated by the model (10-fold). This overestimation suggests that only around 10% of the DACT that reaches the fetus is tissue-bound. These rodent models could be used in fetal/neonatal tissue dosimetry predictions to help design/interpret early life toxicity/pharmacokinetic studies with ATR and as a foundation for scaling to humans. - Highlights: • We developed PBPK models for atrazine in rat dams, fetuses, and neonates. • We conducted pharmacokinetic (PK) study with atrazine in pregnant mice. • Model predictions were in good agreement with experimental rat and mouse PK data.

  20. Pharmacokinetic modeling of ascorbate diffusion through normal and tumor tissue.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Caroline; Vissers, Margreet C M; Hicks, Kevin O

    2014-12-01

    Ascorbate is delivered to cells via the vasculature, but its ability to penetrate into tissues remote from blood vessels is unknown. This is particularly relevant to solid tumors, which often contain regions with dysfunctional vasculature, with impaired oxygen and nutrient delivery, resulting in upregulation of the hypoxic response and also the likely depletion of essential plasma-derived biomolecules, such as ascorbate. In this study, we have utilized a well-established multicell-layered, three-dimensional pharmacokinetic model to measure ascorbate diffusion and transport parameters through dense tissue in vitro. Ascorbate was found to penetrate the tissue at a slightly lower rate than mannitol and to travel via the paracellular route. Uptake parameters into the cells were also determined. These data were fitted to the diffusion model, and simulations of ascorbate pharmacokinetics in normal tissue and in hypoxic tumor tissue were performed with varying input concentrations, ranging from normal dietary plasma levels (10-100 μM) to pharmacological levels (>1 mM) as seen with intravenous infusion. The data and simulations demonstrate heterogeneous distribution of ascorbate in tumor tissue at physiological blood levels and provide insight into the range of plasma ascorbate concentrations and exposure times needed to saturate all regions of a tumor. The predictions suggest that supraphysiological plasma ascorbate concentrations (>100 μM) are required to achieve effective delivery of ascorbate to poorly vascularized tumor tissue.

  1. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of parenterally administered human alpha-lymphotoxin in normal and meth-A tumor-bearing BALB/c mice

    SciTech Connect

    Averbook, B.J.; Jeffes, E.B.; Yamamoto, R.S.; Masunaka, I.; Kobayashi, M.; Granger, G.A. )

    1989-08-01

    These in vivo studies examine the pharmacokinetics of parenterally administered purified, native human alpha-lymphotoxin (LT) in normal and Meth-A bearing BALB/c mice. We found that the lytic activity of alpha-LT was inactivated within 5 h in the blood of both normal and tumor-bearing mice in vivo. However, LT bioactivity in vitro was not affected by incubation with fresh serum. Radioiodinated LT was rapidly sequestered in the kidneys of both normal and tumor-bearing animals. Systemically administered, radioiodinated LT did not selectively localize in tumor tissues.

  2. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of docetaxel liposome mediated by a novel galactosylated cholesterol derivatives synthesized by lipase-catalyzed esterification in non-aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li-Hua; Zheng, Pin-Jing; Nie, Hua; Chen, Yu-Chao; Tong, Dan; Chen, Jin; Cheng, Yi

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to synthesize a novel galactosylated cholesterol derivative, cholesterol-diethenyl decanedioate-lactitol (CHS-DD-LA) through lipase-catalyzed esterification in non-aqueous and to evaluate the preparation, pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of docetaxel (DOC) liposomes modified with CHS-DD-LA (G-DOC-L), which may actively gather at the liver compared with the conventional DOC liposomes (DOC-L) and commercial dosage form of DOC injection (DOC-i). A rapid and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay was developed for the determination of the DOC concentration in plasma and tissues with Taxol as the internal standard (IS). To measure the liver-targeting effect of the G-DOC-L, relative uptake rate (Re), peak concentration ratio (Ce), targeting efficiency (Te) and relative targeting efficiency (RTe) were reduced as the evaluation parameters. The results showed that the entrapment efficiency, particle size and Zeta potential of G-DOC-L was 76.8 ± 3.5%, 95.6 nm and 27.19 mV, respectively. After i.v. administration at the dose of 2.5 mg/kg in rats, a decrease in the AUC, MRT and an increase in CL (p < 0.05) were observed in the G-DOC-L group compared with DOC-L. All these results suggested that galactose-anchored liposomes could rapidly be removed from the circulation in vivo. The tissue distribution of G-DOC-L was widely different from that of DOC-L. The Re of G-DOC-L, DOC-L on liver was 4.011, 0.102; Ce was 3.391, 0.111; Te was 55.01, 3.08, respectively, demonstrating that G-DOC-L had an excellent effect on liver-targeting, which may help to improve the therapeutic effect of hepatic diseases.

  3. Comparisons of pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution profile of four major bioactive components after oral administration of Xiang-Fu-Si-Wu Decoction effective fraction in normal and dysmenorrheal symptom rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei; Li, Wei; Li, Zhen-hao; Qian, Da-wei; Guo, Jian-ming; Shang, Er-xin; Su, Shu-lan; Tang, Yu-ping; Duan, Jin-ao

    2014-07-03

    Xiang-Fu-Si-Wu Decoction (XFSWD) has been widely used to treat primary dysmenorrhea in clinical practice for hundreds of years and shown great efficacy. One fraction of XFSWD, which was an elution product by macroporous adsorption resin from aqueous extract solution with 60% ethanol (XFSWE), showed great analgesic effect. The present study was conducted to investigate the possible pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive constituents (berberine, protopine, tetrahydrocoptisine and tetrahydropalmatine) after oral administration of XFSWE in dysmenorrheal symptom rats, and to compare the difference between normal and dysmenorrheal symptom rats. Estradiol benzoate and oxytocin were used to produce dysmenorrheal symptom rat model. The experimental period was seven days. At the final day of experimental period, both normal and dysmenorrheal symptom rats were orally administrated with XFSWE, and then the blood and tissues samples were collected at different time points. Berberine, protopine, tetrahydrocoptisine and tetrahydropalmatine in blood and tissue samples were determined by LC-MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from the plasma concentration-time data using non-compartmental methods. The differences of pharmacokinetic parameters among groups were tested by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). There were statistically significant differences (P<0.05) in Cmax, Tmax, AUC(0-t), AUC(0-∞), MRT(0-t), MRT(0-∞) and CL/F between normal and dysmenorrheal symptom rats that orally administered with same dosage of XFSWE. In tissue distribution study, the results showed that the overall trend was C(Spleen)>C(Liver)>C(Kidney)>C(Uterus)>C(Heart)>C(Lung)>C(Ovary)>C(Brain)>C(Thymus), C(M-60 min)>C(M-120 min)>C(M-30 min)>C(C-60 min)>C(C-120 min)>C(C-30 min). The contents of protopine in liver, spleen and uterus were more than that in other tissues of dysmenorrheal symptom rats. Compared to normal rats, partial contents of the compounds

  4. A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of linarin in small-volume rat plasma and tissue samples and its application to pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xinchi; Liu, Youping; Wang, Xin; Di, Xin

    2016-04-01

    A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of linarin in small-volume rat plasma and tissue sample. Sample preparation was employed by the combination of protein precipitation (PPT) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) to allow measurement over a 5-order-of-magnitude concentration range. Fast chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hypersil Gold column (100 × 2.1 mm i.d., 5 µm). Mass spectrometric detection was achieved using a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization interface operating in positive ionization mode. Quantification was performed using selected reaction monitoring of precursor-product ion transitions at m/z 593 → 285 for linarin and m/z 447 → 271 for baicalin (internal standard). The total run time was only 2.8 min per sample. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 0.4-200 µg/mL for PPT and 0.001-1.0 µg/mL for LLE. A lower limit of quantification of 1.0 ng/mL was achieved using only 20 μL of plasma or tissue homogenate. The intra- and inter-day precisions in all samples were ≤14.7%, while the accuracy was within ±5.2% of nominal values. The validated method has been successfully applied to pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution study of linarin. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Nitro-fatty acid pharmacokinetics in the adipose tissue compartment.

    PubMed

    Fazzari, Marco; Khoo, Nicholas K H; Woodcock, Steven R; Jorkasky, Diane K; Li, Lihua; Schopfer, Francisco J; Freeman, Bruce A

    2017-02-01

    Electrophilic nitro-FAs (NO2-FAs) promote adaptive and anti-inflammatory cell signaling responses as a result of an electrophilic character that supports posttranslational protein modifications. A unique pharmacokinetic profile is expected for NO2-FAs because of an ability to undergo reversible reactions including Michael addition with cysteine-containing proteins and esterification into complex lipids. Herein, we report via quantitative whole-body autoradiography analysis of rats gavaged with radiolabeled 10-nitro-[(14)C]oleic acid, preferential accumulation in adipose tissue over 2 weeks. To better define the metabolism and incorporation of NO2-FAs and their metabolites in adipose tissue lipids, adipocyte cultures were supplemented with 10-nitro-oleic acid (10-NO2-OA), nitro-stearic acid, nitro-conjugated linoleic acid, and nitro-linolenic acid. Then, quantitative HPLC-MS/MS analysis was performed on adipocyte neutral and polar lipid fractions, both before and after acid hydrolysis of esterified FAs. NO2-FAs preferentially incorporated in monoacyl- and diacylglycerides, while reduced metabolites were highly enriched in triacylglycerides. This differential distribution profile was confirmed in vivo in the adipose tissue of NO2-OA-treated mice. This pattern of NO2-FA deposition lends new insight into the unique pharmacokinetics and pharmacologic actions that could be expected for this chemically-reactive class of endogenous signaling mediators and synthetic drug candidates.

  6. Plasma Pharmacokinetics, Bioavailability, and Tissue Distribution of Four C-Glycosyl Flavones from Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seed Extracts in Rat by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan; Zhang, Qili; Wang, Baoyu; Zhang, Meiyan; Xu, Yan; Li, Shasha; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo

    2017-07-12

    The main polyphenols in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seed (MBS), an edible legume with various biological activities, are C-glycosyl flavones (vitexin, isovitexin, isovitexin-6″-O-α-l-glucoside, and dulcinoside). In our study, a validated ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to quantitate the concentrations of four C-glycosyl flavones from MBS extracts in the plasma and various tissues of rats and successfully applied to study their pharmacological profile and tissue distribution in vivo. Four C-glycosyl flavones were rapidly absorbed after oral administration, achieving a Cmax at around 1.5 h, and they could be distributed widely and rapidly in tested tissues. The concentrations of four C-glycosyl flavones in all of the tested tissues decreased obviously in 4 h, which indicated that there was not a trend of long-term accumulation of them. This is the first time to report on pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies of four C-glycosyl flavones in rat. The results provided a significative basis for the application of MBS.

  7. Utility of Oatp1a/1b-knockout and OATP1B1/3-humanized mice in the study of OATP-mediated pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution: case studies with pravastatin, atorvastatin, simvastatin, and carboxydichlorofluorescein.

    PubMed

    Higgins, J William; Bao, Jing Q; Ke, Alice B; Manro, Jason R; Fallon, John K; Smith, Philip C; Zamek-Gliszczynski, Maciej J

    2014-01-01

    Although organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)-mediated hepatic uptake is generally conserved between rodents and humans at a gross pharmacokinetic level, the presence of three major hepatic OATPs with broad overlap in substrate and inhibitor affinity, and absence of rodent-human orthologs preclude clinical translation of single-gene knockout/knockin findings. At present, changes in pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of pravastatin, atorvastatin, simvastatin, and carboxydichlorofluorescein were studied in oatp1a/1b-knockout mice lacking the three major hepatic oatp isoforms, and in knockout mice with liver-specific knockin of human OATP1B1 or OATP1B3. Relative to wild-type controls, oatp1a/1b-knockout mice exhibited 1.6- to 19-fold increased intravenous and 2.1- to 115-fold increased oral drug exposure, due to 33%-75% decreased clearance, 14%-60% decreased volume of distribution, and ≤74-fold increased oral bioavailability, with the magnitude of change depending on the contribution of oatp1a/1b to pharmacokinetics. Hepatic drug distribution was 4.2- to 196-fold lower in oatp1a/1b-knockout mice; distributional attenuation was less notable in kidney, brain, cardiac, and skeletal muscle. Knockin of OATP1B1 or OATP1B3 partially restored control clearance, volume, and bioavailability values (24%-142% increase, ≤47% increase, and ≤77% decrease vs. knockout, respectively), such that knockin pharmacokinetic profiles were positioned between knockout and wild-type mice. Consistent with liver-specific humanization, only hepatic drug distribution was partially restored (1.3- to 6.5-fold increase vs. knockout). Exposure and liver distribution changes in OATP1B1-humanized versus knockout mice predicted the clinical impact of OATP1B1 on oral exposure and contribution to human hepatic uptake of statins within 1.7-fold, but only after correcting for human/humanized mouse liver relative protein expression factor (OATP1B1 = 2.2, OATP1B3 = 0.30).

  8. Plasma pharmacokinetics, bioavailability and tissue distribution of agnuside following peroral and intravenous administration in mice using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Bhateria, Manisha; Singh, Rajbir; Puttrevu, Santosh Kumar; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2016-06-05

    Agnuside (AGN), an iridoid glycoside, is the chemotaxonomic marker of the genus Vitex which has gained enormous attention by virtue of its potential health benefits. Regardless of claiming many therapeutic applications reports demonstrating its pharmacokinetics or quantification in biomatrices are lacking. This is the first report which presents a sensitive liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of AGN in mice plasma and various tissues (including liver, intestine, spleen, kidney, heart, lungs and brain). AGN was extracted from the biological samples using protein precipitation followed by liquid-liquid extraction and the separation was achieved on C18 reversed phase column with a mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in triple distilled water (92:8, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.7mL/min. The MS/MS detection was performed by electrospray ionization (ESI) using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in negative scan mode. The bioanalytical method was found linear over the concentration range of 1-4000ng/mL for plasma and tissue homogenates (r(2)≥0.990). The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) for all matrices was 1ng/mL. Intra-day and inter-day variance and accuracy ranged from 90 to 110% and 1-10%, respectively. Matrix effect and recoveries were well within the satisfactory limits. The validated method was applied successfully to measure AGN concentrations in plasma and tissues following intravenous (i.v.) and peroral (p.o.) administration to mice. Maximal AGN concentrations in plasma and tissues were reached within 30-45min. The mean absolute bioavailability (%F) of AGN was∼0.7%. After oral administration, AGN was most abundant in intestine, followed by kidney, liver, spleen, brain, lungs and heart. The identified target tissues of AGN may help in understanding its pharmacological action in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of AZD3759 in rat plasma and brain tissue by LC-MS/MS and its application in pharmacokinetic and brain distribution studies.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shan; Xue, Mingxing; Mu, Yanling; Deng, Zhipeng; Sun, Peilu; Zhou, Ruican

    2017-06-05

    A simple and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for determination of AZD3759, a novel epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in rat plasma and brain homogenate was developed and validated over the range of 1.0-1000ng/mL. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 column with acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water as mobile phase with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQs) were 1.0ng/mL for AZD3759 in both rat plasma and brain homogenate. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of AZD3759 were well within the acceptable limits of variation. The simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic and brain distribution studies following an oral administration of AZD3759 to rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and skin-tissue penetration of daptomycin in rats

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Kitaoka, Masashi; Kuroda, Yuko; Ikawa, Kazuro; Morikawa, Norifumi; Sasaki, Junichi; Iketani, Osamu; Iwata, Satoshi; Horino, Tetsuya; Hori, Seiji; Kizu, Junko

    2015-01-01

    Background Daptomycin is recommended for complicated skin and skin-structure infections. However, information on the penetration of daptomycin into skin is limited. Therefore, the aim of this in vivo investigation was to determine the pharmacokinetics and skin penetration of daptomycin in rats. Materials and methods Concentrations of daptomycin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. A noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted to estimate the rate and extent of daptomycin penetration from the systemic circulation into skin tissue. Since protein binding of daptomycin in rat serum was 89.3%, the free maximum concentration (Cmax) and free area under the curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0–∞) for plasma were calculated as follows: fCmax, plasma = (1 – 0.893) × Cmax, plasma, fAUC0–∞, plasma = (1 – 0.893) × AUC0–∞, plasma. Results The following values (mean ± standard deviation) were obtained: 0.06±0 L/h/kg for total clearance (CLtotal), 0.44±0.06 hours for elimination-rate constant, 1.58±0.23 hours for half-life, 0.14±0.02 L/kg for steady-state volume distribution, and 2.28±0.33 hours for mean residence time. Time to Cmax was 3.0 hours for plasma and skin tissue. Cmax and AUC0–∞ for plasma were 175.8±5.1 μg/mL and 811.8±31.9 μg × h/mL, respectively. Cmax and AUC0–∞ for skin tissue were 19.1±1.7 μg/mL and 113.9±21.8 μg × h/mL, respectively. Furthermore, fCmax and fAUC0–∞ for plasma were 18.8 μg/mL and 86.9 μg × h/mL, respectively. The degrees of skin-tissue penetration, defined as the Cmax, skin tissue/fCmax, plasma ratio and AUC0–∞, skin tissue/fAUC0–∞, plasma ratio, were 1.0 and 1.3, respectively. Conclusion Daptomycin exhibited good penetration into skin tissue, supporting its use for the treatment of complicated skin and skin-structure infections. However, further studies are needed in infected patients in order to investigate the relationship between the antimicrobial efficacy

  11. A Sensitive Amphotericin B Immunoassay for Pharmacokinetic and Distribution Studies

    PubMed Central

    Machard, Sophie; Theodoro, Frederic; Benech, Henri; Grognet, Jean-Marc; Ezan, Eric

    2000-01-01

    Since currently used assays of amphotericin B (AMB) lack sensitivity or are not easily adaptable in all laboratories, we have developed an enzyme immunoassay for AMB in biological fluids and tissues. Antibodies to AMB were raised in rabbits after administration of an AMB-bovine serum albumin conjugate. The enzymatic tracer was obtained by coupling AMB via its amino group to acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7). These reagents were used for the development of a competitive immunoassay performed on microtitration plates. The limit of quantification was 100 pg/ml in plasma and 1 ng/g in tissues. The plasma assay was performed directly without extraction on a minimal volume of 0.1 ml. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were in the range of 5 to 17%, and the recoveries were 92 to 111% for AMB added to human plasma. The assay was applied to a pharmacokinetic study with mice given AMB intraperitoneally at the dose of 1 mg/kg. The drug distribution in selected compartments (plasma, liver, spleen, lung, and brain) was monitored until 72 h after administration. In conclusion, our assay is at least 100-fold more sensitive than previously described bioassays or chromatographic determinations of AMB and may be useful in studying the tissue pharmacokinetics of new AMB formulations and in drug monitoring in clinical situations. PMID:10681316

  12. Pharmacokinetics of SPECT radiopharmaceuticals for imaging hypoxic tissues.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, L I; Stypinski, D

    1996-09-01

    Although hypoxia has been known for decades to play an important role in the outcome of radiotherapy in oncology, and inspite of the contribution of hypoxia to a myriad of pathologies that involve vascular disease, the selective imaging of hypoxic tissue has attained prominence only within the past decade. Contemporary research in the hypoxia imaging field is based largely on radiosensitizer research of the 1960's and 1970's. Early sensitizer research identified a family of nitro-organic compounds, the N-1 substituted 2-nitroimidazoles as candidate drugs. The early champion, and still the reference standard for therapeutic radiosensitization of hypoxic tumor cells is misonidazole (MISO). Its peripheral neurotoxicity led to failure in clinical studies, but its biological, biophysical and biochemical properties have been investigated in detail and serve as a basis for further design, not only of sensitizers, but of diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals for imaging tissue hypoxia. Pharmacokinetic characterization of radiopharmaceuticals, specifically radiopharmaceuticals for imaging tissue hypoxia, has not been a central theme in their development. The advent of PET, through which quantitative determinations first became possible, opened the field for both descriptive and analytical radiopharmacokinetic studies. In SPECT, however, this approach is still undergoing refinement. This paper addresses some of the underlying issues in radiopharmaceutical pharmacokinetics. There is a paucity of published radiopharmacokinetic data for SPECT hypoxia imaging agents. Consequently, the pharmacokinetic issues for MISO are presented as a basis for development of pharmacokinetics for the chemically-related imaging agents. Properties of an hypoxia marker are described from a pharmacokinetic viewpoint, a theoretical model for descriptive pharmacokinetics is introduced and finally, recent pharmacokinetic studies from our laboratory are described.

  13. Evaluation of the efficiency of tumor and tissue delivery of carrier-mediated agents (CMA) and small molecule (SM) agents in mice using a novel pharmacokinetic (PK) metric: relative distribution index over time (RDI-OT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Andrew J.; Rawal, Sumit; Sandison, Katie; Schell, Ryan; Schorzman, Allison; Deal, Allison; Feng, Lan; Ma, Ping; Mumper, Russell; DeSimone, Joseph; Zamboni, William C.

    2014-11-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of carrier-mediated agents (CMA) is dependent upon the carrier system. As a result, CMA PK differs greatly from the PK of small molecule (SM) drugs. Advantages of CMAs over SMs include prolonged circulation time in plasma, increased delivery to tumors, increased antitumor response, and decreased toxicity. In theory, CMAs provide greater tumor drug delivery than SMs due to their prolonged plasma circulation time. We sought to create a novel PK metric to evaluate the efficiency of tumor and tissue delivery of CMAs and SMs. We conducted a study evaluating the plasma, tumor, liver, and spleen PK of CMAs and SMs in mice bearing subcutaneous flank tumors using standard PK parameters and a novel PK metric entitled relative distribution over time (RDI-OT), which measures efficiency of delivery. RDI-OT is defined as the ratio of tissue drug concentration to plasma drug concentration at each time point. The standard concentration versus time area under the curve values (AUC) of CMAs were higher in all tissues and plasma compared with SMs. However, 8 of 17 SMs had greater tumor RDI-OT AUC0-last values than their CMA comparators and all SMs had greater tumor RDI-OT AUC0-6 h values than their CMA comparators. Our results indicate that in mice bearing flank tumor xenografts, SMs distribute into tumor more efficiently than CMAs. Further research in additional tumor models that may more closely resemble tumors seen in patients is needed to determine if our results are consistent in different model systems.

  14. Evaluation of the efficiency of tumor and tissue delivery of carrier-mediated agents (CMA) and small molecule (SM) agents in mice using a novel pharmacokinetic (PK) metric: relative distribution index over time (RDI-OT).

    PubMed

    Madden, Andrew J; Rawal, Sumit; Sandison, Katie; Schell, Ryan; Schorzman, Allison; Deal, Allison; Feng, Lan; Ma, Ping; Mumper, Russell; DeSimone, Joseph; Zamboni, William C

    2014-11-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of carrier-mediated agents (CMA) is dependent upon the carrier system. As a result, CMA PK differs greatly from the PK of small molecule (SM) drugs. Advantages of CMAs over SMs include prolonged circulation time in plasma, increased delivery to tumors, increased antitumor response, and decreased toxicity. In theory, CMAs provide greater tumor drug delivery than SMs due to their prolonged plasma circulation time. We sought to create a novel PK metric to evaluate the efficiency of tumor and tissue delivery of CMAs and SMs. We conducted a study evaluating the plasma, tumor, liver, and spleen PK of CMAs and SMs in mice bearing subcutaneous flank tumors using standard PK parameters and a novel PK metric entitled relative distribution over time (RDI-OT), which measures efficiency of delivery. RDI-OT is defined as the ratio of tissue drug concentration to plasma drug concentration at each time point. The standard concentration versus time area under the curve values (AUC) of CMAs were higher in all tissues and plasma compared with SMs. However, 8 of 17 SMs had greater tumor RDI-OT AUC0-last values than their CMA comparators and all SMs had greater tumor RDI-OT AUC0-6 h values than their CMA comparators. Our results indicate that in mice bearing flank tumor xenografts, SMs distribute into tumor more efficiently than CMAs. Further research in additional tumor models that may more closely resemble tumors seen in patients is needed to determine if our results are consistent in different model systems.

  15. Distribution, pharmacokinetics and primary metabolism model of tramadol in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Huiqin; Jin, Hongwei; Peng, Huifang; Huang, Heqing

    2016-12-01

    The current study aimed to develop a rapid, robust and adequately sensitive method for simultaneous determination of the concentration of tramadol and its active metabolites in zebrafish. The pharmacokinetic and elimination pattern of tramadol and its major phase I metabolites following oral or intramuscular administration in zebrafish tissues was achieved using electrospray ionization‑quadrupole‑time of flight/mass spectrometry (ESI‑Q‑TOF/MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC‑MS). Following administration, the metabolisms were detected in the brain, eyes, muscle and gill tissues within 1 h. Two tramadol metabolites, O‑ and N‑desmethyltramadol, were detected in brain tissue, with N‑desmethyltramadol detected at a higher level. Following GC‑MS detection the curve indicated an initial rapid phase, corresponding to the detection of the tramadol within 1 min, and reached peak value in the brain at 5 min. Faster drug clearance was detected in low‑dose groups, and concentration had dropped around the to initial level (1.11 µg) at 20 min, but was detectable for up to 3 h. However, it took 80 min to fall back to the initial value (1.73 µg) in the high‑dose groups, and tramadol was detectable for up to 4 h. This study developed and validated a simple and high throughput analytical procedure to determine the distribution and pharmacokinetic profiles of tramadol, and its primary metabolites in tissues of zebrafish.

  16. Nanoparticle accumulation in angiogenic tissues: towards predictable pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Yaehne, Kristin; Tekrony, Amy; Clancy, Aisling; Gregoriou, Yiota; Walker, John; Dean, Kwin; Nguyen, Trinh; Doiron, Amber; Rinker, Kristina; Jiang, Xiao Yu; Childs, Sarah; Cramb, David

    2013-09-23

    Nanoparticles are increasingly used in medical applications such as drug delivery, imaging, and biodiagnostics, particularly for cancer. The design of nanoparticles for tumor delivery has been largely empirical, owing to a lack of quantitative data on angiogenic tissue sequestration. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, the deposition rate constants of nanoparticles into angiogenic blood vessel tissue are determined. It is shown that deposition is dependent on surface charge. Moreover, the size dependency strongly suggests that nanoparticles are taken up by a passive mechanism that depends largely on geometry. These findings imply that it is possible to tune nanoparticle pharmacokinetics simply by adjusting nanoparticle size.

  17. Pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies of 1,9-pyrazoloanthrone, a c-Jun-N-terminal kinase inhibitor in Wistar rats by a simple and sensitive HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Ambhore, Nilesh Sudhakar; Yamjala, Karthik; Mohire, Shubhashri; Raju, Kalidhindi Rama Satyanarayana; Mulukutla, Shashank; Murthy, Vishakantha; Tondhawada, Mahesh; Elango, Kannan

    2016-02-20

    JNK pathway activates c-Jun(s) which are responsible for cell apoptosis; as a result, inhibitors of JNK pathway have the potential to prevent dopaminergic neurons from death and decrease the loss of dopamine in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Recent in-vitro studies show that 1,9-pyrazoloanthrone (1,9-P) a potent JNK-3 inhibitor prevents the apoptosis of dopaminergic cells of brain. In the present study we formulated liposomes to increase the bioavailability of 1,9-P in the brain and developed a simple, sensitive and selective high performance liquid chromatographic method and validated for the estimation of 1,9-P in Wistar rat plasma and tissue samples. Plasma and tissue samples were extracted by protein precipitation technique using acetonitrile (ACN) and rasagiline as the internal standards. Chromatography was performed on Hibar C18 column with mobile phase of ammonium acetate (10mM, pH 8.0 adjusted with ammonia) and ACN at a flow rate of 1mL/min. The lower limit of quantification of the developed method was found to be 2.0ng/mL and 4.0ng/g in plasma and tissue samples respectively. The liposomes of 1,9-P administered to animals at the dose equivalent to 15mg/kg orally demonstrated remarkable absorption into the systemic circulation with maximum concentration (∼7500ng/mL) within 2.0h. The order of the area under curve was found to be kidney>liver>brain>lungs>spleen>heart. The liposomes of 1,9-P were rapidly taken up into brain and showed a good brain concentration after 2.0h; sustenance up to 4.0h was achieved which is better than 1,9-P solution.

  18. A thermo-pharmacokinetic model of tissue temperature oscillations during localized heating.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Roemer, R B

    2005-03-01

    Thermally-induced large blood flow increases and oscillations have been experimentally observed in both muscle and prostate tissues. However, the bio-physical/-chemical mechanisms underlying these phenomena remain undiscovered. To study the basic nature of these coupled thermal-mass transport processes, this study combines a compartmental vasodilator pharmacokinetics model with a bio-heat-transfer temperature model. The resulting simulated temperature responses to different applied power levels closely match both the overall behaviour and the fine structure of the complex temperature responses observed in vivo. This suggests that the coupled thermo-pharmacokinetic model captures the essence of the links between tissue temperature and blood flow oscillations and of the role of the important vaso-active substances. Thus, it appears that such thermo-pharmacokinetic models can provide a basis for helping to understand and quantify the fundamental bio-physical/-chemical processes that couple the transient tissue temperature distributions to blood flow oscillations. Such combined models allow investigators to directly predict tissue blood flow responses to applied power and avoid the need to make ad hoc assumptions regulating the blood flow rates present in heated tissues.

  19. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (ESCi)-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry with novel mass spectrometry(Elevated Energy) (MS(E)) data collection technique: determination and pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and biliary excretion study of ergone in rat.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying-Yong; Cheng, Xian-Long; Wei, Feng; Bai, Xu; Lin, Rui-Chao

    2012-07-01

    Ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (ergone) has been proved to have novel antitumor effects on HepG2 cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and biliary excretion of ergone in rats following a single oral administration (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg). The levels of ergone in plasma, tissues, and bile were measured by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (ESCi)-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry with novel mass spectrometry(Elevated Energy) (MS(E)) data collection technique method. The results show ergone was distributed and eliminated from rat plasma and in non-linear pharmacokinetics from a dose range of 5-20 mg/kg. The ergone was found to distribute widely in the internal organs, with tissue concentrations in order of lungs, spleen, liver, intestine, kidneys, heart, stomach, parorchis, teasticles, and brain. At 12 h after dosing, the tissue concentrations in the organs were markedly decreased. The lungs, spleen, and liver were the dominant organs with high tissue concentrations that might be the primary sites for metabolism and elimination of ergone. Total recoveries of ergone within 24 h in bile were 34.14%.

  20. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, metabolism, distribution, and excretion of carfilzomib in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinfu; Wang, Zhengping; Fang, Ying; Jiang, Jing; Zhao, Frances; Wong, Hansen; Bennett, Mark K; Molineaux, Christopher J; Kirk, Christopher J

    2011-10-01

    Carfilzomib [(2S)-N-[(S)-1-[(S)-4-methyl-1-[(R)-2-methyloxiran-2-yl]-1-oxopentan-2-ylcarbamoyl]-2-phenylethyl]-2-[(S)-2-(2-morpholinoacetamido)-4-phenylbutanamido]-4-methylpentanamide, also known as PR-171] is a selective, irreversible proteasome inhibitor that has shown encouraging results in clinical trials in multiple myeloma. In this study, the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, metabolism, distribution, and excretion of carfilzomib in Sprague-Dawley rats were characterized. After intravenous administration, the plasma concentration of carfilzomib declined rapidly in a biphasic manner. Carfilzomib displayed high plasma clearance [195-319 ml/(min · kg)], a short-terminal half-life (5-20 min), and rapid and wide tissue distribution in rats. The exposure to carfilzomib (C(max) and area under the curve) increased dose proportionally from 2 to 4 mg/kg but less than dose proportionally from 4 to 8 mg/kg. The high clearance was mediated predominantly by extrahepatic metabolism through peptidase cleavage and epoxide hydrolysis. Carfilzomib was excreted mainly as metabolites resulting from peptidase cleavage. Carfilzomib and its major metabolites in urine and bile accounted for approximately 26 and 31% of the total dose, respectively, for a total of 57% within 24 h postdose. Despite the high systemic clearance, potent proteasome inhibition was observed in blood and a variety of tissues. Together with rapid and irreversible target binding, the high clearance may provide an advantage in that "unnecessary" exposure to the drug is minimized and potential drug-related side effects may be reduced.

  1. Pharmacokinetics and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves.

    PubMed

    Kissell, Lindsey W; Brinson, Patrick D; Gehring, Ronette; Tell, Lisa A; Wetzlich, Scott E; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E; Smith, Geof W

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe plasma pharmacokinetic parameters and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves. ANIMALS 20 unweaned Holstein calves between 3 and 6 weeks old. PROCEDURES Each calf received flunixin (2.2 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) for 3 days. Blood samples were collected from all calves before the first dose and at predetermined times after the first and last doses. Beginning 24 hours after injection of the last dose, 4 calves were euthanized each day for 5 days. Plasma and tissue samples were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by compartmental and noncompartmental methods. RESULTS Mean ± SD plasma flunixin elimination half-life, residence time, and clearance were 1.32 ± 0.94 hours, 12.54 ± 10.96 hours, and 64.6 ± 40.7 mL/h/kg, respectively. Mean hepatic and muscle flunixin concentrations decreased to below FDA-established tolerance limits (0.125 and 0.025 μg/mL, respectively) for adult cattle by 3 and 2 days, respectively, after injection of the last dose of flunixin. Detectable flunixin concentrations were present in both the liver and muscle for at least 5 days after injection of the last dose. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The labeled slaughter withdrawal interval for flunixin in adult cattle is 4 days. Because administration of flunixin to veal calves represents extralabel drug use, any detectable flunixin concentrations in edible tissues are considered a violation. Results indicated that a slaughter withdrawal interval of several weeks may be necessary to ensure that violative tissue residues of flunixin are not detected in veal calves treated with that drug.

  2. A Pharmacokinetic Model of a Tissue Implantable Cortisol Sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael A; Bakh, Naveed; Bisker, Gili; Brown, Emery N; Strano, Michael S

    2016-12-01

    Cortisol is an important glucocorticoid hormone whose biochemistry influences numerous physiological and pathological processes. Moreover, it is a biomarker of interest for a number of conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder, Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and others. An implantable biosensor capable of real time monitoring of cortisol concentrations in adipose tissue may revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders, as well as provide an invaluable research tool. Toward this end, a mathematical model, informed by the physiological literature, is developed to predict dynamic cortisol concentrations in adipose, muscle, and brain tissues, where a significant number of important processes with cortisol occur. The pharmacokinetic model is applied to both a prototypical, healthy male patient and a previously studied Cushing's disease patient. The model can also be used to inform the design of an implantable sensor by optimizing the sensor dissociation constant, apparent delay time, and magnitude of the sensor output versus system dynamics. Measurements from such a sensor would help to determine systemic cortisol levels, providing much needed insight for proper medical treatment for various cortisol-related conditions.

  3. Pharmacokinetic model for cefazolin distribution during total hip arthroplasty in dogs.

    PubMed

    Marcellin-Little, D J; Papich, M G; Richardson, D C; DeYoung, D J

    1996-05-01

    To compare cefazolin pharmacokinetics in serum and concentrations in tissues during total hip arthroplasty in dogs with and without hip dysplasia, and to calculate the optimal dosage of cefazolin for prophylactic use during total hip arthroplasty. 10 dogs with hip dysplasia and 3 clinically normal dogs. Blood samples and tissue specimens from the coxofemoral joint capsule, acetabulum, and femur were obtained during unilateral total hip arthroplasty. Cefazolin concentrations in serum and tissue specimen supernatant were determined, using high-performance liquid chromatography, for use in pharmacokinetic analysis. Mathematical simulation of serum cefazolin concentration was used to to predict the optimal dose. Mean pharmacokinetic constants (SEM) were 0.146 (0.013) min-1 for alpha, 4.47 min for t1/2 alpha 0.015 (0.004) min-1 for beta, 46.83 min for t1/2 beta. Significant different was not detected for cefazolin distribution and elimination between dogs with and without hip dysplasia. Additional, significant difference was not observed in pharmacokinetic parameters describing distribution and elimination between the first and second doses of cefazolin. The predicted optimal dosage regimen was 8 mg/kg of body weight, i.v. every hour or mg/kg, i.v. every 2 hours. For prophylactic i.v. treatment during total hip arthroplasty, use of cefazolin at a dosage of 8 mg/kg every hour or 22 mg/kg every 2 hours should maintain serum cefazolin concentrations at least 10x the minimum inhibitory concentration for 3 to 4 hours.

  4. Comparative pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution analysis of systemically administered 17-β-estradiol and its metabolites in vivo delivered using a cationic nanoemulsion or a peptide-modified nanoemulsion system for targeting atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Dipti; Kethireddy, Sravani; Gattacceca, Florence; Amiji, Mansoor

    2014-04-28

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the biodistribution and pharmacokinetic profile of 17-β-estradiol (17-βE) on systemic delivery using either the cationic or the CREKA-peptide-modified (Cysteine-Arginine-Glutamic-acid-Lysine-Alanine) omega-3-fatty acid oil containing nanoemulsion system in vivo in the wild type C57BL/6 mice. Higher blood concentrations of 17-βE, higher accumulation in the tissues of interest - heart and aorta, and higher accumulation within the other tissues - liver and kidney was observed on delivering 17-βE using the CREKA-peptide-modified nanoemulsion system (AUClast in plasma - 263.89±21.81min*%/injected dose/ml) as compared to the cationic nanoemulsion (AUClast in plasma - 20.2±1.86min*%/injected dose/ml) and solution form (AUClast in plasma - 44.9±1.24min*%/injected dose/ml) respectively. Both, the cationic nanoemulsion and the CREKA-peptide-modified nanoemulsion showed a higher relative targeting efficiency of 4.57 and 4.86 respectively for 17-βE than the relative targeting efficiency of 1.78 observed with the solution form. In conclusion, since the maximum exposure (highest AUClast for plasma and tissues) for 17-βE was observed with the CREKA-peptide-modified nanoemulsion system, the study shows that CREKA-peptide-modified nanoemulsion system was the most suitable vehicle for systemic delivery of 17-βE in the wild type C57BL/6 mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of acute fat mobilization on the pharmacokinetics of the highly fat distributed compound TAK-357, investigated by physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and simulation.

    PubMed

    Goto, Akihiko; Tagawa, Yoshihiko; Moriya, Yuu; Sato, Sho; Furukawa, Yoshiyuki; Wakabayashi, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; DeJongh, Joost; van Steeg, Tamara J; Moriwaki, Toshiya; Asahi, Satoru

    2017-03-03

    In a dog toxicokinetic study, an unusual plasma concentration increase of the highly lipophilic compound TAK-357 was observed 2-weeks after termination of a 2-week repeated dosing in one dog with acute body weight loss. The present study investigates the cause of this increase. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was constructed using the rat and dog pharmacokinetic data. Using the constructed model, the TAK-357 concentration profile in case of body weight change was simulated. PBPK model-derived simulation suggested that redistribution from adipose tissues to plasma due to loss of body fat caused the observed concentration increase of TAK-357 in dog plasma. The analysis demonstrates that the disposition of a highly lipophilic and fat-distributed compound can be affected by acute changes in adipose tissue mass. PBPK modeling and simulation proved to be efficient tools for quantitative hypothesis testing of apparently atypical PK phenomena resulting from acute physiological changes.

  6. Pharmacokinetics and tissue residues of Telazol in free-ranging polar bears.

    PubMed

    Semple, H A; Gorecki, D K; Farley, S D; Ramsay, M A

    2000-10-01

    A pharmacokinetic and tissue residue study was conducted to assess the risks associated with human consumption of polar bears in arctic Canada that have been exposed to the immobilizing drug Telazol, a mixture of tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride. Twenty-two bears were remotely injected with about 10 mg/kg of Telazol. Following immobilization, serum samples were collected serially at regular intervals until the bears awakened. Sixteen of the bears were relocated and killed under permit by local hunters at various times from 0.5 to 11 days after dosing. Serum, kidney, muscle and adipose tissue samples were collected immediately after death. All samples were stored at -70 C until analysis by HPLC. The concentration-time data of tiletamine and zolazepam in serum during the immobilization period were fitted to curves by computer and the pharmacokinetic parameters assessed. In addition, the serum and tissue samples collected at the time of death were analyzed for both parent drugs, for one metabolite of tiletamine (CI-398), and for three metabolites of zolazepam (metabolites 1, 2 and 4). A one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination best fit the time-series data for the drugs in serum during the immobilization period. This model gave half-lives (mean +/- SE) for tiletamine and zolazepam of 1.8+/-0.2 h and 1.2+/-0.08 h, respectively, clearance values of 2.1+/-0.3 l x h(-1) x kg(-1) and 1.1+/-0.1 l x h(-1) x kg(-1), and volumes of distribution of 5.2+/-0.6 l/kg and 1.8+/-0.2 l/kg. The concentrations of both drugs and their metabolites declined rapidly to trace levels by 24 h post-dosing, although extremely low concentrations of some metabolites were encountered sporadically over the entire sampling period. In particular, zolazepam metabolite 2, remained detectable in fat and muscle tissue at the end of the study, 11 days after dosing. It was concluded that during immobilization, both tiletamine and zolazepam levels decline rapidly

  7. A comparative study of pharmacokinetics, urinary excretion and tissue distribution of platinum in rats following a single-dose oral administration of two platinum(IV) complexes LA-12 (OC-6-43)-bis(acetato)(1-adamantylamine)amminedichloroplatinum(IV) and satraplatin (OC-6-43)-bis(acetato)amminedichloro(cyclohexylamine)platinum(IV).

    PubMed

    Sova, Petr; Mistr, Adolf; Kroutil, Ales; Semerád, Martin; Chlubnová, Hana; Hrusková, Veronika; Chládková, Jirina; Chládek, Jaroslav

    2011-06-01

    This study compared the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and urinary excretion of platinum in rats after single oral doses of LA-12 and satraplatin. Both platinum derivatives were administered to male Wistar rats as suspensions in methylcellulose at four equimolar doses within the range of 37.5-300 mg LA-12/kg body weight. Blood sampling was performed until 72 h, and plasma and plasma ultrafiltrate were separated. Moreover, urine was collected until 72 h, and kidney and liver tissue samples were obtained at several times after administration. Platinum was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The pharmacokinetics of platinum was analyzed by population modelling and post hoc Bayesian estimation as well as using non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis of the mean concentration-time curves. Platinum was detected in all plasma and ultrafiltrate samples 15 min after oral administration of both compounds and peaked between 3-4 h and 1-3 h, respectively. Similar for LA-12 and satraplatin, the C (max) and AUC values of plasma and ultrafiltrate platinum increased less than in proportion to dose. The mean C (max) and AUC values of plasma platinum observed after administration of LA-12 were from 0.84 to 2.5 mg/l and from 20.2 to 75.9 mg h/l. For ultrafiltrate platinum, the corresponding ranges were 0.16-0.78 mg/l and 0.63-1.8 mg h/l, respectively. The AUC of plasma platinum was higher after satraplatin (P < 0.001). However, administration of LA-12 resulted in significantly higher AUC values of ultrafiltrate platinum after the doses of 150 mg and 300 mg/kg (P < 0.01), respectively, and the C (max) values were significantly higher starting from the dose of 75 mg/kg LA-12 and upward (P < 0.01). Cumulative 72-h urinary recovery of platinum dose was below 5% for both compounds, and it decreased with the dose of satraplatin (P < 0.01), while a numerical decrease was observed after administration of LA-12 that did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.41). The

  8. [The pharmacokinetics of antibiotics: parenteral and oral administration, distribution in the organism, elimination].

    PubMed

    Segre, G; Urso, R

    1994-03-01

    The efficacy of antimicrobial therapy is largely dependent on the pharmacokinetics of the drug. Pharmacokinetics is the study of the kinetics, that is of the movements of drugs in the body fluids and tissue cells. Often, despite the complexity of mammalian organism, relatively simple compartmental systems are capable to describe the kinetics of many drugs and to provide a rationale in interpreting the experimental results. As most bacterial infections are localized in tissues, the pharmacokinetic modelling of antimicrobial agents should mainly be devoted to clarify the relationship between plasma and tissue drug levels, the former being easily accessible to sampling and the latter more closely related to therapeutic efficacy. In this paper an introduction to pharmacokinetic modelling is presented and the pharmacokinetics of many antimicrobial drugs is discussed.

  9. The pharmacokinetics and tissue levels of polymyxin B, colistin and gentamicin in calves.

    PubMed

    Ziv, G; Nouws, J F; van Ginneken, C A

    1982-03-01

    Following a single intravenous injection of polymyxin B, colistin (5 mg/kg, each) and gentamicin (3 mg/kg) to calves, the decline in serum antibiotic concentration generally suggested a three-compartment (open system) pharmacokinetic model. Tissue binding is a dominant factor in the distribution and elimination kinetics of the drugs. Less than 65% of the dose of polymyxin B and colistin was recovered in the urine during 48 h after treatment. Concentrations of nonbound polymyxin B and colistin in the kidney, liver, lung, heart, and skeletal muscles were similar to total (free and bound) serum drug levels, but considerably higher concentrations were found, in bound form, in chloroform-ethanol extracts of these organs. At 24 h after treatment, more than 50% of the doses of polymyxin B and colistin were present bound to the tissues; the largest amount was in the skeletal muscles. Gentamicin was concentrated in the kidney, predominantly in the free form. At 48 h after treatment the amount of gentamicin in the kidney was 6.3% of the administered dose, being more than five times greater than the corresponding amounts of polymyxin B and colistin. The extent of tissue uptake of polymyxin B and colistin limits the usefulness of kinetic values, which are derived from the analysis of serum drug levels, for the purpose of designing dosage schedules. The strong affinity of the polymyxins to the muscle tissue, and gentamicin to the kidney, can result in drug residues persisting in the body for several weeks.

  10. Multichannel imaging to quantify four classes of pharmacokinetic distribution in tumors.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Sumit; Deschenes, Emily; Liao, Jianshan; Cilliers, Cornelius; Thurber, Greg M

    2014-10-01

    Low and heterogeneous delivery of drugs and imaging agents to tumors results in decreased efficacy and poor imaging results. Systemic delivery involves a complex interplay of drug properties and physiological factors, and heterogeneity in the tumor microenvironment makes predicting and overcoming these limitations exceptionally difficult. Theoretical models have indicated that there are four different classes of pharmacokinetic behavior in tissue, depending on the fundamental steps in distribution. In order to study these limiting behaviors, we used multichannel fluorescence microscopy and stitching of high-resolution images to examine the distribution of four agents in the same tumor microenvironment. A validated generic partial differential equation model with a graphical user interface was used to select fluorescent agents exhibiting these four classes of behavior, and the imaging results agreed with predictions. BODIPY-FL exhibited higher concentrations in tissue with high blood flow, cetuximab gave perivascular distribution limited by permeability, high plasma protein and target binding resulted in diffusion-limited distribution for Hoechst 33342, and Integrisense 680 was limited by the number of binding sites in the tissue. Together, the probes and simulations can be used to investigate distribution in other tumor models, predict tumor drug distribution profiles, and design and interpret in vivo experiments.

  11. Enhanced distribution of fourth-generation fluoroquinolones in prostatic tissue.

    PubMed

    Perletti, G; Wagenlehner, F M E; Naber, K G; Magri, V

    2009-03-01

    A recently published pharmacokinetic trial showed that the fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin administered to healthy volunteers at the single oral dose of 400mg accumulates in prostatic secretions (PS) up to a median concentration of 3.99 mg/L and reaches a PS/plasma concentration ratio of 1.57, far higher than values shown by other fluoroquinolones such as norfloxacin (ratio 0.1) or ciprofloxacin (ratio 0.2). Ion trapping mechanisms were hypothesised to be among the determinants of this effect. However, whether ion trapping would solely account for the observed differences in fluoroquinolone pharmacokinetics was left to further research and discussion. In this hypothesis paper, we review various published evidence on the tissue distribution of moxifloxacin and other quinolones, suggesting that increased lipophilicity, binding to cellular matrices and fast cellular uptake/release kinetics may be mechanisms compatible with enhanced prostatic accumulation and secretion of fourth-generation fluoroquinolones.

  12. Pharmacokinetics, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the dual reuptake inhibitor [(14)C]-nefopam in rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian; Solon, Eric; Shen, Helen; Modi, Nishit B; Mittur, Aravind

    2016-11-01

    1. This study examined the pharmacokinetics, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of [(14)C] nefopam in rats after a single oral administration. Blood, plasma, and excreta were analyzed for total radioactivity, nefopam, and metabolites. Metabolites were profiled and identified. Radioactivity distribution was determined by quantitative whole-body autoradiography. 2. The pharmacokinetic profiles of total radioactivity and nefopam were similar in male and female rats. Radioactivity partitioned approximately equally between plasma and red blood cells. A majority of the radioactivity was excreted in urine within 24 hours and mass balance was achieved within 7 days. 3. Intact nefopam was a minor component in plasma and excreta. Numerous metabolites were identified in plasma and urine generated by multiple pathways including: hydroxylation/oxidation metabolites (M11, M22a and M22b, M16, M20), some of which were further glucuronidated (M6a to M6c, M7a to M7c, M8a and M8b, M3a to M3d); N-demethylation of nefopam to metabolite M21, which additionally undergoes single or multiple hydroxylations or sulfation (M9, M14, M23), with some of the hydroxylated metabolites further glucuronidated (M2a to M2d). 4. Total radioactivity rapidly distributed with highest concentrations found in the urinary bladder, stomach, liver, kidney medulla, small intestine, uveal tract, and kidney cortex without significant accumulation or persistence. Radioactivity reversibly associated with melanin-containing tissues.

  13. Recombinant human tripeptidyl peptidase-1 infusion to the monkey CNS: Safety, pharmacokinetics, and distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Vuillemenot, Brian R.; Kennedy, Derek; Reed, Randall P.; Boyd, Robert B.; Butt, Mark T.; Musson, Donald G.; Keve, Steve; Cahayag, Rhea; Tsuruda, Laurie S.; O'Neill, Charles A.

    2014-05-15

    CLN2 disease is caused by deficiency in tripeptidyl peptidase-1 (TPP1), leading to neurodegeneration and death. The safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and CNS distribution of recombinant human TPP1 (rhTPP1) were characterized following a single intracerebroventricular (ICV) or intrathecal-lumbar (IT-L) infusion to cynomolgus monkeys. Animals received 0, 5, 14, or 20 mg rhTPP1, ICV, or 14 mg IT-L, in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) vehicle. Plasma and CSF were collected for PK analysis. Necropsies occurred at 3, 7, and 14 days post-infusion. CNS tissues were sampled for rhTPP1 distribution. TPP1 infusion was well tolerated and without effect on clinical observations or ECG. A mild increase in CSF white blood cells (WBCs) was detected transiently after ICV infusion. Isolated histological changes related to catheter placement and infusion were observed in ICV treated animals, including vehicle controls. The CSF and plasma exposure profiles were equivalent between animals that received an ICV or IT-L infusion. TPP1 levels peaked at the end of infusion, at which point the enzyme was present in plasma at 0.3% to 0.5% of CSF levels. TPP1 was detected in brain tissues with half-lives of 3–14 days. CNS distribution between ICV and IT-L administration was similar, although ICV resulted in distribution to deep brain structures including the thalamus, midbrain, and striatum. Direct CNS infusion of rhTPP1 was well tolerated with no drug related safety findings. The favorable nonclinical profile of ICV rhTPP1 supports the treatment of CLN2 by direct administration to the CNS. - Highlights: • TPP1 enzyme replacement therapy to the CNS is in development for CLN2 disease. • Toxicology, pharmacokinetics, and CNS distribution were assessed in monkeys. • TPP1 infusion directly to the brain did not result in any safety concerns. • A positive pharmacokinetic and distribution profile resulted from TPP1 infusion. • This study demonstrates the feasibility of ICV administered

  14. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacometabolomic study of pirfenidone in normal mouse tissues using high mass resolution MALDI-FTICR-mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Na; Fernandez, Isis E; Wei, Mian; Wu, Yin; Aichler, Michaela; Eickelberg, Oliver; Walch, Axel

    2016-02-01

    Given the importance of pirfenidone as the first worldwide-approved drug for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis treatment, its pharmacodynamic properties and the metabolic response to pirfenidone treatment have not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to get molecular insights of pirfenidone-related pharmacometabolomic response using MALDI-FTICR-MSI. Quantitative MALDI-FTICR-MSI was carried out for determining the pharmacokinetic properties of pirfenidone and its related metabolites 5-hydroxymethyl pirfenidone and 5-carboxy pirfenidone in lung, liver and kidney. To monitor the effect of pirfenidone administration on endogenous cell metabolism, additional in situ endogenous metabolite imaging was performed in lung tissue sections. While pirfenidone is highly abundant and delocalized across the whole micro-regions of lung, kidney and liver, 5-hydroxymethyl pirfenidone and 5-carboxy pirfenidone demonstrate heterogeneous distribution patterns in lung and kidney. In situ endogenous metabolite imaging study of lung tissue indicates no significant effects of pirfenidone on metabolic pathways. Remarkably, we found 129 discriminative m/z values which represent clear differences between control and treated lungs, the majority of which are currently unknown. PCA analysis and heatmap view can accurately distinguish control and treated groups. This is the first pharmacokinetic study to investigate the tissue distribution of orally administered pirfenidone and its related metabolites simultaneously in organs without labeling. The combination of pharmametabolome with histological features provides detailed mapping of drug effects on metabolism as response of healthy lung tissue to pirfenidone treatment.

  15. HI-6 oxime (an acetylcholinesterase reactivator): blood plasma pharmacokinetics and organ distribution in experimental pigs.

    PubMed

    Kuneš, Martin; Květina, Jaroslav; Bureš, Jan; Karasová, Jana Zdárová; Pavlík, Michal; Tachecí, Ilja; Musílek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil

    2014-01-01

    Oxime HI-6 DMS (dimethanesulfonate) is an asymmetric bis-pyridinium aldoxime and essential acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator. The high effectiveness is due to its wide spectrum of therapeutic activity against different structures of nerve agents. Aim of this study was to compare plasma time profiles and tissue distribution (to delimitation of potential toxicity risks) after its intramuscular (i.m.) and intragastric (i.g.) administration to experimental pigs. The study entered female Landrace pigs (Sus scrofa f. domestica), 4-5 months old animals, 29 ± 3.2 kg of body weight. Before the HI-6 DMS administration (i.m. injection or i.g. using a gastric tube), vena auricularis was cannulated (under general anaesthesia) for collection of blood samples. The tissue distribution study was carried out at expected t-max. Concentrations of HI-6 DMS in blood plasma and other tissue samples were detected by means of HPLC method. Fast absorption after i.m. administration, relatively slow absorption and no even elimination after i.g. administration were found. Tissue distribution showed low accumulation in the liver, but a higher content in the kidneys and high concentrations in the brain and gastrointestinal wall. Plasma time profiles after i.g. administration has a prolonged pharmacokinetics. Tissue distribution study showed potential side effects to the stomach due to a higher accumulation of HI-6 in this tissue after i.g. administration but not after a standard i.m. administration. Higher content of HI-6 in the kidneys after i.m. administration suggests the main way of the oxime elimination.

  16. Influence of molecular size on tissue distribution of antibody fragments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhe; Krippendorff, Ben-Fillippo; Sharma, Sharad; Walz, Antje C.; Lavé, Thierry; Shah, Dhaval K.

    2016-01-01

    Biodistribution coefficients (BC) allow estimation of the tissue concentrations of proteins based on the plasma pharmacokinetics. We have previously established the BC values for monoclonal antibodies. Here, this concept is extended by development of a relationship between protein size and BC values. The relationship was built by deriving the BC values for various antibody fragments of known molecular weight from published biodistribution studies. We found that there exists a simple exponential relationship between molecular weight and BC values that allows the prediction of tissue distribution of proteins based on molecular weight alone. The relationship was validated by a priori predicting BC values of 4 antibody fragments that were not used in building the relationship. The relationship was also used to derive BC50 values for all the tissues, which is the molecular weight increase that would result in 50% reduction in tissue uptake of a protein. The BC50 values for most tissues were found to be ~35 kDa. An ability to estimate tissue distribution of antibody fragments based on the BC vs. molecular size relationship established here may allow better understanding of the biologics concentrations in tissues responsible for efficacy or toxicity. This relationship can also be applied for rational development of new biotherapeutic modalities with optimal biodistribution properties to target (or avoid) specific tissues. PMID:26496429

  17. Influence of molecular size on tissue distribution of antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Krippendorff, Ben-Fillippo; Sharma, Sharad; Walz, Antje C; Lavé, Thierry; Shah, Dhaval K

    2016-01-01

    Biodistribution coefficients (BC) allow estimation of the tissue concentrations of proteins based on the plasma pharmacokinetics. We have previously established the BC values for monoclonal antibodies. Here, this concept is extended by development of a relationship between protein size and BC values. The relationship was built by deriving the BC values for various antibody fragments of known molecular weight from published biodistribution studies. We found that there exists a simple exponential relationship between molecular weight and BC values that allows the prediction of tissue distribution of proteins based on molecular weight alone. The relationship was validated by a priori predicting BC values of 4 antibody fragments that were not used in building the relationship. The relationship was also used to derive BC50 values for all the tissues, which is the molecular weight increase that would result in 50% reduction in tissue uptake of a protein. The BC50 values for most tissues were found to be ~35 kDa. An ability to estimate tissue distribution of antibody fragments based on the BC vs. molecular size relationship established here may allow better understanding of the biologics concentrations in tissues responsible for efficacy or toxicity. This relationship can also be applied for rational development of new biotherapeutic modalities with optimal biodistribution properties to target (or avoid) specific tissues.

  18. Tissue Pharmacokinetics of Cefazolin in Patients with Lower Limb Infections

    PubMed Central

    Bhalodi, Amira A.; Housman, Seth T.; Shepard, Ashley; Nugent, James

    2013-01-01

    Cefazolin, a first-generation cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci, is often used to treat lower limb infections caused by these pathogens. Antimicrobial penetration is often limited in these patients due to compromised vasculature. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the exposure profile of cefazolin in serum and tissue in patients with lower limb infections. An in vivo microdialysis catheter was inserted into the tissue near the margin of the wound and constantly perfused with lactated Ringer's solution. Steady-state serum and tissue samples were simultaneously collected over a dosing interval. Serum protein binding was also assessed. Serum concentrations were analyzed by noncompartmental analysis. Tissue concentrations were corrected for percent in vivo recovery by using the retrodialysis technique. Seven patients with a mean weight of 95.45 ± 18.51 kg and a mean age of 54 ± 19 years were enrolled. Six patients received 1 g every 8 h, and one patient received 2 g every 24 h due to acute kidney injury. The free area under the curve from 0 to 8 h (fAUC0–8) values for serum and wound were 48.0 ± 18.66 and 56.35 ± 41.17 μg · h/ml, respectively, for the patients receiving 1 g every 8 h. The fAUC0–24 values for serum and wound were 1,326.1 and 253.9 μg · h/ml, respectively, for the single patient receiving 2 g every 24 h. The mean tissue penetration ratio (tissue/serum fAUC ratio) was 1.06. These data suggest that the amount of time that free-drug concentrations remain above the MIC (fT>MIC) for cefazolin in wound tissue is adequate to treat patients with lower limb infections. PMID:24041887

  19. Tissue pharmacokinetics of cefazolin in patients with lower limb infections.

    PubMed

    Bhalodi, Amira A; Housman, Seth T; Shepard, Ashley; Nugent, James; Nicolau, David P

    2013-11-01

    Cefazolin, a first-generation cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci, is often used to treat lower limb infections caused by these pathogens. Antimicrobial penetration is often limited in these patients due to compromised vasculature. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the exposure profile of cefazolin in serum and tissue in patients with lower limb infections. An in vivo microdialysis catheter was inserted into the tissue near the margin of the wound and constantly perfused with lactated Ringer's solution. Steady-state serum and tissue samples were simultaneously collected over a dosing interval. Serum protein binding was also assessed. Serum concentrations were analyzed by noncompartmental analysis. Tissue concentrations were corrected for percent in vivo recovery by using the retrodialysis technique. Seven patients with a mean weight of 95.45 ± 18.51 kg and a mean age of 54 ± 19 years were enrolled. Six patients received 1 g every 8 h, and one patient received 2 g every 24 h due to acute kidney injury. The free area under the curve from 0 to 8 h (fAUC0-8) values for serum and wound were 48.0 ± 18.66 and 56.35 ± 41.17 μg · h/ml, respectively, for the patients receiving 1 g every 8 h. The fAUC0-24 values for serum and wound were 1,326.1 and 253.9 μg · h/ml, respectively, for the single patient receiving 2 g every 24 h. The mean tissue penetration ratio (tissue/serum fAUC ratio) was 1.06. These data suggest that the amount of time that free-drug concentrations remain above the MIC (fT>MIC) for cefazolin in wound tissue is adequate to treat patients with lower limb infections.

  20. Plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue depletion of cyromazine and its metabolite melamine following oral administration in laying chickens.

    PubMed

    Rairat, T; Ou, S C; Chang, S K; Li, K P; Vickroy, T W; Chou, C C

    2017-10-01

    The study was designed to characterize the plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue depletion profiles (including eggs) of cyromazine (CYR) in chickens following oral administration alone or in combination with melamine (MEL). In order to assess the pharmacokinetic profile of CYR, chickens were administered 1 or 10 mg/kg (single oral doses), whereas residue studies were conducted in chickens fed CYR alone (5 or 10 mg/kg) or CYR (5 mg/kg) and MEL (5 mg/kg) for a period of 14 days. Estimates for the apparent volume of distribution (1.66 L/kg), clearance (7.17 mL/kg/min), and elimination half-life (2.82 h) were derived by noncompartmental analyses. The highest concentration of CYR occurred in liver but fell below detectable limits within 3 days following drug withdrawal from feed. Combined feeding of MEL with CYR did not significantly alter CYR tissue levels. CYR residues were detected only in egg white and were undetectable at the 2nd day postadministration. No MEL was found in eggs unless it had been added to the feed, and when present, it almost exclusively restricted to the egg white. Based upon the results of this initial study of CYR pharmacokinetics and residue depletion, it appears that use of CYR as a feed additive either alone (5 or 10 mg/kg) or in combination with MEL (both agents at 5 mg/kg) does not produce unsafe residue levels in edible products as long as appropriate withdrawal periods are followed for tissues (3 days) and eggs (2 days). However, our results indicate that adoption of a zero-day withdrawal period should be reconsidered in light of these results. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Non-Linear Brain Distribution of Fluvoxamine in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Geldof, Marian; Freijer, Jan; van Beijsterveldt, Ludy

    2007-01-01

    Introduction A pharmacokinetic (PK) model is proposed for estimation of total and free brain concentrations of fluvoxamine. Materials and methods Rats with arterial and venous cannulas and a microdialysis probe in the frontal cortex received intravenous infusions of 1, 3.7 or 7.3 mg.kg−1 of fluvoxamine. Analysis With increasing dose a disproportional increase in brain concentrations was observed. The kinetics of brain distribution was estimated by simultaneous analysis of plasma, free brain ECF and total brain tissue concentrations. The PK model consists of three compartments for fluvoxamine concentrations in plasma in combination with a catenary two compartment model for distribution into the brain. In this catenary model, the mass exchange between a shallow perfusion-limited and a deep brain compartment is described by a passive diffusion term and a saturable active efflux term. Results The model resulted in precise estimates of the parameters describing passive influx into (kin) of 0.16 min−1 and efflux from the shallow brain compartment (kout) of 0.019 min−1 and the fluvoxamine concentration at which 50% of the maximum active efflux (C50) is reached of 710 ng.ml−1. The proposed brain distribution model constitutes a basis for precise characterization of the PK–PD correlation of fluvoxamine by taking into account the non-linearity in brain distribution. PMID:17710515

  2. Pharmacokinetic modeling of non-linear brain distribution of fluvoxamine in the rat.

    PubMed

    Geldof, Marian; Freijer, Jan; van Beijsterveldt, Ludy; Danhof, Meindert

    2008-04-01

    A pharmacokinetic (PK) model is proposed for estimation of total and free brain concentrations of fluvoxamine. Rats with arterial and venous cannulas and a microdialysis probe in the frontal cortex received intravenous infusions of 1, 3.7 or 7.3 mg.kg(-1) of fluvoxamine. With increasing dose a disproportional increase in brain concentrations was observed. The kinetics of brain distribution was estimated by simultaneous analysis of plasma, free brain ECF and total brain tissue concentrations. The PK model consists of three compartments for fluvoxamine concentrations in plasma in combination with a catenary two compartment model for distribution into the brain. In this catenary model, the mass exchange between a shallow perfusion-limited and a deep brain compartment is described by a passive diffusion term and a saturable active efflux term. The model resulted in precise estimates of the parameters describing passive influx into (k in) of 0.16 min(-1) and efflux from the shallow brain compartment (k out) of 0.019 min(-1) and the fluvoxamine concentration at which 50% of the maximum active efflux (C 50) is reached of 710 ng.ml(-1). The proposed brain distribution model constitutes a basis for precise characterization of the PK-PD correlation of fluvoxamine by taking into account the non-linearity in brain distribution.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in serum and adipose tissue following intravenous administration to adult female CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Doerge, Daniel R; Twaddle, Nathan C; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2012-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used as the monomer for polycarbonate plastic and in epoxy resins for use in food can liners. Worldwide biomonitoring studies consistently find high prevalence of BPA conjugates in urine consistent with pervasive exposure at levels typically below 1 μg/kg bw/day. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of unconjugated (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult female CD-1 mice following intravenous (IV) injection, which produces higher serum levels by circumventing the processes of absorption from the GI tract and presystemic metabolism that occur after oral administration. Deuterated BPA (100 μg/kg bw) was used to avoid interference by background contamination from trace amounts of native BPA. Additionally, the pharmacokinetics of unconjugated BPA were determined in adipose tissue, a proposed site of action and "depot" for BPA. After IV injection, unconjugated BPA rapidly distributed out of the circulation (t(1/2)=0.2 h) and terminal elimination also proceeded rapidly (t(1/2)=0.8 h). Consistent with the degree of aqueous solubility, lipid/water solubility ratio, and partitioning from blood into adipose tissue in vivo, the levels of unconjugated BPA in mouse adipose tissue rapidly reached a maximal level (0.25 h) that did not exceed the serum maximum at the initial sampling time (0.08 h). Terminal elimination of unconjugated BPA from adipose tissue (t(1/2)=7.0 h) was similar to that for conjugated BPA in serum (t(1/2)=6.6 h) and <0.01% of the administered dose remained in adipose tissue after 24 h. These plasma and tissue kinetics are consistent with rapid equilibria and underscore the non-persistent nature of BPA, particularly when compared with slowly metabolized lipophilic organic pollutants like halogenated dibenzodioxins.

  4. Distribution and chloramphenicol in the bovine genital tract and pharmacokinetic studies of florfenicol in cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Bretzlaff, K.N.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives were to investigate selected aspects of the distribution of chloramphenicol (CAP) in the bovine genital tract and to conduct preliminary pharmacologic studies with florfenicol (FLO), a fluorinated analogue of thiamphenicol, in cattle. After 8 hours' continuous intravenous (IV) infusion of CAP to 7 postpartum cows, steady state plasma-to-genital tissue ratios of CAP were approximately 3. After intrauterine infusion of 20 mg CAP/kg to 3 postpartum cows, approximately 40% of the dose was absorbed into the bloodstream. Tissue concentrations were high at 8 hour postdosing in tissues lining the uterine lumen but were below desired therapeutic concentrations in the myometrium of 2 of the cows. Eighty cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM) were assigned to receive on the following treatments: (1) removal of membranes only; (2) removal plus CAP; (3) nonremoval; (4) nonremoval plus CAP. CAP treatment consisted of 5 g administered IU twice daily for 3 days. The majority of cows in all groups acquired endometritis, although CAP reduced the prevalence and severity of the disease. A quantitative assay for FLO in plasma was developed and validated on a high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) system. The pharmacokinetics of FLO determined after IV administration of 50 mg FLO/kg to 5 cows were best described by a three-compartment model. FLO was approximately 18% bound to plasma proteins as determined by equilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration. In an in vitro system, 5, 125, or 1000 ug/ml of CAP had no effect on neutrophils from 6 cows.

  5. [Pharmacokinetics and distribution of 5-Fu magnetic albumin deuto-microsphere in normal and tumor-bearing mice].

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Shi, Shao-Jun; Zhou, Shun-Chang; Zheng, Jian-Wei; Chen, Hui; Zou, Sheng-Quan; Zeng, Fan-Dian

    2007-01-01

    To observe the pharmacokinetic and tissue-distribution characters of 5-flourouracil magnetic albumin deuto-microsphere (5-Fu-MAD) in normal and tumor-bearing mice, HPLC method for the determination of 5-Fu in plasma and tissues was established and applied to determine 5-Fu in mouse plasma and tissue samples. A Flame atomic absorption spectrometer was used to detect the iron concentration in mouse tissue. Plasma concentration-time curves of free 5-Fu, 5-Fu-MAD and 5-Fu-MAD plus the magnetic frame (MF) conformed to two compartment model of first order absorption and they had C(max) of 34.9, 7.95 and 5.97 mg x L(-1); T1/2 (Ke) of 22.26, 76.0 and 124.6 min, V(d) of 3.28, 30.7 and 66.1 L x kg; AUC(0-t), of 233.9, 78.3 and 50.2 mg x min x L(-1); AUC(0-infinity) of 237.2, 89.3 and 68.1 mg x min x L(-1), respectively. The distribution of 5-Fu and iron was the highest in the plenty blood perfusion organs like the liver, tumor, spleen and lung, while lower in the kidney and heart and lowest in brain and muscle. The tissue distribution of muscle and tumor increased significantly when a magnetic frame was inserted there. The pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of 5-Fu-MAD exhibited sustained-release and target characteristics.

  6. Pharmacokinetics and tissue concentrations of tylosin in selected avian species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, D.; Bush, M.; Carpenter, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Tissue and plasma concentrations and the biological half-life of tylosin in avian species of a variety of body sizes and metabolic rates were studied. The species chosen were eastern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus virginianus), pigeons (Columba livia), greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida), and emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae). In the 1st phase of this study, tylosin was administered IM to quail, pigeons, and emus at a dosage rate of 25 mg/kg of body weight and to cranes at a dosage rate of 15 mg/kg. The average peak plasma concentrations of tylosin in quail, pigeons, cranes, and emus were 4.31, 5.63, 3.62, and 3.26 microgram/ml, respectively. These peak concentrations occurred at 0.5 to 1.5 hours after administration. The biological half-life of tylosin averaged 1.2 hours in quail, pigeons, and cranes, and was 4.7 hours in emus. In the 2nd phase of this study, tylosin concentrations in the tissues of quail, pigeons, and cranes were markedly higher than were plasma concentrations at corresponding sampling times. Six hours after antibiotic administration, tissue concentrations of tylosin in all species remained within the minimum inhibitory concentration for most pathogenic organisms. Dosage regimens of 25 mg of tylosin/kg 4 times daily for quail and pigeons, 15 mg/kg 3 times daily for cranes, and 25 mg/kg 3 times daily for emus would be needed to establish and maintain therapeutic tissue concentrations.

  7. Practical concept of pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics in the management of skin and soft tissue infections.

    PubMed

    Pea, Federico

    2016-04-01

    This article gives an overview of the practical concept of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic principles useful for clinicians in the management of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Recent studies suggest that distinguishing between bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity when choosing an antimicrobial for the treatment of severe infections could probably be clinically irrelevant. Conversely, what could help clinicians in maximizing the therapeutic efficacy of the various drugs in routine practice is taking care of some pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic principles. Concentration-dependent agents may exhibit more rapid bacterial killing than observed with time-dependent agents. Serum concentrations may not always adequately predict tissue exposure in patients with SSTIs, and measuring concentrations at the infection site is preferable. Hydrophilic antimicrobials showed generally lower penetration rates than the lipophilic ones and might require alternative dosing approaches in the presence of severe sepsis or septic shock. Conversely, tissue penetration of lipophilic antimicrobials is often unaffected by the pathophysiological status. Real-time therapeutic drug monitoring may be a very helpful tool for optimizing therapy of severe infections. Taking care of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic principles deriving from the most recent findings may help clinicians in maximizing treatment of SSTIs with antimicrobials in every situation.

  8. Distribution of the anticancer drugs doxorubicin, mitoxantrone and topotecan in tumors and normal tissues.

    PubMed

    Patel, Krupa J; Trédan, Olivier; Tannock, Ian F

    2013-07-01

    Pharmacokinetic analyses estimate the mean concentration of drug within a given tissue as a function of time, but do not give information about the spatial distribution of drugs within that tissue. Here, we compare the time-dependent spatial distribution of three anticancer drugs within tumors, heart, kidney, liver and brain. Mice bearing various xenografts were treated with doxorubicin, mitoxantrone or topotecan. At various times after injection, tumors and samples of heart, kidney, liver and brain were excised. Within solid tumors, the distribution of doxorubicin, mitoxantrone and topotecan was limited to perivascular regions at 10 min after administration and the distance from blood vessels at which drug intensity fell to half was ~25-75 μm. Although drug distribution improved after 3 and 24 h, there remained a significant decrease in drug fluorescence with increasing distance from tumor blood vessels. Drug distribution was relatively uniform in the heart, kidney and liver with substantially greater perivascular drug uptake than in tumors. There was significantly higher total drug fluorescence in the liver than in tumors after 10 min, 3 and 24 h. Little to no drug fluorescence was observed in the brain. There are marked differences in the spatial distributions of three anticancer drugs within tumor tissue and normal tissues over time, with greater exposure to most normal tissues and limited drug distribution to many cells in tumors. Studies of the spatial distribution of drugs are required to complement pharmacokinetic data in order to better understand and predict drug effects and toxicities.

  9. Nonlinear mixed-effects models for pharmacokinetic data analysis: assessment of the random-effects distribution.

    PubMed

    Drikvandi, Reza

    2017-02-13

    Nonlinear mixed-effects models are frequently used for pharmacokinetic data analysis, and they account for inter-subject variability in pharmacokinetic parameters by incorporating subject-specific random effects into the model. The random effects are often assumed to follow a (multivariate) normal distribution. However, many articles have shown that misspecifying the random-effects distribution can introduce bias in the estimates of parameters and affect inferences about the random effects themselves, such as estimation of the inter-subject variability. Because random effects are unobservable latent variables, it is difficult to assess their distribution. In a recent paper we developed a diagnostic tool based on the so-called gradient function to assess the random-effects distribution in mixed models. There we evaluated the gradient function for generalized liner mixed models and in the presence of a single random effect. However, assessing the random-effects distribution in nonlinear mixed-effects models is more challenging, especially when multiple random effects are present, and therefore the results from linear and generalized linear mixed models may not be valid for such nonlinear models. In this paper, we further investigate the gradient function and evaluate its performance for such nonlinear mixed-effects models which are common in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. We use simulations as well as real data from an intensive pharmacokinetic study to illustrate the proposed diagnostic tool.

  10. Two-level time-domain decomposition based distributed method for numerical solutions of pharmacokinetic models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Lai, Choi-Hong; Zhou, Shao-Dan; Xie, Fen; Rui, Lu

    2011-04-01

    In order to predict variations of drug concentration during a given period of time, numerical solutions of pharmacokinetic models need to be obtained efficiently. Analytical solutions of linear pharmacokinetic models are usually obtained using the Laplace transform and inverse Laplace tables. The derivations of solutions to complex nonlinear models are tedious, and such solution process may be difficult to implement as a robust software code. For nonlinear models, the fourth-order Runge-Kutta (RK4) is the most classical numerical method in obtaining approximate numerical solutions, which is impossible to be implemented in distributed computing environments without much modification. The reason is that numerical solutions obtained by using RK4 can only be computed in sequential time steps. In this paper, time-domain decomposition methods are adapted for nonlinear pharmacokinetic models. The numerical Inverse Laplace method for PharmacoKinetic models (ILPK) is implemented to solve pharmacokinetic models with iterative inverse Laplace transform in each time interval. The distributed ILPK algorithm, which is based on a two-level time-domain decomposition concept, is proposed to improve its efficiency. Solutions on the coarser temporal mesh at the top level are obtained one by one, and then those on the finer temporal mesh at the bottom level are calculated concurrently by using those initial solutions that have been obtained at the top level decomposition. Accuracy and efficiency of the proposed algorithm and its distributed equivalent are investigated by using several test models. Results indicate that the ILPK algorithm and its distributed equivalent are good candidates for both linear and nonlinear pharmacokinetic models.

  11. Sunitinib tissue distribution changes after coadministration with ketoconazole in mice.

    PubMed

    Chee, Evelyn Li-Ching; Lim, Adeline Yi Ling; Modamio, Pilar; Fernandez-Lastra, Cecilia; Segarra, Ignacio

    2016-06-01

    Sunitinib is a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. It is metabolized via CYP3A4 and has low brain penetration due to efflux transporters ABCB1B and ABCG2. We studied the interaction with ketoconazole (50 mg/kg), antifungal drug which shares metabolic pathways and efflux transporters, in ICR female mice after oral coadministration (30 min apart) of 60 mg/kg sunitinib (study group) versus sunitinib alone (control group). Plasma, liver, kidney and brain sunitinib concentrations were measured by HPLC at 2, 5, 10, 20, 40 min, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 h post-sunitinib administration, and non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters estimated. In plasma, ketoconazole coadministration increased plasma maximum concentration (C MAX) 60 %, delayed time to C MAX (T MAX); 1.6-fold greater area under the curve AUC0→∞ (p < 0.001); lower apparent steady-state volume of distribution (V SS/F) and oral clearance (Cl/F) 40 and 61 %, respectively; and shorter elimination half-life (t 1/2). Sunitinib exhibited extensive tissue distribution which increased after ketoconazole coadministration: total area under the curve (AUC0→∞) increased 1.8-, 2.8- and 1.2-fold in kidney, liver and brain, respectively (all p < 0.001). Sunitinib presented high tissue-to-plasma AUC0→∞ ratio in liver (17.8 ± 1.2), kidney (14.6 ± 1.52) and brain (2.25 ± 0.18) which was modified after coadministration: AUC0→∞ ratio increased in liver (31.4 ± 4.7; p < 0.001), kidney (17.1 ± 2.2; p > 0.05) and decreased in brain (1.70 ± 0.23, p > 0.05). The results showed a significant ketoconazole-sunitinib interaction that affected plasma, tissue pharmacokinetics and tissue uptake mechanisms. The study portrays the risk to increase toxicity and potential clinical translatability to treat tumors in tissues.

  12. [Melphalan pharmacokinetics during isolated limb regional perfusion in patients with skin melanoma and soft tissue sarcoma].

    PubMed

    Gafton, G I; Senchik, K Yu; Petrov, V G; V V Semiglazov; N V Tatyanicheva; V G Bespalov; Semiletova, Yu V; Gafton, I G; Zinoviev, G V; Kireeva, G S

    2015-01-01

    The study of pharmacokinetics of melphalan in the perfusate and blood plasma during isolated limb regional perfusion (ILRP) was carried out in patients with melanoma (n=21) and soft tissue sarcoma (n = 24). Melphalan was administered as 10 mg/l for a lower extremity and 13 mg/l for a upper extremity. Quantification of melphalan in perfusate and blood samples was performed by means of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. 30 samples of the perfusate and 27 venous blood samples were analyzed. During the first 5 minutes of ILRP concentration of melphalan in the perfusate decreased to 13.2% of the initial value, and by the end of perfusion (60 minutes) it was 3.3%. The amount of melphalan in the blood plasma of the patients by the end of ILRP wasn't higher than 1.6% from the administered dose. That demonstrates minor systemic absorption of the drug during ILRP. Moreover melphalan concentration in the blood plasma during the perfusion was in average 0.015-0.223 mg/l which is significantly lower compared to the blood plasma concentrations after intravenous administration of melphalan. Thus ILRP procedure provided 97% of the melphalan dose accumulation in the soft tissues of a limb and in tumor tissues. Also pharmacokinetic advantage of melphalan over systemic administration of the drug was shown.

  13. Understanding pharmacokinetics using realistic computational models of fluid dynamics: biosimulation of drug distribution within the CSF space for intrathecal drugs.

    PubMed

    Kuttler, Andreas; Dimke, Thomas; Kern, Steven; Helmlinger, Gabriel; Stanski, Donald; Finelli, Luca A

    2010-12-01

    We introduce how biophysical modeling in pharmaceutical research and development, combining physiological observations at the tissue, organ and system level with selected drug physiochemical properties, may contribute to a greater and non-intuitive understanding of drug pharmacokinetics and therapeutic design. Based on rich first-principle knowledge combined with experimental data at both conception and calibration stages, and leveraging our insights on disease processes and drug pharmacology, biophysical modeling may provide a novel and unique opportunity to interactively characterize detailed drug transport, distribution, and subsequent therapeutic effects. This innovative approach is exemplified through a three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics model of the spinal canal motivated by questions arising during pharmaceutical development of one molecular therapy for spinal cord injury. The model was based on actual geometry reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging data subsequently transformed in a parametric 3D geometry and a corresponding finite-volume representation. With dynamics controlled by transient Navier-Stokes equations, the model was implemented in a commercial multi-physics software environment established in the automotive and aerospace industries. While predictions were performed in silico, the underlying biophysical models relied on multiple sources of experimental data and knowledge from scientific literature. The results have provided insights into the primary factors that can influence the intrathecal distribution of drug after lumbar administration. This example illustrates how the approach connects the causal chain underlying drug distribution, starting with the technical aspect of drug delivery systems, through physiology-driven drug transport, then eventually linking to tissue penetration, binding, residence, and ultimately clearance. Currently supporting our drug development projects with an improved understanding of systems

  14. Quinolone pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Robson, R A

    1992-12-01

    Fluoroquinolones have broad antibacterial spectra and are active against most Gram-negative and many Gram-positive species. They exhibit excellent oral bioavailability, extensive tissue penetration, low protein binding, and a long elimination half-life. This review compares and contrasts the pharmakonetics of some quinolone antibiotics - especially pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, fleroxacin and lomefloxacin - in terms of their adsorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and interactions with other drugs and with food. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of these agents in the elderly and in patients with renal or hepatic impairment is discussed. The fluoroquinolones are established as a major class of antibiotics in the treatment of infections but pharmacokinetics factors should be considered when deciding on the most appropriate of these agents to use in individual patients.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin in bovine plasma, lung tissue, and bronchial fluid (from live, nonanesthetized cattle).

    PubMed

    Menge, M; Rose, M; Bohland, C; Zschiesche, E; Kilp, S; Metz, W; Allan, M; Röpke, R; Nürnberger, M

    2012-12-01

    The pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin (Zuprevo(®) 180 mg/mL solution for injection for cattle), a novel 16-membered macrolide for treatment, control, and prevention of bovine respiratory disease, were investigated in studies collecting blood plasma, lung tissue, and in vivo samples of bronchial fluid (BF) from cattle. After single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection at 4 mg/kg body weight, maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) was 0.7 μg/mL. T(max) was 23 min. Mean residence time from the time of dosing to the time of last measurable concentration (MRT(last)) and terminal half-life (T(1/2) ) was 6 and 9 days, respectively. A strong dose-response relationship with no significant sex effect was shown for both C(max) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last sampling time with a quantifiable drug concentration (AUC(last) ) over the range of doses up to 6 mg/kg. Absolute bioavailability was 78.9%. The volume of distribution based on the terminal phase (V(z)) was 49.4 L/kg, and the plasma clearance was 144 mL/h/kg. The time-concentration profile of tildipirosin in BF and lung far exceeded those in blood plasma. In lung, tildipirosin concentrations reached 9.2 μg/g at 4 h, peaked at 14.8 μg/g at day 1, and slowly declined to 2.0 μg/g at day 28. In BF, the concentration of tildipirosin reached 1.5 and 3.0 μg/g at 4 and 10 h, maintained a plateau of about 3.5 μg/g between day 1 and 3, and slowly declined to 1.0 at day 21. T(1/2) in lung and BF was approximately 10 and 11 days. Tildipirosin is rapidly and extensively distributed to the respiratory tract followed by slow elimination.

  16. Usefulness of minipigs for predicting human pharmacokinetics: Prediction of distribution volume and plasma clearance.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Hiromichi; Konno, Yoshihiro; Ishii, Kunikazu; Satsukawa, Masahiro; Yamashita, Shinji

    2016-02-01

    In this study, advantages of minipigs to use in preclinical study for new drug development were evaluated in terms of prediction of human pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of various drugs. Fourteen model drugs having diverse physicochemical properties were selected and intravenously administered to mice, rats and minipigs to obtain their PK parameters. The human volume of distribution (Vd) and clearance (CL) of model drugs were predicted from PK parameters in each animal species. When Vd of 14 drugs in each species were directly compared with those in humans, minipigs showed the highest correlation. Correction of Vd with an unbound fraction of drugs in tissues further improved the correlation. Allometric scaling that included minipig data resulted in high accuracy in the prediction of human Vd, clearly indicating an importance of minipig data. Minipigs also showed the high predictability of human CL. The prediction of human CL by allometric scaling showed a high accuracy when the data of minipigs were included. In conclusion, potential advantages of minipigs for predicting human Vd and CL were clearly demonstrated. Reliable prediction of human PK from data of minipigs appears to be possible in preclinical PK study, without relying on PK analysis in other species.

  17. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic tissue compartment model selection in drug development and risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Matthew D.; Beard, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    The well-stirred tank (WST) has been the predominant flow-limited tissue compartment model in physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Recently, we developed a two-region asymptotically reduced (TAR) PBPK tissue compartment model through an asymptotic approximation to a two-region vascular-extravascular system to incorporate more biophysical detail than the WST model. To determine the relevance of the novel flow-limited approach (F-TAR), 75 structurally diverse drugs are evaluated herein using a priori predicted tissue:plasma partition coefficients along with hybrid and whole-body PBPK of eight rat tissues to determine the impact of model selection on simulation and optimization. Simulations show the F-TAR model significantly improves the ability to predict drug exposure, with hybrid and whole-body WST model error approaching 50% for tissues with larger vascular volumes. When optimization is used to fit F-TAR and WST models to pseudo data, WST-optimized drug partition coefficients more appropriately represent curve-fitting parameters rather than biophysically meaningful partition coefficients. Median F-TAR-optimized error ranged from -0.4 to 0.3%, while WST-optimized median error ranged from -22.2 to 1.8%. These studies demonstrate the use of F-TAR represents a more accurate, biophysically realistic PBPK tissue model for predicting tissue exposure to drug and should be considered for use in drug development and regulatory review. PMID:21968734

  18. Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy of Topically Applied Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Retinochoroidal Tissues in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Kida, Tetsuo; Kozai, Seiko; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Isaka, Mitsuyoshi; Tokushige, Hideki; Sakamoto, Taiji

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of topically applied nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the retinochoroidal tissues of rabbits. Methods The cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitory activity of diclofenac, bromfenac, and amfenac, an active metabolite of nepafenac, were determined using human-derived COX-1 and COX-2. Each of the three NSAIDs was applied topically to rabbits, and after 0.5 to 8 hrs, the concentration of each drug in the aqueous humor and the retinochoroidal tissues was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The pharmacokinetics of the drugs in the tissues after repeated doses as is done on patients was calculated by a simulation software. The inhibitory effect of each NSAID on the breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier was assessed by the vitreous protein concentration on concanavalin A-induced retinochoroidal inflammation in rabbits. Results The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of diclofenac, bromfenac, and amfenac was 55.5, 5.56, and 15.3 nM for human COX-1, and 30.7, 7.45, and 20.4 nM for human COX-2, respectively. The three NSAIDs were detected in the aqueous humor and the retinochoroidal tissue at all-time points. Simulated pharmacokinetics showed that the levels of the three NSAIDs were continuously higher than the IC50 of COX-2, as an index of efficacy, in the aqueous humor, whereas only the bromfenac concentration was continuously higher than the IC50 at its trough level in the retinochoroidal tissues. The intravitreous concentration of proteins was significantly reduced in rabbits that received topical bromfenac (P = 0.026) but not the other two NSAIDs. Conclusions Topical bromfenac can penetrate into the retinochoroidal tissues in high enough concentrations to inhibit COX-2 and exerts its inhibitory effect on the blood-retinal barrier breakdown in an experimental retinochoroidal inflammation in rabbits. Topical bromfenac may have a better therapeutic benefit than diclofenac and

  19. PET measurement of C-11-methylphenidate pharmacokinetics and distribution in the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y.S.; Fowler, J.S.; Wang, G.J.

    1994-05-01

    Methylphenidate (MP), a psychostimulant drug which binds to the dopamine transporter (DAT), is the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medication for children in the USA yet little is known about its pharmacokinetics and distribution in the human brain. PET was used to measure the pharmacokinetics of d,l-threo-[{sup 11}C]methylphenidate (MP*) the labelled form of the prescribed drug (ritalin) in eight normal male subjects (age range 20-74 years). Four subjects had 2 repeated scans to assess test/retest reproducibility and 4 had one wan as baseline and the second 10 minutes after administration of 0.5 mg/kg MP to assess specific to nonspecific binding. Dynamic scans were started immediately after injection of MP*(5-10 mCi) for 90 min on the CTI-931 (6 x 6 x 6.5 mm FWHM). Time activity curves for tissue concentration and for unchanged tracer in plasma were used to calculate the distribution volume (DV) in basal ganglia (BG), cerebellum (CB) and global (GL) regions using graphical analysis. Binding of MP* was highest in the BG (0.008% dose/cc) uptake in CB corresponded to (0.006) and in GL to (0.005). Kinetic analysis revealed fast uptake of MP* with peak uptake in BG occurring 5-20 min PI, and in CB and GL at 5-13 min PI. Half time clearance for MP* occurred 90 min PI for BG and 60 min for CB and GL. Test/retest variability was <10% (range -0.5 to +7.0% for the DV ratio (BG/CB)). Pretreatment with MP selectively reduced uptake in BG wherein it did not affect uptake in CB or GL. The ratio of the DV in BG to that in CB changed from 2.12{plus_minus}0.1 to 1.35{plus_minus}0.04. The lack of an effect of MP in CB an area with a high density of norepinephrine (NE) transporters suggests that MP* is not binding to the NE transporter.

  20. Pharmacokinetics and tissue tolerance of azithromycin after intramuscular administration to rabbits.

    PubMed

    Escudero, E; Fernández-Varón, E; Marín, P; Espuny, A; Nájera, M D; Cárceles, C M

    2006-12-01

    The pharmacokinetics of azithromycin after intravenous and intramuscular injection at a single dose rate of 10mg/kg bodyweight were investigated in rabbits by using a modified agar diffusion bioassay for determining plasma concentrations. The plasma creatine kinase activity was determined after i.m. administration for the evaluation of the tissue tolerance. The elimination half-lives of azithromycin after intravenous and intramuscular administration were 24.1 and 25.1h, respectively. After intramuscular administration mean peak plasma concentration was 0.26+/-0.01 mg/L and bioavailability was 97.7%. Plasma CK activity rose sharply within 8h after i.m. injection of azithromycin; activity returned to pre-treatment level by 48-72 h post-treatment. The transient rise in serum CK activity indicates some degree of muscle tissue damage at the injection site.

  1. Bioavailability, tissue distribution, and excretion characteristics of the novel carbonic anhydrase inhibitor tolsultazolamide in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-da; Shi, Yong-ping; Yin, Jing; Pan, Zhi-yuan; Cui, Wen-yu; Zhang, Yan-fang; Wang, Hai

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Tolsultazolamide, a novel carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, is designed for the prophylaxis and treatment of acute mountain sickness. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion characteristics of tolsultazolamide and the sex difference in pharmacokinetics in rats. Methods: For pharmacokinetic study, rats were intravenously injected tolsultazolamide at 1 and 2 mg/kg or orally administered tolsultazolamide at 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg) in a pharmacokinetic study. The concentrations of tolsultazolamide in plasma were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography, with a liquid–liquid extraction. For tissue distribution study, tolsultazolamide (80 mg/kg) was orally administered to overnight fasted rats (six per group and three per sex). Samples were collected from the brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, muscle, kidney, stomach, fat, intestines, pancreas and sexual gland. For excretion study, tolsultazolamide (40 mg/kg) was orally administered to 6 rats (three per sex). The urine, feces, and bile samples were collected at 24, 48, and 72 h. Results: After its intravenous administration, tolsultazolamide was rapidly eliminated from the plasma, with T1/2 of about 60–90 min. The AUC0–t and the initial concentration (C0) values were proportional to the intravenous doses. After its oral administration, tolsultazolamide showed dose-independent pharmacokinetic characteristics, with Tmax and T1/2 of approximately 2 h and 5–7 h, respectively, and good oral absolute bioavailability of about 60%. Tolsultazolamide was distributed widely in various tissues. The highest tolsultazolamide levels were detected in the stomach, intestine, spleen, lung, and kidney. Total excretion of unchanged tolsultazolamide in the urine, feces, and bile was less than 2%. The Cmax and AUC of tolsultazolamide were significantly higher in female rats than those in male rats. Clearance and volume of distribution were greater in male rats than

  2. Coefficient of distribution of some organophosphorous pesticides in rat tissue.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Repetto, R; Martinez, D; Repetto, M

    1995-06-01

    Coefficient of distribution in tissue is proposed as an indicator of the affinity of xenobiotics for different tissues and their tendency to accumulate. The present study shows the distribution of some organophosphorous pesticides in rat tissues. Using the coefficient of distribution we established the preference of these insecticides for the various tissues. Each pesticide had a specific pattern of affinity for different tissues.

  3. Antitumor efficacy, tumor distribution and blood pharmacokinetics of chitosan/glyceryl-monooleate nanostructures containing paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Trickler, William J; Munt, Daniel J; Jain, Neha; Joshi, Shantaram S; Dash, Alekha K

    2011-04-01

    This investigation compared the tumor distribution, efficacy, blood pharmacokinetic parameters and hematological alterations following treatment with chitosan/glyceryl-monooleate (GMO) nanostructures containing paclitaxel (PTX) to a conventional formulation of PTX (Taxol(®)) in BALB/c female mice. The tumor and blood concentrations of PTX were evaluated by HPLC and the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined through noncompartmental methods. Tumor development was evaluated by histopathological methods and hematological composition was monitored through differential white blood cells counts. Lower localized or intravenous doses of PTX-chitosan/GMO nanostructures significantly increased the antitumor activity of paclitaxel. The tumor distribution studies showed effective concentrations in the tumors with the chitosan/GMO formulation while systemic blood levels remained lower than after administration of the conventional formulation. Delivery systems consisting of chitosan/GMO and PTX are safe and effective administered locally (intratumorally) or intravenously.

  4. Differential pharmacokinetics and the brain distribution of morphine and ephedrine constitutional isomers in rats after oral administration with Keke capsule using rapid-resolution LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Song, Yonggui; Su, Dan; Lu, Tulin; Mao, Chunqin; Ji, De; Liu, Yali; Wei, Binbin; Fan, Ronghua

    2014-02-01

    Opioid and ephedra alkaloids known as the active ingredients for Keke capsule, which is used to treat coughs and bronchial asthma, could have potential adverse effects on the central nervous system. Therefore, an efficient, sensitive rapid-resolution LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of morphine, ephedrine, and pseudoephedrine in rat plasma and brain tissue homogenate has been developed. The method was validated in the plasma and brain tissue samples, showed good linearity over a wide concentration range (r(2) > 0.99). The intra- and interday assay variability was less than 15% for all analytes, and the accuracy was between -8.8 and 5.7%. The study provided the pharmacokinetics profiles and the brain regional distribution of the three active alkaloids after oral administration of Keke capsule. The results also indicated that significant difference in pharmacokinetics parameters of the epimers was observed between ephedrine and pseudoephedrine.

  5. A pharmacokinetic study of a topical anesthetic (EMLA® ) in mouse soft tissue laceration.

    PubMed

    Al-Musawi, Alaa; Matar, Kamal; Kombian, Samuel B; Andersson, Lars

    2012-12-01

    The use of topical anesthesia instead of injection of local anesthetics for managing soft tissue lacerations in the emergency situations may be a relief for both patients and surgeons. Topical anesthesia in the form of a cream eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA®) containing 2.5% lidocaine and 2.5% prilocaine has been reported as an efficient anesthetic on skin before venipuncture anesthesia and as an alternative to injection anesthesia in some minor surgery situations. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of EMLA® when applied in a laceration with topical skin application in the mouse. A total of 120 Albino Laboratory-bred strain mouse (BALB-c) male mice were divided into three groups with regard to application mode of EMLA®. Group A: with laceration, 48 mice; Group B: on intact shaved skin, 48 mice; Group C: control group (24 mice) with same procedures but without application of EMLA®. Blood levels were collected at 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min post-EMLA® application. Plasma sample analysis was carried out by employing liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method, and the pharmacokinetic analysis of the mouse plasma samples was estimated by standard non-compartmental methods. The pharmacokinetic parameters of lidocaine and prilocaine were significantly altered following EMLA® application to lacerated mouse skin in contrast to intact skin. The absorption of lidocaine and prilocaine was rapid following application of EMLA® to lacerated and intact mouse skin. Maximum drug plasma concentration (C(max) ) and area under the drug plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) values of lidocaine were significantly increased by 448.6% and 161.5%, respectively, following application of EMLA to lacerated mouse skin in comparison with intact mouse skin. Similarly, prilocaine's C(max) and AUC values were also increased by 384% and 265.7%, respectively, following EMLA application to lacerated mouse skin, in

  6. A paradigm shift in pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) modeling: rule of thumb for estimating free drug level in tissue compared with plasma to guide drug design.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    fraction in plasma derived from a static in vitro environment might be biased to guide drug design (the old paradigm), and, hence, it is recommended to use a PBPK model to reproduce more accurately the in vivo condition in tissue (the new paradigm). This newly developed approach can be used to predict free drug concentration in diverse tissue compartments for small molecules in toxicology and pharmacology studies, which can be leveraged to optimize the pharmacokinetics drivers of tissue distribution based upon physicochemical and physiological input parameters in an attempt to optimize free drug level in tissue. Overall, this present study provides guidance on the application of plasma and tissue concentration information in PBPK/PD research in preclinical and clinical studies, which is in accordance with the recent literature.

  7. Preclinical pharmacokinetic analysis of armillarisin succinate ester in mouse plasma and tissues by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qinhua; Li, Peng; Zhang, Jinfeng; Zhu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated to determine the concentration of armillarisin succinate ester in mouse plasma and tissues, used for preclinical evaluation. Bavachin was employed as the internal standard. Separation was performed on a 3.5 µm Zorbax SB-C(18) column (30 × 2.1 mm), with a mobile phase consisting of methanol and aqueous 20 mm ammonium acetate. Both analyte and internal standard were determined using electrospray ionization and the MS data acquisition was via selected ion monitoring in negative scanning mode. Quantification was performed using the transitions m/z 333 → 233 and 323 → 221 for armillarisin succinate ester and internal standard, respectively. The method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery and stability. This assay has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution study after intravenous injection of ASE in mouse in a dose of 10 mg/kg. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Determination of Tissue Penetration and Pharmacokinetics of Linezolid in Patients with Diabetic Foot Infections Using In Vivo Microdialysis▿

    PubMed Central

    Wiskirchen, Dora E.; Shepard, Ashley; Kuti, Joseph L.; Nicolau, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and other Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, continue to be the predominant pathogens associated with diabetic foot infections. Consequently, linezolid is often used to treat these infections. The purpose of the current study was to describe the pharmacokinetic profile and determine the level of penetration of linezolid into healthy thigh tissue and infected wound tissue of the same extremity in 9 diabetic patients with chronic lower limb infections by use of in vivo microdialysis. Hourly plasma and dialysate samples were obtained over a 12-h dosing interval following 3 to 4 doses of linezolid (600 mg intravenously every 12 h). Plasma protein binding was also assessed at 1, 6, and 12 h postdose. The means ± standard deviations (SD) for the maximum concentration in serum (Cmax), the volume of distribution at terminal phase (Vz), and the half-life (t1/2) for linezolid in plasma were 11.99 ± 3.67 μg/ml, 0.71 ± 0.25 liters/kg of body weight, and 4.71 ± 1.23 h, respectively. Mean protein binding was 14.78% (range, 3.85 to 32.03%). The mean areas under the concentration-time curves from 0 to 12 h for the free, unbound fraction of linezolid (fAUC0–12 values) ± SD for plasma, wound tissue, and thigh tissue were 51.24 ± 12.72, 82.76 ± 59.01, and 92.52 ± 60.44 μg · h/ml, respectively. Tissue penetration ratios (tissue fAUC to plasma fAUC) were similar for thigh (1.42; range, 1.08 to 2.23) and wound (1.27; range, 0.86 to 2.26) tissues (P = 0.648). With the currently approved dosing regimen, linezolid penetrated well into both healthy thigh tissue and infected wound tissue in these diabetic patients. PMID:21709078

  9. Pharmacokinetics and distributions of bevacizumab by intravitreal injection of bevacizumab-PLGA microspheres in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhuo; Ji, Yan-Li; Ma, Xiang; Wen, Jian-Guo; Wei, Wei; Huang, Shu-Man

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the pharmacokinetics and distributions of bevacizumab by intravitreal injection of prepared bevacizumab-poly (L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres in rabbits, to provide evidence for clinical application of this kind of bevacizumab sustained release dosage form. METHODS Bevacizumab was encapsulated into PLGA microsphere via the solid-in-oil-in-hydrophilic oil (S/O/hO) method. Fifteen healthy New Zealand albino-rabbits were used in experiments. The eyes of each rabbit received an intravitreal injection. The left eyes were injected with prepared bevacizumab-PLGA microspheres and the right eyes were injected with bevacizumab solution. After intravitreal injection, rabbits were randomly selected at days 3, 7, 14, 28 and 42 respectively, three animals each day. Then we used immunofluorescence staining to observe the distribution and duration of bevacizumab in rabbit eye tissues, and used the sandwich ELISA to quantify the concentration of free bevacizumab from the rabbit aqueous humor and vitreous after intravitreal injection. RESULTS The results show that the concentration of bevacizumab in vitreous and aqueous humor after administration of PLGA formulation was higher than that of bevacizumab solution. The T1/2 of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab-PLGA microspheres is 9.6d in vitreous and 10.2d in aqueous humor, and the T1/2 of intravitreal injection of soluble bevacizumab is 3.91d in vitreous and 4.1d in aqueous humor. There were statistical significant difference for comparison the results of the bevacizumab in vitreous and aqueous humor between the left and right eyes (P<0.05). The AUC0-t of the sustained release dosage form was 1-fold higher than that of the soluble form. The relative bioavailability was raised significantly. The immunofluorescence staining of PLGA-encapsulated bevacizumab (b-PLGA) in rabbit eye tissues was still observed up to 42d. It was longer than that of the soluble form. CONCLUSION The result of this study

  10. Single Dose Pharmacokinetics of Oral Tenofovir in Plasma, Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, Colonic Tissue, and Vaginal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Louissaint, Nicolette A.; Cao, Ying-Jun; Skipper, Paul L.; Liberman, Rosa G.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Anderson, Jean R.; Everts, Stephanie; Bakshi, Rahul; Fuchs, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract HIV seroconversion outcomes in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials of oral tenofovir (TFV)-containing regimens are highly sensitive to drug concentration, yet less-than-daily dosing regimens are under study. Description of TFV and its active moiety, TFV diphosphate (TFV-DP), in blood, vaginal tissue, and colon tissue may guide the design and interpretation of PrEP clinical trials. Six healthy women were administered a single oral dose of 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and 4.3 mg (12.31 MBq, 333 μCi) 14C-TDF slurry. Blood was collected every 4 h for the first 24 h, then at 4, 8, 11, and 15 days postdosing. Colonic and vaginal samples (tissue, total and CD4+ cells, luminal fluid and cells) were collected 1, 8 and 15 days postdose. Samples were analyzed for TFV and TFV-DP. Plasma TFV demonstrated triphasic decay with terminal elimination half-life median [interquartile range (IQR)] 69 h (58–77). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) TFV-DP demonstrated biphasic peaks (median 12 h and 96 h) followed by a terminal 48 h (38–76) half-life; Cmax was 20 fmol/million cells (2–63). One day postdose, the TFV-DP paired colon:vaginal tissue concentration ratio was 1 or greater in all subjects' tissue homogenates, median 124 (range 1–281), but was not sustained. The ratio was lower and more variable in cells extracted from tissue. Among all sample types, TFV and TFV-DP half-life ranged from 23 to 139 h. PBMC TFV-DP rose slowly in the hours after dosing indicating that success with exposure-driven dosing regimens may be sensitive to timing of the dose prior to exposure. Colonic tissue homogenate TFV-DP concentrations were greater than in vaginal homogenate at 24 h, but not in cells extracted from tissue. These and the other pharmacokinetic findings will guide the interpretation and design of future PrEP trials. PMID:23600365

  11. Plasma Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Disposition of Novel Dextran- Methylprednisolone Conjugates with Peptide Linkers in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Suman; Agarwal, Hitesh K.; Parang, Keykavous; Mehvar, Reza

    2012-01-01

    The plasma and tissue disposition of two novel dextran prodrugs of methylprednisolone (MP) containing one (DMP-1) or five (DMP-5) amino acids as linkers were studied in rats. Single 5-mg/kg doses (MP equivalent) of each prodrug or MP were administered intravenously, and blood and tissue samples were collected. Prodrug and drug concentrations were quantitated using HPLC, and non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Whereas conjugation of MP with dextran in both prodrugs substantially decreased the clearance of the drug by ~200 fold, the accumulations of the drug in the liver, spleen, and kidneys were significantly increased by conjugation. However, the extent of accumulation of DMP-1 in these tissues was substantially greater than that for DMP-5. Substantial amounts of MP were regenerated from both prodrugs in the liver and spleen, with the rate of release from DMP-5 being twice as fast as that from DMP-1. However, the AUCs of MP regenerated from DMP-1 in the liver and spleen were substantially higher than those after DMP-5. In contrast, in the kidneys, the AUC of MP regenerated from DMP-5 was higher than that after DMP-1 administration. These data suggest that DMP-1 may be more suitable than DMP-5 for targeting immunosuppression to the liver and spleen. PMID:19780131

  12. In Vivo Tissue Pharmacokinetics of Carbon-11-Labeled Clozapine in Healthy Volunteers: A Positron Emission Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, HS; Kim, E; Moon, BS; Lim, NH; Lee, BC; Kim, SE

    2015-01-01

    We investigated clozapine (CLZ) tissue pharmacokinetics in vivo by using carbon-11-labeled CLZ (11C-CLZ) and positron emission tomography (PET). Eight healthy volunteers underwent 11C-CLZ studies wherein computed tomography image acquisition was followed by PET scans (whole-body, four; brain, four). After bolus intravenous 11C-CLZ injection, PET images were acquired at various timepoints for 2–3 hours. Tissue 11C-CLZ signals were plotted over time, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. High 11C-CLZ radioactivity was detected in the liver and brain, implying CLZ hepatic metabolism and efficient blood–brain barrier penetration. The urinary and hepatobiliary tracts were involved in 11C-CLZ excretion. Moderate to high radioactivity was observed in the dopaminergic and serotonergic receptor-rich brain regions, indicating CLZ binding to multiple receptor types. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the determination of 11C-CLZ tissue pharmacokinetics in humans. PET using radiolabeled drugs can provide valuable information that could complement plasma pharmacokinetic data. PMID:26225256

  13. Enantioselective Tissue Distribution of Ketorolac and its Enantiomers in Rats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, S K; Anand, A; Saha, R N

    2015-08-01

    The difference in tissue distribution of Ketorolac and its enantiomers were investigated in wistar rats. Separate high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for determination of Ketorolac and its enantiomers. Oyster BDS (150 × 4.6 mm id., 5 μm particle size) column was used for determination of concentration of Ketorolac. Ketorolac enantiomers were determined using Chiral-AGP column (100 × 4.0 mm I.D., particle size 5 μ, Chrom tech Ltd, Sweden). Detection was done at wavelength of 322 nm using an ultraviolet detector in the analytical system. Ketorolac enantiomers exhibit difference in their disposition in Wistar rats. In kidney, there was a significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters. The Cmax was nearly 4 times and AUC 0-∞ was found to be more than double for S (-) Ketorolac than that of R (+) Ketorolac. MRT, Ke and t1/2 differ significantly in kidney. In liver, Cmax was found to be approximately 69% higher for S (-) Ketorolac compared to R (+) Ketorolac. AUC 0-∞ did not differ significantly for the enantiomers in liver. In liver, S (-) Ketorolac eliminated very fast in comparison to R (+) Ketorolac having t1/2 (one third) in comparison to R (+) Ketorolac. In lungs, there was no difference observed for Cmax and other parameters but AUC 0-∞ was found to be marginally higher for S (-) ketorolac. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of a single 1g dose of azithromycin in rectal tissue in men

    PubMed Central

    Rupasinghe, Thusitha W.; Simpson, Julie A.; Vodstrcil, Lenka A.; Fairley, Christopher K.; McConville, Malcolm J.; Hocking, Jane S.

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men. Repeat infection following treatment with 1g azithromycin is common and treatment failure of up to 22% has been reported. This study measured the pharmacokinetics of azithromycin in rectal tissue in men following a single 1g dose to assess whether azithromycin reaches the rectal site in adequate concentrations to kill chlamydia. Ten healthy men took a single oral dose of 1g azithromycin and provided nine self-collected swabs and one blood sample over 14 days. Participant demographics, medications, sexual behaviour, treatment side effects, lubricant use and douching practices were recorded with each swab. Drug concentration over time was determined using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and total exposure (AUC0-∞) was estimated from the concentration-time profiles. Following 1g of azithromycin, rectal concentrations peaked after a median of 24 hours (median 133mcg/g) and remained above the minimum inhibitory concentration for chlamydia (0.125mcg/mL) for at least 14 days in all men. AUC0-∞ was the highest ever reported in human tissue (13103((mcg/g).hr)). Tissue concentrations were not associated with weight (mg/kg), but data suggest that increased gastric pH could increase azithromycin levels and diarrhoea or use of water-based lubricants could decrease concentrations. High and sustained concentrations of azithromycin were found in rectal tissue following a single 1g dose suggesting that inadequate concentrations are unlikely to cause treatment failure. Factors effecting absorption (pH and diarrhoea) or drug depletion (douching and water-based lubricants) may be more important determinants of concentrations in situ. PMID:28350806

  15. Plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in experimentally infected chickens with Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ding, H; Wang, L; Shen, X; Gu, X; Zeng, D; Zeng, Z

    2013-10-01

    The plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in chickens experimentally infected with Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli were studied. Marbofloxacin was given to 66 infected chickens by oral administration at a dosage of 5 mg/kg b.w., once a day for three days. Plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea were collected and marbofloxacin concentrations were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography method. In the infected chickens, maximal marbofloxacin concentrations in plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea were 1.84, 1.33, 7.35, 5.61, 3.12, 2.98, and 4.51 g/mL (g); the elimination half-lives of marbofloxacin were 6.8, 2.74, 9.31, 8.45, 9.55, 11.53 and 5.46 h for plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea, respectively. AUC were calculated to be 9.68, 8.04, 45.1, 27.03, 20.56, 19.47, and 32.68 μg/mL (g) for plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea, respectively. Marbofloxacin concentration in tissues except for brain exceeded marbofloxacin concentration in plasma, with AUC(tissue) /AUC(plasma) ranging from 2.01 to 4.66 and Peak(tissue) /Peak(plasma) ranging from 1.62 to 3.99. The results showed that a marbofloxacin dosage of 5 mg/kg administered orally at 24 h intervals may provide successful treatment of chicken with MG and E. coli infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of fusidic acid and cefepime in heart tissues: implications for a role in surgical prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Kanellakopoulou, K; Tselikos, D; Giannitsioti, E; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, E J; Apostolakis, E; Lolas, C; Giamarellou, H

    2008-08-01

    The pharmacokinetic profiles of fusidic acid and cefepime in heart tissues were assessed in 30 patients undergoing elective valve replacement and cardiopulmonary bypass. Single doses of 1 g of fusidic acid and 2 g of cefepime were administered intravenously to two groups of 15 and 15 patients respectively upon initiation of anesthesia. Samples of serum, heart valves, myocardium, pericardium, mediastinal fat and sternum were collected within <1 hour, 1-2 h and 2-4 h after the end of drug infusion. Drug concentrations were estimated by a microbiological assay. It was found that concentrations of fusidic acid in all specimens were 20-fold higher than the MIC90s of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, being at such levels throughout all period of sampling. Cefepime concentrations in heart valves collected 1-2 h after drug infusion were higher than the MIC90s of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. It is concluded that both fusidic acid and cefepime penetrated heart tissues adequately; however only fusidic acid could also accumulate in the mediastinum. These data suggest that both antibiotics may be a good alternative for prophylaxis in open heart surgery.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of unbound linezolid in plasma and tissue interstitium of critically ill patients after multiple dosing using microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Buerger, Cornelia; Plock, Nele; Dehghanyar, Pejman; Joukhadar, Christian; Kloft, Charlotte

    2006-07-01

    The antimicrobial agent linezolid is approved for the treatment of severe infections caused by, e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus strains. In order to evaluate the penetration of linezolid into the interstitial space fluid (ISF) of subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of the target population, a microdialysis study was performed with 12 patients with sepsis or septic shock after multiple intravenous infusions. Unbound linezolid concentrations were determined for plasma and microdialysates by use of a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Individual compartmental pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis was performed using WinNonlin. In vivo microdialysis was found to be feasible for the determination of unbound linezolid concentrations at steady state in the ISF of critically ill patients. On average, linezolid showed good distribution into ISF but with high interindividual variability. A two-compartment model was fitted to unbound concentrations in plasma with a geometric mean distribution volume of 62.9 liters and a mean clearance of 9.18 liters/h at steady state. However, disposition characteristics changed intraindividually within the time course. In addition, an integrated model for simultaneous prediction of concentrations in all matrices was developed and revealed similar results. Based on the model-predicted unbound concentrations in ISF, a scheme of more-frequent daily dosing of linezolid for some critically ill patients might be taken into consideration to avoid subinhibitory unbound concentrations in the infected tissue. The developed integrated model will be a valuable basis for further PK data analysis to explore refined dosing guidelines that achieve effective antimicrobial therapy in all patients by use of the population PK approach.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of doxycycline and tissue concentrations of an experimental long-acting parenteral formulation of doxycycline in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Estrada, Dinorah; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Juarez-Rodríguez, Ivan; Sumano, Héctor

    2008-01-01

    Doxycycline hyclate (CAS 24390-14-5, doxycycline-h), an antibacterial with time-dependent action, was formulated as a non-irritating long-acting parenteral formulation based on a beta-cyclodextrin: poloxamer-based matrix (doxycycline-h-LA). Tissue and serum concentrations vs time profile were investigated after its subcutaneous injection to Wistar rats. Serum concentration profiles and key pharmacokinetic (PK) variables of doxycycline-h-LA were compared to the corresponding profiles and PK values obtained with an aqueous formulation of doxycycline-h administered either intramuscularly, orally or intravenously to Wistar rats. In all groups, the dose was 10 mg/kg. Doxycycline-h-LA showed outstanding bioavailability (951% or 477% if a correction formula is considered), as compared to the one obtained with an aqueous formulation (106-82%, respectively). Corresponding values for maximum serum concentration were 3.19 microg/ml and 3.00 microg/ml, respectively, and elimination half-lives were completely different: 42.49 h and 2.77 h for doxycycline-h-LA and the aqueous formulation, respectively. Considering minimal inhibitory concentrations of doxycycline for sensitive and resistant bacteria (from < or = 0.5 to > or =1.5 microg/ml), doxycycline-h-LA could be injected every 2 or 3 days, while aqueous doxycycline-h would require a dosing interval from 7.5 to 11 h. But if tissue concentrations are taken as braking points, the dosing interval will vary from 48 to 94 h. For doxycycline-h-LA, mean tissue:serum ratios were 2:1 for lungs, 9.8:1 for kidneys and 2.2:1 for intestine homogenates. These values are in close agreement with those found for the distribution of doxycycline in other species.

  19. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic analysis of grepafloxacin.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Y; Hattori, K; Shinsei, M; Matsunaga, N; Iizasa, H; Sasabe, H; Akiyama, H; Miyanmoto, G; Nakashima, E

    2000-09-01

    Grepafloxacin (GPFX) is a synthetic new quinolone antimicrobial agent that possesses an extensive tissue distribution and exhibits a strong antibacterial activity in vivo. In this study, the tissue distribution characteristics of GPFX were examined using tissue concentration-time profiles following intravenous administration to rats. Subsequently, the pharmacokinetics of GPFX were analyzed based on the physiological pharmacokinetic model. The tissue-to-plasma partition coefficients (Kp) of GPFX in rats were high in all tissues except brain. A pharmacokinetic model for rabbits, monkeys and dogs was constructed using the tissue-to-plasma free concentration ratio (Kp,f) of GPFX in rats to simulate the GPFX concentration-time profile in plasma following intravenous administration of GPFX to each animal. The calculation-derived concentrations correlated well with the experimentally-derived data, suggesting that there are no interspecies differences in the high tissue distribution characteristics of GPFX. The clearance rates of GPFX in humans were predicted from the pharmacokinetic parameters of rats, rabbits, monkeys and dogs by an animal scale-up method and a pharmacokinetic model for humans was constructed. The GPFX concentration-time profiles in plasma, following oral administration of GPFX to humans, were predicted within 0.5-1.0 h of mean absorption time and the calculation-derived results were in good agreement with the experimental data. Thus, it is suggested that the concentration-time profile in plasma and all human organs can be predicted from the pharmacokinetic data of animals.

  20. The subcellular distribution of small molecules: from pharmacokinetics to synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nan; Tsai, Hobart Ng; Zhang, Xinyuan; Rosania, Gus R

    2011-10-03

    The systemic pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of small molecules are determined by subcellular transport phenomena. Although approaches used to study the subcellular distribution of small molecules have gradually evolved over the past several decades, experimental analysis and prediction of cellular pharmacokinetics remains a challenge. In this review, we survey the progress of subcellular distribution research since the 1960s, with a focus on the advantages, disadvantages and limitations of the various experimental techniques. Critical review of the existing body of knowledge points to many opportunities to advance the rational design of organelle-targeted chemical agents. These opportunities include (1) development of quantitative, non-fluorescence-based, whole cell methods and techniques to measure the subcellular distribution of chemical agents in multiple compartments; (2) exploratory experimentation with nonspecific transport probes that have not been enriched with putative, organelle-targeting features; (3) elaboration of hypothesis-driven, mechanistic and modeling-based approaches to guide experiments aimed at elucidating subcellular distribution and transport; and (4) introduction of revolutionary conceptual approaches borrowed from the field of synthetic biology combined with cutting edge experimental strategies. In our laboratory, state-of-the-art subcellular transport studies are now being aimed at understanding the formation of new intracellular membrane structures in response to drug therapy, exploring the function of drug-membrane complexes as intracellular drug depots, and synthesizing new organelles with extraordinary physical and chemical properties.

  1. ANF disappearance and tissue distribution in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Widimsky, J. Jr.; Debinski, W.; Kuchel, O.; Buu, N.T. )

    1990-01-01

    The disappearance of ({sup 125}I)atrial natriuretic factor (ANF; Ser99-Tyr126) from the circulation and its tissue distribution with or without nonlabeled ANF pretreatment were investigated in normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. Preadministration of the cold peptide increased plasma radioactivity levels for over 8 min following labeled ANF injection but did not change the half-life of circulating labeled ANF. The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and volume of distribution in the first, second, and steady state phase were significantly decreased after cold ANF pretreatment. Circulating iodo-labeled ANF was taken up by several organs, even by tissues such as fat or bone, but its urinary excretion was very low. The highest uptake was found in the liver (16 +/- 1% of the injected dose), lung (14 +/- 1%), and kidney (12 +/- 1%), diminishing by 21, 89, and 59%, respectively, after cold ANF preinjection. The brain radioactivity was negligible implying an inability of ({sup 125}I)ANF to cross the blood-brain barrier. Our data underscore the importance of the uptake-mediated, cold ANF preadministration suppressible clearance of ANF from the circulation, probably one of its basic elimination mechanisms. The liver, lung, and kidney are probably the most important participants in the MCR of ANF.

  2. Oritavancin Pharmacokinetics and Bone Penetration in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lehoux, Dario; Ostiguy, Valerie; Cadieux, Cordelia; Malouin, Mireille; Belanger, Odette; Far, Adel Rafai; Parr, Thomas R

    2015-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics and bone concentrations of oritavancin were investigated after a single intravenous dose was administered to rabbits. The pharmacokinetic profile of oritavancin in rabbits showed that it is rapidly distributed to bone tissues, with concentrations remaining stable for up to 168 h, the last measured time point. Based on these findings, further evaluation of oritavancin for the treatment of infections in bone tissues is warranted. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Oritavancin Pharmacokinetics and Bone Penetration in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ostiguy, Valerie; Cadieux, Cordelia; Malouin, Mireille; Belanger, Odette; Far, Adel Rafai; Parr, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and bone concentrations of oritavancin were investigated after a single intravenous dose was administered to rabbits. The pharmacokinetic profile of oritavancin in rabbits showed that it is rapidly distributed to bone tissues, with concentrations remaining stable for up to 168 h, the last measured time point. Based on these findings, further evaluation of oritavancin for the treatment of infections in bone tissues is warranted. PMID:26239977

  4. A high oxfendazole dose to control porcine cysticercosis: pharmacokinetics and tissue residue profiles.

    PubMed

    Moreno, L; Lopez-Urbina, M T; Farias, C; Domingue, G; Donadeu, M; Dungu, B; García, H H; Gomez-Puerta, L A; Lanusse, C; González, A E

    2012-10-01

    Oxfendazole (OFZ) is efficacious for porcine cysticercosis at 30 mg/kg. OFZ is not registered to be used at this dose. The assessment of the OFZ and metabolites [(fenbendazole sulphone (FBZSO2), fenbendazole (FBZ)] plasma pharmacokinetic and tissue residue profiles after its oral administration to pigs and the withdrawal period for human consumption were reported. Forty-eight pigs allocated into two groups received OFZ (30 mg/kg) orally as a commercial (CF) or as experimental formulation (SMF). Samples (blood, muscle, liver, kidney and fat) were collected over 30 days post-treatment and analyzed by HPLC. OFZ was the main compound recovered in plasma, followed by FBZSO2 and low FBZ concentrations. OFZ AUC0-LOQ (209.9±33.9 μg·h/ml) and Cmax (5.40±0.65 μg/ml) parameters for the CF tended to be higher than those for the SMF (AUC0-LOQ: 159.4±18.3 μg h/ml, Cmax: 3.80±0.35 μg/ml). The highest total residue (OFZ+FBZSO2+FBZ) concentrations were quantified in liver, followed by kidney, muscle and fat tissue. FBZSO2 residue levels were the highest found in muscle (0.68±0.39 μg/g) and fat (0.69±0.39 μg/g). In liver and kidney the highest residues corresponded to FBZ (5.29±4.36 μg/g) and OFZ (2.86±0.75 μg/g), respectively. A withdrawal time of 17 days post-treatment was established before tissues are delivered for human consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasma and target-site subcutaneous tissue population pharmacokinetics and dosing simulations of cefazolin in post-trauma critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jason A; Udy, Andrew A; Jarrett, Paul; Wallis, Steven C; Hope, William W; Sharma, Raman; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J; Kruger, Peter S; Roberts, Michael S; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the population pharmacokinetics of cefazolin in plasma and the interstitial fluid of subcutaneous tissue of post-trauma critically ill patients and provide clinically relevant dosing recommendations that result in optimal concentrations at the target site. This was a pharmacokinetic study in a tertiary referral ICU. We recruited 30 post-trauma critically ill adult patients and collected serial total and unbound plasma cefazolin concentrations. Interstitial fluid concentrations were determined using in vivo microdialysis. Population pharmacokinetic analysis and Monte Carlo simulations were undertaken with Pmetrics(®). Fractional target attainment against an MIC distribution for Staphylococcus aureus isolates was calculated. The mean (SD) age, weight, APACHE II score and CLCR were 37.0 (14.1) years, 86.8 (22.7) kg, 16.9 (5.3) and 163 (44) mL/min, respectively. A three-compartment linear population pharmacokinetic model was most appropriate. Covariates included in the model were CLCR on drug clearance and serum albumin concentration and body weight on the volume of the central compartment. The fractional target attainment for a 1 g intravenous 8-hourly dose for a CLCR of 50 mL/min was 88%, whereas for a patient with a CLCR of 215 mL/min, a dose of 2 g 6-hourly achieved 84% fractional target attainment. Clinicians should be mindful of the effects of elevated CLCR and serum albumin concentrations on dosing requirements for post-trauma critically ill patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Factors influencing elimination and distribution of fleroxacin: metaanalysis of individual data from 10 pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Reigner, B G; Welker, H A

    1996-01-01

    A metaanalysis was conducted on data from 172 subjects (healthy volunteers and uninfected patients) included in 10 pharmacokinetic studies of fleroxacin after oral administration. The objectives of this analysis were (i) to estimate the typical values of two key pharmacokinetic parameters, clearance over systemic availability (CL/F) and volume of distribution over systemic availability (V/F), after the administration of therapeutic doses and (ii) to study qualitatively and quantitatively the factors which influence the elimination and distribution of fleroxacin. The main pharmacokinetic parameters, CL/F and V/F, were analyzed separately by a standard two-stage approach. The covariates investigated were predicted creatinine clearance (CLCR), age, gender, body surface area, body weight, and lean body weight (LBW). The predicted CL/F and V/F were 83.5 ml/min and 101 liters, respectively, for a typical male subject (CLCR, 70 ml/min; LBW, 54 kg; age, 54 years). Modeling of CL/F indicated that this parameter increases linearly with CLCR, decreases linearly with age, and is 10.8 ml/min lower in females than in males. The best model for V/F showed a linear increase with LBW and a linear decrease with age. V/F was found to be 20.4 liters greater in males than in females. In conclusion, this metaanalysis has shown that CLCR, age, and gender influence the elimination of fleroxacin from the body, whereas V/F is influenced by LBW, age, and gender. PMID:8851573

  7. Pharmacokinetics and thrombolytic effects of the recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator in horses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To test the efficacy of the recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) alteplase in horses, the thrombolytic effect was tested in in vitro generated equine thrombi. The extent of lysis was determined by measuring the decrease in thrombi weight over a period of 4 hours. In vivo pharmacokinetics of alteplase were determined in 6 healthy horses. A single dose (1 mg/kg) was applied via intravenous infusion over a period of 30 minutes Coagulation-related variables, blood count and clinical parameters were taken before the treatment and until 48 h after treatment. In addition, plasma rt-PA concentration was measured until 300 min after commencing the infusion. Results In vitro, a dose dependent decrease of thrombus weight ranging from a 56 (± 6.5) % decrease for 0.5 μg/ml to 92 (± 2.1) % decrease for 5 μg/ml rt-PA was noted. The D-dimer concentration in the lysis medium correspondingly increased from 0.10 up to 10.8 mg/l. In vivo, none of the horses showed an adverse reaction to the alteplase infusion. In some horses blood parameters were slightly altered. The 1 mg/kg dose yielded the following pharmacokinetic parameters: Cmax = 1.25 ± 0.27 μg/ml; CL = 21.46 ± 5.67 ml/min/kg; dominant half life (t1/2α) = 6.81 ± 1.48 minutes; median elimination half life (t1/2β) = 171 min (range: 85–1061); AUC = 50.33 ± 17.62 μg · min /ml. Conclusion These findings indicate that a single dose of 1 mg/kg alteplase results in rt-PA plasma concentrations comparable to those in humans and might be sufficient for a thrombolytic therapy in horses. Further studies must be performed to determine the alteplase effectiveness in horses with jugular vein thrombosis. PMID:23938183

  8. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling of distribution, bioaccumulation and excretion of POPs in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Sonne, Christian; Gustavson, Kim; Letcher, Robert J; Dietz, Rune

    2015-10-01

    We used PBPK (physiologically-based pharmacokinetic) modelling to investigate distribution, bioaccumulation and excretion of the seven POPs (persistent organic pollutants) CB-99, CB-153, HCB, oxychlordane, p,p'-DDE, BDE-47 and BDE-99 in 4 adult captive Greenland sledge dog (Canis familiaris) bitches fed minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber for 500-635 days. The PBPK modelled POP concentrations in adipose tissue, liver, kidney and plasma were mostly within a factor 2 of actual measured tissue levels even for those at the lower concentration end. The excretion route for oxychlordane and CB-153 was modelled to be via faeces while lung alveolar excretion dominated for BDE-47, BDE-99, HCB, p,p'-DDE and CB-99. Furthermore the model suggested the retained mass of POPs after 500 and 635 days of exposure, respectively, to be relatively low despite these POPs being highly recalcitrant. The retention increased in the following order (% of total intake); p,p'-DDE (1%)

  9. Distribution and pharmacokinetics of the prodrug daunorubicin-GA3 in nude mice bearing human ovarian cancer xenografts.

    PubMed

    Houba, P H; Boven, E; van der Meulen-Muileman, I H; Leenders, R G; Scheeren, J W; Pinedo, H M; Haisma, H J

    1999-03-15

    N-[4-daunorubicin-N-carbonyl (oxymethyl)phenyl] O-beta-glucuronyl carbamate (DNR-GA3) is a glucuronide prodrug of daunorubicin (DNR) which induced a better tumor growth delay than DNR when studied at equitoxic doses in three human ovarian cancer xenografts. These results suggested that the prodrug DNR-GA3 was selectively activated by human beta-glucuronidase present in tumor tissue. We determined the pharmacokinetics and distribution of DNR-GA3 in nude mice bearing human ovarian cancer xenografts (OVCAR-3, FMa, A2780, and MRI-H-207). Administration of DNR at 10 mg/kg i.v. (maximum tolerated dose) to OVCAR-3-bearing mice resulted in a peak plasma concentration of the drug of 12.18 microM (t = 1 min). DNR-GA3 at 100 mg/kg i.v. (approximately 50% of the maximum tolerated dose [MTD]) resulted in a peak plasma concentration of DNR that was 28-fold lower than that after DNR itself; in normal tissues, prodrug injection resulted in 5- to 23-fold lower DNR concentrations. DNR showed a relatively poor uptake into OVCAR-3 tumors with a peak concentration of 2.05 nmol x g(-1) after injection. In the same xenograft, DNR-GA3 resulted in a significantly higher DNR peak concentration of 3.45 nmol x g(-1) (P < 0.05). The higher area under the curve of DNR in tumor tissue after DNR-GA3 than after DNR itself would be the result of prodrug activation by beta-glucuronidase. In this respect, a considerably higher beta-glucuronidase activity was found in tumor tissue when compared to plasma. The specific activation of DNR-GA3 by beta-glucuronidase at the tumor site relative to normal organs leads to a more tumor-selective therapy, resulting in greater efficacy without increased toxicity.

  10. Simultaneous assessment of the pharmacokinetics of a pleuromutilin, lefamulin, in plasma, soft tissues and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid.

    PubMed

    Zeitlinger, M; Schwameis, R; Burian, A; Burian, B; Matzneller, P; Müller, M; Wicha, W W; Strickmann, D B; Prince, W

    2016-04-01

    Lefamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic under evaluation for the treatment of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections. Currently, there are no high-quality pharmacokinetic data on drug tissue concentrations of lefamulin available. A single dose of intravenous lefamulin (150 mg) was given to 12 healthy men. The registered EudraCT number for this study was 2010-021938-54. Lefamulin concentrations were simultaneously measured in plasma, skeletal muscle tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) over 24 h, and corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Microdialysis was used to measure unbound lefamulin concentrations in skeletal muscle tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue, which were similar to unbound lefamulin concentrations in plasma. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 1, 2, 4 and 8 h post-dose to determine lefamulin concentrations in ELF. Unbound lefamulin levels showed a 5.7-fold higher exposure in ELF compared with that in plasma, demonstrating good penetration to the target site. Lefamulin may be an addition to the therapeutic armamentarium for the treatment of infections. Simultaneous measurements of unbound drug concentration can guide target attainment for future therapeutic trials. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of substrate uptake and distribution in murine brain after nasal instillation.

    PubMed

    Graff, Candace L; Zhao, Rong; Pollack, Gary M

    2005-02-01

    This study was conducted to develop a physiologically relevant mathematical model for describing brain uptake and disposition of nasally administered substrates. [14C]-antipyrine, [14C]-diazepam, [3H]-sucrose, or [3H]-verapamil was administered nasally to CF-1 mice. P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-deficient mice also received [3H]-verapamil to probe the influence of P-gp on uptake/distribution. Mice were sacrificed at selected intervals, and 20 serial 300-microm coronal brain sections were obtained to determine radioactivity. A series of compartmental pharmacokinetic models was developed and fit to concentration vs. time/distance data. After nasal instillation, substrate concentration was highest in the olfactory bulb and decreased with distance. In the absence of transport-mediated flux, peak brain exposure occurred at 6 h. A catenary pharmacokinetic model with slice-specific brain-to-blood efflux rate constants and slice-to-slice diffusivity factors was capable of fitting the data. P-gp limited fractional absorption of [3H]-verapamil via efflux from the nasal cavity and olfactory epithelium. P-gp also increased the rate constants associated with [3H]-verapamil efflux 1.5- to 190-fold, depending on brain region. P-gp limited [3H]-verapamil uptake from the nasal cavity into brain and facilitated removal of [3H]-verapamil from brain during rostral-to-caudal distribution. Taken together, the data and associated modeling provide a comprehensive assessment of the influence of P-gp on brain uptake and disposition of nasally administered substrates.

  12. The Holy Grail of Polymer Therapeutics for Cancer Therapy: An Overview on the Pharmacokinetics and Bio Distribution.

    PubMed

    Dyawanapelly, Sathish; Junnuthula, Vijayabhaskar Reddy; Singh, AkhileshVikram

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, multifaceted clinical benefits of polymeric therapeutics have been reported. Over the past decades, cancer has been one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. Many clinically approved chemotherapeutics encounter potential challenges against deadly cancer. Moreover, safety and efficacy of anticancer agents have been limited by undesirable pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. To address these limitations, various polymer drug conjugates are being studied and developed to improve the antitumor efficacy. Among other therapeutics, polymer therapeutics are well established platforms that circumvent anticancer therapeutics from enzymatic metabolism via direct conjugation to therapeutic molecules. Interestingly, polymer therapeutics meets an unmet need of small molecules. Further clinical study showed that polymer-drug conjugation can achieve desired pharmacokinetics and biodistribution properties of several anticancer drugs. The present retrospective review mainly enlightens the most recent preclinical and clinical studies include safety, stability, pharmacokinetic behavior and distribution of polymer therapeutics.

  13. Blood and tissue distribution of posaconazole in a rat model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Cendejas-Bueno, E; Forastiero, A; Ruiz, I; Mellado, E; Gavaldà, J; Gomez-Lopez, A

    2017-02-01

    Posaconazole is the recommended prophylactic agent in patients at high risk of invasive fungal infection, since adequate drug levels seem to be reached in target sites despite the relatively low levels detected in blood. The objective of this study is to obtain pharmacokinetic (PK) information associated to blood and tissue distribution of posaconazole in an animal model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The PK parameters in lung samples were systematically higher than in serum. After multiple-dose administration of posaconazole, a significant accumulation of the drug was evident in lung tissue. The PK behavior of posaconazole in this particular experimental model is similar to that observed in humans. Thus, we believe this model could be a valid tool to evaluate posaconazole exposure-response relationship.

  14. A hybrid approach to advancing quantitative prediction of tissue distribution of basic drugs in human

    SciTech Connect

    Poulin, Patrick; Ekins, Sean; Theil, Frank-Peter

    2011-01-15

    A general toxicity of basic drugs is related to phospholipidosis in tissues. Therefore, it is essential to predict the tissue distribution of basic drugs to facilitate an initial estimate of that toxicity. The objective of the present study was to further assess the original prediction method that consisted of using the binding to red blood cells measured in vitro for the unbound drug (RBCu) as a surrogate for tissue distribution, by correlating it to unbound tissue:plasma partition coefficients (Kpu) of several tissues, and finally to predict volume of distribution at steady-state (V{sub ss}) in humans under in vivo conditions. This correlation method demonstrated inaccurate predictions of V{sub ss} for particular basic drugs that did not follow the original correlation principle. Therefore, the novelty of this study is to provide clarity on the actual hypotheses to identify i) the impact of pharmacological mode of action on the generic correlation of RBCu-Kpu, ii) additional mechanisms of tissue distribution for the outlier drugs, iii) molecular features and properties that differentiate compounds as outliers in the original correlation analysis in order to facilitate its applicability domain alongside the properties already used so far, and finally iv) to present a novel and refined correlation method that is superior to what has been previously published for the prediction of human V{sub ss} of basic drugs. Applying a refined correlation method after identifying outliers would facilitate the prediction of more accurate distribution parameters as key inputs used in physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) and phospholipidosis models.

  15. Tissue optics, light distribution, and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Utz, Sergei R.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.

    1994-10-01

    A model of multilayered tissue is considered. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is used to study laser beam transport through tissues with varying optical properties for each layer (absorption, scattering, scattering anisotropy factor, and refractive index). Calculations are performed for some models of the human skin and adjacent tissues for visible and UV wavelength ranges. New technology for human epidermis optical parameters determination is presented. This technology includes epidermis upper layers glue stripping; in vitro measurements of total transmission, diffuse reflection, and angular scattering of stripping samples; and using an inverse calculation technique based on four-flux approximation of radiation transport theory. The technology was successfully used for depth dependence monitoring of epidermis optical parameters. An inverse Monte Carlo technique for determining the optical properties of tissues based on spectrophotometric measurements is developed. This technique takes into accounts the 2-D geometry of the experiment, finite sizes of incident beam and integrating sphere ports, boundary conditions, and sideways losses of light.

  16. Distribution of Oxycodone in Postmortem Fluids and Tissues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Distribution of Oxycodone in Postmortem Fluids and Tissues Sabra R. Botch Robert D. Johnson Arvind K. Chaturvedi Russell J. Lewis Civil Aerospace...Title and Subtitle 5. Report Date June 2010 6. Performing Organization Code Distribution of Oxycodone in Postmortem Fluids and Tissues 7...16. Abstract Introduction: Oxycodone is a heavily used and abused analgesic agent. Its pharmacological effects, including euphoria, respiratory

  17. EVALUATION OF ORAL AND INTRAVENOUS ROUTE PHARMACOKINETICS, PLASMA PROTEIN BINDING AND UTERINE TISSUE DOSE METRICS OF BPA: A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a weakly estrogenic monomer used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, both of which are used in food contact applications. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of BPA pharmacokinetics in rats and humans was developed ...

  18. EVALUATION OF ORAL AND INTRAVENOUS ROUTE PHARMACOKINETICS, PLASMA PROTEIN BINDING AND UTERINE TISSUE DOSE METRICS OF BPA: A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a weakly estrogenic monomer used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, both of which are used in food contact applications. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of BPA pharmacokinetics in rats and humans was developed t...

  19. EVALUATION OF ORAL AND INTRAVENOUS ROUTE PHARMACOKINETICS, PLASMA PROTEIN BINDING AND UTERINE TISSUE DOSE METRICS OF BPA: A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a weakly estrogenic monomer used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, both of which are used in food contact applications. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of BPA pharmacokinetics in rats and humans was developed ...

  20. EVALUATION OF ORAL AND INTRAVENOUS ROUTE PHARMACOKINETICS, PLASMA PROTEIN BINDING AND UTERINE TISSUE DOSE METRICS OF BPA: A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a weakly estrogenic monomer used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, both of which are used in food contact applications. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of BPA pharmacokinetics in rats and humans was developed t...

  1. Influence of enrofloxacin traces in drinking water to doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetics in healthy and infected by Mycoplasma gallisepticum broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gbylik-Sikorska, Malgorzata; Posyniak, Andrzej; Sniegocki, Tomasz; Sell, Bartosz; Gajda, Anna; Sawicka, Anna; Olszewska-Tomczyk, Monika; Bladek, Tomasz; Tomczyk, Grzegorz; Zmudzki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Most of antibiotics, administrated in the treatment of poultry diseases are dissolved in drinking water, and it can lead to water supply systems contamination, especially when the regular cleaning is not using. This situation can lead to unconscious administration of low doses of antibiotics to untreated animals. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of the exposure of enrofloxacin traces (500 μg l(-1)) to doxycycline pharmacokinetics in healthy and experimentally Mycoplasma gallisepticum infected broiler chickens., Two experimental groups, received of enrofloxacin in water and all groups, received 20 mg kg(-1) bw of doxycycline. The compounds concentrations in muscles and livers were determined by LC-MS/MS. The maximum drug tissue concentration (Cmax) of doxycycline was highest in liver obtained from infected chickens which, received enrofloxacin traces (ENR + DC/MG). It was about 40% higher than in healthy chickens from group I which received only doxycycline. It was found that the concentration-time curve AUC(0-t) values in group ENR + DC/MG were almost 75% higher than in the group (DC) and 35% higher than in group (ENR + DC) which also received enrofloxacin traces. The constant exposure of broiler chickens on enrofloxacin traces as well as infection, may significantly influenced on doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetic profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Experimental study of the basic pharmacokinetic characteristics of dipeptide carnosine and its efficiency of penetration into brain tissues].

    PubMed

    Sariev, A K; Abaimov, D A; Tankevich, M V; Pantyukhova, E Yu; Prokhorov, D I; Fedorova, T N; Lopachev, A V; Stvolinskii, S L; Konovalova, E V; Seifulla, R D

    2015-01-01

    We have used an original chromatography/mass spectrometry technique to study the pharmacokinetics of dipeptide carnosine in C57 Black/6 mice after intra-peritoneal administration of the drug at a dose of 1 g/kg. The basic pharmacokinetic characteristics of carnosine were measured the in the blood and brain. The obtained concentration-time curve has a biexponential character. It is shown that the maximum concentration of carnosine in the blood plasma is Cmax = 1081.75 ± 124.24 μg/mL and it is achieved in a time interval of Tmax = 0.25 h. We showed that i.p. administration of exogenous carnosine could significantly increase the concentration of that substance in the brain. Tissue availability of dipeptide carnosine for brain tissue is relatively good and constitutes 59% from the total amount of blood carnosine. It was found that the maximum concentration of carnosine in the brain occurs at the sixth hour after i.p. administration when the concentration of drug in the blood is minimal.

  3. Pharmacokinetic study on pradofloxacin in the dog – Comparison of serum analysis, ultrafiltration and tissue sampling after oral administration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pradofloxacin, a newly developed 8-cyano-fluoroquinolone, show enhanced activity against Gram-positive organisms and anaerobes to treat canine and feline bacterial infections. The purpose of this cross-over study was to measure the unbound drug concentration of pradofloxacin in the interstitial fluid (ISF) using ultrafiltration and to compare the kinetics of pradofloxacin in serum, ISF and tissue using enrofloxacin as reference. Results After oral administration of enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg) and pradofloxacin (3 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg, respectively), serum collection and ultrafiltration in regular intervals over a period of 24 h were performed, followed by tissue sampling at the end of the third dosing protocol (pradofloxacin 6 mg/kg). Peak concentrations of pradofloxacin (3 mg/kg) were 1.55±0.31 μg/ml in the ISF and 1.85±0.23 μg/ml in serum and for pradofloxacin (6 mg/kg) 2.71±0.81 μg/kg in the ISF and 2.77±0.64 μg/kg in serum; both without a statistical difference between ISF and serum. Comparison between all sampling approaches showed no consistent pattern of statistical differences. Conclusions Despite some technical shortcomings the ultrafiltration approach appears to be the most sensitive sampling technique to estimate pharmacokinetic values of pradofloxacin at the infection site. Pharmacokinetics – Pradofloxacin – Ultrafiltration – Dog – Oral Administration. PMID:23410255

  4. Pharmacokinetics and distribution of dietary tributyltin and methylmercury in the snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio)

    SciTech Connect

    Rouleau, C.; Gobeil, C.; Tjaelve, H.

    1999-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics and distribution of a single 5-{micro}g dietary dose of radiolabeled [{sup 113}Sn]tributyltin (TBT) and [{sup 203}Hg]methylmercury (MeHg) were studied over 154 days in the snow crab, using in vivo gamma counting and whole-body autoradiography. Experiment was done under conditions typical of those encountered in the cold natural habitat of this crustacean. Retention efficiency was high for both compounds, and two kinetic pools could be distinguished. Elimination of the first pool proceeded within 20--80 days, but it accounted for 27--62% of the assimilated TBT, compared to 8--11% for MeHg. Biological half-life of the second pool was 33--187 days for TBT and 520--650 days for MeHg. Autoradiographic and dissection data revealed a less homogeneous distribution of the radiolabel and much higher radioactivity in gut lumen for TBT compared to MeHg. This suggests that the larger size of the first pool in the case of TBT resulted from metabolization in the hepatopancreas and fecal elimination of the metabolites. The whole-body biomagnification factor (BMF) that would result from the long-term chronic exposure of snow crab to TBT-contaminated food was estimated as 0.1--0.6. Although these BMF values were an order of magnitude lower than those estimated for MeHg, they are not negligible and indicate that uptake of TBT via food may be an important accumulation route.

  5. Validated LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of resveratrol levels in mouse plasma and brain and its application to pharmacokinetic and brain distribution studies.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Prakash; Ko, Young Tag

    2016-02-05

    A rapid, selective, and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to simultaneously determine resveratrol levels in plasma and brain tissue in mice for supporting pharmacokinetic and brain distribution studies. Analytes were separated using a Sepax BR-C18 analytical column (5μm, 120Å, 1.0×100mm) and eluted using an isocratic elution mobile phase acetonitrile and 0.01% formic acid [60:40, v/v] at a flow rate of 0.1mL/min. Precursor and product ion transitions for analyte resveratrol m/z 226.9>184.8 and curcumin m/z 367.1>148.9 were monitored using triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in negative ionization mode. The method was validated with respect to accuracy, within- and between-day precision, linearity, limit of quantification, recovery, and matrix effects of analyte. The inter- and intra-day accuracy and precision were within the range of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) acceptance criteria, for both matrices. The method was also successfully applied to pharmacokinetic and brain distribution studies of resveratrol after intravenous administration of free resveratrol and resveratrol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles to mice. The combined use of serial blood sampling, small sample volume, simple extraction, and capillary depletion method drastically improved resveratrol analysis from biological matrices.

  6. Tissue Distribution and Efficacy of Gold Nanorods Coupled with Laser Induced Photoplasmonic Therapy in Ehrlich Carcinoma Solid Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Mostafa A.; Shabaka, Ali A.; El-Shabrawy, Osama A.; Yassin, Nemat A.; Mahmoud, Sawsan S.; El-Shenawy, Siham M.; Al-Ashqar, Emad; Eisa, Wael H.; Farag, Niveen M.; El-Shaer, Marwa A.; Salah, Nabila; Al-Abd, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    Gold nanorods (GNR) within tumor microregions are characterized by their ability to absorb near IR light and emit heat in what is called photoplasmonic effect. Yet, the efficacy of nanoparticles is limited due to intratumoral tissue distribution reasons. In addition, distribution of GNRs to normal tissue might result in non specific toxicity. In the current study, we are assessing the intratumoral and tissue distribution of PEGylated GNRs on the top of its antitumor characteristics when given intravenously or intratumoral to solid tumor bearing mice and coupled with laser photoplasmonic sessions. PEGylated GNRs with a longitudinal size of less than 100 nm were prepared with aspect ratio of 4.6 showing strong surface plasmon absorption at wavelength 800 nm. Pharmacokinetics of GNR after single I.V. administration (0.1 mg/kg) showed very short systemic circulating time (less than 3 h). On the other hand, tissue distribution of I.V. GNR (0.1 mg/kg) to normal animals showed preferential deposition in spleen tissue. Repeated administration of I.V. GNR resulted in preferential accumulation in both liver and spleen tissues. In addition, I.V. administration of GNR to Ehrlich carcinoma tumor bearing mice resulted in similar tissue distribution; tumor accumulation and anti-tumor effect compared to intratumoral administration. In conclusion, the concentration of GNR achieved within tumors microregions after I.V. administration was comparable to I.T. administration and sufficient to elicit tumoral growth arrest when coupled with laser-aided photoplasmonic treatment. PMID:24098446

  7. Pharmacokinetics and milk distribution characteristics of orbifloxacin following intravenous and intramuscular injection in lactating ewes.

    PubMed

    Goudah, A; Cho, H-J; Shin, H-C; Shim, J-H; Regmi, N L; Shimoda, M; Abd El-Aty, A M

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of the current investigation is to elucidate the pharmacokinetic profiles of orbifloxacin (OBFX) in lactating ewes (n = 6) following intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administrations of 2.5 mg/kg W. In a crossover study, frequent blood, milk, and urine samples were drawn for up to 48 h after the end of administration, and were then assayed to determine their respective drug concentrations through microbiological assay using Klebsiella pneumoniae as the test micro-organism. Plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from plasma concentration-time data using a compartmental and noncompartmental analysis, and validated a relatively rapid elimination from the blood compartment, with a slope of the terminal phase of 0.21 +/- 0.02 and 0.19 +/- 0.06 per hour and a half-life of 3.16 +/- 0.43 and 3.84 +/- 0.59 h, for i.v. and i.m. dosing, respectively. OBFX was widely distributed with a volume of distribution V((d(ss))) of 1.31 +/- 0.12 L/kg, as suggested by the low percentage of protein binding (22.5%). The systemic body clearance (Cl(B)) was 0.32 +/- 0.12 L/h x kg. Following i.m. administration, the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) of 1.53 +/- 0.34 microg/mL was reached at t(max) 1.25 +/- 0.21 h. The drug was completely absorbed after i.m. administration, with a bioavailability of 114.63 +/- 11.39%. The kinetic milk AUC(milk)/AUC(plasma) ratio indicated a wide penetration of orbifloxacin from the bloodstream to the mammary gland. OBFX urine concentrations were higher than the concurrent plasma concentrations, and were detected up to 30 h postinjection by both routes. Taken together, these findings indicate that systemic administration of orbifloxacin could be efficacious against susceptible mammary and urinary pathogens in lactating ewes.

  8. Distribution of Myrosinase in Rapeseed Tissues 1

    PubMed Central

    Höglund, Anna-Stina; Lenman, Marit; Falk, Anders; Rask, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Immunocytochemical studies on Brassica napus (rapeseed) tissues using a monoclonal antibody against myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase) showed that the enzyme was only present in a small number of cells. In the developing embryo, scattered myrosinase-containing cells were present in both cotyledons and axis. The enzyme accumulated in these cells during the later stages of seed development, approximately from day 20 until day 40 after pollination. Parallel staining with the immunocytochemical technique and a histochemical method identified these cells as myrosin cells. Myrosinase appeared to be located outside the myrosin grains, although the occasional association with the membrane of the grains also was noted. In leaves, petals, and siliques, scattered parenchyma cells were stained in the mesophyll as well as in the vascular tissue. In young leaves, guard cells also contained myrosinase. The enzyme was also present in xylem cells of the stem. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16667954

  9. Disposition and tissue distribution of imatinib in a liposome formulation after intravenous bolus dose to mice.

    PubMed

    Moo, Kai Shing; Radhakrishnan, Shantini; Teoh, Magdalene; Narayanan, Prasad; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Segarra, Ignacio

    2010-07-01

    Imatinib is an efficacious anticancer drug with a spectrum of potential antitumour applications limited by poor biodistribution at therapeutic concentrations to the tissues of interest. We assess the pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution profile of imatinib in a liposome formulation. Its single dose (6.25 mg x kg(-1)) in a liposome formulation was administered iv to male mice. Imatinib concentration was measured in plasma, spleen, liver, kidney and brain using a HPLC assay. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic approach was used to assess the disposition parameters. The plasma disposition profile was biphasic with a plateau-like second phase. The AUC(0-->infinity) was 11.24 microg x h x mL(-1), the elimination rate constant (k(el)) was 0.348 h(-1) and the elimination half life (t(1/2)) was 2.0 h. The mean residence time (MRT) was 2.59 h, V(SS) was 1.44 L x kg(-1) and clearance was 0.56 L x h x kg(-1). Liver achieved the highest tissue exposure: CMAX = 18.72 microg x mL(-1); AUC(0-->infinity)= 58.18 microg x h x mL(-1) and longest t(1/2) (4.29 h) and MRT (5.31 h). Kidney and spleen AUC(0-->infinity) were 47.98 microg x h x mL(-1) and 23.46 microg x h x mL(-1), respectively. Half-life was 1.83 h for the kidney and 3.37 h for the spleen. Imatinib penetrated into the brain reaching approximately 1 microg x g(-1). Upon correction by organ blood flow the spleen showed the largest uptake efficiency. Liposomal imatinib presented extensive biodistribution. The drug uptake kinetics showed mechanism differences amongst the tissues. These findings encourage the development of novel imatinib formulations to treat other cancers.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of tetrahydropalmatine and tetrahydroberberine after oral administration of DA-9701, a new botanical gastroprokinetic agent, in rats.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji Won; Kwon, Yong Sam; Jeong, Jin Seok; Son, Miwon; Kang, Hee Eun

    2015-01-01

    DA-9701, a new botanical gastroprokinetic agent, has potential for the management of delayed gastric emptying in Parkinson's disease if it has no central anti-dopaminergic activity. Therefore, we examined the pharmacokinetics of DA-9701 components having dopamine D2 receptor antagonizing activity, tetrahydropalmatine (THP) and tetrahydroberberine (THB), following various oral doses (80-328 mg/kg) of DA-9701. The distribution of THP and THB to the brain and/or other tissues was also evaluated after single or multiple oral administrations of DA-9701. Oral administration of DA-9701 yielded dose-proportional area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-8 h) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) values for THP and THB, indicating linear pharmacokinetics (except for THB at the lowest dose). THP and THB's large tissue-to-plasma concentration ratios indicated considerable tissue distribution. High concentrations of THP and THB in the stomach and small intestine suggest an explanation for DA-9701's potent gastroprokinetic activity. The maximum concentrations of THP and THB in brain following multiple oral DA-9701 for 7 d (150 mg/kg/d) was observed at 30 min after the last oral DA-9701 treatment: 131±67.7 ng/g for THP and 6.97±4.03 ng/g for THB. Although both THP and THB pass through the blood-brain barrier, as indicated by brain-to-plasma concentration ratios greater than unity (approximately 2-4), oral administration of DA-9701 at the effective dose in humans is not expected to lead to sufficient brain concentrations to exert central dopamine D2 receptor antagonism.

  11. Simultaneous confocal fluorescence microscopy and optical coherence tomography for drug distribution and tissue integrity assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinehart, Matthew T.; LaCroix, Jeffrey; Henderson, Marcus; Katz, David; Wax, Adam

    2011-03-01

    The effectiveness of microbicidal gels, topical products developed to prevent infection by sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS, is governed by extent of gel coverage, pharmacokinetics of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), and integrity of vaginal epithelium. While biopsies provide localized information about drug delivery and tissue structure, in vivo measurements are preferable in providing objective data on API and gel coating distribution as well as tissue integrity. We are developing a system combining confocal fluorescence microscopy with optical coherence tomography (OCT) to simultaneously measure local concentrations and diffusion coefficients of APIs during transport from microbicidal gels into tissue, while assessing tissue integrity. The confocal module acquires 2-D images of fluorescent APIs multiple times per second allowing analysis of lateral diffusion kinetics. The custom Fourier domain OCT module has a maximum a-scan rate of 54 kHz and provides depth-resolved tissue integrity information coregistered with the confocal fluorescence measurements. The combined system is validated by imaging phantoms with a surrogate fluorophore. Time-resolved API concentration measured at fixed depths is analyzed for diffusion kinetics. This multimodal system will eventually be implemented in vivo for objective evaluation of microbicide product performance.

  12. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida in a tissue-cage model in yellow cattle.

    PubMed

    Shan, Q; Wang, J; Yang, F; Ding, H; Liang, C; Lv, Z; Li, Z; Zeng, Z

    2014-06-01

    The fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drug marbofloxacin was administered to yellow cattle intravenously and intramuscularly at a dose of 2 mg/kg of body weight in a two-period crossover study. The pharmacokinetic properties of marbofloxacin in serum, inflamed tissue-cage fluid (exudate), and noninflamed tissue-cage fluid (transudate) were studied by using a tissue-cage model. The in vitro and ex vivo activities of marbofloxacin in serum, exudate, and transudate against a pathogenic strain of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) were determined. Integration of in vivo pharmacokinetic data with the in vitro MIC provided mean values for the area under the curve (AUC)/MIC for serum, exudate, and transudate of 155.75, 153.00, and 138.88, respectively, after intravenous dosing and 160.50, 151.00, and 137.63, respectively, after intramuscular dosing. After intramuscular dosing, the maximum concentration/MIC ratios for serum, exudate, and transudate were 21.13, 9.13, and 8.38, respectively. The ex vivo growth inhibition data after intramuscular dosing were fitted to the inhibitory sigmoid Emax equation to provide the values of AUC/MIC required to produce bacteriostasis, bactericidal activity, and elimination of bacteria. The respective values for serum were 17.25, 31.29, and 109.62, and slightly lower values were obtained for transudate and exudate. It is proposed that these findings might be used with MIC50 or MIC90 data to provide a rational approach to the design of dosage schedules which optimize efficacy in respect of bacteriological as well as clinical cures.

  13. Trace element concentration distributions in breast, lung and colon tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewska, Urszula; Banas, Dariusz; Braziewicz, Janusz; Gózdz, Stanislaw; Kubala-Kukus, Aldona; Kucharzewski, Marek

    2007-07-01

    The concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in cancerous and benign tissues of breast, lung and intestine (colon) have been determined. In the cases when the element concentration has not been determined in all samples the Kaplan-Meier method has been used for the reconstruction of the original concentration distributions and estimation of the true mean concentrations and medians. Finally, the log-rank test has been applied to compare the elemental concentration distributions between cancerous and benign tissues of the same organ, between cancerous tissues and between benign tissues taken from different organs. Comparing benign and malignant neoplastic tissues, statistically significant differences have been found between Fe and Se concentration distributions of breast as well as for Cu and Zn in the case of lung tissues and in the case of colon tissues for Zn. The concentrations of all elements have been found to be statistically different in cancer tissues as well as in benign ones when comparing the different organs, i.e. groups 'breast-colon' and 'breast-lung'. Concentrations of Fe and Cu have been found to be statistically different in lung and colon cancerous tissues. For benign tissues of lung and colon a statistically significant difference has been found only for Zn.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and tissue behavior of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in turbot Scophthalmus maximus at two water temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Junping; Li, Jian; Zhao, Fazhen; Liu, Ping; Chang, Zhiqiang

    2012-07-01

    Turbot Scophthalmus maximus, an important aquaculture species in China, currently suffers from epizootic diseases because of high density aquaculture. Enrofloxacin has been used to treat various systemic bacterial fish infections. However, studies concerning the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in turbot are limited. In this study, the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin, were investigated in the turbot following intravenous and oral administration at 10 mg enrofloxacin/kg body weight, at 16°C and 10°C water temperatures. The concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in the main tissues (plasma, muscle, liver and kidney) were detected by HPLC. The results show that the plasma concentration-time data for enrofloxacin were best described as a two-compartment open model after intravenous and oral administration. Three pharmacokinetic equations were established between the concentrations and temperatures. The kinetic profile of enrofloxacin was temperature dependent. The absorption half-life of enrofloxacin was 1.99 h and 2.17 h after oral administration, whereas the elimination half-life of the drug was 98.63 h and 136.59 h at 16°C and 10°C, respectively. The peak concentration of enrofloxacin in plasma and tissues was higher at 16°C than that at 10°C, and the peak plasma concentration time in the liver was the shortest at both temperatures among those of other tissues. The plasma C max /MIC ratio varied between 11.08 and 5 540.00 at 16°C; and between 7.92 and 3 960.00 at 10°C. The AUC/MIC ratio was 467.82-280 690.00 at 16°C, and 359.48-215 690.00 at 10°C. These ratios indicate that it is possible to obtain therapeutic efficacy. Very low levels of ciprofloxacin were detected. The AUC ratios of ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin in plasma suggest that plasma ciprofloxacin might play a minor role in enrofloxacin treatment for turbot.

  15. Radiosensitizing activity and pharmacokinetics of multiple dose administered KU-2285 in peripheral nerve tissue in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, Hiroyuki; Matsuno, Etsuko ); Sasai, Keisuke; Abe, Mitsuyuki; Shibamoto, Yuta )

    1994-06-15

    In a clinical trial in which a 2-nitroimidazole radiosensitizer was administered repeatedly, the dose-limiting toxicity was found to be peripheral neuropathy. In the present study, the in vivo radiosensitizing activity of KU-2285 in combination with radiation dose fractionation, and the pharmacokinetics of cumulative dosing of KU-2285 in the peripheral nerves were examined. The ability of three nitroimidazoles, misonidazole (MISO), etanidazole (SR-2508) and KU-2285, to sensitize SCCVII tumors to radiation treatment has been compared for drug doses in the range 0-200 mg/kg. Single radiation doses or two different fractionation schedules (6 Gy/fractions [times] three fractions/48 h or 5 Gy/fractions [times] five fractions/48 h) were used; the tumor cell survival was determined using an in vivo/in vitro colony assay. The pharmacokinetics in the sciatic nerves were undertaken, when KU-2285 or etanidazole were injected at a dose of 200 mg/kg intravenously one, two, three, or four times at 2-h intervals. At less than 100 mg/kg, KU-2285 sensitized SCCVII tumors more than MISO and SR-2508 by fractionated irradiation. Evaluation of pharmacokinetics in the peripheral nerves showed that the apparent biological half-life of SR-2508 increased with the increases in the number of administrations, whereas that of KU-2285 became shorter. Since most clinical radiotherapy is given in small multiple fractions, KU-2285 appears to be a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer that could be useful in such regimens, and that poses no risk of chronic peripheral neurotoxicity. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Overall Adiposity, Adipose Tissue Distribution, and Endometriosis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Backonja, Uba; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Lauver, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Endometriosis has been associated with a lean body habitus. However, we do not understand whether endometriosis is also associated with other characteristics of adiposity, including adipose tissue distribution and amount of visceral adipose tissue (VAT; adipose tissue lining inner organs). Having these understandings may provide insights on how endometriosis develops—some of the physiologic actions of adipose tissue differ depending on tissue amount and location, and are related to proposed mechanisms of endometriosis development. Objectives To review the literature regarding overall adiposity, adipose tissue distribution and/or VAT, and endometriosis. Methods We reviewed and synthesized studies indexed in PubMed and/or Web of Science. We included studies that had one or more measures of overall adiposity, adipose tissue distribution, and/or VAT, and women with and without endometriosis for comparison. We summarized the findings and commented on the methods used and potential sources of bias. Results Out of 366 identified publications, 19 (5.2%) were eligible. Two additional publications were identified from reference lists. Current research included measures of overall adiposity (e.g., body figure drawings) or adipose tissue distribution (e.g., waist-to-hip ratio), but not VAT. The weight of evidence indicated that endometriosis was associated with low overall adiposity and with a preponderance of adipose tissue distributed below the waist (peripheral). Discussion Endometriosis may be associated with being lean or having peripherally distributed adipose tissue. Well-designed studies with various sampling frameworks and precise measures of adiposity and endometriosis are needed to confirm associations between adiposity measures and endometriosis, and delineate potential etiologic mechanisms underlying endometriosis. PMID:26938364

  17. Modeling of electric field distribution in tissues during electroporation.

    PubMed

    Corovic, Selma; Lackovic, Igor; Sustaric, Primoz; Sustar, Tomaz; Rodic, Tomaz; Miklavcic, Damijan

    2013-02-21

    Electroporation based therapies and treatments (e.g. electrochemotherapy, gene electrotransfer for gene therapy and DNA vaccination, tissue ablation with irreversible electroporation and transdermal drug delivery) require a precise prediction of the therapy or treatment outcome by a personalized treatment planning procedure. Numerical modeling of local electric field distribution within electroporated tissues has become an important tool in treatment planning procedure in both clinical and experimental settings. Recent studies have reported that the uncertainties in electrical properties (i.e. electric conductivity of the treated tissues and the rate of increase in electric conductivity due to electroporation) predefined in numerical models have large effect on electroporation based therapy and treatment effectiveness. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the increase in electric conductivity of tissues needs to be taken into account when modeling tissue response to the electroporation pulses and how it affects the local electric distribution within electroporated tissues. We built 3D numerical models for single tissue (one type of tissue, e.g. liver) and composite tissue (several types of tissues, e.g. subcutaneous tumor). Our computer simulations were performed by using three different modeling approaches that are based on finite element method: inverse analysis, nonlinear parametric and sequential analysis. We compared linear (i.e. tissue conductivity is constant) model and non-linear (i.e. tissue conductivity is electric field dependent) model. By calculating goodness of fit measure we compared the results of our numerical simulations to the results of in vivo measurements. The results of our study show that the nonlinear models (i.e. tissue conductivity is electric field dependent: σ(E)) fit experimental data better than linear models (i.e. tissue conductivity is constant). This was found for both single tissue and composite tissue. Our results of

  18. Modeling of electric field distribution in tissues during electroporation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Electroporation based therapies and treatments (e.g. electrochemotherapy, gene electrotransfer for gene therapy and DNA vaccination, tissue ablation with irreversible electroporation and transdermal drug delivery) require a precise prediction of the therapy or treatment outcome by a personalized treatment planning procedure. Numerical modeling of local electric field distribution within electroporated tissues has become an important tool in treatment planning procedure in both clinical and experimental settings. Recent studies have reported that the uncertainties in electrical properties (i.e. electric conductivity of the treated tissues and the rate of increase in electric conductivity due to electroporation) predefined in numerical models have large effect on electroporation based therapy and treatment effectiveness. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the increase in electric conductivity of tissues needs to be taken into account when modeling tissue response to the electroporation pulses and how it affects the local electric distribution within electroporated tissues. Methods We built 3D numerical models for single tissue (one type of tissue, e.g. liver) and composite tissue (several types of tissues, e.g. subcutaneous tumor). Our computer simulations were performed by using three different modeling approaches that are based on finite element method: inverse analysis, nonlinear parametric and sequential analysis. We compared linear (i.e. tissue conductivity is constant) model and non-linear (i.e. tissue conductivity is electric field dependent) model. By calculating goodness of fit measure we compared the results of our numerical simulations to the results of in vivo measurements. Results The results of our study show that the nonlinear models (i.e. tissue conductivity is electric field dependent: σ(E)) fit experimental data better than linear models (i.e. tissue conductivity is constant). This was found for both single tissue and

  19. [Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol pharmacokinetics].

    PubMed

    Goullé, J-P; Saussereau, E; Lacroix, C

    2008-08-01

    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9-THC) is the main psychoactive ingredient of cannabis. Smoking is currently most common use of cannabis. The present review focuses on the pharmacokinetics of THC. The variability of THC in plant material which has significantly increased in recent years leads to variability in tissue THC levels from smoking, which is, in itself, a highly individual process. This variability of THC content has an important impact on drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacology. After smoking THC bioavailability averages 30%. With a 3.55% THC cigarette, a peak plasma level near 160 ng/mL occurs approximately 10 min after inhalation. THC is eliminated quickly from plasma in a multiphasic manner and is widely distributed to tissues, which is responsible for its pharmacologic effects. Body fat then serves as a long-term storage site. This particular pharmacokinetics explains the noncorrelation between THC blood level and clinical effects as is observed for ethanol. A major active 11-hydroxy metabolite is formed after both inhalation and oral dosing (20 and 100% of parent, respectively). The elimination of THC and its many metabolites, mainly THC-COOH, occurs via the feces and urine for several weeks. Thus, to confirm abstinence, urine THC-COOH analysis would be a useful tool. A positive result could be checked by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry THC blood analysis, indicative of a recent cannabis exposure.

  20. Prediction of steady-state volume of distribution of acidic drugs by quantitative structure-pharmacokinetics relationships.

    PubMed

    Zhivkova, Zvetanka; Doytchinova, Irini

    2012-03-01

    The volume of distribution (VD) is one of the most important pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs. The present study employs quantitative structure-pharmacokinetics relationships (QSPkR) to derive models for VD prediction of acidic drugs. The steady-state volume of distribution (VD(ss)) values of 132 acidic drugs were collected, the chemical structures were described by 178 molecular descriptors, and QSPkR models were derived after variable selection by genetic algorithm and stepwise regression. Models were validated by cross-validation procedures and external test set. According to the molecular descriptors selected as the most predictive for VD(ss), the presence of seven- and nine-member cycles, atom type P(5+), SH groups, and large nonionized substituents increase the VD(ss), whereas atom types S(2+) and S(4+) and polar ionized substituents decrease it. Cross-validation and external validation studies on the QSPkR models derived in the present study showed good predictive ability with mean fold error values ranging from 1.58 (cross-validation) to 2.25 (external validation). The model performance is comparable to more complicated methods requiring in vitro or in vivo experiments and superior to the existing QSPkR models concerning acidic drugs. Apart from the prediction of VD in human, present models are also useful as a curator of available pharmacokinetic databases. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Evaluation of the pre-posterior distribution of optimized sampling times for the design of pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Duffull, Stephen B; Graham, Gordon; Mengersen, Kerrie; Eccleston, John

    2012-01-01

    Information theoretic methods are often used to design studies that aim to learn about pharmacokinetic and linked pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic systems. These design techniques, such as D-optimality, provide the optimum experimental conditions. The performance of the optimum design will depend on the ability of the investigator to comply with the proposed study conditions. However, in clinical settings it is not possible to comply exactly with the optimum design and hence some degree of unplanned suboptimality occurs due to error in the execution of the study. In addition, due to the nonlinear relationship of the parameters of these models to the data, the designs are also locally dependent on an arbitrary choice of a nominal set of parameter values. A design that is robust to both study conditions and uncertainty in the nominal set of parameter values is likely to be of use clinically. We propose an adaptive design strategy to account for both execution error and uncertainty in the parameter values. In this study we investigate designs for a one-compartment first-order pharmacokinetic model. We do this in a Bayesian framework using Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. We consider log-normal prior distributions on the parameters and investigate several prior distributions on the sampling times. An adaptive design was used to find the sampling window for the current sampling time conditional on the actual times of all previous samples.

  2. Tissue distribution of trace elements and DDE in brown pelicans

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Anderson, D.W.; Boellstorff, D.E.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1985-08-01

    Trace elements and organochlorine pollutants commonly occur in avian tissues. However, concentrations vary among species in the same geographic area, and some compounds can be distributed differently in body tissues among different species. In addition, some heavy metal concentrations vary with the bird's age. The purpose of this paper was to obtain a sample of brown pelicans from these populations to determine which brown pelican tissues contain the highest concentrations of organochlorine pollutants and several trace elements, how much variation might exist in a general sample, and what interrelationships might exist among the tissues and compounds studied.

  3. Reduced subcutaneous tissue distribution of cefazolin in morbidly obese versus non-obese patients determined using clinical microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Brill, Margreke J E; Houwink, Aletta P I; Schmidt, Stephan; Van Dongen, Eric P A; Hazebroek, Eric J; van Ramshorst, Bert; Deneer, Vera H; Mouton, Johan W; Knibbe, Catherijne A J

    2014-03-01

    As morbidly obese patients are prone to surgical site infections, adequate blood and subcutaneous tissue concentrations of prophylactic antibiotic agents during surgery are imperative. In this study we evaluated cefazolin subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution in morbidly obese and non-obese patients, thereby quantifying the influence of morbid obesity on cefazolin pharmacokinetics and enabling Monte Carlo simulations for subsequent dose adjustments. Nine morbidly obese patients [body mass index (BMI) 47 ± 6 kg/m(2)], of whom eight were evaluable, and seven non-obese patients (BMI 28 ± 3 kg/m(2)) received cefazolin 2 g intravenously before surgery (NCT01309152). Using microdialysis, interstitial space fluid (ISF) samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue were collected together with total and unbound plasma cefazolin samples until 240 min after dosing. Using NONMEM, population pharmacokinetic modelling, covariate analysis and Monte Carlo simulations were performed. The unbound (free) cefazolin ISF penetration ratio (fAUC(tissue)/fAUC(plasma)) was 0.70 (range 0.68-0.83) in morbidly obese patients versus 1.02 (range 0.85-1.41) in non-obese patients (P < 0.05). A two-compartment model with saturable protein binding was identified in which the central volume of distribution and cefazolin distribution from the central compartment to the ISF compartment proved dependent on body weight (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). Monte Carlo simulations showed reduced probability of target attainment for morbidly obese versus non-obese patients for MIC values of 2 and 4 mg/L. This study shows that cefazolin tissue distribution is lower in morbidly obese patients and reduces with increasing body weight, and that dose adjustments are required in this patient group.

  4. Expression and distribution of endocan in human tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S M; Zuo, L; Zhou, Q; Gui, S Y; Shi, R; Wu, Q; Wei, W; Wang, Y

    2012-04-01

    Endocan is a novel human endothelial cell specific molecule. Its expression is regulated by cytokines and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The distribution of endocan in normal human tissues, however, remains unclear. We examined the expression of endocan in normal human tissue using immunohistochemical stains. Endocan was expressed in actively proliferative or neogeneic tissues and cells such as glandular tissues, endothelium of neovasculature, bronchial epithelium, germinal centers of lymph nodes etc. Endocan was not present in silent or resting tissues or cells such as endothelium of great arteries and spleen etc. Our findings suggest that endocan may act as a marker for angiogenesis or oncogenesis and could be regarded as a candidate gene for inflammatory tissue, neoplasia, tumor development and metastasis. The expression level of endocan may assist early diagnosis and prognosis of some tumors.

  5. Distribution of miRNA expression across human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Nicole; Leidinger, Petra; Becker, Kurt; Backes, Christina; Fehlmann, Tobias; Pallasch, Christian; Rheinheimer, Steffi; Meder, Benjamin; Stähler, Cord; Meese, Eckart; Keller, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We present a human miRNA tissue atlas by determining the abundance of 1997 miRNAs in 61 tissue biopsies of different organs from two individuals collected post-mortem. One thousand three hundred sixty-four miRNAs were discovered in at least one tissue, 143 were present in each tissue. To define the distribution of miRNAs, we utilized a tissue specificity index (TSI). The majority of miRNAs (82.9%) fell in a middle TSI range i.e. were neither specific for single tissues (TSI > 0.85) nor housekeeping miRNAs (TSI < 0.5). Nonetheless, we observed many different miRNAs and miRNA families that were predominantly expressed in certain tissues. Clustering of miRNA abundances revealed that tissues like several areas of the brain clustered together. Considering -3p and -5p mature forms we observed miR-150 with different tissue specificity. Analysis of additional lung and prostate biopsies indicated that inter-organism variability was significantly lower than inter-organ variability. Tissue-specific differences between the miRNA patterns appeared not to be significantly altered by storage as shown for heart and lung tissue. MiRNAs TSI values of human tissues were significantly (P = 10−8) correlated with those of rats; miRNAs that were highly abundant in certain human tissues were likewise abundant in according rat tissues. We implemented a web-based repository enabling scientists to access and browse the data (https://ccb-web.cs.uni-saarland.de/tissueatlas). PMID:26921406

  6. Distribution of miRNA expression across human tissues.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Nicole; Leidinger, Petra; Becker, Kurt; Backes, Christina; Fehlmann, Tobias; Pallasch, Christian; Rheinheimer, Steffi; Meder, Benjamin; Stähler, Cord; Meese, Eckart; Keller, Andreas

    2016-05-05

    We present a human miRNA tissue atlas by determining the abundance of 1997 miRNAs in 61 tissue biopsies of different organs from two individuals collected post-mortem. One thousand three hundred sixty-four miRNAs were discovered in at least one tissue, 143 were present in each tissue. To define the distribution of miRNAs, we utilized a tissue specificity index (TSI). The majority of miRNAs (82.9%) fell in a middle TSI range i.e. were neither specific for single tissues (TSI > 0.85) nor housekeeping miRNAs (TSI < 0.5). Nonetheless, we observed many different miRNAs and miRNA families that were predominantly expressed in certain tissues. Clustering of miRNA abundances revealed that tissues like several areas of the brain clustered together. Considering -3p and -5p mature forms we observed miR-150 with different tissue specificity. Analysis of additional lung and prostate biopsies indicated that inter-organism variability was significantly lower than inter-organ variability. Tissue-specific differences between the miRNA patterns appeared not to be significantly altered by storage as shown for heart and lung tissue. MiRNAs TSI values of human tissues were significantly (P = 10(-8)) correlated with those of rats; miRNAs that were highly abundant in certain human tissues were likewise abundant in according rat tissues. We implemented a web-based repository enabling scientists to access and browse the data (https://ccb-web.cs.uni-saarland.de/tissueatlas).

  7. Pharmacokinetics and Pulmonary Distribution of Clarithromycin and Rifampicin after Concomitant and Consecutive Administration in Foals.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Sarah; Spieckermann, Lena; Oswald, Stefan; Keiser, Markus; Lumpe, Stefan; Ullrich, Anett; Grube, Markus; Hasan, Mahmoud; Venner, Monica; Siegmund, Werner

    2016-03-07

    Drug interactions often result from multiple pharmacokinetic changes, such as after rifampicin (RIF) and clarithromycin (CLA) in the treatment of abscessing lung diseases. Comedication of RIF may interact with CLA disposition by either induction of presystemic elimination processes and/or inhibition of uptake mechanisms because it regulates gene transcription and modulates function of various CYP enzymes, multidrug efflux and uptake transporters for which CLA is a substrate. To distinguish the transcriptional changes from the modulating interaction components upon CLA absorption and pulmonary distribution, we initiated a repeated-dose study in 12 healthy foals with CLA (7.5 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d.) in comedication with RIF (10 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d.) given either concomitantly with CLA or consecutively 4 h after CLA. Affinity of CLA to human P-gp, MRP2, and MRP3 and to OCT1, OCT3, and PEPT1 was measured using Sf9-derived inside-out membrane vesicles and transfected HEK293 cells, respectively. ABCB1 (P-gp) induction by RIF and affinity of CLA to equine P-gp were studied using primary equine hepatocytes. Absolute bioavailability of CLA was reduced from ∼40% to below 5% after comedication of RIF in both schedules of administration, and Tmax occurred ∼2-3 h earlier. The loss of bioavailability was not associated with increased 14-hydroxyclarithromycin (14-OH-CLA) exposure. After consecutive dosing, absolute bioavailability and pulmonary penetration of CLA increased ∼2-fold compared to concomitant use. In vitro, CLA showed affinity to human and equine P-gp. Expression of ABCB1 mRNA was upregulated by RIF in 7 of 8 duodenal biopsy specimens and in primary equine hepatocytes. In conclusion, the major undesired influence of RIF on oral absorption and pulmonary distribution of CLA is associated with induction of intestinal P-gp. Consecutive administration to avoid competition with its intestinal uptake transport results in significantly, although not clinically relevant

  8. Tissue distribution of bitespiramycin and spiramycin in rats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiang-guo; Sun, Yu-ming; Zhang, Yu-feng; Zhong, Da-fang

    2004-11-01

    To investigate the tissue distribution of bitespiramycin (BSPM) and spiramycin (SPM) in rats. Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric assay was applied for the determination of three major components (isovalerylspiramycins, ISV-SPMs) of BSPM and their major active metabolites (SPMs) in rat tissues and plasma after an oral dose of bitespiramycin, as well as SPMs. High levels of drug concentrations were observed in most tissues, especially in the liver, stomach, intestine, spleen, lung, womb, and pancreas. BSPM persisted long time in many rat tissues such that the drug concentration in spleen was 69.4 nmol/g at 60 h post-dose and it was still above the minimum inhibitory concentration of many susceptible pathogens. At 2.5 h post-dose, the total concentrations of ISV-SPMs and SPMs achieved in tissues were from 6 to 215 times higher than the corresponding concentrations in plasma. At 2.5 h post-dose, the mean C(t)/C(p) of BSPM appeared to be 2- or 3-fold those of SPM in most tissues. The tissue to plasma concentration ratios following oral dose of BSPM were higher than those of SPM in most tissues. The drug was not detected in brain and testis after a single dose of BSPM and SPM. Both BSPM and SPM penetrate into rat tissues well and BSPM has higher tissue affinity than SPM.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Cintron, Nitza M.

    1990-01-01

    The Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Panel met on 29-30 Aug. 1988 at the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Texas to discuss pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic implications of space flight and make recommendations for operational and research strategies. Based on the knowledge available on the physiological changes that occur during space flight, the dependence of pharmacokinetics on physiological factors, and the therapeutic requirements for future space missions, the panel made several recommendations for research. It was suggested that using medications available with a large (wide) therapeutic window will avoid unforeseen therapeutic consequences during flight. The sequence for conducting research was outlined as follows: (1) identify ground-based simulation models (e.g., antiorthostatic bed rest) for conducting pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic research; (2) estimate parametric changes in these models using pharmacologic agents that have different pharmacokinetic characteristics and a narrow therapeutic index; (3) verify these findings during flight; and (4) develop and identify appropriate and effective drug delivery systems, dosage forms, and regimens. The panel recommended gaining a thorough understanding of the pharmacokinetic deviations of medications that have a narrow therapeutic index (e.g. cardiovascular drugs and sedative hypnotics) in order to ensure safe and effective treatment during flight with these agents. It was also suggested that basic information on physiological factors such as organ blood flow, protein composition and binding, tissue distribution, and metabolism by hepatic enzymes must be accumulated by conducting ground-based animal and human studies using models of weightlessness. This information will be useful to construct and identify physiologically based pharmacokinetic models that can provide valuable information on the pharmacodynamic consequences of space flight and aid in identifying appropriate therapeutic

  10. A comprehensive insight on ocular pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Agrahari, Vibhuti; Mandal, Abhirup; Agrahari, Vivek; Trinh, Hoang M; Joseph, Mary; Ray, Animikh; Hadji, Hicheme; Mitra, Ranjana; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2016-12-01

    The eye is a distinctive organ with protective anatomy and physiology. Several pharmacokinetics compartment models of ocular drug delivery have been developed for describing the absorption, distribution, and elimination of ocular drugs in the eye. Determining pharmacokinetics parameters in ocular tissues is a major challenge because of the complex anatomy and dynamic physiological barrier of the eye. In this review, pharmacokinetics of these compartments exploring different drugs, delivery systems, and routes of administration is discussed including factors affecting intraocular bioavailability. Factors such as precorneal fluid drainage, drug binding to tear proteins, systemic drug absorption, corneal factors, melanin binding, and drug metabolism render ocular delivery challenging and are elaborated in this manuscript. Several compartment models are discussed; these are developed in ocular drug delivery to study the pharmacokinetics parameters. There are several transporters present in both anterior and posterior segments of the eye which play a significant role in ocular pharmacokinetics and are summarized briefly. Moreover, several ocular pharmacokinetics animal models and relevant studies are reviewed and discussed in addition to the pharmacokinetics of various ocular formulations.

  11. Scale up and pharmacokinetic study of a novel mutated chimeric tissue plasminogen activator (mt-PA) in rats

    PubMed Central

    Raigani, Mozhgan; Rouini, Mohammad-Reza; Golabchifar, Ali-Akbar; Mirabzadeh, Esmat; Vaziri, Behrouz; Barkhordari, Farzaneh; Davami, Fatemeh; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2017-01-01

    Because of high mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases, various fibrinolytic agents with diverse pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties have been developed. A novel mutated chimeric tissue plasminogen activator (mt-PA) was developed by the removal of first three domains of t-PA, insertion of GHRP sequence and mutation towards resistance to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Mt-PA protein was expressed in Expi293F cells. The expression level of mt-PA was found to be 5000 IU/mL. Following purification, the pharmacokinetic properties of mt-PA were evaluated in three doses in rats. Data related to mt-PA were best fitted to two compartment model. With the increase in dose, the Area Under the plasma concentration-time Curve (AUC0→∞) increased. The elimination half-life (t1/2) of mt-PA was in the range of 19.1–26.1 min in three doses while that of Alteplase was 8.3 min. The plasma clearance (CLp) of mt-PA ranged from 3.8 to 5.9 mL/min in three doses, which was several times lower than that of Alteplase (142.6 mL/min). The mean residence time (MRT) of mt-PA ranged from 23.3–31.8 min in three doses, which was 4–5 times greater than that of Alteplase (6 min). Mt-PA showed extended half-life and mean residence time and is a good candidate for further clinical studies. PMID:28223717

  12. Tissue distribution of enrofloxacin in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) after intramuscular and subcutaneous administration.

    PubMed

    Felt, Stephen; Papich, Mark G; Howard, Antwain; Long, Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel; Torreilles, Stéphanie; Green, Sherril

    2013-03-01

    As part of an enrofloxacin pharmacokinetic study, concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin (metabolite) were measured in various tissues (brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, and spleen) collected from treated (subcutaneous delivery, n = 3; intramuscular delivery, n = 3; untreated controls, n = 2) adult female Xenopus laevis by using HPLC. Enrofloxacin was rapidly absorbed after administration by either route and readily diffused into all sampled tissues. Enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were present in the tissue samples collected at 8 h. The highest average tissue concentrations for enrofloxacin were found in kidney, with the lowest concentrations in liver. Ciprofloxacin tissue concentrations paralleled but were always lower than those of enrofloxacin for all time points and tissues except brain and kidney. These results, together with previously published pharmacokinetic data and known minimal inhibitory concentrations of common pathogenic bacteria, provide a strong evidence-based rationale for choosing enrofloxacin to treat infectious diseases in X. laevis.

  13. Distribution of tissue enzymes in three species of pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Fauquier, Deborah A; Mazet, Jonna A K; Gulland, Frances M D; Spraker, Terry R; Christopher, Mary M

    2008-03-01

    In domestic animal medicine, changes in serum enzyme levels are routinely used as diagnostic tools to detect liver disease. Hepatic disease occurs in pinnipeds, but limited data are available on the tissue distribution of serum enzymes in marine mammals. The objectives of this study were to determine the tissue distribution of seven serum enzymes in three pinniped species. Enzymes evaluated were alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in tissues from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) (n = 5), harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) (n = 5), and northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) (n = 5) that stranded and then died at a rehabilitation center. Samples were evaluated in duplicate from liver, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, kidney, adrenal, spleen, pancreas, lung, lymph node, and intestine. Patterns of tissue enzyme distribution were similar in all species, with SDH activity highest in liver and kidney, CK activity highest in skeletal and cardiac muscle, ALP activity highest in adrenal, and GGT activity highest in the kidney. Aspartate aminotransferase and LDH activities were less specific, with high activity in multiple tissues. Tissue ALT activity was high in the liver of all species, but was also high in cardiac muscle (California sea lions), skeletal muscle (harbor seals), and kidney (elephant seals). These results suggest that concurrent analysis of SDH, ALT, and CK would provide high specificity and sensitivity for the detection of hepatic lesions, and allow differentiation of liver from skeletal muscle lesions in pinniped species.

  14. Cell-size distribution in epithelial tissue formation and homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Puliafito, Alberto; Primo, Luca; Celani, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    How cell growth and proliferation are orchestrated in living tissues to achieve a given biological function is a central problem in biology. During development, tissue regeneration and homeostasis, cell proliferation must be coordinated by spatial cues in order for cells to attain the correct size and shape. Biological tissues also feature a notable homogeneity of cell size, which, in specific cases, represents a physiological need. Here, we study the temporal evolution of the cell-size distribution by applying the theory of kinetic fragmentation to tissue development and homeostasis. Our theory predicts self-similar probability density function (PDF) of cell size and explains how division times and redistribution ensure cell size homogeneity across the tissue. Theoretical predictions and numerical simulations of confluent non-homeostatic tissue cultures show that cell size distribution is self-similar. Our experimental data confirm predictions and reveal that, as assumed in the theory, cell division times scale like a power-law of the cell size. We find that in homeostatic conditions there is a stationary distribution with lognormal tails, consistently with our experimental data. Our theoretical predictions and numerical simulations show that the shape of the PDF depends on how the space inherited by apoptotic cells is redistributed and that apoptotic cell rates might also depend on size. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Biocompatible microemulsion modifies the tissue distribution of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Candido, Caroline Damico; Campos, Michel Leandro; Correa Vidigal Assumpção, Juliana Uruguay; Pestana, Kelly Chrystina; Padilha, Elias Carvalho; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone; Peccinini, Rosângela Gonçalves

    2014-10-01

    The incorporation of doxorubicin (DOX) in a microemulsion (DOX-ME) has shown beneficial consequences by reducing the cardiotoxic effects of DOX. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of DOX-ME in Ehrlich solid tumor (EST) and the heart, and compare it with that of free DOX. The distribution study was conducted with female Swiss mice with EST (n = 7 per group; 20-25 g). Animals received a single dose (10 mg/kg, i.p.) of DOX or DOX-ME 7 days after tumor inoculation. Fifteen minutes after administration, the animals were sacrificed, and the tumor and heart tissues were taken for immediate analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. No difference was observed in DOX concentration in tumor tissue between DOX and DOX-ME administration. However, the most remarkable result in this study was the statistically significant reduction in DOX concentration in heart tissue of animals given DOX-ME. Mean DOX concentration in heart tissue was 0.92 ± 0.54 ng mg(-1) for DOX-ME and 1.85 ± 0.34 ng mg(-1) for free DOX. In conclusion, DOX-ME provides a better tissue distribution profile, with a lower drug concentration in heart tissue but still comparable tumor drug concentration, which indicates that antitumor activity would not be compromised.

  16. Isatin, regional distribution in rat brain and tissues.

    PubMed

    Watkins, P; Clow, A; Glover, V; Halket, J; Przyborowska, A; Sandler, M

    1990-01-01

    Isatin has recently been identified in rat tissues and normal human urine, where it forms the major proportion of the endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitor, tribulin. In this paper, we show that isatin, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, has a distinct regional distribution in rat tissues, with highest concentrations in seminal vesicles (1.6 ?g/g) and vas deferens (3.4 ?g/g). There was also a discontinuous distribution within rat brain, concentrations being highest in the hippocampus (0.13 ?g/g).

  17. Cold exposure induces alterations in porcine triiodothyronine tissue distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Quesada, M.H.; Reed, H.L.; Hesslink, R.; Licauco, G.; Castro, S.; Homer, L.; Young, B. Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton )

    1991-03-11

    Evidence suggests that thyroid hormone plays an active role in modulation of tissue metabolism in response to cold challenge. In an attempts to identify tissues that may have increased capacity for triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) and be actively involved in the thermogenic process, the authors investigated the T{sub 3} tissue distribution in 5 month old swine exposed to cold (4C) (N = 5) for three weeks, compared with controls at a thermoneutral temperature (20C) (N = 4). Both groups were injected I.V. with ({sup 125}I)T{sub 3} three hours before sacrifice. ({sup 125}I)T{sub 3} was organically extracted from heart, kidney, thyroid gland, adrenal, brain, 4 different types of striated muscles and fat tissues and counted to determine the CPM/gm of tissue. Serum total T{sub 3} and free T{sub 3} were elevated. The bulk of the tissue/serum ratios of cold exposed swine compared with controls were unchanged. However, calculation of the T{sub 3} organ pools revealed that the majority was elevated 2 to 3 times over control. Increases in tissue distribution volume (TVD) occurred in hip fat. Body and organ weights tended to increase but not to a significant degree except for the thyroid gland, which increased 66% over the average control value. The physiological significance of the cold associated augmented organ pool and the increased TCD in hip fat needs to be explored.

  18. UNCERTAINTIES IN TRICHLOROETHYLENE PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the pharmacokinetics of a chemical¯its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in humans and laboratory animals ¯ is critical to the assessment of its human health risks. For trichloroethylene (TCE), numerous physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK)...

  19. UNCERTAINTIES IN TRICHLOROETHYLENE PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the pharmacokinetics of a chemical¯its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in humans and laboratory animals ¯ is critical to the assessment of its human health risks. For trichloroethylene (TCE), numerous physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK)...

  20. Multimodal assessment of spatial distribution of drug-tracer uptake by brain tissue after intra-arterial injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh-Moon, Rajinder; Chaudhuri, Durba; Wang, Mei; Straubinger, Robert; Bigio, Irving J.; Joshi, Shailendra

    2014-02-01

    It is challenging to track the rapid changes in drug concentrations after intra-arterial (IA) administration to elucidate the pharmacokinetics of this method of drug delivery. Traditional pharmacokinetic parameters (such as protein binding) that are highly relevant to intravenous (IV) administration do not seem to apply to IA injections. Regional drug delivery is affected by the biomechanics of drug injection, resting blood flow, and local tissue extraction. In-vivo and ex-vivo, optical methods for spatial mapping of drug deposition can assist in visualizing drug distributions and aid in the screening of potential drugs and carrier candidates. We present a multimodal approach for the assessment of drug distribution in postmortem tissue specimens using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, multispectral imaging, and confocal microscopy and demonstrate feasibility of distinguishing route of administration advantages of liposome-dye conjugate delivery. The results of this study suggest that insight on drug dynamics gained by this aggregated approach can be used to help screen and/or optimize potential drug candidates and drug delivery protocols.

  1. Tissue distribution of human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase messenger RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Jbilo, O.; Barteles, C.F.; Chatonnet, A.; Toutant, J.P.; Lockridge, O.

    1994-12-31

    Tissue distribution of human acetyicholinesterase and butyryicholinesterase messenger RNA. 1 Cholinesterase inhibitors occur naturally in the calabar bean (eserine), green potatoes (solanine), insect-resistant crab apples, the coca plant (cocaine) and snake venom (fasciculin). There are also synthetic cholinesterase inhibitors, for example man-made insecticides. These inhibitors inactivate acetyicholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase as well as other targets. From a study of the tissue distribution of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase mRNA by Northern blot analysis, we have found the highest levels of butyrylcholinesterase mRNA in the liver and lungs, tissues known as the principal detoxication sites of the human body. These results indicate that butyrylcholinesterase may be a first line of defense against poisons that are eaten or inhaled.

  2. Optimizing nanomedicine pharmacokinetics using physiologically based pharmacokinetics modelling.

    PubMed

    Moss, Darren Michael; Siccardi, Marco

    2014-09-01

    The delivery of therapeutic agents is characterized by numerous challenges including poor absorption, low penetration in target tissues and non-specific dissemination in organs, leading to toxicity or poor drug exposure. Several nanomedicine strategies have emerged as an advanced approach to enhance drug delivery and improve the treatment of several diseases. Numerous processes mediate the pharmacokinetics of nanoformulations, with the absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) being poorly understood and often differing substantially from traditional formulations. Understanding how nanoformulation composition and physicochemical properties influence drug distribution in the human body is of central importance when developing future treatment strategies. A helpful pharmacological tool to simulate the distribution of nanoformulations is represented by physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) modelling, which integrates system data describing a population of interest with drug/nanoparticle in vitro data through a mathematical description of ADME. The application of PBPK models for nanomedicine is in its infancy and characterized by several challenges. The integration of property-distribution relationships in PBPK models may benefit nanomedicine research, giving opportunities for innovative development of nanotechnologies. PBPK modelling has the potential to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning nanoformulation disposition and allow for more rapid and accurate determination of their kinetics. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of nanomedicine distribution and the use of PBPK modelling in the characterization of nanoformulations with optimal pharmacokinetics. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Tissue temperature distribution measurement and laser immunotherapy for cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yichao; Gyanwalib, Surya; Bjorlie, Jeremy; Andrienko, Kirill; Liu, Hong; Tesiram, Yasvir A.; Abbott, Andrew; Towner, Rheal A.; Chen, Wei R.

    2006-02-01

    Temperature distribution in tissue can be a crucial factor in laser treatment for inducing immunization responses. In this study, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was used to measure thermal temperature distribution in target tissue in laser treatment of metastatic tumors. It is the only feasible method for in vivo, non-invasive temperature distribution measurement. The measurement was conducted using phantom gel and tumor-bearing rats. The thermal couple measurement of target temperature was also was used to calibrate the relative temperature increase. The phantom system was constructed with a dye-enhanced spherical gel embedded in uniform gel phantom, simulating a tumor within normal tissue. Irradiation by an 805-nm laser increased the system temperature. Using an MRI system and proper algorithm processing for small animal studies, a clear temperature distribution matrix was obtained. The temperature profiles of rat tumors, irradiated by the laser with a power in the range of 2-3.5W and injected with a light-absorbing dye, ICG, and an immunoadjuvant, GC, were obtained. The temperature distribution provided in vivo thermal information and future reference for optimizing dye concentration and irradiation parameters to reach the optimum tumor destruction and immunization effects.

  4. [Project to enhance bone bank tissue storage and distribution procedures].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jui-Chen; Wu, Chiung-Lan; Chen, Chun-Chuan; Chen, Shu-Hua

    2011-10-01

    Organ and tissue transplantation are now commonly preformed procedures. Improper organ bank handling procedures may increase infection risks. Execution accuracy in terms of tissue storage and distribution at our bone bank was 80%. We thus proposed an execution improvement project to enhance procedures in order to fulfill the intent of donors and ensure recipient safety. This project was designed to raise nurse professionalism, and ensure patient safety through enhanced tissue storage and distribution procedures. Education programs developed for this project focus on teaching standard operating procedures for bone and ligament storage and distribution, bone bank facility maintenance, trouble shooting and solutions, and periodic inspection systems. Cognition of proper storage and distribution procedures rose from 81% to 100%; Execution accuracy also rose from 80% to 100%. The project successfully conveyed concepts essential to the correct execution of organ storage and distribution procedures and proper organ bank facility management. Achieving and maintaining procedural and management standards is crucial to continued organ donations and the recipient safety.

  5. Development and Qualification of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models for Drugs With Atypical Distribution Behavior: A Desipramine Case Study.

    PubMed

    Samant, T S; Lukacova, V; Schmidt, S

    2017-05-01

    Desipramine is a secondary tricyclic amine, which is primarily metabolized by cytochrome 2D6. It shows a high volume of distribution (Vss) (10-50 L/kg) due to its high lipophilicity, unspecific phospholipid binding, and lysosomal trapping. The objective of this study was to develop and qualify a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for desipramine, which accounts for the high Vss of the drug following intravenous and oral administration of doses up to 100 mg. The model also accounts for the extended time to reach maximum concentration after oral dosing due to enterocyte trapping. Once developed and qualified in adults, we characterized the dynamic changes in metabolism and pharmacokinetics of desipramine after birth by scaling the system-specific parameters of the model from adults to pediatrics. The developed modeling strategy provides a prototypical workflow that can also be applied to other drugs with similar properties and a high volume of distribution. © 2017 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  6. Single and Multiple Dose Pharmacokinetics of Maraviroc in Saliva, Semen, and Rectal Tissue of Healthy HIV-negative Men

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Kristine B.; Malone, Stephanie A.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Asher Prince, Heather M.; Dumond, Julie B.; Spacek, Melissa B.; Heidt, Paris E.; Cohen, Myron S.; Kashuba, Angela D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Antiretroviral pharmacology in seminal plasma (SP) and rectal tissue (RT) may provide insight into antiretroviral resistance and the prevention of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Saliva may be of utility for noninvasively measuring adherence. Methods. A pharmacokinetic study was performed in 12 HIV-negative men receiving maraviroc 300 mg twice daily for 8 days. Seven time-matched pairs of blood plasma (BP) and saliva samples were collected over 12 h on day 1 (PK1) and days 7 and 8 (PK2). One RT sample from each subject was collected during PK1 and PK2. Two SP samples were collected from each subject during PK1, and 6 SP samples were collected from each subject during PK2. Results. SP AUCs were ∼50% lower than BP. However, protein binding in SP ranged from 4% to 25%, resulting in protein-free concentrations >2-fold higher than BP. RT AUCs were 7.5- to 26-fold higher than BP. Maraviroc saliva AUCs were ∼70% lower than BP, but saliva concentrations correlated with BP (r2 = 0.58). Conclusions. More pharmacologically available maraviroc was found in SP than BP. High RT concentrations are promising for preventing rectal HIV acquisition. Saliva correlation with BP suggests that this may be useful for monitoring adherence. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00775294. PMID:21502084

  7. Simultaneous determination of aditoprim and its three major metabolites in pigs, broilers and carp tissues, and its application in tissue distribution and depletion studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liye; Huang, Lingli; Pan, Yuanhu; Wu, Qinghua; Xie, Shuyu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-08-01

    Aditoprim (ADP) is a recently developed dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor that has shown promise for therapeutic use in veterinary medicine because of its excellent pharmacokinetic properties. In this study, a sensitive and reliable multi-residue chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method for the quantitative analysis of ADP and its three major metabolites was developed, and the tissue distribution and depletion profiles of ADP and its major metabolites in pigs, broilers and carp were investigated. Edible and additional tissues (heart, lung, stomach, intestine and swim bladder) were collected for analysis at six different withdrawal periods after ADP administration for 7 days. ADP, N-monomethyl-ADP and N-didesmethyl-ADP were detected in almost all tissues in the three species. The liver, kidney and lung showed higher residue concentrations, and the liver showed a longer residue half-life (t1/2) than other tissues. In the liver, ADP was the most abundant component with the longest persistence. The results suggest that the liver was the residual target tissue and ADP was the marker residue, and the conclusive withdrawal time (WDT) of 20 days in pigs, 16 days in broilers and 25 days in carp was estimated using the assessment methodologies approved by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA).

  8. Pharmacokinetics and tissue residues of hydrochloric acid albendazole sulfoxide and its metabolites in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Li, Zaijian; Chen, Cuilan; Ai, Diyun; Wang, Chunmei; Li, Jing; Qi, Yuanhua; Yi, Weixue; Shen, Hongchun; Cao, Jiyue

    2012-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics and residues elimination of hydrochloric acid albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO) and its metabolites were studied in healthy crucian carp (Carassius auratus, 250 ± 30 g) kept at water temperatures of 10 °C and 25 °C. The concentrations of ABZSO and its metabolites concentration in plasma and tissues were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using an ultraviolet detector. The results revealed that the plasma concentration of ABZSO in plasma was significantly higher than that of albendazole sulfone (ABZSO(2)), whereas albendazole-2-aminosulfone (ABZ-SO(2)NH(2)) was not detected. The plasma concentrations of ABZSO and its main metabolite ABZSO(2) concentration-time data were fitted using a single-compartment model at 10 °C and 25 °C. The absorption half-life (t₁/₂ka) of ABZSO was 3.86 h at 10 °C and 1.29 h at 25 °C, whereas the elimination half-life (t₁/₂ke) was 16.34 h at 10 °C and 6.72 h at 25 °C; the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and the time-point of maximum plasma concentration (T(p)) were calculated as 3.20 μg mL(-1) and 10.58 h at 10 °C, 4.39 μg mL(-1) and 3.80 h at 25 °C. The distribution volume (V(d)/F) of ABZSO was estimated to be 1.99 L kg(-1) at 10 °C and 1.53 L kg(-1) at 25 °C; the total body clearance (CL(b)) of ABZSO were computed as 0.08 and 0.19 L/(h kg) at 10 and 25 °C, respectively; the areas under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was 118.22 μg mL(-1)h at 10 °C and 63.12 μg mL(-1)h at 25 °C. The [Formula: see text] of ABZSO(2) was found to be 6.39 °C at 10 °C and 3.73 h at 25 °C, whereas the [Formula: see text] was 12.86 h at 10 °C and 6.56 h at 25 °C; the C(max) and T(p) of ABZSO(2) was calculated as 0.78 μg mL(-1) and 12.82 h at 10 °C, 1.03 μg mL(-1) and 7.04 h at 25 °C, respectively; the V(d)/F of ABZSO(2) were estimated to be 6.43 L kg(-1) at 10 °C and 4.61 Lkg(-1) at 25 °C; the CL(b) of ABZSO(2) were computed as 0.34 and 0.49 L/(h kg) at 10 °C and 25

  9. Measurement and clinical and pharmacokinetic implications of diffusion coefficients of antibiotics in tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Meulemans, A; Paycha, F; Hannoun, P; Vulpillat, M

    1989-01-01

    A method for determining diffusion coefficients of four antibiotics in extracellular tissue space according to Fick's law is described. This new method was applied to rat brain tissue and to agar. After diffusion of the antibiotic in one axis, the gradient concentration was determined with microvoltammetric electrodes. These microelectrodes (1 micron at the extreme tip) measured the free diffusible form of electroactive antibiotics in the extracellular brain space. Metronidazole, chloramphenicol succinate, cefsulodin, and piperacillin gave diffusion coefficients ranging from 0.1 x 10(-6) to 0.2 x 10(-6) cm2 . s-1 in tissue; chloramphenicol base, which is positively charged, gave a coefficient of 0.04 x 10(-6) cm2 . s-1. The coefficient ranged from 0.6 x 10(-6) to 1.2 x 10(-6) cm2 . s-1 in agar. These coefficients were used to simulate antibiotic concentrations in infectious sites and between capillaries by using a simple model of plane diffusion. PMID:2802555

  10. Tissue Distribution Of Chloroaluminium Sulfonated Phthalocyanine In Dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. M.; H. C.; Newman

    1989-06-01

    Chloroaluminum sulfonated phthalocyanine (A1PCS) was administered intravenously to clinically normal dogs, and A1PCS levels were determined in tissues using a sensitive assay. A1PCS accumulated to high levels in liver, spleen, bone marrow, kidney, and lung. These tissue levels confirm previous determinations in mice and rats. Only a small amount of dye was retained in skin and very small amounts in muscle and brain. A1PCS was cleared from the blood within 24 h, and excreted primarily by urine. Serum clearance was faster in males than in females. There were also significant tissue distribution differences between the genders, particularly during the first 12 h. The low levels of A1PCS in skin suggest that cutaneous photosensitivity and toxic skin reactions using this photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy of cancer may be eliminated. The difference in tissue distribution between genders is not only intriguing, but indicates that the optimal time window for treatment of various tissue sites may vary by gender.

  11. Tissue distribution, disposition, and metabolism of cyclosporine in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, O.; Schreier, E.; Heitz, F.; Maurer, G.

    1987-05-01

    Tissue distribution, disposition, and metabolism of /sup 3/H-cyclosporine were studied in rats after single and repeated oral doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg and after an iv dose of 3 mg/kg. The oral doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg were dissolved in polyethylene glycol 200/ethanol or in olive oil/Labrafil/ethanol. Absorption from both formulations was slow and incomplete, with peak /sup 3/H blood levels at 3-4 hr. Approximately 30% of the radioactive dose was absorbed, which is consistent with oral bioavailability data for cyclosporine. More than 70% of the radioactivity was excreted in feces and up to 15% in urine. Elimination via the bile accounted for 10 and 60% of the oral and iv doses, respectively. Since unchanged cyclosporine predominated in both blood and tissues at early time points, the half-lives of the distribution phases (t 1/2 alpha) of parent drug and of total radioactivity were similar. In blood, kidney, liver, and lymph nodes, t 1/2 alpha of cyclosporine ranged from 6-10 hr. Elimination of radioactivity from the systemic circulation was multiphasic, with a terminal half-life of 20-30 hr. /sup 3/H-Cyclosporine was extensively distributed throughout the body, with highest concentrations in liver, kidney, endocrine glands, and adipose tissue. The concentrations of both total radioactivity and parent drug were greater in tissues than in blood, which is consistent with the high lipid solubility of cyclosporine and some of its metabolites. Skin and adipose tissue were the main storage sites for unchanged cyclosporine. Elimination half-lives were slower for most tissues than for blood and increased with multiple dosing. The amount of unchanged drug was negligible in urine and bile.

  12. Plasma pharmacokinetics, tissue disposition, excretion and metabolism of vinleucinol in mice as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    van Tellingen, O; Sonneveldt, A L; Beijnen, J H; Nooijen, W J; Kettenes-van den Bosch, J J; Versluis, C; Bult, A

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the pharmacokinetics of the experimental semisynthetic vinca alkaloid vinleucinol (VileE; O4-deacetyl-3-de(methoxycarbonyl)-3-[[[1-ethoxycarbonyl-2- methylbutyl]amino]carbonyl]-vincaleukoblastine). The study was performed in male FVB mice receiving 10.5 mg/kg VileE i.v. or p.o. Plasma, urine, faeces and tissue samples were analysed by a selective method based on ion-exchange normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection and liquid-liquid extraction for sample clean-up. Apart from the parent drug, two other metabolic compounds were detected. One of these metabolites is vinleucinol acid (VileA; O4-deacetyl-3-de(methoxycarbonyl)-3-[[[1-carboxyl-2- methylbutyl]amino]carbonyl]-vincaleukoblastine), which possesses no cytotoxic activity. The structure proposed for the second metabolite (VileX) was based on tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy data. Metabolization of VileE to VileX must occur in the amino acid moiety of the molecule, with a (beta- or gamma-) lactone ring being formed after oxidation of the (beta- or gamma) carbon of the amino acid. VileX is a major metabolite, which is excreted in faeces and urine after i.v. administration and accounting for up to 23% of the administered dose. The activity of VileX against cultured L1210 cells is four times that of the parent drug VileE and comparable with that of vinblastine (VBL). At 48 h after administration of VileE, the concentration of VileX exceeds that of the parent drug in many tissues. These findings indicate that the metabolite VileX may be at least largely responsible for the activity observed against xenografts in mice after administration of the parent drug, VileE.

  13. Assessment of veterinary drugs in plants using pharmacokinetic approaches: The absorption, distribution and elimination of tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole in ephemeral vegetables.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Ru; Rairat, Tirawat; Loh, Shih-Hurng; Wu, Yu-Chieh; Vickroy, Thomas W; Chou, Chi-Chung

    2017-01-01

    The present study was carried out to demonstrate novel use of pharmacokinetic approaches to characterize drug behaviors/movements in the vegetables with implications to food safety. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and most importantly, the elimination of tetracycline (TC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in edible plants Brassica rapa chinensis and Ipomoea aquatica grown hydroponically were demonstrated and studied using non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. The results revealed drug-dependent and vegetable-dependent pharmacokinetic differences and indicated that ephemeral vegetables could have high capacity accumulating antibiotics (up to 160 μg g-1 for TC and 38 μg g-1 for SMX) within hours. TC concentration in the root (Cmax) could reach 11 times higher than that in the cultivation fluid and 3-28 times higher than the petioles/stems. Based on the volume of distribution (Vss), SMX was 3-6 times more extensively distributed than TC. Both antibiotics showed evident, albeit slow elimination phase with elimination half-lives ranging from 22 to 88 hours. For the first time drug elimination through the roots of a plant was demonstrated, and by viewing the root as a central compartment and continuous infusion without a loading dose as drug administration mode, it is possible to pharmacokinetically monitor the movement of antibiotics and their fate in the vegetables with more detailed information not previously available. Phyto-pharmacokinetic could be a new area worth developing new models for the assessment of veterinary drugs in edible plants.

  14. Assessment of veterinary drugs in plants using pharmacokinetic approaches: The absorption, distribution and elimination of tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole in ephemeral vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui-Ru; Rairat, Tirawat; Loh, Shih-Hurng; Wu, Yu-Chieh; Vickroy, Thomas W.

    2017-01-01

    The present study was carried out to demonstrate novel use of pharmacokinetic approaches to characterize drug behaviors/movements in the vegetables with implications to food safety. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and most importantly, the elimination of tetracycline (TC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in edible plants Brassica rapa chinensis and Ipomoea aquatica grown hydroponically were demonstrated and studied using non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. The results revealed drug-dependent and vegetable-dependent pharmacokinetic differences and indicated that ephemeral vegetables could have high capacity accumulating antibiotics (up to 160 μg g-1 for TC and 38 μg g-1 for SMX) within hours. TC concentration in the root (Cmax) could reach 11 times higher than that in the cultivation fluid and 3–28 times higher than the petioles/stems. Based on the volume of distribution (Vss), SMX was 3–6 times more extensively distributed than TC. Both antibiotics showed evident, albeit slow elimination phase with elimination half-lives ranging from 22 to 88 hours. For the first time drug elimination through the roots of a plant was demonstrated, and by viewing the root as a central compartment and continuous infusion without a loading dose as drug administration mode, it is possible to pharmacokinetically monitor the movement of antibiotics and their fate in the vegetables with more detailed information not previously available. Phyto-pharmacokinetic could be a new area worth developing new models for the assessment of veterinary drugs in edible plants. PMID:28797073

  15. Prediction of human volume of distribution values for drugs using linear and nonlinear quantitative structure pharmacokinetic relationship models.

    PubMed

    Louis, Bruno; Agrawal, Vijay K

    2014-03-01

    In the present study the volume of distribution values in humans of 121 drugs was estimated using quantitative structure pharmacokinetic relationship analysis. The multiple linear regression (MLR) method and nonlinear artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machines (SVM) were employed for modeling. The theoretically calculated molecular descriptors were used for modeling and best set of descriptors selected by correlation based feature selection (CFS) method. The performance and predictive capability of linear method was investigated and compared with nonlinear method. The ANN gave better model with an average fold error of 1.66. The test set prediction accuracy shows human volume of distribution values could be predicted, on average, within 2-fold of the actual value.

  16. Effect of coagulation on laser light distribution in myocardial tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agah, Ramtin; Sheth, Devang; Motamedi, Massoud

    1991-05-01

    The changes in total reflection and transmission of porcine myocardium due to thermal coagulation were measured during tissue heating in a temperature-controlled water bath, at different temperature ranging between 54 degree(s)-63 degree(s)C. At 633 nm, the measurements yield a picture of continuous decrease in transmission and a peak with a subsequent fall (approximately 10% from the peak) in reflection measurements of the tissue during coagulation process. Utilizing these measurements and an inverse solution to the radiative transfer equation, the optical properties of tissue, absorption, (mu)a, and effective scattering, (mu)s=(mu)s(1-g) were calculated. A one-dimensional diffusion approximation was used to demonstrate the effects of thermally induced changes in the optical properties of tissue on light distribution in tissue. The pattern of changes in (mu)a and (mu)s seem to indicate that several simultaneous rate processes may be responsible for tissue coagulation. A postulate is put forward to use one such rate process to characterize threshold thermal damage to porcine myocardium and the accompanying protein denaturation.

  17. Pharmacokinetic study of arctigenin in rat plasma and organ tissue by RP-HPLC method.

    PubMed

    He, Fan; Dou, De-Qiang; Hou, Qiang; Sun, Yu; Kang, Ting-Guo

    2013-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique was developed for the determination of arctigenin in plasma and various organs of rats after the oral administration of 30, 50 and 70 mgkg(-1) of arctigenin to the Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed that the validated HPLC method was simple, fast, reproducible and suitable to the determination of arctigenin in rat plasma and organ tissue and one-compartmental model with zero-order absorption process can well describe the changes of arctigenin concentration in the plasma. The concentration of compound was highest in the spleen, less in the liver and the least in the lung.

  18. PK and tissue distribution of docetaxel in rabbits after i.v. administration of liposomal and injectable formulations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ling; Wei, Yu-Meng; Zhong, Xiao-Dong; Liang, Yan; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Li, Wei; Li, Bi-Bo; Wang, Ya; Yu, Yu

    2009-05-01

    A simple and sensitive HPLC method was established and validated for the determination of docetaxel (DTX) in rabbit plasma and tissue samples. Biosamples were spiked with paclitaxel as an internal standard and pre-treated by solid phase extraction (SPE). Sample separation was performed on a reverse-phase HPLC column at 30 degrees C by using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-methanol-0.02 M ammonium acetate buffer (pH 5.0) (20:47.5:32.5, v/v/v) at flow rate of 1.0 mL/min The UV absorbance of the samples was measured at the wavelength of 230 nm. The standard curves were linear over the ranges of 0.02525-2.525 microg/mL for plasma, 1.010-202.00 microg/g for lung, 0.202-20.20 microg/g for spleen, liver and kidney, 0.202-10.10 microg/g for heart and stomach, 0.0505-2.02 microg/g for brain, respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 10.0 ng/mL in the plasma samples and 20.0 ng/g in the tissue samples, respectively. The analysis method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution studies of DTX liposomes and DTX injection after i.v. administration to the rabbits. The results showed that the liposome carrier led to a significant difference in pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profile compared to the conventional DTX injection.

  19. Using unfixed, frozen tissues to study natural mucin distribution.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Miriam; Varki, Nissi M; Jankowski, Mark D; Gagneux, Pascal

    2012-09-21

    Mucins are complex and heavily glycosylated O-linked glycoproteins, which contain more than 70% carbohydrate by weight(1-3). Secreted mucins, produced by goblet cells and the gastric mucosa, provide the scaffold for a micrometers-thick mucus layer that lines the epithelia of the gut and respiratory tract(3,4). In addition to mucins, mucus layers also contain antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, and immunoglobulins(5-9). The mucus layer is an important part of host innate immunity, and forms the first line of defense against invading microorganisms(8,10-12). As such, the mucus is subject to numerous interactions with microbes, both pathogens and symbionts, and secreted mucins form an important interface for these interactions. The study of such biological interactions usually involves histological methods for tissue collection and staining. The two most commonly used histological methods for tissue collection and preservation in the clinic and in research laboratories are: formalin fixation followed by paraffin embedding, and tissue freezing, followed by embedding in cryo-protectant media. Paraffin-embedded tissue samples produce sections with optimal qualities for histological visualization including clarity and well-defined morphology. However, during the paraffin embedding process a number of epitopes become altered and in order to study these epitopes, tissue sections have to be further processed with one of many epitope retrieval methods(13). Secreted mucins and lipids are extracted from the tissue during the paraffin-embedding clearing step, which requires prolong incubation with organic solvents (xylene or Citrisolv). Therefore this approach is sub-optimal for studies focusing on the nature and distribution of mucins and mucus in vivo. In contrast, freezing tissues in Optimal Cutting Temperature (OCT) embedding medium avoids dehydration and clearing of the sample, and maintains the sample hydration. This allows for better preservation of the hydrated mucus

  20. Using Unfixed, Frozen Tissues to Study Natural Mucin Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Miriam; Varki, Nissi M.; Jankowski, Mark D.; Gagneux, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Mucins are complex and heavily glycosylated O-linked glycoproteins, which contain more than 70% carbohydrate by weight1-3. Secreted mucins, produced by goblet cells and the gastric mucosa, provide the scaffold for a micrometers-thick mucus layer that lines the epithelia of the gut and respiratory tract3,4. In addition to mucins, mucus layers also contain antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, and immunoglobulins5-9. The mucus layer is an important part of host innate immunity, and forms the first line of defense against invading microorganisms8,10-12. As such, the mucus is subject to numerous interactions with microbes, both pathogens and symbionts, and secreted mucins form an important interface for these interactions. The study of such biological interactions usually involves histological methods for tissue collection and staining. The two most commonly used histological methods for tissue collection and preservation in the clinic and in research laboratories are: formalin fixation followed by paraffin embedding, and tissue freezing, followed by embedding in cryo-protectant media. Paraffin-embedded tissue samples produce sections with optimal qualities for histological visualization including clarity and well-defined morphology. However, during the paraffin embedding process a number of epitopes become altered and in order to study these epitopes, tissue sections have to be further processed with one of many epitope retrieval methods13. Secreted mucins and lipids are extracted from the tissue during the paraffin-embedding clearing step, which requires prolong incubation with organic solvents (xylene or Citrisolv). Therefore this approach is sub-optimal for studies focusing on the nature and distribution of mucins and mucus in vivo. In contrast, freezing tissues in Optimal Cutting Temperature (OCT) embedding medium avoids dehydration and clearing of the sample, and maintains the sample hydration. This allows for better preservation of the hydrated mucus layer, and

  1. [Tissue distribution of arsenic of liushen pills and realgar].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Li; Wu, Qian; Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Shen, Lian-Zhong; Fan, Min-Wei; Liang, Qiong-Lin; Wang, Yi-Ming; Luo, Guo-An

    2011-06-01

    This study is to report the tissue distribution of arsenic after giving different doses of realgar and Liushen pills to Beagle dogs, in order to provide basis for the safety evaluation of Liushen pills. ICP-MS was used to measure arsenic concentration, and HPLC-ICP-MS was used to analyze arsenic speciation. The concentration of total arsenic and As(III) + DMA (arsenite + dimethylarsenic acid) increased with dosing of realgar. Total arsenic concentration in most tissues and As(III) + DMA concentration in all tissues of Liushen pills group are lower than that of realgar group, but AsB concentration in liver, spleen and kidney of Liushen pills group increased. The concentration of total arsenic showed a dose-dependent manner with dosage administered. It was indicated that components in Liushen pills can reduce solubility of arsenic in realgar, which may decrease toxicity of realgar.

  2. Tissue distribution of hydrazine and its metabolites in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaneo, Y; Iguchi, S; Kubo, H; Iwagiri, N; Matsuyama, K

    1984-08-01

    The tissue distribution and the urinary excretion of hydrazines, hydrazine, acetylhydrazine and 1,2-diacetylhydrazine, were determined by mass fragmentography using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer equipped with a multiple ion detector-peak matcher. Using the compounds labeled with a stable isotope as an internal standard, namely the isotope dilution method, made it possible to estimate trace amounts of hydrazine and its metabolites in the tissues. Significantly high levels of all hydrazines were detected in the kidney. Especially, acetylhydrazine, a metabolite of hydrazine, accumulated to a great extent in the kidney. Free hydrazine which was liberated from acetylhydrazine was detected both in the tissues and in the urine after the administration of acetylhydrazine. This demonstrates clearly that the metabolic pathway between hydrazine and acetylhydrazine is reversible.

  3. Tissue distribution of isoniazid and its metabolites in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaneo, Y; Kubo, H; Tabata, T; Matsuyama, K; Noda, A; Iguchi, S

    1981-08-01

    Distribution of isoniazid and its metabolites was observed in the liver, kidney, lung and plasma after the subcutaneous administration of isoniazid to rats. The tissue levels of isoniazid, acetylisoniazid, acetylhydrazine, 1,2-diacetylhydrazine and hydrazine were determined by mass fragmentography using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer equipped with a multiple ion detector-peak matcher. Using the compounds labeled with a stable isotope as an internal standard, namely the isotope dilution method, made it possible to estimate trace amounts of these metabolites in the tissues. The amount of hydrazine was much less than the other hydrazines, but the metabolite which is well known as a mutagen, could be successfully detected in the tissues and plasma. The greater part of free hydrazine is formed through a direct hydrolysis of isoniazid. The isoniazid-hydrolyzing activity was found to be significantly higher in the liver homogenate. This suggested that hydrazine formation is mainly caused by hepatic hydrolysis.

  4. Automatic Nervous System Distribution and Function in Lymphoid Tissues.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-15

    thymus, thymic-related lymph nodes, the bone marrow, the spleen, gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and the chick bursa of Fabricius, S. vrifyina...projections in the day-old chick indicates that the chick, like the mouse, receives vagal innervation during embryonic development (these neuronal centers...represent the source for vagal efferents in the chick ). The intrathymic distribution of these vagal cholinergic (AChE-positive) nerves in the chick

  5. Fourier polarimetry of the birefringence distribution of myocardium tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, O. G.; Dubolazov, O. V.; Ushenko, V. O.; Gorsky, M. P.; Soltys, I. V.; Olar, O. V.

    2015-11-01

    The results of optical modeling of biological tissues polycrystalline multilayer networks have been presented. Algorithms of reconstruction of parameter distributions were determined that describe the linear and circular birefringence. For the separation of the manifestations of these mechanisms we propose a method of space-frequency filtering. Criteria for differentiation of causes of death due to coronary heart disease (CHD) and acute coronary insufficiency (ACI) were found.

  6. Distribution of B lymphocyte subsets in normal lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, L J; Swerdlow, S H; Habeshaw, J A

    1984-01-01

    Using the ABC avidin-biotin peroxidase techniques and a series of monoclonal antibodies against B cell associated antigens, the anatomical distribution of B lymphocyte subsets was studied in reactive lymph node, tonsil and spleen. Evidence is presented for at least five major phenotypically distinct B cell subsets, each localized to specific compartments of peripheral lymphoid tissue. The possible relationship of these subsets of B lymphocytes to activation, maturation and function in the B cell lineage is discussed. Images Fig. 2 PMID:6375918

  7. Hematocrit distribution and tissue oxygenation in large microcirculatory networks.

    PubMed

    Gould, Ian G; Linninger, Andreas A

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen tension in the brain is controlled by the microcirculatory supply of RBC, but the effect of non-Newtonian blood flow rheology on tissue oxygenation is not well characterized. This study assesses different biphasic blood flow models for predicting tissue oxygen tension as a function of microcirculatory hemodynamics. Two existing plasma-skimming laws are compared against measured RBC distributions in rat and hamster microcirculatory networks. A novel biphasic blood flow model is introduced. The computational models predict tissue oxygenation in the mesentery, cremaster muscle, and the human secondary cortex. This investigation shows deficiencies in prior models, including inconsistent plasma-skimming trends and insufficient oxygen perfusion due to the high prevalence (33%) of RBC-free microvessels. Our novel method yields physiologically sound RBC distributions and tissue oxygen tensions within one standard deviation of experimental measurements. A simple, novel biphasic blood flow model is introduced with equal or better predictive power when applied to historic raw data sets. It can overcome limitations of prior models pertaining to trifurcations, anastomoses, and loops. This new plasma-skimming law eases the computations of bulk blood flow and hematocrit fields in large microcirculatory networks and converges faster than prior procedures. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Route-dependent pharmacokinetics, distribution, and placental permeability of organic and inorganic selenium in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Willhite, C C; Ferm, V H; Zeise, L

    1990-10-01

    Inorganic selenium (Se) salts (selenite and selenate oxyanions) and the organic selenoamino acids (selenomethionine and seleniferous grains) are teratogenic and embryolethal in domestic and wild birds. Selenium bioaccumulation has been held responsible for reproductive failure among waterfowl at the Kesterson Reservoir (California), the Ouray and Stewart Lake Wildlife Refuges (Utah), and the Carson Sink (Nevada). Anecdotal field and controlled laboratory reports have implicated Se exposure in mammalian embryotoxicity (including human), but developmental toxicity studies in hamsters failed to demonstrate an adverse response, except at maternally toxic doses (Ferm et al., Reprod. Toxicol., in press). Uptake, distribution, and elimination of Se after a single bolus equimolar dose (60 mumol/kg) of selenate or selenomethionine by oral or intravenous administration were compared using day 8 pregnant hamsters. Intravenous selenate was eliminated ten times more rapidly from maternal plasma than oral selenate, but concentrated in liver, kidney, and placenta to the same degree. Intravenous (iv) L-selenomethionine achieved lower maximum circulating total [Se], but it was eliminated more slowly than iv selenate. Larger areas under the plasma and peripheral tissue [Se]:time curve (AUC) after oral or parenteral selenomethionine than after equimolar selenate were consistent with previous studies in rodents and in humans. Embryonic [Se] plateaued at 3 nmol/g after selenate, but embryonic [Se] after selenomethionine continued to accumulate (80 nmol/g) as gestation progressed. The lack of a teratogenic response in hamsters at doses of either selenate or selenomethionine less than those associated with maternal intoxication cannot be attributed to lack of Se accumulation in early embryonic and placental tissue.

  9. Engineered renal tissue as a potential platform for pharmacokinetic and nephrotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jamie

    2014-06-01

    Pharmacology and regenerative medicine interact in two ways. One is the use of drugs to promote tissue regeneration. The other, less obvious but with great potential, is the use of techniques developed for regenerative medicine to engineer realistic human organoids for drug screening. This review focuses on testing for nephrotoxicity, often a problem with drugs and poorly predicted in animals. Current human-based screens mainly use proximal tubule cells growing in 2D monolayers. Realism might be improved by collagen-based culture systems that encourage proximal tubule cells to grow as tubules. More realistic would be a recently developed technique for engineering functioning 'mini-kidneys' from suspensions of stem cells, a technique that works in mouse but that could also be applied to humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Distribution of cathepsin L in human umbilical cord tissues.

    PubMed

    Gogiel, Tomasz; Wolańska, Małgorzata; Galewska, Zofia; Kinalski, Piotr; Sobolewski, Krzysztof; Romanowicz, Lech

    2017-01-01

    The extracellular matrix components show specific distribution patterns within various structures of the umbilical cord, among which Wharton's jelly is especially collagen-rich tissue. Cathepsin L is a potent cysteine protease engaged in degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagens. We evaluated the activity and expression of cathepsin L, and the inhibitory effect of cysteine protease inhibitors in the umbilical cord arteries, vein and Wharton's jelly. Cathepsin L activity and anti-papain inhibitory effect of cysteine protease inhibitors were quantified in extracts of separated umbilical cord tissues using fluorogenic substrates. The results were calculated per DNA content. The enzyme expression was assessed by Western immunoblotting. The active cathepsin L activity (without activation by pepsin digestion), its percentage in the total activity (after pepsin activation), and the expression of the mature single-chain enzyme were the lowest in the umbilical cord arteries and the highest in Wharton's jelly. The effect of cysteine protease inhibitors showed similar distribution as in the case of the active enzyme, being the highest in Wharton's jelly. Distribution of the activity and expression of mature cathepsin L within the umbilical cord probably results from distinctions in the proenzyme activation process. Differences in the action of cysteine protease inhibitors can partly restrict divergences in the enzyme activity that could reflect its expression alone. Differential enzyme action seems to contribute to tissue-specific collagen turnover within the umbilical cord cells, especially those of Wharton's jelly.

  11. Effect of ketoprofen and indomethacin on methotrexate pharmacokinetics in mice plasma and tumor tissues.

    PubMed

    Elmorsi, Yasmine M; El-Haggar, Sahar M; Ibrahim, Osama M; Mabrouk, Mokhtar M

    2013-03-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) has been used in combination with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of inflammatory diseases as well as malignancies. Severe adverse effects with this combination may occur, usually resulting from inhibition of renal transporters. Solid Ehrlich carcinoma was experimentally induced by implantation of Ehrlich ascites Carcinoma cells subcutaneously into the thigh of mice, and after 30 days, mice were divided into three groups: Group I that served as control group received MTX (50 mg/kg, i.p.); Group II received ketoprofen (100 mg/kg, i.p.) and then after half an hour received MTX (50 mg/kg, i.p.); Group III received indomethacin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and then after half an hour received MTX (50 mg/kg, i.p.). Plasma and tissue samples were collected at different time points and then MTX concentrations were determined by HPLC. The injection of ketoprofen or indomethacin before MTX injection resulted in significant increase in the AUC and CPmax of MTX (p < 0.05) and significant decrease in CL/F and Vd/F of MTX (p < 0.05) in mice plasma. The effects were more significant after injection of indomethacin than in case of ketoprofen. The study showed that administration of ketoprofen or indomethacin prior to MTX caused significant decrease in MTX elimination and significant increase in MTX extent of absorption which may lead to severe adverse effects if coadministered in human.

  12. [Toxicokinetics and tissue distribution study of arsenic in realgar].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Tang, Yishan; Liu, Qide

    2010-07-01

    To study the toxicokinetics and tissue distribution of total arsenic after giving different doses realgar to rats. The concentration of arsenic in blood, urine and main organs were determined after single oral administration of 3.738, 1.869, 0.935 g x kg(-1) realgar in rats. The distribution half life (t(1/2 alpha)) and elimination half life (t(1/2 beta)) of total arsenic were 7.73 h and 17.21 h respectively in high dose group. The apparent distribution volume (Vd) were 10.8, 5.6, 3.9 L x kg(-1) respectively, the total clearance (Cltot) were 0.437, 0.16, 0.111 L x h(-1) x kg(-1) respectively in the three groups. The excretion of total urine arsenic got rid of 5.5%-13.0% of realgar which given to rats in 96 hours. Arsenic could be detected distributing into rat's main organs and tissues after administration of a single dose. Suprarenal gland, bladder and ovary accumulated most of the arsenic, while liver, spleen, lung and kidney accumulated less. Heart, brain, stomach and testis accumulated the least amount. It has nonlinear dynamics in the body of rats in toxic doses as the kinetics of realgar was changed according to the dosage.

  13. A continuous fiber distribution material model for human cervical tissue.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kristin M; Hendon, Christine P; Gan, Yu; Yao, Wang; Yoshida, Kyoko; Fernandez, Michael; Vink, Joy; Wapner, Ronald J

    2015-06-25

    The uterine cervix during pregnancy is the vital mechanical barrier which resists compressive and tensile loads generated from a growing fetus. Premature cervical remodeling and softening is hypothesized to result in the shortening of the cervix, which is known to increase a woman׳s risk of preterm birth. To understand the role of cervical material properties in preventing preterm birth, we derive a cervical material model based on previous mechanical, biochemical and histological experiments conducted on nonpregnant and pregnant human hysterectomy cervical tissue samples. In this study we present a three-dimensional fiber composite model that captures the equilibrium material behavior of the tissue in tension and compression. Cervical tissue is modeled as a fibrous composite material, where a single family of preferentially aligned and continuously distributed collagen fibers are embedded in a compressible neo-Hookean ground substance. The total stress in the collagen solid network is calculated by integrating the fiber stresses. The shape of the fiber distribution is described by an ellipsoid where semi-principal axis lengths are fit to optical coherence tomography measurements. The composite material model is fit to averaged mechanical testing data from uni-axial compression and tension experiments, and averaged material parameters are reported for nonpregnant and term pregnant human cervical tissue. The model is then evaluated by investigating the stress and strain state of a uniform thick-walled cylinder under a compressive stress with collagen fibers preferentially aligned in the circumferential direction. This material modeling framework for the equilibrium behavior of human cervical tissue serves as a basis to determine the role of preferentially-aligned cervical collagen fibers in preventing cervical deformation during pregnancy.

  14. Determination of doripenem penetration into human prostate tissue and assessment of dosing regimens for prostatitis based on site-specific pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kogenta; Ikawa, Kazuro; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Arakawa, Maki; Zennami, Kenji; Nishikawa, Genya; Ikeda, Kayo; Morikawa, Norifumi; Honda, Nobuaki

    2012-02-01

    Prostatic hypertrophy patients prophylactically received a 0.5-hour infusion of doripenem (250 or 500 mg) before transurethral resection of the prostate. Doripenem concentrations in plasma and prostate tissue were measured chromatographically, and analysed pharmacokinetically using a three-compartment model. The approved doripenem regimens were assessed based on the time above the minimum inhibitory concentration for bacteria (T>MIC, % of 24 hours), an indicator for antibacterial effects, at the prostate. The prostate tissue/plasma ratios were 17.3% for the maximum drug concentration and 18.7% for the area under the drug concentration-time curve, and they were irrespective of the dose. Against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species isolates, 500 mg once daily achieved a >90% probability of attaining the bacteriostatic target (20% T>MIC) in prostate tissue, and 500 mg twice daily achieved a >90% probability of attaining the bactericidal target (40% T>MIC) in prostate tissue.

  15. Safety, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Plasma Lipoprotein Distribution of Eritoran (E5564) during Continuous Intravenous Infusion into Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, Daniel P.; Wasan, Kishor M.; Choo, Eugene; Yau, Edwin; Wong, Nancy; Rose, Jeffrey; Moran, Jeffrey; Lynn, Melvyn

    2004-01-01

    Eritoran, a structural analogue of the lipid A portion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is an antagonist of LPS in animal and human endotoxemia models. Previous studies have shown that low doses (350 to 3,500 μg) of eritoran have demonstrated a long pharmacokinetic half-life but a short pharmacodynamic half-life. The present study describes the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and lipid distribution profile of eritoran during and after a 72-h intravenous infusion of 500, 2,000, or 3,500 μg/h into healthy volunteers. Except for the occurrence of phlebitis, eritoran administration over 72 h was safe and well tolerated. Eritoran demonstrated a slow plasma clearance (0.679 to 0.930 ml/h/kg of body weight), a small volume of distribution (45.6 to 49.8 ml/kg), and a relatively long half-life (50.4 to 62.7 h). In plasma, the majority (∼55%) of eritoran was bound to high-density lipoproteins. During infusion and for up to 72 h thereafter, ex vivo response of blood to 1- or 10-ng/ml LPS was inhibited by ≥85%, even when the lowest dose of eritoran (500 μg/h) was infused. Inhibition of response was dependent on eritoran dose and the concentration of LPS used as an agonist. Finally, in vitro analysis with purified lipoprotein and protein fractions from plasma obtained from healthy volunteers indicated that eritoran is inactivated by high-density but not low-density lipoproteins, very-low-density lipoproteins, or albumin. From these results, we conclude that up to 252 mg of eritoran can be safely infused into normal volunteers over 72 h and even though it associates extensively with high-density lipoproteins, antagonistic activity is maintained, even after infusion ceases. PMID:15328078

  16. On the accuracy of estimation of basic pharmacokinetic parameters by the traditional noncompartmental equations and the prediction of the steady-state volume of distribution in obese patients based upon data derived from normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Berezhkovskiy, Leonid M

    2011-06-01

    The steady-state and terminal volumes of distribution, as well as the mean residence time of drug in the body (V(ss), V(β), and MRT) are the common pharmacokinetic parameters calculated using the drug plasma concentration-time profile C(p) (t) following intravenous (i.v. bolus or constant rate infusion) drug administration. These calculations are valid for the linear pharmacokinetic system with central elimination (i.e., elimination rate being proportional to drug concentration in plasma). Formally, the assumption of central elimination is not normally met because the rate of drug elimination is proportional to the unbound drug concentration at elimination site, although equilibration between systemic circulation and the site of clearance for majority of small molecule drugs is fast. Thus, the assumption of central elimination is practically quite adequate. It appears reasonable to estimate the extent of possible errors in determination of these pharmacokinetic parameters due to the absence of central elimination. The comparison of V(ss), V(β), and MRT calculated by exact equations and the commonly used ones was made considering a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. It was found that if the drug plasma concentration profile is detected accurately, determination of drug distribution volumes and MRT using the traditional noncompartmental calculations of these parameters from C(p) (t) yields the values very close to that obtained from exact equations. Though in practice, the accurate measurement of C(p) (t), especially its terminal phase, may not always be possible. This is particularly applicable for obtaining the distribution volumes of lipophilic compounds in obese subjects, when the possibility of late terminal phase at low drug concentration is quite likely, specifically for compounds with high clearance. An accurate determination of V(ss) is much needed in clinical practice because it is critical for the proper selection of drug treatment

  17. Paediatric pharmacokinetics: key considerations

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor, Hannah Katharine; Marriott, John Francis

    2015-01-01

    A number of anatomical and physiological factors determine the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Differences in physiology in paediatric populations compared with adults can influence the concentration of drug within the plasma or tissue. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of anatomical and physiological changes that affect pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs to understand consequences of dose adjustments in infants and children. Pharmacokinetic clinical trials in children are complicated owing to the limitations on blood sample volumes and perception of pain in children resulting from blood sampling. There are alternative sampling techniques that can minimize the invasive nature of such trials. Population based models can also limit the sampling required from each individual by increasing the overall sample size to generate robust pharmacokinetic data. This review details key considerations in the design and development of paediatric pharmacokinetic clinical trials. PMID:25855821

  18. Paediatric pharmacokinetics: key considerations.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Hannah Katharine; Marriott, John Francis

    2015-03-01

    A number of anatomical and physiological factors determine the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Differences in physiology in paediatric populations compared with adults can influence the concentration of drug within the plasma or tissue. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of anatomical and physiological changes that affect pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs to understand consequences of dose adjustments in infants and children. Pharmacokinetic clinical trials in children are complicated owing to the limitations on blood sample volumes and perception of pain in children resulting from blood sampling. There are alternative sampling techniques that can minimize the invasive nature of such trials. Population based models can also limit the sampling required from each individual by increasing the overall sample size to generate robust pharmacokinetic data. This review details key considerations in the design and development of paediatric pharmacokinetic clinical trials. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Plasma and Tissue Pharmacokinetics of Cefazolin in Patients Undergoing Elective and Semielective Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Open Repair Surgery ▿

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Alexandra; Udy, Andrew A.; Wallis, Steven C.; Jarrett, Paul; Stuart, Janine; Lassig-Smith, Melissa; Deans, Renae; Roberts, Michael S.; Taraporewalla, Kersi; Jenkins, Jason; Medley, Gregory; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A.

    2011-01-01

    Surgical site infections are common, so effective antibiotic concentrations at the sites of infection, i.e., in the interstitial fluid (ISF), are required. The aim of this study was to evaluate contemporary perioperative prophylactic dosing of cefazolin by determining plasma and subcutaneous ISF concentrations in patients undergoing elective/semielective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) open repair surgery. This was a prospective pharmacokinetic study in a tertiary referral hospital. Cefazolin (2 g) was administered as a 3-min slow bolus 30 min prior to incision in 12 enrolled patients undergoing elective/semielective AAA open repair surgery. Serial blood, urine, and ISF (via microdialysis) samples were collected and analyzed using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Cardiac output was determined using pulse waveform contours with Vigileo. The recruited patients had a median (interquartile range) age of 70 (66 to 76) years and weight of 88 (81 to 95) kg. The median (interquartile range) terminal volume of distribution was 0.14 (0.11 to 0.15) liter/kg, total clearance was 0.05 (0.03 to 0.06) liter/h, and minimum observed unbound concentration was 5.7 (5.4 to 8.1) mg/liter. The penetration of unbound drug from plasma to ISF was 85% (78% to 106%). We found correlations present, albeit weak, between cefazolin clearance and cardiac output (r2 = 0.11) and urinary creatinine clearance (r2 = 0.12). In conclusion, we found that a single 2-g dose of cefazolin administered 30 min before incision provides plasma and ISF concentrations in excess of the likely MICs for susceptible pathogens in patients undergoing AAA open repair surgery. PMID:21859939

  20. Carbaryl distribution in rabbit tissues and body fluids.

    PubMed

    Malvisi, J; Zaghini, A; Stracciari, G L

    1992-12-01

    After single po administration of 14C-naphthylcarbamate, liquid scintillation assays evaluated the distribution of carbaryl in rabbit serum, liver, kidneys, small and large intestine, spleen, heart, muscles of the thigh and lungs and its excretion in urine and feces at 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after dosing. At 2 and 8 h radioactivity was not observed in spleen, heart, muscle and lungs, while all other tissues had increased values up to 6 h. The main excretory pathway of carbaryl was the kidneys.

  1. Melatonin membrane receptors in peripheral tissues: Distribution and functions

    PubMed Central

    Slominski, Radomir M.; Reiter, Russel J.; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; Ostrom, Rennolds S.; Slominski, Andrzej T.

    2012-01-01

    Many of melatonin’s actions are mediated through interaction with the G-protein coupled membrane bound melatonin receptors type 1 and type 2 (MT1 and MT2, respectively) or, indirectly with nuclear orphan receptors from the RORα/RZR family. Melatonin also binds to the quinone reductase II enzyme, previously defined the MT3 receptor. Melatonin receptors are widely distributed in the body; herein we summarize their expression and actions in non-neural tissues. Several controversies still exist regarding, for example, whether melatonin binds the RORα/RZR family. Studies of the peripheral distribution of melatonin receptors are important since they are attractive targets for immunomodulation, regulation of endocrine, reproductive and cardiovascular functions, modulation of skin pigmentation, hair growth, cancerogenesis, and aging. Melatonin receptor agonists and antagonists have an exciting future since they could define multiple mechanisms by which melatonin modulates the complexity of such a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes. PMID:22245784

  2. Discovery of novel hepatoselective HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors for treating hypercholesterolemia: a bench-to-bedside case study on tissue selective drug distribution.

    PubMed

    Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Litchfield, John; Hutchings, Richard; Cheng, Xue-Min; Larsen, Scott D; Auerbach, Bruce; Bush, Mark R; Lee, Chitase; Erasga, Noe; Bowles, Daniel M; Boyles, David C; Lu, Gina; Sekerke, Catherine; Askew, Valerie; Hanselman, Jeffrey C; Dillon, Lisa; Lin, Zhiwu; Robertson, Andrew; Olsen, Karl; Boustany, Carine; Atkinson, Karen; Goosen, Theunis C; Sahasrabudhe, Vaishali; Chupka, Jonathan; Duignan, David B; Feng, Bo; Scialis, Renato; Kimoto, Emi; Bi, Yi-An; Lai, Yurong; El-Kattan, Ayman; Bakker-Arkema, Rebecca; Barclay, Paul; Kindt, Erick; Le, Vu; Mandema, Jaap W; Milad, Mark; Tait, Bradley D; Kennedy, Robert; Trivedi, Bharat K; Kowala, Mark

    2011-05-01

    The design of drugs with selective tissue distribution can be an effective strategy for enhancing efficacy and safety, but understanding the translation of preclinical tissue distribution data to the clinic remains an important challenge. As part of a discovery program to identify next generation liver selective HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors we report the identification of (3R,5R)-7-(4-((3-fluorobenzyl)carbamoyl)-5-cyclopropyl-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoic acid (26) as a candidate for treating hypercholesterlemia. Clinical evaluation of 26 (PF-03491165), as well as the previously reported 2 (PF-03052334), provided an opportunity for a case study comparison of the preclinical and clinical pharmacokinetics as well as pharmacodynamics of tissue targeted HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and Brain Distribution and Metabolite Identification of Coptisine, a Protoberberine Alkaloid with Therapeutic Potential for CNS Disorders, in Rats.

    PubMed

    Su, Jin; Miao, Qing; Miao, Peipei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Ning; Zhang, Yujie; Ma, Shuangcheng

    2015-01-01

    Coptisine (COP), a protoberberine alkaloid (PBA) from Chinese medicinal plants (such as family Berberidaceae), may be useful for improving central nervous system disorders. However, its pharmacokinetics, disposition and metabolism are not well defined. In the present study, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was established for the analysis of COP in biological samples. To better understand its in vivo pharmacological activities, COP concentrations in rat plasma were determined after oral (50 mg/kg) and intravenous administration (10 mg/kg). For the brain distribution study, the concentration of COP in five different regions was examined after intravenous administration at 10 mg/kg. Pharmacokinetic parameters from the COP concentration-time profiles in plasma and brain, and the brain-to-plasma coefficient (Kp, brain) were calculated by non-compartmental analysis. The metabolites of COP in rats in vivo and in vitro (urine, bile, liver microsomes and intestinal bacteria incubation) were also identified. Seventeen metabolites, including 11 unconjugated metabolites formed by hydroxylation, hydrogenation, demethylation, dehydrogenation, demethylation, and 6 glucuronide and sulfate conjugates were identified for the first time. The results suggested that COP had low oral bioavailability of 8.9% and a short (plasma) half-life (T1/2=0.71 h) in rats. After intravenous administration, it quickly crossed the blood-brain barrier, accumulating at higher concentrations and then was slowly eliminated from different brain regions. Moreover, COP was transformed into metabolites through multiple metabolic pathways in vivo and in vitro. These results should help to promote further research on COP and contribute to clarifying the metabolic pathways of PBAs.

  4. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for nasal tissue dosimetry of organic esters: assessing the state-of-knowledge and risk assessment applications with methyl methacrylate and vinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Melvin E; Green, Trevor; Frederick, Clay B; Bogdanffy, Matthew S

    2002-12-01

    Mathematical models have been developed to describe nasal epithelial tissue dosimetry with two compounds, vinyl acetate (VA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA), that cause toxicity in these tissues These models couple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations that map airflow patterns within the nose with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models that integrate diffusion, metabolism, and tissue interactions of these compounds. Dose metrics estimated in these models for MMA and VA, respectively, were rates of MMA metabolism per volume of tissue and alterations in pH in target tissues associated with VA hydrolysis and metabolism. In this article, four scientists who have contributed significantly to development of these models describe the many similarities and relatively few differences between the MMA and VA models. Some differences arise naturally because of differences in target tissues, in the calculated measures of tissue dose, and in the modes of action for highly extracted vapors (VA) compared with poorly extracted vapors (MMA). A difference in the approach used to estimate metabolic parameters from human tissues provides insights into interindividual extrapolation and identifies opportunities for studies with human nasal tissues to enhance current risk assessments. In general, the differences in model structure for these two esters were essential for describing the biology of the observed responses and in accounting for the different measures of target tissue dose. This article is intended to serve as a guide for understanding issues of optimum model structure and optimal data sources for these nasal tissue dosimetry models. We also hope that it leads to greater international acceptance of these hybrid CFD/PBPK modeling approaches for improving risk assessment for many nasal toxicants. In general, these models predict either equivalent (VA) or lower (MMA) nasal tissue doses in humans compared with tissue doses at equivalent exposure concentrations

  5. Tissue distribution of 3H-terbutaline in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hsu, C H; Robinson, C P; Basmadjian, G P

    1994-01-01

    Terbutaline is a widely used, selective beta 2-adrenergic agonist whose penetration into brain has not been demonstrated in laboratory animals. Although its tissue uptake has been reported in some animals, no uptake into brain has been demonstrated. A single dose of 20 microCi of 3H-terbutaline along with 10 mg/kg of unlabeled terbutaline was injected into a rabbit marginal ear vein. The distribution of 3H-terbutaline in several tissues was determined 0.5, 1, 3, or 6 hr later. Radioactivity in the brain was well-maintained over the 6 hr observation period. In most tissues, radioactivity peaked in less than 1 hr, then declined. Radioactivity in the urine was high at all time periods and was highest at 3 hr. Thus, terbutaline or a metabolite(s) does cross the blood-brain barrier in rabbits, and the radioactivity in the rabbit brain does not decrease during the 6 hours following terbutaline injection.

  6. Natural killer cell distribution and trafficking in human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Carrega, Paolo; Ferlazzo, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Few data are available regarding the recirculation of natural killer (NK) cells among human organs. Earlier studies have been often impaired by the use of markers then proved to be either not sufficiently specific for NK cells (e.g., CD57, CD56) or expressed only by subsets of NK cells (e.g., CD16). At the present, available data confirmed that human NK cells populate blood, lymphoid organs, lung, liver, uterus (during pregnancy), and gut. Several studies showed that NK cell homing appears to be subset-specific, as secondary lymphoid organs and probably several solid tissues are preferentially inhabited by CD56brightCD16neg/dull non-cytotoxic NK cells. Similar studies performed in the mouse model showed that lymph node and bone marrow are preferentially populated by CD11bdull NK cells while blood, spleen, and lung by CD27dull NK cells. Therefore, an important topic to be addressed in the human system is the contribution of factors that regulate NK cell tissue homing and egress, such as chemotactic receptors or homeostatic mechanisms. Here, we review the current knowledge on NK cell distribution in peripheral tissues and, based on recent acquisitions, we propose our view regarding the recirculation of NK cells in the human body. PMID:23230434

  7. Imepitoin as novel treatment option for canine idiopathic epilepsy: pharmacokinetics, distribution, and metabolism in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Rundfeldt, C; Gasparic, A; Wlaź, P

    2014-01-01

    Imepitoin is a novel anti-epileptic licensed in the European Union for the treatment of canine idiopathic epilepsy. The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of imepitoin in dogs and to evaluate the interaction with drug metabolizing enzymes. Upon administration of imepitoin tablets at a dose of 30 mg/kg to beagle dogs, high plasma levels were observed within 30 min following oral dosing, with maximal plasma concentrations of 14.9–17.2 μg/mL reached after 2–3 h. In a crossover study, co-administration of imepitoin tablets with food reduced the total AUC by 30%, but it did not result in significant changes in Tmax and Cmax, indicating lack of clinical relevance. No clinically relevant effects of sex and no accumulation or metabolic tolerance were observed upon twice daily dosing. Following single dose administration of 10–100 mg/kg, dose linearity was found. Administering [14C] imepitoin, high enteral absorption of 92% and primary fecal excretion were identified. Plasma protein binding was only 55%. At therapeutic plasma concentrations, imepitoin did not inhibit microsomal cytochrome P450 family liver enzymes in vitro. In rats, no relevant induction of liver enzymes was found. Therefore, protein binding or metabolism-derived drug–drug interactions are unlikely. Based on these data, imepitoin can be dosed twice daily, but the timing of tablet administration in relation to feeding should be kept consistent. PMID:24611573

  8. Continuous versus short-term infusion of cefuroxime: assessment of concept based on plasma, subcutaneous tissue, and bone pharmacokinetics in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Tøttrup, Mikkel; Bibby, Bo M; Hardlei, Tore F; Bue, Mats; Kerrn-Jespersen, Sigrid; Fuursted, Kurt; Søballe, Kjeld; Birke-Sørensen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    The relatively short half-lives of most β-lactams suggest that continuous infusion of these time-dependent antimicrobials may be favorable compared to short-term infusion. Nevertheless, only limited solid-tissue pharmacokinetic data are available to support this theory. In this study, we randomly assigned 12 pigs to receive cefuroxime as either a short-term or continuous infusion. Measurements of cefuroxime were obtained every 30 min in plasma, subcutaneous tissue, and bone. For the measurements in solid tissues, microdialysis was applied. A two-compartment population model was fitted separately to the drug concentration data for the different tissues using a nonlinear mixed-effects regression model. Estimates of the pharmacokinetic parameters and time with concentrations above the MIC were derived using Monte Carlo simulations. Except for subcutaneous tissue in the short-term infusion group, the tissue penetration was incomplete for all tissues. For short-term infusion, the tissue penetration ratios were 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67 to 1.39), 0.61 (95% CI, 0.51 to 0.73), and 0.45 (95% CI, 0.36 to 0.56) for subcutaneous tissue, cancellous bone, and cortical bone, respectively. For continuous infusion, they were 0.53 (95% CI, 0.33 to 0.84), 0.38 (95% CI, 0.23 to 0.57), and 0.27 (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.48) for the same tissues, respectively. The absolute areas under the concentration-time curve were also lower in the continuous infusion group. Nevertheless, a significantly longer time with concentrations above the MIC was found for continuous infusion up until MICs of 4, 2, 2, and 0.5 μg/ml for plasma and the same three tissues mentioned above, respectively. For drugs with a short half-life, like cefuroxime, continuous infusion seems to be favorable compared to short-term infusion; however, incomplete tissue penetration and high MIC strains may jeopardize the continuous infusion approach. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights

  9. Continuous versus Short-Term Infusion of Cefuroxime: Assessment of Concept Based on Plasma, Subcutaneous Tissue, and Bone Pharmacokinetics in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Bibby, Bo M.; Hardlei, Tore F.; Bue, Mats; Kerrn-Jespersen, Sigrid; Fuursted, Kurt; Søballe, Kjeld; Birke-Sørensen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    The relatively short half-lives of most β-lactams suggest that continuous infusion of these time-dependent antimicrobials may be favorable compared to short-term infusion. Nevertheless, only limited solid-tissue pharmacokinetic data are available to support this theory. In this study, we randomly assigned 12 pigs to receive cefuroxime as either a short-term or continuous infusion. Measurements of cefuroxime were obtained every 30 min in plasma, subcutaneous tissue, and bone. For the measurements in solid tissues, microdialysis was applied. A two-compartment population model was fitted separately to the drug concentration data for the different tissues using a nonlinear mixed-effects regression model. Estimates of the pharmacokinetic parameters and time with concentrations above the MIC were derived using Monte Carlo simulations. Except for subcutaneous tissue in the short-term infusion group, the tissue penetration was incomplete for all tissues. For short-term infusion, the tissue penetration ratios were 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67 to 1.39), 0.61 (95% CI, 0.51 to 0.73), and 0.45 (95% CI, 0.36 to 0.56) for subcutaneous tissue, cancellous bone, and cortical bone, respectively. For continuous infusion, they were 0.53 (95% CI, 0.33 to 0.84), 0.38 (95% CI, 0.23 to 0.57), and 0.27 (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.48) for the same tissues, respectively. The absolute areas under the concentration-time curve were also lower in the continuous infusion group. Nevertheless, a significantly longer time with concentrations above the MIC was found for continuous infusion up until MICs of 4, 2, 2, and 0.5 μg/ml for plasma and the same three tissues mentioned above, respectively. For drugs with a short half-life, like cefuroxime, continuous infusion seems to be favorable compared to short-term infusion; however, incomplete tissue penetration and high MIC strains may jeopardize the continuous infusion approach. PMID:25313214

  10. Selenium proteins in ovine tissues: III. Distribution of selenium and glutathione peroxidases in tissue cytosols.

    PubMed

    Black, R S; Tripp, M J; Whanger, P D; Weswig, P H

    1978-01-01

    Three 6 week-old lambs were injected with carrier-free selenium-75 as sodium selenite initially and again after 6 days. One lamb received no further injections whereas the other two received injections of either vitamin E or unlabeled Na2SeO3 when the first selenium-75 injection was given. Selected tissues were removed at autopsy 10 days after the first injection. The cytosol from homogenates of these tissues was subjected to gel chromatography, and the elution profiles determined for radioactivity, protein content, and glutathione peroxidase activity using either hydrogen peroxide or cumene hydroperoxide as substrates. The selenium-75 was found to be distributed mainly between 2 different MW peaks. The larger MW seleno-peak (90,000) possessed both glutathione:hydrogen peroxide oxidoreductase, and glutathione:cumene hydroperoxide oxidoreductase activities, but the smaller MW seleno-peak (about 10,000) possessed no glutathione peroxidase activity. A peak of about 60,000 daltons containing only glutathione:cumene hydroperoxide oxidoreductase activity and no selenium-75 was found primarily in the liver and kidney. Vitamin E had no effect on the elution profiles. Selenium status of the animal had only a minor effect on the selenium-75 distribution in the cytosol, but had a marked effect on the absolute amount of the label taken up by tissues.

  11. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling of the EEG effects of opioids: the role of complex biophase distribution kinetics.

    PubMed

    Groenendaal, Dorien; Freijer, Jan; Rosier, Andrea; de Mik, Dennis; Nicholls, Glynis; Hersey, Anne; Ayrton, Andrew D; Danhof, Meindert; de Lange, Elizabeth C M

    2008-07-03

    The objective of this investigation is to characterize the role of complex biophase distribution kinetics in the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic correlation of a wide range of opioids. Following intravenous infusion of morphine, alfentanil, fentanyl, sufentanil, butorphanol and nalbuphine the time course of the EEG effect was determined in conjunction with blood concentrations. Different biophase distribution models were tested for their ability to describe hysteresis between blood concentration and effect. In addition, membrane transport characteristics of the opioids were investigated in vitro, using MDCK:MDR1 cells and in silico with QSAR analysis. For morphine, hysteresis was best described by an extended-catenary biophase distribution model with different values for k1e and keo of 0.038+/-0.003 and 0.043+/-0.003 min(-1), respectively. For the other opioids hysteresis was best described by a one-compartment biophase distribution model with identical values for k1e and keo. Between the different opioids, the values of k1e ranged from 0.04 to 0.47 min(-1). The correlation between concentration and EEG effect was successfully described by the sigmoidal Emax pharmacodynamic model. Between opioids significant differences in potency (EC50 range 1.2-451 ng/ml) and intrinsic activity (alpha range 18-109 microV) were observed. A statistically significant correlation was observed between the values of the in vivo k1e and the apparent passive permeability as determined in vitro in MDCK:MDR1 monolayers. It can be concluded that unlike other opioids, only morphine displays complex biophase distribution kinetics, which can be explained by its relatively low passive permeability and the interaction with active transporters at the blood-brain barrier.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of TJ-8117 (Onpi-to), a drug for renal failure (I): Plasma concentration, distribution and excretion of [3H]-(-)epicatechin 3-O-gallate in rats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Yukiho; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Morota, Takashi; Tomisawa, Hiroki; Takeda, Shuichi; Aburada, Masaki

    2004-01-01

    TJ-8117 (Onpi-to) is an herbal medicine extracted from a mixture of five crude medicinals (Rhei Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Ginseng Radix, Zingiberis Rhizoma and Aconiti Tuber), which has been developed as a drug for chronic renal failure. (-)Epicatechin 3-O-gallate (ECG), one of the active components of TJ-8117, was labeled with tritium and added to TJ-8117. Pharmacokinetics in plasma, tissue distribution and excretion of radioactivity were investigated following a single oral administration of TJ-8117 containing [3H]ECG ([3H]TJ-8117) in rats and dogs. 1. Following oral administration of [3H]TJ-8117, radioactivity exhibited linear pharmacokinetics in Cmax. Linearity of AUC(0-72 h) was lost at the highest dose of [3H]TJ-8117. Cmax and AUC(0-72 h) were higher in female rats than in male rats, a finding which suggested a sex difference in rats. Plasma levels of radioactivity displayed curves with one peak in dogs, which suggested a species difference between rats and dogs. 2. No accumulation was observed in any tissues in male rats. 3. Within 168 h after administration of [3H]TJ-8117 to male rats, 18.7%, 84.1% and 0.9% of the dose was excreted in urine, feces and expired air, respectively. Data from bile-duct cannulated rats indicated that at least 18.4% of the dose was absorbed.

  13. 40 CFR 795.228 - Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... by which a particular substance is handled in the body and includes absorption, tissue distribution, biotransformation, and excretion. (3) Percent absorption means 100 times the ratio between total excretion of... of test substance. (4) Pharmacokinetics means the study of the rates of absorption,...

  14. 40 CFR 795.228 - Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... by which a particular substance is handled in the body and includes absorption, tissue distribution, biotransformation, and excretion. (3) Percent absorption means 100 times the ratio between total excretion of... of test substance. (4) Pharmacokinetics means the study of the rates of absorption,...

  15. Prediction of the distribution volumes of cefazolin and tobramycin in obese children based on physiological pharmacokinetic concepts.

    PubMed

    Koshida, R; Nakashima, E; Taniguchi, N; Tsuji, A; Benet, L Z; Ichimura, F

    1989-06-01

    So as to estimate the appropriate dose of antibacterial drugs in obese children, prediction of the volume of distribution in these children was attempted based on physiological pharmacokinetic concepts which had been constructed from results in normal-weight children. Serum concentration-time data after intravenous drip infusions of tobramycin and cefazolin were analyzed using noncompartmental analysis of obese children in whom the degree of obesity ranged from 30 to 80%. Volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) per total body weight of tobramycin was significantly less than that for normal-weight children (P less than 0.05), whereas the value of cefazolin was almost equal to that for normal-weight children. The equation to express the difference of Vss between cefazolin and tobramycin obtained in normal-weight children failed in obese children, suggesting that there is a large decrease in the extracellular space in obese children exceeding the interindividual variations in normal-weight children. The Vss value (liter) for tobramycin was predicted by using the equation 0.261 . (ideal body weight (kg) + 0.4 . [total body weight (kg) - ideal body weight (kg)]). The Vss value of cefazolin was predicted to be 0.3 . (predicted Vss of tobramycin) + 0.052 . total body weight (kg). A good correlation between the predicted and the observed Vss values was obtained.

  16. Pressure and temperature distribution in biological tissues by focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mal, Ajit K.; Feng, Feng; Kabo, Michael; Wang, Jeffrey; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2003-07-01

    The interaction between ultrasound and biological tissues has been the subject of a number of investigators for nearly half a century and the number of applications of high intensity, focused ultrasound for therapeutic purposes continues to grow. This paper is motivated by possible medical applications of focused ultrasound in minimally invasive treatment of a variety of musculoskeletal disorders that are responsive to thermal treatment. The mechanical and thermal effects in a subject"s body induced by high-frequency ultrasound are simulated using PZFlex, a finite element based program. The FEM model described in this report is of a transverse section of the body at the level of the second lumbar vertebra (L2) extracted from a CT image. In order to protect the nerves inside the spinal canal as well as to obtain an effective heating result at the focal region within the intervertebral disk, a suitable orientation of axis of the focused ultrasound lens have to be determined in advance. The pressure, energy loss distribution and temperature distribution are investigated in this paper with the different orientations of the axis and different transverse diameter of the spherical ultrasound lens. Since nonlinear effects are expected to be important in the therapeutic application in some literatures, this paper also demonstrates the effects of nonlinearities on the pressure and temperature distribution induced by focused ultrasound in a two dimensional model. Finally, a comparison of the results between linear and nonlinear cases is reported.

  17. Microanalysis, Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution of Polysaccharide-Protein Complexes from Longan Pulp in Mice.

    PubMed

    Min, Ting; Sun, Jie; Yi, Yang; Wang, Hong-Xun; Hang, Fei; Ai, You-Wei; Wang, Li-Mei

    2015-10-15

    A high performance size exclusion-fluorescence detection (HPSEC-FD) method combined with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) prelabeling was established for the microanalysis of polysaccharide-protein complexes from longan pulp (LPP). FITC-labeled LPP (LPPF) was fractionated by gel filtration chromatography. The weight-average molecular weight and FITC substitution degree of LPPF were 39.01 kDa and 0.20%, respectively. The HPSEC-FD calibration curves linear over the range of 1-200 µg/mL in mouse plasma, spleen and lung samples with correlation coefficients greater than 0.995. The inter-day and intra-day precisions of the method were not more than 6.9%, and the relative recovery ranged from 93.7% to 106.4%. The concentration-time curve of LPPF in plasma following intravenous (i.v.) administration at 40 mg/kg body weight well fitted to a two-compartment model. LPPF rapidly eliminated from plasma according to the short half-lives (t1/2α=2.23 min, t1/2β=39.11 min) and mean retention times (MRT0-t=1.15 h, MRT0-∞=1.39 h). After administration over 5 to 360 min, the concentration of LPPF in spleen homogenate decreased from 7.41 to 3.68 µg/mL; the concentration in lung homogenate decreased from 9.08 to 3.40 µg/mL. On the other hand, the increasing concentration of LPPF fraction with low molecular weight in heart homogenate was observed.

  18. Microanalysis, Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution of Polysaccharide-Protein Complexes from Longan Pulp in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Min, Ting; Sun, Jie; Yi, Yang; Wang, Hong-Xun; Hang, Fei; Ai, You-Wei; Wang, Li-Mei

    2015-01-01

    A high performance size exclusion-fluorescence detection (HPSEC-FD) method combined with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) prelabeling was established for the microanalysis of polysaccharide–protein complexes from longan pulp (LPP). FITC-labeled LPP (LPPF) was fractionated by gel filtration chromatography. The weight-average molecular weight and FITC substitution degree of LPPF were 39.01 kDa and 0.20%, respectively. The HPSEC-FD calibration curves linear over the range of 1–200 µg/mL in mouse plasma, spleen and lung samples with correlation coefficients greater than 0.995. The inter-day and intra-day precisions of the method were not more than 6.9%, and the relative recovery ranged from 93.7% to 106.4%. The concentration–time curve of LPPF in plasma following intravenous (i.v.) administration at 40 mg/kg body weight well fitted to a two-compartment model. LPPF rapidly eliminated from plasma according to the short half-lives (t1/2α = 2.23 min, t1/2β = 39.11 min) and mean retention times (MRT0–t = 1.15 h, MRT0–∞ = 1.39 h). After administration over 5 to 360 min, the concentration of LPPF in spleen homogenate decreased from 7.41 to 3.68 µg/mL; the concentration in lung homogenate decreased from 9.08 to 3.40 µg/mL. On the other hand, the increasing concentration of LPPF fraction with low molecular weight in heart homogenate was observed. PMID:26501257

  19. [Dalbavancin: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters].

    PubMed

    Azanza, José Ramón; Sádaba, Belén; Reis, Joana

    2017-01-01

    Dalbavancin is a new lipoglycopeptide antibiotic whose structure influences its pharmacokinetic profile. It is not absorbed after oral administration and is therefore administered intravenously. It is distributed through intracellular fluid, reaching adequate concentrations in the skin, bone, blister fluid and synovial fluid. Plasma protein binding is very high. Concentrations in brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are inadequate. Excretion is through non-microsomal metabolism with inactive metabolites and through the kidneys by glomerular filtration. Dalbavancin is eliminated slowly, as shown by its clearance value and its terminal elimination half-life, which exceeds 300 hours. This means that adequate concentrations of the drug remain in plasma and tissues for a prolonged period and explains the dosing regimen: a first dose of 1g followed 7 days later by a 500mg dose. The pharmacokinetics are linear and show little intra- and interindividual variability. There are no pharmacokinetic interactions. Dose adjustment is not required for patients with mild or moderate renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance ≥ 30 to 79ml/min). Dosage adjustment is not required in patients regularly receiving elective haemodialysis (3 times/week) and the drug can be administered without consideration of haemodialysis times. In patients with chronic renal insufficiency, whose creatinine clearance is < 30ml/min and who are not regularly receiving elective haemodialysis, the recommended dose should be reduced to 750mg per week, followed 1 week later by 375mg. Dosage adjustment does not seem necessary in patients with liver failure or in older patients. There is no information on the most appropriate dosage in children. The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics parameter that best describes the effectiveness of dalbavancin is the ratio between the area under the curve and the minimum inhibitory concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Distribution and Metabolism of Lipocurc™ (Liposomal Curcumin) in Dog and Human Blood Cells: Species Selectivity and Pharmacokinetic Relevance.

    PubMed

    Bolger, Gordon T; Licollari, Albert; Tan, Aimin; Greil, Richard; Vcelar, Brigitta; Majeed, Muhammad; Helson, Lawrence

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of curcumin (in the form of Lipocurc™) and its major metabolite tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) in Beagle dog and human red blood cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and hepatocytes. Lipocurc™ was used as the source of curcumin for the cell distribution assays. In vitro findings with red blood cells were also compared to in vivo pharmacokinetic data available from preclinical studies in dogs and phase I clinical studies in humans. High levels of curcumin were measured in PBMCs (625.5 ng/g w.w. cell pellet or 7,297 pg/10(6) cells in dog and 353.7 ng/g w.w. cell pellet or 6,809 pg/10(6) cells in human) and in hepatocytes (414.5 ng/g w.w. cell pellet or 14,005 pg/10(6) cells in dog and 813.5 ng/g w.w. cell pellet or 13,780 pg/10(6) cells in human). Lower curcumin levels were measured in red blood cells (dog: 78.4 ng/g w.w. cell pellet or 7.2 pg/10(6) cells, human: 201.5 ng/g w.w. cell pellet or 18.6 pg/10(6) cells). A decrease in the medium concentration of curcumin was observed in red blood cells and hepatocytes, but not in PBMCs. Red blood cell levels of THC were ~5-fold higher in dog compared to human and similar between dog and human for hepatocytes and PBMCs. The ratio of THC to curcumin found in the red blood cell medium following incubation was 6.3 for dog compared to 0.006 for human, while for PBMCs and hepatocytes the ratio of THC to curcumin in the medium did not display such marked species differences. There was an excellent correlation between the in vitro disposition of curcumin and THC following incubation with red blood cells and in vivo plasma levels of curcumin and THC in dog and human following intravenous infusion. The disposition of curcumin in blood cells is, therefore, species-dependent and of pharmacokinetic relevance. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. Studies of nontarget-mediated distribution of human full-length IgG1 antibody and its FAb fragment in cardiovascular and metabolic-related tissues.

    PubMed

    Davidsson, Pia; Söderling, Ann-Sofi; Svensson, Lena; Ahnmark, Andrea; Flodin, Christine; Wanag, Ewa; Screpanti-Sundqvist, Valentina; Gennemark, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics (PK) of full-length nontargeted antibody and its antigen-binding fragment (FAb) were evaluated for a range of tissues primarily of interest for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Mice were intravenously injected with a dose of 10 mg/kg of either human IgG1or its FAb fragment; perfused tissues were collected at a range of time points over 3 weeks for the human IgG1 antibody and 1 week for the human FAb antibody. Tissues were homogenized and antibody concentrations were measured by specific immunoassays on the Gyros system. Exposure in terms of maximum concentration (Cmax ) and area under the curve was assessed for all nine tissues. Tissue exposure of full-length antibody relative to plasma exposure was found to be between 1% and 10%, except for brain (0.2%). Relative concentrations of FAb antibody were the same, except for kidney tissue, where the antibody concentration was found to be ten times higher than in plasma. However, the absolute tissue uptake of full-length IgG was significantly higher than the absolute tissue uptake of the FAb antibody. This study provides a reference PK state for full-length whole and FAb antibodies in tissues related to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases that do not include antigen or antibody binding.

  2. Tissue distribution and subcellular localization of hyaluronan synthase isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Törrönen, Kari; Nikunen, Kaisa; Kärnä, Riikka; Tammi, Markku; Tammi, Raija; Rilla, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan synthases (HAS) are unique plasma membrane glycosyltransferases secreting this glycosaminoglycan directly to the extracellular space. The three HAS isoenzymes (HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3) expressed in mammalian cells differ in their enzymatic properties and regulation by external stimuli, but clearly distinct functions have not been established. To overview the expression of different HAS isoenzymes during embryonic development and their subcellular localization, we immunostained mouse embryonic samples and cultured cells with HAS antibodies, correlating their distribution to hyaluronan staining. Their subcellular localization was further studied by GFP-HAS fusion proteins. Intense hyaluronan staining was observed throughout the development in the tissues of mesodermal origin, like heart and cartilages, but also for example during the maturation of kidneys and stratified epithelia. In general, staining for one or several HASs correlated with hyaluronan staining. The staining of HAS2 was most widespread, both spatially and temporally, correlating with hyaluronan staining especially in early mesenchymal tissues and heart. While epithelial cells were mostly negative for HASs, stratified epithelia became HAS positive during differentiation. All HAS isoenzymes showed cytoplasmic immunoreactivity, both in tissue sections and cultured cells, while plasma membrane staining was also detected, often in cellular extensions. HAS1 had brightest signal in Golgi, HAS3 in Golgi and microvillous protrusions, whereas most of the endogenous HAS2 immunoreactivity was localized in the ER. This differential pattern was also observed with transfected GFP-HASs. The large proportion of intracellular HASs suggests that HAS forms a reserve that is transported to the plasma membrane for rapid activation of hyaluronan synthesis.

  3. Tissue distribution of molidone in a multidrug overdose.

    PubMed

    Flammia, Dwight D; Bateman, Henry R; Saady, Joseph J; Christensen, Erik D

    2004-09-01

    Molindone hydrochloride (Moban) is a dihydroindolone compound dissimilar in structure to other antipsychotic drugs (i.e., phenothiazines, butyrophenones, dibenzepines, and thioxanthenes). The antipsychotic (or neuroleptic) activity of molindone makes it particularly useful in the treatment of schizophrenia. There are a few published cases which report the tissue distribution of molindone in the human body. We report the analysis of molindone in postmortem samples using a solvent mixture (toluene/hexane/isoamyl alcohol) base extract followed by an acid (0.5M H(2)SO(4)) wash. Molindone was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (m/z 100, 176, 276) and quantitated using a gas chromatograph and nitrogen-phosphorus detector. The range of linearity was 0.1 mg/L to 5.0 mg/L. We report our findings of molindone concentrations in blood, liver, bile, gastric, and urine as follows: 6 mg/L in blood; 26 mg/kg in liver; 23.1 mg/L in bile; 1200 mg/L in gastric; and 37.3 mg/L in urine. Vitreous lithium (5.9 mmol/L) was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The medical examiner listed the cause of death as a combined drug overdose of molindone and lithium. The tissue results are compared with another case and the pharmacology of molindone is presented.

  4. Distribution of opiate alkaloids in brain tissue of experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Djurendic-Brenesel, Maja; Pilija, Vladimir; Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Budakov, Branislav; Cvjeticanin, Stanko

    2012-12-01

    The present study examined regional distribution of opiate alkaloids from seized heroin in brain regions of experimental animals in order to select parts with the highest content of opiates. Their analysis should contribute to resolve causes of death due to heroin intake. The tests were performed at different time periods (5, 15, 45 and 120 min) after male and female Wistar rats were treated with seized heroin. Opiate alkaloids (codeine, morphine, acetylcodeine, 6-acetylmorphine and 3,6-diacetylmorphine) were quantitatively determined in brain regions known for their high concentration of µ-opiate receptors: cortex, brainstem, amygdala and basal ganglia, by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest content of opiate alkaloids in the brain tissue of female animals was found 15 min and in male animals 45 min after treatment. The highest content of opiates was determined in the basal ganglia of the animals of both genders, indicating that this part of brain tissue presents a reliable sample for identifying and assessing contents of opiates after heroin intake.

  5. Polyester scaffolds with bimodal pore size distribution for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sosnowski, Stanislaw; Woźniak, Piotr; Lewandowska-Szumieł, Małgorzata

    2006-06-16

    This paper presents a method for the preparation of porous poly(L-lactide)/poly[(L-lactide)-co-glycolide] scaffolds for tissue engineering. Scaffolds were prepared by a mold pressing-salt leaching technique from structured microparticles. The total porosity was in the range 70-85%. The pore size distribution was bimodal. Large pores, susceptible for osteoblasts growth and proliferation had the dimensions 50-400 microm. Small pores, dedicated to the diffusion of nutrients or/and metabolites of bone forming cells, as well as the products of hydrolysis of polyesters from the walls of the scaffold, had sizes in the range 2 nm-5 microm. The scaffolds had good mechanical strength (compressive modulus equal to 41 MPa and a strength of 1.64 MPa for 74% porosity). Scaffolds were tested in vitro with human osteoblast-like cells (MG-63). It was found that the viability of cells seeded within the scaffolds obtained using the mold pressing-salt leaching technique from structured microparticles was better when compared to cells cultured in scaffolds obtained by traditional methods. After 34 d of culture, cells within the tested scaffolds were organized in a tissue-like structure. Photos of section of macro- and mesoporous PLLA/PLGA scaffold containing 50 wt.-% of PLGA microspheres after 34 d of culture. Dark spots mark MG-63 cells, white areas belong to the scaffold. The specimen was stained with haematoxylin/eosin. Bar = 100 microm.

  6. Distribution of adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) in human tissues.

    PubMed

    Dinjens, W N; ten Kate, J; van der Linden, E P; Wijnen, J T; Khan, P M; Bosman, F T

    1989-12-01

    The normal distribution of adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) in the human body was investigated quantitatively by ADCP-specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) and qualitatively by immunohistochemistry. In these studies we used a specific rabbit anti-human ADCP antiserum. In all 19 investigated tissues, except erythrocytes, ADCP was found by RIA in the soluble and membrane fractions. From all tissues the membrane fractions contained more ADCP (expressed per mg protein) than the soluble fractions. High membrane ADCP concentrations were found in skin, renal cortex, gastrointestinal tract, and prostate. Immunoperoxidase staining confirmed the predominant membrane-associated localization of the protein. In serous sweat glands, convoluted tubules of renal cortex, bile canaliculi, gastrointestinal tract, lung, pancreas, prostate gland, salivary gland, gallbladder, mammary gland, and uterus, ADCP immunoreactivity was found confined to the luminal membranes of the epithelial cells. These data demonstrate that ADCP is present predominantly in exocrine glands and absorptive epithelia. The localization of ADCP at the secretory or absorptive apex of the cells suggests that the function of ADCP is related to the secretory and/or absorptive process.

  7. Azithromycin pharmacokinetics in the serum and its distribution to the skin in healthy dogs and dogs with pyoderma.

    PubMed

    Zur, Gila; Soback, Stefan; Weiss, Yfat; Perry, Elad; Lavy, Eran; Britzi, Malka

    2014-04-01

    Serum and skin tissue azithromycin (AZM) concentrations were analysed in healthy and pyoderma affected dogs to determine AZM pharmacokinetics and to establish the effect of disease on AZM skin disposition. AZM was administered orally to two groups of healthy dogs: (1) at 7.02 mg/kg (n=7) and (2) at 11.2mg/kg (n=9). A crossover design was used on five of them. Seven dogs with pyoderma were treated with AZM at 10.7 mg/kg. The two groups of healthy dogs received AZM once daily over three consecutive days and dogs with pyoderma received the same treatment repeated twice with an interval of 1 week. AZM concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. AZM was rapidly absorbed and slowly excreted. In healthy dogs, maximum serum concentrations appeared 2h after administration and were (mean ± standard deviation) 0.60 ± 0.25 μg/mL and 1.03 ± 0.43 μg/mL, and the half-lives were 49.9 ± 5.10 and 51.9 ± 6.69 h for doses of 7.02 and 11.2mg/kg, respectively. Clearance (CL0-24/F) was similar in both dosing groups (1.24 ± 0.24 and 1.29 ± 0.24 L/h/kg) and the respective mean residence time (MRT0-24) was 11.1 ± 0.8 and 8.4 ± 2.2h. The skin concentration in healthy dogs was 3.5-6.5 and 5.0-12.0 times higher than the corresponding serum concentration after the two doses and increased after the cessation of AZM administration. The ratio increased significantly in inflamed tissue (9.5-26.2).

  8. Optimizing nanomedicine pharmacokinetics using physiologically based pharmacokinetics modelling

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Darren Michael; Siccardi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The delivery of therapeutic agents is characterized by numerous challenges including poor absorption, low penetration in target tissues and non-specific dissemination in organs, leading to toxicity or poor drug exposure. Several nanomedicine strategies have emerged as an advanced approach to enhance drug delivery and improve the treatment of several diseases. Numerous processes mediate the pharmacokinetics of nanoformulations, with the absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) being poorly understood and often differing substantially from traditional formulations. Understanding how nanoformulation composition and physicochemical properties influence drug distribution in the human body is of central importance when developing future treatment strategies. A helpful pharmacological tool to simulate the distribution of nanoformulations is represented by physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) modelling, which integrates system data describing a population of interest with drug/nanoparticle in vitro data through a mathematical description of ADME. The application of PBPK models for nanomedicine is in its infancy and characterized by several challenges. The integration of property–distribution relationships in PBPK models may benefit nanomedicine research, giving opportunities for innovative development of nanotechnologies. PBPK modelling has the potential to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning nanoformulation disposition and allow for more rapid and accurate determination of their kinetics. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of nanomedicine distribution and the use of PBPK modelling in the characterization of nanoformulations with optimal pharmacokinetics. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Nanomedicine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-17 PMID:24467481

  9. Determination of the neuropharmacological drug nodakenin in rat plasma and brain tissues by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry: Application to pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Song, Yingshi; Yan, Huiyu; Xu, Jingbo; Ma, Hongxi

    2017-09-01

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection using selected reaction monitoring in positive ionization mode was developed and validated for the quantification of nodakenin in rat plasma and brain. Pareruptorin A was used as internal standard. A single step liquid-liquid extraction was used for plasma and brain sample preparation. The method was validated with respect to selectivity, precision, accuracy, linearity, limit of quantification, recovery, matrix effect and stability. Lower limit of quantification of nodakenin was 2.0 ng/mL in plasma and brain tissue homogenates. Linear calibration curves were obtained over concentration ranges of 2.0-1000 ng/mL in plasma and brain tissue homogenates for nodakenin. Intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation, RSD) were <15% in both biological media. This assay was successfully applied to plasma and brain pharmacokinetic studies of nodakenin in rats after intravenous administration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Compartmental Targeting for mTHPC-Based Photodynamic Treatment In Vivo: Correlation of Efficiency, Pharmacokinetics, and Regional Distribution of Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Garrier, Julie; Bressenot, Aude; Graefe, Susanna

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: The present study investigates the efficacy of compartmental targeting in xenografted tumors treated by meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT). The therapeutic efficacy was, furthermore, related to a regional photoinduced distribution of apoptosis and an mTHPC biodistribution profile. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing EMT6 tumors were subjected to a single irradiation (10 J/cm{sup 2}) of red laser light (652 nm) at different intervals after a single- (0.3 mg/kg or 0.15 mg/kg) or double-intravenous (2 x 0.15 mg/kg) injection(s) of mTHPC. Efficiency of the treatment was evaluated by monitoring tumor regrowth. mTHPC pharmacokinetics were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of excised organs. The regional distribution of apoptosis in tumor sections was investigated with a newly developed colabelling immunohistochemistry technique. Results: A fractionated double-injection protocol of mTHPC with 24-h and 3-h drug-light intervals (DLI) yielded 100% tumor cure, with tumors presenting a massive apoptosis of neoplastic cells along with a distortion of vessels. The best efficiency for a single injection (0.3 mg/kg) was about 54% tumor cure and corresponded to a DLI of 3 h. At this DLI, tumors showed apoptosis of endothelial cells in residual vessels. Concentrations of mTHPC observed in plasma and tumor for the fractionated injection were not statistically different and were less than the total drug dose in each compartment. Conclusions: The present work suggests that clinical PDT protocols with mTHPC could be greatly improved by fractionation of the drug administration. Time points should be chosen based on the intratumoral spatiotemporal drug distribution.

  11. Nanostructured lipid carrier versus solid lipid nanoparticles of simvastatin: comparative analysis of characteristics, pharmacokinetics and tissue uptake.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Radheshyam; Pathak, Kamla

    2011-08-30

    Nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) system of simvastatin was investigated for improvement in release, pharmacokinetics and biodistribution over its solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). The NLC formulations prepared by solvent injection technique were optimized by 2(3) full factorial design. Optimized NLC was deduced on the basis of dependent variables that were analyzed using Design expert 8.0.2 software (Stat Ease, Inc., USA). Pareto charts and response surface plots were utilized to study the effect of variables on the response parameters. The optimized NLC was a suspension of nanosized homogeneous particles with significantly higher entrapment efficiency (>90%) and lower recrystallization properties (p<0.01) than SLNs. The pharmacokinetic parameters of Tc(99) labeled optimized NLC in mice, obtained using Quickcal software (Plexus, India) revealed 4.8 folds increase in bioavailability as compared to simvastatin suspension and 2.29 folds as compared to SLNs. Biodistribution study revealed preferential accumulation of NLC in the liver and this is advantageous because liver is the target organ for simvastatin. IVIVC studies demonstrated level A correlation between in vitro release and percent drug absorbed. This investigation demonstrated the superiority of NLC over SLN for improved oral delivery and it was deduced that the liquid lipid, oleic acid was the principal formulation factor responsible for the improvement in characteristics, pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of NLCs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmacokinetics, biological effects, and distribution of (1→3)-β-D-glucan in blood and organs in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Robert I.; Grunfeld, Carl; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Levin, Jack

    1997-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics, biological effects and distribution in blood and organs of 125I-labeled (1→3)-β-D-glucan purified from Candida albicans were analyzed in rabbits during the 24-h period following an intravenous administration.The intravascular half-life of (1→3)-β- D-glucan was 1.8 min in the low-dose group (9.3 μg/kg) and 1.4 min in the high-dose group (222 μg/kg), and the mean (±SD) total body clearance was 1.12 ± 0.30 and 1.17 ± 0.16 ml/min, respectively. The rabbits remained well and (1→3)-β-D-glucan failed to alter blood cell counts. Less than 3% of the 125I-(1→3)-β-D-glucan was initially associated with the cellular compartment, and this value decreased further during the 2-h period following administration (P = 0.0001). Over 97% of 125I-(1→3)-β-D-glucan was associated with cell-free plasma, and the majority in plasma appeared to be present in the unbound form (not associated with lipoproteins or plasma proteins). The liver contained more than 80% of the 125I-(1→3)-β-D-glucan detected in the six major organs analyzed. PMID:18472859

  13. A pilot and feasibility study of the plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of cefazolin in an immature porcine model of pediatric cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Kilbaugh, Todd J; Himebauch, Adam S; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Jobes, David; Greeley, William J; Nicolson, Susan C; Zuppa, Athena F

    2015-11-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) prevention for children with congenital heart disease is imperative and methods to assess and evaluate the tissue concentrations of prophylactic antibiotics are important to help maximize these efforts. The purposes of this study were to determine the plasma and tissue concentrations with standard of care, perioperative cefazolin dosing in an immature porcine model of pediatric cardiac surgery, and to determine the feasibility of this model. Piglets (3-5 days old) underwent either median sternotomy (MS) or cardiopulmonary bypass with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (CPB + DHCA) and received standard of care prophylactic cefazolin for the procedures. Serial plasma and microdialysis sampling of the skeletal muscle and subcutaneous tissue adjacent to the surgical site was performed. Cefazolin concentrations were measured, noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were performed, and tissue penetration of cefazolin was assessed. Following the first intravenous dose, maximal cefazolin concentrations in the subcutaneous tissue and skeletal muscle were similar between groups with peak tissue concentrations 15-30 min after administration. After the second cefazolin dose given with the initiation of CPB, total plasma cefazolin concentrations remained relatively constant until the end of DHCA and then decreased while muscle- and subcutaneous-unbound cefazolin concentrations showed a second peak during or after rewarming. For the MS group, 60-67% of the intraoperative time showed subcutaneous and skeletal muscle concentrations of cefazolin >16 μg·ml(-1) while this percentage was 78-79% for the CPB + DHCA group. There was less tissue penetration of cefazolin in the group that underwent CBP + DHCA (P = 0.03). The cefazolin dosing used in this study achieves plasma and tissue concentrations that should be effective against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus but may not be effective against some gram-negative pathogens. The timing of

  14. Human subcutaneous tissue distribution of fluconazole: comparison of microdialysis and suction blister techniques

    PubMed Central

    Sasongko, Lucy; Williams, Kenneth M; Day, Richard O; McLachlan, Andrew J

    2003-01-01

    Aims To investigate uptake of fluconazole into the interstitial fluid of human subcutaneous tissue using the microdialysis and suction blister techniques. Methods A sterile microdialysis probe (CMA/60) was inserted subcutaneously into the upper arm of five healthy volunteers following an overnight fast. Blisters were induced on the lower arm using gentle suction prior to ingestion of a single oral dose of fluconazole (200 mg). Microdialysate, blister fluid and blood were sampled over 8 h. Fluconazole concentrations were determined in each sample using a validated HPLC assay. In vivo recovery of fluconazole from the microdialysis probe was determined in each subject by perfusing the probe with fluconazole solution at the end of the 8 h sampling period. Individual in vivo recovery was used to calculate fluconazole concentrations in subcutaneous interstitial fluid. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was used to predict fluconazole concentrations in human subcutaneous interstitial fluid. Results There was a lag-time (approximately 0.5 h) between detection of fluconazole in microdialysate compared with plasma in each subject. The in vivo recovery of fluconazole from the microdialysis probe ranged from 57.0 to 67.2%. The subcutaneous interstitial fluid concentrations obtained by microdialysis were very similar to the unbound concentrations of fluconazole in plasma with maximum concentration of 4.29 ± 1.19 µg ml−1 in subcutaneous interstitial fluid and 3.58 ± 0.14 µg ml−1 in plasma. Subcutaneous interstitial fluid-to-plasma partition coefficient (Kp) of fluconazole was 1.16 ± 0.22 (95% CI 0.96, 1.35). By contrast, fluconazole concentrations in blister fluid were significantly lower (P < 0.05, paired t-test) than unbound plasma concentrations over the first 3 h and maximum concentrations in blister fluid had not been achieved at the end of the sampling period. There was good agreement between fluconazole concentrations derived from microdialysis

  15. The Tissue Distribution of Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinhee; Chung, Yiwa; Kim, Heejeong; Im, Eunji; Lee, Hyojin; Yang, Hyunwon

    2014-01-01

    Nesfatin-1, an anorexic nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2)-derived hypothalamic peptide, controls appetite and energy metabolism. Recent studies show that nesfatin-1/NUCB2 is expressed not only in the brain but also in gastric and adipose tissues. Thus, we investigated the distributions of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 in various tissues of male and female mice by real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining. Real-time PCR analyses showed that NUCB2 mRNA was predominantly expressed in the pituitary and at lower levels in the hypothalamus, spleen, thymus, heart, liver, and muscle of both male and female mice. Expression was much higher in reproductive organs, such as the testis, epididymis, ovary, and uterus, than in the hypothalamus. Western blot analysis of the nesfatin-1 protein level showed similar results to the real-time PCR analyses in both male and female mice. These results suggest that nesfatin-1/NUCB2 have widespread physiological effects in endocrine and non-endocrine organs. In addition, immunohistochemical staining revealed that nesfatin-1 was localized in interstitial cells, including Leydig cells and in the columnar epithelium of the epididymis. Nesfatin-1 was also expressed in theca cells and interstitial cells in the ovary and in epithelial cells of the endometrium and uterine glands in the uterus. These results suggest that nesfatin-1 is a novel potent regulator of steroidogenesis and gonadal function in male and female reproductive organs. Further studies are required to elucidate the functions of nesfatin-1 in various organs of male and female mice. PMID:25949201

  16. Pharmacokinetics of Tyrosol Metabolites in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Hye; Kim, Yang-Ji; Kim, Min Jung; Ahn, Jiyun; Ha, Tae-Youl; Lee, Sang Hee; Jang, Young Jin; Jung, Chang Hwa

    2016-01-21

    Tyrosol is considered a potential antioxidant; however, little is known regarding the pharmacokinetics of its metabolites. To study the pharmacokinetics of tyrosol-derived metabolites after oral administration of a single dose of tyrosol, we attempted to identify tyrosol metabolites in rat plasma by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Two tyrosol metabolites (M1 and M2) were detected in the plasma. M1 was identified as tyrosol-4-sulfate (T4S) with an [M - H](-) ion at m/z 217. While M2 showed an [M - H](-) ion at m/z 151.0, its metabolite was not identified. Pharmacokinetic analysis of T4S and M2 showed rapid uptake after oral administration of tyrosol within 1 h. The metabolites were rapidly distributed in most organs and tissues and eliminated within 4 h. The greatest T4S deposition by tissue weight was observed in the liver, followed by the kidney and spleen, while M2 was most concentrated in the kidney followed by the liver and spleen. These findings indicate that T4S and M2 were distributed mainly in tissues with an abundant blood supply and were rapidly excreted in urine.

  17. Distribution of lung tissue hysteresis during free breathing.

    PubMed

    White, Benjamin; Zhao, Tianyu; Lamb, James; Wuenschel, Sara; Bradley, Jeffrey; El Naqa, Issam; Low, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    To characterize and quantify free breathing lung tissue motion distributions. Forty seven patient data sets were acquired using a 4DCT protocol consisting of 25 ciné scans at abutting couch positions on a 16-slice scanner. The tidal volume of each scan was measured by simultaneously acquiring spirometry and an abdominal pneumatic bellows. The concept of a characteristic breath was developed to manage otherwise natural breathing pattern variations. The characteristic breath was found by first dividing the breathing traces into individual breaths, from maximum exhalation to maximum exhalation. A linear breathing drift model was assumed and the drift removed for each breath. Breaths that exceeded one standard deviation in period or amplitude were removed from further analysis. A characteristic breath was defined by normalizing each breath to a common amplitude, aligning the peak inhalation times for all of the breaths, and determining the average time at each tidal volume, keeping inhalation and exhalation separate. Breathing motion trajectories were computed using a previously published five-dimensional lung tissue trajectory model which expresses the position of internal lung tissue, X, as: X(v,f:X0)=X0+α(X0)v+β(X0)f, where X0 is the internal lung tissue position at zero tidal volume and zero airflow, the scalar values v and f are the measured tidal volume and airflow, respectively, and the vectors α and β are fitted free parameters. In order to characterize the motion patterns, the trajectory elongations were examined throughout the subject's lungs. Elongation was defined here by generating a rectangular bounding box with one side parallel to the α vector and the box oriented in the plane defined by the α and β motion vectors. Hysteresis motion was defined as the ratio of the box dimensions aligned orthogonal to and parallel to the α vector. The 15th and 85th percentile of the elongation were used to characterize tissue trajectory hysteresis. The 15th and

  18. Lisdexamfetamine: A pharmacokinetic review.

    PubMed

    Comiran, Eloisa; Kessler, Félix Henrique; Fröehlich, Pedro Eduardo; Limberger, Renata Pereira

    2016-06-30

    Lisdexamfetamine (LDX) is a d-amphetamine (d-AMPH) pro-drug used to treat Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Binge Eating Disorder (BED) symptoms. The in vivo pharmacodynamics of LDX is the same as that of its active product d-AMPH, although there are a few qualitative and quantitative differences due to pharmacokinetics. Due to the specific pharmacokinetics of the long-acting stimulants, this article revises the pharmacokinetic studies on LDX, the newest amphetamine pro-drug. The Medline/Pubmed, Science Direct and Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (Lilacs and Ibecs) (2007-2016) databases were searched for articles and their list of references. As for basic pharmacokinetics studies, since LDX is a newly developed medication, there are few results concerning biotransformation, distribution and the use of different biological matrices for analysis. This is the first robust review on this topic, gathering data from all clinical pharmacokinetics studies available in the literature. The particular pharmacokinetics of LDX plays a major role in studying this pro-drug, since this knowledge was essential to understand some reports on clinical effects in literature, e.g. the small likelihood of reducing the effect by interactions, the effect of long duration use and the still questionable reduction of the potential for abuse. In general the already well-known pharmacokinetic properties of amphetamine make LDX relatively predictable, simplifying the use of LDX in clinical practice.

  19. Distribution and pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine in the human body: clinical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Wang, G.-J.; Shumay, E.; Telang, F.; Thanos, P.; Alexoff, D.

    2010-12-01

    Methamphetamine is one of the most toxic of the drugs of abuse, which may reflect its distribution and accumulation in the body. However no studies have measured methamphetamine's organ distribution in the human body. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was used in conjunction with [{sup 11}C]d-methamphetamine to measure its whole-body distribution and bioavailability as assessed by peak uptake (% Dose/cc), rate of clearance (time to reach 50% peak-clearance) and accumulation (area under the curve) in healthy participants (9 Caucasians and 10 African Americans). Methamphetamine distributed through most organs. Highest uptake (whole organ) occurred in lungs (22% Dose; weight {approx}1246 g), liver (23%; weight {approx}1677 g) and intermediate in brain (10%; weight {approx}1600 g). Kidneys also showed high uptake (per/cc basis) (7%; weight 305 g). Methamphetamine's clearance was fastest in heart and lungs (7-16 minutes), slowest in brain, liver and stomach (>75 minutes), and intermediate in kidneys, spleen and pancreas (22-50 minutes). Lung accumulation of [{sup 11}C]d-methamphetamine was 30% higher for African Americans than Caucasians (p < 0.05) but did not differ in other organs. The high accumulation of methamphetamine, a potent stimulant drug, in most body organs is likely to contribute to the medical complications associated with methamphetamine abuse. In particular, we speculate that methamphetamine's high pulmonary uptake could render this organ vulnerable to infections (tuberculosis) and pathology (pulmonary hypertension). Our preliminary findings of a higher lung accumulation of methamphetamine in African Americans than Caucasians merits further investigation and questions whether it could contribute to the infrequent use of methamphetamine among African Americans.

  20. Distribution and pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine in the human body: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Fowler, Joanna S; Wang, Gene-Jack; Shumay, Elena; Telang, Frank; Thanos, Peter K; Alexoff, David

    2010-12-07

    Methamphetamine is one of the most toxic of the drugs of abuse, which may reflect its distribution and accumulation in the body. However no studies have measured methamphetamine's organ distribution in the human body. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was used in conjunction with [(11)C]d-methamphetamine to measure its whole-body distribution and bioavailability as assessed by peak uptake (% Dose/cc), rate of clearance (time to reach 50% peak-clearance) and accumulation (area under the curve) in healthy participants (9 Caucasians and 10 African Americans). Methamphetamine distributed through most organs. Highest uptake (whole organ) occurred in lungs (22% Dose; weight ∼1246 g), liver (23%; weight ∼1677 g) and intermediate in brain (10%; weight ∼1600 g). Kidneys also showed high uptake (per/cc basis) (7%; weight 305 g). Methamphetamine's clearance was fastest in heart and lungs (7-16 minutes), slowest in brain, liver and stomach (>75 minutes), and intermediate in kidneys, spleen and pancreas (22-50 minutes). Lung accumulation of [(11)C]d-methamphetamine was 30% higher for African Americans than Caucasians (p<0.05) but did not differ in other organs. The high accumulation of methamphetamine, a potent stimulant drug, in most body organs is likely to contribute to the medical complications associated with methamphetamine abuse. In particular, we speculate that methamphetamine's high pulmonary uptake could render this organ vulnerable to infections (tuberculosis) and pathology (pulmonary hypertension). Our preliminary findings of a higher lung accumulation of methamphetamine in African Americans than Caucasians merits further investigation and questions whether it could contribute to the infrequent use of methamphetamine among African Americans.

  1. Cellular localization and tissue distribution of endogenous DFCP1 protein.

    PubMed

    Nanao, Tomohisa; Koike, Masato; Yamaguchi, Junji; Sasaki, Mitsuho; Uchiyama, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is essential for the maintenance of cellular metabolism. Once autophagy is induced in cells, the isolation membrane forms a so-called phagophore. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is one of several candidates for the membrane source for phagophores. Recently, LC3-positive isolation membranes were found to emerge from a DFCP1 (double FYVE domain-containing protein)-positive, ER-associated compartment called the omegasome. Although the GFP-tagged DFCP1 protein has been examined in cultured cells, little is known about the precise cellular and tissue distribution of this endogenous protein. To determine the expression of the endogenous DFCP1 protein, we produced antibodies specific to mouse DFCP1 protein. The antibody recognized both human and mouse DFCP1 proteins, both of which have molecular masses of approximately 87 kDa. In HeLa cells under normal conditions, immunoreactivity for DFCP1 was found dotted or tubular along Tom20-positive filamentous mitochondria and was only partially co-localized in the ER or Golgi apparatus. Moreover, under starved conditions, distinct DFCP1-positive structures became more dotted and scattered in the cytoplasm, while one part of the LC3-positive autophagosomes were immunopositive for DFCP1. These results indicate that an antibody raised against DFCP1 could be a useful tool in explaining the mechanism of phagophore formation from omegasome compartments.

  2. Spatial tissue distribution of polyacetylenes in carrot root.

    PubMed

    Baranska, Malgorzata; Schulz, Hartwig

    2005-06-01

    The presented results show the usefulness of Raman spectroscopy in the investigation of polyacetylenes in carrot root. The components are measured directly in the plant tissue without any preliminary sample preparation. Compared with the strong polyacetylene signals the spectral impact of the surrounding biological matrix is weak, except for carotenoids, and therefore it does not contribute significantly to the obtained results. Three different Raman mapping techniques applied here have revealed essential information about the investigated compounds. Using point acquisition several spectra have been measured to demonstrate the complex composition of the polyacetylene fraction in carrot root. The molecular structures of falcarinol, falcarindiol and falcarindiol 3-acetate are similar but their Raman spectra exhibit differences demonstrated by the shift of their -C triple bond C- mode. Line mapping performed along the diameter of transversely cut carrot roots has been used to investigate the relative concentration of polyacetylenes and carotenoids. An area map provides detailed information regarding the distribution of both components. It has been found that high accumulation of polyacetylenes is located in the outer section of the root, namely the pericyclic parenchyma, and in the phloem part close to the secondary cambium. The highest concentration of carotenes is seen in the immediate vicinity to polyacetylene conglomerates.

  3. Obstetric analgesia. Clinical pharmacokinetic considerations.

    PubMed

    Kanto, J

    1986-01-01

    All drugs used in obstetric analgesia are more or less lipophilic, their site of action is in the central nervous system, and they have good membrane penetrability in the fetomaternal unit. Thus the dose and method of administration as well as the duration of treatment are important clinical determinants of drug effects in the fetus and newborn. In the past, too much emphasis has been placed on fetomaternal blood concentration ratios of different agents; it is now appreciated that the extent of fetal tissue distribution and the neonatal elimination rate are pharmacokinetically much more important. Extensive fetal tissue distribution is reflected in a low fetomaternal drug concentration ratio, which may be followed by prolonged neonatal elimination of the drug. Currently, the most effective and safest method for obstetric analgesia is regional epidural administration of bupivacaine or lignocaine (lidocaine); only low doses are needed and the newborn is able to handle these agents efficiently. On the basis of pharmacokinetic and neurobehavioural assessments, inhalational anaesthetic agents appear to be more attractive than pethidine (meperidine) or benzodiazepines. Intermittent administration and fast pulmonary elimination of inhalational agents ensure that long-lasting residual effects are unlikely to occur. The kinetics of epidural and intrathecal opiates explain the problems associated with their use in obstetrics. Among the newer drugs used in obstetric analgesia, the properties of meptazinol and isoflurane appear interesting and these agents warrant further study. All drugs used in obstetric analgesia have a potentially detrimental effect on the neonate and, therefore, knowledge of fetal and neonatal pharmacokinetics is of importance to the clinician.

  4. Comparison of normal tissue pharmacokinetics with {sup 111}In/{sup 9}Y monoclonal antibody m170 for breast and prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, Joerg; O'Donnell, Robert T.; Richman, Carol M. . E-mail: sjdenardo@ucdavis.edu

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: Radioactivity deposition in normal tissues limits the dose deliverable by radiopharmaceuticals (RP) in radioimmunotherapy (RIT). This study investigated the absorbed radiation dose in normal tissues for prostate cancer patients in comparison to breast cancer patients for 2 RPs using the monoclonal antibody (MAb) m170. Methods and Materials: {sup 111}In-DOTA-glycylglycylglycyl-L-p-isothiocyanatophenylalanine amide (GGGF)-m170 and {sup 111}In-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) 2-iminothiolane (2IT)-m170, representing the same MAb and chelate with and without a cleavable linkage, were studied in 13 breast cancer and 26 prostate cancer patients. Dosimetry for {sup 9}Y was calculated using {sup 111}In MAb pharmacokinetics from the initial imaging study for each patient, using reference man- and patient-specific masses. Results: The reference man-specific radiation doses (cGy/MBq) were not significantly different for the breast and the prostate cancer patients for both RPs in all but one tissue-RP combination (liver, DOTA-2IT). The patient-specific doses had differences between the groups most of which can be related to weight differences. Conclusions: Similar normal tissue doses were calculated for two groups of patients having different cancers and genders. This similarity combined with continued careful analysis of the imaging data might allow the use of higher starting doses in early phase RIT studies.

  5. Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of the Unbound Levofloxacin Concentrations in Rat Plasma and Prostate Tissue Measured by Microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Felipe K.; Weber, Benjamin; Derendorf, Hartmut; Hochhaus, Guenther

    2014-01-01

    Levofloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone used in the treatment of both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Currently, the treatment of bacterial prostatitis is still difficult, especially due to the poor distribution of many antimicrobials into the prostate, thus preventing the drug to reach effective interstitial concentrations at the infection site. Newer fluoroquinolones show a greater penetration into the prostate. In the present study, we compared the unbound levofloxacin prostate concentrations measured by microdialysis to those in plasma after a 7-mg/kg intravenous bolus dose to Wistar rats. Plasma and dialysate samples were analyzed using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography-fluorescence method. Both noncompartmental analysis (NCA) and population-based compartmental modeling (NONMEM 6) were performed. Unbound prostate tissue concentrations represented 78% of unbound plasma levels over a period of 12 h by comparing the extent of exposure (unbound AUC0–∞) of 6.4 and 4.8 h·μg/ml in plasma and tissue, respectively. A three-compartment model with simultaneous passive diffusion and saturable distribution kinetics from the prostate to the central compartment gave the best results in terms of curve fitting, precision of parameter estimates, and model stability. The following parameter values were estimated by the population model: V1 (0.38 liter; where V1 represents the volume of the central compartment), CL (0.22 liter/h), k12 (2.27 h−1), k21 (1.44 h−1), k13 (0.69 h−1), Vmax (7.19 μg/h), kM (0.35 μg/ml), V3/fuprostate (0.05 liter; where fuprostate represents the fraction unbound in the prostate), and k31 (3.67 h−1). The interindividual variability values for V1, CL, Vmax, and kM were 21, 37, 42, and 76%, respectively. Our results suggest that levofloxacin is likely to be substrate for efflux transporters in the prostate. PMID:24217697

  6. Population pharmacokinetic modeling of the unbound levofloxacin concentrations in rat plasma and prostate tissue measured by microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Felipe K; Weber, Benjamin; Derendorf, Hartmut; Hochhaus, Guenther; Dalla Costa, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Levofloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone used in the treatment of both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Currently, the treatment of bacterial prostatitis is still difficult, especially due to the poor distribution of many antimicrobials into the prostate, thus preventing the drug to reach effective interstitial concentrations at the infection site. Newer fluoroquinolones show a greater penetration into the prostate. In the present study, we compared the unbound levofloxacin prostate concentrations measured by microdialysis to those in plasma after a 7-mg/kg intravenous bolus dose to Wistar rats. Plasma and dialysate samples were analyzed using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography-fluorescence method. Both noncompartmental analysis (NCA) and population-based compartmental modeling (NONMEM 6) were performed. Unbound prostate tissue concentrations represented 78% of unbound plasma levels over a period of 12 h by comparing the extent of exposure (unbound AUC0-∞) of 6.4 and 4.8 h·μg/ml in plasma and tissue, respectively. A three-compartment model with simultaneous passive diffusion and saturable distribution kinetics from the prostate to the central compartment gave the best results in terms of curve fitting, precision of parameter estimates, and model stability. The following parameter values were estimated by the population model: V1 (0.38 liter; where V1 represents the volume of the central compartment), CL (0.22 liter/h), k12 (2.27 h(-1)), k21 (1.44 h(-1)), k13 (0.69 h(-1)), Vmax (7.19 μg/h), kM (0.35 μg/ml), V3/fuprostate (0.05 liter; where fuprostate represents the fraction unbound in the prostate), and k31 (3.67 h(-1)). The interindividual variability values for V1, CL, Vmax, and kM were 21, 37, 42, and 76%, respectively. Our results suggest that levofloxacin is likely to be substrate for efflux transporters in the prostate.

  7. Effect of Tissue Composition on Dose Distribution in Electron Beam Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, M.; Tabatabaei, Z. S.; Vejdani Noghreiyan, A.; Vosoughi, H.; Knaup, C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of tissue composition on dose distribution in electron beam radiotherapy. Methods A Siemens Primus linear accelerator and a phantom were simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. In a homogeneous cylindrical phantom, six types of soft tissue and three types of tissue-equivalent materials were investigated. The tissues included muscle (skeletal), adipose tissue, blood (whole), breast tissue, soft tissue (9-components) and soft tissue (4-component). The tissue-equivalent materials were water, A-150 tissue-equivalent plastic and perspex. Electron dose relative to dose in 9-component soft tissue at various depths on the beam’s central axis was determined for 8, 12, and 14 MeV electron energies. Results The results of relative electron dose in various materials relative to dose in 9-component soft tissue were reported for 8, 12 and 14 MeV electron beams as tabulated data. While differences were observed between dose distributions in various soft tissues and tissue-equivalent materials, which vary with the composition of material, electron energy and depth in phantom, they can be ignored due to the incorporated uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculations. Conclusion Based on the calculations performed, differences in dose distributions in various soft tissues and tissue-equivalent materials are not significant. However, due to the difference in composition of various materials, further research in this field with lower uncertainties is recommended. PMID:25973407

  8. A tissue dose-based comparative exposure assessment of manganese using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling-The importance of homeostatic control for an essential metal.

    PubMed

    Gentry, P Robinan; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Fuller, William G; Sulsky, Sandra I; Greene, Tracy B; Clewell, Harvey J; Andersen, Melvin E; Roels, Harry A; Taylor, Michael D; Keene, Athena M

    2017-02-22

    A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model (Schroeter et al., 2011) was applied to simulate target tissue manganese (Mn) concentrations following occupational and environmental exposures. These estimates of target tissue Mn concentrations were compared to determine margins of safety (MOS) and to evaluate the biological relevance of applying safety factors to derive acceptable Mn air concentrations. Mn blood concentrations measured in occupational studies permitted verification of the human PBPK models, increasing confidence in the resulting estimates. Mn exposure was determined based on measured ambient air Mn concentrations and dietary data in Canada and the United States (US). Incorporating dietary and inhalation exposures into the models indicated that increases in target tissue concentrations above endogenous levels only begin to occur when humans are exposed to levels of Mn in ambient air (i.e. >10μg/m(3)) that are far higher than those currently measured in Canada or the US. A MOS greater than three orders of magnitude was observed, indicating that current Mn air concentrations are far below concentrations that would be required to produce the target tissue Mn concentrations associated with subclinical neurological effects. This application of PBPK modeling for an essential element clearly demonstrates that the conventional application of default factors to "convert" an occupational exposure to an equivalent continuous environmental exposure, followed by the application of safety factors, is not appropriate in the case of Mn. PBPK modeling demonstrates that the relationship between ambient Mn exposures and dose-to-target tissue is not linear due to normal tissue background levels and homeostatic controls.

  9. A hybrid computational fluid dynamics and physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for comparison of predicted tissue concentrations of acrylic acid and other vapors in the rat and human nasal cavities following inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Frederick, C B; Gentry, P R; Bush, M L; Lomax, L G; Black, K A; Finch, L; Kimbell, J S; Morgan, K T; Subramaniam, R P; Morris, J B; Ultman, J S

    2001-05-01

    To assist in interspecies dosimetry comparisons for risk assessment of the nasal effects of organic acids, a hybrid computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) dosimetry model was constructed to estimate the regional tissue dose of inhaled vapors in the rat and human nasal cavity. Application to a specific vapor would involve the incorporation of the chemical-specific reactivity, metabolism, partition coefficients, and diffusivity (in both air and tissue phases) of the vapor. This report describes the structure of the CFD-PBPK model and its application to a representative acidic vapor, acrylic acid, for interspecies tissue concentration comparisons to assist in risk assessment. By using the results from a series of short-term in vivo studies combined with computer modeling, regional nasal tissue dose estimates were developed and comparisons of tissue doses between species were conducted. To make these comparisons, the assumption was made that the susceptibilities of human and rat olfactory epithelium to the cytotoxic effects of organic acids were similar, based on similar histological structure and common mode of action considerations. Interspecies differences in response were therefore assumed to be driven primarily by differences in nasal tissue concentrations that result from regional differences in nasal air flow patterns relative to the species-specific distribution of olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity. The results of simulations with the seven-compartment CFD-PBPK model suggested that the olfactory epithelium of the human nasal cavity would be exposed to tissue concentrations of acrylic acid similar to that of the rat nasal cavity when the exposure conditions are the same. Similar analysis of CFD data and CFD-PBPK model simulations with a simpler one-compartment model of the whole nasal cavities of rats and humans provides comparable results to averaging over the compartments of the seven-compartment model. These

  10. [The pharmacokinetics of monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Keizer, R J; Huitema, A D R; Damen, C W N; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H

    2007-03-24

    Monoclonal antibodies (MOABs) are, due to their specificity, increasingly being deployed for therapeutic purposes. MOABs are derived from immunoglobulins and are fully or partially of murine or human origin. They are administered parenterally: mostly intravenously, but subcutaneous or intramuscular administration is also possible, in which case absorption probably occurs through the lymphatic system. The distribution of MOABs from the bloodstream into the tissues is slow and is hampered by the high molecular size of the MOABs, which is a lesser problem for fragments of antibodies (Fab fragments). MOABs are metabolised to peptides and amino acids. This process takes place in many tissues of the body, but probably predominantly in epithelial cells. As a consequence of the saturable binding of the MOAB to its target, a dose-dependent (non-linear) elimination is often observed. Immune reactions can accelerate the elimination of antibodies, partially depending on the degree ofhumanisation of the antibody. Antibodies and endogenous immunoglobulins are protected from elimination by binding to protective receptors (neonatal Fc-receptor; FcRn), which explains their long half-lives (up to 4 weeks). Metabolic pharmacokinetic interactions with other drugs have not been reported and are not expected. It is expected that in the years to come, new MOABs directed towards new targets will appear on the market, as well as existing antibodies with improved pharmacokinetic properties.

  11. Organophosphorus Insecticide Pharmacokinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Timchalk, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This chapter highlights a number of current and future applications of pharmacokinetics to assess organophosphate (OP) insecticide dosimetry, biological response and risk in humans exposed to these agents. Organophosphates represent a large family of pesticides where insecticidal as well as toxicological mode of action is associated with their ability to target and inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Pharmacokinetics entails the quantitative integration of physiological and metabolic processes associated with the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of drugs and xenobiotics. Pharmacokinetic studies provide important data on the amount of toxicant delivered to a target site as well as species-, age-, gender-specific and dose-dependent differences in biological response. These studies have been conducted with organophosphorus insecticides in multiple species, at various dose levels, and across different routes of exposure to understand their in vivo pharmacokinetics and how they contribute to the observed toxicological response. To access human exposure to organophosphorus insecticides, human pharmacokinetic studies have been conducted and used to develop biological monitoring strategies based on the quantitation of key metabolites in biological fluids. Pharmacokinetic studies with these insecticides are also useful to facilitate extrapolation of dosimetry and biological response from animals to humans and for the assessment of human health risk. In this regard, physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models are being utilized to assess risk and understand the toxicological implications of known or suspected exposures to various insecticides. In this chapter a number of examples are presented that illustrate the utility and limitation of pharmacokinetic studies to address human health concerns associated with organophosphorus insecticides.

  12. Distribution of arsenic in human tissues and milk.

    PubMed

    Dang, H S; Jaiswal, D D; Somasundaram, S

    1983-07-01

    Using neutron activation followed by radiochemical separations, the arsenic contents of various human tissues and milk were determined. The reliability of analysis was established by analysing a number of standard reference materials. The concentrations in different human tissues range from 1.6 ng As/g (fresh weight) in kidneys to 2140 ng As/g in hair. The mean arsenic levels are compared with those reported from other countries.

  13. Visualisation of the distributions of melanin and indocyanine green in biological tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Genina, E A; Fedosov, I V; Bashkatov, A N; Zimnyakov, D A; Tuchin, V V; Altshuler, G B

    2008-03-31

    A double-wavelength laser scanning microphotometer with the high spectral and spatial resolutions is developed for studying the distribution of endogenic and exogenic dyes in biological tissues. Samples of hair and skin biopsy with hair follicles stained with indocyanine green are studied. The spatial distribution of indocyanine green and melanin in the biological tissue is determined from the measured optical transmittance. (laser biology)

  14. LASER BIOLOGY: Visualisation of the distributions of melanin and indocyanine green in biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, E. A.; Fedosov, I. V.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Zimnyakov, D. A.; Altshuler, G. B.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2008-03-01

    A double-wavelength laser scanning microphotometer with the high spectral and spatial resolutions is developed for studying the distribution of endogenic and exogenic dyes in biological tissues. Samples of hair and skin biopsy with hair follicles stained with indocyanine green are studied. The spatial distribution of indocyanine green and melanin in the biological tissue is determined from the measured optical transmittance.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of sulphadoxine and trimethoprim and tissue irritation caused by two sulphadoxine-trimethoprim containing products after subcutaneous administration in pre-ruminant calves.

    PubMed

    Kaartinen, L; Gips, M; Laurila, T; Härtel, H; Soback, S; Pyörälä, S

    2000-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of sulphadoxine-trimethoprim was studied in 6 pre-ruminant calves using two different products. Product A, which contained 200 mg sulphadoxine and 40 mg trimethoprim per mL, was administered intravenously or subcutaneously at a dosage of 25 mg sulphadoxine and 5 mg trimethoprim.kg-1 bodyweight. Product B, containing 62.5 mg sulphadoxine and 12.5 mg trimethoprim per mL plus lidocaine (1 mg.mL-1), was given subcutaneously at the same dosage. After intravenous administration of product A the mean time of half-life of elimination phase (t1/2) for sulphadoxine was 12.9 h, steady-state volume of distribution (Vd(ss)) was 0.44 L.kg-1 and clearance was 0.024 L.kg-1.h-1. Respective values for trimethoprim were 1.9 h, 2.0 L.kg-1 and 0.9 L.kg-1.h-1. After subcutaneous administration, the bioavailability of sulphadoxine was 96% and 98% and the time to reach a maximum concentration was 6.3 and 8.0 h for products A and B, respectively. The Cmax for trimethoprim was higher for product A (0.49 microgram.mL-1) than for product B (0.32 microgram.mL-1) (p = 0.014). Slow absorption from the injection site appeared to delay the elimination of trimethoprim after subcutaneous administration when compared to that after intravenous administration: apparent elimination t1/2 for trimethoprim after intravenous administration of product A was 1.9 h compared to 3.9 h and 3.6 h after subcutaneous administration of products A and B, respectively. The difference between intravenous and subcutaneous administrations was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Also the mean residence time was significantly shorter (p < 0.05) after intravenous administration (2.4 h) than that after subcutaneous administration of product A (6.9 h) and B (7.1 h). The bioavailability of trimethoprim was lower than that of sulphadoxine: 76% and 74% for products A and B, respectively. All 6 calves showed pain after subcutaneous administration of product A and the injection sites were warm and showed soft

  16. Uptake and distribution of fluorescently labeled cobalamin in neoplastic and healthy breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Michelle J.; McGreevy, James M.; Holden, Joseph A.; West, Frederick G.; Grissom, Charles B.

    2000-05-01

    Fluorescent analogs of cobalamin (vitamin B12) have been developed as diagnostic markers of cancer cells. These compounds are recognized by transcobalamin, a cobalamin transport protein, with high affinity, as shown by surface plasmon resonance. The cellular sequestration and gross distribution of fluorescent cobalamin bioconjugates in breast tissue is being examined by epifluorescence microscopy. The distribution of each compound is being evaluated in proliferative and non-proliferative tissue, i.e. normal tissue and breast carcinoma. The results of preliminary studies suggest that fluorescent analogs of cobalamin may be a useful tool in therapeutic breast operations to define tumor margins and to distinguish neoplastic breast tissue from healthy breast tissue.

  17. Quantitatively differentiating microstructures of tissues by frequency distributions of Mueller matrix images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; He, Honghui; Li, Xianpeng; Chang, Jintao; Wang, Ye; Liu, Shaoxiong; Zeng, Nan; He, Yonghong; Ma, Hui

    2015-10-01

    We present a new way to extract characteristic features of the Mueller matrix images based on their frequency distributions and the central moments. We take the backscattering Mueller matrices of tissues with distinctive microstructures, and then analyze the frequency distribution histograms (FDHs) of all the matrix elements. For anisotropic skeletal muscle and isotropic liver tissues, we find that the shapes of the FDHs and their central moment parameters, i.e., variance, skewness, and kurtosis, are not sensitive to the sample orientation. Comparisons among different tissues further indicate that the frequency distributions of Mueller matrix elements and their corresponding central moments can be used as indicators for the characteristic microstructural features of tissues. A preliminary application to human cervical cancerous tissues shows that the distribution curves and central moment parameters may have the potential to give quantitative criteria for cancerous tissues detections.

  18. Impact of APCI ionization source in liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry based tissue distribution studies.

    PubMed

    Khatal, Laxman; Gaur, Ashwani; Naphade, Ashish; Kandikere, Vishwottam; Mookhtiar, Kasim

    2016-10-01

    Measurement of test article concentration in tissue samples has been an important part of pharmacokinetic study and has helped to co-relate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships since the 1950s. Bioanalysis of tissue samples using LC-MS/MS comes with unique challenges in terms of sample handling and inconsistent analyte response owing to nonvolatile matrix components. Matrix effect is a phenomenon where the target analyte response is either suppressed or enhanced in the presence of matrix components. Based on previous reports electrospray ionization (ESI) mode of ionization is believed to be more affected by matrix components than atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) or atmospheric pressure photoionization. To explore the impact of ionization source with respect to bioanalysis of tissue samples, five structurally diverse compounds - atenolol, verapamil, diclofenac, propranolol and flufenamic acid - were selected. Quality control standards were spiked into 10 different biological matrices like whole blood, liver, heart, brain, spleen, kidney, skeletal muscle, eye and skin tissue and were quantified against calibration standards prepared in rat plasma. Quantitative bioanalysis was performed utilizing both APCI and ESI mode and results were compared. Quality control standards when analyzed with APCI mode were found to be more consistent in terms of accuracy and precision as compared with ESI mode. Additionally, for some instances, up to 20-fold broader dynamic linearity range was observed with APCI mode as compared with ESI mode. As phospholid interferences have poor response in APCI mode, protein precipitation extraction technique can be used for multimatrix quantitation, which is more amenable to automation. The approach of multiple biological matrix quantitation against a single calibration curve helps bioanalysts to reduce turnaround time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability and tissue residues of [14C]isometamidium in non-infected and Trypanosoma congolense-infected Boran cattle.

    PubMed

    Murilla, G A; Mdachi, R E; Karanja, W M

    1996-08-01

    In this paper, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability and tissue residues are reported in non-infected and Trypanosoma congolense-infected Boran steers following either intravenous or intramuscular injection of [14C]isometamidium at a dose rate of 1 mg kg-1 body weight. Two differently labelled compounds of isometamidium were used; 6-14C (ISMM-1) and ring-U-14C (ISMM-2). The cattle were divided into 5 groups: group 1 consisted of 3 non-infected cattle treated with ISMM-1 by intravenous injection; group 2 consisted of 2 non-infected cattle treated with ISMM-1 by intramuscular injection; group 3 consisted of 2 Trypanosoma congolense-infected cattle given similar treatment as group 2 cattle; group 4 consisted of 3 non-infected and group 5 of 2 infected cattle treated with ISMM-2 by intramuscular injection. Radioactivity was measured in plasma, urine, faeces and tissues, and drug concentrations were calculated. Data obtained following i.v. treatment were best described by tri-exponential equations with half-lives of 0.13, 1.22 and 120.7 h. Bioavailability of the intramuscular dose was 58% in group 2 cattle. The major route of excretion was in faeces. Approximately 80% of the intravenous dose given was excreted within 21 days out of which only 18% was through urine. Total residues accounted for approximately 15% the total dose given. Drug residues remained high in organs with excretory functions including the liver and kidneys.

  20. Comparison of 225actinium chelates: tissue distribution and radiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Davis, I A; Glowienka, K A; Boll, R A; Deal, K A; Brechbiel, M W; Stabin, M; Bochsler, P N; Mirzadeh, S; Kennel, S J

    1999-07-01

    The biodistribution and tissue toxicity of intravenously administered 225-actinium (225Ac) complexed with acetate, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), 1, 4, 7, 10, 13-pentaazacyclopentadecane-N, N', N", N"', N"-pentaacetic acid (PEPA), or the "a" isomer of cyclohexyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (CHX-DTPA), were examined. The percent of injected dose per organ and per gram of tissue for each chelate complex was determined. 225Ac-CHX-DTPA was evaluated further for radiotoxic effects. Mice receiving > or =185 kBq 225Ac-CHX-DTPA suffered 100% morbidity by 5 days and 100% mortality by 8 days postinjection, and all animals evaluated had significant organ damage. The in vivo instability of the 225Ac-CHX-DTPA complex likely allowed accumulation of free 225Ac in organs, which resulted in tissue pathology.

  1. Pharmacokinetic analysis of the microscopic distribution of enzyme-conjugated antibodies and prodrugs: comparison with experimental data.

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, L. T.; Jain, R. K.

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to improve understanding of the biodistribution and microscopic profiles of drugs and prodrugs in a system using enzyme-conjugated antibodies as part of a two-step method for cancer treatment. The use of monoclonal antibodies alone may lead to heterogeneous uptake within the tumour tissue; the use of a second, low molecular weight agent may provide greater penetration into tumour tissue. This mathematical model was used to describe concentration profiles surrounding individual blood vessels within a tumour. From these profiles the area under the curve and specificity ratios were determined. By integrating these results spatially, average tissue concentrations were determined and compared with experimental results from three different systems in the literature; two using murine antibodies and one using humanised fusion proteins. The maximum enzyme conversion rate (Vmax) and the residual antibody concentration in the plasma and normal tissue were seen to be key determinants of drug concentration and drug-prodrug ratios in the tumour and other organs. Thus, longer time delays between the two injections, clearing the antibody from the blood stream and the use of 'weaker' enzymes (lower Vmax) will be important factors in improving this prodrug approach. Of these, the model found the effective clearance of the antibody outside of the tumour to be the most effective. The use of enzyme-conjugated antibodies may offer the following advantages over the bifunctional antibody-hapten system: (i) more uniform distribution of the active agent; (ii) higher concentrations possible for the active agent; and (iii) greater specificity (therapeutic index). PMID:8595158

  2. Tissue Penetration and Pharmacokinetics of Tigecycline in Diabetic Patients with Chronic Wound Infections Described by Using In Vivo Microdialysis▿

    PubMed Central

    Bulik, Catharine C.; Wiskirchen, Dora E.; Shepard, Ashley; Sutherland, Christina A.; Kuti, Joseph L.; Nicolau, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue penetration of systemic antibiotics is an important consideration for positive outcomes in diabetic patients. Herein we describe the exposure profile and penetration of tigecycline in the interstitial fluid of wound margins versus that of uninfected thigh tissue in 8 adult diabetic patients intravenously (IV) administered 100 mg and then 50 mg of tigecycline twice daily for 3 to 5 doses. Prior to administration of the first dose, 2 microdialysis catheters were inserted into the subcutaneous tissue, the first within 10 cm of the wound margin and the second in the thigh of the same extremity. Samples for determination of plasma and tissue concentrations were simultaneously collected over 12 h under steady-state conditions. Tissue concentrations were corrected for percent in vivo recovery by the retrodialysis technique. Plasma samples were also collected for determination of protein binding at 1, 6, and 12 h postdose for each patient. Protein binding data were corrected using a fitted polynomial equation. The mean patient weight was 95.1 kg (range, 63.6 to 149.2 kg), the mean patient age was 63.5 ± 9.4 years, and 75% of the patients were males. The mean values for the plasma, thigh, and wound free area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (fAUC0-24) were 2.65 ± 0.33, 2.52 ± 1.15, and 2.60 ± 1.02 μg·h/ml, respectively. Protein binding was nonlinear, with the percentage of free drug increasing with decreasing serum concentrations. Exposure values for thigh tissue and wound tissue were similar (P = 0.986). Mean steady-state tissue concentrations for the thigh and wound were similar at 0.12 ± 0.02 μg/ml, and clearance from the tissues appeared similar to that from plasma. Tissue penetration ratios (tissue fAUC/plasma fAUC) were 99% in the thigh and 100% in the wound (P = 0.964). Tigecycline penetrated equally well into wound and uninfected tissue of the same extremity. PMID:20921312

  3. Target site pharmacokinetics of linezolid after single and multiple doses in diabetic patients with soft tissue infection.

    PubMed

    Eslam, Roza Badr; Burian, Angela; Vila, Greisa; Sauermann, Robert; Hammer, Alexandra; Frenzel, Dorothea; Minichmayr, Iris K; Kloft, Charlotte; Matzneller, Peter; Oesterreicher, Zoe; Zeitlinger, Markus

    2014-09-01

    The underlying pathology of diabetic wounds, i.e. impairment of macro- and microcirculation, might also impact target site penetration of antibacterial drugs. To compare tissue concentrations of linezolid in infected and not infected tissue 10 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes with foot infection were included in the study. Tissue penetration of linezolid was assessed using in vivo microdialysis at the site of infection as well as in non-inflamed subcutaneous adipose tissue. All patients were investigated after receiving a single dose of linezolid and five patients in addition at steady state. After a single dose of linezolid significantly higher area under the concentration vs. time curve over 8 hours (AUC0-8 ) and maximum concentrations (Cmax )-values were observed in plasma (65.5 ± 21.2 mg*h/L and 16.4 ± 4.6 mg/L) as compared to inflamed (36.3 ± 22.9  mg*h/L and 6.6 ± 3.6 mg/L) and non-inflamed tissue (33.0 ± 17.7 mg*h/L and 6.7 ± 3.6 mg/L). Multiple administrations of linezolid led to disappearance of significant differences in Cmax and AUC0-8 between plasma, inflamed, and non-inflamed tissue. Approximately 2-fold increase of Cmax and AUC0-8 -values in tissue was observed at steady state as compared to the first administration. Penetration of linezolid is not impaired in diabetic foot infection but equilibrium between plasma and tissue might be delayed.

  4. Distribution of lead and mercury in tissues of raccoons

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.; Thompson, S.J.; Mielke, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    Liver and kidney tissues of raccoons from Tuskegee, Alabama, were analyzed for Hg and Pb contents. The mean levels of Hg and Pb were 0.41 and 3.24 ppm in livers and 0.24 and 4.95 ppm in kidneys, respectively. These metal levels showed no significant differences between livers and kidneys or between males and females.

  5. Uptake, Metabolism, and Tissue Distribution of Chemicals in Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk will explain how chemicals get into aquatic species, what tissues and organs the chemicals move into, and what can happen to the chemicals once they get there. This will be presented using examples from recent studies conducted using state-of-the-art microscopy with em...

  6. Uptake, Metabolism, and Tissue Distribution of Chemicals in Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk will explain how chemicals get into aquatic species, what tissues and organs the chemicals move into, and what can happen to the chemicals once they get there. This will be presented using examples from recent studies conducted using state-of-the-art microscopy with em...

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Exosomes-an Important Factor for Elucidating the Biological Roles of Exosomes and for the Development of Exosome-Based Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Masaki; Takahashi, Yuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2017-03-07

    Exosomes are small membrane vesicles containing lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Recently, researchers have uncovered that exosomes are involved in various biological events, such as tumor growth, metastasis, and the immune response, by delivering their cargos to exosome-receiving cells. Moreover, exosomes are expected to be employed in therapeutic treatments, such as tissue regeneration therapy and antitumor immunotherapy, since exosomes are effective delivery vehicles for proteins, nucleic acids, and other bioactive compounds. To elucidate the biological functions of exosomes, and for the development of exosome-based therapeutics, the pharmacokinetics of exosomes is important. In this review, we aim to summarize current knowledge about the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of exosomes. The pharmacokinetics of exogenously administered exosomes is discussed based on the tissue distribution, types of cells taking up exosomes, and key molecules in the pharmacokinetics of exosomes. In addition, recent progress in the methods to control the pharmacokinetics of exosomes is reviewed.

  8. [Distribution and accumulation of antibiotics in cells and tissues and toxicity studies by immunocytochemistry].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    No true immunocytochemistry (ICC) for drugs nor its application to pharmacokinetic studies is available. Recently, our studies have shown that ICC for drugs is extremely useful for such studies by utilizing easy and safe techniques, and gives direct evidence of drug localization. We have therefore developed antibodies and a series of pretreatment conditions for the immunodetection of drugs and have localized sites of drug uptake or accumulation in several tissues of rats following the administration of drugs. This review describes preparation of anti-drug antibody, specificity of antibody, fixation of drug in situ in rat tissues and cells, treatment of paraffin section specimens prior to immunoreaction, precision, and their application to a variety of types of antibiotics anti-cancer anthracyclines daunorubicin, doxorubicin, and epirubicin, bleomycin analog peplomycin, antimicrobial agents gentamicin, and amoxicillin. ICC for the anti-cancer anthracyclines demonstrated that the drug accumulates in a characteristic pattern in the heart, liver, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, and hair follicles, which represent the sites targeted by the drug toxicity. Some, but not all, of these drug accumulations are associated with the induction of apoptosis. It was also noted that there are striking differences in accumulation among the anthracyclines in rat tissues, maybe contributing the mechanisms of the differences in anti-tumor activities of the anthracyclines. Both ICCs for gentamicin and peplomycin identified characteristic necrotic-like cells in the specific sites of the kidney, suggesting the sites are readily affected by some chemotherapeutic agents. ICC for amoxicillin demonstrated that the sites of the drug accumulation in small intestine, liver and kidney are closely correlated with the specific sites in which certain transporter systems for penicillin occur. Thus, an ICC method is a potential new tool for pharmacokinetic studies of wide variety types of drugs

  9. Development of ex vivo model for determining temperature distribution in tumor tissue during photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaojie; Doughty, Austin; Mesiya, Sana; Pettitt, Alex; Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei R.

    2017-02-01

    Temperature distribution in tissue is a crucial factor in determining the outcome of photothermal therapy in cancer treatment. In order to investigate the temperature distribution in tumor tissue during laser irradiation, we developed a novel ex vivo device to simulate the photothermal therapy on tumors. A 35°C, a thermostatic incubator was used to provide a simulation environment for body temperature of live animals. Different biological tissues (chicken breast and bovine liver) were buried inside a tissue-simulating gel and considered as tumor tissues. An 805-nm laser was used to irradiate the target tissue. A fiber with an interstitial cylindrical diffuser (10 mm) was directly inserted in the center of the tissue, and the needle probes of a thermocouple were inserted into the tissue paralleling the laser fiber at different distances to measure the temperature distribution. All of the procedures were performed in the incubator. Based on the results of this study, the temperature distribution in bovine liver is similar to that of tumor tissue under photothermal therapy with the same doses. Therefore, the developed model using bovine liver for determining temperature distribution can be used during interstitial photothermal therapy.

  10. Pharmacokinetic drivers of toxicity for basic molecules: Strategy to lower pKa results in decreased tissue exposure and toxicity for a small molecule Met inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Dolores; Ford, Kevin A.; Hartley, Dylan P.; Harstad, Eric B.; Cain, Gary R.; Achilles-Poon, Kirsten; Nguyen, Trung; Peng, Jing; Zheng, Zhong; Merchant, Mark; Sutherlin, Daniel P.; Gaudino, John J.; Kaus, Robert; Lewin-Koh, Sock C.; Choo, Edna F.; Liederer, Bianca M.; Dambach, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Several toxicities are clearly driven by free drug concentrations in plasma, such as toxicities related to on-target exaggerated pharmacology or off-target pharmacological activity associated with receptors, enzymes or ion channels. However, there are examples in which organ toxicities appear to correlate better with total drug concentrations in the target tissues, rather than with free drug concentrations in plasma. Here we present a case study in which a small molecule Met inhibitor, GEN-203, with significant liver and bone marrow toxicity in preclinical species was modified with the intention of increasing the safety margin. GEN-203 is a lipophilic weak base as demonstrated by its physicochemical and structural properties: high LogD (distribution coefficient) (4.3) and high measured pKa (7.45) due to the basic amine (N-ethyl-3-fluoro-4-aminopiperidine). The physicochemical properties of GEN-203 were hypothesized to drive the high distribution of this compound to tissues as evidenced by a moderately-high volume of distribution (Vd > 3 l/kg) in mouse and subsequent toxicities of the compound. Specifically, the basicity of GEN-203 was decreased through addition of a second fluorine in the 3-position of the aminopiperidine to yield GEN-890 (N-ethyl-3,3-difluoro-4-aminopiperidine), which decreased the volume of distribution of the compound in mouse (Vd = 1.0 l/kg), decreased its tissue drug concentrations and led to decreased toxicity in mice. This strategy suggests that when toxicity is driven by tissue drug concentrations, optimization of the physicochemical parameters that drive tissue distribution can result in decreased drug concentrations in tissues, resulting in lower toxicity and improved safety margins. -- Highlights: ► Lower pKa for a small molecule: reduced tissue drug levels and toxicity. ► New analysis tools to assess electrostatic effects and ionization are presented. ► Chemical and PK drivers of toxicity can be leveraged to improve safety.

  11. Effect of cyclosporine and rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of macitentan, a tissue-targeting dual endothelin receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Bruderer, Shirin; Aänismaa, Päivi; Homery, Marie-Claude; Häusler, Stephanie; Landskroner, Kyle; Sidharta, Patricia N; Treiber, Alexander; Dingemanse, Jasper

    2012-03-01

    Macitentan is a dual endothelin receptor antagonist under phase 3 investigation in pulmonary arterial hypertension. We investigated the effect of cyclosporine (Cs) and rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of macitentan and its metabolites ACT-132577 and ACT-373898 in healthy male subjects. In addition, in vitro studies were performed to investigate interactions between macitentan and its active metabolite ACT-132577 with human organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs). The clinical study (AC-055-111) was conducted as a two-part, one-sequence, crossover study. Ten subjects in each part received multiple-dose macitentan followed by multiple-dose co-administration of Cs (part A) or rifampin (part B). In the presence of Cs, steady-state area under the plasma concentration-time profiles during a dose interval (AUC(τ)) for macitentan and ACT-373898 increased 10% and 7%, respectively, and decreased 3% for ACT-132577. Steady-state AUC(τ) of macitentan and ACT-373898 in the presence of rifampin decreased 79% and 64%, respectively. For ACT-132577, no relevant difference in AUC(τ) between the two treatments was observed. Macitentan co-administered with Cs or rifampin was well tolerated. The complementary in vitro studies demonstrated no marked differences in uptake rates of macitentan and ACT-132577 between the wild-type and OATP over-expressing cells over the concentration range tested. Concomitant treatment with Cs did not have any clinically relevant effect on the exposure to macitentan or its metabolites, at steady-state. Concomitant treatment with rifampin reduced significantly the exposure to macitentan and its metabolite ACT-373898 at steady-state but did not affect the exposure to the active metabolite ACT-132577 to a clinically relevant extent.

  12. Ultrasonic backscattering in tissue: characterization through Nakagami-generalized inverse Gaussian distribution.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Rajeev; Karmeshu

    2007-02-01

    Ultrasonic tissue characterization through composite probability distributions such as Nakagami-lognormal, Nakagami-gamma, Nakagami-inverse Gaussian has been found to be useful. Such a probabilistic description also depicts heavy tails which arise from multiple scattering in tissue besides local and global variations in scattering cross-sections. A new composite probability distribution, viz. Nakagami-generalized inverse Gaussian distribution (NGIGD) with four parameters is proposed which under different limiting conditions results in approximating the known distributions. A salient aspect of the new distribution is that the probability density function (pdf) of NGIGD variate is available in closed form and is analytically tractable.

  13. Distribution of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) in tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, A J; Booth, N A; Moore, N R; Bennett, B

    1991-01-01

    Extracts of human tissue were analysed for plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) antigen and activity. PAI-1 was localised in tissues by an immunochemical method, using monoclonal antibodies. PAI-1 occurred throughout the body; its concentration and activity differed considerably from organ to organ. Extracts of liver and spleen had the greatest abundance of PAI-1, but the activity of the inhibitor was much higher in liver than in spleen: the liver may be a source of plasma PAI-1. Immunochemical staining for PAI-1 was observed in endothelium, platelets and their precursor cells, the megakaryocytes, and locations central to the process of haemostasis. PAI-1 also occurred in neutrophil polymorphs and macrophages, cells important in inflammatory and immune processes, but not in lymphocytes. Other cell types, in particular, vascular smooth muscle cells and mesangial cells, also stained positively for PAI-1 and such cells seem to represent an important reservoir of PAI-1. Images PMID:1864986

  14. Effects of iron status on transpulmonary transport and tissue distribution of Mn and Fe.

    PubMed

    Brain, Joseph D; Heilig, Elizabeth; Donaghey, Thomas C; Knutson, Mitchell D; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne; Molina, Ramon M

    2006-03-01

    Manganese transport into the blood can result from inhaling metal-containing particles. Intestinal manganese and iron absorption is mediated by divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and is upregulated in iron deficiency. Since iron status alters absorption of Fe and Mn in the gut, we tested the hypothesis that iron status may alter pulmonary transport of these metals. DMT1 expression in the lungs was evaluated to explore its role in metal transport. The pharmacokinetics of intratracheally instilled 54Mn or 59Fe in repeatedly bled or iron oxide-exposed rats were compared with controls. Iron oxide exposure caused a reduction in pulmonary transport of 54Mn and 59Fe, and decreased uptake in other major organs. Low iron status from repeated bleeding also reduced pulmonary transport of iron but not of manganese. However, uptake of manganese in the brain and of iron in the spleen increased in bled rats. DMT1 transcripts were detected in airway epithelium, alveolar macrophages, and bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue in all rats. Focal increases were seen in particle-containing macrophages and adjacent epithelial cells, but no change was observed in bled rats. Although lung DMT1 expression did not correlate with iron status, differences in pharmacokinetics of instilled metals suggest that their potential toxicity can be modified by iron status.

  15. Tissue distribution and elimination of rotenone in rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    The fate of a single i.v. dose (120 μg/kg) of the piscicide [14C]rotenone was evaluated in rainbow trout for periods up to 72 h after dosing. Rotenone was rapidly cleared from the plasma; less than 2% of the dose remained in the plasma compartment after 20 min. The highest concentrations of rotenone residues (% dose/g tissue) were in the hepatobiliary system, bile, intestine, and in heart, lateral line swimming muscle, and posterior kidney; tissues that are highly dependent on oxidative metabolism. Although rotenone activity was present in all cell fractions examined, greater than 40% was associated with the mitochondrial fraction of liver, kidney, and muscle. More than 85% of the activity extracted from these tissues, except the liver, was parent rotenone. Elimination from whole body and major tissue depots conformed to simple first-order kinetics; the estimated half-life from whole body was 68.5 h. Branchial elimination accounted for 5% of the injected dose over a 4-h period, and urinary elimination was less than 2% over a 48-h period. Rotenone was eliminated essentially unchanged across the gills; however, parent rotenone was not found in either urine or bile. More than 80% of the activity in both urine and bile eluted from HPLC chromatographs as a highly polar fraction that was not hydrolyzed by incubation with either β-glucuronidase or sulfatase. The results imply that hepatobiliary excretion is the major route of elimination for rotenone residues in the trout and that metabolism to a more polar form is a prerequisite for elimination in both the bile and the urine

  16. Distribution and chemical form of mercury in commercial fish tissues.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Naoko; Tayama, Misato; Inouye, Minoru; Yasutake, Akira

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed total Hg concentrations in various tissue samples obtained from 7 commercially available fish species. MeHg contents were also estimated for muscle and liver samples by a selective analysis of inorganic Hg. Among the tissues, high Hg accumulations were shown in liver, muscle, heart and spleen throughout all fish species. Carnivorous fish, such as scorpion fish, sea bream and Japanese whiting, tended to show higher Hg accumulations in the muscle, with the highest Hg levels being shown by scorpion fish. Although the liver was expected to show the highest Hg accumulations among tissues throughout all fish species, the highest accumulation in the liver was observed only in scorpion fish. In contrast, the muscle level was significantly higher than the liver in Pacific saury and Japanese whiting. MeHg accumulated in fish is considered to show a sustained increase throughout the life of the fish, due to its long biological half-life. In fact, in the present study, muscle Hg levels in Japanese whiting, Japanese flying fish, and halfbeak showed good correlations with body weights. However, such correlations were not clear in scorpion fish, sea bream, Jack mackerel and Pacific saury. Selective analyses of inorganic Hg levels revealed that most of the Hg (> 95%) in fish muscle existed as MeHg, while the rates of MeHg contents in the liver varied from 56% in scorpion fish to 84% in Jack mackerel. As a result, fish muscle showed the highest MeHg accumulations in all fish species examined. These results suggest that reliable information on total Hg contents in fish muscle might be sufficient to avoid the risk of MeHg exposure caused by eating fish, even when one consumes other tissues such as fish liver.

  17. Distribution of Tissue Water and Electrolytes in Normal Rhesus Macaques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-02

    reported for hyperthermia, 26 deoxycorticosterone acetate administration,1’3 hypocalcemic tetany)’6 respiratory acidosis and alkalosis , 27’28 and...continuing respiratory work performed by the diaphragm of monkeys. As a rule, values for tissue intracellular water should be greater than those of...C. B., and Lamber t , H.: Card iac and Skeletal Muscle Electrolytes In Acute Respiratory Alkalemia and Acidemia. J Appl Physiol , 15, (1960): 459

  18. Absorption and tissue distribution of an immunomodulatory alpha-D-glucan after oral administration of Tricholoma matsutake.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Hirotaka; Iijima, Hiroko; Ishihara, Yoko; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Matsunaga, Kenichi

    2008-09-10

    Alpha-D-glucan (MPG-1) separated from Tricholoma matsutake (CM6271) has been reported to show immunomodulatory activities. In this study, the plasma concentration and tissue distribution of MPG-1 after CM6271 oral administration were investigated as part of the action mechanism analysis. When CM6271 was orally administered in a single dose to mice, MPG-1 was absorbed via the intestinal tract, appeared in plasma after 16 h, was gradually excreted from the blood, and fell to background level after 48 h. The time course analysis of MPG-1 in plasma showed the following pharmacokinetic parameters of MPG-1: tmax = 24 h; Cmax = 161.1 ng/mL; AUC(0-infinity) = 2559.7 ng x h/mL. Moreover, MPG-1 was confirmed to localize in Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and the spleen and to promote IL-12 p70 production and NK cell activity. These results suggest that MPG-1 stimulated the intestinal immune system through Peyer's patches; moreover, it was taken into the blood and stimulated the systemic immune system.

  19. Clinical pharmacokinetics of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Keizer, Ron J; Huitema, Alwin D R; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H

    2010-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been used in the treatment of various diseases for over 20 years and combine high specificity with generally low toxicity. Their pharmacokinetic properties differ markedly from those of non-antibody-type drugs, and these properties can have important clinical implications. mAbs are administered intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Oral administration is precluded by the molecular size, hydrophilicity and gastric degradation of mAbs. Distribution into tissue is slow because of the molecular size of mAbs, and volumes of distribution are generally low. mAbs are metabolized to peptides and amino acids in several tissues, by circulating phagocytic cells or by their target antigen-containing cells. Antibodies and endogenous immunoglobulins are protected from degradation by binding to protective receptors (the neonatal Fc-receptor [FcRn]), which explains their long elimination half-lives (up to 4 weeks). Population pharmacokinetic analyses have been applied in assessing covariates in the disposition of mAbs. Both linear and nonlinear elimination have been reported for mAbs, which is probably caused by target-mediated disposition. Possible factors influencing elimination of mAbs include the amount of the target antigen, immune reactions to the antibody and patient demographics. Bodyweight and/or body surface area are generally related to clearance of mAbs, but clinical relevance is often low. Metabolic drug-drug interactions are rare for mAbs. Exposure-response relationships have been described for some mAbs. In conclusion, the parenteral administration, slow tissue distribution and long elimination half-life are the most pronounced clinical pharmacokinetic characteristics of mAbs.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of cefovecin in cats.

    PubMed

    Stegemann, M R; Sherington, J; Coati, N; Brown, S A; Blanchflower, S

    2006-12-01

    The pharmacokinetics of the novel cephalosporin cefovecin were investigated in a series of in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro studies following administration to adult cats at 8 mg/kg bodyweight. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined in a cross-over study after intravenous (i.v.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) injections. [14C]cefovecin was used to evaluate excretion for 21 days after s.c. administration. Protein binding was determined in vitro in feline plasma and ex vivo in transudate from cats surgically implanted with tissue chambers. After s.c. administration, cefovecin was characterized by rapid absorption with mean peak plasma concentrations of 141+/-12 microg/mL being achieved within 2 h of s.c. injection with full bioavailability (99%). The mean elimination half-life was 166+/-18 h. After i.v. administration, volume of distribution was 0.09+/-0.01 L/kg and mean plasma clearance was 0.35+/-0.04 mL/h/kg. Approximately 50% of the administered radiolabelled dose was eliminated over the 21-day postdose period via urinary excretion and up to approximately 25% in faeces. In vitro and ex vivo plasma protein binding ranged from 99.8% to 99.5% over the plasma concentration range 10-100 microg/mL. Ex vivo protein binding in transudate was as low as 90.7%. From 8 h postdose, concentrations of unbound (free) cefovecin in transudate were consistently higher than in plasma, with mean unbound cefovecin concentrations being maintained above 0.06 microg/mL (MIC90 of Pasteurella multocida) in transudate for at least 14 days postdose. The slow elimination and long-lasting free concentrations in extracellular fluid are desirable pharmacokinetic attributes for an antimicrobial with a 14-day dosing interval.

  1. [Investigation of light penetration depth and distribution inside citrus tissue].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Kai; Zhang, Liang; Shen, Huang-Tong; Fu, Xia-Ping

    2014-03-01

    Experiment was carried out to explore the light intensity change inside citrus samples in the present study. An experimental platform was set up, including a light box, a spectrometer, a sample stage, an optic fiber probe, light sources, etc. The sample stage is adjustable in three dimensions. The optic fiber probe was used to measure the light changes by observing the light attenuation and intensity variation within the citrus tissues. A 632 nm laser source and a 50 W tungsten halogen lamp light source were used. Light intensity and transmittance were investigated at different positions within the citrus fruit. The band with most significant intensity difference was selected to analyze the light intensity and transmittance trends in different positions inside the citrus fruit In order to examine the influence significance of the sample factor on test results, SPSS software was used to do the analysis of variation (ANOVA) of different samples. The results showed that light intensity and transmittance have a positive correlation with puncture depth, while citrus peel and stone have a more obvious attenuation effect than citrus flesh, and the influence of the sample factor on the test results is not significant. Further research can be carried out by improving the experimental device. The method used and results obtained in this study are valuable for studies on light transmission properties inside fruit tissue, not only for citrus but also for other kinds of fruits.

  2. Distribution of cystinosin-LKG in human tissues.

    PubMed

    Taranta, Anna; Petrini, Stefania; Citti, Arianna; Boldrini, Renata; Corallini, Serena; Bellomo, Francesco; Levtchenko, Elena; Emma, Francesco

    2012-08-01

    Nephropathic cystinosis is multisystemic progressive disorder caused by mutations of CTNS gene that encodes for the lysosomal cystine co-transporter cystinosin, and for a less abundant isoform termed cystinosin-LKG, which is expressed in not only lysosomes but also other cell compartments. To overcome the absence of high-quality antibodies against cystinosin, we have obtained a rabbit antiserum against cystinosin-LKG and have analyzed in human tissues the expression of the two known cystinosin isoforms by RT-PCR, and the expression of cystinosin-LKG by immunohistochemistry. In most tissues, CTNS-LKG represents 5-20 % of CTNS transcripts, with the exception of the testis that expresses both isoforms in equal proportions. Cystinosin-LKG was found to be highly expressed in renal tubular cells, pancreatic islets of Langerhans, Leydig cells of the testis, mucoserous glands of the bronchial wall, melanocytes and keratinocytes. These results are parallel with many features of cystinosis, such as early onset Fanconi syndrome, male infertility, diabetes mellitus and hypopigmentation. Intermediate expression levels were of the LKG isoform observed in the gastro-intestinal tract and thyroid glands; low levels of expression were observed in the brain, skeletal and cardiac muscles.

  3. Metabolism of 2,6-dichloro-4-(3,3-dichloroallyloxy)phenyl 3-[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyloxy]propyl ether (pyridalyl) in rats after repeated oral administration and a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in brown and white adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Nagahori, Hirohisa; Matsunaga, Haruyuki; Tomigahara, Yoshitaka; Isobe, Naohiko; Kaneko, Hideo

    2010-05-01

    Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats received repeated oral administration of 14C-2,6-dichloro-4-(3,3-dichloroallyloxy)phenyl 3- [5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyloxy]propyl ether (14C-pyridalyl) at 5 mg/kg/day for 14 consecutive days, and 14C excretion, 14C concentration in tissues, and the metabolic fate were determined. Most 14C was excreted into feces. The 14C concentrations in the blood and tissues attained steady-state levels at days 6 to 10, whereas those in white adipose tissues increased until day 14. Tissue 14C concentrations were highest in brown and white adipose tissue (38.37-57.50 ppm) but were 5.60 ppm or less in all the other tissues. Total 14C residues in blood and tissues on the 27th day after the first administration accounted for 2.6 to 3.2% of the total dose. A major fecal metabolite resulted from O-dealkylation. Analysis of metabolites in tissues revealed that the majority of 14C in perirenal adipose tissue and lungs was pyridalyl, accounting for greater than 90 and 60%, respectively, of the total, whereas a major metabolite in whole blood, kidneys, and liver was a dehalogenated metabolite. The experimental data were simulated with simple physiologically based pharmacokinetics using four-compartment models with assumption of lymphatic absorption and membrane permeability in adipose tissues. The different kinetics in brown and white adipose tissues was reasonably predicted in this model, with large distribution volume in adipose tissues and high hepatic clearance in liver. Sex-related difference of pyridalyl concentration in liver was considered to be a result of different unbound fraction times the hepatic intrinsic clearance (f x CL(int)) of 1.8 and 12 l/h for male and female, respectively.

  4. Correlation between pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic indices and clinical outcomes in Japanese patients with skin and soft tissue infections treated with daptomycin: analysis of a phase III study.

    PubMed

    Takesue, Yoshio; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Kusachi, Shinya; Watanabe, Shinichi; Takahashi, Kenichi; Yoshinari, Tomoko; Ishii, Mikio; Aikawa, Naoki

    2015-09-01

    The relationships between pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) indices and outcomes were investigated in patients with skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) who received daptomycin at 4 mg/kg/day. Efficacy was evaluated in 55 patients from whom Staphylococcus aureus was isolated, with success rates of 94.5% and 69.1% for clinical and microbiological responses, respectively. The odds ratio for the relationship between the area under the day 1 concentration-time curve (AUC0-24h) to the MIC and the probability of clinical success was 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-1.45), and that for the relationship for probability of microbiological success was 0.94 (95% CI 0.81-1.09). In 82 patients in the safety analysis, only 1 met the creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevation criteria, and this patient's minimum concentration (C(min)) of plasma daptomycin was 5.37 μg/mL. No significant relationship was found between peak CPK and C(min) (Pearson's correlation coefficient -0.0452). In conclusion, no clear correlation between PK/PD indices and the probability of efficacy or safety events was demonstrated when daptomycin was administered in SSTI patients using the clinically recommended dosage of 4 mg/kg/day.

  5. Population pharmacokinetic modelling of non-linear brain distribution of morphine: influence of active saturable influx and P-glycoprotein mediated efflux

    PubMed Central

    Groenendaal, D; Freijer, J; de Mik, D; Bouw, M R; Danhof, M; de Lange, E C M

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Biophase equilibration must be considered to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) correlations of opioids. The objective was to characterise in a quantitative manner the non-linear distribution kinetics of morphine in brain. Experimental approach: Male rats received a 10-min infusion of 4 mg kg−1 of morphine, combined with a continuous infusion of the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) inhibitor GF120918 or vehicle, or 40 mg kg−1 morphine alone. Unbound extracellular fluid (ECF) concentrations obtained by intracerebral microdialysis and total blood concentrations were analysed using a population modelling approach. Key results: Blood pharmacokinetics of morphine was best described with a three-compartment model and was not influenced by GF120918. Non-linear distribution kinetics in brain ECF was observed with increasing dose. A one compartment distribution model was developed, with separate expressions for passive diffusion, active saturable influx and active efflux by Pgp. The passive diffusion rate constant was 0.0014 min−1. The active efflux rate constant decreased from 0.0195 min−1 to 0.0113 min−1 in the presence of GF120918. The active influx was insensitive to GF120918 and had a maximum transport (Nmax/Vecf) of 0.66 ng min−1 ml−1 and was saturated at low concentrations of morphine (C50=9.9 ng ml−1). Conclusions and implications: Brain distribution of morphine is determined by three factors: limited passive diffusion; active efflux, reduced by 42% by Pgp inhibition; low capacity active uptake. This implies blood concentration-dependency and sensitivity to drug-drug interactions. These factors should be taken into account in further investigations on PK-PD correlations of morphine. PMID:17471182

  6. Five-layer realistic head model based on inhomogeneous and anisotropic conductivity distribution of different tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dandan; Zhang, Jianwei; Wu, Weijuan; Ying, Xiaoyan; Wu, Xiangping

    2009-10-01

    This paper is focused on the sophisticated realistic head modeling based on inhomogeneous and anisotropic conductivity distribution of the head tissues. The finite element method (FEM) was used to model the five-layer head volume conductor models with hexahedral elements from segmentation and mapping of DT-MRI data. Then the inhomogeneous conductivities of the scalp, CSF and gray matter tissue were distributed according a normal distribution based on the mean value of respective tissues. The electric conductivity of the brain tissues dictates different inhomogeneous and anisotropic at some different microscopic levels. Including the inhomogeneous and anisotropy of the tissue would improve the accuracy of the MREIT, EEG and MEG problems in the simulation research.

  7. Prediction of drug distribution in subcutaneous xenografts of human tumor cell lines and healthy tissues in mouse: application of the tissue composition-based model to antineoplastic drugs.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Patrick; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Ding, Xiao; Gould, Stephen E; Hop, Cornelis Eca; Messick, Kirsten; Oeh, Jason; Liederer, Bianca M

    2015-04-01

    Advanced tissue composition-based models can predict the tissue-plasma partition coefficient (Kp ) values of drugs under in vivo conditions on the basis of in vitro and physiological input data. These models, however, focus on healthy tissues and do not incorporate data from tumors. The objective of this study was to apply a tissue composition-based model to six marketed antineoplastic drugs (docetaxel, DOC; doxorubicin, DOX; gemcitabine, GEM; methotrexate, MTX; topotecan, TOP; and fluorouracil, 5-FU) to predict their Kp values in three human tumor xenografts (HCT-116, H2122, and PC3) as well as in healthy tissues (brain, muscle, lung, and liver) under steady-state in vivo conditions in female NCR nude mice. The mechanisms considered in the tissue/tumor composition-based model are the binding to lipids and to plasma proteins, but the transporter effect was also investigated. The method consisted of analyzing tissue composition, performing the pharmacokinetics studies in mice, and calculating the corresponding in vivo Kp values. Analyses of tumor composition indicated that the tumor xenografts contained no or low amounts of common transporters by contrast to lipids. The predicted Kp values were within twofold and threefold of the measured values in 77% and 93% of cases, respectively. However, predictions for brain for each drug, for liver for MTX, and for each tumor xenograft for GEM were disparate from the observed values, and, therefore, not well served by the model. Overall, this study is the first step toward the mechanism-based prediction of Kp values of small molecules in healthy and tumor tissues in mouse when no transporter and permeation limitation effect is evident. This approach will be useful in selecting compounds based on their abilities to penetrate human cancer xenografts with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, thereby increasing therapeutic index for chemotherapy in oncology study. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American

  8. Species and tissue distribution of the regulatory protein of glucokinase.

    PubMed

    Vandercammen, A; Van Schaftingen, E

    1993-09-01

    Rat liver is known to contain a regulatory protein that inhibits glucokinase (hexokinase IV or D) competitively versus glucose. This inhibition is greatly reinforced by the presence of fructose 6-phosphate and antagonized by fructose 1-phosphate and by KCl. This protein was now measured in various rat tissues and in the livers of various species by the inhibition it exerts on rat liver glucokinase. Rat, mouse, rabbit, guinea-pig and pig liver, all of which contain glucokinase, also contained between 60 and 200 units/g of tissue of a regulatory protein displaying the properties mentioned above. By contrast, this protein could not be detected in cat, goat, chicken or trout liver, or in rat brain, heart, skeletal muscle, kidney and spleen, all tissues from which glucokinase is missing. Fructose 1-phosphate stimulated glucokinase in extracts of human liver, indicating the presence of regulatory protein. In addition, antibodies raised against rat regulatory protein allowed the detection of an approximately 60 kDa polypeptide in rat, guinea pig, rabbit and human liver. The livers of the toad Bufo marinus, of Xenopus laevis and of the turtle Pseudemys scripta elegans contained a regulatory protein similar to that of the rat, with, however, the major difference that it was not sensitive to fructose 6-phosphate or fructose 1-phosphate. In rat liver, the regulatory protein was detectable 4 days before birth. Its concentration increased afterwards to reach the adult level at day 30 of extrauterine life, whereas glucokinase only appeared after day 15. In the liver of the adult rat, starvation and streptozotocin-diabetes caused a 50-60% decrease in the concentration of regulatory protein after 7 days, whereas glucokinase activity fell to about 20% of its initial level. When 4-day-starved rats were refed, or when diabetic rats were treated with insulin, the concentration of regulatory protein slowly increased to reach about 85% of the control level after 3 days, whereas the

  9. Modeling of optical radiation energy distribution in plant tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, V. P.; Bratchenko, I. A.; Sindyaeva, A. R.; Timchenko, E. V.

    2009-12-01

    A three-dimensional mathematical model of interactions of optical radiation with plant tissue taking into account its structural inhomogeneity, spectral properties, and the effects of fluorescence is constructed. The developed model is implemented using the statistical Monte Carlo method for the Henyey-Greenstein phase function. The dependence of differential backscattering and fluorescence coefficients on the concentration of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls) is numerically studied. It is demonstrated that numerical characteristics agree with results of physical experiment. The approximate solution based on the expansion of the diffusion and fluorescence radiation fluxes into a series in terms of a small parameter is found. This expansion makes it possible to calculate the field of backscattered radiation with satisfactory accuracy and to qualitatively correctly describe the experimentally observed dependences of the fluorescence coefficient in the region of high chlorophyll concentration.

  10. Distribution of biglycan and decorin in rat dental tissue.

    PubMed

    Tenório, D M H; Santos, M F; Zorn, T M T

    2003-08-01

    Biglycan and decorin are small leucine-rich proteoglycans that play several biological and structural roles in different tissues and organs. Several reports have indicated that biglycan participates in odontoblast and ameloblast differentiation and in the calcification process. In the present study we show that the expression of biglycan changes from within the ameloblasts and odontoblasts to the extracellular space according to the stage of animal development. In predentin and in the pulp space, however, biglycan was continually expressed throughout the period of investigation. In contrast, decorin was absent in odontoblasts and in ameloblasts and was exclusively expressed in predentin throughout the period of observation. In young rats, however, decorin was expressed in the extracellular spaces of the pulp, where it was concentrated mainly in the peripheral pulp.

  11. MEETING AT BALTIMORE, MD: DISTRIBUTION OF CHIRAL PCBS IN SELECTED TISSUES IN THE LABORATORY RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to investigate the tissue distribution and enantiomeric fractions (EFs) of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers, immature male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered environmentally relevant doses of (a) Aroclor 1254 or (b) an environmental mixture extracted from s...

  12. MEETING AT BALTIMORE, MD: DISTRIBUTION OF CHIRAL PCBS IN SELECTED TISSUES IN THE LABORATORY RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to investigate the tissue distribution and enantiomeric fractions (EFs) of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers, immature male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered environmentally relevant doses of (a) Aroclor 1254 or (b) an environmental mixture extracted from s...

  13. Human pyridoxal phosphatase. Molecular cloning, functional expression, and tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Jang, Young Min; Kim, Dae Won; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Won, Moo Ho; Baek, Nam-In; Moon, Byung Jo; Choi, Soo Young; Kwon, Oh-Shin

    2003-12-12

    Pyridoxal phosphatase catalyzes the dephosphorylation of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate. A human brain cDNA clone was identified to the PLP phosphatase on the basis of peptide sequences obtained previously. The cDNA predicts a 296-amino acid protein with a calculated Mr of 31698. The open reading frame is encoded by two exons located on human chromosome 22q12.3, and the exon-intron junction contains the GT/AG consensus splice site. In addition, a full-length mouse PLP phosphatase cDNA of 1978 bp was also isolated. Mouse enzyme encodes a protein of 292 amino acids with Mr of 31512, and it is localized on chromosome 15.E1. Human and mouse PLP phosphatase share 93% identity in protein sequence. A BLAST search revealed the existence of putative proteins in organism ranging from bacteria to mammals. Catalytically active human PLP phosphatase was expressed in Escherichia coli, and characteristics of the recombinant enzyme were similar to those of erythrocyte enzyme. The recombinant enzyme displayed Km and kcat values for pyridoxal of 2.5 microM and 1.52 s(-1), respectively. Human PLP phosphatase mRNA is differentially expressed in a tissue-specific manner. A single mRNA transcript of 2.1 kb was detected in all human tissues examined and was highly abundant in the brain. Obtaining the molecular properties for the human PLP phosphatase may provide new direction for investigating metabolic pathway involving vitamin B6.

  14. A New Method for Morphometric Analysis of Tissue Distribution of Mobile Cells in Relation to Immobile Tissue Structures

    PubMed Central

    Nikitina, Liudmila; Ahammer, Helmut; Blaschitz, Astrid; Gismondi, Angela; Glasner, Andreas; Schimek, Michael G.; Dohr, Gottfried; Sedlmayr, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of cells in stained tissue sections provides information that may be analyzed by means of morphometric computation. We developed an algorithm for automated analysis for the purpose of answering questions pertaining to the relative densities of wandering cells in the vicinity of comparatively immobile tissue structures such as vessels or tumors. As an example, we present the analysis of distribution of CD56-positive cells and of CXCR3-positive cells (relative densities of peri-vascular versus non-vascular cell populations) in relation to the endothelium of capillaries and venules of human parietal decidua tissue of first trimester pregnancy. In addition, the distibution of CD56-positive cells (mostly uterine NK cells) in relation to spiral arteries is analyzed. The image analysis is based on microphotographs of two-color immunohistological stainings. Discrete distances (10–50 µm) from the fixed structures were chosen for the purpose of definining the extent of neighborhood areas. For the sake of better comparison of cell distributions at different overall cell densities a model of random distribution of “cells” in relation to neighborhood areas and rest decidua of a specific sample was built. In the chosen instances, we found increased perivascular density of CD56-positive cells and of CXCR3-positive cells. In contrast, no accumulation of CD56-positive cells was found in the neighborhood of spiral arteries. PMID:21408197

  15. DISTRIBUTION OF ENZYMES CLEAVING PYRIDINE NUCLEOTIDES IN ANIMAL TISSUES

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, K. Bruce; Kaplan, Nathan O.

    1957-01-01

    1. The distribution of DPN and DPNH pyrophosphatases and DPNase in centrifugally prepared fractions of organs of several species of animals is reported. 2. A DPNH pyrophosphatase was found in the soluble fraction of pigeon and of rabbit liver. This enzyme did not split DPN but accounted for over 50 per cent of the DPNH pyrophosphatase activity of the whole homogenates. 3. All the organs tested, including the pigeon liver and rabbit liver, contained a microsomal pyrophosphatase that attacked both DPNH and DPN. This microsomal enzyme split DPNH faster than DPN in all cases. 4. DPN pyrophosphatase and DPNase activity were generally concentrated in the microsomal fraction of liver, of kidney, and of brain. 5. The DPNase of hamster liver was virtually inactive at pH 7.5 but was optimally active at pH 5.5. Considerable difference was found with respect to pH on the activity of DPNase from organs of different animals. 6. The inhibition of mitochondrial and microsomal DPNH oxidation by nicotinamide was noted during the course of these experiments. 7. The significance of some of the distribution patterns is discussed. PMID:13416309

  16. Formalizing an electronic institution for the distribution of human tissues.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Salceda, J; Padget, J A; Cortés, U; López-Navidad, A; Caballero, F

    2003-03-01

    The use of multi-agent systems (MAS) in health-care domains is increasing. Such agent-mediated medical systems can manage complex tasks and have the potential to adapt gracefully to unexpected events. However, in these kinds of systems the issues of privacy, security and trust are particularly sensitive in relation to matters such as agents' access to patient records, what is acceptable behaviour for an agent in a particular role and the development of trust both between (heterogeneous) agents and between users and agents. To address these issues we propose a formal normative framework, deriving from and developing the notion of an electronic institution. Such institutions provide a framework to define and police norms that guide, control and regulate the behaviour of the heterogeneous agents that participate in the institution. These norms define the acceptable actions that each agent may perform depending on the role or roles it is playing, and clearly specifies the data it may access and/or modify in playing those roles. In this paper, we present the formalization of Carrel, a virtual organization for the procurement of organs and tissues for transplantation purposes, as an electronic institution using the ISLANDER institution specification language as formalizing languages. We demonstrate aspects of the formalization of such an institution, example fragments in the language used for the textual specification, and how such formalization can be used as a blueprint in the implementation of the final agent architecture, through techniques such as skeleton generation.

  17. Acute toxicity and tissue distributions of malathion in Ambystoma tigrinum.

    PubMed

    Henson-Ramsey, H; Kennedy-Stoskopf, S; Levine, J F; Taylor, S K; Shea, D; Stoskopf, M K

    2008-10-01

    The kinetics of the bioaccumulation of malathion (O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate of diethyl mercaptosuccinate) and the biological impact of exposure for tiger salamanders, Ambystoma tigrinum, were assessed through exposure to soil surface contaminated with 50 microg/cm(2) or 100 microg/cm(2 )malathion and ingestion of an earthworm exposed to soil contaminated with 200 microg/cm(2) malathion. Malathion and malaoxon burdens in salamanders sampled at different times after exposure(s) were measured by gas chromatography in four tissue/organ subgroups: liver, epaxial muscle, pooled viscera (except the liver and brain), and pooled avisceral carcass (muscle, skin, and bone). The total tiger salamander xenobiotic burdens were calculated from these data. The malathion/malaoxon burden 1 day after exposure was greatest in the avisceral carcass and 2 days after exposure was greatest in the viscera. Bioconcentration and bioaccumulation factors remained less than unity throughout the experiment and did not support the hypothesis of bioaccumulation of malathion in the tiger salamander. Biological impact was assessed with a colorimetric brain cholinesterase microassay. Brain cholinesterase activities in salamanders exposed to malathion-contaminated soil (50 microg/cm(2) or 100 microg/cm(2 )malathion) were suppressed approximately 50-65% and 90%, respectively, compared to unexposed controls. The exposed animals did not exhibit overt clinical signs of malathion toxicosis.

  18. Adipose tissue content and distribution in children and adolescents with bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Umławska, Wioleta

    2015-02-01

    The excess of adipose tissue and the pattern of adipose tissue distribution in the body seem to play an important role in the complicated dependencies between obesity and risk of developing asthma. The aim of the present study was to determine nutritional status in children and adolescents with bronchial asthma with special emphasis on adipose tissue distribution evaluated on the basis of skin-fold thicknesses, and to determine the relationships between patterns of adipose tissue distribution and the course of the disease. Anthropometric data on height, weight, circumferences and skin-fold thicknesses were extracted from the medical histories of 261 children diagnosed with asthma bronchitis. Values for children with asthma were compared to Polish national growth reference charts. Distribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue was evaluated using principal components analysis (PCA). Multivariate linear regression analyses tested the effect of three factors on subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution: type of asthma, the severity of the disease and the duration of the disease. Mean body height in the children examined in this study was lower than in their healthy peers. Mean BMI and skin-fold thicknesses were significantly higher and lean body mass was lower in the study group. Excess body fat was noted, especially in girls. Adipose tissue was preferentially deposited in the trunk in girls with severe asthma, as well as in those who had been suffering from asthma for a longer time. The type of asthma, atopic or non-atopic, had no observable effect on subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution in children examined. The data suggest that long-treated subjects and those with severe bronchial asthma accumulate more adipose tissue on the trunk. It is important to regularly monitor nutritional status in children with asthma, especially in those receiving high doses of systemic or inhaled glucocorticosteroids, and long-term treatment as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  19. Plasma, tumor and tissue pharmacokinetics of Docetaxel delivered via nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes in mice bearing SKOV-3 human ovarian carcinoma xenograft

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Kevin S.; Hasan, Warefta; Rawal, Sumit; Walsh, Mark D.; Enlow, Elizabeth M.; Luft, J. Christopher; Bridges, Arlene S.; Kuijer, Jennifer L.; Napier, Mary E.; Zamboni, William C.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    The particle fabrication technique PRINT® was used to fabricate monodisperse size and shape specific poly(lactide-co-glycolide) particles loaded with the chemotherapeutic Docetaxel. The pharmacokinetics of two cylindrical shaped particles with diameter=80nm; height=320nm (PRINT-Doc-80×320) and d=200nm; h=200nm (PRINT-Doc-200×200) were compared to Docetaxel in mice bearing human ovarian carcinoma SKOV-3 flank xenografts. The Docetaxel plasma exposure was ~20-fold higher for both particles compared to docetaxel. Additionally, the volume of distribution (Vd) of Docetaxel in PRINT formulations was ~18-fold (PRINT-Doc-80×320) and ~33-fold (PRINT-Doc-200×200) lower than Docetaxel. The prolonged duration of Docetaxel in plasma when dosed with PRINT formulations subsequently lead to increased tumor exposure of Docetaxel from 0-168 hours (~53% higher for PRINT-Doc-80×320 and ~76% higher for PRINT-Doc-200×200 particles). PRINT-Doc-80×320 had lower exposures in the liver, spleen and lung compared with PRINT-Doc-200×200. Thus, the use of particles with smaller feature size may be preferred to decrease clearance by organs of the mononuclear phagocyte system. PMID:23219874

  20. Tissue distribution of blood group membrane proteins beyond red cells: evidence from cDNA libraries.

    PubMed

    Rojewski, Markus T; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Flegel, Willy A

    2006-08-01

    The proteins of blood group systems are expressed on red blood cells (RBC) by definition. We searched nucleotide databases of human expressed sequence tags (EST) to collate the distribution of 22 distinct membrane proteins in cells and tissues other than RBC. The documented blood group genes are: MNS, Rh, Lutheran, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, Diego, Yt, Xg, Scianna, Dombrock, Colton, Landsteiner-Wiener, Kx, Gerbich, Cromer, Knops, Indian, Ok, Raph, John-Milton-Hagen and Gill. The genes were grouped according to their overall and their relative expression in embryo and adults. We describe the distribution of EST in cells, tissues and cell lines with a focus on non-RBC tissues.

  1. Tissue composition effect on dose distribution in neutron brachytherapy/neutron capture therapy

    PubMed Central

    Khosroabadi, Mohsen; Farhood, Bagher; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Hamzian, Nima; Moghaddam, Homa Rezaei; Davenport, David

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to assess the effect of the compositions of various soft tissues and tissue-equivalent materials on dose distribution in neutron brachytherapy/neutron capture therapy. Background Neutron brachytherapy and neutron capture therapy are two common radiotherapy modalities. Materials and methods Dose distributions were calculated around a low dose rate 252Cf source located in a spherical phantom with radius of 20.0 cm using the MCNPX code for seven soft tissues and three tissue-equivalent materials. Relative total dose rate, relative neutron dose rate, total dose rate, and neutron dose rate were calculated for each material. These values were determined at various radial distances ranging from 0.3 to 15.0 cm from the source. Results Among the soft tissues and tissue-equivalent materials studied, adipose tissue and plexiglass demonstrated the greatest differences for total dose rate compared to 9-component soft tissue. The difference in dose rate with respect to 9-component soft tissue varied with compositions of the materials and the radial distance from the source. Furthermore, the total dose rate in water was different from that in 9-component soft tissue. Conclusion Taking the same composition for various soft tissues and tissue-equivalent media can lead to error in treatment planning in neutron brachytherapy/neutron capture therapy. Since the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) recommends that the total dosimetric uncertainty in dose delivery in radiotherapy should be within ±5%, the compositions of various soft tissues and tissue-equivalent materials should be considered in dose calculation and treatment planning in neutron brachytherapy/neutron capture therapy. PMID:26900352

  2. Cefazolin pharmacokinetics in cats under surgical conditions.

    PubMed

    Albarellos, Gabriela A; Montoya, Laura; Passini, Sabrina M; Lupi, Martín P; Lorenzini, Paula M; Landoni, María F

    2017-10-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the plasma pharmacokinetic profile, tissue concentrations and urine elimination of cefazolin in cats under surgical conditions after a single intravenous dose of 20 mg/kg. Methods Intravenous cefazolin (20 mg/kg) was administered to nine young mixed-breed cats 30 mins before they underwent surgical procedures (ovariectomy or orchiectomy). After antibiotic administration, samples from blood, some tissues and urine were taken. Cefazolin concentrations were determined in all biological matrices and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Results Initial plasma concentrations were high (Cp(0), 134.80 ± 40.54 µg/ml), with fast and moderately wide distribution (distribution half-life [t½(d)] 0.16 ± 0.15 h; volume of distribution at steady state [V(d[ss])] 0.29 ± 0.10 l/kg) and rapid elimination (body clearance [ClB], 0.21 ± 0.06 l/h/kg; elimination half-life [t½], 1.18 ± 0.27 h; mean residence time 1.42 ± 0.36 h). Thirty to 60 mins after intravenous administration, cefazolin tissue concentrations ranged from 9.24 µg/ml (subcutaneous tissue) to 26.44 µg/ml (ovary). The tissue/plasma concentration ratio ranged from 0.18 (muscle) to 0.58 (ovary). Cefazolin urine concentrations were high with 84.2% of the administered dose being eliminated in the first 6 h postadministration. Conclusions and relevance Cefazolin plasma concentrations remained above a minimum inhibitory concentration of ⩽2 µg/ml up to 4 h in all the studied cats. This suggests that a single intravenous dose of 20 mg/kg cefazolin would be adequate for perioperative prophylactic use in cats.

  3. Nanodrugs: pharmacokinetics and safety

    PubMed Central

    Onoue, Satomi; Yamada, Shizuo; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2014-01-01

    To date, various nanodrug systems have been developed for different routes of administration, which include dendrimers, nanocrystals, emulsions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, micelles, and polymeric nanoparticles. Nanodrug systems have been employed to improve the efficacy, safety, physicochemical properties, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile of pharmaceutical substances. In particular, functionalized nanodrug systems can offer enhanced bioavailability of orally taken drugs, prolonged half-life of injected drugs (by reducing immunogenicity), and targeted delivery to specific tissues. Thus, nanodrug systems might lower the frequency of administration while providing maximized pharmacological effects and minimized systemic side effects, possibly leading to better therapeutic compliance and clinical outcomes. In spite of these attractive pharmacokinetic advantages, recent attention has been drawn to the toxic potential of nanodrugs since they often exhibit in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and genotoxicity. A better understanding of the pharmacokinetic and safety characteristics of nanodrugs and the limitations of each delivery option is necessary for the further development of efficacious nanodrugs with high therapeutic potential and a wide safety margin. This review highlights the recent progress in nanodrug system development, with a focus on the pharmacokinetic advantages and safety challenges. PMID:24591825

  4. A constrained von Mises distribution to describe fiber organization in thin soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Gouget, Cecile L M; Girard, Michael J; Ethier, C Ross

    2012-03-01

    The semi-circular von Mises distribution is widely used to describe the unimodal planar organization of fibers in thin soft tissues. However, it cannot accurately describe the isotropic subpopulation of fibers present in such tissues, and therefore an improved mathematical description is needed. We present a modified distribution, formed as a weighted mixture of the semi-circular uniform distribution and the semi-circular von Mises distribution. It is described by three parameters: β, which weights the contribution from each mixture component; k, the fiber concentration factor; and θ ( p ), the preferred fiber orientation. This distribution was used to fit data obtained by small-angle light scattering experiments from various thin soft tissues. Initial use showed that satisfactory fits of fiber distributions could be obtained (error generally < 1%), but at the cost of non-physically meaningful values of k and β. To address this issue, an empirical constraint between the parameters k and β was introduced, resulting in a constrained 2-parameter fiber distribution. Compared to the 3-parameter distribution, the constrained 2-parameter distribution fits experimental data well (error generally < 2%) and had the advantage of producing physically meaningful parameter values. In addition, the constrained 2-parameter approach was more robust to experimental noise. The constrained 2-parameter fiber distribution can replace the semi-circular von Mises distribution to describe unimodal planar organization of fibers in thin soft tissues. Inclusion of such a function in constitutive models for finite element simulations should provide better quantitative estimates of soft tissue biomechanics under normal and pathological conditions.

  5. Engineered nanomaterial uptake and tissue distribution: from cell to organism

    PubMed Central

    Kettiger, Helene; Schipanski, Angela; Wick, Peter; Huwyler, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Improved understanding of interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems is needed to develop safety standards and to design new generations of nanomaterials. This article reviews the molecular mechanisms of cellular uptake of engineered nanoparticles, their intracellular fate, and their distribution within an organism. We have reviewed the available literature on the uptake and disposition of engineered nanoparticles. Special emphasis was placed on the analysis of experimental systems and their limitations with respect to their usefulness to predict the in vivo situation. The available literature confirms the need to study particle characteristics in an environment that simulates the situation encountered in biological systems. Phenomena such as protein binding and opsonization are of prime importance since they may have a strong impact on cellular internalization, biodistribution, and immunogenicity of nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo. Extrapolation from in vitro results to the in vivo situation in the whole organism remains a challenge. However, improved understanding of physicochemical properties of engineered nanoparticles and their influence on biological systems facilitates the design of nanomaterials that are safe, well tolerated, and suitable for diagnostic or therapeutic use in humans. PMID:24023514

  6. Engineered nanomaterial uptake and tissue distribution: from cell to organism.

    PubMed

    Kettiger, Helene; Schipanski, Angela; Wick, Peter; Huwyler, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Improved understanding of interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems is needed to develop safety standards and to design new generations of nanomaterials. This article reviews the molecular mechanisms of cellular uptake of engineered nanoparticles, their intracellular fate, and their distribution within an organism. We have reviewed the available literature on the uptake and disposition of engineered nanoparticles. Special emphasis was placed on the analysis of experimental systems and their limitations with respect to their usefulness to predict the in vivo situation. The available literature confirms the need to study particle characteristics in an environment that simulates the situation encountered in biological systems. Phenomena such as protein binding and opsonization are of prime importance since they may have a strong impact on cellular internalization, biodistribution, and immunogenicity of nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo. Extrapolation from in vitro results to the in vivo situation in the whole organism remains a challenge. However, improved understanding of physicochemical properties of engineered nanoparticles and their influence on biological systems facilitates the design of nanomaterials that are safe, well tolerated, and suitable for diagnostic or therapeutic use in humans.

  7. Influence of heterogeneous and anisotropic tissue conductivity on electric field distribution in deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Aström, Mattias; Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Wårdell, Karin

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to quantify the influence of heterogeneous isotropic and heterogeneous anisotropic tissue on the spatial distribution of the electric field during deep brain stimulation (DBS). Three finite element tissue models were created of one patient treated with DBS. Tissue conductivity was modelled as (I) homogeneous isotropic, (II) heterogeneous isotropic based on MRI, and (III) heterogeneous anisotropic based on diffusion tensor MRI. Modelled DBS electrodes were positioned in the subthalamic area, the pallidum, and the internal capsule in each tissue model. Electric fields generated during DBS were simulated for each model and target-combination and visualized with isolevels at 0.20 (inner), and 0.05 V mm(-1) (outer). Statistical and vector analysis was used for evaluation of the distribution of the electric field. Heterogeneous isotropic tissue altered the spatial distribution of the electric field by up to 4% at inner, and up to 10% at outer isolevel. Heterogeneous anisotropic tissue influenced the distribution of the electric field by up to 18 and 15% at each isolevel, respectively. The influence of heterogeneous and anisotropic tissue on the electric field may be clinically relevant in anatomic regions that are functionally subdivided and surrounded by multiple fibres of passage.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin in porcine plasma, lung tissue, and bronchial fluid and effects of test conditions on in vitro activity against reference strains and field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Rose, M; Menge, M; Bohland, C; Zschiesche, E; Wilhelm, C; Kilp, S; Metz, W; Allan, M; Röpke, R; Nürnberger, M

    2013-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin (Zuprevo(®) 40 mg/mL solution for injection for pigs), a novel 16-membered-ring macrolide for the treatment for swine respiratory disease (SRD), was investigated in studies collecting blood plasma and postmortem samples of lung tissue and bronchial fluid (BF) from swine. In view of factors influencing the in vitro activity of macrolides, and for the interpretation of tildipirosin pharmacokinetics in relation to minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), additional experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere, buffers, and serum on tildipirosin MICs for various reference strains and Actinobacillus (A.) pleuropneumoniae field isolates. After single intramuscular (i.m.) injection at 4 mg/kg body weight, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 0.9 μg/mL observed within 23 min (Tmax ). Mean residence time from the time of dosing to the time of last measurable concentration (MRTlast) and terminal half-life (T1/2) both were about 4 days. A dose-response relationship with no significant sex effect is observed for area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last sampling time with a quantifiable drug concentration (AUClast) over the range of doses up to 6 mg/kg. However, linear dose proportionality could not be proven with statistical methods. The time-concentration profile of tildipirosin in BF and lung far exceeded that in blood plasma. In lung, tildipirosin concentrations reached 3.1 μg/g at 2 h, peaked at 4.3 μg/g at day 1, and slowly declined to 0.8 μg/g at day 17. In BF, tildipirosin levels were 14.3, 7.0, and 6.5 μg/g at days 5, 10, and 14. T1/2 in lung was ∼7 days. Tildipirosin is rapidly and extensively distributed to the respiratory tract followed by slow elimination. Culture media pH and carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere (CO2 -EA) had a marked impact on in vitro activity of tildipirosin in reference strains of various rapidly growing aerobic and

  9. Quantitative bioluminescence imaging--a method for the detection of metabolite distributions in frozen tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Walenta, Stefan; Schwickert, Georg

    1994-02-01

    A novel technique allows for measurement of metabolite distributions in tissue cryosections at a microscopic level using bioluminescence, single photon imaging, and computerized image analysis. Metabolites, such as ATP, glucose and lactate are registered in absolute concentration units, and the respective images can be correlated with each other and with histological structures by specific algorithms. One striking difference between malignant tumors and normal tissue is the pronounced heterogeneity of metabolite distributions in malignancies contrasted by rather homogeneous patterns obtained in many normal organs. The heterogeneous distribution of metabolites in solid tumors reflects the chaotic organization of the histological architecture and of the microvascular supply in cancerous tissue. Pixel-to-pixel comparison of metabolite distributions measured in cervix cancers of patients revealed a negative linear correlation between glucose and ATP concentrations at identical locations. In contrast, local lactate concentration was positively correlated with ATP.

  10. Influence of tissue- and cell-scale extracellular matrix distribution on the mechanical properties of tissue-engineered cartilage.

    PubMed

    Khoshgoftar, Mehdi; Wilson, Wouter; Ito, Keita; van Donkelaar, Corrinus C

    2013-10-01

    The insufficient load-bearing capacity of today's tissue- engineered (TE) cartilage limits its clinical application. Generally, cartilage TE studies aim to increase the extracellular matrix (ECM) content, as this is thought to determine the load-bearing properties of the cartilage. However, there are apparent inconsistencies in the literature regarding the correlation between ECM content and mechanical properties of TE constructs. In addition to the amount of ECM, the spatial inhomogeneities in ECM distribution at the tissue scale as well as at the cell scale may affect the mechanical properties of TE cartilage. The relative importance of such structural inhomogeneities on mechanical behavior of TE cartilage is unknown. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to theoretically elucidate the influence of these inhomogeneities on the mechanical behavior of chondrocyte-agarose TE constructs. A validated non-linear fiber-reinforced poro-elastic swelling cartilage model that can accommodate for effects of collagen reinforcement and swelling by proteoglycans was used. At the tissue scale, ECM was gradually varied from predominantly localized in the periphery of the TE construct toward an ECM-rich inner core. The effect of these inhomogeneities in relation to the total amount of ECM was also evaluated. At the cell scale, ECM was gradually varied from localized in the pericellular area, toward equally distributed throughout the interterritorial area. Results from the tissue-scale model indicated that localization of ECM in either the construct periphery or in the inner core may reduce construct stiffness compared with that of constructs with homogeneous ECM. Such effects are more significant at high ECM amounts. At the cell scale, localization of ECM around the cells significantly reduced the overall stiffness, even at low ECM amounts. The compressive stiffness gradually increased when ECM distribution became more homogeneous and the osmotic swelling pressure in the

  11. Simultaneous determination of nicotine and its metabolite, cotinine, in rat blood and brain tissue using microdialysis coupled with liquid chromatography: pharmacokinetic application.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuh-Lih; Tsai, Pi-Lo; Chou, Yueh-Ching; Tien, Jung-Hsiung; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2005-09-23

    To elucidate the disposition of nicotine in the brain is important because the neuropharmacological effects from nicotine exposure are centrally predominated. The aim of the present study was to develop a rapid and simple method for the simultaneous determination of unbound nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in rat blood and brain tissue. We coupled a multiple sites microdialysis sampling technique with HPLC-UV system to characterize the pharmacokinetics of both nicotine and cotinine. Microdialysis probes were inserted into the jugular vein/right atrium and brain striatum of Sprague-Dawley rats, and nicotine (2 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered via the femoral vein. Dialysates were collected every 10 min and injected directly into a HPLC system. Both nicotine and cotinine were separated by a phenyl-hexyl column (150 mm x 4.6 mm) from dialysates within 12 min. The mobile phase consisted of an acetonitrile-methanol-20 mM monosodium phosphate buffer (55:45:900, v/v/v, pH adjusted to 5.1) with a flow-rate of 1 ml/min. The wavelength of the UV detector was set at 260 nm. The limit of quantification for nicotine and cotinine were 0.25 microg/ml and 0.05 microg/ml, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of both measurements fell well within the predefined limits of acceptability. The blood and brain concentration-time profile of nicotine and cotinine suggests that nicotine is easily to get into the central nervous system and cotinine exhibits a long retention time and accumulates in blood.

  12. Development and validation of a high performance liquid chromatography quantification method of levo-tetrahydropalmatine and its metabolites in plasma and brain tissues: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Inas A; Huang, Peng; Liu, Jing; Lee, David Y; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan; Hassan, Hazem E

    2017-04-01

    Levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) is an alkaloid isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs of the Corydalis and Stephania genera. It has been used in China for more than 40 years mainly as an analgesic with sedative/hypnotic effects. Despite its extensive use, its metabolism has not been quantitatively studied, nor there a sensitive reliable bioanalytical method for its quantification simultaneously with its metabolites. As such, the objective of this study was to develop and validate a sensitive and selective HPLC method for simultaneous quantification of l-THP and its desmethyl metabolites l-corydalmine (l-CD) and l-corypalmine (l-CP) in rat plasma and brain tissues. Rat plasma and brain samples were processed by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed-phase Symmetry® C18 column (4.6 × 150 mm, 5 μm) at 25°C. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-methanol-10 mm ammonium phosphate (pH 3) (10:30:60, v/v) and was used at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The column eluent was monitored at excitation and emission wavelengths of 230 and 315 nm, respectively. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 1-10,000 ng/mL. The intra- and interday reproducibility studies demonstrated accuracy and precision within the acceptance criteria of bioanalytical guidelines. The validated HPLC method was successfully applied to analyze samples from a pharmacokinetic study of l-THP in rats. Taken together, the developed method can be applied for bioanalysis of l-THP and its metabolites in rodents and potentially can be transferred for bioanalysis of human samples.

  13. Enantioselective analysis of ibuprofen enantiomers in mice plasma and tissues by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection: Application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Przejczowska-Pomierny, Katarzyna; Włodyka, Monika; Cios, Agnieszka; Wyska, Elżbieta

    2017-09-01

    A direct fluorometric high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for the analysis of ibuprofen enantiomers in mouse plasma (100 μl) and tissues (brain, liver, kidneys) using liquid-liquid extraction and 4-tertbutylphenoxyacetic acid as an internal standard. Separation of enantiomers was accomplished in a Chiracel OJ-H chiral column based on cellulose tris(4-methylbenzoate) coated on 5 μm silica-gel, 250 x 4.6 mm at 22 °C with a mobile phase composed of n-hexane, 2-propanol, and trifluoroacetic acid that were delivered in gradient elution at a flow rate of 1 ml min(-1) . A fluorometric detector was set at: λexcit . = 220 nm and λemis. = 290 nm. Method validation included the evaluation of the selectivity, linearity, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), within-run and between-run precision and accuracy. The LLOQ for the two enantiomers was 0.125 μg ml(-1) in plasma, 0.09 μg g(-1) in brain, and 0.25 μg g(-1) in for liver and kidney homogenates. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the ranges of each enantiomers: from 0.125 to 35 μg ml(-1) for plasma, 0.09-1.44 μg g(-1) for brain, and 0.25-20 μg g(-1) for liver and kidney homogenates. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of ibuprofen enantiomers in mice treated i.v. with 10 mg kg(-1) of racemate. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Relationship between tissue distributions of modified Wuzi Yanzong prescription () in rats and meridian tropism theory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Lin; Li, Wei-Wei; Wu, Cai-Sheng; Zhang, Jin-Lan; Song, Yi-Xiang; Song, Fang-Jiao; Fu, Hong; Liu, Geng-Xin; Wang, Xue-Mei

    2016-12-20

    To investigate the relationship between tissue distributions of modified Wuzi Yanzong prescription (, MWP) in rats and meridian tropism theory. A high-performance liquid chromatography with Fourier transform-mass spectrometry (HPLC-FT) method was used to identify the metabolites of MWP in different tissues of rats after continued oral administration of MWP for 7 days. The relationship between MWP and meridian tropism theory was studied according to the tissue distributions of the metabolites of MWP in rats and the relevant literature. Nineteen metabolites, mainly flavanoid compounds, were detected in the different rat tissues and classified to each herb in MWP. Further, it was able to establish that the tissue distributions of the metabolites of MWP were consistent with the descriptions of meridian tropism of MWP available in literature, this result might be useful in clarifying the mechanism of MWP on meridian tropism. In the long run, these data might provide scientific evidence of the meridian tropism theory to further promote the reasonable, effective utilization, and modernization of Chinese medicine. The tissue distributions of MWP in vivo were consistent with the descriptions of meridian tropism of MWP.

  15. Tissue temperature distribution measurement by MRI and laser immunology for cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yichao; Gnyawali, Surya C.; Wu, Feng; Liu, Hong; Tesiram, Yasvir A.; Abbott, Andrew; Towner, Rheal A.; Chen, Wei R.

    2007-02-01

    In cancer treatment and immune response enhancement research, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an ideal method for non-invasive, three-dimensional temperature measurement. We used a 7.1-Tesla magnetic resonance imager for ex vivo tissues and small animal to determine temperature distribution of target tissue during laser irradiation. The feasibility of imaging is approved with high spatial resolution and high signal-noise- ratio. Tissue-simulating gel phantom gel, biological tissues, and tumor-bearing animals were used in the experiments for laser treatment and MR imaging. Thermal couple measurement of temperature in target samples was used for system calibration. An 805-nm laser was used to irradiate the samples with a laser power in the range of 1 to 2.5 watts. Using the MRI system and a specially developed processing algorithm, a clear temperature distribution matrix in the target tissue and surrounding tissue was obtained. The temperature profiles show that the selective laser photothermal effect could result in tissue temperature elevation in a range of 10 to 45 °C. The temperature resolution of the measurement was about 0.37°C including the total system error. The spatial resolution was 0.4 mm (128x128 pixels with field of view of 5.5x5.5 cm). The temperature distribution provided in vivo thermal information and future reference for optimizing dye concentration and irradiation parameters to achieve optimal thermal effects in cancer treatment.

  16. Temperature distribution in target tumor tissue and photothermal tissue destruction during laser immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, Austin; Hasanjee, Aamr; Pettitt, Alex; Silk, Kegan; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.; Zhou, Feifan

    2016-03-01

    Laser Immunotherapy is a novel cancer treatment modality that has seen much success in treating many different types of cancer, both in animal studies and in clinical trials. The treatment consists of the synergistic interaction between photothermal laser irradiation and the local injection of an immunoadjuvant. As a result of the therapy, the host immune system launches a systemic antitumor response. The photothermal effect induced by the laser irradiation has multiple effects at different temperature elevations which are all required for optimal response. Therefore, determining the temperature distribution in the target tumor during the laser irradiation in laser immunotherapy is crucial to facilitate the treatment of cancers. To investigate the temperature distribution in the target tumor, female Wistar Furth rats were injected with metastatic mammary tumor cells and, upon sufficient tumor growth, underwent laser irradiation and were monitored using thermocouples connected to locally-inserted needle probes and infrared thermography. From the study, we determined that the maximum central tumor temperature was higher for tumors of less volume. Additionally, we determined that the temperature near the edge of the tumor as measured with a thermocouple had a strong correlation with the maximum temperature value in the infrared camera measurement.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin.

    PubMed

    Efthymiopoulos, C

    1997-12-01

    Grepafloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic which is rapidly absorbed in healthy volunteers following oral dosing. It reaches peak plasma levels around 2 h after administration, then declines bi-exponentially, with an extended half-life of around 12 h. Grepafloxacin is eliminated primarily through metabolism and is excreted mainly in the faeces. Renal clearance accounts for only 10-15% of the administered dose. Grepafloxacin plasma concentrations increase disproportionately with increasing doses, but this is unlikely to be of clinical significance over the range of therapeutic doses. The rate and extent of absorption are not affected by food or elevated intragastric pH. The pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin are affected by gender, with these differences relating to variations in body weight. No effect of age on the pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin was found. Renal impairment does not affect grepafloxacin pharmacokinetics, whereas peak plasma concentrations, areas under plasma concentration-time curves and renal excretion are increased in patients with hepatic impairment. Grepafloxacin can be co-administered with warfarin and theophylline, though reduction of the theophylline dose is necessary. Following oral administration, higher grepafloxacin concentrations are achieved in lung and genital tissues than in serum, indicating its potential in the treatment of respiratory and sexually transmitted diseases. In addition, it exceeds therapeutically effective levels in bile and gall-bladder tissues, and accumulates in polymorphonuclear leucocytes such that it may be useful against intracellular pathogens.

  18. Pharmacokinetics & Neurophysiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew S.; Salpekar, Jay A.

    2009-01-01

    Medications administered in clinical practice obtain their therapeutic effect only to the extent that the drug is present in the appropriate concentration at the desired site. To achieve this goal, the prescribing clinician must be aware of how a drug may interact with the physiology of the patient. Pharmacokinetics is the study of this process…

  19. Pharmacokinetics & Neurophysiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew S.; Salpekar, Jay A.

    2009-01-01

    Medications administered in clinical practice obtain their therapeutic effect only to the extent that the drug is present in the appropriate concentration at the desired site. To achieve this goal, the prescribing clinician must be aware of how a drug may interact with the physiology of the patient. Pharmacokinetics is the study of this process…

  20. A Phase 1 Randomized, Blinded Comparison of the Pharmacokinetics and Colonic Distribution of Three Candidate Rectal Microbicide Formulations of Tenofovir 1% Gel with Simulated Unprotected Sex (CHARM-02)

    PubMed Central

    Hiruy, Hiwot; Fuchs, Edward J.; Marzinke, Mark A.; Bakshi, Rahul P.; Breakey, Jennifer C.; Aung, Wutyi S.; Manohar, Madhuri; Yue, Chen; Caffo, Brian S.; Du, Yong; Abebe, Kaleab Z.; Spiegel, Hans M.L.; Rohan, Lisa C.; McGowan, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract CHARM-02 is a crossover, double-blind, randomized trial to compare the safety and pharmacokinetics of three rectally applied tenofovir 1% gel candidate rectal microbicides of varying osmolalities: vaginal formulation (VF) (3111 mOsmol/kg), the reduced glycerin vaginal formulation (RGVF) (836 mOsmol/kg), and an isoosmolal rectal-specific formulation (RF) (479 mOsmol/kg). Participants (n = 9) received a single, 4 ml, radiolabeled dose of each gel twice, once with and once without simulated unprotected receptive anal intercourse (RAI). The safety, plasma tenofovir pharmacokinetics, colonic small molecule permeability, and SPECT/CT imaging of lower gastrointestinal distribution of drug and virus surrogate were assessed. There were no Grade 3 or 4 adverse events reported for any of the products. Overall, there were more Grade 2 adverse events in the VF group compared to RF (p = 0.006) and RGVF (p = 0.048). In the absence of simulated unprotected RAI, VF had up to 3.8-fold greater systemic tenofovir exposure, 26- to 234-fold higher colonic permeability of the drug surrogate, and 1.5- to 2-fold greater proximal migration in the colonic lumen, when compared to RF and RGVF. Similar trends were observed with simulated unprotected RAI, but most did not reach statistical significance. SPECT analysis showed 86% (standard deviation 19%) of the drug surrogate colocalized with the virus surrogate in the colonic lumen. There were no significant differences between the RGVF and RF formulation, with the exception of a higher plasma tenofovir concentration of RGVF in the absence of simulated unprotected RAI. VF had the most adverse events, highest plasma tenofovir concentrations, greater mucosal permeability of the drug surrogate, and most proximal colonic luminal migration compared to RF and RGVF formulations. There were no major differences between RF and RGVF formulations. Simultaneous assessment of toxicity, systemic and luminal pharmacokinetics, and

  1. Pharmacokinetics and distribution of minocycline in mature horses after oral administration of multiple doses and comparison with minimum inhibitory concentrations.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, L V; Papich, M G; Divers, T J; Altier, C; Aprea, M S; McCarrel, T M; Fortier, L A

    2012-07-01

    Minocycline holds great potential for use in horses not only for its antimicrobial effects but also for its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. However, there are no pharmacokinetic or safety data available regarding the use of oral minocycline in horses. To determine pharmacokinetics, safety and penetration into plasma, synovial fluid, aqueous humour (AH) and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of minocycline after oral administration of multiple doses in horses and to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of minocycline for equine pathogenic bacteria. Six horses received minocycline (4 mg/kg bwt q. 12 h for 5 doses). Thirty-three blood and 9 synovial fluid samples were collected over 96 h. Aqueous humour and CSF samples were collected 1 h after the final dose. Minocycline concentrations were measured using high pressure liquid chromatography. The MIC values of minocycline for equine bacterial isolates were determined. At steady state, the mean ± s.d. peak concentration of minocycline in the plasma was 0.67 ± 0.26 µg/ml and the mean half-life was 11.48 ± 3.23 h. The highest trough synovial fluid minocycline concentration was 0.33 ± 0.12 µg/ml. The AH concentration of minocycline was 0.09 ± 0.03 µg/ml in normal eyes and 0.11 ± 0.04 µg/ml in blood aqueous barrier-disrupted eyes. The mean CSF concentration of minocycline was 0.38 ± 0.09 µg/ml. The MIC values were determined for 301 isolates. Minocycline concentrations were above the MIC(50) and MIC(90) for many gram-positive equine pathogens. This study supports the use of orally administered minocycline at a dose of 4 mg/kg bwt every 12 h for the treatment of nonocular infections caused by susceptible (MIC ≤ 0.25 µg/ml) organisms in horses. Further studies are required to determine the dose that would be effective for the treatment of ocular infections. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  2. Distribution of inclusion bodies in tissues from 100 dogs infected with canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Takuya; Kagawa, Yumiko; Taniyama, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2007-05-01

    One hundred dogs that were positive for canine distemper virus antigen and inclusion bodies in the tonsils were examined for the distribution of inclusion bodies in various tissues. Inclusion bodies were found in the lungs (70 dogs), brains (20 dogs), urinary bladders (73 dogs), stomachs (78 dogs), spleens (77 dogs), and lymph nodes (81 dogs) of the dogs. Based on these results, the tonsils may be the most suitable tissue for detection of inclusion bodies in canine distemper.

  3. Application of Spatially Distributed Field of Electric Impulses for Correction of Angiogenesis in Ischemic Muscular Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kublanov, V.S.; Danilova, I.G.; Goette, I.F.; Brykina, I.A.; Shalyagin, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Influence of spatially distributed field of electric impulses in a projection to cervical ganglions of the sympathetic nervous system on angiogenesis in ischemic muscular tissue of a rat’s shin has been studied. It is revealed that blood supply of animals, influenced by the field, is restored through increase in quantity of capillaries in ischemic tissues, and number of products of endogenous intoxication is reduced. PMID:23675207

  4. Collecting lymphatic vessel permeability facilitates adipose tissue inflammation and distribution of antigen to lymph node-homing adipose tissue DCs

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Emma L.; Ivanov, Stoyan; Bridenbaugh, Eric A.; Victora, Gabriel; Wang, Wei; Childs, Ed W.; Platt, Andrew M.; Jakubzick, Claudia V.; Mason, Robert J.; Gashev, Anatoliy A.; Nussenzweig, Michel; Swartz, Melody A.; Dustin, Michael L.; Zawieja, David C.; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Collecting lymphatic vessels (CLVs), surrounded by fat and endowed with contractile muscle and valves, transport lymph from tissues after it is absorbed into lymphatic capillaries. CLVs are not known to participate in immune responses. Here, we observed that the inherent permeability of CLVs allowed broad distribution of lymph components within surrounding fat for uptake by adjacent macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) that actively interacted with CLVs. Endocytosis of lymph-derived antigens by these cells supported recall T cell responses in the fat and also generated antigen-bearing DCs for emigration into adjacent lymph nodes. Enhanced recruitment of DCs to inflammation-reactive lymph nodes significantly relied on adipose tissue DCs to maintain sufficient numbers of antigen-bearing DCs as the lymph node expanded. Thus, CLVs coordinate inflammation and immunity within adipose depots and foster the generation of an unexpected pool of APCs for antigen transport into the adjacent lymph node. PMID:25917096

  5. Effect of tissue inhomogeneities on dose distributions from Cf-252 brachytherapy source.

    PubMed

    Ghassoun, J

    2013-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method was used to determine the effect of tissue inhomogeneities on dose distribution from a Cf-252 brachytherapy source. Neutron and gamma-ray fluences, energy spectra and dose rate distributions were determined in both homogenous and inhomogeneous phantoms. Simulations were performed using the MCNP5 code. Obtained results were compared with experimentally measured values published in literature. Results showed a significant change in neutron dose rate distributions in presence of heterogeneities. However, their effect on gamma rays dose distribution is minimal.

  6. Effect of urinary excretion on the bladder tissue distribution of fluoroquinolones in rats.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shigeru; Yamaoka, Makiko; Deguchi, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate which of blood or urine has the greater effect on bladder tissue concentrations of fluoroquinolones important for the treatment of urinary tract infections by measuring concentrations of fluoroquinolones in the vesical tissue (chemically and immunohistochemically) and intravesical space (chemically). Thirty-minute incubation of isolated rat bladders with fluoroquinolones showed only a 1.9-fold difference in transferability among norfloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin. Intravesical instillation of norfloxacin and sparfloxacin in rats yielded similar vesical tissue distributions. Thus, there were no large differences in vesical tissue transfer among the four fluoroquinolones. The bladder tissue/plasma concentration ratios of norfloxacin (high urinary excretion-type) and sparfloxacin (low urinary excretion-type) at 1 h after a single oral dose (10 mg/kg) to rats were 15.4 and 1.3, respectively. The bladder tissue/plasma concentration ratios of norfloxacin after an intravenous injection (10 mg/kg) to ureter-catheterized and sham-operated rats were 1.36 and 57.8. Thus the bladder tissue distribution was significantly higher in the urine-exposed bladder. Immunohistochemical examination of the vesical tissue localization of norfloxacin in rats given a single intravenous dose revealed the presence of the drug-positive image in the cytoplasm of surface layer cells (both in umbrella and cover cells) of the bladder transitional epithelium. In conclusion, the results suggest that norfloxacin and other fluoroquinolones are excreted into urine and then transferred to the surface layer of the bladder transitional epithelium. Therefore, the urine levels have a greater effect on the vesicle tissue distribution of fluoroquinolones than the plasma levels in rats. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tissue distribution of lycopene in ferrets and rats after lycopene supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A L; Yeum, K J; Liu, C; Smith, D; Krinsky, N I; Wang, X D; Russell, R M

    2000-05-01

    To determine lycopene uptake and tissue distribution in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) and F344 rats, we supplemented orally 4.6 mg/(kg body wt.d) lycopene in a tomato oleoresin-corn oil mixture (experimental groups). After 9 wk of supplementation, the animals were killed and blood and organs were collected. Plasma and tissue carotenoids were extracted and measured using HPLC. Mean concentrations of lycopene (nmol/kg wet tissue) in saponified tissues of ferrets were as follows: liver 933, intestine 73, prostate 12.7 and stomach 9.3. Levels of lycopene (nmol/kg wet tissue) in saponified tissue of rats were as follows: liver 14213, intestine 3125, stomach 78.6, prostate 24 and testis 3.9. When these organs were extracted without saponification, the lycopene levels were lower, except for rat testis. All-trans-lycopene was the predominant isomer found in tomato oleoresin and in the majority of rat tissues, whereas cis-lycopenes were predominant in rat prostate and plasma. This pattern was reversed in ferrets. The results show the following: 1) lycopene from tomato oleoresin is absorbed and stored primarily in the liver of both animals; 2) saponification generally improves the extraction of lycopene from most tissues of both animals; 3) cis-lycopene and all-trans-lycopene are the predominant isomers in ferret and rat tissues, respectively; and 4) rats absorb lycopene more effectively than ferrets.

  8. Leptin pharmacokinetics in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Dobos, Robin C; Agnew, Linda L; Smart, Neil A; McFarlane, James R

    2017-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics of leptin in mammals has not been studied in detail and only one study has examined more than one time point in non-mutant mice and this was in a female mice. This is the first study to describe leptin distribution over a detailed time course in normal male mice. A physiologic dose (12 ng) of radiolabelled leptin was injected into adult male mice via the lateral tail vein and tissues were dissected out and measured for radioactivity over a time course of up to two hours. Major targets were the digestive tract, kidneys, skin and lungs. The brain was not a major target, and 0.15% of the total dose was recovered from the brain 5 min after administration. Major differences appear to exist in the distribution of leptin between the male and female mice, indicating a high degree of sexual dimorphism. Although the half-lives were similar between male and female mice, almost twice the proportion of leptin was recovered from the digestive tract of male mice in comparison to that reported previously for females. This would seem to indicate a major difference in leptin distribution and possibly function between males and females. PMID:27998953

  9. Pharmacokinetics and bio-distribution of novel super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in the anaesthetized pig.

    PubMed

    Edge, Deirdre; Shortt, Christine M; Gobbo, Oliviero L; Teughels, Stephanie; Prina-Mello, Adriele; Volkov, Yuri; MacEneaney, Peter; Radomski, Marek W; Markos, Farouk

    2016-03-01

    Manufactured nanomaterials have a variety of medical applications, including diagnosis and targeted treatment of cancer. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the pharmacokinetic, biodistribution and biocompatibility of two novel magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in the anaesthetized pig. Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MF66-labelled 12 nm, core nominal diameter and OD15 15 nm); at 0.5, or 2.0 mg/kg) were injected intravenously. Particles induced a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure following administration which recovered to control levels several minutes after injection. Blood samples were collected for a 5-h period and stored for determination of particle concentration using particle electron paramagnetic resonance (pEPR). Organs were harvested post-mortem for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at 1.5 T field strength) and histology. OD15 (2.0 mg/kg) MNP had a plasma half-life of approximately 15 min. Both doses of the MF66 (0.5 and 2.0 mg/kg) MNP were below detection limits. MNP accumulation was observed primarily in the liver and spleen with MRI scans which was confirmed by histology. MRI also showed that both MNPs were present in the lungs. The results show that further modifications may be required to improve the biocompatibility of these particles for use as diagnostic and therapeutic agents.

  10. Occurrence and distribution of n-alkanes in sucking-calf tissues.

    PubMed

    Di Muccio, A; Lintas, C; Filos, M; Bernardini, M P

    1984-06-01

    Samples of subcutaneous and perirenal fat, muscle, heart, liver, kidney, and spleen from eleven 4-month-old sucking calves were analyzed for their hydrocarbon composition. Qualitative and quantitative determinations were carried out by gas chromatography. Ranges of total hydrocarbons and odd-even hydrocarbon distribution for each tissues are reported. In general, a predominance of odd-numbered hydrocarbons in the high carbon number range was observed. As compared to adult bovines, calf tissues, with the exception of adipose tissues, show higher amounts of total hydrocarbons.

  11. Steady-state temperature distribution in living tissue modeled as cylindrical shells.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shitzer, A.; Chato, J. C.

    1971-01-01

    Closed form, analytical solutions to the problem of steady-state heat transfer in living tissue modeled as cylindrical shells are presented and discussed. These solutions are particularly useful for the study of temperature distributions in the extremities. Metabolic heat generation, conduction, and heat transported by the blood perfusing the tissue are considered in the model. The results demonstrate the important role that the blood stream plays in the transfer of heat inside living tissue. Solutions are also presented for the limiting cases of diminishing blood flow that would occur during vasoconstriction or occlusion of blood by external means.

  12. Steady-state temperature distribution in living tissue modeled as cylindrical shells.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shitzer, A.; Chato, J. C.

    1971-01-01

    Closed form, analytical solutions to the problem of steady-state heat transfer in living tissue modeled as cylindrical shells are presented and discussed. These solutions are particularly useful for the study of temperature distributions in the extremities. Metabolic heat generation, conduction, and heat transported by the blood perfusing the tissue are considered in the model. The results demonstrate the important role that the blood stream plays in the transfer of heat inside living tissue. Solutions are also presented for the limiting cases of diminishing blood flow that would occur during vasoconstriction or occlusion of blood by external means.

  13. USE OF A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL (PBPK) FOR RATS TO STUDY THE INFLUENCE OF BODY FAT MASS AND INDUCTION OF CYP1A2 ON THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF TCDD

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a highly lipophilic chemical which distributes into adipose tissue, especially at low doses. However, at high doses TCDD sequesters in liver because it induces CYP1A2 that binds TCDD. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) mod...

  14. USE OF A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL (PBPK) FOR RATS TO STUDY THE INFLUENCE OF BODY FAT MASS AND INDUCTION OF CYP1A2 ON THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF TCDD

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a highly lipophilic chemical which distributes into adipose tissue, especially at low doses. However, at high doses TCDD sequesters in liver because it induces CYP1A2 that binds TCDD. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) mod...

  15. The tissue distribution of Evans blue dye in a sheep model of sentinel node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael; Farshid, Gelareh; Kollias, James; Chatterton, Barry E; Tsopelas, Chris

    2006-09-01

    Tc-Evans blue is a 'single dose' agent for lymphatic mapping combining radioactivity and blue dye for sentinel node identification. The mechanism and distribution of blue dye retention in the lymph node is not clearly understood. To demonstrate the cellular distribution of Tc-Evans blue in sheep sentinel lymph nodes by measuring the radioactivity of different tissue components and correlating this with pathological examination. Tc-Evans blue was used to identify sheep lymph nodes. Part of each node was sent for pathological examination including imprint cytology, and frozen and permanent section examination. Sections were examined without stains, with only red stains and conventional haematoxylin & eosin staining. The remaining nodal tissue was homogenized and components separated by enzymatic digestion and density gradient centrifugation. Fractions representing each tissue component were counted in a gamma counter and the distribution of Tc-Evans blue calculated. A dispersed population of blue staining cells was found. Their distribution, number and size indicated that they were histiocytes such as macrophages or antigen presenting cells. Radioactivity was distributed throughout the lymph node. Over 70% remained in the plasma, 19% in the leukocyte layer, and 10% was associated with erythrocytes and undigested tissue. The accumulation of radioactivity and blue colour in the lymph nodes indicates the mechanism of retention is a result of the binding interaction between Tc-Evans blue-protein and lymph node histiocytes including macrophages and antigen presenting cells.

  16. Influence of biophase distribution and P-glycoprotein interaction on pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling of the effects of morphine on the EEG.

    PubMed

    Groenendaal, D; Freijer, J; de Mik, D; Bouw, M R; Danhof, M; de Lange, E C M

    2007-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of biophase distribution including P-glycoprotein (Pgp) function on the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic correlations of morphine's actions in rat brain. Male rats received a 10-min infusion of morphine as 4 mg kg(-1), combined with a continuous infusion of the Pgp inhibitor GF120918 or vehicle, 10 or 40 mg kg(-1). EEG signals were recorded continuously and blood samples were collected. Profound hysteresis was observed between morphine blood concentrations and effects on the EEG. Only the termination of the EEG effect was influenced by GF120918. Biophase distribution was best described with an extended catenary biophase distribution model, with a sequential transfer and effect compartment. The rate constant for transport through the transfer compartment (k(1e)) was 0.038 min(-1), being unaffected by GF120918. In contrast, the rate constant for the loss from the effect compartment (k(eo)) decreased 60% after GF120918. The EEG effect was directly related to concentrations in the effect compartment using the sigmoidal E(max) model. The values of the pharmacodynamic parameters E(0), E(max), EC(50) and Hill factor were 45.0 microV, 44.5 microV, 451 ng ml(-1) and 2.3, respectively. The effects of GF120918 on the distribution kinetics of morphine in the effect compartment were consistent with the distribution in brain extracellular fluid (ECF) as estimated by intracerebral microdialysis. However, the time-course of morphine concentrations at the site of action in the brain, as deduced from the biophase model, is distinctly different from the brain ECF concentrations.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and ocular penetration of grepafloxacin in albino and pigmented rabbits.

    PubMed

    Perez, S; Solans, C; Bregante, M A; Pinilla, I; García, M A; Honrubia, F

    2002-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin were determined in albino and pigmented rabbits following a single 10 mg/kg intravenous administration. The penetration of grepafloxacin into various ocular tissues was also determined after continuous intravenous infusion in both types of animal. Grepafloxacin showed a bicompartmental model of distribution in both pigmented and albino rabbits with significant differences in the pharmacokinetics between the two types of animal. After continuous intravenous infusion, significantly greater penetration of grepafloxacin was found in the iris, cornea and chorioretina of pigmented rabbits compared with albino rabbits.

  18. Ordinary differential equation models for ethanol pharmacokinetic based on anatomy and physiology.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae-Joon; Plawecki, Martin H; Doerschuk, Peter C; Ramchandani, Vijay A; O'Connor, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been used to describe the distribution and elimination characteristics of intravenous ethanol administration. Further, these models have been used to estimate the ethanol infusion profile required to prescribe a specific breath ethanol concentration time course in a specific human being, providing a platform upon which other pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic investigations are based. In these PBPK models, the equivalence of two different peripheral tissue models are shown and issues concerning the mass flow into the liver in comparison with ethanol metabolism in the liver are explained.

  19. Lacteal secretion, fetal and maternal tissue distribution of dasatinib in rats.

    PubMed

    He, Kan; Lago, Michael W; Iyer, Ramaswamy A; Shyu, Wen-Chyi; Humphreys, William G; Christopher, Lisa J

    2008-12-01

    Dasatinib [N-(2-chloro-6-methylphenyl)-2-[[6-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinyl]-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxamide; BMS-354825] is a potent and broad-spectrum kinase inhibitor used for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia and Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Dasatinib exhibited extensive lacteal secretion in Sprague-Dawley rats following a single p.o. dose of [14C]dasatinib (10 mg/kg, 300 microCi/kg). Radioactivity was detected through 72 h postdose, with a milk/plasma area under concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity (AUC(0-inf)) ratio of approximately 25. The majority of the total radioactivity in milk was attributed to unchanged dasatinib. After a single dose of [14C]dasatinib to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at gestation day 18, radioactivity was extensively distributed in maternal tissues. The radioactivity detected by tissue excision or quantitative whole-body autoradiography was highest in adrenal gland, mammary tissue, lungs, kidneys, liver, and placenta. Compared with maternal tissues, a relatively low level of radioactivity was detected in fetal tissues. The concentrations of dasatinib-equivalents in fetal liver and kidneys were <13% of the respective maternal organs. The C(max) of dasatinib-equivalents in fetal blood was approximately 39% of that in maternal blood; however, the AUC values were comparable. Fetal brain/blood ratios of C(max) and AUC(0-inf) were approximately 1.58 and 1.48, respectively, which were much greater than the maternal ratios of 0.12 and 0.13. In summary, dasatinib was extensively distributed in maternal tissues and secreted into milk, but its penetration into the adult brain was limited. Transporters may be involved in mediating dasatinib distribution in the adult rat, whereas in the fetus, tissue and blood exposures were similar, suggesting that distribution in the fetus is predominantly mediated by diffusion.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tu, Y H; Allen, L V; Fiorica, V M; Albers, D D

    1989-07-01

    The pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats following the intravenous administration of trimethoprim at a dose of 25 mg/kg. Plasma and tissue levels of trimethoprim, as a function of time, were determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The disposition of trimethoprim was described by both a two-compartment open model with elimination from a central compartment and a noncompartmental method. For the compartmental analysis, the terminal elimination rate constant, elimination half-life, apparent volume of distribution in the central compartment, apparent volume of distribution in the central compartment based on the area under the plasma concentration-time curve, and volume of distribution at steady state, were determined to be 0.007 min-1, 99 min, 2059 mL/kg, 5729 mL/kg, and 2473 mL/kg, respectively. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by the statistical moment theory. The estimates for mean residence time, clearance, and volume of distribution at steady state of trimethoprim were calculated to be 52 min, 40 mL.min-1kg-1, and 2097 mL, respectively. Tissue distribution of trimethoprim followed a biphasic phenomenon with a maximum concentration at 30 min for heart, lung, spleen, liver, kidney, seminal vesicles, and muscle, and at 45 min for testicles, 20 min for prostate gland, and less than 10 min for brain. The data show that compared with the plasma concentration, higher levels of trimethoprim were found in heart, lung, spleen, liver, kidney, prostate gland, and seminal vesicles; a similar concentration was found for muscle, but lower levels of trimethoprim were found for brain and testicles.

  1. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics utilizing unbound target tissue exposure as part of a disposition-based rationale for lead optimization of benzoxaboroles in the treatment of Stage 2 Human African Trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Wring, Stephen; Gaukel, Eric; Nare, Bakela; Jacobs, Robert; Beaudet, Beth; Bowling, Tana; Mercer, Luke; Bacchi, Cyrus; Yarlett, Nigel; Randolph, Ryan; Parham, Robin; Rewerts, Cindy; Platner, Jacob; Don, Robert

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY This review presents a progression strategy for the discovery of new anti-parasitic drugs that uses in vitro susceptibility, time-kill and reversibility measures to define the therapeutically relevant exposure required in target tissues of animal infection models. The strategy is exemplified by the discovery of SCYX-7158 as a potential oral treatment for stage 2 (CNS) Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT). A critique of current treatments for stage 2 HAT is included to provide context for the challenges of achieving target tissue disposition and the need for establishing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) measures early in the discovery paradigm. The strategy comprises 3 stages. Initially, compounds demonstrating promising in vitro activity and selectivity for the target organism over mammalian cells are advanced to in vitro metabolic stability, barrier permeability and tissue binding assays to establish that they will likely achieve and maintain therapeutic concentrations during in-life efficacy studies. Secondly, in vitro time-kill and reversibility kinetics are employed to correlate exposure (based on unbound concentrations) with in vitro activity, and to identify pharmacodynamic measures that would best predict efficacy. Lastly, this information is used to design dosing regimens for pivotal pharmacokinetic-pharmacodyamic studies in animal infection models.

  2. Population pharmacokinetics, brain distribution, and pharmacodynamics of 2nd generation dopamine transporter selective benztropine analogs developed as potential substitute therapeutics for treatment of cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Syed, Shariq A; Newman, Amy H; Othman, Ahmed A; Eddington, Natalie D

    2008-05-01

    A second generation of N-substituted 3alpha-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)methoxy]-tropanes (GA 1-69, JHW 005 and JHW 013) binds with high affinity to the dopamine transporter (DAT) and are highly selective toward DAT compared to muscarinic receptor binding (M1). The objective of this study was to characterize brain distribution, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics [extracellular brain dopamine (DA) levels] of three novel N-substituted benztropine (BZT) analogs in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The BZT analogs displayed a higher distribution (Vd = 8.69-34.3 vs. 0.9 L/kg) along with longer elimination (t l/2: 4.1-5.4 vs. 0.5 h) than previously reported for cocaine. Brain-to-plasma partition coefficients were 1.3-2.5 vs. 2.1 for cocaine. The effect of the BZT analogs on extracellular brain (DA) levels ranged from minimal effects (GA 1-69) to several fold elevation (approximately 850% of basal DA for JHW 013) at the highest dose evaluated. PK/PD analysis of exposure-response data resulted in lower IC50 values for the BZT analogs compared to cocaine indicating their higher potency to inhibit DA reuptake (0.1-0.3 vs. 0.7 mg/L). These BZT analogs possess significantly different PK and PD profiles as compared to cocaine suggesting that further evaluation as cocaine abuse therapeutics is warranted.

  3. [Distribution of compact bone mesenchymal stem cells in lung tissue and bone marrow of mouse].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Ping; Wu, Ren-Na; Guo, Yu-Qing; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Hu

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the distribution of compact bone mesenchymal stem cells(MSC) marked with lentiviral plasmid pGC FU-RFP-LV in lung tissue and bone marrow of mouse. The MSC were infected by lentivirus with infection efficiency 78%, the infected MSC were injected into BALB/c mice via tail veins in concentration of 1×10(6) /mouse. The mice were randomly divided into 4 group according to 4 time points as 1, 2, 5 and 7 days. The lung tissue and bone marrow were taken and made of frozen sections and smears respectively in order to observed the distributions of MSC. The results indicated that the lentiviral infected MSC displayed phenotypes and biological characteristics which conformed to MSC by immunophenotyping analysis and induction differentiation detection. After the MSC were infected with optimal viral titer MOI = 50, the cell growth no significantly changed; the fluorescent microscopy revealed that the distributions of MSC in bone marrow on day 1, 2, 5 and 7 were 0.50 ± 0.20, 0.67 ± 0.23, 0.53 ± 0.14, 0.33 ± 0.16; those in lung tissue were 0.55 ± 0.15, 0.47 ± 0.13, 0.29 ± 0.13, 0.26 ± 0.08. It is concluded that the distribution of MSC in lung tissue reaches a peak on day 1, while distribution of MSC in bone marrow reaches a peak on day 2. The distribution of mouse MSC relates with RFP gene expression and implantation of MSC in lung tissue and bone marrow.

  4. Analysis and distribution of esculetin in plasma and tissues of rats after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Sun; Ha, Tae-Youl; Ahn, Jiyun; Kim, Suna

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we developed a method to quantify esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) in plasma and tissues using HPLC coupled with ultraviolet detection and measured the level of esculetin in rat plasma after oral administration. The calibration curve for esculetin was linear in the range of 4.8 ng/mL to 476.2 ng/mL, with a correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.996, a limit of detection value of 33.2 ng/mL, and a limit of quantification value of 100.6 ng/mL. Recovery rates for the 95.2 ng/mL and 190.5 ng/mL samples were 95.2% and 100.3%, within-runs and 104.8% and 101.0% between-runs, respectively. The relative standard deviation was less than 7% for both runs. In the pharmacokinetic analysis, the peak plasma esculetin level was reached 5 min after administration (Cmax=173.3 ng/mL; T1/2=45 min; AUC0 ~180 min=5,167.5 ng · min/mL). At 180 min post-administration (i.e., after euthanasia), esculetin was only detectable in the liver (30.87±11.33 ng/g) and the kidney (20.29±7.02 ng/g).

  5. Biochemical, thrombolytic and pharmacokinetic properties of rt-PA P47G, K49N, a substitution variant of human tissue-type plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Nelles, L; Li, X K; Vanlinthout, I; De Cock, F; Lijnen, H R; Collen, D

    1992-04-02

    rt-PA P47G, K49N, a substitution variant of recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA), in which proline at position 47 and lysine at position 49 were replaced by glycine and asparagine respectively, was previously described by Ahern et al. (J Biol Chem 1990; 265:5540-5) to have an extended in vivo half-life with unaltered in vitro fibrinolytic properties. Because this variant might possess an increased in vivo thrombolytic potency, we have constructed its cDNA, expressed it in Chinese hamster ovary cells and determined its biochemical, thrombolytic and pharmacokinetic properties relative to those of home-made rt-PA and of alteplase (Actilyse). The specific fibrinolytic activities on fibrin plates were 160,000 +/- 17,000, 210,000 +/- 88,000 and 460,000 +/- 72,000 IU/mg (mean +/- SEM) for rt-PA P47G, K49N, rt-PA and alteplase, respectively, while the catalytic efficiencies for plasminogen activation (k2/Km) in the absence of fibrin were comparable (1.1 to 1.7 x 10(-3) microM-1s-1). Fibrin enhanced the rate of plasminogen activation by rt-PA P47G, K49N 100-fold and by both wild-type molecules 390-fold. Binding of the variant rt-PA to fibrin was significantly reduced, but its affinity for lysine-Sepharose was unaltered. In an in vitro clot lysis system, consisting of a radiolabeled human plasma clot submersed in plasma, 50% clot lysis in 2 h required 0.67 +/- 0.14 micrograms/ml rt-PA P47G, K49N, 0.36 +/- 0.01 micrograms/ml rt-PA and 0.17 +/- 0.01 micrograms/ml alteplase, respectively (mean +/- SEM; n = 3 or 4). At these doses residual fibrinogen levels at 2 h were in excess of 80%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. [FLUORESCENCE DISTRIBUTION IN BONE AND CARTILAGE TISSUE BY SECTIONING OF FROZEN UNDECALCIFIED BONE].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhen; Yin, Heyong; Sui, Xiang; Yu, Xiaoming; Peng, Jiang; Wang, Yu; Wang, Aiyuan; Guo, Quanyi; Liu Shuyun; Meng, Haoye; Lu, Shibi

    2015-11-01

    To introduce a technique of frozen sections for undecalcified bone and discuss its feasiblity by observing the fluorescence distribution of the bone and cartilage. The male Sprague Dawley transgenic rats at the age of 8 weeks, which express green fluoreschent protein were selected to isolate the whole knee sectioned by teh undecalicified bone fronze section techynique. Under the fluorescence and light microscopy, the fluorescence and structure were observed within the organization of slice. Immunohistochemical staining (collagen type I and II, He staining, toluidine blue staining, and Alizarin red staining were performed to observe the distribution of fluorescent substance and cartilage and bone structure. The thickness of sections prepared by this technology was 6 µm. General observation showed that the structure of secioned joint was complete. Under the light microscope, the morphology of cartilage cells, the arrangement of subchondral bone, and trabecular bone traveling could be clearly distinguished. Under fluorescence microscope, green fluorescence was shonw in the joint soft tissue, cartilage tissue, and bone tissue; collagen type I expressed in the bone tissue, collage type II in cartilage tissue. HE staining and toluidine blue staining could clearly distinguish the morphology of the cartilage layer. Alizarin red staining showed the structural integrity of subchondral bone plate and the organization within the meniscus, and proximal tibia cortical bone continuity. The fluorescence distribution can be directly observe in the bone and cartilage by sectioning of frozen undecalcified bone. This new technology can shorten the cycle of preparing sections.

  7. Distribution of EV71 receptors SCARB2 and PSGL-1 in human tissues.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xiao-Yang; Guo, Li; Huang, Dong-Yang; Chang, Xiao-Lan; Qiu, Qian-Cheng

    2014-09-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) receptors SCARB2 and PSGL-1 in human tissues. The samples were chosen from archived specimens, and the profiles of two receptors were detected in the gastrointestinal tract, lung, and brain in situ by immunohistochemistry. SCARB2 was detected in all the tissues studied, and strong staining was observed in the gastric fundus gland, mucosal and glandular epithelia of the intestine. Similar expression was found in bronchial epithelia and pneumocytes. In addition, SCARB2 was observed in the esophagus/gastric mucosal epithelia, neuron, glial cells, and blood vessels and the perivascular tissues of the brain. By comparison, PSGL-1 was expressed weakly in the mucosal and glandular epithelia of the small intestine and colon. PSGL-1 was expressed in a few bronchial epithelia, and weak staining was observed in the pneumocytes. However, PSGL-1 was found easily in the lamina propria of all the tissues studied, and strong staining of PSGL-1 was also observed in the neurons and glial cells. The distribution of the SCARB2 and PSGL-1 in human gastrointestinal tract, lung, and brain tissues correlated with the distribution of pathological changes seen in EV71 infection. The widespread prevalence of these receptors may help explain the multiple organ involvement in infection with EV71.

  8. Use of a novel rapid and resource-efficient cassette dosing approach to determine the pharmacokinetics and CNS distribution of small molecule 7-transmembrane receptor allosteric modulators in rat

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Thomas M; Morrison, Ryan D; Byers, Frank W; Luo, Shuanghui; Scott Daniels, J

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to efficiently and accurately define the pharmacokinetics (PK) of large sets of small molecules in rodents have been previously described. Likewise, a variety of methods for determining brain tissue distribution (BTD) have been reported for use in the discovery of therapeutics targeting the central nervous system (CNS). Herein we describe a novel cassette approach to efficiently obtain concurrent PK and BTD data from a dose of up to five compounds in one rat over 24 h. In conjunction with fraction unbound (fu) data obtained in plasma and brain homogenate, this approach serves as an efficient means to determine compound unbound brain:unbound plasma partition coefficients (Kp,uu), thereby providing insight to compounds bearing poor permeability and/or active transporter activity impacting their permeation of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). This integrated approach was utilized in a lead optimization effort towards the discovery of CNS-penetrant allosteric modulators of a seven-transmembrane (7TM) receptor target. Rat PK and brain distribution was rapidly obtained for 70 compounds and correlated to data obtained from in vitro assessments. Two compounds that were evaluated in cassette and discrete studies, displayed agreement in PK (compound 1: cassette CLp = 1.6 mL min−1 kg−1, discrete CLp = 1.6 mL min−1 kg−1; compound 2: cassette CLp = 11 mL min−1 kg−1, discrete CLp = 8.1 mL min−1 kg−1) and BTD (compound 1: cassette Kp = 0.11, discrete Kp = 0.09; compound 2: cassette Kp < 0.05, discrete Kp = 0.04). The resulting data were used to guide medicinal chemistry efforts and to enable the progression of optimized compounds to in vivo pharmacodynamic assessments. PMID:25505618

  9. Tissue distribution and urinary excretion of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites in C57BL6 mice following subchronic exposure to arsenate in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, E.M. Hughes, M.F.; Adair, B.M.; Highfill, J.H.; Crecelius, E.A.; Clewell, H.J.; Yager, J.W.

    2008-11-01

    The relationship of exposure and tissue concentration of parent chemical and metabolites over prolonged exposure is a critical issue for chronic toxicities mediated by metabolite(s) rather than parent chemical alone. This is an issue for As{sup V} because its trivalent metabolites have unique toxicities and relatively greater potency compared to their pentavalent counterparts for many endpoints. In this study, dose-dependency in tissue distribution and urinary excretion for inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites was assessed in female C57Bl/6 mice exposed to 0, 0.5, 2, 10 or 50 ppm arsenic (as arsenate, As{sup V}) in their drinking water for 12 weeks. No adverse effects were observed and body weight gain did not differ significantly among groups. Urinary excretion of arsenite monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}), dimethylarsinous acid (DMA{sup III}), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup V}), and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) increased linearly with dose, whereas As{sup V} and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}) excretion was non-linear with respect to dose. Total tissue arsenic accumulation was greatest in kidney > lung > urinary bladder >>> skin > blood > liver. Monomethyl arsenic (MMA, i.e. MMA{sup III} + MMA{sup V}) was the predominant metabolite in kidney, whereas dimethylarsenic (DMA, i.e., DMA{sup III} + DMA{sup V}) was the predominant metabolite in lung. Urinary bladder tissue had roughly equivalent levels of inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsenic, as did skin. These data indicate that pharmacokinetic models for arsenic metabolism and disposition need to include mechanisms for organ-specific accumulation of some arsenicals and that urinary metabolite profiles are not necessarily reflective of target tissue dosimetry.

  10. Determination of surface temperature distribution in biological tissues during laser-immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnyawali, Surya C.; Chen, Yichao; Wu, Feng; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Wicksted, James P.; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.

    2007-02-01

    An ideal cancer treatment method should not only cause primary tumor suppression but also induce an antitumor immunity, which is essential for control of metastatic tumors. A combination therapy using a laser, a laser-absorbing dye, and an immunoadjuvant guided by temperature measurement probes such as magnetic resonance imaging thermometry (MRT) and infrared thermography (IRT) can be an ideal treatment modality. Temperature distribution inside the target tissue is important in laser treatment. The surface temperature often serves as an indicator of the treatment effect. However, real-time monitoring of surface temperature during laser irradiation poses a great challenge. In this study, we investigated the surface temperature distribution using direct measurement and theoretical simulation. The preliminary results of in vitro and in vivo studies are presented. Gel phantom and chicken breast tissue were irradiated by an 805 nm laser and the surface temperature distribution was obtained using an infrared thermal camera. EMT-6 breast tumors in mice were treated using the 805 nm laser and with different dye and immunoadjuvant combinations, including intratumor injections of indocyanine green (ICG) and glycated chitosan (GC). Monte Carlo simulation for selective photothermal-tissue interaction was also performed for the surface temperature distributions. Our results demonstrated that the tissue temperature can be accurately monitored in real time and can be controlled by appropriate treatment parameters.

  11. Tissue Distribution and Subcellular Localization of Prephenate Aminotransferase in Leaves of Sorghum bicolor1

    PubMed Central

    Siehl, Daniel L.; Singh, Bijay K.; Conn, Eric E.

    1986-01-01

    The tissue and subcellular distribution of prephenate aminotransferase, an enzyme of the shikimate pathway, was investigated in protoplasts from leaves of Sorghum bicolor. Activity was detected in purified epidermal and mesophyll protoplasts, and in bundle sheath strands. After fractionation of mesophyll and epidermal protoplasts by differential centrifugation, 92% of the total prephenate aminotransferase activity was detected in the plastid fraction. PMID:16664888

  12. c-myc protein in normal tissue. Effects of fixation on its apparent subcellular distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Loke, S. L.; Neckers, L. M.; Schwab, G.; Jaffe, E. S.

    1988-01-01

    The c-myc protein is thought to be a DNA-associated nuclear protein. However, immunohistochemical studies on normal or tumor tissues have shown conflicting findings on its subcellular distribution. By using various fixation procedures on cytospin preparations of HL60 cells, the authors found the subcellular distribution of the c-myc protein to be dependent on the method of fixation. When studying mouse tissues in frozen sections using a biotinylated monoclonal antibody against the c-myc protein, they found the protein to be widely distributed in various normal adult mouse tissues, in most cases localized to the nucleus. However, when these tissues were studied after formalin fixation and paraffin embedding, a loss of nuclear staining was observed concurrent with the appearance of c-myc protein immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm. It is concluded that immunohistochemical studies on the expression of this oncogene should take into consideration the effects of fixation when its subcellular distribution is being examined. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3281469

  13. Tissue distribution of Thorotrast and role of internal irradiation in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Kyoko; Yamasaki, Aiichi; Tosaki, Mitsuo; Isozumi, Yasuto; Hiai, Hiroshi

    2004-10-01

    Carcinogenesis in Thorotrastosis has been assumed due to direct bombardment by alpha-particle with high linear energy transfer during decay of 232Th. To revisit the mechanism of carcinogenesis by Thorotrast (THR), we examined the tissue distribution of THR granules and two-dimensional distribution of radioactivity in the organs of Thorotrastosis patients and studied their spatial relationship to histopathological changes. The high radioactivity in the patients' organ was predominantly derived from decay of Thorium series and showed unique distribution, while the far lower natural radioactivity was mainly from Uranium series decay and fairly evenly distributed. It was found that a large majority of THR granules were phagocytized by macrophages and were embedded in extensive fibrosis. Cancer was rarely in the center of THR deposition but rather at a distance from the deposits. These observations may indicate that the predominant feature of THR deposition is the tissue damage by direct hit of alpha-particles and subsequent fibrosis. The effect of THR resembles action of toxic chemical agents, as several authors have pointed out. We therefore assume that carcinogenesis in Thorotrastosis is a combination of events, such as regeneration of liver tissue after radiation damage, emission of secondary electrons, ionization of the surrounding tissue, and beta- or gamma-ray from daughter nuclei of Thorium (Th). In this context, the role of alpha-particle is important but more intriguing.

  14. Distribution of trace elements in normal and diseased mouse ileum and kidney tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, B. J.; McArdle, H.; Danks, D. M.; Legge, G. J. F.

    1991-03-01

    A proton microprobe has been utilised to determine the distribution and relative concentration of Cu, Fe and Zn in 10 day old normal and brindled mouse small intestine and kidney tissues. High Cu levels were measured in the brindled mutant ileum and kidney tissues confirming previous whole tissue results. In the ileum, peripheral concentrations of both Fe and Cu in normal and mutant villi tips were observed. Ratios of X-ray yields from outer villus tip to inner villus tip irradiated areas were taken and compared for mutant and normal mice after normalising to the bremsstrahlung yield in each case. The ratio of outer to inner Fe concentrations in the epithelium were shown to be higher than normal in the diseased tissue. In the kidney, the high Cu concentration in the mutant tissue was found to be localised to within certain regions in the proximal tubule in the nephron. Accurate determination of the Cu distribution in the small intestine and kidney tissues of the mutant mouse will provide further information on where the defective reabsorption of Cu is occurring, and may contribute to a better understanding of the homologous human condition.

  15. Characterization and tissue distribution of conjugated metabolites of pyrene in the rat

    PubMed Central

    SAENGTIENCHAI, Aksorn; IKENAKA, Yoshinori; DARWISH, Wageh Sobhy; NAKAYAMA, Shouta M.M.; MIZUKAWA, Hazuki; ISHIZUKA, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Pyrene (PY) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that is often used as a biomarker for human and wildlife exposure to PAHs. As the metabolites of PAHs, similar to their parent compounds, pose public health risks, it is necessary to study their characteristics and tissue-specific distribution. The present study was performed to experimentally characterize PY metabolites and analyze the tissue-specific distribution of the conjugated metabolites after oral administration of PY to rats. PY metabolites, such as pyrenediol-disulfate (PYdiol-diS), pyrenediol-sulfate (PYdiol-S), pyrene-1-sufate (PYOS), pyrene-1-glucuronide (PYOG) and 1-hydroxypyrene (PYOH), were detected in rat urine. Although glucuronide conjugate was the predominant metabolite, the metabolite composition varied among tissues. Interestingly, the proportion of PYOH was high in the large intestine. Furthermore, PYOH was the only PY metabolite detected in feces. PMID:26028020

  16. Early tissue distribution of therapeutic 131I in a patient with thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Vachal, E; Wegst, A; Preston, D; Tomita, T

    1979-01-01

    A therapeutic dose of 131I was given to a 53-year-old man with thyrotoxicosis three and one-half hours prior to death. The distribution of 131I in the thyroid gland was studied by autoradiography, and the radioactivity in various fresh tissues was measured. Radioactivity was distributed evenly throughout the colloid; small amounts were present in follicular cells. Radioactivity was not localized to the periphery of colloid follicles as observed in an earlier report. Papillary projections were associated with increased radioactivity. Decreased radioactivity was associated with oxyphilic cells. Measurement of 131I in individual tissues showed that per gram of tissue the thyroid gland contained approximately 50 times that of intestine and spleen and approximately 100 times that of liver and bone.

  17. [Postmortem distribution of tetrodotoxin in tissues and body fluids of guinea pigs].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Da, Qing; Shen, Min

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the postmortem distribution of tetrodotoxin in tissues and body fluids of guinea pig, and to provide method and evidence for forensic identification and clinical diagnosis and treatment. Guinea pigs were intragastric administrated with 100, 50, 15 microg/kg tetrodotoxin, respectively. The poisoning symptoms were observed. The samples of heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, brain, stomach, intestines, bile, heart blood and urine were collected. The concentrations of tetrodotoxin in tissues and body fluids were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). After administrated with tetrodotoxin, all guinea pigs came out poisoning signs including tachypnea, weary and dead finally. Tetrodotoxin concentrations in lung, stomach, intestines and urine were higher, followed by blood, heart and brain. The concentration in bile was the lowest. Postmortem distribution of tetrodotoxin in guinea pig is uneven. The concentration in the lung, stomach, intestines, urine and heart blood are higher, those tissues could be used for diagnosis of tetrodotoxin poisoning.

  18. Issues in the Pharmacokinetics of Trichloroethylene and Its Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Okino, Miles S.; Lipscomb, John C.; Evans, Marina V.

    2006-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding the complex pharmacokinetics of trichloroethylene (TCE). Qualitatively, it is clear that TCE is metabolized to multiple metabolites either locally or into systemic circulation. Many of these metabolites are thought to have toxicologic importance. In addition, efforts to develop physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have led to a better quantitative assessment of the dosimetry of TCE and several of its metabolites. As part of a mini-monograph on key issues in the health risk assessment of TCE, this article is a review of a number of the current scientific issues in TCE pharmacokinetics and recent PBPK modeling efforts with a focus on literature published since 2000. Particular attention is paid to factors affecting PBPK modeling for application to risk assessment. Recent TCE PBPK modeling efforts, coupled with methodologic advances in characterizing uncertainty and variability, suggest that rigorous application of PBPK modeling to TCE risk assessment appears feasible at least for TCE and its major oxidative metabolites trichloroacetic acid and trichloroethanol. However, a number of basic structural hypotheses such as enterohepatic recirculation, plasma binding, and flow- or diffusion-limited treatment of tissue distribution require additional evaluation and analysis. Moreover, there are a number of metabolites of potential toxicologic interest, such as chloral, dichloroacetic acid, and those derived from glutathione conjugation, for which reliable pharmacokinetic data is sparse because of analytical difficulties or low concentrations in systemic circulation. It will be a challenge to develop reliable dosimetry for such cases. PMID:16966104

  19. Mapping drug distribution in brain tissue using liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Swales, John G; Tucker, James W; Spreadborough, Michael J; Iverson, Suzanne L; Clench, Malcolm R; Webborn, Peter J H; Goodwin, Richard J A

    2015-10-06

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA-MS) is a surface sampling technique that incorporates liquid extraction from the surface of tissue sections with nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry. Traditional tissue analysis techniques usually require homogenization of the sample prior to analysis via high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), but an intrinsic weakness of this is a loss of all spatial information and the inability of the technique to distinguish between actual tissue penetration and response caused by residual blood contamination. LESA-MS, in contrast, has the ability to spatially resolve drug distributions and has historically been used to profile discrete spots on the surface of tissue sections. Here, we use the technique as a mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) tool, extracting points at 1 mm spatial resolution across tissue sections to build an image of xenobiotic and endogenous compound distribution to assess drug blood-brain barrier penetration into brain tissue. A selection of penetrant and "nonpenetrant" drugs were dosed to rats via oral and intravenous administration. Whole brains were snap-frozen at necropsy and were subsequently sectioned prior to analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) and LESA-MSI. MALDI-MSI, as expected, was shown to effectively map the distribution of brain penetrative compounds but lacked sufficient sensitivity when compounds were marginally penetrative. LESA-MSI was used to effectively map the distribution of these poorly penetrative compounds, highlighting its value as a complementary technique to MALDI-MSI. The technique also showed benefits when compared to traditional homogenization, particularly for drugs that were considered nonpenetrant by homogenization but were shown to have a measurable penetration using LESA-MSI.

  20. Tissue distribution of sup 3 H-nicotine in rats after bolus or constant injection

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, P.; Pasley, J.N.; Rayford, P.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Two groups of rats, (N = 7), were fasted for 24 hrs prior to the study. On the day of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized and infused with either 5 ml nicotine solution (200 {mu}g/L) in saline containing 5 {mu}c {sup 3}H-nicotine, (sp. activity 50-80 mCi/mol) for 90 minutes or injected as a bolus with 0.5 ml of the same nicotine (200 {mu}g/L) solution. The animals were sacrificed 60 minutes after the injection or after the infusion was stopped. Blood and tissue samples were counted by liquid scintillation counting. Percent distribution of {sup 3}H-nicotine per gm of tissue was calculated from the total radioactivity recovered in individual tissues over the total activity injected into the rat and the values were compared using student's t test. Results: Distribution of {sup 3}H-nicotine was found highest in kidney (45-49%) among all tissues examined and was not different between routes of administration. Significantly higher retention of {sup 3}H-nicotine was found with continuous infusion in esophagus, fundus, antrum, spleen, cecum, pancreas, testes, heart and muscle when {sup 3}H-nicotine retentions were compared with bolus injection. In contrast, the distribution of {sup 3}H-nicotine in adrenal gland, was significantly lower in continuous infusion group. Distribution in blood was 6 fold higher in continuous infusion (7.26%) compared to bolus (1.11%) injection. The distribution {sup 3}H-nicotine in other tissues were not different by either routes of injection.

  1. A dose-ranging study of the pharmacokinetics of hydroxy-chloroquine following intravenous administration to healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tett, S E; Cutler, D J; Day, R O; Brown, K F

    1988-09-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine were studied in five healthy volunteers following an intravenous infusion of 155 mg (2.47 +/- 0.25 mg kg-1) racemic hydroxychloroquine. Four of these volunteers also received a further 310 mg (4.92 +/- 0.45 mg kg-1) infusion of hydroxychloroquine and evidence of nonlinearities in the pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine were sought. 2. No nonlinear elimination or distribution processes appeared to be operating at the doses of hydroxychloroquine used in this study, supporting the hypothesis that in the therapeutic dosing range the pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine are linear. 3. Half-life and mean residence time were long (around 40 days) and large volumes of distribution were calculated (5,522 l from blood, 44,257 l from plasma). Sequestration into the tissues is an important feature of the disposition of hydroxychloroquine. The persistence of hydroxychloroquine in the body is due primarily to this extensive tissue distribution, rather than to low clearance (667 ml min-1 based on plasma data, 96 ml min-1 based on blood data). 4. Plasma data were more variable than blood data. Blood to plasma concentration ratios were not constant (mean +/- s.d.: 7.2 +/- 4.2). The data indicate that it is preferable to measure whole blood concentrations of hydroxychloroquine, rather than plasma concentrations, in pharmacokinetic studies. 5. The pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine are similar to those of chloroquine.

  2. Distribution and compartmentalization of human circulating and tissue-resident memory T cell subsets

    PubMed Central

    Sathaliyawala, Taheri; Kubota, Masaru; Yudanin, Naomi; Turner, Damian; Camp, Philip; Thome, Joseph J. C.; Bickham, Kara L.; Lerner, Harvey; Goldstein, Michael; Sykes, Megan; Kato, Tomoaki; Farber, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Knowledge of human T cells derives chiefly from studies of peripheral blood, whereas their distribution and function in tissues remains largely unknown. Here, we present a unique analysis of human T cells in lymphoid and mucosal tissues obtained from individual organ donors, revealing tissue-intrinsic compartmentalization of naive, effector and memory subsets conserved between diverse individuals. Effector-memory CD4+ T cells producing IL-2 predominated in mucosal tissues and accumulated as central-memory subsets in lymphoid tissue, whereas CD8+ T cells were maintained as naïve subsets in lymphoid tissues and IFN-γ-producing effector-memory CD8+ T cells in mucosal sites. The T cell activation marker, CD69, was constitutively expressed by memory T cells in all tissues, distinguishing them from circulating subsets, with mucosal memory T cells exhibiting additional distinct phenotypic and functional properties. Our results provide an assessment of human T cell compartmentalization as a new baseline for understanding human adaptive immunity. PMID:23260195

  3. Metabolism and tissue distribution of sulforaphane in Nrf2 knockout and wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Clarke, John D; Hsu, Anna; Williams, David E; Dashwood, Roderick H; Stevens, Jan F; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Ho, Emily

    2011-12-01

    To determine the metabolism and tissue distribution of the dietary chemoprotective agent sulforaphane following oral administration to wild-type and Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2(-/-)) mice. Male and female wild-type and Nrf2(-/-) mice were given sulforaphane (5 or 20 μmoles) by oral gavage; plasma, liver, kidney, small intestine, colon, lung, brain and prostate were collected at 2, 6 and 24 h (h). The five major metabolites of sulforaphane were measured in tissues by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Sulforaphane metabolites were detected in all tissues at 2 and 6 h post gavage, with the highest concentrations in the small intestine, prostate, kidney and lung. A dose-dependent increase in sulforaphane concentrations was observed in all tissues except prostate. At 5 μmole, Nrf2(-/-) genotype had no effect on sulforaphane metabolism. Only Nrf2(-/-) females given 20 μmoles sulforaphane for 6 h exhibited a marked increase in tissue sulforaphane metabolite concentrations. The relative abundance of each metabolite was not strikingly different between genders and genotypes. Sulforaphane is metabolized and reaches target tissues in wild-type and Nrf2(-/-) mice. These data provide further evidence that sulforaphane is bioavailable and may be an effective dietary chemoprevention agent for several tissue sites.

  4. Absorption and tissue distribution of lead in thiamin-replete and thiamin-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Sasser, L B; Hall, G G; Bratton, G R; Zmudzki, J

    1984-10-01

    Previous experimental results revealed that thiamin (vitamin B1) reduced lead (Pb) toxicity in calves and decreased tissue lead content in lead-treated calves and rodents. The objective of this experiment was to study the uptake and tissue distribution of lead in rats deprived of thiamin or given excess thiamin and to determine the effect of thiamin on lead absorption. Rats were divided into four groups and fed a thiamin-deficient or thiamin-supplemented diet. The thiamin-replete group also received daily injections of thiamin hydrochloride. Experimental diets were fed for 5 weeks, after which the rats were administered 10 muCi of 203Pb acetate (25 micrograms lead) and killed 6, 24, 48 or 72 hours later. Lead content and concentration of tissues increased twofold in the thiamin-replete group at 24 hours after dosing, but returned to control values 24 hours later. Tissue lead concentration of the thiamin-depleted group was slightly depressed at 24 hours after dosing, but this trend was reversed at the end of the experiment. Tissue lead concentrations in the pair-fed control group were three to seven times greater than in the other treatment groups 6 hours after dosing. The results indicate that thiamin facilitated absorption and increased the amount of lead initially taken up by tissue. Thiamin may also promote more rapid release of lead from tissues.

  5. Zinc distribution within breast cancer tissue: A possible marker for histological grading?

    PubMed

    Riesop, David; Hirner, Alfred V; Rusch, Peter; Bankfalvi, Agnes

    2015-07-01

    Focusing on the trace metal zinc as a potential biomarker for breast cancer, the literature describes bulk zinc concentrations in breast cancer tissue to be higher than in normal tissue. From a histopathological point of view, cancer cells are intermingled with normal cells of the stroma within breast cancer tissues; therefore, bulk analysis cannot reflect this situation adequately. To address this problem, analysis of zinc distribution in histological sections is the method of choice. In the present study, nine samples of invasive ductal and lobular breast carcinoma of histological grade 1-3 were investigated, clearly differentiating between cancer and stroma areas. Zinc concentrations were determined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry applying a calibration technique based on spiked polyacrylamide gels. Direct comparison between hematoxylin- and eosin-stained tissues and zinc contour plots revealed that zinc is enriched in cancer tissue containing tumor cells in contrast to normal stroma. Moreover, zinc concentration in carcinomatous tissues directly correlates with the histological malignancy grade. Differentiation between carcinomatous tissue and stroma by determination of zinc content and the correlation of zinc concentration with the histological malignancy grade not only provides a key feature for clinical decision making for cancer therapy but also suggests the trace metal zinc as a potential biomarker for breast cancer.

  6. Mechanism for the tissue distribution of grepafloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, in rats.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takashi; Kato, Yukio; Sasabe, Hiroyuki; Itose, Minoru; Miyamoto, Gohachiro; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2002-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the most important factor(s) governing the tissue distribution of grepafloxacin (GPFX), a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, in rats. The tissue-to-blood concentration ratio (K(p)) of GPFX at steady state during constant infusion was highest in the lung, followed by the pancreas, kidney, and spleen. After bolus injection, GPFX was efficiently taken up by most of the organs examined, the uptake clearance other than the lung being almost blood flow-limited. Approximately 10% of the intravenously injected dose was rapidly trapped by the lung, but GPFX distribution rapidly decreased within 30 s due to the washout by the plasma flow. Thus, the higher distribution of GPFX to the lung compared with the other organs cannot be accounted for by a difference in its uptake or efflux. Subcellular fractionation after the infusion indicated that GPFX is primarily distributed to the organelle fractions in most organs, 60% of lung-associated GPFX being recovered in the nucleus and plasma membrane fraction. Such subcellular distribution in the lung was proportional to the phosphatidylserine (PhS) content of each fraction. The steady-state K(p) value in each tissue in vivo also correlated with the tissue content of PhS. GPFX preferentially binds to PhS, compared with other phospholipids, and this binding was inhibited by weakly basic drugs, such as quinidine, imipramine, and propranolol, that have also been reported to bind to PhS. The association of GPFX with PhS synthase transformants of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells depends on the PhS content of each cell line, this association being also inhibited by basic drugs. These results suggest that binding of GPFX to PhS is the major determinant of the high distribution of GPFX to the lung.

  7. Topographic distribution of bcl-2 protein in feline tissues in health and neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Madewell, B R; Gandour-Edwards, R; Edwards, B F; Walls, J E; Griffey, S M

    1999-11-01

    The bcl-2 family of genes encodes proteins that influence apoptosis. In the present immunohistochemical study, the topographic distribution of bcl-2 protein was examined in healthy feline fetal, neonatal, and adult tissues, a feline renal cell line, and feline tumors obtained from a veterinary hospital. The topographic distribution of bcl-2 in healthy tissues was similar to that described in human tissues. In lymphoid tissues, follicular mantle cells strongly expressed bcl-2. In complex and differentiating epithelium, bcl-2 expression was detected in stem cell and proliferation zones. Bcl-2 expression was also detected in lower crypts of the intestine and in skin basal layers. The feline Crandell kidney cells expressed bcl-2 diffusely throughout the cytoplasm. Of 180 tumors examined, bcl-2 was expressed almost uniformly in cutaneous basal cell tumors, thyroid adenomas, and mammary carcinomas and in 50% of the lymphomas examined. Bcl-2 may play a role in blocking apoptotic cell death in a broad range of normal feline tissues, whereas dysregulated bcl-2 may extend the life of certain tumors or render certain tumors resistant to therapy because most chemotherapeutic and radiotherapeutic agents eliminate tumor cells by triggering apoptosis.

  8. The effect of chair designs on sitting pressure distribution and tissue perfusion.

    PubMed

    Makhsous, Mohsen; Lin, Fang; Hanawalt, David; Kruger, Shannon Lynn; LaMantia, Angie

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of five chair designs on interface pressure distribution and tissue perfusion in the buttock-thigh region. Prolonged sitting has been found to contribute to the symptoms of work-related low back pain. Studies have found that chair design affects users' sitting posture and comfort. As sitting applies pressure to the user, it is necessary to investigate how chair design affects sitting pressure and tissue perfusion during sitting. We tested five chair designs (Suspension A, Suspension B, Foam A, Foam B, and bicompliant) on 15 young, healthy females. Sitting interface pressure and buttock-thigh tissue perfusion (in terms oftranscutaneous partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, tcPO2 and tcPCO2, respectively) were measured during 10-min sitting on each chair. We found that chair design significantly affected the distribution of the sitting pressure (p < .001) and buttock-thigh tissue perfusion (p < .023). Average pressure and total contact area were found highest in both foam designs, and the average pressure was the lowest in one of the suspension designs. Across all tested chair designs, the anterior portion of the seat sustained the lowest contact pressure. It was also found that tcPO2 was the lowest (p < .003) and tcPCO2 was the highest (p < .001) in tissue around ischial tuberosity for all chair designs. Chair design and materials of the seat significantly affect the sitting interface pressure distribution and tissue perfusion in sitting area. Further evaluation of these outcomes may provide useful information to correlate chair design with sitting comfort.

  9. DESI then MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of lipid and protein distributions in single tissue sections

    PubMed Central

    Eberlin, Livia S; Liu, Xioahui; Ferreira, Christina R.; Santagata, Sandro; Agar, Nathalie Y.R.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2011-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful technique for mapping the spatial distributions of a wide range of chemical compounds simultaneously from a tissue section. Co-localization of the distribution of individual molecular species including particular lipids and proteins, and correlation with the morphological features of a single tissue section is highly desirable for comprehensive tissue analysis and disease diagnosis. We now report on the use, in turn, of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and then optical microscopy to image lipid and protein distributions in a single tissue section. This is possible through the use of histologically compatible DESI solvent systems, which allow for sequential analyses of the same section by DESI then MALDI. Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining was performed on the same section after removal of the MALDI matrix. This workflow allowed chemical information to be unambiguously matched to histological features in mouse brain tissue sections. The lipid sulfatide(24:1), detected at m/z 888.8 by DESI imaging, was co-localized with the protein MBP isoform 8, detected at m/z 14117 by MALDI imaging, in regions corresponding to the corpus callosum substructure of the mouse brain, as confirmed in the H&E images. Correlation of lipid and protein distributions with histopathological features was also achieved for human brain cancer samples. Higher tumor cell density was observed in regions demonstrating higher relative abundances of oleic acid, detected by DESI imaging at m/z 281.4, and the protein calcyclin, detected by MALDI at m/z 10085, for a human glioma sample. Since correlation between molecular signatures and disease state can be achieved, we expect that this methodology will significantly enhance the value of MS imaging in molecular pathology for diagnosis. PMID:21975048

  10. Peripharyngeal tissue deformation, stress distributions, and hyoid bone movement in response to mandibular advancement.

    PubMed

    Amatoury, Jason; Kairaitis, Kristina; Wheatley, John R; Bilston, Lynne E; Amis, Terence C

    2015-02-01

    Mandibular advancement (MA) increases upper airway (UA) patency and decreases collapsibility. Furthermore, MA displaces the hyoid bone in a cranial-anterior direction, which may contribute to MA-associated UA improvements via redistribution of peripharyngeal tissue stresses (extraluminal tissue pressure, ETP). In the present study, we examined effects of MA on ETP distributions, deformation of the peripharyngeal tissue surface (UA geometry), and hyoid bone position. We studied 13 supine, anesthetized, tracheostomized, spontaneously breathing adult male New Zealand White rabbits. Graded MA was applied from 0 to ∼4.5 mm. ETP was measured at six locations distributed throughout three UA regions: tongue, hyoid, and epiglottis. Axial computed tomography images of the UA (nasal choanae to glottis) were acquired and used to measure lumen geometry (UA length; regional cross-sectional area) and hyoid displacement. MA resulted in nonuniform decreases in ETP (greatest at tongue region), ranging from -0.11 (-0.15 to -0.06) to -0.82 (-1.09 to -0.54) cmH2O/mm MA [linear mixed-effects model slope (95% confidence interval)], across all sites. UA length decreased by -0.5 (-0.8 to -0.2) %/mm accompanied by nonuniform increases in cross-sectional area (greatest at hyoid region) ranging from 7.5 (3.6-11.4) to 18.7 (14.9-22.5) %/mm. The hyoid bone was displaced in a cranial-anterior direction by 0.42 (0.36-0.44) mm/mm MA. In summary, MA results in nonuniform changes in peripharyngeal tissue pressure distributions and lumen geometry. Displacement of the hyoid bone with MA may play a pivotal role in redistributing applied MA loads, thus modifying tissue stress/deformation distributions and determining resultant UA geometry outcomes.

  11. Immunohistochemical distribution of CA19-9 in normal and tumor tissues of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Ohshio, G; Ogawa, K; Kudo, H; Yamabe, H; Higuchi, K; Nakashima, Y; Manabe, T; Tobe, T

    1990-01-01

    The immunohistochemical distribution of CA19-9 in normal and tumor tissue of the kidney was investigated. CA19-9 was detected in the cytoplasm and apical surface of renal proximal tubules, distal tubules and uroepithelium of the renal pelvis. Eight of 28 renal cell carcinomas (29%) expressed CA19-9. CA19-9 was also detected in 2 cases of transitional cell carcinoma and 1 of 4 cases of Wilm's tumor, but not in angiomyolipoma. As the measurement of CA19-9 is widely used to detect gastrointestinal carcinoma, the expression of CA19-9 in normal and neoplastic kidney tissue might have some clinical significance.

  12. A compartment model of VEGF distribution in blood, healthy and diseased tissues

    PubMed Central

    Stefanini, Marianne O; Wu, Florence TH; Mac Gabhann, Feilim; Popel, Aleksander S

    2008-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis is a process by which new capillaries are formed from pre-existing blood vessels in physiological (e.g., exercise, wound healing) or pathological (e.g., ischemic limb as in peripheral arterial disease, cancer) contexts. This neovascular mechanism is mediated by the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of cytokines. Although VEGF is often targeted in anti-angiogenic therapies, there is little knowledge about how its concentration may vary between tissues and the vascular system. A compartment model is constructed to study the VEGF distribution in the tissue (including matrix-bound, cell surface receptor-bound and free VEGF isoforms) and in the blood. We analyze the sensitivity of this distribution to the secretion rate, clearance rate and vascular permeability of VEGF. Results We find that, in a physiological context, VEGF concentration varies approximately linearly with the VEGF secretion rate. VEGF concentration in blood but not in tissue is dependent on the vascular permeability of healthy tissue. Model simulations suggest that relative VEGF increases are similar in blood and tissue during exercise and return to baseline within several hours. In a pathological context (tumor), we find that blood VEGF concentration is relatively insensitive to increased vascular permeability in tumors, to the secretion rate of VEGF by tumors and to the clearance. However, it is sensitive to the vascular permeability in the healthy tissue. Finally, the VEGF distribution profile in healthy tissue reveals that about half of the VEGF is complexed with the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 and the co-receptor Neuropilin-1. In diseased tissues, this binding can be reduced to 15% while VEGF bound to the extracellular matrix and basement membranes increases. Conclusion The results are of importance for physiologic